Tropomyosin: A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Troponin: One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.Myosin Subfragments: Parts of the myosin molecule resulting from cleavage by proteolytic enzymes (PAPAIN; TRYPSIN; or CHYMOTRYPSIN) at well-localized regions. Study of these isolated fragments helps to delineate the functional roles of different parts of myosin. Two of the most common subfragments are myosin S-1 and myosin S-2. S-1 contains the heads of the heavy chains plus the light chains and S-2 contains part of the double-stranded, alpha-helical, heavy chain tail (myosin rod).Calmodulin-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.GizzardChickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.Muscle Denervation: The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Muscle, Striated: One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Tropomodulin: An actin capping protein that binds to the pointed-end of ACTIN. It functions in the presence of TROPOMYOSIN to inhibit microfilament elongation.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Myofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .Muscle Spindles: Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Abdominal Muscles: Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Muscle Cells: Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Troponin T: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It is a cardiac-specific protein that binds to TROPOMYOSIN. It is released from damaged or injured heart muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Defects in the gene encoding troponin T result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
... with α-tropomyosin being the predominant isoform in striated muscle. Fast skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle contain more αα- ... Tropomyosin dimers are composed of varying combinations of tropomyosin isoforms; human striated muscles express protein from ... β-tropomyosin is striated muscle-specific coiled coil dimer that functions to stabilize actin filaments and regulate muscle ... In human cardiac muscle the ratio of α-tropomyosin to β-tropomyosin is roughly 5:1. It has been shown that different ...
... which is located on the thin filament of striated muscles and regulates muscle contraction in response to alterations in ... specific isoforms of TnT. Each of the TnT isoform genes is linked in chromosomal DNA to a troponin I (TnI) isoform gene ... Cardiac muscle troponin T (cTnT), is a protein which in humans is encoded by the TNNT2 gene. Cardiac TnT is the tropomyosin- ... It is the tropomyosin- binding and thin filament anchoring subunit of the troponin complex in cardiac muscle cells. TNNT2 gene ...
... has a broader range of expression in avian and mammalian striated muscles. It is the predominant TnI isoform expressed in ... "Fine mapping of five human skeletal muscle genes: alpha-tropomyosin, beta-tropomyosin, troponin-I slow-twitch, troponin-I fast- ... while it is expressed in the somites and skeletal muscles. The function of TnI is to control striated muscle contraction and ... Slow to fast skeletal TnI isoform switch occurs as an indicator for slow to fast fiber type transition in muscle adaptations. ...
Pittenger MF, Kazzaz JA, Helfman DM (1994). "Functional properties of non-muscle tropomyosin isoforms". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. ... a member of the tropomyosin family of actin-binding proteins involved in the contractile system of striated and smooth muscles ... 1986). "A muscle-type tropomyosin in human fibroblasts: evidence for expression by an alternative RNA splicing mechanism". Proc ... Gunning P, Weinberger R, Jeffrey P (1997). "Actin and tropomyosin isoforms in morphogenesis". Anat. Embryol. 195 (4): 311-5. ...
In striated muscle, tropomyosin serves to block actin-myosin interactions until calcium is present, but in smooth muscle, its ... Alpha actin is also expressed as distinct genetic isoforms such as smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle specific ... Two MLC20 isoforms are found in smooth muscle, and they are encoded by different genes, but only one isoform participates in ... Smooth muscle α-actin (alpha actin) is the predominant isoform within smooth muscle. There are also lots of actin (mainly β- ...
... muscle tropomyosin isoforms and nonmuscle tropomyosin isoforms. Muscle tropomyosin isoforms are involved in regulating ... Smooth muscle is a type of non-striated muscle, and, unlike striated muscle, contraction of smooth muscle is not under ... and the muscle isoforms of this family comprise the thick filament. The thin filament is made of the skeletal muscle isoforms ... tropomyosin isoform sorting was disrupted. Upon the washing out of cytochalasin D, tropomyosin isoform sorting was re- ...
... with α-Tm being the predominant isoform in striated muscle. In human cardiac muscle the ratio of α-Tm to β-Tm is roughly 5:1. ... Perry SV (2004). "What is the role of tropomyosin in the regulation of muscle contraction?". J. Muscle Res. Cell. Motil. 24 (8 ... Human striated muscles express protein from the TPM1 (α-Tm), TPM2 (β-Tm) and TPM3 (γ-Tm) genes, ... Tropomyosin alpha-1 chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TPM1 gene. This gene is a member of the tropomyosin (Tm ...
The protein tropomyosin covers the myosin binding sites of the actin molecules in the muscle cell. To allow the muscle cell to ... is the basic unit of striated muscle tissue. It is the repeating unit between two Z lines. Skeletal muscles are composed of ... Titin (and its splice isoforms) is the biggest single highly elasticated protein found in nature. It provides binding sites for ... A muscle fiber from a biceps muscle may contain 100,000 sarcomeres. The myofibrils of smooth muscle cells are not arranged into ...
The cMyBP-C isoform expressed in cardiac muscle differs from those expressed in slow and fast skeletal muscle (MYBPC1 and ... organisation and role of myosin binding protein C in normal striated muscle by comparison with MyBP-C knockout cardiac muscle ... encoding cardiac troponin T and α-tropomyosin, respectively, earmarking hypertrophic cardiomyopathy as a disease of the ... This isoform is expressed exclusively in heart muscle during human and mouse development, and is distinct from those expressed ...
Kee AJ, Gunning PW, Hardeman EC (2009). "Diverse roles of the actin cytoskeleton in striated muscle". Journal of Muscle ... "Cytoskeletal tropomyosin Tm5NM1 is required for normal excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle". Molecular Biology ... In vertebrates, three main groups of actin isoforms, alpha, beta and gamma have been identified. The alpha actins are found in ... Gamma-actin is widely expressed in cellular cytoskeletons of many tissues; in adult striated muscle cells, gamma-actin is ...
ACTA1 is the gene that codes for the α-isoform of actin that is predominant in human skeletal striated muscles, although it is ... The helical F-actin filament found in muscles also contains a tropomyosin molecule, which is a 40 nanometre long protein that ... while the other four are involved in skeletal striated muscle (ACTA1), smooth muscle tissue (ACTA2), intestinal muscles (ACTG2 ... There are two isoforms that code for actins in the smooth muscle tissue: ACTG2 codes for the largest actin isoform, which has ...
The striated cells of cardiac and skeletal muscles are referred to as muscle fibers.[3] Cardiomyocytes are the muscle fibres ... Pette, D; Staron, RS (Sep 15, 2000). "Myosin isoforms, muscle fiber types, and transitions". Microscopy Research and Technique ... and not cardiac muscle or smooth muscle. Myoblasts in skeletal muscle that do not form muscle fibers dedifferentiate back into ... The sarcolemma is the cell membrane of a striated muscle fiber and receives and conducts stimuli. At the end of each muscle ...
Schiaffino S, Reggiani C (August 1994). "Myosin isoforms in mammalian skeletal muscle". J. Appl. Physiol. 77 (2): 493-501. doi: ... "Effects of different activity and inactivity paradigms on myosin heavy chain gene expression in striated muscle". J. Appl. ... The number of muscle fibers within each unit can vary within a particular muscle and even more from muscle to muscle; the ... Estimates of innervation ratios of motor units in human muscles: Muscle. Number of Motor Axons. Number of Muscle Fibers. ...
... isoform of actin that is predominant in human skeletal striated muscles, although it is also expressed in heart muscle and in ... Actin's role in muscle contractionEdit. The helical F-actin filament found in muscles also contains a tropomyosin molecule, a ... while the other four are involved in skeletal striated muscle (ACTA1), smooth muscle tissue (ACTA2), intestinal muscles (ACTG2 ... In smooth muscleEdit. There are two isoforms that code for actins in the smooth muscle tissue: ACTG2 codes for the largest ...
"N-Terminal Hypervariable Region of Muscle Type Isoforms of Troponin T Differentially Modulates the Affinity of Tropomyosin- ... regulation of striated muscle contraction. • regulation of ATPase activity. • muscle filament sliding. • muscle contraction. • ... Imai H, Hirai S, Hirono H, Hirabayashi T (Mar 1986). "Many isoforms of fast muscle troponin T from chicken legs". Journal of ... The TNNT3 gene is located at 11p15.5 in the human genome, encoding the fast skeletal muscle isoform of troponin T (fsTnT). ...
... is a two-stranded alpha-helical coiled coil protein found in cell cytoskeletons. All organisms contain structures that provide physical integrity to their cells. These structures are collectively known as the cytoskeleton, and one of the most ancient systems is based on filamentous polymers of the protein actin. A second polymer of the protein, tropomyosin, is an integral part of most actin filaments in animals. Tropomyosins are a large family of integral components of actin filaments that play a critical role in regulating the function of actin filaments in both muscle and nonmuscle cells. These proteins consist of rod-shaped coiled-coil hetero- or homo-dimers that lie along the α-helical groove of most actin filaments. Interaction occurs along the length of the actin filament, with dimers aligning in a head-to-tail fashion. Tropomyosins are often categorised into two groups, ...
Tropomyosin alpha-1 chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TPM1 gene. This gene is a member of the tropomyosin (Tm) family of highly conserved, widely distributed actin-binding proteins involved in the contractile system of striated and smooth muscles and the cytoskeleton of non-muscle cells. Tm is a 32.7 kDa protein composed of 284 amino acids. Tm is a flexible protein homodimer or heterodimer composed of two alpha-helical chains, which adopt a bent coiled coil conformation to wrap around the seven actin molecules in a functional unit of muscle. It is polymerized end to end along the two grooves of actin filaments and provides stability to the filaments. Human striated muscles express protein from the TPM1 (α-Tm), TPM2 (β-Tm) and TPM3 (γ-Tm) genes, with α-Tm being the predominant isoform in ...
... is a cardiac and skeletal muscle protein useful in the laboratory diagnosis of heart attack. It occurs in different plasma concentration but the same circumstances as troponin T - either test can be performed for confirmation of cardiac muscle damage and laboratories usually offer one test or the other. Troponin I is a part of the troponin protein complex, where it binds to actin in thin myofilaments to hold the actin-tropomyosin complex in place. Because of it, myosin cannot bind actin in relaxed muscle. When calcium binds to the troponin C it causes conformational changes which lead to dislocation of troponin I and finally tropomyosin leaves the binding site for myosin on actin leading to contraction of muscle. The letter I is given due to its inhibitory character. The tissue specific subtypes are: Slow-twitch skeletal ...
Through alternative splicing of the fetal exon and other alternative exons in the N-terminal variable region, the expression of fsTnT during mammalian and avian development undergoes a high molecular to low molecular weight isoform switch in both fast and slow fiber dominant skeletal muscles.[20] The inclusion of more N-terminal exons increases the negative charge that tunes the overall molecular conformation of fsTnT and alters interaction with TnI, TnC and tropomyosin.[21][22][23] The alternative splicing-based addition of N-terminal negative charge in fsTnT also contributes to the tolerance to acidosis.[24] Alternative splicing of the two C-terminal mutually exclusive exons 16 and 17 appears also regulated during development.[14] Exon 17 with a sequence more similar to the counterpart segment in ssTnT and cTnT is predominantly expressed in embryonic and neonatal fsTnT.[14][25] Exon 16 of fsTnT was only found in adult skeletal ...
Watson, M.H., Taneja, A.K., Hodges, R.S. and Mak, A.S. (1988). „Phosphorylation of α α- and β β-tropomyosin and synthetic peptide analogues". Biochemistry. 27: 4506-4512. PMID 3166994 ...
Actin, alpha skeletal muscle is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTA1 gene. Actin alpha 1 which is expressed in skeletal muscle is one of six different actin isoforms which have been identified. Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in cell motility, structure and integrity. Alpha actins are a major constituent of the contractile apparatus. Skeletal alpha actin expression is induced by stimuli and conditions known to cause muscle formation. Such conditions result in fusion of committed cells (satellite cells) into myotubes, to form muscle fibers. Skeletal actin itself, when expressed, causes expression of several other "myogenic genes", which are essential to muscle formation. One key transcription factor that activates skeletal actin gene expression is Serum Response Factor ("SRF"), a protein ...
... encodes cardiac muscle alpha actin. This isoform differs from the alpha actin that is expressed in skeletal muscle, ACTA1. Alpha cardiac actin is the major protein of the thin filament in cardiac sarcomeres, which are responsible for muscle contraction and generation of force to support the pump function of the heart. Cardiac alpha actin is a 42.0 kDa protein composed of 377 amino acids. Cardiac alpha actin is a filamentous protein extending from a complex mesh with cardiac alpha-actinin (ACTN2) at Z-lines towards the center of the sarcomere. Polymerization of globular actin (G-actin) leads to a structural filament (F-actin) in the form of a two-stranded helix. Each actin can bind to four others. The atomic structure of monomeric actin was solved by Kabsch et al., and closely thereafter this same group published the structure of the actin filament. Actins are highly conserved proteins; the alpha actins ...
... is a two-stranded alpha-helical coiled coil protein found in cell cytoskeletons. All organisms contain structures that provide physical integrity to their cells. These structures are collectively known as the cytoskeleton, and one of the most ancient systems is based on filamentous polymers of the protein actin. A second polymer of the protein, tropomyosin, is an integral part of most actin filaments in animals. Tropomyosins are a large family of integral components of actin filaments that play a critical role in regulating the function of actin filaments in both muscle and nonmuscle cells. These proteins consist of rod-shaped coiled-coil hetero- or homo-dimers that lie along the α-helical groove of most actin filaments. Interaction occurs along the length of the actin filament, with dimers aligning in a head-to-tail fashion. Tropomyosins are often categorised into two groups, ...
Measuring approximately 6 nm in diameter,[4] microfilaments are the thinnest fibers of the cytoskeleton. They are polymers of actin subunits (globular actin, or G-actin), which as part of the fiber are referred to as filamentous actin, or F-actin. Each microfilament is made up of two helical, interlaced strands of subunits. Much like microtubules, actin filaments are polarized. Electron micrographs have provided evidence of their fast-growing barbed-ends and their slow-growing pointed-end. This polarity has been determined by the pattern created by the binding of myosin S1 fragments: they themselves are subunits of the larger myosin II protein complex. The pointed end is commonly referred to as the minus (−) end and the barbed end is referred to as the plus (+) end. In vitro actin polymerization, or nucleation, starts with the self-association of three G-actin monomers to form a trimer. ATP-bound actin then itself binds the barbed end, and the ATP is subsequently hydrolyzed. ATP hydrolysis ...
Actin-like protein 7A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTL7A gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of actin-related proteins (ARPs) which share significant amino acid sequence identity to conventional actins. Both actins and ARPs have an actin fold, which is an ATP-binding cleft, as a common feature. The ARPs are involved in diverse cellular processes, including vesicular transport, spindle orientation, nuclear migration and chromatin remodeling. This gene (ACTL7A), and related gene, ACTL7B, are intronless, and are located approximately 4 kb apart in a head-to-head orientation within the familial dysautonomia candidate region on 9q31. Based on mutational analysis of the ACTL7A gene in patients with this disorder, it was concluded that it is unlikely to be involved in the pathogenesis of dysautonomia. The ACTL7A gene is expressed in a wide variety of adult tissues, however, its exact function is not known. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000187003 - ...
... is an actin-binding protein that is a key regulator of actin filament assembly and disassembly. Gelsolin is one of the most potent members of the actin-severing gelsolin/villin superfamily, as it severs with nearly 100% efficiency. Gelsolin is located intracellularly (in cytosol and mitochondria) and extracellularly (in blood plasma). Gelsolin is an 82-kD protein with six homologous subdomains, referred to as S1-S6. Each subdomain is composed of a five-stranded β-sheet, flanked by two α-helices, one positioned perpendicular with respect to the strands and one positioned parallel. The β-sheets of the three N-terminal subdomains (S1-S3) join to form an extended β-sheet, as do the β-sheets of the C-terminal subdomains (S4-S6). Among the lipid-binding actin regulatory proteins, gelsolin (like cofilin) preferentially binds polyphosphoinositide (PPI). The binding sequences in gelsolin closely resemble the motifs in the other PPI-binding proteins. Gelsolin's activity is stimulated by ...
Actin filament (mikrofilament), en dobbeltstrenget polymer fiber med en diameter på 5-9 nanometer, opbygget af actin subunits. Actin filamenter findes i hele cellen, men koncentrationen er størst tæt ved cellemembranen. De kan være forankret af cadheriner til zonula adherens ...
Actin filament (mikrofilament), en dobbeltstrenget polymer fiber med en diameter på 5-9 nanometer, opbygget af actin subunits. Actin filamenter findes i hele cellen, men koncentrationen er størst tæt ved cellemembranen. De kan være forankret af cadheriner til zonula adherens ...
... from insect asynchronous flight muscle have been used to characterize the cross-reacting proteins in synchronous muscle of ... Alternative splicing of a Drosophila tropomyosin gene generates muscle tropomyosin isoforms with different carboxyterminal ends ... Wang, K. (1985) Sarcomere-associated cytoskeletal lattices in striated muscle.Cell Muscle Motil.6, 315-69.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Z band proteins in the flight muscle and leg muscle of the honeybee.J. Muscle Res. Cell Motil. 11, 125-36.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
... tropomyosin, and troponin T and I isoforms was found. However, an increase in the content of cardiac troponin I fragment (cTnI ... NT-isoforms of titin were recently found in striated muscles of mammals [31]. The content of NT-titin in mouse striated muscles ... isoforms in striated muscles of control and flight mice. Percentage of I MyHC isoform in m. gastrocnemius of control and flight ... Isoform Composition and Gene Expression of Thick and Thin Filament Proteins in Striated Muscles of Mice after 30-Day Space ...
Troponin T (Tnnt), a troponin component, interacts with tropomyosin and is crucial to the regulation of striated muscle ... fast Tnnt isoform b) were characterized. The polypeptides of zebrafish Tnnt1, Tnnt2, and Tnnt3b were conserved in the central ... and fast-muscle specific, but Tnnt1 was expressed in both slow and fast muscles. We propose that three, distinct, muscle-type ... Molecular structure and developmental expression of three muscle-type troponin T genes in zebrafish.. Hsiao CD1, Tsai WY, Horng ...
In striated muscle fibres, the binding of myosin motors to actin filaments is mainly regulated by tropomyosin and troponin. . ... Mutations in different actin isoforms lead to early-onset autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss. , familial thoracic ... Tropomyosin also binds to F-actin in smooth muscle and in non-muscle cells and stabilizes and regulates the filaments there in ... Structure of the F-actin--tropomyosin complex p.114 Filamentous actin (F-actin) is the major protein of muscle thin filaments, ...
Caldesmon bound with similar affinity to several tropomyosin isoforms while troponin bound most tightly to striated muscle ... The regulatory properties of tropomyosin are mediated by its interactions with muscle-specific tropomyosin binding proteins. In ... Tropomyosin plays a central role in the regulation of skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle regulation. ... that the two isoforms interacted with tropomyosin in the same general area but that cardiac troponin T bound to tropomyosin ...
... proteins in cooperative interaction with tropomyosin are responsible for controlling the contraction of the striated muscles in ... Contractility of the muscle is determined by the constituent protein isoforms, and the isoforms can switch over from one form ... Roles of the troponin isoforms during indirect flight muscle development in Drosophila ... except for the troponin-C isoform 1 (TnC1). Moreover, rescue experiments conducted with troponin-I embryonic isoform in the ...
... with α-tropomyosin being the predominant isoform in striated muscle. Fast skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle contain more αα- ... Tropomyosin dimers are composed of varying combinations of tropomyosin isoforms; human striated muscles express protein from ... β-tropomyosin is striated muscle-specific coiled coil dimer that functions to stabilize actin filaments and regulate muscle ... In human cardiac muscle the ratio of α-tropomyosin to β-tropomyosin is roughly 5:1. It has been shown that different ...
The muscle isoforms 2 and 3 (ACTN2, ACTN3) localize to the Z-discs of striated muscle and to dense bodies and plaques in smooth ... muscle (9). Troponin, working in conjunction with tropomyosin, functions as a molecular switch that regulates muscle ... Troponin consists of three subunits: the Ca2+-binding subunit troponin C (TnC), the tropomyosin-binding subunit troponin T (TnT ... Western blot analysis of extracts from human and rat heart and human skeletal muscle using Troponin T (Cardiac) Antibody. ...
The rat α-tropomyosin gene generates a minimum of six different mRNAs coding for striated, smooth, and non-muscle isoforms by ... Four fibroblast tropomyosin isoforms are expressed from the rat α-tropomyosin gene via alternative RNA splicing and the use of ... α-Tropomyosin (α-TM) is a well-studied alternative splicing system with multiple tissue-specific isoforms (14, 29, 67, 75). ... Smooth muscle specific switching of α-tropomyosin mutually exclusive exon selection by specific inhibition of the strong ...
... which is located on the thin filament of striated muscles and regulates muscle contraction in response to alterations in ... specific isoforms of TnT. Each of the TnT isoform genes is linked in chromosomal DNA to a troponin I (TnI) isoform gene ... Cardiac muscle troponin T (cTnT), is a protein which in humans is encoded by the TNNT2 gene. Cardiac TnT is the tropomyosin- ... It is the tropomyosin- binding and thin filament anchoring subunit of the troponin complex in cardiac muscle cells. TNNT2 gene ...
... adult fast and slow MyHC isoforms and predominantly skeletal muscle rather than cardiac actin. Many proteins involved in muscle ... RESULTS: Our culture technique resulted in the development of striated myotubes and the expression of adult isoforms of the ... diseases, such as beta tropomyosin, slow TnI, slow MyBPC and cardiac TnI were readily detected in the initial stages of muscle ... Expression profiles of muscle disease-associated genes and their isoforms during differentiation of cultured human skeletal ...
The rat alpha-tropomyosin gene generates a minimum of six different mRNAs coding for striated, smooth, and nonmuscle isoforms ... In smooth muscle, differentiation involves the coordinated expression of a number of smooth muscle isoforms of myosin heavy ... The smooth muscle alpha-actin gene promoter is differentially regulated in smooth muscle versus non-smooth muscle cells. J Biol ... stably expressed multiple characteristics of differentiated smooth muscle, including smooth muscle-specific isoforms of α-actin ...
... a member of the tropomyosin family of actin-binding proteins involved in the contractile system of striated and smooth muscles ... Tropomyosin is a two-stranded α-helical coiled coil protein found in cell cytoskeletons. One of its isoforms, tropomyosin-1 ( ... muscle contraction - muscle filament sliding - muscle thin filament tropomyosin - podosome - response to oxidative stress - ... Protein isoform-specific validation defines multiple chloride intracellular channel and tropomyosin isoforms as serological ...
... hepatoma alpha tropomyosin , smooth muscle alpha-tropomyosin , striated muscle alpha-tropomyosin , tropomyosin 3 alpha , alpha- ... isoform 1 , tropomyosin 1 (alpha) isoform 2 , tropomyosin 1 (alpha) isoform 3 , tropomyosin 1 (alpha) isoform 4 , tropomyosin 1 ... alpha) isoform 5 , tropomyosin 1 (alpha) isoform 6 , tropomyosin 1 (alpha) isoform 7 , tropomyosin 1-1 , tropomyosin 1 (alpha) ... alpha-tropomyosin 1 , alpha-tropomyosin 2 , alpha-tropomyosin of skeletal fast muscle , tropomyosin (CTm4) , tropomyosin (CTm7 ...
... tropomyosin 2, and myomesin family member 3, were responsible for the development and contraction of muscle. Real-time PCR ... our findings suggested that FSDTAE might increase the muscle strength through the upregulation of genes responsible for muscle ... We selected genes with fold changes ,2 or ,−2 in skeletal muscle for pathway analysis. FSDTAE-affected genes were involved in 9 ... analysis indicated that FSDTAE increased troponins mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. In conclusion, ...
... a member of the tropomyosin family of actin-binding proteins involved in the contractile system of striated and smooth muscles ... isoforms from tropomyosin 1 (TPM1 (show TPM1 ELISA Kits)) were markedly decreased but HMW isoforms from tropomyosin 4 (TPM4) ... Protein level used designations for Tropomyosin 4 (TPM4) ELISA Kits tropomyosin 4 , tropomyosin alpha-4 chain , TM30p1 , ... Tropomyosin 4 (TPM4) Antigen Profile Antigen Summary This gene encodes a member of the tropomyosin family of actin-binding ...
... the thin filament regulatory complex which confers calcium-sensitivity to striated muscle actomyosin ATPase activity. ... Isoform 6 predominates in normal adult heart. Isoforms 1, 7 and 8 are expressed in fetal heart. Isoform 7 is also expressed in ... Troponin T is the tropomyosin-binding subunit of troponin, ... Troponin T cardiac muscle antibody. *Troponin T type 2 (cardiac ...
... which is located on the thin filament of striated muscles and regulates muscle contraction in response to alterations in ... Transcripts for this gene undergo alternative splicing that results in many tissue-specific isoforms. Mutations of this gene ... Cardiac troponin T is the tropomyosin-binding subunit of the troponin complex, ... a protein which is exclusively expressed at high concentrations in cardiac muscle and has emerged as the preferred biomarker in ...
... isoforms shows distribution of fast skeletal (f), slow skeletal (s) and cardiac (c) isoforms in adult skeletal muscle (Sk) and ... The vertebrate tropomyosin (TM) genes are examples of genes expressed in both cardiac and skeletal muscle that are subject to ... In the adult, XTMα2, but not XTMα7, is selectively expressed in striated muscle and heart. ... 18 The XTMα7 isoform is found in the somites, from which the skeletal muscle develops, whereas the XTMα2 isoform is expressed ...
... cardiac muscle isoforms , Troponin T, cardiac muscle , troponin T cardiac isoform , cardiac TnT , sih , silent heart ... which is located on the thin filament of striated muscles and regulates muscle contraction in response to alterations in ... Tnnt1 (show TNNI1 Antibodies), Tnnt2, and Tnnt3b were conserved in the central tropomyosin (show TPM2 Antibodies)- and C- ... which is located on the thin filament of striated muscles and regulates muscle contraction in response to alterations in ...
... are a family of closely related proteins present in muscle and non-muscle cells. In striated muscle, tropomyosin mediate the ... but the proportions of the isoforms vary between different cell types. Muscle isoforms of tropomyosin are characterised by ... The role of tropomyosin in smooth muscle and non-muscle tissues is not clear. Tropomyosin is an alpha-helical protein that ... Tropomyosin. PFAM accession number:. PF00261. Interpro abstract (IPR000533):. Tropomyosins [(PUBMED:3606587)], ...
... which is located on the thin filament of striated muscles and regulates muscle contraction in response to alterations in ... this antibody reacts with the purified cardiac isoform but does not react with the skeletal isoform.. Not tested in other ... The protein encoded by this gene is the tropomyosin-binding subunit of the troponin complex, ... Transcripts for this gene undergo alternative splicing that results in many tissue-specific isoforms, however, the full-length ...
... tropomyosin 3) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-Tropomyosin 3 pAb (GTX16386) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab- ... a member of the tropomyosin family of actin-binding proteins involved in the contractile system of striated and smooth muscles ... Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]. ... In muscle cells, they regulate muscle contraction by controlling the binding of myosin heads to the actin filament. Mutations ...
The multiple non-muscle tropomyosin isoforms are differentially expressed between tissues and across development and are ... Diverse roles of the actin cytoskeleton in striated muscle. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2009;30(5-6):187-97. Epub 2009 Dec 8. [ ... Tropomyosin isoform modulation of focal adhesion structure and cell migration. Cell Adh Migr. 2010 Apr-Jun;4(2):226-34. Epub ... Tropomyosin isoforms: divining rods for actin cytoskeleton function. Trends Cell Biol. 2005 Jun;15(6):333-41. Review. [http ...
... a member of the tropomyosin family of actin-binding proteins involved in the contractile system of striated and smooth muscles ... Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. ... Alternative names for Tropomyosin-3 (TPM3) antibody. Tropomyosin alpha-3 chain, Gamma-tropomyosin, Tropomyosin-5, TPM5 ... Tropomyosin-3 (TPM3) (transcript variant 5). Not available. Purified recombinant protein of Homo sapiens tropomyosin 3 (TPM3), ...
  • In the present study we have investigated the effects of two splice variant isoforms from the same alpha-tropomyosin gene, TmBr1 and TmBr3, on focal adhesion structure and parameters of cell migration. (edu.au)
  • These isoforms are normally switched on in neuronal cells during differentiation and we find that exogenous expression of the two isoforms in undifferentiated neuronal cells has discrete effects on cell migration parameters. (edu.au)
  • The relative expression of the two isoforms of TnT was then examined at seven longitudinal positions from each of three fish using SDS-PAGE and densitometry on the silver-stained TnT bands. (biologists.org)
  • Fishes show a variety of longitudinal or rostral-caudal patterns of variation in the contractile properties and physiological performance of their red muscle. (biologists.org)
  • Purification and biochemical characterization of actin from Caenorhabditis elegans: its difference from rabbit muscle actin in the interaction with nematode ADF/cofilin. (uniprot.org)
  • The muscle-specific inner nuclear envelope expression of myne-1, along with its interaction with lamin A/C, indicates that this gene is a potential mediator of cardiomyopathy and muscular dystrophy. (jove.com)
  • Of all actins tested, the one from slow muscle is the least conformationally stable G-actin [calcium form + ATP], as gauged by a number of techniques including electronic circular dichroism. (mun.ca)
  • Calcium sensitivity of myosin cross-bridge activation in striated muscles commonly varies during ontogeny and in response to alterations in muscle usage, but the consequences for whole-organism physiology are not well known. (pnas.org)
  • Striated muscles from a variety of taxa show substantial inter- and intra-specific variation in the sensitivity of myosin cross-bridge activation by calcium ( 1 - 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • It generally is thought that varying the calcium sensitivity of muscle activation affects recruitment of force-generating cross-bridges during a calcium transient, thereby modulating the rate and amount of force and power output ( 7 - 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • Here we test the hypothesis that alternative splicing of TnT affects muscle calcium sensitivity and flight performance of dragonflies. (pnas.org)
  • Tropomyosin plays a central role in the regulation of skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle regulation. (rice.edu)
  • These exons are mutually exclusive, with exon 2 included in smooth muscle cells and exon 3 included in nearly all other cell types. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Progress in this field has been hampered by the lack of an inducible in vitro system for study of the early steps of smooth muscle differentiation. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this study, we describe a model system in which multipotential mouse P19 embryonal carcinoma cells (P19s) can be induced to express multiple characteristics of differentiated smooth muscle. (ahajournals.org)
  • Treatment of P19s with retinoic acid was associated with profound changes in cell morphology and with the appearance at high frequency of smooth muscle α-actin-positive cells that were absent or present at extremely low frequency in parental P19s. (ahajournals.org)
  • Results demonstrate that retinoic acid treatment of multipotential P19 cells is associated with formation of cell lines that stably express multiple properties of differentiated smooth muscle. (ahajournals.org)
  • The tendency of smooth muscle tropomyosin to form semi-rigid polymers with continuous and undampened rigidity may compensate for the lack of troponin -based structural support in smooth muscles. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Mouse studies show that this component is also present in vascular smooth muscle and may play a role in regulation of smooth muscle function. (thermofisher.com)
  • Surprisingly, other TMs, such as the striated muscle β-TM and smooth muscle α-TM, are expressed constitutively. (elsevier.com)
  • The striated muscle contracts very quickly for swimming, whereas the smooth catch muscle can keep the shells closed for long periods with little expenditure of energy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Vascular smooth muscle calponin. (wikidoc.org)
  • We have recently obtained 2-D arrays of smooth muscle HMM, a two-headed, regulated fragment of myosin II, in both the dephosphorylated """"""""off"""""""" and phosphorylated """"""""on"""""""" states. (grantome.com)
  • 1990 ). MyoD converts prymary dermal fibroblasts, chondroblasts, smooth muscle, and retinal pigmented epithelial cells into striated mononucleated myoblasts and multinucleated myotubes. (biologists.org)
  • Arteries conduct blood away from the heart and have proportionately more smooth muscle and elastic tissue than veins of comparable size. (automobile-freart.com)
  • Smooth muscle is an involuntary non- striated muscle . (ipfs.io)
  • the single-unit (unitary) and multiunit smooth muscle. (ipfs.io)
  • A series of axon-like swelling, called varicosities or "boutons," from autonomic neurons form motor units through the smooth muscle. (ipfs.io)
  • Most smooth muscle is of the single-unit variety, that is, either the whole muscle contracts or the whole muscle relaxes, but there is multiunit smooth muscle in the trachea, the large elastic arteries, and the iris of the eye. (ipfs.io)
  • Single unit smooth muscle, however, is most common and lines blood vessels (except large elastic arteries), the urinary tract, and the digestive tract. (ipfs.io)
  • Smooth muscle cells known as myocytes , have a fusiform shape and, like striated muscle , can tense and relax . (ipfs.io)
  • However, smooth muscle tissue tends to demonstrate greater elasticity and function within a larger length-tension curve than striated muscle. (ipfs.io)
  • A substantial portion of the volume of the cytoplasm of smooth muscle cells are taken up by the molecules myosin and actin , which together have the capability to contract, and, through a chain of tensile structures, make the entire smooth muscle tissue contract with them. (ipfs.io)
  • The smooth muscle is the only type of muscle without the ability to be voluntarily controlled in stressful situations. (ipfs.io)
  • Myosin is primarily class II in smooth muscle. (ipfs.io)
  • Different combinations of heavy and light chains allow for up to hundreds of different types of myosin structures, but it is unlikely that more than a few such combinations are actually used or permitted within a specific smooth muscle bed. (ipfs.io)
  • The ratio of actin to myosin is between 2:1 and 10:1 in smooth muscle, compared to ~6:1 in skeletal muscle and 4:1 in cardiac muscle. (ipfs.io)
  • Smooth muscle is an essential component of the walls of numerous hollow or tubular organs throughout the body, including blood vessels, airways, and the bladder. (ubc.ca)
  • Sheep airway and pulmonary arterial smooth muscle as well as rabbit carotid arterial smooth muscle were fixed for EM and serial ultra-thin (50-60 nm) sections were obtained. (ubc.ca)
  • Anatomically arterioles are surrounded by a monolayer of spindle-shaped smooth muscle cells (myocytes), while terminal branches of precapillary arterioles, capillaries and all sections of postcapillary venules are surrounded by a monolayer of morphologically different perivascular cells (pericytes). (springer.com)
  • Burdyga TV, Shmigol A, Eisner DA, Wray S (2003) A new technique for simultaneous and in situ measurements of Ca signals in arteriolar smooth muscle and endothelial cells. (springer.com)
  • In much of a digestive tract such as the human gastrointestinal tract , smooth muscle tissue contracts in sequence to produce a peristaltic wave, which propels a ball of food (called a bolus while in the esophagus and upper gastrointestinal tract and chyme in the stomach ) along the tract. (wikivisually.com)
  • Smooth muscles contract behind the bolus to prevent it from being squeezed back into the mouth. (wikivisually.com)