Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.
The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.
Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)
Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.
Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.
Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.
The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.
Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.
The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
Exercises that stretch the muscle fibers with the aim to increase muscle-tendon FLEXIBILITY, improve RANGE OF MOTION or musculoskeletal function, and prevent injuries. There are various types of stretching techniques including active, passive (relaxed), static, dynamic (gentle), ballistic (forced), isometric, and others.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).
A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.
The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.
Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Technique for limiting use, activity, or movement by immobilizing or restraining animal by suspending from hindlimbs or tails. This immobilization is used to simulate some effects of reduced gravity and study weightlessness physiology.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.
Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
Two of the masticatory muscles: the internal, or medial, pterygoid muscle and external, or lateral, pterygoid muscle. Action of the former is closing the jaws and that of the latter is opening the jaws, protruding the mandible, and moving the mandible from side to side.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.
Myosin type II isoforms found in skeletal muscle.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.
A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)
The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)
An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.
Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
A device that measures MUSCLE STRENGTH during muscle contraction, such as gripping, pushing, and pulling. It is used to evaluate the health status of muscle in sports medicine or physical therapy.
An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Myosin type II isoforms found in smooth muscle.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Progressive decline in muscle mass due to aging which results in decreased functional capacity of muscles.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.
Thick triangular muscle in the SHOULDER whose function is to abduct, flex, and extend the arm. It is a common site of INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).
The specialized postsynaptic region of a muscle cell. The motor endplate is immediately across the synaptic cleft from the presynaptic axon terminal. Among its anatomical specializations are junctional folds which harbor a high density of cholinergic receptors.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
An isoenzyme of creatine kinase found in the MUSCLE.
An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.
The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.
A paired box transcription factor that is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and SKELETAL MUSCLE.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Abnormal increase in skeletal or smooth muscle tone. Skeletal muscle hypertonicity may be associated with PYRAMIDAL TRACT lesions or BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
A SKELETAL MUSCLE-specific transcription factor that contains a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF. It plays an essential role in MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT.
Deep muscles in the BACK whose function is to extend and rotate the SPINE and maintain POSTURE. It consists splenius, semispinalis, multifidus, rotatores, interspinales, intertransversarii and sacrospinalis.
The position or attitude of the body.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)
A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.
The spread of response if stimulation is prolonged. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
Disorders characterized by an abnormal reduction in muscle volume due to a decrease in the size or number of muscle fibers. Atrophy may result from diseases intrinsic to muscle tissue (e.g., MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY) or secondary to PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES that impair innervation to muscle tissue (e.g., MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL).
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
The rear surface of an upright primate from the shoulders to the hip, or the dorsal surface of tetrapods.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.
A diminution of the skeletal muscle tone marked by a diminished resistance to passive stretching.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.

"Z"eroing in on the role of Cypher in striated muscle function, signaling, and human disease. (1/92)

The striated muscle Z line, a multiprotein complex at the boundary between sarcomeres, plays an integral role in maintaining striated muscle structure and function. Multiple Z-line-associated proteins have been identified and shown to play an increasingly important role in the pathogenesis of human muscle disease. Cypher/Z-band alternatively spliced PDZ-motif protein, a PDZ-LIM protein in the Z line, binds to alpha-actinin (via its PDZ domain) and has been suggested to function as a linker-strut to maintain cytoskeletal structural integrity during contraction. Cypher may also participate in signaling pathways by binding to protein kinase C via its LIM domains. Analysis of Cypher-deficient mice has revealed that Cypher plays an integral role in Z-line maintenance/integrity of striated muscles and the pathogenesis of congenital myopathies, including cardiomyopathy. These studies have led to the subsequent discovery of Cypher mutations in human patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, as well as skeletal muscle myopathies, which have been recently termed zaspopathies. The recent discovery of various alternatively spliced isoforms of Cypher with potentially distinct structural and signaling roles brings a different level of complexity to the mechanisms underlying Cypher-based human myopathies. This review will focus on recent developments on the role of Cypher and its isoforms in striated muscle structure, signaling, and disease to provide insights into the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of Z-line-associated human myopathies.  (+info)

SALS, a WH2-domain-containing protein, promotes sarcomeric actin filament elongation from pointed ends during Drosophila muscle growth. (2/92)

Organization of actin filaments into a well-organized sarcomere structure is critical for muscle development and function. However, it is not completely understood how sarcomeric actin/thin filaments attain their stereotyped lengths. In an RNAi screen in Drosophila primary muscle cells, we identified a gene, sarcomere length short (sals), which encodes an actin-binding, WH2 domain-containing protein, required for proper sarcomere size. When sals is knocked down by RNAi, primary muscles display thin myofibrils with shortened sarcomeres and increased sarcomere number. Both loss- and gain-of-function analyses indicate that SALS may influence sarcomere lengths by promoting thin-filament lengthening from pointed ends. Furthermore, the complex localization of SALS and other sarcomeric proteins in myofibrils reveals that the full length of thin filaments is achieved in a two-step process, and that SALS is required for the second elongation phase, most likely because it antagonizes the pointed-end capping protein Tropomodulin.  (+info)

An unstable head-rod junction may promote folding into the compact off-state conformation of regulated myosins. (3/92)

The N-terminal region of myosin's rod-like subfragment 2 (S2) joins the two heads of this dimeric molecule and is key to its function. Previously, a crystal structure of this predominantly coiled-coil region was determined for a short fragment (51 residues plus a leucine zipper) of the scallop striated muscle myosin isoform. In that study, the N-terminal 10-14 residues were found to be disordered. We have now determined the structure of the same scallop peptide in three additional crystal environments. In each of two of these structures, improved order has allowed visualization of the entire N-terminus in one chain of the dimeric peptide. We have also compared the melting temperatures of this scallop S2 peptide with those of analogous peptides from three other isoforms. Taken together, these experiments, along with examination of sequences, point to a diminished stability of the N-terminal region of S2 in regulated myosins, compared with those myosins whose regulation is thin filament linked. It seems plain that this isoform-specific instability promotes the off-state conformation of the heads in regulated myosins. We also discuss how myosin isoforms with varied thermal stabilities share the basic capacity to transmit force efficiently in order to produce contraction in their on states.  (+info)

Cooperative control of striated muscle mass and metabolism by MuRF1 and MuRF2. (4/92)

The muscle-specific RING finger proteins MuRF1 and MuRF2 have been proposed to regulate protein degradation and gene expression in muscle tissues. We have tested the in vivo roles of MuRF1 and MuRF2 for muscle metabolism by using knockout (KO) mouse models. Single MuRF1 and MuRF2 KO mice are healthy and have normal muscles. Double knockout (dKO) mice obtained by the inactivation of all four MuRF1 and MuRF2 alleles developed extreme cardiac and milder skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Muscle hypertrophy in dKO mice was maintained throughout the murine life span and was associated with chronically activated muscle protein synthesis. During ageing (months 4-18), skeletal muscle mass remained stable, whereas body fat content did not increase in dKO mice as compared with wild-type controls. Other catabolic factors such as MAFbox/atrogin1 were expressed at normal levels and did not respond to or prevent muscle hypertrophy in dKO mice. Thus, combined inhibition of MuRF1/MuRF2 could provide a potent strategy to stimulate striated muscles anabolically and to protect muscles from sarcopenia during ageing.  (+info)

Zasp is required for the assembly of functional integrin adhesion sites. (5/92)


The spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus: firsts in androgen-dependent neural sex differences. (6/92)


Implications of activity-dependent neurotransmitter-receptor matching. (7/92)


A common disease-associated missense mutation in alpha-sarcoglycan fails to cause muscular dystrophy in mice. (8/92)


Page contains details about denatured histidine-tagged Doryteuthis pealeii reflectin A1 isoform nanoparticles . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles :
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One insight into this question has also turned out to be surprising. Contrary to the classical central dogma of molecular biology, genetic information does not always pass faithfully from genomic DNA to messenger RNA to the synthesis of proteins. Rather, the information can be significantly altered along the way by a variety of means, including by precision editing at the RNA stage to fine-tune the type of proteins that will be produced.. RNA editing was thought to be sparingly used, based on a limited number of studies in mammals and flies. But recently, MBL Whitman Investigator Joshua Rosenthal and colleagues discovered the most prolific usage yet of RNA editing in the common squid, Doryteuthis pealeii, a behaviorally sophisticated marine organism that has long been prized for studies of the nervous system.. By comparing DNA and RNA sequences from the squid brain, the team found that 60 percent of the RNA transcripts had been edited. (A transcript is a stretch of DNA transcribed into an ...
RNA editing of genomic information was thought to be sparingly used, based on a limited number of studies in mammals and flies. But recently, MBL Whitman Investigator Joshua Rosenthal and colleagues discovered the most prolific usage yet of RNA editing in the common squid, Doryteuthis pealeii, a behaviorally sophisticated marine organism that has long been prized for studies of the nervous system.
Doryteuthis pealeii, Longfin inshore squid., Hanlong, R T., Buresch K, Moustahfid H, and Staudinger Michelle D. , Advances in Squid Biology, Ecology, and Fisheries, Hauppauge, NY, p.205-240, (2013) ...
Doryteuthis pealeii, Longfin inshore squid., Hanlong, R T., Buresch K, Moustahfid H, and Staudinger Michelle D. , Advances in Squid Biology, Ecology, and Fisheries, Hauppauge, NY, p.205-240, (2013) ...
Instances have been highlighted during C &AG audit that some assessees are not preparing CAS-4 certificates even after substantial time... ...
Cephalopods have recently emerged as a source of inspiration for the development of novel functional materials. Within this context, a number of studies have explored structural proteins known as reflectins, which play a key role in cephalopod adaptive coloration in vivo and exhibit interesting properties in vitro. Herein, we report an improved high-yield strategy for the preparation and isolation of reflectins in quantities sufficient for materials applications. We first select the Doryteuthis (Loligo) pealeii reflectin A2 (RfA2) isoform as a model system and validate our approach for the expression and purification of this protein. We in turn fabricate RfA2-based two-terminal devices and employ both direct and alternating current measurements to demonstrate that RfA2 films conduct protons. Our findings underscore the potential of reflectins as functional materials and may allow a wider range of researchers to investigate their properties. ...
The signaling mechanisms involved in actin filament formation for myofibril formation, which is required for growth factor-induced muscle maturation and hypertrophy, remain unclear. Takano et al. (see the Perspective by Gautel and Ehler) now show that the mechanism involves the interaction of nebulin and N-WASP. N-WASP is an activator of the Arp2/3 complex, which induces branched actin filaments in nonmuscle cells. The nebulin-N-WASP complex formed in muscle, however, causes nucleation of unbranched actin filaments within myofibrils without the Arp2/3 complex. Nebulin-N-WASP-mediated myofibrillar actin filament formation is required for muscle hypertrophy and might explain a congenital hereditary neuromuscular disorder caused by nebulin gene mutation: nemaline myopathy.. K. Takano, H. Watanabe-Takano, S. Suetsugu, S. Kurita, K. Tsujita, S. Kimura, T. Karatsu, T. Takenawa, T. Endo, Nebulin and N-WASP cooperate to cause IGF-1-induced sarcomeric actin filament formation. Science 330, 1536-1540 ...
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The 4D Viewer of MetaMorph NX from Molecular Devices lets you render image stacks as 3D objects. The video covers an overview of the 4D viewer, isometric surface rendering, volumetric rentering, and data slicing tool.
|p||span style=font-size: small;|Isolated tension mount assembly in capacities ranging from 2,250 lbs to 11,240 lbs.|/span||/p| |ul style=font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif; line-height: 20px; list-style-type: disc; padding-left: 30px;| |li||sp
Each of the pictured rulers can connect two-and only two-of the given boxes. The two boxes form a rebus that clues the nickname of an actual ruler whose name is the same length as the associated ruler. The numbers on each ruler identify the two letters from that name that can be used (in the associated numerical position) in the final message. ...
Submissions should specify a mode of operation for a symmetric (secret) key block cipher algorithm. At a minimum, the mode should support underlying block ciphers with key-block combinations of 128-128, 192-128, and 256-128 bits. However, the...
Zinc sulfate heptahydrate. extra pure. Ph Eur. USP. BP. FCC. CAS-7446-20-0. MERCK-..0500. Derīguma term.-5-Gadi. Tilpums-500 g. Min. pasūtījums-6-Gab.. Cena par 1 gab ...
The free printable ruler is great if you need a ruler in a flash and dont want to go to the office store. .... ...
Get the name of the Cipher that is currently in use. Gets a text description of the cipher that is currently active, or returns null if SSL is not active (no cipher). Note that the cipher in use may change over time due to renegotiation or other changes to the SSL state ...
ANKRD35兔多克隆抗体(ab122279)可与人样本反应并经WB, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Tropomodulin 1 directly controls thin filament length in both wild-type and tropomodulin 4-deficient skeletal muscle. AU - Gokhin, David S.. AU - Ochala, Julien. AU - Domenighetti, Andrea A.. AU - Fowler, Velia M.. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.. PY - 2015/12/15. Y1 - 2015/12/15. N2 - The sarcomeric tropomodulin (Tmod) isoforms Tmod1 and Tmod4 cap thin filament pointed ends and functionally interact with the leiomodin (Lmod) isoforms Lmod2 and Lmod3 to control myofibril organization, thin filament lengths, and actomyosin crossbridge formation in skeletal muscle fibers. Here, we show that Tmod4 is more abundant than Tmod1 at both the transcript and protein level in a variety of muscle types, but the relative abundances of sarcomeric Tmods are muscle specific.We then generate Tmod4−/− mice, which exhibit normal thin filament lengths, myofibril organization, and skeletal muscle contractile function owing to compensatory ...
The semicrystalline arrays of interdigitating, uniform-length actin (thin) and myosin (thick) filaments found in the contracting sarcomeres of skeletal muscle fibers represent a striking example of long-range cytoskeletal organization and precise organelle size control. Whereas thick filament lengths are essentially constant in all skeletal muscles and species examined (∼1.65 µm), thin filament lengths vary substantially across muscles and vertebrate species (0.95-1.40 µm) (Castillo et al., 2009; Gokhin et al., 2012, 2010; Granzier et al., 1991; Ringkob et al., 2004). Thin filament lengths are remarkably plastic during normal postnatal skeletal muscle development and aging (Gokhin et al., 2014a) but can become mis-specified in some congenital myopathies. For example, thin filaments are abnormally short owing to aberrant F-actin assembly and/or destabilization in some nemaline myopathies (Ochala et al., 2012; Ottenheijm et al., 2010, 2009; Yuen et al., 2014), whereas thin filaments elongate ...
Page: Tree of Life Doryteuthis (Amerigo) surinamensis (Voss 1974). Surinam inshore squid. Authored by Michael Vecchione and Richard E. Young. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies. ...
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Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Effects of cardiomyopathy-linked mutations K15N and R21H in tropomyosin on thin-filament regulation and pointed-end dynamics. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Definition of venula nasalis retinae inferior. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Includes medical terms and definitions.
Adjectives are words that describe or modify another person or thing in the sentence. That means, despite my birthday, Im actually the least Irish. Whether youre the first-born, middle child, or youngest makes little difference, as parents tend to favour the kid that is most present in their lives. nephew - somebodys brothers or sisters son; your husbands or wifes brothers or sisters son. During mitosis, all the chromosomes in a cell are copied, line up at the metaphase plate, split apart at the centromere, and segregate into two new (but genetically identical) cells. Your mother (or father) has bought you an ugly sweater for the holidays. Both your breasts should be the same size. My sister wants my mom on medication because my mom yells a lot and is traumatized and stressed from my dads death. a girl or woman who has the same parents as another person: 2. CAS-003 Quiz Guide - CAS-003 Exam Prep & CAS-003 Test Braindumps, No matter what levels or degrees you knowledge are for now, you ...
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse ...
By identifying a cryptographic hash algorithm it is possible to discover the encryption cipher used on the data: either cipher SSL or a unique cipher. It does require extensive executable editor experience, however.
Affine Cipher y=ax+b mod 26 how are you  QZNHOBXZD, (a,b)=(5,7) wo??er?u?  NZUWBOGDK, (a,b)=(5,7) gcd(a,26)=1 is required Table for ax=1 mod 26 1(1) 7(15) 15( 7) 21(5) 3(9) 9( 3) 17(23) 23(17) 5(21) 11(19) 19(11) 25(25)
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Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-MMP14 antibody [LEM-2/63.1] (ab78738) : Flow cytometry protocols, Immunoprecipitation protocols…
View our range of products in Funnel Dropping. These include Funnel cylindrical 50ml 19/26 PTFE, Funnel dropping cylindrical 50ml 14/23, Funnel dropping cylindrical 50ml 19/26
2012) calcareous read New Stream Cipher Designs: of rich several same fields just gone against cookies of T soil. J Ethnopharmacol 142: 374-382. Schraufnagel DE( 1999) read New Stream formation for the activity of the such threshold.
Many modern block ciphers use maximum distance separable (MDS) matrices as the main part of their diffusion layers. In this paper, we propose a very effici
Azevedo, B.M., Fernandes, C.N.V., Pinheiro, J.A., Braga, E.S., Campêlo, A.R., Viana, T.V.A., Camboim Neto, L.F. and Marinho, A.B. (2011) Efeitos de laminas de irrigao na cultura do feijo vigna de cor preta. Agropecuária Técnica, 32, No. 1.
The M-108 is a 30 cm. ruler with one edge marked in millimeters and the other edge marked in centimeters.The W-30 is 12 in. in length with 1/16 in.
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Cipher is a free and open souce text encoding and decoding app specially designed for Pantheon Shell. The Cipher app can currently encode and decode between six different ciphers ...
Am I just dreaming but did I read somewhere about a ruler that has an edge on it so that it will sharpen the blades as they are rolled along the edge?
Loligo pealeii or Illex illecebrosus. Squid preserved in formalin. Specimen is 8 to 12 and single injected (blue veins). Multiple specimens are bulk packed and shipped in a vacuum-sealed bag. Prices listed are for 1 specimen.
Fisherbrand™ Heavy-Duty/Utility Funnels Top dia. x H: 155 x 177mm; Capacity: 410mL Fisherbrand™ Heavy-Duty/Utility Funnels Plastic Filling Funnels
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Pereira R.M.R.; de Carvalho J.F.; Paula A.P.; Zerbini C.; Domiciano D.S.; Goncalves H.; Danowski J.S.; Marques Neto J.F.; Mendonca L.M.C.; Bezerra M.C.; Terreri M.T.; Imamura M.; Weingrill P.; Plapler P.G.; Radominski S.; Tourinho T.; Szejnfeld V.L.; Andrada N.C. (, 2012) ...
一般技能 [#ua53e6d9] オリジナルの一般技能を載せてみる趣旨のページ。 #contents ***職業名/技能名(英名) [#za558e9a] 概要をここに書く。 **役職系 [#nc9855e2] ***統治者/ルーラー(ruler) [#zaf5f6d2] 為政者としての技能。 小さい頃から帝王学として学ばされたり、立場により必要に追われて習得することになる。 貴族出身者の一部や、地方の領主や町長、村長などが習得している。 貴族としての立ち居振る舞いとは異なり、実務面に重きを置いている。 ***指揮官/キャプテン(captain) [#zadcc50c] 戦闘指揮官の技能。 騎士団や傭兵団等の小隊長が取得している。 持っているからと言って戦闘が楽になったりはしない。 ***指揮官/サージェント(Sergeant) [#w976502a] 戦闘指揮官の技能。 一般の歩兵から叩き上がった分隊長(小隊長の場合もある)が取得している。 ...
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Rat striated skeletal muscle (diaphargm). A typical TC (blue) with two convoluted Tp is shown, by transmission electron ... A blue telopode of 14.2 µm in the section plane is illustrated around a nerve ending (green) between smooth muscle cells (brown ... At least 4 TC with their extensive Tp are visible between the epithelium and an arteriole (SMC - smooth muscle cells). Note, ... D, Klumpp; Re, Horch; U, Kneser; Jp, Beier (November 2010). "Engineering skeletal muscle tissue--new perspectives in vitro and ...
"How to Get Striated Glutes". Iron Man Magazine. "Rich Gaspari Receives The Muscle Beach Hall of Fame ... In 2011, he was awarded with the Muscle Beach Hall of Fame Award. He was featured on the cover of the October, 2011 issue of ... Olympia title." Official Website Muscle Memory Rich Gaspari Profile Rich Gaspari photos Rich Gaspari Interview ... being the first athlete to exhibit striations on the gluteal muscles. Richard Gaspari was inducted into the IFBB Hall of Fame ...
Rhabdomyomas which occur in striated muscle. They are rare tumors, occur in childhood and often become malignant. Whether or ... Myomas are types of tumors that involve muscle cells. There are two main types: Leiomyoma which occur in smooth muscle. They ...
... is important in the contraction of striated muscle tissues. It connects the Z line to the M line in the sarcomere. The ... A number of titin isoforms are produced in different striated muscle tissues as a result of alternative splicing. All but one ... Titin is a large abundant protein of striated muscle. Titin's primary functions are to stabilize the thick filament, center it ... Wang K, McClure J, Tu A (August 1979). "Titin: major myofibrillar components of striated muscle". Proceedings of the National ...
Caulfield, JB; Shelton, RW; Burke, JF (1972). "Cytotoxic effects of oxygen on striated muscle". Archives of Pathology. 94 (2): ... This may be followed by a tonic-clonic seizure consisting of two phases: intense muscle contraction occurs for several seconds ... Hart, George B; Strauss, Michael B (2007). "Gender differences in human skeletal muscle and subcutaneous tissue gases under ... tonic phase); followed by rapid spasms of alternate muscle relaxation and contraction producing convulsive jerking (clonic ...
MLC1 genes: MYL1 (chromosome 2q24.11); expressed in striated muscle MYL3 (chromosome 3p21.3); expressed in striated muscle MYL4 ... expressed in striated muscle MYL6 (chromosome 12q13.2); expressed in non-muscle and smooth muscle MLC2 genes: MYL2 (chromosome ... expressed in smooth muscle Other proteins and enzymes related to MLC function have been described. Among them are, for example ... Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility. 36 (6): 433-45. doi:10.1007/s10974-015-9423-3. PMC 4764388. PMID 26385864. " ...
Intracellular cysts develop mainly in striated muscle. After the ingestion of cysts by cats, a multiplicative cycle precedes ... Cysts in skeletal muscle measure between 100 and 340 μm in length and 40 and 95 μm in width. Some of the intermediate hosts (e. ... The cat from Germany was fed roe deer muscles and shed oocysts, proving that there are many intermediate hosts and cats being ... In Japan, scientists discovered that feeding muscles from infected goats to cats lead to patent infections. ...
Ordway GA, Garry DJ (Sep 2004). "Myoglobin: an essential hemoprotein in striated muscle". The Journal of Experimental Biology. ... In humans, myoglobin is only found in the bloodstream after muscle injury. High concentrations of myoglobin in muscle cells ... Myoglobin is found in Type I muscle, Type II A, and Type II B, but most texts consider myoglobin not to be found in smooth ... Myoglobin (symbol Mb or MB) is an iron- and oxygen-binding protein found in the skeletal muscle tissue of vertebrates in ...
"Proposed Mechanism of Force Generation in Striated Muscle". Nature. 233 (5321): 533-38. Bibcode:1971Natur.233..533H. doi: ... The fundamental properties of muscle physiology were determined with work done using frog muscles (including the force ... Ford LE, Huxley AF, Simmons RM (1985). "Tension transients during steady shortening of frog muscle fibres". The Journal of ... Lutz GJ, Lieber RL (2000). "Myosin isoforms in anuran skeletal muscle: Their influence on contractile properties and in vivo ...
McElhinny AS, Kazmierski ST, Labeit S, Gregorio CC (Jul 2003). "Nebulin: the nebulous, multifunctional giant of striated muscle ... Nebulin is an actin-binding protein which is localized to the thin filament of the sarcomeres in skeletal muscle. It is a very ... A smaller member of the nebulin protein family, termed nebulette, is expressed in cardiac muscle. The structure of the SH3 ... PDB: 1NEB​; Politou AS, Millevoi S, Gautel M, Kolmerer B, Pastore A (February 1998). "SH3 in muscles: solution structure of the ...
Carlsson L, Yu JG, Thornell LE (Jul 2008). "New aspects of obscurin in human striated muscles". Histochemistry and Cell Biology ... Obscurin is expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscle. The obscurin gene spans more than 150 kb, contains over 80 exons. The ... Obscurin is expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscle, and plays a role in the organization of myofibrils during sarcomere ... ankyrin-1 isoform to obscurin suggests a molecular link between the sarcoplasmic reticulum and myofibrils in striated muscles ...
A rhabdomyoma is a benign tumor of striated muscle. Rhabdomyomas may be either "cardiac" or "extra cardiac" (occurring outside ... Malignant skeletal muscle tumors are referred to as rhabdomyosarcoma. Only rare cases of possible malignant change have been ...
Huxley, HE (1957). "The double array of filaments in cross-striated muscle". The Journal of Biophysical and Biochemical ... The Structure of Muscle, he used low-angle, X-ray scattering of live muscle fibers. Following his PhD, Huxley continued ... of muscle contraction, which is the molecular basis of muscle contraction. The concept itself became directly fundamental to ... Their publication in the 22 May 1954 issue of Nature became a landmark in muscle physiology. He returned to MRC unit of ...
"Investigations on the fine structure of striated muscle fiber". J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol., 10 (4) Suppl.: 3-59 (Translated ... in skeletal muscle fibers. His published findings attracted little attention at the time, and as years passed by, his discovery ...
Dwyer, Joseph (2015). Characterisation of the formin protein FHOD1 in striated muscle. (PhD thesis). King's College ...
The very brief time lag between stimulating a striated muscle cell and its subsequent contraction was too short to have been ... They are found in ventricular muscle cells in most species, and in atrial muscle cells from large mammals. In cardiac muscle ... Huxley, A. F. (1971-06-15). "The activation of striated muscle and its mechanical response". Proceedings of the Royal Society ... In cells lacking T-tubules such as smooth muscle cells, diseased cardiomyocytes, or muscle cells in which T-tubules have been ...
The unique flicking is an uncoiling movement powered by contraction of the striated muscle. The wriggling motion is produced by ... The tentilla of Euplokamis differ significantly from those of other cydippids: they contain striated muscle, a cell type ... ISBN 978-0-03-025982-1. Seipel, K.; Schmid, V. (June 2005). "Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish and the origin of ... The internal cavity forms: a mouth that can usually be closed by muscles; a pharynx ("throat"); a wider area in the center that ...
Conley, K. E.; S. L. Lindstedt (1996). "Rattlesnake tail-shaking: minimal cost per twitch in striated muscle". Nature. 383 ( ... using rattlesnake tail shaker muscles for measurement of in vivo changes in metabolites (because the whole animal can be put in ...
ISBN 978-0-03-025982-1. Seipel, K.; Schmid, V. (June 2005). "Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish and the origin of ... since ctenophores and the medusa stage of some cnidarians have striated muscle, which in bilaterians arises from the mesoderm. ... Play media Medusae swim by a form of jet propulsion: muscles, especially inside the rim of the bell, squeeze water out of the ... These appear between or sometimes on top of the muscle cells. Nerve cells. Sensory cells appear between or sometimes on top of ...
The costamere is a structural-functional component of striated muscle cells which connects the sarcomere of the muscle to the ... of skeletal muscle, a critical component of striated muscle morphology which, when compromised, is thought to directly ... They physically couple force-generating sarcomeres with the sarcolemma in striated muscle cells and are thus considered one of ... "The costamere bridges sarcomeres to the sarcolemma in striated muscle". Progress in Pediatric Cardiology. 31 (2): 83-88. doi: ...
Kato K, Kimura S (October 1985). "S100ao (alpha alpha) protein is mainly located in the heart and striated muscles". Biochimica ... S100A1 is a member of the S100 family of proteins expressed in cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle and brain, with highest density ... skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle) in a model of type I diabetes mellitus; S100A1 has been demonstrated as a regulator of the ... "S100A1 and calmodulin regulation of ryanodine receptor in striated muscle". Cell Calcium. 50 (4): 323-31. doi:10.1016/j.ceca. ...
Novel Actors of Striated Muscle Development and Homeostasis". review. European Journal of Translational Myology. 24 (3): 3790. ... Vasopressin induces differentiation of stem cells into cardiomyocytes and promotes heart muscle homeostasis. It has a very ...
The risorius is a small muscle embedded with this capsule substance. The gland has short, striated ducts and long, intercalated ... The striated ducts are also numerous and consist of simple columnar epithelium, having striations that represent the infolded ... Parotid gland (incorrect muscle name) Mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (5th Cranial Nerve) Sjögren's syndrome John ... The parotid duct, a long excretory duct, emerges from the front of each gland, superficial to the masseter muscle. The duct ...
"The flight muscles of insects - their anatomy and histology; with some observations on the structure of striated muscle in ... his histological work on muscle, especially the helicoidal structure of the striated muscle fibre; and other research ... This analysis of the comparative myology and evolution of wide range of insect's flight muscles showed how such muscles evolved ... and the study of fine structures in muscle. He found clear evidence that the apparent striation of muscle fibres did not arise ...
"Talin2 is induced during striated muscle differentiation and is targeted to stable adhesion complexes in mature muscle". Cell ... The talin-2/β1D-integrin isoforms that are expressed and colocalize in striated muscle form a markedly strong interaction, and ... The expression of talin-2 in striated muscle is developmentally regulated. Undifferentiated myoblasts primarily express talin-1 ... skeletal muscle, kidney and testis; however expression is highest in cardiac muscle. A detailed analysis of the TLN2 gene ...
... with Some Observations on the Structure of Striated Muscle in General". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of ... The muscles that control flight in insects can take up to 10% to 30% of the total body mass. The muscles that control flight ... Physically, some insects move their flight muscles directly, others indirectly. In insects with direct flight, the wing muscles ... Many wing muscles are large and may be as large as 10 mm in length and 2 mm in width. Moreover, in some Diptera the fibres are ...
In vertebrates it is preferentially expressed in developing and adult striated muscle (heart and skeletal muscle). It is ... "The Popeye Domain Containing Genes and their Function in Striated Muscle". Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease. 3 ... The strong conservation of POPDC genes during evolution and their preferential expression in heart and skeletal muscle suggest ... "Isolation and characterization of the novel popeye gene family expressed in skeletal muscle and heart". Developmental Biology. ...
In anatomy, striated muscle Striations can be found in certain glasses. These have been caused by turbulent flow during teeming ...
d. Its striated border. e. Goblet cells. f. Leucocytes in epithelium. f'. Leucocytes below epithelium. g. Blood vessels. h. ... Muscle cells cut across. Secretion Absorption Protection "Simple epithelium". Kenhub. Retrieved 2021-03-19. Histology at KUMC ... absorptive colmnar epithelium is characterize as having a striated boarder on its apical side, this border is made up of non- ...
h. Muscle cells cut across. MicroCT-based volume projection of the jejunal mucosa of a chicken. Virtual volume block with ... d. Its striated border. e. Goblet cells. f. Leucocytes in epithelium. f'. Leucocytes below epbithelium. g. Blood vessels. ... and has many microvilli projecting from the enterocytes of its epithelium which collectively form the striated or brush border ...
There are two types of striated muscles: Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) Skeletal muscle (muscle attached to the skeleton) ... The main difference between striated muscle tissue and smooth muscle tissue is that striated muscle tissue features sarcomeres ... The fibres of striated muscle have a cylindrical shape with blunt ends, whereas those in smooth muscle can be described as ... All striated muscles are attached to some component of the skeleton, unlike smooth muscle, which composes hollow organs such as ...
... it has been possible for the first time to record equatorial and meridional X-ray reflexions from striated muscle during ... FOR some time X-ray diffraction techniques have been used to study living muscle in the resting state1-4. Using a modified ... The Intriguing Dual Lattices of the Myosin Filaments in Vertebrate Striated Muscles: Evolution and Advantage *Pradeep Luther ... ELLIOTT, G., LOWY, J. & MILLMAN, B. X-ray Diffraction from Living Striated Muscle during Contraction. Nature 206, 1357-1358 ( ...
... that run the entire length of the muscle cell (muscle fiber) and in parallel over the muscle fiber cross-section. During muscle ... A study performed with smooth muscle myosin, which has a longer average attachment time than striated muscle myosin, suggested ... In vertebrate striated muscle (heart and skeletal muscle), actin and myosin are organized with several accessory proteins in ... muscle fibers. The intact muscle cells are dissected from a living muscle using micromechanical tools (scissors, forceps, ...
Subject: How are striated and smooth muscles alike?. Date: Sat Jan 23 21:38:31 1999. Posted by Brittney Wigley. Grade level: 4- ... Re: How are striated and smooth muscles alike? Current Queue , Current Queue for Anatomy , Anatomy archives Try the links in ...
Striated Muscle Physiology provides a forum for the dissemination of the newest knowledge of skeletal and cardiac striated ... Striated Muscle Physiology provides a forum for the dissemination of the newest knowledge of skeletal and cardiac striated ... Reports of striated muscle studies that advance the understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that drive cross-bridges during ... Striated Muscle Physiology welcomes submissions of the following article types: Brief Research Report, Correction, Data Report ...
... Daniel Espes,1 Olof Eriksson,2 Joey Lau,1 and Per-Ola ... Striated muscle is a promising implantation site and in many regards superior to the liver. However, it is not yet fully ... Striated muscle has been used for decades as a site for autologous transplantation of normal parathyroid tissue in patients ... "High vascular density and oxygenation of pancreatic islets transplanted in clusters into striated muscle," Cell Transplantation ...
Triclosan impairs excitation-contraction coupling and Ca2+ dynamics in striated muscle. Gennady Cherednichenko, Rui Zhang, ... Triclosan impairs excitation-contraction coupling and Ca2+ dynamics in striated muscle Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you ... and muscle function has not been investigated. Here, we report that TCS impairs ECC of both cardiac and skeletal muscle in ... and L-type Ca2+ entry in cardiac muscle, revealing a mechanism by which TCS weakens cardiac and skeletal muscle contractility ...
Mechanisms of striated muscle dysfunction during acute exacerbations of COPD.. Gayan-Ramirez G1, Decramer M. ... Data on the respiratory muscles are limited, but these muscles are undoubtedly overloaded during exacerbations. While they are ... Respiratory Muscle Research Unit, Laboratory of Pneumology and Respiratory Division, Department of Clinical and Experimental ... The latter will affect the ability to generate force by the foreshortening of the muscle (especially for the diaphragm), but ...
... striated muscle cell - an elongated contractile cell in striated muscle tissue striated muscle fiber skeletal muscle, striated ... striated muscle cell synonyms, striated muscle cell pronunciation, striated muscle cell translation, English dictionary ... striated muscle cell. Also found in: Thesaurus.. Related to striated muscle cell: striated muscle tissue, striated muscle fiber ... an elongated contractile cell in striated muscle tissue. striated muscle fiber. skeletal muscle, striated muscle - a muscle ...
Triclosan impairs excitation-contraction coupling and Ca2+ dynamics in striated muscle Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you ... Triclosan impairs excitation-contraction coupling and Ca2+ dynamics in striated muscle. Gennady Cherednichenko, Rui Zhang, ... In conclusion, we show that TCS potently impairs striated muscle ECC by interfering with signaling between DHPR and RyR, ... Whether acute exposures to TCS were capable of altering functional parameters of striated muscle were investigated using three ...
SEARCH RESULTS for: Decreased Striated Muscle Contraction [Drug Class] (16 results) * Share : JavaScript needed for Sharing ...
Directory. Start here to access encyclopedic information about the worm genome and its genes, proteins, and other encoded features… Find out more. ...
... emerging findings suggest potential significance of α-dystrobrevin in striated muscle. This review addresses the functional ... Muscular dystrophies are a group of diseases that primarily affect striated muscle and are characterized by the progressive ... loss of muscle strength and integrity. Major forms of muscular dystrophies are caused by the abnormalities of the dystrophin ... role of α-dystrobrevin in muscle as well as its possible implication for muscular dystrophy. ...
Clinical and Experimental Pancreatic Islet Transplantation to Striated Muscle. Gustaf Christoffersson, Johanna Henriksnäs, Lars ... Clinical and Experimental Pancreatic Islet Transplantation to Striated Muscle. Gustaf Christoffersson, Johanna Henriksnäs, Lars ... Clinical and Experimental Pancreatic Islet Transplantation to Striated Muscle Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... Clinical and Experimental Pancreatic Islet Transplantation to Striated Muscle. Establishment of a Vascular System Similar to ...
In the development of striated muscle, the expression and function of mainly M-, N-, and R-cadherin has been studied so far. ... M-cadherin and its sisters in development of striated muscle Cell Tissue Res. 1999 Apr;296(1):191-8. doi: 10.1007/s004410051280 ... In the development of striated muscle, the expression and function of mainly M-, N-, and R-cadherin has been studied so far. ... While these three cadherins are expressed in skeletal muscle cells, of these only N-cadherin is expressed in cardiac muscle. In ...
The positive staining with antibodies to skeletal muscle myosin and titin indicates a striated-muscle nature of the (elongated ... Baby hamster kidney (BHK-21/C13) cells can express striated muscle type proteins.. Schaart G1, Pieper FR, Kuijpers HJ, ... After 4 days titin was found in a striated pattern. Filamentous staining was seen with the skeletal-muscle-specific myosin ... The expression of different muscle-specific proteins (desmin, titin and skeletal muscle myosin) and of tropomyosins was studied ...
... rats resulted in a significant reduction in inorganic phosphate content of a variety of striated muscles. Most other organs ... Phosphate mobilization from striated muscle following parathyroid hormone administration to thyroparathyroidectomized rats. ... Phosphate Striate Muscle Parathyroid Hormone Hormone Stimulation Inorganic Phosphate Content Supported in part by a grant from ... rats resulted in a significant reduction in inorganic phosphate content of a variety of striated muscles. Most other organs ...
... from insect asynchronous flight muscle have been used to characterize the cross-reacting proteins in synchronous muscle of ... Wang, K. (1985) Sarcomere-associated cytoskeletal lattices in striated muscle.Cell Muscle Motil.6, 315-69.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Z band proteins in the flight muscle and leg muscle of the honeybee.J. Muscle Res. Cell Motil. 11, 125-36.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Molecular properties and functionsin vitro of chicken smooth muscle alpha-actinin in comparison with those of striated muscle ...
Find Striated Skeletal Muscle Fibers Showing Crossstriation Stock Images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos ... Striated skeletal muscle fibers showing the cross-striation with dark A bands and light I bands. The Z line stands out in the ... Striated Skeletal Muscle Fibers Showing Crossstriation Stock Photo (Edit Now) 1033566535 - Shutterstock ... muscle skeletal micrograph a band cell fiber fibre histology i band light microscope lm microscope microscopy muscular myocyte ...
Find Skeletal Striated Muscle Fibers Cross Section Stock Images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos, ... Skeletal striated muscle fibers in cross section showing several peripheral nuclei (multinucleated cells). The endomysium, ... Skeletal Striated Muscle Fibers Cross Section Stock Photo (Edit Now) 1033566649 - Shutterstock ... muscle cell fiber fibre histology light microscope lm micrograph microscope microscopy muscular myocyte myofibril nuclei ...
Striated Muscle Fibers: Inactivation of Contraction Induced by Shortening Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... The myofibrils in an isolated muscle fiber remain straight during the early part of a lightly loaded contraction initiated by ... This may be a factor determining the length-tension relation at short muscle lengths. ...
Metaplasia or transdifferentiation in striated muscle of Podocoryne carnea M. Sars ,Coelenterata, Hydrozoa,. [Andreas Brunnert] ... Metaplasia or transdifferentiation in striated muscle of Podocoryne carnea M. Sars ,Coelenterata, Hydrozoa,. Author:. Andreas ... schema:name "Metaplasia or transdifferentiation in striated muscle of Podocoryne carnea M. Sars " ;. schema:productID "45922134 ... Add tags for "Metaplasia or transdifferentiation in striated muscle of Podocoryne carnea M. Sars ,Coelenterata, Hydrozoa,". Be ...
During the last ten years, there has been growing awareness of the etiology of skeletal and cardiac muscle diseases originating ... Recently, mutations in genes coding for skeletal muscle thin filaments, associated with various clinical features, have been ... coding for the major component of skeletal muscle thick filaments, has led to the introduction of a new entity in the field of ... related to skeletal muscle disease. The genetics and clinical manifestations of these disorders will be discussed. ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in striated muscle cell development pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology ... Antibodies for proteins involved in striated muscle cell development pathways; according to their Panther/Gene Ontology ...
In vertebrate skeletal muscle the main events are: the fusion of myoblasts to form myotubes that increase in size by further ... The developmental sequence of events leading to the formation of adult muscle that occurs in the anima. ... Cyclic mechanical stimulation favors myosin heavy chain accumulation in engineered skeletal muscle c… ...
Exercise-related changes in protein turnover in mammalian striated muscle Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Muscle hypertrophy results. Endurance activities in man and animals usually induce cardiac hypertrophy, and increased fatigue ... The net effect is muscle atrophy. By contrast, increased activity and/or passive stretch enhance the synthesis of new proteins ... Contractile activity is an important determinant of the size, rate of protein turnover and phenotypic properties of muscle. ...
Muscle remodeling. In response to changing functional demands, striated muscle tissue demonstrates a remarkable ability to ... hypertrophy and striated muscle remodeling. We then identify four main networks critical to muscle health: [1] antioxidant ... Mammalian striated muscle is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of fiber types which are classified based on oxidative ... Striated muscle plasticity of the hibernating ground squirrel. Using ground squirrels (e.g. thirteen-lined, Richardsons, and ...
Pathway:Human:Striated muscle contraction]] moved to [[Pathway:Homo sapiens:Striated muscle contraction]]: Renaming species. ... gpml file for [[Human:Striated_muscle_contraction]]. 6394. view. 22:18, 22 May 2007. Nsalomonis. gpml file for [[Human:Striated ... Striated muscle contraction pathway (Homo sapiens). From WikiPathways. Revision as of 22:18, 22 May 2007 by J.Fong (Talk , ... Pathway:Homo sapiens:Striated muscle contraction]] moved to [[Pathway:WP383]]: Moved to stable identifier. 14078. view. 10:25, ...
This is the first longitudinal study to show hyperattenuation of striated muscle on postmortem CT images compared with ... and two skeletal muscle sites (the pectoralis major muscle and the erector spinae muscle) were compared between antemortem and ... Results: Striated muscle had significantly greater attenuation on postmortem CT than on antemortem CT (P,0.001) in all six ... No significant association was found between postmortem change in the CT attenuation of striated muscle and gender, age, or ...
  • The presence of sarcomeres manifests as a series of bands visible along the muscle fibers, which is responsible for the striated appearance observed in microscopic images of this tissue. (
  • The perimysium organizes the muscle fibers, which are encased in collagen and endomysium, into fascicles. (
  • Cardiac muscle fibers generally only contain one nucleus, located in the central region. (
  • Because of the gap junctions, the pacemaker cells transfer the depolarization to other cardiac muscle fibers, in order to contract in unison. (
  • This process begins with the necrosis of damaged muscle fibers, which in turn induces the inflammatory response. (
  • Striated skeletal muscle fibers showing the cross-striation with dark A bands and light I bands. (
  • Skeletal striated muscle fibers in cross section showing several peripheral nuclei (multinucleated cells). (
  • The endomysium, containing capillaries, appear as thin lines surrounding the muscle fibers. (
  • When frog muscle fibers from which the sarcolemma had been dissected away were perfused with a calcium solution and then treated with oxalate, electron-opaque material, probably calcium oxalate, accumulated in the terminal sacs of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. (
  • The many loops allow the capillaries to change their length in response to changes in the length of muscle fibers during contraction and relaxation. (
  • MITOSIS I N NON-STRIATED MUSCLE CELLS ARTHUR W. POLLISTER Department of Zoo7ogy, Colzcmbia University ONE HELIOTYPE PLATE (THIRTEEN FIQURES) I n a fairly complete search of the literature I have been unable to find any record of observations of the details of mitotic cell division in unstriated muscle fibers. (
  • This study was made on the circular muscle fibers of the wall of the stomach of Ambystoma opacum larvae of approximately 22 mm. total length. (
  • The multiple sarcomere or obliquely striated muscles are rhomboid-shaped body wall muscles named for the regular striated pattern of their myosin fibers. (
  • Instrumentation has been developed to detect rapidly the polarization of tryptophan fluorescence from single muscle fibers in rigor, relaxation, and contraction. (
  • P ⊥ (rigor) for the three types of muscle fibers examined (glycerinated rabbit psoas, glycerinated dorsal longitudinal flight muscle of Lethocerus americanus , and live semitendinosus of Rana pipiens ). (
  • In contrast, contractions of skeletal muscle fibers tend to be all-or-none events that are principally modulated by the delivery of Ca 2+ to the myoplasm during excitation-contraction coupling and phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain of myosin. (
  • In contrast to myomesin, which is ubiquitously expressed in all striated muscles, and M-protein, whose expression is restricted to adult heart and fast-twitch skeletal muscle, myomesin 3 can be detected mainly in intermediate speed fibers of skeletal muscle. (
  • Striated muscles are muscle which are formed by parallel fibers which are formed together to make muscle, where as non-striated muscles are made up of one single unit of muscle tissue and not parallel fibers. (
  • Striated muscles are composed of bundles of muscle, the muscle snopečkem are formed, which are divided into the muscle fibers, which conceal the muscle cell myofibrils. (
  • Muscle fibers have pointed ends and exhibit fusiform or spindle shape. (
  • Muscles that contain striated muscle fibers are called striated muscle and muscles that contain non-striated muscle fibers are called non-striated muscles. (
  • Striated Muscle: Non-Striated Muscle: Definition : These are those types of muscles in which muscle fibers exhibit cross striations. (
  • The shape of muscle fibers of nonstriated muscles is of spindle type, and they have pointed or tapered ends. (
  • 1. Striated muscle fibers are giant, polynucleated cells ranging from 10 to 100 μ in diameter. (
  • a muscle that is characterized by transverse stripes pronator - a muscle that produces or assists in pronation Found 0 sentences matching phrase "non volatile".Found in 3 ms. The ends of muscle fibers are intertwined with tendon fibers, and through this combination muscular tension is transmitted to the skeletal bones. (
  • Nitric oxide synthase I (NOS-I) is deficient in the sarcolemma of striated muscle fibers in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, suggesting an association with dystrophin. (
  • Your muscles are composed of two types of fibers: Slow twitch and fast twitch. (
  • Each muscle in your body contains various small fibers. (
  • The percentage of these small fibers helps you to determine that how to train each of your muscle group present in your body. (
  • Slow twitch is also called as red muscle fibers or Type 1 and these muscles involve for long time in low intensity activates such as walking or performing any aerobic activity. (
  • Fast twitch are also known as white muscle fibers or Type 2. (
  • You might have seen various examples of each make up of these small muscle fibers by looking at the sports athletes. (
  • These people can have 80 percent of slow twitch muscle fibers which help them in running efficiently for long distances. (
  • The super sprinters of the world can have 80 percent or more of the fat switch muscle fibers which can support them to make their body strong, powerful and perfect with the limited endurance. (
  • Functional motor defects in Shank3Δ11(-/-) mice could be rescued with the troponin activator Tirasemtiv that sensitizes muscle fibers to calcium. (
  • Skeletal muscles fibers can be as long as 15 cm. (
  • Meat 'fibers' visible with the naked eye are actually bundles of muscle fibers that are around 100 to 1000 ^m in diameter (^ A1). (
  • A muscle includes muscle fibers. (
  • groups of muscle fibers are obligated from the perimysium to make packs known as muscle fascicules and also these fascicules are bound together by means of a connective tissue called the epimysium. (
  • The multinucleate characteristic is based in myogenesis in which thousands or hundreds of uninucleated myoblasts fuse with each other to make muscle fibers up to several centimeters long[3]. (
  • The quantity of muscle fibers stays constant at a person from arrival - muscle construction has been attained only by enlarging the size of their muscle tissues (every muscle cell is 1 muscle fiber). (
  • Here we report the first measurements of pSOCE in mouse extensor digitorum longus muscle fibers using electrical field stimulation (EFS) in a skinned fiber preparation. (
  • We show moderate voluntary wheel running to be a prerequisite to render muscle fibers reasonably susceptible for EFS, and thereby define an experimental paradigm to measure pSOCE in mouse muscle. (
  • While EFS works well in rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibers, respective experiments presented challenging in mice. (
  • Histologically, striated muscle fibers and nerve bundles were seen in the central core and also at the periphery of the lesion, below the epidermis. (
  • In our body's muscular system , Striated Muscle is a form of fibers that combine into bands of parallel fibers, specifically divided into two subtypes: Skeletal muscle and Cardiac muscle. (
  • In our body's heart , Myocardium (Cardiac Muscles) , a type of muscle is found in the heart walls is composed of branched striated involuntary muscle cells, unlike the straight-shaped striated skeletal muscle cells, the Cardiac Muscle is the only muscle type consisting of branching fibers. (
  • In our body, Actins , as a muscle proteins , are filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. (
  • Muscle spindles are found within the belly of muscles , between extrafusal muscle fibers . (
  • [b] The specialised fibers that constitute the muscle spindle are known as intrafusal fibers (as they are present within the spindle), to distinguish themselves from the fibres of the muscle itself which are called extrafusal fibers. (
  • Muscle spindles have a capsule of connective tissue , and run parallel to the extrafusal muscle fibers. (
  • Muscle spindles are composed of 5-14 muscle fibers , of which there are three types: dynamic nuclear bag fibers (bag 1 fibers), static nuclear bag fibers (bag 2 fibers), and nuclear chain fibers . (
  • Primary type Ia sensory fibers (large diameter) spiral around all intrafusal muscle fibres, ending near the middle of each fibre. (
  • Activation of the neurons causes a contraction and stiffening of the end parts of the muscle spindle muscle fibers. (
  • Fusimotor neurons are classified as static or dynamic according to the type of muscle fibers they innervate and their effects on the responses of the Ia and II sensory neurons innervating the central, non-contractile part of the muscle spindle. (
  • The dynamic axons innervate the bag 1 intrafusal muscle fibers. (
  • they make synapses at either or both of the ends of the intrafusal muscle fibers and regulate the sensitivity of the sensory afferents, which are located in the non-contractile central (equatorial) region. (
  • When a muscle is stretched, primary type Ia sensory fibers of the muscle spindle respond to both changes in muscle length and velocity and transmit this activity to the spinal cord in the form of changes in the rate of action potentials . (
  • Likewise, secondary type II sensory fibers respond to muscle length changes (but with a smaller velocity-sensitive component) and transmit this signal to the spinal cord. (
  • The reflexly evoked activity in the alpha motoneurons is then transmitted via their efferent axons to the extrafusal fibers of the muscle, which generate force and thereby resist the stretch. (
  • Intrafusal muscle fibers are skeletal muscle fibers that serve as specialized sensory organs ( proprioceptors ) that detect the amount and rate of change in length of a muscle. (
  • [1] They constitute the muscle spindle and are innervated by both sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent) fibers. (
  • Intrafusal muscle fibers are walled off from the rest of the muscle by an outer connective tissue sheath consisting of flattened fibroblasts and collagen . (
  • Intrafusal muscle fibers are not to be confused with extrafusal muscle fibers , which contract, generating skeletal movement and are innervated by alpha motor neurons . (
  • A signaling protein that helps nerve fibers find their correct target muscles is required for innervation of the eye muscles and, if defective, causes an eye movement disorder. (
  • BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle growth and regeneration depend on the activation of satellite cells, which leads to myocyte proliferation, differentiation and fusion with existing muscle fibers. (
  • a bundle of long slender cells ( muscle fibers ) that have the power to contract and hence to produce movement. (
  • Muscle fibers range in length from a few hundred thousandths of a centimeter to several centimeters. (
  • Their fibers are grouped together in sheaths of muscle cells. (
  • Groups of fibers are bundled together into fascicles , surrounded by a tough sheet of connective tissue to form a muscle group such as the biceps. (
  • they are involuntary and consist of striated fibers different from those of voluntary muscle. (
  • skeletal muscle tissue consists of elongated muscle cells called muscle fibers. (
  • Striated muscle tissue is a muscle tissue that features repeating functional units called sarcomeres. (
  • There are two types of striated muscles: Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) Skeletal muscle (muscle attached to the skeleton) Striated muscle tissue contains T-tubules which enables the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. (
  • The main difference between striated muscle tissue and smooth muscle tissue is that striated muscle tissue features sarcomeres while smooth muscle tissue does not. (
  • The main function of striated muscle tissue is to create force and contract. (
  • Contractions in cardiac muscle tissue are due to pacemaker cells. (
  • Adult humans cannot regenerate cardiac muscle tissue after an injury, which can lead to scarring and thus heart failure. (
  • Other vertebrates can regenerate cardiac muscle tissue throughout their entire life span. (
  • Skeletal muscle is able to regenerate far better than cardiac muscle due to satellite cells, which are dormant in all healthy skeletal muscle tissue. (
  • Sarcopenia (loss of skeletal muscle mass associated with aging) Polymyositis (chronic inflammation) Dermatomyositis (chronic inflammation with skin rash) Inclusion body myositis (common age-related inflammatory disease) Coronary artery disease (narrowed coronary arteries) Arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat) Cardiomyopathy (disease of the heart muscle) Anatomy portal Smooth muscle tissue Skeletal muscle Cardiac muscle Shadrin, I. Y. (
  • Skeletal muscle in invertebrate and vertebrates is an unusually heterogeneous tissue with respect to protein isoform expression patterns, and has a remarkable ability to adapt to different conditions. (
  • Through analysis of the axial response as a function of glycerol concentration in striated muscle, we conclude that the mechanism in this tissue arises from matching of the refractive index of the cytoplasm of the muscle cells with that of the surrounding higher-index collagenous perimysium. (
  • They share a common architecture characterized by a very particular and well-described arrangement of muscle cells and associated connective tissue. (
  • APC is required for muscle stem cell proliferation and skeletal muscle tissue repair. (
  • β-Catenin Activation in Muscle Progenitor Cells Regulates Tissue Repair. (
  • Immunolocalization of Myoscape using a rabbit anti-Myoscape-Antibody showed a distinct expression at sarcomeric Z-bands colocalizing with Alpha-actinin both in cardiac and skeletal muscle tissue. (
  • An uropathologist separate from the urology team was blinded to outcome and assessed each patients' apical cruciate sections (H&E stained) for the presence, percentage and maximal diameter of muscle and extraprostatic tissue on these sections. (
  • The percentage of extraprostatic tissue/muscle being an independent predictor of being wet at 12 months (p = 0.002) on multivariate regression along with age (p = 0.04). (
  • The use of simple additional reporting of muscle and extraprostatic tissue on the apical sections of RP specimens can help to better predict the likelihood of continence return. (
  • The microvascular changes associated with tumor growth in bone and soft tissue were characterized by implanting single cell suspensions of LnCap, Du145, and Pc3 cells into the femur (femur window) or striated muscle (dorsal skinfold chamber) of NSG mice. (
  • Permeability, blood flow, and tissue perfusion rates were greater in bone than in striated muscle. (
  • An elongated contractile cell in striated muscle tissue. (
  • Roughly speaking, in striated muscle tissue (such as in the deltoid or other common sites for intramuscular injection), does the diffusion of a fluid have the same diffusion constant irrespective of the direction it travels, or is it anisotropic, in the sense of requiring multiple diffusion constants to be specified for the process? (
  • Noun Opposite of muscle tissue that appears striped under the microscope as a result of the myofibrils being organized into regular units (sarcomeres) smooth muscle. (
  • smooth muscle tissue tends to demonstrate greater elasticity and function within a larger length-tension curve than striated muscle. (
  • Muscle tissue associated with organs such as tongue, pharynx, diaphragm and upper part of the esophagus. (
  • We have observed that the tissue-specific loss of the integrin β1 subunit in striated muscle results in a near complete loss of integrin β1 subunit protein expression concomitant with a loss of talin and to a lesser extent, a reduction in F-actin content. (
  • The whole body insulin resistance resulted from a specific inhibition of skeletal muscle glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis without any significant effect on the insulin suppression of hepatic glucose output or insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipose tissue. (
  • This is the first report showing that with approximately equivalent levels of expression within the same tissue, there is a functional dominance of γ-TM over α-TM or β-TM in regulating physiological performance of the striated muscle sarcomere. (
  • Muscle tissue is a soft tissue that composes muscles in animal bodies, and gives rise to muscles' ability to contract. (
  • Skeletal muscle tissue is responsible for movements of the body. (
  • Sub-categorization of muscle tissue is also possible, depending on among other things the content of myoglobin, mitochondria, myosin ATPase etc. (
  • Muscle tissue is an elongated tissue ranging from several millimeters to about 10 centimeters in length and from 10 to 100 micrometers in width. (
  • Thus, muscle tissue can be described as being one of three different types: Skeletal muscle, striated in structure and under voluntary control, is anchored by tendons (or by aponeuroses at a few places) to bone and is used to effect skeletal movement such as locomotion and to maintain posture. (
  • In vertebrates, there is a third muscle tissue recognized: Cardiac muscle (myocardium), found only in the heart, is a striated muscle similar in structure to skeletal muscle but not subject to voluntary control. (
  • Skeletal muscle is further divided into several subtypes: Type I, slow oxidative, slow twitch, or "red" muscle is dense with capillaries and is rich in mitochondria and myoglobin, giving the muscle tissue its characteristic red color. (
  • Each muscle fiber contains sarcolemma, sarcoplasm, and sarcoplasmic reticulum. (
  • The functional unit of a muscle fiber is called a sarcomere. (
  • These are connected in series to each other forming ~1 μ m wide myofibrils (Figures 1(a) and 1(b) ) that run the entire length of the muscle cell (muscle fiber) and in parallel over the muscle fiber cross-section. (
  • The myofibrils in an isolated muscle fiber remain straight during the early part of a lightly loaded contraction initiated by membrane depolarization, but, as shortening continues, myofibrils in the core of the fiber become wavy, which suggests that their activation has been interrupted by shortening of the fiber. (
  • Mammalian striated muscle is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of fiber types which are classified based on oxidative capacity, contraction time, fatigue resistance, and power production. (
  • I n later metaphase stages there is a lengthening and narrowing of the spindle, which are accompanied by a change in orientation so that its long axis nearly coincides with that of the muscle fiber (figs. 4 and 5). (
  • body muscle cell , Muscle Fibre , muscle fiber . (
  • Use analysis software to measure the area of a striated muscle cell and any gaps in the fiber pattern of that cell. (
  • Gaps in muscle fiber organization could indicate disruption by fiber degradation or the accumulation of cellular debris. (
  • Muscle fiber cells have a single nucleus in a cell. (
  • The muscle cell is a fiber A2) approximately 10 to 100 ^m in diameter. (
  • Each striated muscle fiber is invested by a cell membrane called the sarcolemma , which surrounds the sarcoplasm (cytoplasm), several cell nuclei, mitochondria (sarcosomes), substances involved in supplying O2 and energy (^ p. 72), and several hundreds of myofibrils . (
  • What Is Muscle Fiber? (
  • two]One muscle fiber is all about 100 µm in diameter, which is more multinucleate and comprises several mitochondria. (
  • It is by the sensory information from these two intrafusal fiber types that an individual is able to judge the position of their muscle, and the rate at which it is changing. (
  • At the signal of an impulse traveling down the nerve, the muscle fiber changes chemical energy into mechanical energy, and the result is muscle contraction. (
  • Type I muscle fiber is sometimes broken down into Type I and Type Ic categories, as a result of recent research. (
  • The sarcomere then shortend which causes the muscle to contract. (
  • The ordered arrangement on different hierarchical levels in muscles is highly beneficial to the effectiveness of the contractile process which is reflected in the independent evolution [ 9 ] of similar sarcomere organizations in phylogenetically distant organisms such as mammalians and Cnidaria (e.g., jellyfish). (
  • The resting length of the sarcomere is approximately 2.0 μ m in the human heart and 2.5 μ m in human skeletal muscle. (
  • The sarcomere, the basic contractile unit of striated muscle cells, is widely accepted as being constructed of two sets of parallel and interdigitated protein filaments that are discontinuous and inextensible. (
  • This two-filament sarcomere model provides a structural basis for the powerful sliding-filament theory of muscle contraction. (
  • The single sarcomere or non-striated muscles include those in the pharynx and vulva. (
  • Sinusoidal or square wave oscillations of the muscle of amplitude 0.5-2.0% of the sarcomere length and frequency 1, 2, or 5 Hz were applied in rigor when the myosin cross-bridges are considered to be firmly attached to the thin filaments. (
  • Striated muscles contain proper sarcomere, whereas non-striated muscles do not have proper sarcomere. (
  • Striated muscles contain proper sarcomere. (
  • In non-striated muscles, proper sarcomere is not present due to which it gives an irregular shape under a microscope. (
  • We found that SHANK3 localizes in Z-discs in the skeletal muscle sarcomere and co-immunoprecipitates with α-ACTININ. (
  • Our previous work established that muscle TM isoforms confer different physiological properties to the cardiac sarcomere. (
  • In vertebrate striated muscle (heart and skeletal muscle), actin and myosin are organized with several accessory proteins in highly ordered sets of interdigitating thin and thick filaments, respectively, forming repetitive 2.0-2.5 μ m long sarcomeres [ 2 ]. (
  • During muscle contraction, globular myosin motor domains (heads) extend from the thick filaments to interact cyclically with actin binding sites on the thin filaments forming so-called cross-bridges (Figure 1(b) ). (
  • 600 kDa polypeptide component of the connecting filaments in asynchronous muscle, is also detected in all synchronous muscles studied. (
  • Surprisingly, projectin is detected in the region of the thick filaments in synchronous muscles, rather than between the thick filaments and the Z-band, as in asynchronous muscles. (
  • The conditions under which one might expect to see the secondary filaments (if they exist) in longitudinal sections of striated muscle, are discussed. (
  • In other muscle types, such as many smooth muscles, phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain is an obligatory step in activating force development, although here, too, the force and speed of contraction are modulated by a range of signaling processes targeting both the thick and thin filaments. (
  • In both the biceps brachii and the soleus muscles the myosin and actin filaments are not built into a continuous mass but they are divided into numerous discrete myofibrils. (
  • The efficient functioning of striated muscle is dependent upon the structure of several cytoskeletal networks including myofibrils, microtubules, and intermediate filaments. (
  • These thin and thick filaments, when seen under a microscope, look "striped" or striated. (
  • In our body's muscular system , Actin is the protein which microfilaments are composed of forming the contractile filaments of sarcomeres in muscle cells. (
  • Each muscle cell is filled with parallel actin and myosin filaments. (
  • Muscle contraction results from cyclic interactions between the contractile proteins myosin and actin, driven by the turnover of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (
  • Baby hamster kidney (BHK-21/C13) cells can express striated muscle type proteins. (
  • The expression of different muscle-specific proteins (desmin, titin and skeletal muscle myosin) and of tropomyosins was studied in both polygonal and elongated BHK-21 cells using the indirect-immunofluorescence assay, two-dimensional (2D)-gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. (
  • Monoclonal antibodies raised against four proteins from insect asynchronous flight muscle have been used to characterize the cross-reacting proteins in synchronous muscle of Drosophila melanogaster . (
  • Two proteins, α -actinin and Z(400/600), are found at the Z-band of every muscle examined. (
  • In utero development is a key time for muscle formation, and muscle-related birth defects are sometimes linked to mutations in muscle contractile proteins expressed in utero. (
  • Striated muscles comprise approximately 40% of total body weight, contain 50-75% of all body proteins and contribute significantly to multiple bodily functions. (
  • Further, evidence from some invertebrate muscles indicates that contraction in these muscles is regulated by Ca 2+ binding to myosin, rather than to thin filament proteins, but there is as yet little evidence for regulation of vertebrate striated muscle contraction via Ca 2+ binding to myosin. (
  • With the aim of clarifying the roles of C-protein isoforms in developing mammalian skeletal muscle, we cloned the complementary DNA (cDNAs) encoding mouse fast (F) and slow (S) skeletal muscle C-proteins and determined their entire sequences. (
  • Striated (skeletal and cardiac) muscle is activated by the binding of Ca2+ to troponin C and is regulated by the thin filament proteins, tropomyosin and troponin. (
  • In the Striated Muscle Contraction Pathway, most of the identified proteins were decreased in the SOD1 G93A mice compared with the WT mice. (
  • In our body's muscular system , Myosins are a diverse superfamily of thick microfilament proteins ( muscle proteins ) found in the center sections of sarcomeres , that function as translocating and share the common characteristics of being able to bind actins and hydrolyze MgATP. (
  • COVER This week's issue features a Perspective that discusses the dynamic nature of proteins associated with the sarcomeres of skeletal and cardiac muscle. (
  • Muscles contain special proteins called contractile protein which contract and relax to cause movement. (
  • These cells are joined together in tissues that may be either striated or smooth, depending on the presence or absence, respectively, of organized, regularly repeated arrangements of myofibrillar contractile proteins called myofilaments. (
  • Bechtel, P. (1979) Identification of a high molecular weight actin-binding protein in skeletal muscle. (
  • Contractile activity is an important determinant of the size, rate of protein turnover and phenotypic properties of muscle. (
  • Animal models that decrease muscle activity invariably accelerate the rate of protein degradation, usually complementing decreases in the rate of protein synthesis. (
  • Muscle contractility can be studied directly, and the use of multiple assays has allowed me to examine muscle development and disease at the protein, subcellular, and cellular level. (
  • In an effort to identify novel heart and muscle specific genes using a bioinformatic approach we found a 100kd protein we named Myoscape, which is highly conserved between the species of human, mouse, rat and zebrafish. (
  • In summary, we identified a novel heart and muscle enriched protein termed Myoscape which localizes to the Z-Band/T-tubule interface and modulates cardiac calcium cycling and force generation both in vitro and in vivo . (
  • Our findings indicate that the major apoptotic protein Bcl-2 might have a hitherto unrecognized role in the protection of normal muscle. (
  • In vitro studies suggest that members of the muscle-specific RING finger protein family (MURF-1, 2, and 3) act as cytoskeletal adaptors and signaling molecules by associating with myofibril components (including the giant protein, titin), microtubules and/or nuclear factors. (
  • Differential expression of C-protein isoforms in developing and degenerating mouse striated muscles. (
  • Myosin binding protein-C slow is a novel substrate for protein kinase A (PKA) and C (PKC) in skeletal muscle. (
  • Differential expression of two cardiac myosin-binding protein-C isoforms in developing chicken cardiac and skeletal muscle cells. (
  • The nanomachine offers a powerful tool for investigating muscle contractile-protein physiology, pathology and pharmacology without the potentially disturbing effects of the cytoskeletal-and regulatory-protein environment. (
  • Every G-actin includes a myosin-heading binding website that's blocked through muscle relaxation by the protein tropomyosin. (
  • The protein subunit binds to calcium following their discharge in the sarcoplasmic reticulum throughout muscle stimulation. (
  • The reduction in skeletal muscle insulin responsiveness occurred without any change in GLUT4 protein expression levels but was associated with an impairment of the insulin-stimulated protein kinase B/Akt serine 473 phosphorylation but not threonine 308. (
  • Protein antigens extracted from adult rat skeletal muscle in 600 mM KCl are applied to wells of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay plate. (
  • The composition and fractional rate of protein synthesis (K(s)) in skeletal and cardiac muscle, gut and liver were determined. (
  • There were few changes in the visceral tissues, but there was marked protein accretion in the muscles. (
  • The results suggested that in skeletal muscles there is an increase in both K(s) and the amount of protein synthesised per unit RNA. (
  • In cardiac muscle, the results indicated that there was only a very transient increase in K(s) and that changes in translational capacity (RNA/prot) may account in part for the increase in protein content. (
  • It is concluded that the mechanistic basis for the increased protein gain may be different between skeletal and cardiac muscles. (
  • In our body's muscular system , Sarcomeres , as a multi-protein complex are the smallest contractile unit of muscles with basic repeating contractile units cross-striating myofibrils , delimited by Z bands along the length, composed of three different filament systems. (
  • Identification of an N2 line protein of striated muscle. (
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Identification of an N2 line protein of striated muscle. (
  • Tropomyosin is a polymeric protein found in the muscle thin filament together with actin and troponin. (
  • The striated muscle activator of Rho signaling (STARS) is an actin binding protein that regulates the transcription of genes involved in muscle cell growth, structure and function via the stimulation of actin polymerization and activation of serum-response factor (SRF) signaling. (
  • abstract = "The contraction of striated muscle (skeletal and cardiac muscle) is generated by ATP-dependent interactions between the molecular motor myosin II and the actin filament. (
  • Abstract: We saw two newborn infants with striated muscle hamartoma. (
  • Striated Muscle Physiology provides a forum for the dissemination of the newest knowledge of skeletal and cardiac striated muscle function to the broadest possible readership. (
  • All manuscripts must be submitted directly to the section Striated Muscle Physiology, where they are peer-reviewed by the Associate and Review Editors of the specialty section. (
  • Articles published in the section Striated Muscle Physiology will benefit from the Frontiers impact and tiering system after online publication. (
  • Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) plays a pivotal role in skeletal muscle physiology as, when impaired, the muscle is prone to early fatigue and the development of different myopathies. (
  • The functional units of muscle are the half-sarcomeres. (
  • Some of the advantages of this arrangement are obvious, such as effective summation of length changes produced by sarcomeres arranged in series and forces over the muscle cross-section. (
  • Â These paired striations on skeletal muscles are actually bands of sarcomeres that contract and/or relax during movement. (
  • Â For a muscle to perform a certain movement, the striations or bands of sarcomeres must work together in harmony for the desired output. (
  • The muscles of the heart also have similar striations or bands of sarcomeres. (
  • In our body's muscular system , the Striated Muscles Cardiac muscle and skeletal muscles are "striated" composed of a series of sarcomeres , the smallest contractile unit of muscles, packed into highly-regular arrangements of bundles. (
  • The fibres of striated muscle have a cylindrical shape with blunt ends, whereas those in smooth muscle can be described as being spindle-like with tapered ends. (
  • Striated muscle cells are elongated, hence their description as fibres. (
  • Fas-L and TRAIL were not detected in muscle fibres, and Fas only in muscle affected by disease. (
  • In the uterus, the membranes involving recently differentiated muscle cells, also known as myoblasts, breakdown, thereby forming muscle fibres that have many nuclei. (
  • Muscles are attached to bones by tendons that are made of collagen fibres. (
  • The spindle is a stretch receptor with its own motor supply consisting of several intrafusal muscle fibres. (
  • Gamma motoneurons activate the intrafusal muscle fibres, changing the resting firing rate and stretch-sensitivity of the afferents. (
  • [ citation needed ] These activate the muscle fibres within the spindle. (
  • Gamma motor neurons supply only muscle fibres within the spindle, whereas beta motor neurons supply muscle fibres both within and outside of the spindle. (
  • We also briefly consider actomyosin mutation effects in cardiac and skeletal muscle function and the possibility to treat these defects by drugs. (
  • In addition, reports that investigate cross-talk between cardiac and skeletal muscle function are welcome, as well as dysfunction of this cross-talk in disease. (
  • Here, we report that TCS impairs ECC of both cardiac and skeletal muscle in vitro and in vivo. (
  • Voltage clamp experiments showed that TCS partially inhibits L-type Ca 2+ currents of cardiac and skeletal muscle, and [ 3 H]PN200 binding to skeletal membranes is noncompetitively inhibited by TCS in the same concentration range that enhances [ 3 H]ryanodine binding. (
  • Muscle Types: Cardiac and skeletal muscle are both striated in appearance, while smooth muscle is not. (
  • α-TM is the predominant cardiac and skeletal muscle isoform. (
  • Unlike skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle cells are unicellular. (
  • Two other characteristics that differentiate striated muscle from smooth muscle are that the former has more mitochondria and contains cells that are multinucleated. (
  • Different aspects of the force-generating transition are reflected in the changes in tension development by muscle cells, myofibrils and single molecules upon changes in temperature, altered phosphate concentration, or length perturbations. (
  • While these three cadherins are expressed in skeletal muscle cells, of these only N-cadherin is expressed in cardiac muscle. (
  • In this review, M-, N-, and R-cadherin are discussed as important players in the terminal differentiation and possibly also in the commitment of skeletal muscle cells. (
  • The positive staining with antibodies to skeletal muscle myosin and titin indicates a striated-muscle nature of the (elongated) BHK-21/C13 cells. (
  • It is found only in the asynchronous muscle and in the large cells of the jump muscle (tergal depressor of the trochanter). (
  • The absence of Z(210) from the anterior four small cells of the jump muscle demonstrates that cells within the same muscle do not have identical Z-band composition. (
  • Each cell has several nuclei (not visible) positioned just below the sarcolemma, the name given to the cell membrane of muscle cells. (
  • Mitosis in non-striated muscle cells. (
  • For muscle cells with a degenerated or missing region, trace the missing area with the polygon selection tool and click Measure again. (
  • Calcium induced calcium release and EC Coupling is a fundamental process how muscle cells generate contractile force. (
  • The striated muscles of Derocheilocaris typica consist of mononucleated cells, each containing one filament bundle. (
  • Large muscles consist of two or more cells adjacent to each other. (
  • Partially transformed epidermal cells mediate muscle insertions on the cuticle. (
  • In zone 4 muscle cells are contracted. (
  • we investigated the expression of molecules involved in muscle fibre death and survival mechanisms (Bcl-2, Fas, Fas-ligand and TRAIL), focusing on disorders with possible involvement of cytotoxic T cells. (
  • Body muscle cells of the bloodworm Glycera , a polychaete annelid, were studied by electron microscopy and compared with muscle cells of the more slowly acting nematode Ascaris , which have been described previously. (
  • The results showed a higher engraftment of tumor cells in bone than in striated muscle associated with accelerated growth of LnCap cells and Pc3 cells. (
  • After implantation of the cancer cells, the local microcirculation was analyzed for 21 days by intravital fluorescence microscopy to determine the effect of the environment on microvascular properties during tumor growth in bone and in striated muscle. (
  • Six main factors limit the regeneration of mammalian striated muscles: the myogenic cells, the basal membranes, the vascular supply, the innervation, the mechanical forces and the functional utilization. (
  • b) Smooth muscle cells have a single nucleus and no visible striations. (
  • c) Cardiac muscle cells appear striated and have a single nucleus. (
  • Here, we used a combination of patient-derived human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), Shank3Δ11(-/-) mice, and Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMDS) muscle biopsies from patients of different ages to analyze the role of SHANK3 on motor unit development. (
  • They arise from striated muscles (banded - not smooth, muscles of the skeletal and cardiac musculature) in adults, and from embryonic stem cells in juveniles. (
  • The Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility has as its main aim the publication of original research which bears on either the excitation and contraction of muscle, the analysis of any one of the processes involved therein, or the processes underlying contractility and motility of animal and plant cells. (
  • Most muscle cells, in our body, only store enough Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) for a small number of muscle contractions. (
  • While muscle cells can also store glycogen, most of the energy required for contraction is derived from phosphagens. (
  • however, whether STARS overexpression enhances cell proliferation and differentiation has not been investigated in skeletal muscle cells. (
  • RESULTS: We demonstrate for the first time that STARS overexpression enhances differentiation but not proliferation in C2C12 mouse skeletal muscle cells. (
  • The mechanism for vertebrate striated muscle contraction. (
  • Contraction of vertebrate striated muscles is regulated via switch-like activation of the thin filament due to Ca 2+ binding to the troponin C (TnC) subunit of troponin, which together with tropomyosin comprise the thin filament regulatory strand. (
  • The simple elegance of this mechanism and the obligatory role of Ca 2+ in activation have contributed to the perception that Ca 2+ binding to TnC composes the entirety of regulation in vertebrate skeletal and cardiac muscles, and yet, some properties of regulation cannot be explained without invoking additional processes. (
  • This was the first evidence in vertebrate striated muscles that a process other than Ca 2+ binding to TnC contributed to the regulation of contraction, although unlike Ca 2+ binding to TnC, phosphorylation of the light chain is not required for the activation of contraction. (
  • Although this remains an intriguing possibility, vertebrate skeletal muscle myosin lacks the regulatory high-affinity Ca 2+ -binding site that is formed in some invertebrate muscles by the confluence of the regulatory and essential light chains with the myosin heavy chain ( Szent-Györgyi, 1996 ). (
  • In the past several years, considerable attention has focused on the modulation of Ca 2+ -activated contraction in vertebrate striated muscles. (
  • The fetal cardiac muscle is a good milestone for assessing the maturity of human induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes, which are used to model heart disease and therapeutics, and produce force at rates of activation and relaxation that are close to those of fetal cardiac myofibrils and not adult cardiac myofibrils. (
  • This may explain why the myofibrils in fast muscles tend to be small and discrete whilst those in slow muscles are larger and more irregular in shape. (
  • It is suggested that physiological differences between bloodworm and Ascaris muscles derive from differences in the proportion of series to parallel linkages between the contractile elements, differences in the amount and disposition of the SR, and differences in the impedance to shear within the myofibrils. (
  • Most of the chambers run lengthwise to the myofibrils, and are therefore called longitudinal tubules (^ p. 63 A). The sarcoplasmic reticulum is more prominently developed in skeletal muscle than in the myocardium and serves as a Ca2+ storage space. (
  • The myofibrils inside the skeletal muscle produce a alternating banding pattern of dark and light striations on account of the depth of the myofibrils altering because the muscle. (
  • As an example, the variation of isometric force with [Ca 2+ ] in permeabilized muscle preparations suggests the presence of cooperative processes in activation, which occur to differing degrees in myocardium and in fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscles. (
  • Although current work involves both skeletal and cardiac muscles, the evolutionary elaboration of secondary regulatory processes is most evident in myocardium, in which the in vivo tuning of contraction varies considerably from beat to beat depending on circulatory load and sympathetic tone. (
  • In our body's heart , the Myocardium (Cardiac Muscles) connects at branching, irregular angles (called intercalated discs) to form the contractile pump that generates blood flow. (
  • When you plan and consume the nutritional foods, your body starts producing more energy and power which lead to stronger and healthier muscle tissues . (
  • The troponin tropomyosin complex prevents the actin myosin crossbridge from forming and allows the muscle tissues to stay relaxed. (
  • When excess calcium flows into the muscle tissues, the calcium ions bind to the TnC and cause the troponin tropomyosin complex to move. (
  • This is opposed to other components or tissues in muscle such as tendons or perimysium. (
  • Muscle tissues vary with function and location in the body. (
  • Wednesday, January 6, 2021 Latest: CRPF Recruitment 2019 - Apply Online Indian Army Recruitment 2019 - … Meaning of skeletal striated muscle. (
  • 3. They can be controlled consciously, so they are also called voluntary muscles. (
  • Our results suggest that the hypotonia in SHANK3 deficiency might be caused by dysfunctions in all elements of the voluntary motor system: motoneurons, neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), and striated muscles. (
  • Skeletal muscle (also referred to as striated muscle) which functions underneath voluntary muscle contraction, has been connected to the bone by joints, and works to execute motion and aid in keeping body posture. (
  • In our body, the efferent leg of the peripheral nervous system is responsible for conveying commands to the muscles and glands, and is ultimately responsible for voluntary movement. (
  • Voluntary muscles are those controlled by the conscious part of the brain, and are striated. (
  • Unlike the involuntary muscles, which can remain in a state of contraction for long periods without tiring and are capable of sustained rhythmic contractions, the voluntary muscles are readily subject to fatigue. (
  • Voluntary muscles extend from one bone to another, cause movements by contraction, and work on the principle of leverage. (
  • Immunoassay reagents intended to perform qualitative and/or quantitative analyses on a body fluid sample (e.g., serum) to determine antibodies against the striated muscles (SMAs). (
  • Isolated cases of striated muscle antibodies may be seen in patients with certain autoimmune diseases, rheumatic fever, myocardial infarction, and following some cardiotomy procedures. (
  • Filamentous staining was seen with the skeletal-muscle-specific myosin antibody at this stage. (
  • All striated muscles are attached to some component of the skeleton, unlike smooth muscle, which composes hollow organs such as the intestines or blood vessels. (
  • How are striated and smooth muscles alike? (
  • Endo, T. & Masaki, T. (1982) Molecular properties and functions in vitro of chicken smooth muscle alpha-actinin in comparison with those of striated muscle alpha-actinins. (
  • This arrangement helps to translate waves of muscle contractions into smooth locomotion. (
  • Unlike in molluscan or smooth muscles, the myosin regulatory light chains (RLC) of striated muscles do not play a major regulatory role and their function is still not well understood. (
  • The N-terminal domain of RLC contains a Ca2+-Mg2+-binding site and, analogous to that of smooth muscle myosin, also contains a phosphorylation site. (
  • Smooth muscles are non-striated, such as the muscles in the bowel and sphincter. (
  • Striated Muscle" sometimes is refer exclusively to skeletal muscle as a distinction from smooth muscle. (
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Gene-targeted mice that lack cGKI in islets (conventional cGKI mutants and cGKIα and Iβ rescue mice [α/βRM] that express cGKI only in smooth muscle) were studied in comparison to control (CTR) mice. (
  • They include the countless short-fibered, or smooth, muscles of the internal organs and power the digestive tract, the pupils of the eyes, and all other involuntary mechanisms. (
  • Smooth and cardiac muscle contracts involuntarily, without conscious intervention. (
  • Striated muscle is typically subject to conscious control, while smooth muscle is not. (
  • It also has striations unlike smooth muscle. (
  • smooth muscle has neither. (
  • Striated muscle contracts and relaxes in short, intense bursts, whereas smooth muscle sustains longer or even near-permanent contractions. (
  • In the involuntary and in the involuntary- striated muscle cell , the nuclei are centrally located. (
  • However, recent evidence has shown that several pathways involved in muscle catabolism, apoptosis, and oxidative stress are activated in the vastus lateralis muscle of patients during acute exacerbations of COPD, while those implicated in mitochondrial function are downregulated. (
  • Although rehabilitation may be promising, other therapeutic strategies such as counterbalancing the adverse effects of exacerbations on skeletal muscle pathways may also be used. (
  • R-spondin1 Controls Muscle Cell Fusion through Dual Regulation of Antagonistic Wnt Signaling Pathways. (
  • Thus, titin has multiple roles in muscle, potentially including signaling pathways involved in myofibril assembly. (
  • Skeletal muscle cell proliferation and differentiation are tightly coordinated by a continuum of molecular signaling pathways. (
  • After 4 days titin was found in a striated pattern. (
  • Thus, regulation of thick filament length depends on titin and is critical for maintaining muscle health. (
  • We here review these issues in relation to controversies regarding basic physiological properties of striated muscle. (
  • TCS is capable of altering the activity of type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1), but its potential to influence physiological excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) and muscle function has not been investigated. (
  • We then show how we can calibrate our model based on experimental data-taken here for skeletal muscles-and numerical simulations demonstrate the adequacy of the model to represent complex physiological phenomena, in particular the fast isometric transients in which the power stroke is known to have a crucial role, thus circumventing a limitation of many classical models. (
  • This mechanism has been known for nearly 50 years, dating to the initial publication by Ebashi and Endo (1968) on this topic, and is widely accepted and taught in the field as an obligatory step in the activation of muscle under physiological (as opposed to pathophysiological) conditions. (
  • We previously found that capsaicin can dilate third-order arterioles in striated muscle by a mechanism that appears to involve release of endogenous calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). (
  • The unique absence of major histocompatibility complex class I antigen (MHC-I) expression in normal muscle is one possible mechanism protecting striated muscle. (
  • This is the first longitudinal study to show hyperattenuation of striated muscle on postmortem CT images compared with antemortem CT images in the same patients. (
  • Striated or skeletal muscle, longitudinal section. (
  • Skeletal or striated muscle cross-section and longitudinal section from the human tongue, H&E stain. (
  • One of the longitudinal fibrils or contractile elements of 11 striated muscle cell . (
  • Contraction of a muscle is aroused by discharge of calcium ions in the sarcoplasmic reticulum which compares to troponin and create a conformational shift. (
  • Acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter substance, is released into the synapse, diffuses across and attaches to specific receptors on the sarcolemma (the outer membrane of the muscle fibre). (
  • The muscle sarcolemma is depolarised. (
  • Striated muscles are attached to the skeleton via tendons, but non-striated muscle does not have tendons, they are present in internal organs. (
  • Skeletal muscle is wrapped in epimysium, allowing structural integrity of the muscle despite contractions. (
  • These contractions will either pump blood throughout the body (cardiac muscle) or powers breathing, movement or posture (skeletal muscle). (
  • The last stages of swallowing and of peristalsis are actually series of contractions by the muscles in the walls of the organs involved. (
  • The expression of Myoscape is strongly enriched in heart and skeletal muscle as determined by quantative real-time PCR, northern- and western-blot analyses. (
  • Transmission electron micrograph of part of a striated muscle fibre (cell) from the human neck. (
  • It was found that the myofibrillar cross-sectional area in an individual muscle fibre may increase 40-fold during growth and that the transverse tubular and sarcoplasmic reticulum systems increase at about the same rate. (
  • Each muscle is called a fibre . (
  • SHANK3 deficiency lead to shortened Z-discs and severe impairment of acetylcholine receptor clustering in hiPSC-derived myotubes and in muscle from Shank3Δ11(-/-) mice and patients with PMDS, indicating a crucial role for SHANK3 in the maturation of NMJs and striated muscle. (
  • Reports of striated muscle studies that advance the understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that drive cross-bridges during muscle force generation, shortening and relaxation are welcome. (
  • herein, I have found that the continued muscle dysfunction is linked to a delay in relaxation, likely from slower cross-bridge detachment, and that this is not from an overexpression of embryonic myosin. (
  • Fetal cardiac muscle develops more force as gestation increase, showing an increase in activation and relaxation rates, though the cross-bridge cycling rates appear to fluctuate, potentially as a function of structure. (
  • Finally, failing adult cardiac muscle demonstrates that the activation rate and force production of the myofilament can be enhanced without slowing the relaxation through using 2-deoxy-ATP. (
  • Mutual interaction of these molecules causes muscle contraction and relaxation. (
  • Â Like in the case of a normal biceps curl, some striations will shorten for the contraction of the biceps muscle while their pairs will elongate for relaxation. (
  • In our body, Actins in conjunction with myosins , are responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle. (
  • The contraction and relaxation of cardiac muscle continues at a rhythmic pace until death unless the muscle is injured in some way. (
  • The amount of myofibrillar material and sarcoplasmic reticulum plus transverse tubular system were estimated using linear analysis for muscles at 3 different stages of growth. (
  • In striated type, sarcoplasmic reticulum is developed while in the nonstriated muscles, it is not well developed. (
  • A phasic mode of fast SOCE (pSOCE) occurs upon single muscle twitches in synchrony with excitation-contraction coupling, presumably activated by a local and transient depletion at the terminal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -stores. (
  • The anaphase movement seems to be mainly due to elongation of the region of the spindle between the chromosome plates, the so-called Stemmkorper (BglBr, '27) (figs. 6 MITOSIS IN UNSTRIATED MUSCLE 13 and 7). (
  • Â In its simplest explanation, the striations on skeletal muscle are necessary for the muscle's essential functioning in movement and locomotion. (
  • Skeletal muscles are designed for movement, and they are found all over the body with specific functions. (
  • Â Those located on the trunk are needed mostly for stability, while skeletal muscles located on the arms and legs are usually used for movement and/or locomotion. (
  • Â Without the striations, or stripes, on these skeletal muscles, the muscles themselves won't be able to perform their functions in terms of movement. (
  • For every direct action made by a muscle, an antagonistic muscle can cause an opposite movement. (
  • Muscles enable the body to perform different types of movement. (
  • showed that the posttetanic potentiation of twitch force in skeletal muscles was associated with stimulus frequency-dependent phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain. (
  • Although no muscular dystrophy has been associated within mutations of the α-dystrobrevin gene, emerging findings suggest potential significance of α-dystrobrevin in striated muscle. (
  • Autism-associated SHANK3 mutations impair maturation of neuromuscular junctions and striated muscles. (
  • Type II, fast-twitch muscle, has three major kinds that are, in order of increasing contractile speed: Type IIa, which, like a slow muscle, is aerobic, rich in mitochondria and capillaries and appears red when deoxygenated. (
  • Basi, G. S., Boardman, M. & Storti, R. V. (1984) Alternative splicing of a Drosophila tropomyosin gene generates muscle tropomyosin isoforms with different carboxyterminal ends. (
  • Dorsal and ventral abdominal muscles are innervated from the dorso-lateral nerve arising from the nerve chain. (
  • In the skeletal muscles connected to tendons that pull on bones, the mysia fuses to the periosteum that coats the bone. (
  • Striated muscles are also called as skeletal muscles because they are attached with bones via tendons. (
  • Some muscles are attached to bones by tendons . (