Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.
The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.
A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)
Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.
Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.
Eye movements that are slow, continuous, and conjugate and occur when a fixed object is moved slowly.
Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.
Myosin type II isoforms found in smooth muscle.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.
An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A type of endoplasmic reticulum lacking associated ribosomes on the membrane surface. It exhibits a wide range of specialized metabolic functions including supplying enzymes for steroid synthesis, detoxification, and glycogen breakdown. In muscle cells, smooth endoplasmic reticulum is called SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.
A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.
The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the sis gene (GENES, SIS). c-sis proteins make up the B chain of PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR. Overexpression of c-sis causes tumorigenesis.
Exercises that stretch the muscle fibers with the aim to increase muscle-tendon FLEXIBILITY, improve RANGE OF MOTION or musculoskeletal function, and prevent injuries. There are various types of stretching techniques including active, passive (relaxed), static, dynamic (gentle), ballistic (forced), isometric, and others.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.
Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
Technique for limiting use, activity, or movement by immobilizing or restraining animal by suspending from hindlimbs or tails. This immobilization is used to simulate some effects of reduced gravity and study weightlessness physiology.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
Two of the masticatory muscles: the internal, or medial, pterygoid muscle and external, or lateral, pterygoid muscle. Action of the former is closing the jaws and that of the latter is opening the jaws, protruding the mandible, and moving the mandible from side to side.
Myosin type II isoforms found in skeletal muscle.
Precursor cells destined to differentiate into smooth muscle myocytes (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)
An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.
The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.
A tumor composed of smooth muscle tissue, as opposed to leiomyoma, a tumor derived from smooth muscle.
Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
A phosphoprotein phosphatase that is specific for MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. It is composed of three subunits, which include a catalytic subunit, a myosin binding subunit, and a third subunit of unknown function.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A device that measures MUSCLE STRENGTH during muscle contraction, such as gripping, pushing, and pulling. It is used to evaluate the health status of muscle in sports medicine or physical therapy.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.
Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.
Parts of the myosin molecule resulting from cleavage by proteolytic enzymes (PAPAIN; TRYPSIN; or CHYMOTRYPSIN) at well-localized regions. Study of these isolated fragments helps to delineate the functional roles of different parts of myosin. Two of the most common subfragments are myosin S-1 and myosin S-2. S-1 contains the heads of the heavy chains plus the light chains and S-2 contains part of the double-stranded, alpha-helical, heavy chain tail (myosin rod).
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.

The evolution of early fibromuscular lesions hemodynamically induced in the dog renal artery. I. Light and transmission electron microscopy. (1/9487)

In view of the important roles of arterial intimal fibromuscular lesions as precursors of atherosclerotic plaque and occlusive lesions in arterial reconstructions, a model has been developed for the rapid hemodynamic induction of these lesions by anastomosis of the dog right renal artery to the inferior vena cava. Light and transmission electron microscopic observations were made on the arterial shunt after periods of rapid flow ranging form 10 minutes to 2 hours to identify initial factor(s) and evolutionary mechanisms in the etiology of the lesions. The sequence of events included aberrations in ruthenium red staining of the endothelial luminal membrane at 10 minutes, multilayered thickening of the subendothelial basement membrane (BM) at 15 minutes, and initial reorientation and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMC) into the intima along with the appearance of areas of degeneration of the internal elastic lamina (IEL) at 30 minutes. The endothelial cells were still intact in some areas overlying the SMC migration and IEL degeneration, but they were separating from the surface in other such areas. As subendothelium became exposed, some platelet adherence was noted. By 2 hours, the entire wall reaction was fully developed. Initial observations indicate that in the evolution of this hemodynamically induced lesion visible alteration in the endothelial cells is not prerequisite to degeneration of the underlying IEL and reorientation and migration of medial SMC.  (+info)

Inhibition of in vitro enteric neuronal development by endothelin-3: mediation by endothelin B receptors. (2/9487)

The terminal colon is aganglionic in mice lacking endothelin-3 or its receptor, endothelin B. To analyze the effects of endothelin-3/endothelin B on the differentiation of enteric neurons, E11-13 mouse gut was dissociated, and positive and negative immunoselection with antibodies to p75(NTR )were used to isolate neural crest- and non-crest-derived cells. mRNA encoding endothelin B was present in both the crest-and non-crest-derived cells, but that encoding preproendothelin-3 was detected only in the non-crest-derived population. The crest- and non-crest-derived cells were exposed in vitro to endothelin-3, IRL 1620 (an endothelin B agonist), and/or BQ 788 (an endothelin B antagonist). Neurons and glia developed only in cultures of crest-derived cells, and did so even when endothelin-3 was absent and BQ 788 was present. Endothelin-3 inhibited neuronal development, an effect that was mimicked by IRL 1620 and blocked by BQ 788. Endothelin-3 failed to stimulate the incorporation of [3H]thymidine or bromodeoxyuridine. Smooth muscle development in non-crest-derived cell cultures was promoted by endothelin-3 and inhibited by BQ 788. In contrast, transcription of laminin alpha1, a smooth muscle-derived promoter of neuronal development, was inhibited by endothelin-3, but promoted by BQ 788. Neurons did not develop in explants of the terminal bowel of E12 ls/ls (endothelin-3-deficient) mice, but could be induced to do so by endothelin-3 if a source of neural precursors was present. We suggest that endothelin-3/endothelin B normally prevents the premature differentiation of crest-derived precursors migrating to and within the fetal bowel, enabling the precursor population to persist long enough to finish colonizing the bowel.  (+info)

Cloning and characterization of the promoters of the maxiK channel alpha and beta subunits. (3/9487)

Large conductance, calcium-activated potassium (maxiK) channels are expressed in nerve, muscle, and other cell types and are important determinants of smooth muscle tone. To determine the mechanisms involved in the transcriptional regulation of maxiK channels, we characterized the promoter regions of the pore forming (alpha) and regulatory (beta) subunits of the human channel complex. Maximum promoter activity (up to 12.3-fold over control) occurred between nucleotides -567 and -220 for the alpha subunit (hSlo) gene. The minimal promoter is GC-rich with 5 Sp-1 binding sites and several TCC repeats. Other transcription factor-binding motifs, including c/EBP, NF-kB, PU.1, PEA-3, Myo-D, and E2A, were observed in the 5'-flanking sequence. Additionally, a CCTCCC sequence, which increases the transcriptional activity of the SM1/2 gene in smooth muscle, is located 27 bp upstream of the TATA-like sequence, a location identical to that found in the SM1/2 5'-flanking region. However, the promoter directed equivalent expression when transfected into smooth muscle and other cell types. Analysis of the hSlo beta subunit 5'-flanking region revealed a TATA box at position -77 and maximum promoter activity (up to 11.0-fold) in a 200 bp region upstream from the cap site. Binding sites for GATA-1, Myo-D, c-myb, Ets-1/Elk-1, Ap-1, and Ik-2 were identified within this sequence. Two CCTCCC elements are present in the hSlo beta subunit promoter, but tissue-specific transcriptional activity was not observed. The lack of tissue-specific promoter activity, particularly the finding of promoter activity in cells from tissues in which the maxiK gene is not expressed, suggests a complex channel regulatory mechanism for hSlo genes. Moreover, the lack of similarity of the promoters of the two genes suggests that regulation of coordinate expression of the subunits does not occur through equivalent cis-acting sequences.  (+info)

99mTc-labeled vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor agonist: functional studies. (4/9487)

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a naturally occurring 28-amino acid peptide with a wide range of biological activities. Recent reports suggest that VIP receptors are expressed on a variety of malignant tumor cells and that the receptor density is higher than for somatostatin. Our aims were to label VIP with 99mTc--a generator-produced, inexpensive radionuclide that possesses ideal characteristics for scintigraphic imaging--and to evaluate 99mTc-VIP for bioactivity and its ability to detect experimental tumors. METHODS: VIP28 was modified at the carboxy terminus by the addition of four amino acids that provided an N4 configuration for a strong chelation of 99mTc. To eliminate steric hindrance, 4-aminobutyric acid (Aba) was used as a spacer. VIP28 was labeled with 1251, which served as a control. Biological activity of the modified VIP28 agonist (TP3654) was examined in vitro using a cell-binding assay and an opossum internal anal sphincter (IAS) smooth muscle relaxivity assay. Tissue distribution studies were performed at 4 and 24 h after injection, and receptor-blocking assays were also performed in nude mice bearing human colorectal cancer LS174T. Blood clearance was examined in normal Sprague-Dawley rats. RESULTS: The yield of 99mTc-TP3654 was quantitative, and the yields of 125I-VIP and 1251-TP3654 were >90%. All in vitro data strongly suggested that the biological activity of 99mTc-TP3654 agonist was equivalent to that of VIP28. As the time after injection increased, radioactivity in all tissues decreased, except in the receptor-enriched tumor (P = 0.84) and in the lungs (P = 0.78). The tumor uptake (0.23 percentage injected dose per gram of tissue [%ID/g]) was several-fold higher than 125I-VIP (0.06 %ID/g) at 24 h after injection in the similar system. In mice treated with unlabeled VIP or TP3654, the uptake of 99mTc-TP3654 decreased in all VIP receptor-rich tissues except the kidneys. The blood clearance was biphasic; the alpha half-time was 5 min and the beta half-time was approximately 120 min. CONCLUSION: VIP28 was modified and successfully labeled with 99mTc. The results of all in vitro examinations indicated that the biological activity of TP3654 was equivalent to that of native VIP28 and tumor binding was receptor specific.  (+info)

Properties of filament-bound myosin light chain kinase. (5/9487)

Myosin light chain kinase binds to actin-containing filaments from cells with a greater affinity than to F-actin. However, it is not known if this binding in cells is regulated by Ca2+/calmodulin as it is with F-actin. Therefore, the binding properties of the kinase to stress fibers were examined in smooth muscle-derived A7r5 cells. Full-length myosin light chain kinase or a truncation mutant lacking residues 2-142 was expressed as chimeras containing green fluorescent protein at the C terminus. In intact cells, the full-length kinase bound to stress fibers, whereas the truncated kinase showed diffuse fluorescence in the cytoplasm. After permeabilization with saponin, the fluorescence from the truncated kinase disappeared, whereas the fluorescence of the full-length kinase was retained on stress fibers. Measurements of fluorescence intensities and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching of the full-length myosin light chain kinase in saponin-permeable cells showed that Ca2+/calmodulin did not dissociate the kinase from these filaments. However, the filament-bound kinase was sufficient for Ca2+-dependent phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain and contraction of stress fibers. Thus, dissociation of myosin light chain kinase from actin-containing thin filaments is not necessary for phosphorylation of myosin light chain in thick filaments. We note that the distance between the N terminus and the catalytic core of the kinase is sufficient to span the distance between thin and thick filaments.  (+info)

Phenotypic and functional characterisation of myofibroblasts, macrophages, and lymphocytes migrating out of the human gastric lamina propria following the loss of epithelial cells. (6/9487)

BACKGROUND: The basement membrane of human colonic mucosa contains numerous discrete pores. We have recently shown that following loss of the surface epithelium, many cells migrate out of the colonic lamina propria via basement membrane pores. AIMS: To characterise cells migrating out via basement membrane pores of the human gastric lamina propria, following loss of the surface epithelium. METHODS: Fresh human gastric mucosal samples were completely denuded of epithelial cells and placed in culture. Tissue samples were studied by electron microscopy (EM) and cells by EM, FACS analysis, immunohistochemistry, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: EM showed numerous discrete pores (0. 65-8.29 microm in diameter) in the subepithelial basement membrane. During culture of mucosal samples denuded of epithelial cells, lymphocytes, macrophages, and myofibroblasts migrated out of the lamina propria via the basement membrane pores. The lymphocytes were predominantly CD45RO+ and CD69+ T cells. Macrophages were shown to express cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 enzymes. Myofibroblasts were established in culture and, despite prolonged culture and passage, retained their phenotype. They expressed mRNA and protein for COX 1 and 2 enzymes and their release of prostaglandin E2 was inhibited by selective COX 1 and 2 inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: Lamina propria cells migrating out of cultured denuded gastric mucosal samples have been characterised phenotypically and functionally. Such cells would be suitable for studies of their interactions with epithelial cells and also with Helicobacter pylori and its products.  (+info)

Nerve terminal damage by beta-bungarotoxin: its clinical significance. (7/9487)

We report here original data on the biological basis of prolonged neuromuscular paralysis caused by the toxic phospholipase A2 beta-bungarotoxin. Electron microscopy and immunocytochemical labeling with anti-synaptophysin and anti-neurofilament have been used to show that the early onset of paralysis is associated with the depletion of synaptic vesicles from the motor nerve terminals of skeletal muscle and that this is followed by the destruction of the motor nerve terminal and the degeneration of the cytoskeleton of the intramuscular axons. The postjunctional architecture of the junctions were unaffected and the binding of fluorescein-isothiocyanate-conjugated alpha-bungarotoxin to acetylcholine receptor was not apparently affected by exposure to beta-bungarotoxin. The re-innervation of the muscle fiber was associated by extensive pre- and post-terminal sprouting at 3 to 5 days but was stable by 7 days. Extensive collateral innervation of adjacent muscle fibers was a significant feature of the re-innervated neuromuscular junctions. These findings suggest that the prolonged and severe paralysis seen in victims of envenoming bites by kraits (elapid snakes of the genus Bungarus) and other related snakes of the family Elapidae is caused by the depletion of synaptic vesicles from motor nerve terminals and the degeneration of the motor nerve terminal and intramuscular axons.  (+info)

Uterine peristalsis during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle: effects of oestrogen, antioestrogen and oxytocin. (8/9487)

Uterine peristalsis, directing sustained and rapid sperm transport from the external cervical os or the cervical crypts to the isthmic part of the tube ipsilateral to the dominant follicle, changes in direction and frequency during the menstrual cycle, with lowest activity during menstruation and highest activity at mid cycle. It was therefore suggested that uterine peristalsis is under the control of the dominant follicle with the additional involvement of oxytocin. To test this hypothesis, vaginal sonography of uterine peristalsis was performed in the early, mid and late proliferative phases, respectively, of cycles of women treated with oestradiol valerate and with human menopausal gonadotrophin following pituitary downregulation, with clomiphene citrate and with intravenous oxytocin, respectively. Administration of oestradiol valerate resulted in oestradiol serum concentrations comparable with the normal cycle with a simulation of the normal frequency of peristaltic contractions. Elevated oestradiol concentrations and bolus injections of oxytocin resulted in a significant increase in the frequency of peristaltic contractions in the early and mid follicular phases, respectively. Chlomiphene tended, though insignificantly so, to suppress the frequency of peristaltic waves in the presence of elevated oestradiol concentrations. In the late follicular phase of the cycle extremely elevated oestradiol concentrations as well as the injection of oxytocin resulted only in an insignificant further increase of peristaltic frequency. In the normal cycles, as well as during extremely elevated oestradiol concentrations and following oxytocin administration, the peristaltic contractions were always confined to the subendometrial layer of the muscular wall. The results and the review of literature indicate that uterine peristalsis during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle is controlled by oestradiol released from the dominant follicle with the probable involvement of oxytocin, which is presumably stimulated together with its receptor within the endometrial-subendometrial unit and therefore acting in an autocrine/paracrine fashion. Since unphysiological stimulation with oestradiol and oxytocin did not significantly increase the frequency of uterine peristalsis in the late follicular phase of the cycle it is assumed that normal preovulatory frequency of uterine peristalsis is at a level which cannot be significantly surpassed due to phenomena of refractoriness of the system.  (+info)

Growth kinetics and collagen production were determined in smooth muscle cells isolated from human jejunum and maintained in cell culture. Collagen synthesis increased during the first 15 days in culture at a time when the rate of cell proliferation was maximal. When confluent, these cells produced significantly more collagen than human dermal fibroblasts cultured under identical conditions. The smooth muscle cells required daily replenishment of ascorbate for maximal collagen synthesis. The types of collagen produced by human intestinal smooth muscle cells in culture were the same as those collagens extracted from strictured human bowel (types I, III, and V). These findings suggest that collagen production by human intestinal smooth muscle cells has a role in the repair as well as the fibrosis of the gastrointestinal tract. © 1987 ...
Smooth muscle is responsible for the contractility of hollow organs, such as blood vessels, the gastrointestinal tract, the bladder, and the uterus. Its structure differs greatly from that of skeletal muscle. The human stomach contains three layers of muscle in its walls, the outer longitudinal, the middle circular and the inner oblique and visceral smooth muscle cells makes up all three layers along the entire organ. Smooth muscle contraction is critical to peristalsis in the human stomach and the contraction may be mediated by activation of phospholipase through two distinct mechanisms (increased intracellular Ca2+ and G protein activation) and activating PKCepsilon-dependent mechanisms. In vitro study also shows that gastric smooth muscle cells express ET and eNOS and both calcium and sodium may be involved as current carriers in the generation of the plateau potential.HGSMC from Bioarray Research Laboratories are isolated from the human stomach. HGSMC are cryopreserved at secondary culture ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A novel Ca2+ influx pathway activated by mechanical stretch in human airway smooth muscle cells. AU - Ito, Satoru. AU - Kume, Hiroaki. AU - Naruse, Keiji. AU - Kondo, Masashi. AU - Takeda, Naoya. AU - Iwata, Susumu. AU - Hasegawa, Yoshinori. AU - Sokabe, Masahiro. PY - 2008/4/1. Y1 - 2008/4/1. N2 - In response to mechanical stretch, airway smooth muscle exhibits various cellular functions such as contraction, proliferation, and cytoskeletal remodeling, all of which are implicated in the pathophysiology of asthma. We tested the hypothesis that mechanical stretch of airway smooth muscle cells increases intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+] i) by activating stretch-activated (SA) nonselective cation channels. A single uniaxial stretch (3 s) was given to human bronchial smooth muscle cells cultured on an elastic silicone membrane. After the mechanical stretch, a transient increase in [Ca2+]i was observed. The [Ca 2+]i increase was significantly dependent on stretch amplitude. The ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - PPARγ ligand ciglitazone inhibits TNFα-induced ICAM-1 in human airway smooth muscle cells. AU - Huang, Chien Da. AU - Hsiung, Te Chih. AU - Ho, Shu Chuan. AU - Lee, Kang Yun. AU - Chan, Yao Fei. AU - Kuo, Li Wei. AU - Lin, Shu Min. AU - Wang, Chun Hua. AU - Lin, Horng Chyuan. AU - Kuo, Han Pin. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Background: Modification of human airway smooth muscle (ASM) function by proinflammatory cytokines has been regarded as a potential mechanism underlying bronchial hyperresponsiveness in asthma. Human ASM cells express intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 in response to cytokines. Synthetic ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ reportedly possess anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. In this study, we examined whether ciglitazone, a synthetic PPARγ ligand, can modulate the basal and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α-induced ICAM1 gene expression in human ASM cells. Methods: Human ASM cells were treated with TNFα. ICAM-1 ...
Organization of cytoskeletal and myofilament elements in smooth at muscles. Diagram Of Smooth Muscle delightful to be able to the website, on this period I will teach you regarding Diagram of smooth muscle.. Now, here is the very first impression, diagram of smooth muscle, diagram of smooth muscle cells, diagram of smooth muscle tissue, diagram of smooth muscle contraction, labelled diagram of smooth muscle cell, labelled diagram of smooth muscle, histological diagram of smooth muscle, diagram of smooth cardiac and skeletal muscles :. ...
Smooth muscle fibers are spindle-shaped, and, like all muscle, can contract and relax. In the relaxed state, each cell is spindle-shaped, 20-500 micrometers long, and 5 micrometers wide.[1] There are two types of smooth muscle arrangements in the body: multi-unit and single-unit. The single-unit type, also called unitary smooth muscle, is far more common. Whereas the former presents itself as distinct muscle fibers that are usually activated by their own nerve fibers, the latter operate as a single unit and are arranged in sheets or bundles. Unitary smooth muscle is also commonly referred to as visceral smooth muscle because it is found in the walls of the viscera, or internal organs, of the body, including the intestines, ducts such as the bile ducts, ureters and oviducts, and most blood vessels.[2] Unitary smooth muscle can be further divided into phasic and tonic. The cells that compose smooth muscle have, in general, single nuclei. The cells are arranged in sheets or bundles and connected by ...
Smooth muscle has elongated spindle shaped cells with a single nucleus. Unlike skeletal muscle, which appears striated when stained and viewed under a light microscope, the contractile filaments in smooth muscle cells arent arranged in such an ordered, linear way. The contractile proteins are actin and myosin, the same as in skeletal muscle cells.The amount of myosin in smooth muscle cells is considerably less than in cells of skeletal muscle; the ratio of actin to myosin is about 15:1 for smooth muscle, compared to only 2:1. Smooth muscle cells are located within the walls of tubular or hollow organs or vessels for structural support. These can be divided into subtypes of smooth muscle cells; those in the vascular system, respiratory system, intestines, the eye and reproductive organs.[1] Contraction of smooth muscle is controlled by the autonomic nervous system, meaning its movements are primarily involuntary. However, as opposed to skeletal muscle, it can also be controlled by chemical and ...
To generate temporally-controlled targeted somatic mutations selectively and efficiently in smooth muscles, we have established a transgenic SMA-Cre-ER(T2) mouse line in which the expression of the Tamoxifen-dependent Cre-ER(T2) recombinase is under the control of a large genomic DNA segment of the mouse smooth muscle alpha actin (SMA) gene, contained in a Bacterial artificial chromosome (Bac). In this transgenic mouse line, Cre-ER(T2)-mediated recombination of LoxP-flanked target DNA is strictly Tamoxifen-dependent, and efficient in both vascular and visceral smooth muscle cells. Moreover, with the exception of few cardiomyocytes, LoxP-flanked DNA excision is restricted to smooth muscle cells. Thus, SMA-Cre-ER(T2) mice should be of great value to analyze gene function in smooth muscles, and to establish new animal models of human smooth muscle disorders.
Asthma is characterized by structural changes in the airways - airway remodelling. These changes include an increase in the bulk of the airway smooth muscle (ASM) and alterations in the profile of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the airway wall. The mechanisms leading to airway remodelling are not well understood. ASM cells have the potential to play a key role in these processes through the production and release of ECM proteins. The ASM cells and ECM proteins are each able to influence the behaviour and characteristics of the other. The modified ECM profile in the asthmatic airway may contribute to the altered behaviour of the ASM cells, such responses to ECM proteins are modulated through the cell surface expression of integrin receptors. ASM cells from asthmatic individuals express different levels of some integrin subunits compared to nonasthmatic ASM cells, which have the potential to further influence their responses to the ECM proteins in the airways. ECM homeostasis requires the ...
BACKGROUND Airway smooth muscle contributes to the pathogenesis of pulmonary diseases by secreting inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-8 (IL-8). IL-8 production is in part regulated via activation of Gq-and Gs-coupled receptors. Here we study the role of the cyclic AMP (cAMP) effectors protein kinase A (PKA) and exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac1 and Epac2) in the bradykinin-induced IL-8 release from a human airway smooth muscle cell line and the underlying molecular mechanisms of this response. METHODS IL-8 release was assessed via ELISA under basal condition and after stimulation with bradykinin alone or in combination with fenoterol, the Epac activators 8-pCPT-2-O-Me-cAMP and Sp-8-pCPT-2-O-Me-cAMPS, the PKA activator 6-Bnz-cAMP and the cGMP analog 8-pCPT-2-O-Me-cGMP. Where indicated, cells were pre-incubated with the pharmacological inhibitors Clostridium difficile toxin B-1470 (GTPases), U0126 (extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1/2) and Rp-8-CPT-cAMPS (PKA). The
The lack of an inducible differentiation or lineage system for smooth muscle has been a major limitation in studies of smooth muscle development and has impeded efforts to identify genetic elements involved in the regulation of smooth muscle lineage determination and/or differentiation. The positive identification of smooth muscle lineages has also been problematic for several reasons. First, SMCs do not undergo terminal differentiation or cell fusion and therefore are not readily identifiable by morphological criteria. Second, many markers of differentiated smooth muscle such as SM α-actin, h-caldesmon, (α, β)-metavinculin, and γ-vinculin are or can be expressed by non-SMCs, including developing skeletal and cardiac muscle28 29 and other contractile cells in vivo53 54 55 and in a variety of cultured cell lines.30 31 32 33 Additionally, it is well established that the differentiated state of SMCs is extremely plastic40 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 and appears to be dependent on ...
Phenotype and functional heterogeneity of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells in vitro is well known, but there is limited understanding of these features in vivo. We tested whether ASM is composed of myocyte subsets differing in contractile phenotype marker expression. We used flow cytometry to compare smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (smMHC) and smooth muscle-alpha-actin (sm-alpha-actin) abundance in myocytes dispersed from canine trachealis. Based on immunofluorescent intensity and light scatter characteristics (forward and 90 degrees side scatter), 2 subgroups were identified and isolated. Immunoblotting confirmed smMHC and sm-alpha-actin were 10- and 5-fold greater, respectively, in large, elongate myocytes that comprised -60% of total cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed similar phenotype heterogeneity in human bronchial smooth muscle. Canine tracheal myocyte subpopulations isolated by flow cytometry were used to seed primary subcultures. Proliferation of subcultures established with myocytes ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sphingosine 1-phosphate stimulation of the p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in airway smooth muscle. Role of endothelial differentiation gene 1, c-Src tyrosine kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. AU - Rakhit, S. AU - Conway, A M. AU - Tate, R. AU - Bower, T. AU - Pyne, N J. AU - Pyne, S. PY - 1999/3/15. Y1 - 1999/3/15. N2 - We report here that cultured airway smooth muscle cells contain transcripts of endothelial differentiation gene 1 (EDG-1), a prototypical orphan Gi-coupled receptor whose natural ligand is sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). This is consistent with data that showed that S1P activated both c-Src and p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p42/p44 MAPK) in a pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive manner in these cells. An essential role for c-Src was confirmed by using the c-Src inhibitor, PP1, which markedly decreased p42/p44 MAPK activation. We have also shown that phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI-3K) inhibitors (wortmannin and LY294002) decreased p42/p44 ...
Distinguishing bladder muscularis propria from muscularis mucosae can be problematic especially in transurethral resection specimens performed for bladder carcinoma. Moreover, bladder carcinoma can be associated with a proliferative/desmoplastic myofibroblastic response that can resemble smooth muscle and potentially lead to overdiagnosis of muscularis propria invasion. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of immunohistochemistry in staging bladder carcinoma by evaluating the expression of different markers in myofibroblasts and nonvascular smooth muscle cells in 15 cases of invasive bladder carcinoma. Reactive myofibroblasts were consistently positive for vimentin and smooth muscle actin, consistently negative for caldesmon, desmin, and smoothelin, and had variable expression of actin and CD10. Nonvascular smooth muscle cells of the bladder were consistently positive for smooth muscle actin, actin, desmin, and caldesmon, and consistently negative for CD10. In contrast to ...
The small GTPase RhoA increases smooth muscle contractility, and IQGAP1 has previously been shown to bind RhoA (9). Consistent with a pattern of increased RhoA activation, MLC phosphatase phosphorylation and MLC phosphorylation were both increased in Iqgap1-/- compared with WT samples (Figure 2D). RhoA-GTP, the active form, was increased in Iqgap1-/- tracheal smooth muscle and in human airway smooth muscle cells with shRNA-mediated IQGAP1 knockdown (Figure 2, E and F, and Supplemental Figure 3A). These data suggest that IQGAP1 normally blunts airway smooth muscle contractility by inhibiting RhoA activation.. Since IQGAP1 is known to act as a protein scaffold (4, 5, 14), we reasoned that IQGAP1 might bind a RhoGAP and RhoA simultaneously, thus enhancing the inhibitory effect of the RhoGAP on RhoA activation. One RhoGAP in particular, p190A-RhoGAP, is well characterized in multiple cell types (15-17), and we found p190A-RhoGAP knockdown to increase RhoA activation in human airway smooth muscle ...
Cysteine-containing leukotrienes (cysteinyl-LTs) are pivotal inflammatory mediators that play important roles in the pathophysiology of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and other inflammatory conditions. In particular, cysteinyl-LTs exert a variety of effects with relevance to the aetiology of asthma such as smooth muscle contraction, eosinophil recruitment, increased microvascular permeability, enhanced mucus secretion and decreased mucus transport and, finally, airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC) proliferation. We used human ASMC (HASMC) to identify the signal transduction pathway(s) of the leukotriene D4 (LTD4)-induced DNA synthesis. Proliferation of primary HASMC was measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Phosphorylation of EGF receptor (EGF-R) and ERK1/2 was assessed with a polyclonal anti-EGF-R or anti-phosphoERKl/2 monoclonal antibody. A Ras pull-down assay kit was used to evaluate Ras activation. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was estimated by measuring dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCF
Although smooth muscle contraction relies on the presence of Ca++ ions, smooth muscle fibers have a much smaller diameter than skeletal muscle cells. T-tubules are not required to reach the interior of the cell and therefore not necessary to transmit an action potential deep into the fiber. Smooth muscle fibers have a limited calcium-storing SR but have calcium channels in the sarcolemma (similar to cardiac muscle fibers) that open during the action potential along the sarcolemma. The influx of extracellular Ca++ ions, which diffuse into the sarcoplasm to reach the calmodulin, accounts for most of the Ca++ that triggers contraction of a smooth muscle cell.. Muscle contraction continues until ATP-dependent calcium pumps actively transport Ca++ ions back into the SR and out of the cell. However, a low concentration of calcium remains in the sarcoplasm to maintain muscle tone. This remaining calcium keeps the muscle slightly contracted, which is important in certain tracts and around blood ...
Expression of the alpha7 integrin is developmentally regulated and is thought to be tissue-specific for both skeletal and cardiac muscles. We now report that alpha7 is also strongly and ubiquitously expressed by various types of smooth muscle, including vascular, gastrointestinal and genitourinary smooth muscles. In addition, alpha7 was surface-expressed by a number of smooth muscle cell lines that maintained their differentiated phenotype following adaptation to culture. Studies with the mouse 9E11G smooth muscle cell line showed that the alpha7 integrin mediated both adhesion and motility of these cells on laminin 1 substrates. Alpha7 expression appears to correlate with the smooth-muscle-differentiated phenotype. The multipotential P19 mouse embryonic stem cell line lacks alpha7 but uses the alpha6 integrin to adhere to laminin 1. Following retinoic acid-induced P19 differentiation predominantly to the smooth muscle cell lineage, high expression of alpha7 was detected along with partial ...
Smooth muscle from newborn guinea-pig vas deferens was enzymically dispersed into single cells or small clumps and grown in culture in the presence or absence of sympathetic ganglion explants.. Most single smooth muscle cells gradually lost their typical ultrastructural features and contractile properties during the first few days in culture. At 7 days of culture these dedifferentiated smooth muscle cells underwent extensive proliferation. If sufficient cells were present in the culture inoculate, a continuous monolayer formed at about 9 days of culture and redifferentiation of smooth muscle began. At 11-12 days of culture the cells reaggregated into clumps, began to contract spontaneously, and formed into well-organized muscle bundles in two layers at right angles, resembling the muscle layer organization of the in vivo vas deferens. In cultures where a continuous monolayer was not formed at 9 days, isolated cells did not redifferentiate. The process of dedifferentiation and proliferation was ...
Interleukin (IL)-8 is a C-X-C chemokine that potently chemoattracts and activates neutrophils. We determined whether IL-8 could be produced by human airway smooth muscle cells in culture and examined its regulation. TNF-alpha stimulated IL-8 mRNA expression and protein release in a time- and dose-de …
Ca(2+) sparks are highly localized Ca(2+) transients caused by Ca(2+) release from sarcoplasmic reticulum through ryanodine receptors (RyR). In smooth muscle, Ca(2+) sparks activate nearby large-conductance, Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) (BK) channels to generate spontaneous transient outward currents (STOC). The properties of individual sites that give rise to Ca(2+) sparks have not been examined systematically. We have characterized individual sites in amphibian gastric smooth muscle cells with simultaneous high-speed imaging of Ca(2+) sparks using wide-field digital microscopy and patch-clamp recording of STOC in whole cell mode. We used a signal mass approach to measure the total Ca(2+) released at a site and to estimate the Ca(2+) current flowing through RyR [I(Ca(spark))]. The variance between spark sites was significantly greater than the intrasite variance for the following parameters: Ca(2+) signal mass, I(Ca(spark)), STOC amplitude, and 5-ms isochronic STOC amplitude. Sites that failed to generate
Definition of smooth muscle cell in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is smooth muscle cell? Meaning of smooth muscle cell as a finance term. What does smooth muscle cell mean in finance?
The results of this present thesis show a deficiency of IL-10 production in alveolar macrophages in asthma. The reduced IL-10 expression on protein and m-RNA level correlated with an increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-(, MIP1- ( and GM-CSF. These observations implicate an impaired IL-10 synthesis in asthma with a subsequent prolongation of the inflammatory response. This leads to the conclusion that a dysbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines is present in asthma and may be therefore of pathogenetic importance. The reduced sensitivity of alveolar macrophages to the inhibitory effects of exogenous IL-10 compared to peripheral blood monocytes may be caused by different signal transduction mechanisms. The expression of the proinflammatory cytokines RANTES and IL-8 in cultured human airway smooth muscle cells led to the conclusion that airway smooth muscle cells may act beside their contractile function as immunomodulatory cells in the pathogenesis of ...
The results of this present thesis show a deficiency of IL-10 production in alveolar macrophages in asthma. The reduced IL-10 expression on protein and m-RNA level correlated with an increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-(, MIP1- ( and GM-CSF. These observations implicate an impaired IL-10 synthesis in asthma with a subsequent prolongation of the inflammatory response. This leads to the conclusion that a dysbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines is present in asthma and may be therefore of pathogenetic importance. The reduced sensitivity of alveolar macrophages to the inhibitory effects of exogenous IL-10 compared to peripheral blood monocytes may be caused by different signal transduction mechanisms. The expression of the proinflammatory cytokines RANTES and IL-8 in cultured human airway smooth muscle cells led to the conclusion that airway smooth muscle cells may act beside their contractile function as immunomodulatory cells in the pathogenesis of ...
Airway remodeling is not specifically targeted by current asthma medications, partly owing to the lack of understanding of remodeling mechanisms, altogether posing great challenges in asthma treatment. Increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass due to hyperplasia/hypertrophy contributes significantly to overall airway remodeling and correlates with decline in lung function. Recent evidence suggests that IgE sensitization can enhance the survival and mediator release in inflammatory cells. Human ASM (HASM) cells express both low affinity (FcεRII/CD23) and high affinity IgE Fc receptors (FcεRI), and IgE can modulate the contractile and synthetic function of HASM cells. IgE was recently shown to induce HASM cell proliferation but the detailed mechanisms remain unknown. We report here that IgE sensitization induces HASM cell proliferation, as measured by 3H-thymidine, EdU incorporation, and manual cell counting. As an upstream signature component of FcεRI signaling, inhibition of spleen tyrosine kinase
Airway Smooth Muscle Contraction Hyperresponsiveness to mast cell-derived mediators (eg, histamine) is a distinctive feature of asthma, but its etiology is
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electrophysiology of smooth muscle of the small intestine of some mammals.. AU - Hara, Y.. AU - Kubota, M.. AU - Szurszewski, J. H.. PY - 1986/3/1. Y1 - 1986/3/1. N2 - Intracellular recordings were made from cells located in the longitudinal, inner and outer circular muscle layers of the dog, cat, rabbit, opossum and human small intestine. In whole‐thickness preparations in all five species, longitudinal muscle cells generated slow waves and spikes. However, in isolated longitudinal muscle preparations, all cells tested were electrically silent. In whole‐thickness and in isolated preparations, cells in the inner circular muscle layer generated spontaneous spikes superimposed on slow potentials. However, the occurrence of spikes and slow potentials was more regular in whole‐thickness preparations. In whole‐thickness preparations, cells in the outer circular muscle layer generated slow waves which were coupled with phasic contractions. However, in isolated outer circular ...
BMP4 regulates development of many smooth muscle targets by promoting differentiation, organization, and maturation of smooth muscle cells. Typically, BMP4 from adjacent epithelium, endothelium, or fibroblasts acts in a paracrine manner to regulate smooth muscle development (Frank et al., 2005; Cai, 2009; Wang et al., 2009; Tasian et al., 2010). Our findings show that, in the adult, vaginal smooth muscle cells themselves synthesize BMP4, raising the possibility that BMP4 may also act in an autocrine manner. Indeed, a recent report suggests that BMP4 exerts autocrine effects by promoting C2C12 cell myotube formation (Umemoto et al., 2011). Hence, BMP4 may regulate smooth muscle integrity and function beyond the developmental period.. Smooth muscle cells are generally well innervated and, accordingly, secrete proteins that potentially influence axon growth and integrity. These include neurotrophins, extracellular matrix components, growth factors, and cytokines (Weintraub et al., 1996; Knox et ...
Definition of smooth muscle, mechanism of contraction in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is smooth muscle, mechanism of contraction? Meaning of smooth muscle, mechanism of contraction as a finance term. What does smooth muscle, mechanism of contraction mean in finance?
The functional properties of airway smooth muscle are fundamental to the properties of the airways in vivo. However, many of the distinctive characteristics of smooth muscle are not easily accounted for on the basis of molecular models developed to account for the properties of striated muscles. The specialized ultrastructural features and regulatory mechanisms present in smooth muscle are likely to form the basis for many of its characteristic properties. The molecular organization and structure of the contractile apparatus in smooth muscle is consistent with a model of force generation based on the relative sliding of adjacent actin and myosin filaments. In airway smooth muscle, actomyosin activation is initiated by the phosphorylation of the 20 kDa light chain of myosin; but there is conflicting evidence regarding the role of myosin light chain phosphorylation in tension maintenance. Tension generated by the contractile filaments is transmitted throughout the cell via a network of actin ...
Smoothelin (SMTN) is a cytoskeletal protein associated with stress fibers. It is 917 amino acids (aa) in length and shares 77% and 82% aa identity with mouse and rat SMTN. SMTN has two major isoforms, A and B with reported molecular weights of approximately 59 and 110 kDa, respectively. Isoform A is associated with visceral smooth muscle cells while isoform B is specific to vascular smooth muscle. Loss of SMTN has been associated with defects in intestinal smooth muscle cell contraction as well as increased arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy ...
There are three types of muscle in the human body. Cardiac muscle is found only in the heart. Striated muscle is voluntary and attached to our skeleton so that we can skip and dance. Smooth muscle is not voluntary, we have no conscious control over it. It is found in the walls of hollow viscera, airways, blood vessels, the iris and in hair follicles. There is no fourth category of muscle. If uterine smooth muscle was so different from other smooth muscle then it would be in a section of its own. If uterine smooth muscle was designed to cause pain when contracting, as many people believe, then it would be very different from the smooth muscle in your stomach. It is not ...
Adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) mediates a variety of biological functions following nerve-evoked release, via activation of either G protein-coupled P2Y- or ligand-gated P2X-receptors. In smooth muscle, ATP, acting via P2Y receptors (P2YR), may act as an inhibitory neurotransmitter. The underlying mechanism(s) remain unclear, but have been proposed to involve the production of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) by phospholipase C (PLC), to evoke Ca2+ release from the internal store and stimulation of Ca2+-activated potassium (KCa) channels to cause membrane hyperpolarization. This mechanism requires Ca2+ release from the store. However, in the present study, ATP evoked transient Ca2+ increases in only ∼10% of voltage-clamped single smooth muscle cells. These results do not support activation of KCa as the major mechanism underlying inhibition of smooth muscle activity. Interestingly, ATP inhibited IP3-evoked Ca2+ release in cells that did not show a Ca2+ rise in response to purinergic ...
O:13:\PanistOpenUrl\:36:{s:10:\\u0000*\u0000openUrl\;N;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000idc\;N;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000fmt\;s:7:\journal\;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000doi\;s:0:\\;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000pii\;s:0:\\;s:7:\\u0000*\u0000pmid\;s:0:\\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000atitle\;s:70:\DRUG-INDUCED EFFECTS ON THE LONGITUDINAL SMOOTH MUSCLE OF RAT BRONCHUS\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000jtitle\;s:0:\\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000stitle\;s:0:\\;s:7:\\u0000*\u0000date\;s:4:\1980\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000volume\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000issue\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000spage\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000epage\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000pages\;s:0:\\;s:7:\\u0000*\u0000issn\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000eissn\;s:0:\\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000aulast\;s:7:\FLEISCH\;s:10:\\u0000*\u0000aufirst\;s:2:\JH\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000auinit\;N;s:10:\\u0000*\u0000auinitm\;N;s:5:\\u0000*\u0000au\;a:3:{i:0;s:10:\FLEISCH JH\;i:1;s:10:\SPAETHE SM\;i:2;s:10:\JOHNSON ...
Pyne, Nigel and Pyne, Susan; Giembycz, M and Raeburn, D, eds. (1994) G-proteins in airway smooth muscle. In: Airways Smooth Muscle. Birkhauser Velaag, pp. 187-213. ISBN 9780817650438 Full text not available in this repository.Request a copy from the Strathclyde author ...
In the present study, we followed the expression of α4 and VCAM-1 in SMCs during human vascular ontogeny and in atherosclerotic vessels. Our results indicate that α4 integrin subunit and VCAM-1 are expressed in SMCs at the early embryonic stage of human aortic development (10 weeks of gestation). Their expression decreased dramatically between 10 and 24 weeks of gestation, moving to the external part of the media, and became undetectable in normal adult media. The pattern of α4 integrin and VCAM-1 expression in human embryonic aortic tissue appears to be different from that described in the mouse.11 During mouse development, α4 is expressed in the aorta as early as embryonic day 10, predominantly in the smooth muscle layer surrounding the endothelium, and persists into adulthood. In contrast, VCAM-1 was not detected in vascular smooth muscle during development but was evident in the lung mesenchymal cell precursors of SMCs and endothelial cells. In human adult arteries, we showed that α4 ...
Background In allergic asthma, IgE increases airway remodelling but the mechanism is incompletely understood. Airway remodelling consists of two independent events increased cell numbers and enhanced extracellular matrix deposition, and the mechanism by which IgE up-regulates cell proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition by human airway smooth muscle cells in asthma is unclear. Objective Characterise the role of the two IgE receptors and associated signalling cascades in airway smooth muscle cell remodelling. Methods Primary human airway smooth muscle cells (8 asthmatics, 8 non-asthmatics) were stimulated with human purified antibody-activated IgE. Proliferation was determined by direct cell counts. Total collagen deposition was determined by Sircol; collagen species deposition by ELISA. IgE receptors were silenced by siRNA and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling was blocked by chemical inhibitors. Results IgE dose-dependently increased extracellular matrix and collagen
Describes when the smooth muscle antibody (SMA) test is ordered, how the SMA test is used, and what the results of a SMA test might mean
Selected publications. Han TY, Lourenssen S, Miller KG, and Blennerhassett MG (2015). Intestinal smooth muscle phenotype determines enteric neuronal survival via GDNF expression. Neuroscience 290:357-68. Venkataramana S, Lourenssen S, Miller KG, and Blennerhassett MG (2015). Early inflammatory damage to intestinal neurons occurs via inducible nitric oxide synthase. Neurobiol. Dis. 75:40-52. Nair DG, Miller KG, Lourenssen SR and Blennerhassett MG (2014). Inflammatory cytokines promote growth of intestinal smooth muscle cells by induced expression of PDGF-Rβ. J Cell Mol. Med. 18(3):444-54. Gougeon PY, Lourenssen S, Han TY, Nair DG, Ropeleski MJ, and Blennerhassett MG (2013). The pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNFα are neurotrophic for enteric neurons. J Neurosci. 20;33(8):3339-51. Pelletier AM, Venkataramana S, Miller KG, Bennett BM, Nair DG, Lourenssen S and Blennerhassett MG (2010). Neuronal nitric oxide inhibits intestinal smooth muscle growth. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. ...
Airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction is a major contributor to bronchoconstriction, the narrowing of the airways observed in asthmatic airways. In vitro, ASM cells demonstrate the capacity to switch between more proliferative and more contractile phenotypes, and changes to ASM contractile function, potentially as a consequence of this phenotypic switching, may play a significant role in the exaggerated airway narrowing observed in asthma. In vivo, airway epithelial (AE) cells are topographically close to the ASM and may modulate and regulate ASM phenotype and function that could be dysregulated in asthma. One important mediator increased in asthma is TGF-β1, which influences AE cell phenotype and thus possibly affects AE cell effects on ASM. In this work, we investigated the effects of AE, with and without the influence of TGF- β1, on ASM contractile function. After examining the response of AE and ASM to TGF-β1 individually, one-way and two-way communication modes between the cell types ...
mice. Likewise, knockdown of IQGAP1 in primary human airway smooth muscle cells increased RhoA activity. Immunoprecipitation studies indicated that IQGAP1 binds to both RhoA and p190A-RhoGAP, a GTPase-activating protein that normally inhibits RhoA activation. Proximity ligation assays in primary airway human smooth muscle cells and mouse tracheal sections revealed colocalization of p190A-RhoGAP and RhoA; however, these proteins did not colocalize in IQGAP1 knockdown cells or in ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Airway smooth muscle (ASM) remodeling in chronic asthma involves structural and functional changes from healthy into hyper-reactive and proliferative/hypertrophic ASM. ASM remodeling is an important determinant in airway obstruction and decline pulmonary function in asthma that compounds the well- established immune/inflammatory components. These ASM phenotypic changes are of great clinical importance yet remains poorly understood. A more recent concept is that ASM not only contributes to physical obstruction of airways, but acts as immune effector in asthma. Orai1 encodes canonical, ubiquitous and evolutionarily-conserved Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels regulated by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ sensor STIM1. We showed that CRAC mediate proliferative signals during pathological smooth muscle remodeling. However, Orai1-mediated CRAC is widely functional in most, if not all, tissues rendering its specific targeting for therapy challenging. ...
Muscular layer of the uterus The middle layer, or myometrium, makes up most of the uterine volume and is the muscular layer, composed primarily of smooth muscle cells. The wall of uterus is composed of three layers. The innermost layer is The middle layer is the muscular layer, myometrium. Interlacing smooth.
In vertebrates, gut coiling proceeds left-right asymmetrically throughout growth of the gastrointestinal tract with extremely organized muscular buildings facilitating peristalsis. In this report, we explored the mechanisms of larval gut coiling morphogenesis related to its nascent smooth muscle cells utilizing extremely clear Xenopus early larvae.. First, to visualise the dynamics of intestinal smooth muscle cells, whole-mount specimens had been immunostained with anti-smooth muscle-specific actin (SM-actin) antibody. We discovered that the nascent gut of Xenopus early larvae steadily expands the SM-actin-positive area in a stage-dependent method. Transverse orientation of smooth muscle cells was first established, and subsequent, the mobile longitudinal orientation alongside the gut axis was adopted to make a meshwork of the contractile cells.. Finally, anisotropic torsion by the smooth muscle cells was generated in the heart of gut coiling, suggesting that twisting drive may be concerned in ...
In vertebrates, gut coiling proceeds left-right asymmetrically throughout growth of the gastrointestinal tract with extremely organized muscular buildings facilitating peristalsis. In this report, we explored the mechanisms of larval gut coiling morphogenesis related to its nascent smooth muscle cells utilizing extremely clear Xenopus early larvae.. First, to visualise the dynamics of intestinal smooth muscle cells, whole-mount specimens had been immunostained with anti-smooth muscle-specific actin (SM-actin) antibody. We discovered that the nascent gut of Xenopus early larvae steadily expands the SM-actin-positive area in a stage-dependent method. Transverse orientation of smooth muscle cells was first established, and subsequent, the mobile longitudinal orientation alongside the gut axis was adopted to make a meshwork of the contractile cells.. Finally, anisotropic torsion by the smooth muscle cells was generated in the heart of gut coiling, suggesting that twisting drive may be concerned in ...
1. In order to discover whether the changes in reactivity are related to the primary cause of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) or are just an adaptation induced by the high arterial blood pressure we tested the contractile respon
Ok so my measurements are sporadic I decided to just look on here for info to fix it. I found Remeks post about TGC. MIne is more BPFSL then BPEL at about half and inch. Mostly because I cannot get a full enough erection to measure correctly which annoys me. So I need to have a girth heavy exercises to increase my smooth muscle in my penis. I have gotten one persons input on this I would like a few more. I want mainly length gains. But in order for me to grow I need to do girth exercises. My question is that if I do the girth heavy exercises like TGC says I should will the gains most likely be in length because my tunica is more developed and just need more smooth muscle to cut off the veins more. Or will the gains be girth because Im doing girth exercises and ill have to wait to gain length until after I have increased my smooth muscle. All opionions are very much appreciated ...
Having left the field a while ago, for reasons that I wont go into, suffice it to say I no longer have access to the relevant literature, Ive been drawn quite by accident to consider the recent proposal that the inhibitory junction potential (IJP) recorded in the gastrointestinal smooth muscle has its origin in cells…
TY - CONF. T1 - The catch smooth muscle contains small fusiform cells: stem cells, sensors or else?. AU - Gilloteaux, Jacques. AU - Davey, Tracey. PY - 2018/9/1. Y1 - 2018/9/1. N2 - New structures found in paramyosin smooth muscles. AB - New structures found in paramyosin smooth muscles. M3 - Paper. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - TLR3-mediated synthesis and release of Eotaxin-1/CCL11 from human bronchial smooth muscle cells stimulated with double-stranded RNA. AU - Niimi, Kyoko. AU - Asano, Koichiro. AU - Shiraishi, Yoshiki. AU - Nakajima, Takeshi. AU - Wakaki, Misa. AU - Kagyo, Junko. AU - Takihara, Takahisa. AU - Suzuki, Yusuke. AU - Fukunaga, Koichi. AU - Shiomi, Tetsuya. AU - Oguma, Tsuyoshi. AU - Sayama, Koichi. AU - Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro. AU - Natori, Yukikazu. AU - Matsumoto, Misako. AU - Seya, Tsukasa. AU - Yamaya, Mutsuo. AU - Ishizaka, Akitoshi. PY - 2007/1/1. Y1 - 2007/1/1. N2 - Respiratory infections with RNA viruses, such as rhinovirus or respiratory syncytial virus, are a major cause of asthma exacerbation, accompanied by enhanced neutrophilic and/or eosinophilic inflammation of the airways. We studied the effects of dsRNA synthesized during RNA virus replication, and of its receptor, TLR3, on the synthesis of eosinophilic chemokines in bronchial smooth muscle cells (BSMC). Synthetic dsRNA, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vardenafil inhibiting parasympathetic function of tracheal smooth muscle. AU - Lee, Fei Peng. AU - Chao, Pin Zhir. AU - Wang, Hsing Won. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Background: Levitra, a phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitor, is the trade name of vardenafil. Nowadays, it is applied to treatment of erectile dysfunction. PDE5 inhibitors are employed to induce dilatation of the vascular smooth muscle. The effect of Levitra on impotency is well known; however, its effect on the tracheal smooth muscle has rarely been explored. When administered for sexual symptoms via oral intake or inhalation, Levitra might affect the trachea. Methods: This study assessed the effects of Levitra on isolated rat tracheal smooth muscle by examining its effect on resting tension of tracheal smooth muscle, contraction caused by 10-6 M methacholine as a parasympathetic mimetic, and electrically induced tracheal smooth muscle contractions. Results: The results showed that adding methacholine to the ...
Mouse Colonic Smooth Muscle Cells from Creative Bioarray are isolated from tissue of pathogen-free laboratory mice. Mouse Colonic Smooth Muscle Cells are grown in T25 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based solution for 0.5 hour and incubated in Creative Bioarrays Cell Culture Medium generally for 3-7 days. Cultures are then expanded. Prior to shipping, cells are detached from flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 1x10^6 cells per ml and is delivered frozen ...
In addition to their proliferative and differentiating effects, several growth factors are capable of inducing a sustained airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction. These contractile effects were previously found to be dependent on Rho-kinase and have also been associated with the production of eicosanoids. However, the precise mechanisms underlying growth factor-induced contraction are still unknown. In this study we investigated the role of contractile prostaglandins and Rho-kinase in growth factor-induced ASM contraction. Growth factor-induced contractions of guinea pig open-ring tracheal preparations were studied by isometric tension measurements. The contribution of Rho-kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cyclooxygenase (COX) to these reponses was established, using the inhibitors Y-27632 (1 μM), U-0126 (3 μM) and indomethacin (3 μM), respectively. The Rho-kinase dependency of contractions induced by exogenously applied prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was
The subject of this thesis was an investigation of the mechanism of action of smooth muscle relaxants and included two projects. I. the Nature of the NANC Neurotransmitter in the Bovine Retractor Penis and the Rat Anococcygeus Muscles (1) The relaxant action of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF), the smooth muscle inhibitory factor (IF) isolated from the bovine retractor penis (BRP) muscle, nitric oxide (NO) and sodium nitroprusside (NaNP) were examined on four isolated smooth muscle preparations; the rabbit aortic strip, the BRP muscle, the rat anococcygeus muscle and the guinea-pig trachea. EDRF (released by acetylcholine), the IF and NO produced powerful relaxation of the rabbit aortic strip and the BRP muscle but had little or no effect on the rat anococcygeus muscle or the guinea-pig trachea. The same rank order of potency of these stimuli in all four muscles suggests all might owe their effects to NO. NaNP, however, produced complete relaxation of the rabbit aortic strip, the rat ...
QINGXIN, Liu et al. Apigenin inhibits cell migration through MAPK pathways in human bladder smooth muscle cells. Biocell [online]. 2011, vol.35, n.3, pp.71-79. ISSN 0327-9545.. Apigenin, a nonmutagenic flavonoid, has been shown to possess free radical scavenging activities, anticarcinogenic properties, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Recently, apigenin was reported to cause gastric relaxation in murine. To assess possible effects of apigenin on migration of bladder smooth muscle (SM) cell, we isolated SM cells from peri-cancer tissue of human bladder and established a cell model that was capable to overexpress transiently MEKK1 (MEK kinase 1). Results showed that overexpression of active human MEKK1 by adenoviruses infection induced migration of human bladder smooth muscle (hBSM) cells and phosphorylation of MAPKs, ERK, JNK and p38, which are the downstream molecules of MEKK1. Then, hBSM cell overexpressing MEKK1 were exposed to apigenin (50 μM). Our data indicated that apigenin ...
Effects of oxygen tension on vascular and other smooth muscle: 1. The resting tension of various isolated intestinal and vascular smooth muscle preparations var
In normal adult physiology, intestinal smooth muscle cells (ISMC) are characterized as contractile and non-proliferative. Inflammation induces permanent changes to the intestine including hypertrophy of the smooth muscle layer largely due to smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation. While the consequences of this hyperplasia are largely unknown, increased muscularis mass may present permanent challenges to organ motility. Similar SMC hyperplasia is observed in other inflammatory pathologies including atherosclerosis and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) where SMC de-differentiate into a synthetic phenotype and the mitogens responsible for hyperplasia have been well studied. However, there are limited investigations of SMC mitogens in intestinal inflammation. The identification of these factors may be of critical importance in the case of intestinal strictures, whereby recurring inflammation can lead to bowel obstruction requiring surgical intervention. A novel, primary rat ISMC model was ...
In normal adult physiology, intestinal smooth muscle cells (ISMC) are characterized as contractile and non-proliferative. Inflammation induces permanent changes to the intestine including hypertrophy of the smooth muscle layer largely due to smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation. While the consequences of this hyperplasia are largely unknown, increased muscularis mass may present permanent challenges to organ motility. Similar SMC hyperplasia is observed in other inflammatory pathologies including atherosclerosis and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) where SMC de-differentiate into a synthetic phenotype and the mitogens responsible for hyperplasia have been well studied. However, there are limited investigations of SMC mitogens in intestinal inflammation. The identification of these factors may be of critical importance in the case of intestinal strictures, whereby recurring inflammation can lead to bowel obstruction requiring surgical intervention. A novel, primary rat ISMC model was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Upregulated P-Rex1 exacerbates human airway smooth muscle hyperplasia in asthma. AU - Huang, Yapei. AU - Xie, Yan. AU - Jiang, Haihong. AU - Abel, Peter W.. AU - Panettieri, Reynold A.. AU - Casale, Thomas B.. AU - Tu, Yaping. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH; grant no. R01HL116849 to Y.T. and T.B.C.; grant nos. R01HL097796, P01 HL114471, and P30 ES013508 to R.A.P.); Nebraska State LB595 grant to Y.T. and P.W.A.; and the NIH National Center for Research Resources (grant no. G20-RR024001).. PY - 2019/2. Y1 - 2019/2. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85056356516&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85056356516&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/j.jaci.2018.09.020. DO - 10.1016/j.jaci.2018.09.020. M3 - Article. C2 - 30312708. AN - SCOPUS:85056356516. VL - 143. SP - 778-781.e5. JO - Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. JF - Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. SN - ...
Increased phasic activity in the bladder smooth muscle of animal models and patients with detrusor overactivity has been suggested to underlie the pathophysiology of overactive bladder. Potassium (K+) channels are key regulators of bladder smooth muscle tone and thus may play a role in this altered phasic activity. In this study the effects of K+ channel modulators on the phasic activity of bladder strips from the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model of bladder dysfunction were investigated. Bladder strips from rats 1 week following streptozotocin administration and age-matched controls were mounted in tissue baths at 37 °C and the effects of K+ channel modulators on resting basal tension or phasic activity induced by a low concentration of carbachol (0.5 μM) were investigated. Activation of BKCa channels by NS1619 had a minor inhibitory effect on carbachol-induced phasic activity of bladder strips from control and diabetic rats, and significantly inhibited amplitude only at 30 μM. Activation of
TY - JOUR. T1 - The dominant protein phosphatase PP1c isoform in smooth muscle cells, PP1cβ, is essential for smooth muscle contraction. AU - Chang, Audrey N. AU - Gao, Ning. AU - Liu, Zhenan. AU - Huang, Jian. AU - Nairn, Angus C.. AU - Kamm, Kristine E.. AU - Stull, James T. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Contractile force development of smooth muscle is controlled by balanced kinase and phosphatase activities toward the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). Numerous biochemical and pharmacological studies have investigated the specificity and regulatory activity of smooth muscle myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLCP) bound to myosin filaments and comprised of the regulatory myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) and catalytic protein phosphatase 1c (PP1c) subunits. Recent physiological and biochemical evidence obtained with smooth muscle tissues from a conditional MYPT1 knockout suggests that a soluble, MYPT1-unbound form of PP1c may additionally contribute to myosin RLC ...
MEKK1-MKK4-JNK-AP1 Pathway Negatively Regulates Rgs4 Expression in Colonic Smooth Muscle Cells. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Vascular smooth muscle refers to the particular type of smooth muscle found within, and composing the majority of the wall of blood vessels. Vascular smooth muscle refers to the particular type of smooth muscle found within, and composing the majority of the wall of blood vessels. Vascular smooth muscle is innervated primarily by the sympathetic nervous system through adrenergic receptors (adrenoceptors). The three types of adrenoceptors present are: α 1 {\displaystyle \alpha _{1}} , α 2 {\displaystyle \alpha _{2}} and β 2 {\displaystyle \beta _{2}} . The main endogenous agonist of these cell receptors is norepinephrine (NE). The adrenergic receptors exert opposite physiologic effects in the vascular smooth muscle under activation: α 1 {\displaystyle \alpha _{1}} receptors. Under NE binding α 1 {\displaystyle \alpha _{1}} receptors cause vasoconstriction (i.e. contraction of the vascular smooth muscle cells decreasing the diameter of the vessels). α 1 {\displaystyle \alpha _{1}} receptors ...
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Sent: Sunday, September 29, 2002 10:01 AM Subject: [Histonet] Immunocytofluorescence on smooth muscle cells > Hello, > > > We are a new lab and we try to develop Immuno-cyto-fluorescence techniques > in the lab. > We are working with human bronchial smooth muscle cells. > I have currently a very big problem with all rabbit antibodies. All rabbit > antibodies (including IgG as isotype) give a non-specific signal, signal in > the nucleus and cytoplasm with very high intensity. There is no signal > between cells. > > This problem does not exist with Rat and mouse antibodies I have used. > > - I have tried different fixation methods (PFA 4%, acetone-methanol (1/1), > and kit like permeafix). > > - I have tried different blocking solution (Rabbit serum 2%, FBS 2%, Horse > serum and Universal blocker solution from Dako) without any results. > > - I have tried different diluents for my antibody (PBS 1X, PBS 1x-BSA 3%, > Dako diluents) > > - I have tried different permeabilization methods (saponin, ...
Background: Antibiotics may impair small bowel smooth muscle contractility and contribute to postoperative ileus. The aim of this study was to compare the contractile responses of ileum smooth muscle to different agonists in guinea pigs treated with ceftriaxone (Rocephin; F. Hoffman-La Roche, Kaiseraugst, Switzerland) or ampicillin (Ampisina; Mustafa Nevzat Ilac Sanayii AS, Istanbul, Turkey). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Embryonic aortic and gizzard smooth muscle cells maintain their contractile phenotypes in culture. AU - Fisher, S. A.. AU - Ikebe, M.. AU - Brozovich, F. V.. PY - 1996/12/1. Y1 - 1996/12/1. N2 - Investigations into the determinants of the tonic and phasic contractile properties of smooth muscle (sm) have been hampered by the de-differentiation of sm cells in vitro. We have developed an in vitro system in which sm cells maintain their contractile phenotypes. SM cells derived from ED 10-15 chick aortic (tonic) or gizzard (phasic) tissue expiants were plated at 3 x 10 cells/cm2 for up to three passages in DMEM/F-12+0.5% PCS on simple (0.5% gelatin) or complex (Matrigel™) extra-cellular matrices. KC1 depolarization (90 mM) resulted in single cultured gizzard cells developing 3.0+0.7 (IN of force in 8+2 sec, while single cultured aortic cells developed 0.76+.01 ,iN of force in 20+0.7 sec. Cells demonstrated similar contractile characteristics in response to stimulation with ...
Ro 25-1553, a cyclic peptide analog of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), was designed to overcome many of the deficiencies inherent in this natural neuropeptide. On isolated guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle, Ro 25-1553 produces concentration-dependent relaxation of contractile responses to a number of different spasmogens. Depending on the contractile stimulus, Ro 25-1553 is 24 to 89 times more potent than VIP as a relaxant of guinea pig trachea. The high potency of Ro 25-1553 extends to studies on isolated, histamine-contracted, human bronchial smooth muscle, where Ro 25-1553 exhibits a 390-fold enhancement over native VIP and is more potent than other bronchodilating drugs, such as the beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists isoproterenol and salbutamol. Ro 25-1553 was shown to displace the radioligand 125I-VIP from rat forebrain membranes with an IC50 value of 4.98 nM, thereby demonstrating that it acts at a VIP receptor. In addition, when tested in a battery of 40 other binding assays (e.g., ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Microtubule dynamics regulate cyclic stretch-induced cell alignment in human airway smooth muscle cells. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Chronic feeding of a HFHC diet before and during pregnancy in the rat mirrored changes often associated with maternal obesity in women. These include a significant increase in body fat mass and circulating levels of total cholesterol [15-17]. Increasing body mass index can significantly depress human uterine contractility ex vivo [18] and cholesterol has been shown to play a key role in uterine contractile activity, as it causes significant utero-relaxant effects on both human and rat myometrium [19,20]. What was evident from the current study was that uterine tissue from control animals at both TNL and TL displayed regular biphasic plateau contractions with synchronized contraction and relaxation of uterine smooth muscle bundles [21]. In contrast, uterine tissue from HFHC-fed animals displayed a spike bundle contraction phenotype. Spike bundle contractions are multiphasic, resulting from asynchronous contraction and relaxation of uterine smooth muscle bundles [21]. This ex vivo contractility ...
The phenotype of airway smooth muscle (ASM) differs in asthmatic patients compared to healthy individuals. Hyperplasia, hypertrophy, increased contraction and altered synthetic capabilities of asthmatic airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) have all been reported, however, the molecular mechanisms underlying a number of these changes remain unclear. This project utilizes molecular techniques to investigate the regulation of gene expression in cultured ASMCs isolated from both healthy and asthmatic individuals. microRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNAs that exert a post-transcriptional regulation on gene expression by targeting specific mRNAs for down regulation through either mRNA degradation or translational repression. During this project microarray studies have been performed to determine differences in the miRNA expression profile of cultured ASMCs isolated from healthy or moderate asthmatic volunteers. These studies have identified a number miRNAs with differential expression in asthmatic ...
Airway remodelling describes the histopathological changes leading to fixed airway obstruction in patients with asthma and includes extra-cellular matrix (ECM) deposition. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) is present in remodelled airways but its relationship with ECM proteins and the resulting functional consequences are unknown. We used airway smooth muscle cells (ASM) and bronchial biopsies from control donors and patients with asthma to examine the regulation of MMP-1 by ECM in ASM cells and the effect of MMP-1 on ASM contraction. Collagen-I and tenascin-C induced MMP-1 protein expression, which for tenascin-C, was greater in asthma derived ASM cells. Tenascin-C induced MMP-1 expression was dependent on ERK1/2, JNK and p38 MAPK activation and attenuated by function blocking antibodies against the β1 and β3 integrin subunits. Tenascin-C and MMP-1 were not expressed in normal airways but co-localised in the ASM bundles and reticular basement membrane of patients with asthma. Further, ECM ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - [Ionic mechanisms of carbon monoxide action on the contractile properties of smooth muscles of the blood vessels].. AU - Baskakov, M. B.. AU - Zheludeva, A. S.. AU - Gusakova, S. V.. AU - Smagliǐ, L. V.. AU - Aleǐnik, A. N.. AU - Ianchuk, P. I.. AU - Medvedev, M. A.. AU - Orlov, S. N.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of a family of gas transmitters. In this article we present the results of mechanographic investigations of the mechanisms of CO action on a rat thoracic aorta segments. We found that relaxing effect of CO donor CORM-2 on vascular smooth muscles is mediated mainly by opening of voltage-dependent potassium channels in smooth muscle cells: 4-aminopyridine, blocking these channels, almost completely eliminated the CO-induced vasorelaxation of the segments precontracted by depolarization of the smooth muscle cells membranes with high potassium (30 mM KCl) solution or by phenylephrine (10 microM). For the first time we documented that CORM-2 ...
Non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP) is a common disorder whose pathophysiology is poorly understood. Some evidence suggests it may be related to sustained esophageal contractions (SECs) of longitudinal smooth muscle. The investigators have previously shown that acid is a trigger for SECs and results in shortening of the esophagus. In this study, the investigators plan to prospectively evaluate esophageal shortening responses to acid in a group of patients with NCCP compared to controls. The investigators will use high resolution esophageal manometry coupled with acid infusion to evaluate shortening. The investigators hypothesize that at least a subset of patients with NCCP will have an exaggerated esophageal shortening response to acid which correlates with symptom production. If our hypothesis proves true, this may lead to a future therapeutic target in the treatment of these patients ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Numerical analyses of the interrelation between extracellular smooth muscle orientation and intracellular filament overlap in the human abdominal aorta. AU - Haspinger, Daniel Ch. AU - Murtada, Sae Il. AU - Niestrawska, Justyna A.. AU - Holzapfel, Gerhard A.. PY - 2018/12/1. Y1 - 2018/12/1. N2 - Smooth muscle cells are one of the functional constituents in the human abdominal aorta, located in the medial layer, forming two helices similar to collagen fibers. During development, angiogenesis and vascular remodeling, smooth muscle cells experience changes in their orientation and a reorganization of their intracellular filament structure. In order to study the so far not so well-known interrelation between smooth muscle orientation and the intracellular filament structure in the human abdominal aorta a recently proposed mechanochemical model is modified. Two families of muscle fibers are introduced with a non-symmetric filament overlap behavior, and the model is implemented into a ...
Clinical asthma is characterized by reversible airway obstruction which is commonly due to an exaggerated airway narrowing referred to as airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Although debate exists on the complex etiology of AHR, it is clear that airway smooth muscle (ASM) mediated airway narrowing is a major contributor to airway dysfunction. More importantly, it is now appreciated that smooth muscle is far from being a simple cell with only contractile ability properties. Rather, it is more versatile with the capacity to exhibit numerous cellular functions as it adapts to the microenvironment to which it is exposed. The emerging ability of individual smooth muscle cells to undergo changes in their phenotype (phenotype plasticity) and function (functional plasticity) in response to physiological and pathological cues is an important and active area of research. This article provides a brief review of the current knowledge and emerging concepts in the field of ASM phenotype and function both under ...
Smooth muscle within the GI tract causes the involuntary peristaltic motion that moves consumed food down the esophagus and towards the rectum.[1] The smooth muscle throughout most of the GI tract is divided into two layers: an outer longitudinal layer and an inner circular layer.[1] Both layers of muscle are located within the muscularis externa. The stomach has a third layer: an innermost oblique layer. The physical contractions of the smooth muscle cells can be caused by action potentials in efferent motor neurons of the enteric nervous system, or by receptor mediated calcium influx.[1] These efferent motor neurons of the enteric nervous system are cholinergic and adrenergic neurons.[2] The inner circular layer is innervated by both excitatory and inhibitory motor neurons, while the outer longitudinal layer is innervated by mainly excitatory neurons. These action potentials cause the smooth muscle cells to contract or relax, depending on the particular stimulation the cells receive. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Smooth muscle-specific genes are differentially sensitive to inhibition by Elk-1. AU - Zhou, Jiliang. AU - Hu, Guoqing. AU - Herring, B. Paul. PY - 2005/11. Y1 - 2005/11. N2 - Understanding the mechanism of smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation will provide the foundation for elucidating SMC-related diseases, such as atherosclerosis, restenosis, and asthma. In the current study, overexpression of Elk-1 in SMCs down-regulated expression of several endogenous smooth muscle-restricted proteins, including telokin, SM22α, and smooth muscle α-actin. In contrast, down-regulation of endogenous Elk-1 in smooth muscle cells increased the expression of only telekin and SM22α, suggesting that smooth muscle-specific promoters are differentially sensitive to the inhibitory effects of Elk-1. Consistent with this, overexpression of the DNA binding domain of Elk-1, which acts as a dominant-negative protein by displacing endogenous Elk-1, enhanced the expression of telokin and SM22α without ...
Bradykinin-related peptides (BRPs) are one of the most extensively studied frog secretions-derived peptide families identified from many amphibian species. The diverse primary structures of BRPs have been proven essential for providing valuable information in understanding basic mechanisms associated with drug modification. Here, we isolated, identified and characterized a dodeca-BRP (RAP-L1, T6-BK), with primary structure RAPLPPGFTPFR, from the skin secretions of Chinese large odorous frogs, Odorrana livida. This novel peptide exhibited a dose-dependent contractile property on rat bladder and rat ileum, and increased the contraction frequency on rat uterus ex vivo smooth muscle preparations; it also showed vasorelaxant activity on rat tail artery smooth muscle. In addition, the analogue RAP-L1, T6, L8-BK completely abolished these effects on selected rat smooth muscle tissues, whilst it showed inhibition effect on bradykinin-induced rat tail artery relaxation. By using canonical antagonist for
There are comprehensive accounts of the regulation of mast cell development and activation. This is followed by a detailed description of mast cell factors and receptors and their role in allergic and immunologic conditions. Their localization in airway smooth muscle bundles characterizes asthma. Their roles in airway smooth muscle hyperplasia and in airway remodelling in asthma and their involvement in allergic rhinitis is well covered. The model of mast cell knock-in mice and its contribution to understanding of late phase reactions and chronic allergic inflammation is well covered. The species differences in these cells are emphasized, and the point is made that one cannot extrapolate from mouse to human mast cells. This is one factor that has made the study of these cells so difficult.. Assessment: ...
Watherian indica is a dicotyledonous shrub used in the treatment of diarrhoea in Northern Nigeria. It consists of a well-defined mixture of flavonoids, saponins, sugars, alkaloids and mucilage. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments of the aqueous extract were done. The study to determine the in vivo effect of aqueous root extract of the shrub was on the gastrointestinal transit in conscious rats. In the in vivo experiment, fasted rats were given 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/kg of the extract orally and 15 minutes later, 0.5ml of 10% charcoal (BaSO4. H2O) was administered into the conscious animals. The control group received the vehicle (normal saline) before charcoal meal. In the in vitro experiment, the effect of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8mg/ml of the extract on the frequency and strength of contraction of an isolated rabbit jejunum was determined using a multi-channel physiograph (model PMP-4B). The result of the study indicates that Watherian indica root extract delays the gastrointestinal transit and ...
In response to ingestion of nutrients, enteroendocrine L cells secrete the incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), to enhance glucose-dependent insulin release. Therapies related to GLP-1 are approved for type 2 diabetes. The GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is expressed in cells of the gastrointestinal tract and elsewhere. In pancreatic beta cells, GLP-1R are coupled to the Gs/cAMP/PKA pathway. The expression and function of GLP-1R in gastrointestinal smooth muscle are not known. Aim. To test the hypothesis that GLP-1 regulates smooth muscle function by acting on GLP-1R expressed on smooth muscle. Methods. Smooth muscle cells (SMC) were isolated and cultured. Expression of GLP-1R mRNA was measured by RT-PCR. Expression of GLP-1R protein was measured by western blot. The effect of GLP-1 (7-36) amide on Gαs activation, cAMP formation, and PKA activity was examined in cultured SMC. The effect of GLP-1 on basal activity and on acetylcholine-induced contraction was measured in intact colon via organ bath
Triplet imaging is a novel optical technique that allows investigating oxy- gen metabolism at the single cell and the sub-cellular level. The method combines high temporal and spatial resolution, which are required for the monitoring of fast kinetics of oxygen concentration in living cells. Calibration and validation is demon- strated with a titration experiment using L-Ascorbic Acid with the enzyme Ascor- base oxidase. The method was applied to a biological cell system, employing as reporter a cytosolic fusion protein of β-galactosidase with SNAP-tag labeled with tetramethylrhodamine. Oxygen consumption in single smooth muscle cells A7r5 during an [Arg8]-vasopressin-induced contraction is measured. The results indicate a consumption leading to an intracellular oxygen concentration that decays mono- exponentially with time. This is in good agreement with previously reported mea- surements of oxygen consumption in skeletal muscle fibers.. ...
Lipids havepreviously been considered primarily as building blocks of the cell membrane, but are now also recognized as important cell signaling molecules. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a glycerophospholipid consisting of a phosphate head group, a linker region, and a lipophilic tail. LPA has earlier been shown to exert a diversity of cellular effects such as aggregation, apoptosis, contraction, migration, and proliferation. The effects of LPA are elicited by activation of its cognate G protein-coupled receptors LPA1, LPA2, and LPA3. In the present study we have used cultures of human smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and erythroleukemia cells (HEL), and isolated human platelets to characterize physiological effects of LPA compared with adrenaline and noradrenaline as well as structure-activity relationships of LPA. SMCs were isolated from biopsies of human myometrium obtained at cesarean sections. We show that cultured myometrial SMCs express multiple LPA and α2-adrenergic receptor subtypes. ...
To make direct measurements of Ca2+ uptake and release by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of isolated smooth muscle cells, a fluorometric method for monitoring Ca2+ uptake by striated muscle SR vesicles (Kargacin, M.E., C.R. Scheid, and T.W. Honeyman. 1988. American Journal of Physiology. 245:C694-C698) was modified. With the method, it was possible to make continuous measurements of SR function in saponin-skinned smooth muscle cells in suspension. Calcium uptake by the SR was inhibited by thapsigargin and sequestered Ca2+ could be released by Br-A23187 and thapsigargin. From the rate of Ca2+ uptake by the skinned cells and the density of cells in suspension, it was possible to calculate the Ca2+ uptake rate for the SR of a single cell. Our results indicate that the SR Ca2+ pump in smooth muscle cells can remove Ca2+ at a rate that is 45-75% of the rate at which Ca2+ is removed from the cytoplasm of intact cells during transient Ca2+ signals. From estimates of SR volume reported by others and ...
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Two types: (a) numerous Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses accompanied by smooth muscle hyperplasia and expanded subserosal layer containing numerous nerve trunks; (b) extensively fibrotic gallbladder wall with numerous Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses but few/no smooth muscle bundles and an expanded subserosal layer containing abundant nerve-trunks; surface epithelium may be ...
Our results demonstrate that maxi-K channels in smooth muscle cells are regulated by agents that alter the redox state of sulfhydryl groups. We have shown that sulfhydryl reduction increases nPo of the channel whereas oxidation has the opposite effect. Maxi-K channels in patches pulled from smooth muscle cells appear to exist in a mixed redox state, since either reduction or oxidation markedly affected channel activity. This mixed redox state could occur either because some channels in the patch exist in the reduced state whereas others are in the oxidized state, or because each channel has more than one redox modulatory site existing in different redox states. Since membrane patches from airway myocytes always contain multiple channels, we could not differentiate between these two possibilities.. We compared the normalized conductance-voltage curves constructed from macroscopic currents in response to step-depolarization during control and after sulfhydryl reduction to determine whether ...
Pharmacology: Papaverine is a nonxanthine phosphodiesterase inhibitor for the relief of cerebral and peripheral ischemia associated with arterial spasm and myocardial ischemia complicated by arrhythmias. The main actions of Papaverine are exerted on cardiac and smooth muscle. Like qathidine, Papaverine acts directly on the heart muscle to depress conduction and prolong the refractory period. Papaverine relaxes various smooth muscles. This relaxation may be prominent if spasm exists. The muscle cell is not paralyzed by Papaverine and still responds to drugs and other stimuli causing contraction. The antispasmodic effect is a direct one, and unrelated to muscle innervation. Papaverine is practically devoid of effects on the central nervous system. Papaverine relaxes the smooth musculature of the larger blood vessels, especially coronary, systemic peripheral, and pulmonary arteries. Mechanism of Action: Perhaps by its direct vasodilating action on cerebral blood vessels, Papaverine increases ...
Emilin1 (E1) is a protein of the extracellular matrix that regulates TGFβ activity through proteolysis of the proTGFβ. E1 KO mice are hypertensive, with increased TGFβ activation. As E1 is expressed in blood vessels starting from embryonic life to adulthood, is still unknown whether the E1 KO phenotype results from a developmental defect or lack of a homeostatic role exerted in the adult. To dissect this issue, we inactivated E1 in smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of adult mice, by the use of floxed E1 and CreERT2 [a tamoxifen (TAM) inducible Cre recombinase] under the control of the smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (Smmhc) promoter. When Smmhc-CreERT2 E1fl/fl mice were given TAM, blood pressure significantly increased (124±1 vs basal condition 106±1 mmHg) as well as myogenic response in resistance arteries (16.3±0.7 vs basal condition 11.4±0.1 % at 125 mmHg).. In order to evaluate the relevance of our findings in the human pathology, we enrolled 20 hypertensive and 20 normotensive patients ...
Aortic vascular smooth muscle from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) is known to respond in vitro to nonphysiologic cations with greater contraction than vascular smooth muscle from certain normotensive control stocks. The pattern of inheritance of the response of aortic rings to cobalt (Co2+) in vitro was determined. The test characteristic utilized was the cobalt response ratio (CRR) defined as the contractile response to 0.6 microM Co2+ divided by the response given by maximal stimulation with 10 microM Co2+. The SHR were crossed with Dahl salt-resistant rats that had been inbred for 21 generations (R/JR strain) to produce F1, F2, and backcross populations. The CRR was 0.90 +/- 0.011 in SHR, 0.74 +/- 0.016 in F1, and 0.38 +/- 0.031 in R/JR. The F1 value was significantly higher than the midparental value indicating partial SHR dominance. The F1 males from reciprocal crosses had similar CRR indicating no sex-linked effect. In the backcross to the R/JR, the CRR showed a bimodal distribution ...
Interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL8) is an important neutrophil chemoattractant known to be elevated in the airways of cigarette smokers and in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a syndrome associated with chronic cigarette smoking. We examined the acute effect of aqueous cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on IL-8 expression in normal human bronchial smooth muscle cells (HBSMC) and alveolar macrophages. CSE upregulates IL-8 mRNA levels in a concentration and time-dependent manner and such an effect was accompanied by IL-8 secretion into the extracellular medium. CSE-evoked elevation of IL-8 mRNA was mimicked by its component acrolein at concentrations (3-30µM) found in CSE. Both CSE and acrolein induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation which was accompanied by the phosphorylation of MAPK-activated kinase 2 (MK2), a known downstream substrate of the p38 MAPK. In both HBSMC and human alveolar macrophages, pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK or MK2 strongly ...
Smooth muscle[edit]. Smooth muscle tissue is found in parts of the body where it conveys action without conscious intent. The ... Skeletal muscle[edit]. Skeletal striated muscle, or "voluntary muscle", primarily joins to bone with tendons. Skeletal muscle ... Antagonist muscles are simply the muscles that produce an opposing joint torque to the agonist muscles.[6] This torque can aid ... There is an important difference between a helping synergist muscle and a true synergist muscle. A true synergist muscle is one ...
Cardiac muscle relaxation. *Smooth muscle contraction. *cardioprotective in cardiac ischemia. *inhibition of neutrophil ...
... contracts the smooth muscles and relaxes the cardiac muscle.. Uses under investigation[edit]. A clinical study reported in 2008 ...
vascular permeability; vascular smooth muscle contraction; allergy. antagonists of CYSLTR1 used in asthma as well as other ... vascular permeability; vascular smooth muscle contraction; allergy. antagonists of CYSLTR1 used in asthma as well as other ... platelet aggregation, vascular smooth muscle contraction. PGI2 analogs used to treat vascular disorders like pulmonary ...
Muscle physiology[edit]. When a smooth muscle cell is depolarized, it causes opening of the voltage-gated (L-type) calcium ... When these cells are depolarized, the L-type calcium channels open as in smooth muscle. In skeletal muscle, the actual opening ... Skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, bone (osteoblasts), ventricular myocytes** (responsible for prolonged action potential in ... Phosphorylated myosin is able to form crossbridges with actin thin filaments, and the smooth muscle fiber (i.e., cell) ...
Rhythmicity in arterial smooth muscle. J Physiol (Lond ). 2005; 566: 645-656, Aalkaer C, Nilsson H. Vasomotion: cellular ... Intracellular calcium (Ca2+) concentration exhibits periodic oscillations in vascular smooth muscle cells. This is thought to ... Aalkaer C, Nilsson H. Vasomotion: cellular background for the oscillator and for the synchronization of smooth muscle cells. Br ... Calcium sparks in smooth muscle. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2000; 278: C235-256. ...
Smooth muscle tumors of the pleura. *Pleural carcinomas *Pleural mucoepidermoid carcinoma. *Pleural pseudomesotheliomatous ...
"Anoctamins and gastrointestinal smooth muscle excitability". Exp. Physiol. 97 (2): 200-206. doi:10.1113/expphysiol.2011.058248 ...
Well proportioned, with shoulders strong, smooth and blending well into body, well placed, fitting smoothly upon chest, which ... should be deep and wide; forearm well muscled; long, broad, straight level back; well sprung ribs; thick, wide and long loins ... well covered with firm flesh; hips wide and smooth. Rump long, hind quarters well developed, long and wide with dock well set ... on and twist deep and full, legs of mutton full, deep and well-muscled. ...
PDGF[1][2] is a potent mitogen for cells of mesenchymal origin, including fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and glial cells. In ... vascular smooth muscle cells and mesenchymal stem cells as well as chemotaxis, the directed migration, of mesenchymal cells. ... it is also produced by other cells including smooth muscle cells, activated macrophages, and endothelial cells[5] ...
... such as skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle), obliquely striated muscle (found in some invertebrates), and smooth muscle. ... Striated muscle has transverse bands of filaments. In obliquely striated muscle, the filaments are staggered. Smooth muscle has ... Muscle contraction consists of the simultaneous shortening of multiple sarcomeres.[3] Muscle fiber contraction[edit]. The axon ... Muscle fiber relaxation[edit]. The enzyme acetylcholinesterase breaks down acetylcholine and this ceases muscle fiber ...
Hsp20 phosphorylation correlates well with smooth muscle relaxation and is one significant phosphoprotein involved in the ... "Role of the small heat shock proteins in regulating vascular smooth muscle tone". Journal of the American College of Surgeons. ... "Small heat shock proteins in smooth muscle". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 119 (1): 44-54. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2008.04.005 ... Hsp20 appears significant in development of the smooth muscle phenotype during development. Hsp20 also serves a significant ...
Aust G, Wandel E, Boltze C, Sittig D, Schütz A, Horn LC, Wobus M (Apr 2006). "Diversity of CD97 in smooth muscle cells". Cell ... However, lack of CD97 only affects the structure of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, but not the function of skeletal muscle.[17] In ... CD97 is widely expressed on, among others, hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, immune cells, epithelial cells, muscle ... CD97 deletion induces an abnormal structure of the sarcoplasmatic reticulum but does not impair skeletal muscle function". PLOS ...
... and is localized to costamere structures in cardiac and skeletal muscle cells, and to focal adhesions in smooth muscle and non- ... Talin-1 is also found at focal adhesions of smooth muscle cells [36] and non-muscle cells.[9] ... Molony L, McCaslin D, Abernethy J, Paschal B, Burridge K (Jun 1987). "Properties of talin from chicken gizzard smooth muscle". ... muscle contraction. • platelet degranulation. • movement of cell or subcellular component. • platelet aggregation. • cell-cell ...
... between smooth muscle cells". J. Cell Biol. 44 (1): 215-7. doi:10.1083/jcb.44.1.215. PMC 2107775. PMID 5409458.. ... Adult skeletal muscle is a possible exception. It may be argued that if present in skeletal muscle, gap junctions might ... muscle,[24] Daphnia hepatic caecum,[25] Hydra muscle,[26] monkey retina,[27] rabbit cornea,[28] fish blastoderm,[29] frog ... At least in some cases this may not be the case as shown in other muscle types that do have gap junctions.[46] An indication of ...
On smooth muscle cells: Activation of Gq --, ↑PLC activity --, ↑IP3 and DAG --, activation of IP3 receptor in SR --, ↑ ... Arginine vasopressin receptor 1 (V1) on smooth muscle cells Activation of Gq --, ↑PLC activity --, ↑IP3 and DAG --, activation ... Smooth muscle cells are capable of generating action potentials, but this mechanism is rarely utilized for contraction in the ... On vascular smooth muscle cells if not otherwise specified Transduction (↑ = increases. ↓ = decreases)[5] ...
This dilates blood vessels by relaxing smooth muscle in their linings. eNOS is the primary controller of smooth muscle tone. NO ... which leads to smooth muscle relaxation. eNOS plays a critical role in embryonic heart development and morphogenesis of ... which induces smooth muscle relaxation by: Increased intracellular cGMP, which inhibits calcium entry into the cell, and ... An alternatively spliced form of nNOS is a major muscle protein that produces signals in response to calcium release from the ...
"Direct evidence for functional smooth muscle myosin II in the 10S self-inhibited monomeric conformation in airway smooth muscle ... Myosin-9 also known as myosin, heavy chain 9, non-muscle or non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIa (NMMHC-IIA) is a protein which in ... Eddinger TJ, Meer DP (August 2007). "Myosin II isoforms in smooth muscle: heterogeneity and function". American Journal of ... The path to myosin filament formation, which is shared by NM II and smooth muscle myosin, starts with a folded inactive ...
The smooth muscle of the bladder, known as the detrusor, is innervated by sympathetic nervous system fibers from the lumbar ... Smooth muscle bundles pass on either side of the urethra, and these fibers are sometimes called the internal urethral sphincter ... The bladder's smooth muscle has some inherent contractile activity; however, when its nerve supply is intact, stretch receptors ... but there are some contractions because of the intrinsic response of the smooth muscle to stretch. ...
Smooth muscle bundles between nonneoplastic epithelium, "Christmas tree" appearance No Peutz-Jeghers syndrome ...
Muscle cells have another specialized function of smooth ER. The ER membrane pumps calcium ions from the cytosol into the ... Functions of the smooth ER[edit]. In the great majority of cells, smooth ER regions are scarce and are often partly smooth and ... The smooth ER appears smooth since its cytoplasmic surface lacks ribosomes.[26] ... In certain specialized cells, however, the smooth ER is abundant and has additional functions. The smooth ER of these ...
Through relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle it causes bronchodilation. The neurological effects are: reducing electrical ... Magnesium is needed for the adequate function of the Na+/K+-ATPase pumps in cardiac myocytes, the muscles cells of the heart. A ... Furthermore, it makes skeletal and muscle receptors less sensitive to parathyroid hormone. ... muscle cramps, abnormal heart rhythms, increased irritability of the nervous system with tremors, paresthesias, palpitations, ...
In the 1960s, the classical view of autonomic smooth muscle control was based upon Dale's principle, which asserts that each ... Burnstock G, Campbell G, Bennett M, Holman ME (1963). "Inhibition of the smooth muscle of the taenia coli". Nature. 200 (4906 ... Extracellular adenosine activates A1 receptors on vascular afferent arteriolar smooth muscle cells, resulting in ... specific classes of membrane receptors that mediate various physiological functions such as the relaxation of gut smooth muscle ...
Detrusor muscle[edit]. The detrusor muscle is a layer of the urinary bladder wall made of smooth muscle fibers arranged in ... The trigone is a smooth-muscle area that forms the floor of the bladder above the urethra.[5] It is an area of smooth tissue ... The outside of the bladder is protected by a serous membrane.[7] The bladder wall itself is smooth muscle.[7] The inner side of ... Journal of smooth muscle research = Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai kikanshi. 40 (6): 237-47. doi:10.1540/jsmr.40.237. PMID 15725706. ...
... and not cardiac muscle or smooth muscle. Myoblasts in skeletal muscle that do not form muscle fibers dedifferentiate back into ... and smooth muscle cells, with various properties. The striated cells of cardiac and skeletal muscles are referred to as muscle ... A cell from the biceps brachii muscle may contain 100,000 sarcomeres.[11][verification needed] The myofibrils of smooth muscle ... Skeletal muscle fibers help support and move the body and tend to have peripheral nuclei.[5][6] Smooth muscle cells control ...
Smooth muscle spasmEdit. One type of antispasmodics is used for smooth muscle relaxation, especially in tubular organs of the ... Mebeverine is a muscolotropic spasmolytic with a strong and selective action on the smooth muscle spasm of the gastrointestinal ... Skeletal muscle spasmEdit. Pharmacotherapy may be used for acute musculoskeletal conditions when physical therapy is ... An antispasmodic (synonym: spasmolytic) is a pharmaceutical drug or other agent that suppresses muscle spasms.[1] ...
Most of the muscle is smooth muscle although striated muscle predominates in its upper third. It has two muscular rings or ... The muscle of the esophagus in many mammals is striated initially, but then becomes smooth muscle in the caudal third or so. In ... The upper third of the esophagus contains striated muscle, the lower third contains smooth muscle, and the middle third ... Its smooth muscle is innervated by involuntary nerves (sympathetic nerves via the sympathetic trunk and parasympathetic nerves ...
October 2004). "'Proliferative' and 'synthetic' airway smooth muscle cells are overlapping populations". Immunology and Cell ... with the dye being used to monitor the proliferation of many other cell types such as smooth muscle cells,[14] fibroblasts,[15] ...
The tail (Latin: cauda). This has the thinnest epithelium of the three regions and the greatest quantity of smooth muscle[2]. ... It is characterized histologically by a thick epithelium with long stereocilia (described below) and a little smooth muscle.[2] ... The epithelium is separated by a basement membrane from the connective tissue wall which has smooth muscle cells. The major ... The body (Latin: corpus). This has an intermediate epithelium and smooth muscle thickness[2]. ...
"Expression of functional delta opioid receptors in vascular smooth muscle". International Journal of Molecular Medicine. 6 (6 ...
One of the main advantages of using PET is that it can also provide muscle activation data about deeper lying muscles such as ... a smoothing prior leading to total variation regularization or a Laplacian distribution leading to ℓ. 1. {\displaystyle \ell _{ ... Musculoskeletal imaging: PET has been shown to be a feasible technique for studying skeletal muscles during exercises like ... This is due to the time it takes for FDG to accumulate in the activated muscles. ...
1 Nucleus 2 Nuclear pore 3 Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) 4 Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) 5 Ribosome on the rough ER 6 ... Similar to the ER is the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) found only in muscle cells. The SR stores and pumps calcium ions. The SR ... Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). Among its functions is the production of proteins and steroids, the maintenance of plasma ... contains large stores of calcium, which it releases when the muscle cell is stimulated.[1] Another type of cytoplasmic network ...
The ingress of water is achieved by contraction of radial muscles in the mantle wall, and flapper valves shut when strong ... Once the shell is penetrated, the prey dies almost instantaneously, its muscles relax, and the soft tissues are easy for the ... It contains tetrodotoxin, which causes paralysis by blocking the transmission of nerve impulses to the muscles. This causes ... The infundibulum provides adhesion while the acetabulum remains free, and muscle contractions allow for attachment and ...
... usually presents as a midline neck lump (in the region of the hyoid bone) that is usually painless, smooth ... removal of one-eighth inch diameter core of tongue muscle superior to the hyoid at a 45 degree angle up to the foramen cecum to ...
The ability of cells to produce electrical discharge is critical for body functions such as neurotransmission, muscle ... and can help smooth the surface of other metals.[200][201] Being a strong reducing agent, it is often used to reduce many other ... One of the very few properties of the alkali metals that does not display a very smooth trend is their reduction potentials: ...
"Muscle Activation of Paraspinal Muscles in Different Types of High Heels during Standing." Journal of Physical Therapy Science ... Lastly, American Smooth shoes are closed toed, flexible soled shoes that range in heel height from 2 to 2.5 inches. An ... The researchers mentioned that over time these results would increase local muscle fatigue that could lead to muscle swelling, ... specifically pain in the paraspinal muscles (muscles running up the back along the spine).[citation needed] and specifically ...
Muscle spasm and inflammation within the bronchi get worse this narrowing. Bitolterol relaxes the smooth muscles present ...
The smooth muscle of the bladder, known as the detrusor, is innervated by sympathetic nervous system fibers from the lumbar ... Smooth muscle bundles pass on either side of the urethra, and these fibers are sometimes called the internal urethral sphincter ... The bladder's smooth muscle has some inherent contractile activity; however, when its nerve supply is intact, stretch receptors ... but there are some contractions because of the intrinsic response of the smooth muscle to stretch. ...
The pressure with that the air comes out of the lungs can be controlled with several respiratory muscles, including the muscle ... Western classical music singers learn to sing in a bel canto voice which uses lots of resonance in the head and makes a smooth ...
... s are stretch receptors within the body of a muscle that primarily detect changes in the length of the muscle. ... Muscle spindles are found within the belly of muscles, between extrafusal muscle fibers.[b] The specialised fibers that ... Muscle spindle. Mammalian muscle spindle showing typical position in a muscle (left), neuronal connections in spinal cord ( ... When a muscle is stretched, primary type Ia sensory fibers of the muscle spindle respond to both changes in muscle length and ...
It depolarizes at -30mV and helps define the shape of the action potential in cardiac and smooth muscle.[8] The protein encoded ... membrane depolarization during atrial cardiac muscle cell action potential. • cardiac muscle cell action potential involved in ... Cav1.2 is widely expressed in the smooth muscle, pancreatic cells, fibroblasts, and neurons.[9][10] However, it is particularly ... "Mitochondria control functional CaV1.2 expression in smooth muscle cells of cerebral arteries". Circulation Research. 107 (5): ...
For most feet, a smooth curve can be traced through the joints at the bases of the toes. But in Morton's foot, the line has to ... "Effect of the Intrinsic Foot Muscle Exercise Combined with Interphalangeal Flexion Exercise on Metatarsalgia with Morton's Toe ...
In some receptor systems (e.g. acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction in smooth muscle), agonists are able to elicit ... The final biological response (e.g. second messenger cascade, muscle-contraction), is only achieved after a significant number ...
smooth muscle tissue development. · regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity. · righting ... skeletal muscle tissue development. · embryo development. · post-embryonic development. · cerebellum development. · caudate ...
Blockade of post-synaptic α2 receptors causes only minor corpus cavernosum smooth muscle relaxation, due to the fact that the ... α1 receptors on the corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. Under physiologic conditions, however, nitric oxide attenuates ... "Further characterization of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors (putative 5-HT2B) in rat stomach fundus longitudinal muscle" ...
Nails - Well shaped, solid and smooth, whose color ranges from amber to fiery. The race is represented by rustic, energetic and ... Thigh - long and large but shallow muscle mass. Buttocks - for tending to decline and arched. Extremities (hands and feet) - ... Tail - Fine, falling in regular smooth curve from its insertion and finished a tassel and hairy. Breaststroke - For outstanding ...
It is widely available as a commercial product used in western herbalism to treat anxiety and muscle tension.[12] The plant ... Scutellaria saxatilis - smooth rock skullcap. *Scutellaria serboana[38]. *Scutellaria serrata - showy skullcap ...
Histological changes consist of epithelial necrosis and detachment, increase in the area of smooth muscle, epithelial ... such as the effects of inflammatory mediators on airway and vascular smooth muscle tone. As a rule of thumb, all these models ...
Anti-smooth muscle *Anti-actin. *Anti-TPO/Antimicrosomal. Cell membrane. *Anti-ganglioside ...
In the early 1970s, she was the first to discover that smooth muscle cells can exist in a spectrum of phenotypes that control ... Julie Hazel Campbell is a cell biologist specializing in vascular smooth muscle. Dr. Campbell's postdoctoral experiences ... vascular smooth muscle and tissue engineering of the arteries. - Therapeutic Uses of Beta-casein a2 and dietary supplement ... she researched the biology of smooth muscle cells in normal artery walls of the human body. She recognized the importance of ...
... when the lower ribs the diaphragm connects to are stabilized by muscles and the central tendon is mobile, when the muscle ... Its anterior surface is flat and smooth, whilst its posterior is perforated by numerous foramina and its surface rough, to give ... One set, the dorsal ribs, are found in the dividing septum between the upper and lower parts of the main muscle segments, ... In some teleosts, there may be additional rib-like bones within the muscle mass.[4] ...
In theory, an ideal rod should gradually taper from butt to tip, be tight in all its joints (if any), and have a smooth, ... However, by 1977, boron fibre technology had been muscled out by the cheaper material graphite and was no longer competitive in ... A progressive tapering which loads smooth from top to butt, adding in power the deeper the rod is bent. In practice, the tapers ...
... receptor gene expression in human myometrium and leiomyomata and the direct action of GnRH analogs on myometrial smooth muscle ...
... smooth muscle (bronchiole and capillary) dilation, and increased metabolism, all of which are characteristic of the fight-or- ...
Neck and back are well muscled, the chest is broad and deep. Unlike the vast majority of canines, the croup is higher than the ... The coat is short and dense and the texture is normally smooth and soft. Their colours vary from solid, brindle, mouse grey, ... The coat of the Fila Brasileiro is smooth and short. Black, Fawns (Red, Apricot, or Dark), and Brindled (Fawn, Black, or Brown ...
Loins: Medium length, broad, well-muscled. Pronounced above the upper line.. *Croup: Medium length, broad and slightly sloping ... Tightly joined to the body, well-muscled. Angle between shoulder blade and shoulder bone is approximately 105°. ...
Congenital smooth muscle hamartoma. *Cystic lymphatic malformation. *Median raphe cyst. *Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of ...
... reach underlying vascular smooth muscle cells at a concentration sufficient to activate ion channels, and initiate smooth ... Contact-mediated mechanisms bestow endothelial hyperpolarization that passively spreads to the smooth muscle through inter- ... "Endothelium-dependent smooth muscle hyperpolarization: do gap junctions provide a unifying hypothesis?". British Journal of ... has been shown to activate an ouabain-sensitive electrogenic Na+-K+-ATPase followed by hyperpolarization and smooth muscle cell ...
It also causes contraction of non-vascular smooth muscle in the bronchus and gut, increases vascular permeability and is also ... from the effect of snake venom on intestinal smooth muscle, which was noted to slowly contract.[citation needed] ...
smooth muscle* The cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and respiratory systems are composed mostly of hollow ... smooth muscle (involuntary muscle) (smooth) n. muscle that produces slow long-term contractions of which the individual is ... a neurotransmitter which stimulates the smooth muscle cells to shorten. The length of the smooth muscle cells, and therefore ... Another important difference between smooth and striated muscle is that smooth muscle never becomes fatigued, because it uses ...
Even the of smooth muscle edited by classic volume on the structure and function Biilbring, Brading, Jones and Tomita (Smooth ... In this sense it is surprising that the highly popular topic of ever-growing importance, namely "pharmacology of smooth muscle ... Molecular Mechanisms of Action of Antihypertensive Agents Ca-Antagonists and K-Channel Openers on Vascular Smooth Muscle ... Neuropeptides (Neurokinins, Bombesin, Neurotensin, Cholecystokinins, Opioids) and Smooth Muscle D. Regoli, N. Rouissi, P. ...
Sperelakis, N., Electric field model: An alternate mechanism for cell-to-cell propagation in cardiac muscle and smooth muscle. ... Gabella, G., Smooth muscle cell junctions and structural aspects of contraction. Br. med. Bull.35 (1979) 213-218.PubMedGoogle ... Huizinga, J. D., and Chow, E., Electrotonic current spread in colonic smooth muscle. Am. J. Physiol.254 (1988) G702-G710.PubMed ... Cheung, D. W., and Daniel, E. E., Comparative study of the smooth muscle layers of the rabbit duodenum. J. Physiol., Lond.309 ( ...
... which is also called unstriated or unstriped muscle, is one of three main types of muscle, the others being skeletal muscle and ... is one of three main types of muscle, the others being skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle. Smooth muscle is muscle over which ... Smooth muscle, which is also called unstriated or unstriped muscle, ... A smooth muscle cell is spindle-shaped, tapering to a point at each end, and has a central nucleus. Each cell is about 0.2 mm ...
Anti-smooth muscle antibody is a blood test that detects the presence of antibodies against smooth muscle. The antibody is ... Anti-smooth muscle antibody is a blood test that detects the presence of antibodies against smooth muscle. The antibody is ... Anti-smooth muscle antibodies are not often seen in diseases other than autoimmune hepatitis. Therefore, it is helpful to make ... Other antibodies may be present, even when the anti-smooth muscle antibodies are absent. ...
This test looks for smooth muscle antibodies (SMAs) in the blood. Normally, antibodies fight foreign substances. SMAs attack ... What is a smooth muscle antibody (SMA) test?. This test looks for smooth muscle antibodies (SMAs) in the blood. A smooth muscle ... medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/smooth-muscle-antibody-sma-test/ Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) Test. ... A test for F-actin antibodies. F-actin is a protein found in smooth muscle tissues of the liver and other parts of the body. F- ...
... Pippa Deex deexpj at cf.ac.uk Wed Jun 26 06:43:16 EST 1996 *Previous message: Antibodies ... I am planning to set up a co-culture system for human endothelial cells and human VASCULAR smooth muscle cells. I would be ... really interested to find out about methods of extraction and primary culture of human vascular smooth muscle cells, if anyone ...
i had a benjin muscle smooth tumour in hip joint 1m below its thigh joint how to solve it my maild [email address removed as ... This Benjin muscle smooth tumour page on EmpowHER Womens Health works best with javascript enabled in your browser.. Toggle ... i had a benjin muscle smooth tumour in hip joint 1m below its thigh joint how to solve it my maild [email address removed as ...
Purchase Vascular Smooth Muscle: Metabolic, Ionic, and Contractile Mechanisms - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN ... Vascular Smooth Muscle: Metabolic, Ionic, and Contractile Mechanisms addresses the vascular smooth muscle function by ... 3. Membrane Electrical Activation of Arterial Smooth Muscle. I. Introduction. II. Membrane Potential (Em) of Arterial Smooth ... Vascular Smooth Muscle: Metabolic, Ionic, and Contractile Mechanisms 1st Edition. 0 star rating Write a review ...
Abnormal vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and migration contribute to the development of restenosis after ...
The anti-smooth muscle antibody (ASMA) test is used to diagnose autoimmune hepatitis and distinguish it from other causes of ... An anti-smooth muscle antibody (ASMA) test detects antibodies that attack smooth muscle. This test requires a blood sample. ... An ASMA test looks for the one type of autoantibody that attacks smooth muscle. Anti-smooth muscle antibodies are found in ... What is an anti-smooth muscle antibody (ASMA) test?. ... How is the anti-smooth muscle antibody test performed?. You ...
books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Smooth_muscle.html?id=WtpqAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareSmooth muscle ... rabbit receptors relaxation release response sarcoplasmic reticulum skeletal muscle slow waves small intestine smooth muscle ... stomach studies sucrose supersensitivity synaptic taenia coli tension tion tissue Tomita tonic uptake vascular smooth muscle ... 0 Reviewshttps://books.google.com/books/about/Smooth_muscle.html?id=WtpqAAAAMAAJ ...
Contraction of smooth muscle cells, such as those that line blood vessels, is regulated through phosphorylation of the myosin ...
Nifedipine Inhibits Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Dedifferentiation via Downregulation of Akt Signaling Taeko Kaimoto, Osamu ...
... expressed specifically in cardiac muscle and smooth muscle cells and potently transactivates cardiac muscle and smooth muscle ... it alone cannot account for smooth muscle-specific gene expression. We show that myocardin, a cardiac muscle- and smooth muscle ... Development of cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, and smooth muscle cells is accompanied by transcriptional activation of ... A model for the regulation of smooth muscle genes by SRF. Myocardin preferentially activates smooth muscle genes controlled by ...
Download this Smooth Muscle Cells Nuclei photo now. And search more of iStocks library of royalty-free stock images that ...
Cambridge scientists have for the first time created different types of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) - the cells which ... Vascular smooth muscle cells originate from different tissues in the early embryo, and the scientists were able to reproduce ... This research represents an important step in being able to generate the right kind of smooth muscle cells to help construct ... With this research, and using hPSCs generated from patient skin samples, we will be able to generate smooth muscle cells with ...
... Nahed El-Najjar, Rashmi P. Kulkarni, Nancy Nader, Rawad ... "Effects of Hyperglycemia on Vascular Smooth Muscle Ca2+ Signaling," BioMed Research International, vol. 2017, Article ID ...
... Nahed El-Najjar, Rashmi P. Kulkarni, Nancy Nader, Rawad ... J.-B. Roullet, K.-H. Le Quan Sang, U. Luft et al., "Inhibition of Ca2+ uptake into A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells by ... J. Pande, K. K. Mallhi, A. Sawh, M. M. Szewczyk, F. Simpson, and A. K. Grover, "Aortic smooth muscle and endothelial plasma ... K. D. Wu, D. Bungard, and J. Lytton, "Regulation of SERCA Ca2+ pump expression by cytoplasmic Ca2+ in vascular smooth muscle ...
... ,Inverness Medical Professional Diagnostics is a leading provider of ... Anti-Smooth Muscle. 2. Madlab Muscle Hook. 3. Culler Reclus Muscle Hook. 4. Scobee Oblique Muscle Hook. 5. Jameson Muscle Hook ... Jameson Muscle Hook - Small. 7. Berens Muscle Clamp. 8. Gunderson Muscle Forceps. 9. Jameson Muscle Forceps - Child Size - Left ... Anti-Smooth Muscle Antibody (ASMA) Test Kit. Features. Kit includes: *Slides *Mounting Media *Positive & Negative Controls * ...
... signaling in smooth muscle. Here, we investigated the interactions between these different factors in aortic aneurysm ... Smooth Muscle Cell Reprogramming in Aortic Aneurysms Cell Stem Cell. 2020 Apr 2;26(4):542-557.e11. doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2020.02. ... signaling in smooth muscle. Here, we investigated the interactions between these different factors in aortic aneurysm ... development and identified a key role for smooth muscle cell (SMC) reprogramming into a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like state ...
Advances in knowledge are highlighted and all the themes are presented from the single cell (smooth muscle endothelial and ... The Pharmacology of Vascular Smooth Muscle. C. J. Garland and J. A. Angus. Abstract. This book provides an understanding of how ... Keywords: blood vessel wall, smooth muscle cell, cellular level, cardiovascular system, nerve cell, pharmacological techniques ... Regulation of vascular smooth muscle tone in sepsis Richard G. Bogle, and Patrick Vallance. ...
Smooth muscle antibodies are abnormal proteins produced by the immune system in people with certain diseases. These proteins ... Smooth muscle antibodies, also called anti-smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA), are abnormal proteins produced by the immune system ... Smooth muscle antibodies are considered to be autoantibodies because they attach to the bodys own smooth muscle, a type of ... Smooth muscle antibodies are often present in association with autoimmune hepatitis, which is a condition that causes ...
Smooth muscle and cardiac muscle contract involuntarily. Learn about smooth muscle and cardiac muscle and how they compare to ... Compared to skeletal muscle, smooth-muscle cells are small. They are spindle-shaped, about 50 to 200 microns long and only 2 to ... However, because smooth muscle is not as organized as skeletal muscle, shortening occurs in all directions. During contraction ... As in skeletal-muscle cells, contraction in a smooth-muscle cell involves the forming of crossbridges and thin filaments ...
Contractures produced by carbamate anticholinesterases in bovine tracheal smooth muscle.. Kirkpatrick CT, Rooney PJ. ... This concentration of neostigmine also increased the muscles contraction upon exposure to a high-potassium solution, even in ... 1. In isolated strips of bovine tracheal muscle the carbamate anticholinesterases, neostigmine and eserine caused similar, ... Depletion of tissue stores of acetylcholine using hemicholinium-3 with or without electrical stimulation rendered the muscle ...
The primary function of smooth muscle cells is to help hollow organs contract. These organs include the bladder and uterus as ... Smooth muscle cells also affect the diameter of the blood vessels. When the smooth muscle inside a blood vessel contracts, the ... smooth muscle cells contract to push urine into the urethra and out of the body. When a woman gives birth, the smooth muscle ... Smooth muscle cells are responsible for helping food pass through the digestive system and for pushing food up into the ...
We tested the hypothesis that IL-10 may also inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) activation via the inhibition of the NF- ... IL-10 inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell activation in vitro and in vivo.. *Mazighi M ...
... inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels in the smooth muscle. These data introduce zinc as a new target for vascular ... cytoplasmic zinc using ionophores relaxed rat and human isolated blood vessels and caused hyperpolarization of smooth muscle ... zinc chelation induced contraction of selected vessels from rats and humans and depolarized vascular smooth muscle membrane ... on the smooth muscle to cause cAMP-dependent hyperpolarization and relaxation. 2 Vascular smooth muscle cells are relaxed by ...
Subject: How are striated and smooth muscles alike?. Date: Sat Jan 23 21:38:31 1999. Posted by Brittney Wigley. Grade level: 4- ... Re: How are striated and smooth muscles alike? Current Queue , Current Queue for Anatomy , Anatomy archives Try the links in ...
... sustained changes in smooth muscle tone do not influence AWV does not preclude that rapidly occurring changes in smooth muscle ... Smooth Muscle Tone and Arterial Wall Viscosity. An In Vivo/In Vitro Study. Pierre Boutouyrie, Saliha Boumaza, Pascal Challande ... Influence of vascular smooth muscle on contractile mechanics and elasticity of arteries. Am J Physiol. 1969;217:1644-1652. ... Smooth Muscle Tone and Arterial Wall Viscosity. Pierre Boutouyrie, Saliha Boumaza, Pascal Challande, Patrick Lacolley and ...
  • By creating diverse structural arrangements of smooth muscle and other associated cells, and at the same time varying the mechanisms that control contraction, evolution has achieved a remarkable diversity of smooth muscle-containing organs, each of which is designed to fill a unique functional niche. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Contraction may be sustained, as in the smooth muscle cells present in the blood vessels or airways, or rhythmic, as in the cells of the myometrium and gastrointestinal tract. (encyclopedia.com)
  • As in striated muscles, contraction occurs because the rise in cellular calcium causes an interaction between cellular action and myosin filaments, although the arrangement of these filaments within the cells is not of a similar consistent pattern. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These remarkable cells carry out multiple vital tasks, which include controlling the clotting of blood and releasing substances which influence the contraction and also the growth of the smooth muscle cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Gabella, G., Smooth muscle cell junctions and structural aspects of contraction. (springer.com)
  • Contraction of smooth muscle cells, such as those that line blood vessels, is regulated through phosphorylation of the myosin light chain. (sciencemag.org)
  • Cardiac-muscle contraction is actin-regulated , meaning that the calcium ions come both from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (as in skeletal muscle) and from outside the cell (as in smooth muscle). (howstuffworks.com)
  • Otherwise, the chain of events that occurs in cardiac-muscle contraction is similar to that of skeletal muscle. (howstuffworks.com)
  • As in skeletal-muscle cells, contraction in a smooth-muscle cell involves the forming of crossbridges and thin filaments sliding past thick filaments. (howstuffworks.com)
  • During contraction, the smooth-muscle cell's intermediate filaments help to draw the cell up, like closing a drawstring purse. (howstuffworks.com)
  • It is concluded that neostigmine and eserine cause spasm not only by preventing breakdown of endogenously released acetylcholine but also by stimulating release of acetylcholine from nerve terminals and by a non-specific enhancement of muscle contraction. (nih.gov)
  • Conversely, intracellular zinc chelation induced contraction of selected vessels from rats and humans and depolarized vascular smooth muscle membrane potential. (nature.com)
  • The few studies that determined the effect of smooth muscle tone on AWV yielded complex results, showing either higher AWV in muscular arteries 7 11 and increased AWV in response to smooth muscle contraction, 12 13 or no effect under sinusoidal pressure waves of small amplitude. (ahajournals.org)
  • What makes the Mechanism for 'control of contraction' different in Smooth Muscle relative to Skeletal muscle? (sporcle.com)
  • Smooth Muscle has myosin filaments with side-polar cross-bridges which allows contraction of up to __% of the fiber length VS ___% of Skeletal muscle. (sporcle.com)
  • Smooth muscle has _______ maximum force of contraction, and ______ energy requirement to sustain contraction. (sporcle.com)
  • In smooth muscle what 2 enzymes are responsible for a Contraction & Relaxation respectively? (sporcle.com)
  • Norepinephrine _______ contraction of intestinal smooth muscle, but ________ contraction in blood vessels. (sporcle.com)
  • The vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is a highly specialized cell whose principal function is contraction. (genome.jp)
  • The Third International Symposium on Excitation-Contraction Coupling in Skeletal, Cardiac, and Smooth Muscle, organized by George Frank, C. Paul Bianchi, and Henk E. DJ. (springer.com)
  • The theme of these symposia has been to recognize the similarities and dissimilarities of excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle. (springer.com)
  • Cross fertilization of concepts of excitation-contraction coupling in these three types of muscle has occurred since the early studies in the late fifties and early sixties on skeletal muscle. (springer.com)
  • The purpose of the symposia has been to bring together international investigators studying excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle so that we may learn from each other and hence provide a more global concept of excitation-contraction. (springer.com)
  • The Third International Symposia has accomplished its objective as we recognize that calcium channels of the sarcolemma and the sarcoplasmic reticulum play key essential roles in excitation-contraction coupling in all three types of muscles. (springer.com)
  • Researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas are the first to use genetically engineered mice containing a fluorescent molecule to examine in real time the chemical reactions that result in smooth-muscle contraction. (innovations-report.com)
  • In a new study, UT Southwestern researchers report that one set of chemical reactions resulting in the contraction of the smooth-muscle cells is augmented by a second chemical pathway that kicks in when the first pathway is limited. (innovations-report.com)
  • The result is that the strength of the contraction of smooth-muscle cells remains robust. (innovations-report.com)
  • The first step in the primary chemical pathway for muscle contraction is for calcium in the muscle cell to combine with calmodulin. (innovations-report.com)
  • Myosin needs the phosphate - in a process called phosphorylation - to initiate contraction in smooth-muscle cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • The researchers saw the strong muscle contraction, but they only saw a small increase in MLCK activation, not enough to account for the muscle response. (innovations-report.com)
  • So the signaling system has recruited a second pathway to enhance the limited activation of MLCK, which leads to a strong muscle contraction. (innovations-report.com)
  • At the end of the primary chemical pathway, an enzyme called phosphatase can remove the phosphate from the myosin, hampering the muscle cell contraction. (innovations-report.com)
  • In this second pathway, the phosphates are no longer taken away from the myosin, which allows more phosphorylated myosin to remain, leading to a stronger muscle contraction," Dr. Stull said. (innovations-report.com)
  • The slower and more economical contraction of smooth muscle as compared to that of skeletal muscle may relate to the arrangement of its contractile apparatus. (sciencemag.org)
  • 17. Compare the contractions of smooth and skeletal muscle fibers with regard to speed of contraction and relaxation, ability to contract when greatly stretched, energy required for a sustained contraction, and resistance to fatigue. (cuny.edu)
  • Smooth muscle is fundamentally different from skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle in terms of structure, function, excitation-contraction coupling, and mechanism of contraction. (wikidoc.org)
  • Under NE binding α 1 receptors cause vasoconstriction i.e. contraction of the vascular smooth muscle cells decreasing the diameter of the vessels. (wikidoc.org)
  • Bioengineering functional smooth muscle with spontaneous rhythmic contraction in vitro. (harvard.edu)
  • The control of membrane voltage by K + channels serves as a negative feedback to oppose voltage-dependent calcium influx pathways that contribute to airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction. (frontiersin.org)
  • In striated muscle there is a well developed sarcoplasmic reticulum which stores and releases the bulk of the Ca2+ involved in the contraction cycle1,2, allowing the muscle to operate relatively independently of external calcium levels. (rti.org)
  • These findings, together with the small size of smooth muscle cells which minimises diffusion time from the plasma membrane to the contractile apparatus, have suggested to some investigators that the Ca2+ which enters the cell during Ca2+-mediated action potentials is either sufficient by itself to activate contraction or is a necessary trigger for the further release of Ca2+ from internal stores8?11. (rti.org)
  • HSP20 (HSPB6) is a small heat shock protein expressed in smooth muscles that is hypothesized to inhibit contraction when phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. (dovepress.com)
  • The active effector of airway reactivity is airway smooth muscle, located in the wall of the airways, which contraction induces a reduction in airway lumen and hence an increased resistance to air flow. (omicsonline.org)
  • Ouedraogo N, Roux E (2014) Physiology of Airway Smooth Muscle Contraction: An Overview. (omicsonline.org)
  • Smooth muscle is fundamentally different from skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle in terms of structure, function, regulation of contraction, and excitation-contraction coupling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, smooth muscle may contain MHC that is not involved in contraction, and that can arise from multiple genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The MLC20 is also known as the regulatory light chain and actively participates in muscle contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two MLC20 isoforms are found in smooth muscle, and they are encoded by different genes, but only one isoform participates in contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anti-smooth muscle antibody is a blood test that detects the presence of antibodies against smooth muscle. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A smooth muscle antibody (SMA) is a type of antibody known as an autoantibody. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What is an anti-smooth muscle antibody (ASMA) test? (healthline.com)
  • An anti-smooth muscle antibody (ASMA) test detects antibodies that attack smooth muscle . (healthline.com)
  • How is the anti-smooth muscle antibody test performed? (healthline.com)
  • Other diseases can also result in low levels of smooth muscle antibody production. (wisegeek.com)
  • I didn't realize but she was testing my anti-smooth muscle antibody, at the time it did come back weakly positive. (healingwell.com)
  • ASMA (antismooth muscle antibody) is usually an indicator of autoimmune hep. (healingwell.com)
  • Rabbit polyclonal alpha smooth muscle Actin antibody. (abcam.com)
  • Alpha smooth muscle actin antibody (ab5694) stains smooth muscle cells in vessel walls, gut wall, and myometrium. (abcam.com)
  • The other actins, such as beta- and gamma-cytoplasmic, striated muscle and myocardium are not stained by this alpha smooth muscle Actin antibody. (abcam.com)
  • Alpha smooth muscle actin antibody (ab5694) was raised against a synthetic peptide corresponding to N-terminus of actin from human smooth muscle. (abcam.com)
  • The following antibody was used in this experiment: Smooth Muscle Actin Polyclonal Antibody from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # PA5-16697, RRID AB_11000908. (thermofisher.com)
  • Western Blot: alpha-Smooth Muscle Actin Antibody [NBP1-18879] - Whole cell lysate from HeLa, 293T and mouse NIH3T3 cells. (novusbio.com)
  • The immunogen recognized by this antibody maps to an N-terminal region of human alpha smooth muscle actin using the numbering given in entry NP_001604.1 (GeneID 59). (novusbio.com)
  • There are no publications for alpha-Smooth Muscle Actin Antibody (NBP1-18879). (novusbio.com)
  • The functioning of each type of smooth muscle is intimately tied up with the organ or system of which it is a part, so that this type of tissue is perhaps best appreciated if one abandons the attempt to generalize and considers, for example, the blood vessels. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This research represents an important step in being able to generate the right kind of smooth muscle cells to help construct these new blood vessels. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Cambridge scientists have for the first time created different types of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) - the cells which make up the walls of blood vessels - using cells from patients' skin. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Lead author of the research, Dr Sanjay Sinha, Wellcome Trust Intermediate Clinical Fellow at the University of Cambridge said: "This research represents an important step in being able to generate the right kind of smooth muscle cells to help construct these new blood vessels. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Smooth muscle antibodies are considered to be autoantibodies because they attach to the body's own smooth muscle, a type of tissue prevalent in the blood vessels, the respiratory tract, the gastrointestinal tract, and the eyes. (wisegeek.com)
  • Smooth muscle cells also affect the diameter of the blood vessels. (reference.com)
  • We found that elevating cytoplasmic zinc using ionophores relaxed rat and human isolated blood vessels and caused hyperpolarization of smooth muscle membrane. (nature.com)
  • What molecules can act on the smooth muscle beds of blood vessels? (sporcle.com)
  • Muscle tissue that contracts without conscious control, having the form of thin layers or sheets made up of spindle-shaped, unstriated cells with single nuclei and found in the walls of the internal organs, such as the stomach, intestine, bladder, and blood vessels, excluding the heart. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Anatomy) muscle that is capable of slow rhythmic involuntary contractions: occurs in the walls of the blood vessels, alimentary canal, etc. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • May 21, 2015--Crucial bodily functions like heart rate, blood flow, breathing, and digestion are regulated by the neurovascular unit, comprising blood vessels and smooth muscles under the control of autonomic neurons. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • and contractile smooth muscles cells, which remain in place, stabilize the growth of new blood vessels and help them maintain proper blood pressure. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Smooth muscle, found in the walls of blood vessels and in internal organs such as lungs, stomach and the bladder, contracts as the end result of a series of chemical reactions. (innovations-report.com)
  • Unitary smooth muscle is also commonly referred to as visceral smooth muscle because it is found in the walls of the viscera, or internal organs, of the body, including the intestines , ducts such as the bile ducts , ureters and oviducts , and most blood vessels . (wikidoc.org)
  • The unstriped involuntary muscle occurring in the walls of blood vessels, the intestines and the bladder, and controlled by the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM and by HORMONES . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 3) smooth muscle composing the actively adjustable components of the walls of blood vessels and of the gastrointestinal, respiratory, urinary and reproductive tracts. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Vascular smooth muscle refers to the particular type of smooth muscle found within, and composing the majority of the wall of blood vessels . (wikidoc.org)
  • Vascular smooth muscle contracts or relaxes to both change the volume of blood vessels and the local blood pressure , a mechanism that is responsible to redistribution of the blood within the body to areas where it is needed (i.e. areas with temporarily enhanced oxygen consumption). (wikidoc.org)
  • Thus the main function of vascular smooth muscle tonus is to regulate the caliber of the blood vessels in the body. (wikidoc.org)
  • This muscle lines the blood vessels, digestive tract and genitourinary tract. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Smooth muscle is not under conscious control, and is found in places such as blood vessels, the respiratory and digestive tracts, and the bladder. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Single unit smooth muscle, however, is most common and lines blood vessels (except large elastic arteries), the urinary tract, and the digestive tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vascular smooth muscle is the type of smooth muscle that makes up most of the walls of blood vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sarcoplasmic reticulum of cardiac-muscle cells is not as well-developed as that of skeletal-muscle cells. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Unlike skeletal-muscle cells, smooth-muscle cells have no troponin, tropomyosin or organized sarcoplasmic reticulum. (howstuffworks.com)
  • There are _________ Sarcoplasmic Reticulum in Smoothe Muscle relative to Skeletal muscle. (sporcle.com)
  • In smooth muscle the sarcoplasmic reticulum system is much less extensive3,4 and normal contractile activity is very sensitive to calcium levels in the bathing medium5?7. (rti.org)
  • Myosin forms crossbridges with actin (as occurs in skeletal muscle). (howstuffworks.com)
  • The myosin becomes inactive, and the muscle relaxes. (howstuffworks.com)
  • In Smooth Muscle, Myosin Light Chain Kinase (MLCK) is 'activated' by what 2 molecules? (sporcle.com)
  • 14. Compare skeletal and smooth muscle fibers in terms of size, arrangement of actin and myosin myofilaments, and metabolic source of ATP. (cuny.edu)
  • Up-regulation of transcription of smooth muscle myosin alkali lig. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Sequence analysis revealed that one cDNA fragment represented the myosin alkali light chain (MLC 1sm) of human smooth muscle. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Some regulatory proteins also differ, and there are specific smooth muscle isoforms of actin and myosin. (wikidoc.org)
  • The smooth muscle cell contains less protein than a typical striated muscle cell and much less myosin. (wikidoc.org)
  • The actin content is similar, so the ratio of actin to myosin is ~6:1 in striated muscle and ~15:1 in smooth muscle. (wikidoc.org)
  • As non-striated muscle, the actin and myosin are not arranged into distinct sarcomeres that form orderly bands throughout the muscle cell. (wikidoc.org)
  • Evidence indicates that smooth muscle myosin is not bipolar with a central bare zone as in striated muscle, but is either side-polar or row-polar, and has no bare zone. (wikidoc.org)
  • Some smooth muscle preparations can be visualized contracting in a spiral corkscrew fashion, and contractile proteins can organize into zones of actin and myosin along the axis of the cell. (wikidoc.org)
  • A smooth-muscle myosin heavy-chain assay is performed in the first 24 hours. (medscape.com)
  • The smooth muscle myosin heavy-chain assay has greater sensitivity and specificity than transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), CT, and aortography, but it has less sensitivity and specificity than transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), MRI, and helical CT. (medscape.com)
  • Recombinant full length HSP20 inhibited skeletal actin binding to smooth muscle myosin subfragment 1 (S1), and recombinant cell permeant TAT-HSP20 S16D mutant reduced F-actin filaments in cultured hASM cells. (dovepress.com)
  • HSP20 is phosphorylated in vivo in a cAMP-dependent manner and the phosphorylated form promotes airway smooth muscle relaxation, possibly through depolymerization of F-actin as well as inhibition of myosin binding to actin. (dovepress.com)
  • A substantial portion of the volume of the cytoplasm of smooth muscle cells are taken up by the molecules myosin and actin, which together have the capability to contract, and, through a chain of tensile structures, make the entire smooth muscle tissue contract with them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myosin is primarily class II in smooth muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In smooth muscle, there is a single gene (MYH11) that codes for the heavy chains myosin II, but there are splice variants of this gene that result in four distinct isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different combinations of heavy and light chains allow for up to hundreds of different types of myosin structures, but it is unlikely that more than a few such combinations are actually used or permitted within a specific smooth muscle bed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ratio of actin to myosin is between 2:1 and 10:1 in smooth muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, from a mass ratio standpoint (as opposed to a molar ratio), myosin is the dominant protein in striated skeletal muscle with the actin to myosin ratio falling in the 1:2 to 1:3 range. (wikipedia.org)
  • As befits its many functions, smooth muscle at different sites is much more heterogeneous than skeletal or cardiac muscle . (encyclopedia.com)
  • The cells are termed 'smooth' because they lack the regular bands or striations which are prominent in skeletal muscle fibres and cardiac muscle cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Secondly is cardiac muscle that's at the heart of it all. (everything2.com)
  • Abnormal vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and migration contribute to the development of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and accelerated arteriopathy after cardiac transplantation. (jci.org)
  • We show that myocardin, a cardiac muscle- and smooth muscle-specific transcriptional coactivator of SRF, can activate smooth muscle gene expression in a variety of nonmuscle cell types via its association with SRF. (pnas.org)
  • Development of cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, and smooth muscle cells is accompanied by transcriptional activation of overlapping but distinct sets of muscle-specific genes. (pnas.org)
  • No single factor has been found to be sufficient to activate the cardiac muscle or smooth muscle gene programs. (pnas.org)
  • Whether skeletal muscle is unique with respect to its induction by a single transcription factor or whether as-yet-unidentified master regulators govern cardiac muscle and smooth muscle development remains to be determined. (pnas.org)
  • Recently, we discovered an SRF transcriptional coactivator called myocardin that is expressed specifically in smooth and cardiac muscle cell lineages ( 13 , 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Myocardin belongs to the SAP domain family of transcription factors ( 15 ) and activates smooth and cardiac muscle reporter genes by interacting with SRF ( 13 , 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Although blood and cardiac cells from hPSCs have been created before, this is the first time that all the major types of vascular smooth muscle cells have been developed and done so in a system which would be easy to scale up for clinical-grade production. (cam.ac.uk)
  • While most of the processes are similar, there are some notable differences between the actions of skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Cardiac-muscle cells are striated , and are a lot like skeletal-muscle cells except that in cardiac muscle, the fibers are interconnected . (howstuffworks.com)
  • Both proteins shared a common antigenic determinant with COOH-terminal segments of rabbit skeletal and bovine cardiac troponin T and bound to the immobilized smooth muscle tropomyosin. (nih.gov)
  • whereas, expression of alpha skeletal, alpha cardiac, alpha vascular and gamma enteric actins are more restricted to specialized muscle cell type. (abcam.com)
  • Whereas the filaments are essentially the same in smooth muscle as they are in skeletal and cardiac muscle, the way they are arranged is different. (wikidoc.org)
  • The junctophilins are critically important for cardiac and skeletal muscle function, but little is known about how these proteins influence vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). (pnas.org)
  • Compare cardiac muscle, striated muscle . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • cardiac and smooth share the property of being involuntary . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Alpha actin is also expressed as distinct genetic isoforms such as smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle specific isoforms of alpha actin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smooth muscle alpha actin is of further interest because it is one of a few genes whose expression is relatively restricted to vascular smooth muscle cells. (abcam.com)
  • Further more, expression of smooth muscle alpha actin is regulated by hormones, cell proliferation and altered by pathological conditions including oncogenic transformation and atherosclerosis. (abcam.com)
  • This actin is an alpha actin that is found in skeletal muscle. (novusbio.com)
  • Smooth muscle α-actin (alpha actin) is the predominant isoform within smooth muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • It's called smooth because it doesn't have the striations that skeletal muscle has, on account of its fibers being a lot smaller. (everything2.com)
  • This type of Smooth Muscle consists many smooth muscle fibers that contract as a single unit. (sporcle.com)
  • This type of Smooth Muscle consists of discrete separate smooth muscle fibers each innervated by a single nerve ending and operating independently. (sporcle.com)
  • This shows a fiber-optically trapped and rotated human smooth muscle cell in the center of two transversely offset fibers (20 mW in each arm). (eurekalert.org)
  • Involuntary muscle without the striated fibers of skeletal muscle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Smooth muscle fibers are spindle-shaped, and, like all muscle, can contract and relax . (wikidoc.org)
  • Whereas the former presents itself as distinct muscle fibers that are usually activated by their own nerve fibers , the latter operate as a single unit and are arranged in sheets or bundles. (wikidoc.org)
  • smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers, and frequently elastic fiber nets are also abundant. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Smooth muscle fibers are shorter than striated muscle fibers, have only one nucleus per fiber, and are smooth in appearance. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Primary vascular aortic smooth muscle cells isolated by collagenase - elastase digestions in December 1999 were transduced with retrovirus encoding the SV40 large T antigen as well as the gene for neomycin resistance. (atcc.org)
  • Rong, J.X., Shapiro, M., Trogan, E. and Fisher, E.A. (2003) Transdifferentiation of mouse aortic smooth muscle cells to a macrophage-like state after cholesterol loading. (scirp.org)
  • Recent evidence for cell heterogeneity within smooth muscle tissues has renewed research into cell coupling. (springer.com)
  • SMAs attack smooth muscle tissues in the liver and other parts of the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • F-actin is a protein found in smooth muscle tissues of the liver and other parts of the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Vascular smooth muscle cells originate from different tissues in the early embryo, and the scientists were able to reproduce three distinct types of embryonic tissue in the culture dish. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Vascular-specific smoothelin-B is the first smooth muscle cell marker that disappears when vascular tissues are compromised, for example, in atherosclerosis or restenosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Infection can result in Epstein-Barr virus related smooth-muscle tumors, which most commonly arise in the soft tissues, liver, and adrenal glands. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Despite the fact that the tissue forms in different patterns and at different times in development, these data suggest that smooth muscle can be used to shape epithelial tissues into a variety of final architectures. (aiche.org)
  • We aim to use these insights to manipulate smooth muscle differentiation in the developing lung in order to direct epithelial morphogenesis, ultimately gaining precise mechanical control over these developing tissues. (aiche.org)
  • The alpha actins are found in muscle tissues and are a major constituent of the contractile apparatus. (uniprot.org)
  • In a search for additional Ca2+ regulatory components in vascular smooth muscle, a novel troponin T-like protein was purified from bovine aorta smooth muscle. (nih.gov)
  • 357 Actin, alpha 2, Smooth Muscle, Aorta (ACTA2) Antibodies from 28 manufacturers are available on www.antibodies-online.com. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Beny, J. L., and Connat, J. L., An electron microscopic study of smooth muscle cell dye coupling in the pig coronary arteries. (springer.com)
  • Garfield, R. E., Cell-to-Cell communication in smooth muscle, in: Calcium and contractile activity, pp. 143-150. (springer.com)
  • Human smooth muscle cell culture. (bio.net)
  • Rapamycin inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell migration. (jci.org)
  • Because SRF is expressed in a wide range of cell types, it alone cannot account for smooth muscle-specific gene expression. (pnas.org)
  • Differentiation of skeletal muscle cells is controlled by members of the MyoD family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, which have the remarkable ability to activate skeletal muscle gene expression when expressed in nonmuscle cell types (reviewed in refs. (pnas.org)
  • M. F. Navedo, Y. Takeda, M. Nieves-Cintrón, J. D. Molkentin, and L. F. Santana, "Elevated Ca2+ sparklet activity during acute hyperglycemia and diabetes in cerebral arterial smooth muscle cells," American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology , vol. 298, no. 2, pp. (hindawi.com)
  • K. D. Wu, D. Bungard, and J. Lytton, "Regulation of SERCA Ca2+ pump expression by cytoplasmic Ca2+ in vascular smooth muscle cells," The American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology , vol. 280, no. 4, pp. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, we investigated the interactions between these different factors in aortic aneurysm development and identified a key role for smooth muscle cell (SMC) reprogramming into a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like state. (nih.gov)
  • In smooth-muscle cells, intermediate filaments are interlaced through the cell much like the threads in a pair of 'fish-net' stockings. (howstuffworks.com)
  • IL-10 inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell activation in vitro and in vivo. (mendeley.com)
  • We tested the hypothesis that IL-10 may also inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) activation via the inhibition of the NF-kappaB/I-kappaB system. (mendeley.com)
  • I need to culture bovine aortic smooth muscle cell. (bio.net)
  • They are increasingly used to monitor the smooth muscle cell differentiation process to a contractile or synthetic phenotype. (biomedsearch.com)
  • From the abstract, a brief description of the RNA-Seq experiment on airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell lines: "Using RNA-Seq, a high-throughput sequencing method, we characterized transcriptomic changes in four primary human ASM cell lines that were treated with dexamethasone - a potent synthetic glucocorticoid (1 micromolar for 18 hours). (bioconductor.org)
  • Take the Canine Smooth Muscle Cell Growth Medium ( Cn311-500 ) from the refrigerator. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Pipette 15 ml of Canine Smooth Muscle Cell Growth Medium ( Cn311-500 )* to a T-75 flask ( SIAL0641 ). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Pipette the cell suspension (1ml) from the vial into the T-75 flask ( SIAL0641 ) containing 15 ml of Canine Smooth Muscle Cell Growth Medium ( Cn311-500 ). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Change to fresh Canine Smooth Muscle Cell Growth Medium ( Cn311-500 ) after 24 hours or overnight to remove all traces of DMSO. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Change Canine Smooth Muscle Cell Growth Medium ( Cn311-500 ) every other day until the cells reach 60% confluency. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Pipette 30 ml of Canine Smooth Muscle Cell Growth Medium ( Cn311-500 ) to a T-175 flask ( SIAL1080 ) (to be used in Section IV C Step 15. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Calcineurin-independent regulation of plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase-4 in the vascular smooth muscle cell cycle. (atcc.org)
  • Because the arrangement of the contractile apparatus determines the manner in which a single smooth muscle cell shortens, shortening of a contracting cell was examined by tracking of marker bead movements on the cell surface by means of digital video microscopy. (sciencemag.org)
  • Smooth muscle cells were observed to freely shorten in a unique corkscrew-like fashion with a pitch of 1.4 cell lengths (that is, the length change required for one complete rotation of cell) at a rate of 27 degrees per second. (sciencemag.org)
  • A polyphenol in oat may prevent atherosclerosis by inhibiting smooth muscle cell proliferation and enhancing nitric oxide production. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Curcumin inhibits ox-LDL stimulated vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation associated with arteriosclerosis. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Honokiol inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, indicating it may have a role in arteriosclerosis treatment. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The glomeruli of the kidneys contain a smooth muscle-like cell called the mesangial cell . (wikidoc.org)
  • Further testing showed that stimulating STAT4 in smooth muscle cells in the laboratory resulted in a threefold increase in cell growth. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Inhibition of smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and preservation of a differentiated state are important aspects in the management, avoidance and progression of vascular diseases. (mdpi.com)
  • Characterization of cystic fibrosis airway smooth muscle cell proliferative and contractile activities. (harvard.edu)
  • Hypoxia-induced ARHGAP26 deficiency inhibits the proliferation and migration of human ductus arteriosus smooth muscle cell through activating RhoA-ROCK-PTEN pathway. (abcam.com)
  • To determine whether phosphorylation of HSP20 is sufficient to induce relaxation, canine tracheal smooth muscle was treated with a cell permeant phosphopeptide that mimics the phosphorylation of HSP20. (dovepress.com)
  • ALDH1A3 Regulations of Matricellular Proteins Promote Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation promotes intimal hyperplasia (IH) in occluding vascular diseases. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION. (bioportfolio.com)
  • You can usually just make out cell borders in smooth muscle. (pathguy.com)
  • Vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation as a therapeutic target. (nature.com)
  • Airway smooth muscle was traditionally considered to be a structural cell involved primarily in bronchoconstriction. (jimmunol.org)
  • Recent studies have shown that the majority of cells within atherosclerotic plaque, the predominant cause of heart attack and stroke, are vascular smooth muscle cell derived. (wikipedia.org)
  • This demonstrates what about smooth muscle contractions? (sporcle.com)
  • Biofeedback devices may help many people gain partial control of contractions of involuntary smooth muscles. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This text also explains how smooth muscle cells regulate their contractile activity through regulation of calcium ion fluxes and the interaction, at the molecular level, of calcium ions with regulatory proteins associated with the contractile apparatus. (elsevier.com)
  • Smooth muscle antibodies , also called anti-smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA), are abnormal proteins produced by the immune system . (wisegeek.com)
  • Both proteins interacted with rabbit skeletal troponin C in the presence and absence of Ca2+, but they did not interact with troponin I. These results suggest that the novel protein, which is designated calponin, may be a specialized component of smooth muscle thin filament involved in the regulation of contractile apparatus. (nih.gov)
  • Smooth muscle does not contain the protein troponin , ( calmodulin takes on the regulatory role in smooth muscle) and caldesmon and calponin are significant proteins expressed within smooth muscle. (wikidoc.org)
  • Structure of skeletal muscle at progressively higher magnification, from whole muscle to contractile proteins (A-D, F). E represents the 'sliding filaments' diagrammatically. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Actin is one of the main contractile muscle proteins. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Visceral smooth muscle has ______ junctions, while Multi-Unit smooth muscle has ______ junctions. (sporcle.com)
  • What is the distance of the synaptic cleft in Visceral smooth muscle Diffuse Junctions? (sporcle.com)
  • Evidence for a visceral smooth muscle abnormality in Okamoto spontaneous hypertension. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 1. In order to discover whether the changes in reactivity are related to the primary cause of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) or are just an adaptation induced by the high arterial blood pressure we tested the contractile response of a visceral smooth muscle from such rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here we show that myocardin is sufficient to activate the program of smooth muscle differentiation. (pnas.org)
  • We recently found that patterned differentiation of airway smooth muscle drives branching morphogenesis of the epithelium in the mouse lung, but to date this mechanism is unexplored in other systems. (aiche.org)
  • Abstract -The relationships between steady and pulsatile pressures, smooth muscle tone, and arterial viscoelastic behavior remain a matter of controversy. (ahajournals.org)
  • These conditions can trigger the body to form antibodies against smooth muscle. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Anti-smooth muscle antibodies are not often seen in diseases other than autoimmune hepatitis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Other antibodies may be present, even when the anti-smooth muscle antibodies are absent. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This test looks for smooth muscle antibodies (SMAs) in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Anti-smooth muscle antibodies are found in autoimmune liver diseases such as primary biliary cholangitis and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) . (healthline.com)
  • What are Smooth Muscle Antibodies? (wisegeek.com)
  • Smooth muscle antibodies are often present in association with autoimmune hepatitis, a condition that causes inflammation and dysfunction of the liver. (wisegeek.com)
  • Patients with a disease called primary biliary cirrhosis , a different autoimmune disease affecting the function of the liver, can sometimes have low levels of smooth muscle antibodies in their blood. (wisegeek.com)
  • The most important clinical use of checking for smooth muscle antibodies is for diagnostic purposes. (wisegeek.com)
  • Lupus is an autoimmune disease that affects many systems of the body including the liver, but patients with lupus should not have smooth muscle antibodies. (wisegeek.com)
  • I was just wondering did you ever get anywhere with your smooth muscle antibodies test? (healingwell.com)
  • Also, the mechanism whereby calcium stimulates this interaction in smooth muscle differs from that in striated muscle, in that it involves activation of a different signalling protein ( calmodulin rather than troponin ). (encyclopedia.com)
  • The smooth muscle calponin gene (CNN1) encodes for a multifunctional protein involved in signaling, contractile force generation, and growth regulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Synthetic peptide corresponding to Human alpha smooth muscle Actin. (abcam.com)
  • The walls of these organs contain smooth muscle, a type of tissue which enables them to constrict or dilate, in this way retarding or facilitating fluid movement as required. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Rather, they exist in a dynamic state of partial constriction, regulated by the smooth muscle cells which form much of the vascular wall, where they are arranged in multiple layers embedded in a tough and elastic matrix of connective tissue . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Depletion of tissue stores of acetylcholine using hemicholinium-3 with or without electrical stimulation rendered the muscle unresponsive to neostigmine (10(-6) mol/l). (nih.gov)
  • This process, known as restenosis, has been described as "over exuberant" tissue healing and involves the smooth muscle cells. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Studies have indicated expression of KCNQ channels in airway smooth muscle (ASM), a tissue that is predominantly regulated by muscarinic receptor signaling. (frontiersin.org)
  • Less conspicuous but probably more important is the role of smooth muscle in moving food through your gut, regulating the diameters of arteries to determine tissue blood flow, and returning blood to the heart through the constriction of veins. (pathguy.com)
  • Telling smooth muscle from fibrous connective tissue (especially tendon / aponeurosis) is one of your first big challenges. (pathguy.com)
  • However, smooth muscle tissue tends to demonstrate greater elasticity and function within a larger length-tension curve than striated muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The etiology of aortic aneurysms is poorly understood, but it is associated with atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, and abnormal transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling in smooth muscle. (nih.gov)
  • Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are central players in carotid atherosclerosis plaque development. (mdpi.com)
  • Impairment of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is recognized as a predisposition factor for atherosclerosis development. (scirp.org)
  • The group's aim was to see if certain transcription factors might be found in altered amounts in the smooth muscle cells of pigeons that are prone to atherosclerosis. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Excessive proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells contributes to the progression of pathological conditions, such as vascular inflammation, plaque formation, atherosclerosis, restenosis, and pulmonary hypertension. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition of Ca2+ uptake into A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells by farnesol: Lack of effect on membrane fluidity and Ca2+-ATPase activities," Journal of Hypertension , vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1723-1728, 1997. (hindawi.com)
  • Understanding the underlying chemical signals involved in this process may have implications in treating conditions such as hypertension and other smooth muscle related conditions where there is too much contractile activity," said Dr. James Stull, chairman of physiology at UT Southwestern and senior author of the study. (innovations-report.com)
  • The recent development of coculture systems of endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells can be extended to high-throughput systems for the identification of compounds for angiogenesis, vascular repair, and hypertension. (dovepress.com)
  • Conditional deletion of smooth muscle Cullin-3 causes severe progressive hypertension. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Patients with mutations in Cullin-3 (CUL3) exhibit severe early onset hypertension but the contribution of the smooth muscle remains unclear. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) greatly contributes to vascular remodeling in hypertension. (nature.com)
  • MiR-135a-5p knockdown in SHRs attenuated hypertension, normalized FNDC5 expressions and inhibited vascular smooth muscle proliferation, and alleviated vascular remodeling. (nature.com)
  • Vascular smooth muscle remodeling in conductive and resistance arteries in hypertension. (nature.com)
  • Vascular Smooth Muscle Function in Hypertension Edition by Theodora Szasz and Publisher Morgan & Claypool Life Sciences. (vitalsource.com)
  • An ASMA test looks for the one type of autoantibody that attacks smooth muscle. (healthline.com)
  • L-type calcium channel expression depends on the differentiated state of vascular smooth muscle cells," The FASEB Journal , vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 593-601, 1998. (hindawi.com)
  • and (3) inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels in the smooth muscle. (nature.com)
  • In skeletal muscle the recognition that E-C coupling consists of two parallel mechanisms, one dependent upon a dihydropyridine voltage-sensitive sensors coupled to calcium release from the terminal cisternae via the ryanodine sensitive channel in the foot structure of the triad. (springer.com)
  • When the researchers treated smooth muscle cells from mice with the drug carbachol, the amount of calcium available within the cells increased. (innovations-report.com)
  • To track the progress of this intricate chemical dance, researchers genetically engineered a mouse containing a fluorescent molecule, or biosensor that directly monitors the calcium/calmodulin activation of MLCK in real time in smooth-muscle cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • Gap junctions couple adjacent cells chemically and electrically, facilitating the spread of chemicals (e.g., calcium) or action potentials between smooth muscle cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • This notion is given support by the observation that contractile activity rapidly dies out when smooth muscle preparations are exposed to calcium-free solutions. (rti.org)
  • We report here on spontaneous contractile and electrical activity, and evoked mechanical activity, recorded after prolonged exposure to calcium-free EGTA saline in intestinal smooth muscle of cat. (rti.org)
  • Smooth muscle cells (myocytes) are found in the walls of hollow organs, including the stomach, intestines, urinary bladder and uterus, and in the walls of passageways, such as the arteries and veins of the circulatory system, and the tracts of the respiratory, urinary, and reproductive systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smooth muscle cells known as myocytes, have a fusiform shape and, like striated muscle, can tense and relax. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, there is evidence to indicate that airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC) express a wide variety of receptors involved in the immune response. (jimmunol.org)
  • Recently, it has been proposed that migration of the airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC) 3 toward the epithelium might also contribute to this phenomenon ( 8 , 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • smooth muscle The cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and respiratory systems are composed mostly of hollow organs (tubular or sacular), which transport and/or store fluids (either liquids or gases) within the body. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Electrical coupling is essential for propagation of action potentials in gastrointestinal smooth muscle. (springer.com)
  • Objectives: To find out the possible effects of paroxetine on gastrointestinal smooth muscles in vitro as they can cause severe nausea and vomiting at the start of therapy which later settles down. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Smooth muscle is a type of non- striated muscle , found within the tunica media layer of arteries and veins , the bladder , uterus , male, female, and all animals, gastrointestinal tract , respiratory tract , the ciliary muscle and iris of the eye. (wikidoc.org)
  • 4. SHR fundus smooth muscle shows the same modification of reactivity to Ba2+, Sr2+, Ca2+ and diazoxide that was previously described in arterial smooth muscle. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The tunica media of an artery consists of alternate layers of smooth muscles and elastic fibres, that of the medium sized arteries consist chiefly of smooth muscle cells arranged in circular or helical layers, so these are also known as muscular arteries. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2004) Atherosclerotic plaque smooth muscle cells have a distinct phenotype. (scirp.org)
  • Contractures produced by carbamate anticholinesterases in bovine tracheal smooth muscle. (nih.gov)
  • Genetic and Mechanical Regulation of Intestinal Smooth Muscle Development. (harvard.edu)
  • The primary function of smooth muscle cells is to help hollow organs contract. (reference.com)
  • 19. Explain the role of hyperplasia in the enlargement of smooth muscle organs. (cuny.edu)
  • Smooth muscle is found in the walls of hollow organs such as the intestinal tract and the uterus, and is under involuntary control. (carolina.com)
  • UT Southwestern s Dr. Kristine Kamm (left), associate professor of physiology, Dr. Yusuke Mizuno, postdoctoral researcher, and Dr. James Stull, chairman of physiology, analyze data from recent experiments investigating how smooth-muscle cells contract. (innovations-report.com)
  • Here, we report that JPH2 is the most abundant junctophilin isotype in native smooth muscle cells (SMCs) isolated from cerebral arteries and that acute knockdown diminishes the area of sites of interaction between the SR and plasma membrane. (pnas.org)
  • Myocardial muscle creatine kinase isoenzyme, myoglobin, and troponin I and T levels are elevated if the dissection has involved the coronary arteries and caused myocardial ischemia. (medscape.com)
  • Arteries have a great deal more smooth muscle within their walls than veins , thus their greater wall thickness. (wikidoc.org)
  • Acute vibration increases alpha(2C)-adrenegic smooth muscle constriction and alters thermosensitivity of cutaneous arteries. (cdc.gov)
  • Most smooth muscle is of the single-unit variety, that is, either the whole muscle contracts or the whole muscle relaxes, but there is multiunit smooth muscle in the trachea, the large elastic arteries, and the iris of the eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vascular Smooth Muscle: Metabolic, Ionic, and Contractile Mechanisms addresses the vascular smooth muscle function by describing plasma lipoprotein structure, synthesis, and transport in relation to the concepts of altered vascular smooth muscle lipid metabolism leading to the genesis of atherosclerotic disease. (elsevier.com)
  • one of three kinds of muscle, composed of elongated, spindle-shaped cells in muscles not under voluntary control, such as the smooth muscle of the intestines, stomach, and other viscera. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These findings identify myocardin as a master regulator of smooth muscle gene expression and explain how SRF conveys smooth muscle specificity to its target genes. (pnas.org)
  • Virtually every smooth muscle gene analyzed to date contains at least two CArG boxes in its control region, which act cooperatively to govern smooth muscle-specific transcription ( 5 - 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • The promyogenic activity of myocardin requires association with SRF and is augmented by homodimerization, which provides a molecular basis for the cooperativity among CArG boxes that is required for smooth muscle gene activation. (pnas.org)
  • We describe a method to transfer vascular smooth muscle cells expressing recombinant gene products to localized segments of the arterial wall. (ahajournals.org)
  • Vascular smooth muscle cells from the inbred Yucatan minipig were infected in vitro with an amphotropic, replication-defective retrovirus transducing the gene for Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase. (ahajournals.org)
  • Vascular smooth muscle cells expressing this recombinant gene were implanted, using a catheter, into denuded iliofemoral artery segments of pigs in vivo. (ahajournals.org)
  • Oral leiomyomas are rare benign tumors of the oral cavity that are hypothesized to originate from excretory ducts of salivary glands and vascular smooth muscles (5). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although CNS involvement is rare, it is important to understand the unique imaging and pathologic features of Epstein-Barr virus smooth-muscle tumors of the CNS. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • ab5694 reacts with tumors arising from smooth muscles and myoepithelial cells. (abcam.com)
  • The clinical and pathologic features of 32 smooth muscle tumors of the vulva were studied to determine the pathologic characteristics that best relate to the clinical behavior and to define criteria for separating leiomyomas from leiomyosarcomas. (ovid.com)
  • Smooth muscle may contract spontaneously (via ionic channel dynamic or Cajal pacemaker cells) or be induced by a number of physiochemical agents (e.g., hormones, drugs, neurotransmitters - particularly from the autonomic nervous system ), and also mechanical stimulation (such as stretch). (wikidoc.org)
  • In 'Slow wave activity' of Uterine smooth muscle, Pacemaker cells develop unstable ____________ to allow for action potentials to easily overcome threshold. (sporcle.com)
  • The intermediate filaments anchor the thin filaments and correspond to the Z-disks of skeletal muscle. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Actin filaments attach to the sarcolemma by focal adhesions or attachment plaques and attach to other actin filaments via dense bodies (acting much like Z-lines in striated muscle). (wikidoc.org)
  • Traditionally, thoracic aortic aneurysms have been labeled as a degenerative disease, characterized by alterations in extracellular matrix and loss of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the medial layer of the aortic wall. (jci.org)
  • MicroRNA26 attenuates vascular smooth muscle maturation via endothelial BMP signalling. (bioportfolio.com)
  • detail of smooth muscle cells in longitudinal section (monkey) (for unlabelled original image click here , please! (uni-mainz.de)
  • Thus, we were surprised to see that KCNQ had no affect on membrane voltage or muscle contractility following muscarinic activation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recently obtained data show that smoothelin deficiency results in a considerable loss of contractile potential and hence in impaired smooth muscle function and suggest that smoothelins are part of the contractile apparatus. (biomedsearch.com)