Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.
The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.
Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)
Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.
Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.
Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.
The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.
Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.
The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
Exercises that stretch the muscle fibers with the aim to increase muscle-tendon FLEXIBILITY, improve RANGE OF MOTION or musculoskeletal function, and prevent injuries. There are various types of stretching techniques including active, passive (relaxed), static, dynamic (gentle), ballistic (forced), isometric, and others.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).
A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.
The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.
Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Technique for limiting use, activity, or movement by immobilizing or restraining animal by suspending from hindlimbs or tails. This immobilization is used to simulate some effects of reduced gravity and study weightlessness physiology.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.
Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
Two of the masticatory muscles: the internal, or medial, pterygoid muscle and external, or lateral, pterygoid muscle. Action of the former is closing the jaws and that of the latter is opening the jaws, protruding the mandible, and moving the mandible from side to side.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.
Myosin type II isoforms found in skeletal muscle.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.
A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)
The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)
An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.
Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
A device that measures MUSCLE STRENGTH during muscle contraction, such as gripping, pushing, and pulling. It is used to evaluate the health status of muscle in sports medicine or physical therapy.
An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Myosin type II isoforms found in smooth muscle.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Progressive decline in muscle mass due to aging which results in decreased functional capacity of muscles.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.
Thick triangular muscle in the SHOULDER whose function is to abduct, flex, and extend the arm. It is a common site of INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).
The specialized postsynaptic region of a muscle cell. The motor endplate is immediately across the synaptic cleft from the presynaptic axon terminal. Among its anatomical specializations are junctional folds which harbor a high density of cholinergic receptors.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
An isoenzyme of creatine kinase found in the MUSCLE.
An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.
The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.
A paired box transcription factor that is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and SKELETAL MUSCLE.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Abnormal increase in skeletal or smooth muscle tone. Skeletal muscle hypertonicity may be associated with PYRAMIDAL TRACT lesions or BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
A SKELETAL MUSCLE-specific transcription factor that contains a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF. It plays an essential role in MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT.
Deep muscles in the BACK whose function is to extend and rotate the SPINE and maintain POSTURE. It consists splenius, semispinalis, multifidus, rotatores, interspinales, intertransversarii and sacrospinalis.
The position or attitude of the body.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)
A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.
The spread of response if stimulation is prolonged. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
Disorders characterized by an abnormal reduction in muscle volume due to a decrease in the size or number of muscle fibers. Atrophy may result from diseases intrinsic to muscle tissue (e.g., MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY) or secondary to PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES that impair innervation to muscle tissue (e.g., MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL).
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
The rear surface of an upright primate from the shoulders to the hip, or the dorsal surface of tetrapods.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.
A diminution of the skeletal muscle tone marked by a diminished resistance to passive stretching.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.

Requirement of a novel gene, Xin, in cardiac morphogenesis. (1/28646)

A novel gene, Xin, from chick (cXin) and mouse (mXin) embryonic hearts, may be required for cardiac morphogenesis and looping. Both cloned cDNAs have a single open reading frame, encoding proteins with 2,562 and 1,677 amino acids for cXin and mXin, respectively. The derived amino acid sequences share 46% similarity. The overall domain structures of the predicted cXin and mXin proteins, including proline-rich regions, 16 amino acid repeats, DNA-binding domains, SH3-binding motifs and nuclear localization signals, are highly conserved. Northern blot analyses detect a single message of 8.9 and 5.8 kilo base (kb) from both cardiac and skeletal muscle of chick and mouse, respectively. In situ hybridization reveals that the cXin gene is specifically expressed in cardiac progenitor cells of chick embryos as early as stage 8, prior to heart tube formation. cXin continues to be expressed in the myocardium of developing hearts. By stage 15, cXin expression is also detected in the myotomes of developing somites. Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that the mXin protein is colocalized with N-cadherin and connexin-43 in the intercalated discs of adult mouse hearts. Incubation of stage 6 chick embryos with cXin antisense oligonucleotides results in abnormal cardiac morphogenesis and an alteration of cardiac looping. The myocardium of the affected hearts becomes thickened and tends to form multiple invaginations into the heart cavity. This abnormal cellular process may account in part for the abnormal looping. cXin expression can be induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in explants of anterior medial mesoendoderm from stage 6 chick embryos, a tissue that is normally non-cardiogenic. This induction occurs following the BMP-mediated induction of two cardiac-restricted transcription factors, Nkx2.5 and MEF2C. Furthermore, either MEF2C or Nkx2.5 can transactivate a luciferase reporter driven by the mXin promoter in mouse fibroblasts. These results suggest that Xin may participate in a BMP-Nkx2.5-MEF2C pathway to control cardiac morphogenesis and looping.  (+info)

Coupling of the cell cycle and myogenesis through the cyclin D1-dependent interaction of MyoD with cdk4. (2/28646)

Proliferating myoblasts express the muscle determination factor, MyoD, throughout the cell cycle in the absence of differentiation. Here we show that a mitogen-sensitive mechanism, involving the direct interaction between MyoD and cdk4, restricts myoblast differentiation to cells that have entered into the G0 phase of the cell cycle under mitogen withdrawal. Interaction between MyoD and cdk4 disrupts MyoD DNA-binding, muscle-specific gene activation and myogenic conversion of 10T1/2 cells independently of cyclin D1 and the CAK activation of cdk4. Forced induction of cyclin D1 in myotubes results in the cytoplasmic to nuclear translocation of cdk4. The specific MyoD-cdk4 interaction in dividing myoblasts, coupled with the cyclin D1-dependent nuclear targeting of cdk4, suggests a mitogen-sensitive mechanism whereby cyclin D1 can regulate MyoD function and the onset of myogenesis by controlling the cellular location of cdk4 rather than the phosphorylation status of MyoD.  (+info)

Cloning and characterization of the promoters of the maxiK channel alpha and beta subunits. (3/28646)

Large conductance, calcium-activated potassium (maxiK) channels are expressed in nerve, muscle, and other cell types and are important determinants of smooth muscle tone. To determine the mechanisms involved in the transcriptional regulation of maxiK channels, we characterized the promoter regions of the pore forming (alpha) and regulatory (beta) subunits of the human channel complex. Maximum promoter activity (up to 12.3-fold over control) occurred between nucleotides -567 and -220 for the alpha subunit (hSlo) gene. The minimal promoter is GC-rich with 5 Sp-1 binding sites and several TCC repeats. Other transcription factor-binding motifs, including c/EBP, NF-kB, PU.1, PEA-3, Myo-D, and E2A, were observed in the 5'-flanking sequence. Additionally, a CCTCCC sequence, which increases the transcriptional activity of the SM1/2 gene in smooth muscle, is located 27 bp upstream of the TATA-like sequence, a location identical to that found in the SM1/2 5'-flanking region. However, the promoter directed equivalent expression when transfected into smooth muscle and other cell types. Analysis of the hSlo beta subunit 5'-flanking region revealed a TATA box at position -77 and maximum promoter activity (up to 11.0-fold) in a 200 bp region upstream from the cap site. Binding sites for GATA-1, Myo-D, c-myb, Ets-1/Elk-1, Ap-1, and Ik-2 were identified within this sequence. Two CCTCCC elements are present in the hSlo beta subunit promoter, but tissue-specific transcriptional activity was not observed. The lack of tissue-specific promoter activity, particularly the finding of promoter activity in cells from tissues in which the maxiK gene is not expressed, suggests a complex channel regulatory mechanism for hSlo genes. Moreover, the lack of similarity of the promoters of the two genes suggests that regulation of coordinate expression of the subunits does not occur through equivalent cis-acting sequences.  (+info)

Perioperative growth hormone treatment and functional outcome after major abdominal surgery: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. (4/28646)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate short- and long-term effects of perioperative human growth hormone (hGH) treatment on physical performance and fatigue in younger patients undergoing a major abdominal operation in a normal postoperative regimen with oral nutrition. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Muscle wasting and functional impairment follow major abdominal surgery. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with ulcerative colitis undergoing ileoanal J-pouch surgery were randomized to hGH (12 IU/day) or placebo treatment from 2 days before to 7 days after surgery. Measurements were performed 2 days before and 10, 30, and 90 days after surgery. RESULTS: The total muscle strength of four limb muscle groups was reduced by 7.6% in the hGH group and by 17.1% in the placebo group at postoperative day 10 compared with baseline values. There was also a significant difference between treatment groups in total muscle strength at day 30, and at the 90-day follow-up total muscle strength was equal to baseline values in the hGH group, but still significantly 5.9% below in the placebo group. The work capacity decreased by approximately 20% at day 10 after surgery, with no significant difference between treatment groups. Both groups were equally fatigued at day 10 after surgery, but at day 30 and 90 the hGH patients were less fatigued than the placebo patients. During the treatment period, patients receiving hGH had reduced loss of limb lean tissue mass, and 3 months after surgery the hGH patients had regained more lean tissue mass than placebo patients. CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative hGH treatment of younger patients undergoing major abdominal surgery preserved limb lean tissue mass, increased postoperative muscular strength, and reduced long-term postoperative fatigue.  (+info)

Spinal cord-evoked potentials and muscle responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation in 10 awake human subjects. (5/28646)

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TCMS) causes leg muscle contractions, but the neural structures in the brain that are activated by TCMS and their relationship to these leg muscle responses are not clearly understood. To elucidate this, we concomitantly recorded leg muscle responses and thoracic spinal cord-evoked potentials (SCEPs) after TCMS for the first time in 10 awake, neurologically intact human subjects. In this report we provide evidence of direct and indirect activation of corticospinal neurons after TCMS. In three subjects, SCEP threshold (T) stimulus intensities recruited both the D wave (direct activation of corticospinal neurons) and the first I wave (I1, indirect activation of corticospinal neurons). In one subject, the D, I1, and I2 waves were recruited simultaneously, and in another subject, the I1 and I2 waves were recruited simultaneously. In the remaining five subjects, only the I1 wave was recruited first. More waves were recruited as the stimulus intensity increased. The presence of D and I waves in all subjects at low stimulus intensities verified that TCMS directly and indirectly activated corticospinal neurons supplying the lower extremities. Leg muscle responses were usually contingent on the SCEP containing at least four waves (D, I1, I2, and I3).  (+info)

Wasting of the small hand muscles in upper and mid-cervical cord lesions. (6/28646)

Four patients are described with destructive rheumatoid arthritis of the cervical spine and neurogenic wasting of forearm and hand muscles. The pathological connection is not immediately obvious, but a relationship between these two observations is described here with clinical, radiological, electrophysiological and necropsy findings. Compression of the anterior spinal artery at upper and mid-cervical levels is demonstrated to be the likely cause of changes lower in the spinal cord. These are shown to be due to the resulting ischaemia of the anterior part of the lower cervical spinal cord, with degeneration of the neurones innervating the forearm and hand muscles. These findings favour external compression of the anterior spinal artery leading to ischaemia in a watershed area as the likeliest explanation for this otherwise inappropriate and bizarre phenomenon.  (+info)

Fas and Fas ligand interaction induces apoptosis in inflammatory myopathies: CD4+ T cells cause muscle cell injury directly in polymyositis. (7/28646)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the involvement of the Fas/Fas ligand (Fas/FasL) system in the inflammatory myopathies. METHODS: Frozen muscle sections obtained from 7 patients with polymyositis (PM), 4 patients with dermatomyositis (DM), and 3 controls were studied by immunochemistry. Apoptosis was detected by DNA electrophoresis and in situ labeling using the TUNEL method. RESULTS: Fas was detected on muscle fibers and infiltrating mononuclear cells (MNC) in 6 PM patients and 2 DM patients. FasL was expressed mainly on CD4+ T cells and some CD8+ T cells, and on macrophages surrounding Fas-positive muscles in 4 PM patients and 1 DM patient. In 3 of the 5 patients with FasL-positive MNC, the TUNEL method showed that both invaded myonuclei and MNC underwent apoptosis. Chromosomal DNA from the muscle tissue of these patients showed ladder formation. CONCLUSION: Fas/FasL is involved in muscle cell apoptosis in at least 2 of the inflammatory myopathies, PM and DM. Although CD8+-mediated cytotoxicity is thought to be the main mechanism of muscle injury in PM, our data suggest that CD4+ T cells also directly cause muscle cell damage.  (+info)

A novel interaction mechanism accounting for different acylphosphatase effects on cardiac and fast twitch skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pumps. (8/28646)

In cardiac and skeletal muscle Ca2+ translocation from cytoplasm into sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is accomplished by different Ca2+-ATPases whose functioning involves the formation and decomposition of an acylphosphorylated phosphoenzyme intermediate (EP). In this study we found that acylphosphatase, an enzyme well represented in muscular tissues and which actively hydrolyzes EP, had different effects on heart (SERCA2a) and fast twitch skeletal muscle SR Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA1). With physiological acylphosphatase concentrations SERCA2a exhibited a parallel increase in the rates of both ATP hydrolysis and Ca2+ transport; in contrast, SERCA1 appeared to be uncoupled since the stimulation of ATP hydrolysis matched an inhibition of Ca2+ pump. These different effects probably depend on phospholamban, which is associated with SERCA2a but not SERCA1. Consistent with this view, the present study suggests that acylphosphatase-induced stimulation of SERCA2a, in addition to an enhanced EP hydrolysis, may be due to a displacement of phospholamban, thus to a removal of its inhibitory effect.  (+info)

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is involved in cytokine- and nutrient-induced insulin resistance. The role of STAT3 in the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D) pathogenesis is incompletely defined. We tested the hypothesis that STAT3 signaling contributes to skeletal muscle insulin resistance in T2D. Protein abundance and phosphorylation of STAT3 signaling molecules were determined in skeletal muscle biopsy specimens from BMI- and age-matched overweight individuals with normal glucose tolerant (NGT) and T2D patients. The direct role of STAT3 in the development of lipid-induced skeletal muscle insulin resistance was determined using small interfering (si)RNA. Phosphorylated STAT3, phosphorylated Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) protein abundance was increased in skeletal muscle from T2D patients. STAT3 phosphorylation positively correlated with free fatty acid level and measures of insulin ...
Disclosed is a composition for promoting local muscle growth or slowing down or preventing local muscle atrophy, which composition contains a polypeptide in the C2 region of the enterotoxin Staphylococcus aureus and a myostatin polypeptide. By means of the composition, the defect in the prior art of only systemic muscle growth being possible has been overcome so as to achieve effects of promoting local muscle growth, or slowing down or preventing local muscle atrophy.
Muscle chart series - just charts at muscles. Skeletal Muscle Chart allowed in order to my personal website, in this particular time period I will demonstrate about Skeletal muscle chart.. And after this, this is the initial graphic, skeletal muscle chart, skeletal muscle diagram, skeletal muscle diagram labeled, skeletal muscle diagram quiz, skeletal muscle diagram worksheet, skeletal muscle diagram posterior, skeletal muscle mass chart, skeletal muscle measurement chart, skeletal muscle identification chart, skeletal muscle flow chart :. ...
Studying Rac1. The activation of Rac1 causes reorganization of cell components creating highways that allow other proteins such as glucose transport 4 or GLUT4 to relocate to the cell membrane and allow sugar from blood to enter skeletal muscle cells for processing. Consequently, Rac1 shows increased activity in response to insulin and exercise promoting the metabolism and storage of sugar in skeletal muscle. Harrison suspects that the dysfunction of Rac1 may play a large role in insulin resistance, and his lab is looking to better understand the dysfunction of skeletal muscle physiology that may contribute to insulin resistance. To study insulin resistance, Harrison is currently comparing Rac1 activity in skeletal muscle cells and skeletal muscle tissue of lean and obese mice. Learn more about Rac1, GO TO ARTICLE.. Harrison has always been drawn to human health, and is particularly intrigued by how adaptable the human body is. He completed his undergraduate degree and Masters in Exercise ...
Antioxidants are assumed to provide numerous benefits, including better health, a reduced rate of aging, and improved exercise performance. Specifically, antioxidants are commonly prescribed by the media, supplement industry, and fitness experts for individuals prior to training and performance, with assumed benefits of improved fatigue resistance and recovery. This has provoked expansion of the supplement industry which responded by creation of a plethora of products aimed at facilitating the needs of the active individual. However, what does the experimental evidence say about the efficacy of antioxidants on skeletal muscle function? Are antioxidants actually as beneficial as the general populous believes? Or, could they in fact lead to deleterious effects on skeletal muscle function and performance? This Mini Review addresses these questions with an unbiased look at what we know about antioxidant effects on skeletal muscle, and what we still need to know before conclusions can be made. ...
C57BL/6-GFP Mouse Skeletal Muscle Microvascular Endothelial Cells from Creative Bioarray are isolated from C57BL/6-Tg (CAG-EGFP) 1Osb/J mouse skeletal muscle tissue of pathogen-free laboratory mice. C57BL/6-GFP Mouse Skeletal Muscle Microvascular Endothelial Cells are grown in T25 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based coating solution for 2 min and incubated in Creative Bioarray Culture Complete Growth Medium generally for 3-7 days. Cultures are then expanded. Prior to shipping, cells are detached from flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 1x10^6 cells per ml and are delivered frozen. The method we use to isolate endothelial cells was developed based on a combination of established and our proprietary methods. These cells are pre-coated with PECAM-1 antibody, following the application of magnetic pre-coated with secondary antibody ...
Poststroke plantar flexor muscle weakness has been attributed to muscle atrophy and impaired activation, which cannot collectively explain the limitations in force-generating capability of the entire muscle group. It is of interest whether changes in poststroke plantar flexor muscle fascicle length and pennation angle influence the individual force-generating capability and whether plantar flexor weakness is due to uniform changes in individual muscle force contributions. Fascicle lengths and pennation angles for the soleus, medial, and lateral gastrocnemius were measured using ultrasound and compared between ten hemiparetic poststroke subjects and ten healthy controls. Physiological cross-sectional areas and force contributions to poststroke plantar flexor torque were estimated for each muscle. No statistical differences were observed for any muscle fascicle lengths or for the lateral gastrocnemius and soleus pennation angles between paretic, nonparetic, and healthy limbs. There was a significant
Human muscle cell line - human body diagram at muscles. Human Muscle Cell Line encouraged for you to our website, on this period I am going to teach you with regards to Human muscle cell line.. Now, this can be a very first image, human muscle cell line, human muscle cell line atcc, human smooth muscle cell line, human skeletal muscle cell line atcc, human cardiac muscle cell line, human heart muscle cell line, human vascular smooth muscle cell line, human airway smooth muscle cell line, human skeletal muscle myoblast cell line, immortalized human skeletal muscle cell line :. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of intermittent pressure imitating rolling manipulation on calcium ion homeostasis in human skeletal muscle cells. AU - Zhang, Hong. AU - Liu, Howe. AU - Lin, Qing. AU - Zhang, Guohui. AU - Mason, David C.. PY - 2016/8/26. Y1 - 2016/8/26. N2 - Background: Homeostasis imbalance of intracellular Ca2+ is one of the key pathophysiological factors in skeletal muscle injuries. Such imbalance can cause significant change in the metabolism of Ca2+-related biomarkers in skeletal muscle, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and creatine kinase (CK). Measurements of these biomarkers can be used to evaluate the degree of damage to human skeletal muscle cells (HSKMCs) injury. Rolling manipulation is the most popular myofascial release technique in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The mechanism of how this technique works in ameliorating muscle injury is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the possible Ca2+ mediated effects of intermittent pressure imitating ...
Mouse Skeletal Muscle Cells are isolated form normal mouse skeletal muscle tissue. T25 flasks is required for cell adhension to the culture vessels. Grow cells in ECM-coated culture vessels with 5% CO2. Each vial contains at least 1x10^6 cells per ml ...
TY - THES. T1 - Satellite cells and skeletal muscle characteristics in sarcopenia. AU - Verdijk, L.. PY - 2009/1/1. Y1 - 2009/1/1. M3 - Doctoral Thesis. PB - Datawyse / Universitaire Pers Maastricht. CY - Maastricht. ER - ...
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Skeletal muscle mass and strength are crucial determinants of health. Muscle mass loss is associated with weakness, fatigue, and insulin resistance. In fact, it is predicted that controlling muscle atrophy can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with diseases such as cancer cachexia and sarcopenia. We analyzed gene expression data from muscle of mice or human patients with diverse muscle pathologies and identified LMCD1 as a gene strongly associated with skeletal muscle function. We transiently expressed or silenced LMCD1 in mouse gastrocnemius muscle or in mouse primary muscle cells and determined muscle/cell size, targeted gene expression, kinase activity with kinase arrays, protein immunoblotting, and protein synthesis levels. To evaluate force, calcium handling, and fatigue, we transduced the flexor digitorum brevis muscle with a LMCD1-expressing adenovirus and measured specific force and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release in individual fibers. Finally, to explore the relationship between
In DMD and many other types of muscular dystrophies, cardiac and skeletal muscles are both compromised. The interplay between heart disease and skeletal muscle disease remains to be fully appreciated. It is generally agreed that normalizing skeletal muscle function alone cannot halt heart disease (Muntoni et al. 1995; Towbin et al. 1993; Townsend et al. 2007; Zhu et al. 2002). Limb muscles and respiratory muscles (in particular, the diaphragm) are auxiliary pumps that promote venous return. When skeletal muscle contractility is severely compromised (such as in m-dko mice), cardiac output will decrease as a consequence of reduced venous return. This seems to suggest that treating skeletal muscle alone should increase cardiac output and improve heart function. If left unchecked, severe skeletal muscle disease will aggravate cardiomyopathy. This argument is supported by findings from two clinical studies (Hunsaker et al. 1982; Matsuda et al. 1977). Hunsaker et al. (1982) followed nine ambulant DMD ...
Background: Nitric oxide (NO), generated in skeletal muscle mostly by the neuronal NO synthases (nNOS mu), has profound effects on both mitochondrial bioenergetics and muscle development and function. The importance of NO for muscle repair emerges from the observation that nNOS signalling is defective in many genetically diverse skeletal muscle diseases in which muscle repair is dysregulated. How the effects of NO/nNOS mu on mitochondria impact on muscle function, however, has not been investigated yet. Methods: In this study we have examined the relationship between the NO system, mitochondrial structure/activity and skeletal muscle phenotype/growth/functions using a mouse model in which nNOS mu is absent. Also, NO-induced effects and the NO pathway were dissected in myogenic precursor cells. Results: We show that nNOS mu deficiency in mouse skeletal muscle leads to altered mitochondrial bioenergetics and network remodelling, and increased mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) and ...
The use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a potential treatment to relieve symptoms of menopause and prevent the onset of disease such as osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Although estrogen has a possible protective effect against exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage, it is unclear if HRT enhances estrogen receptor (ER) transcriptional activity in skeletal muscle at rest and following resistance exercise. We sought to evaluate changes in the gene expression of ER coregulators (SRC-1 and SMRT) and markers of skeletal muscle damage (CK, LDH, and TNF-α) in postmenopausal women following a high-intensity resistance exercise bout. Fourteen postmenopausal women were divided into two groups: Control, women not using HRT (n=6, 59±4 yr, 63±17 kg), or HRT, women using traditional HRT (n=8, 59±4 yr, 89±24 kg). Both groups performed 10 sets of 10 maximal eccentric repetitions of single-leg extension on the Cybex dynamometer at 60°/s with 20 second rest periods between sets. Muscle ...
Perturbations in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism are both involved in the insulin resistance in skeletal muscle in obesity and type 2 diabetes (2,3). Previously, our laboratory (30) as well as others (31) have observed that the severity of skeletal muscle insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes and obesity is related to diminished activity of oxidative enzymes. In addition, accumulation of triglycerides in skeletal muscle is also correlated with the severity of insulin resistance and with diminished oxidative enzyme activity in these disorders (23). These observations led therefore to the hypothesis of the current investigation, which is that a functional impairment of mitochondria might contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.. Skeletal muscle is a tissue richly endowed with mitochondria and strongly reliant on oxidative phosphorylation for energy production. To test our hypothesis, we assessed the size and morphology of skeletal muscle mitochondria ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gsα deficiency in skeletal muscle leads to reduced muscle mass, fiber-type switching, and glucose intolerance without insulin resistance or deficiency. AU - Chen, Min. AU - Feng, Han Zhong. AU - Gupta, Divakar. AU - Kelleher, James. AU - Dickerson, Kathryn E.. AU - Wang, Jie. AU - Hunt, Desmond. AU - Jou, William. AU - Gavrilova, Oksana. AU - Jin, Jian Ping. AU - Weinstein, Lee S.. PY - 2009/4. Y1 - 2009/4. N2 - The ubiquitously expressed G protein α-subunit Gsα is required for receptor-stimulated intracellular cAMP responses and is an important regulator of energy and glucose metabolism. We have generated skeletal muscle-specific Gsα-knockout (KO) mice (MGsKO) by mating Gsα-floxed mice with muscle creatine kinase-cre transgenic mice. MGsKO mice had normal body weight and composition, and their serum glucose, insulin, free fatty acid, and triglyceride levels were similar to that of controls. However, MGsKO mice were glucose intolerant despite the fact that insulin ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Distinct muscle apoptotic pathways are activated in muscles with different fiber types in a rat model of critical illness myopathy. AU - Barnes, Benjamin T.. AU - Confides, Amy L.. AU - Rich, Mark M.. AU - Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.. PY - 2015/6/18. Y1 - 2015/6/18. N2 - Critical illness myopathy (CIM) is associated with severe muscle atrophy and fatigue in affected patients. Apoptotic signaling is involved in atrophy and is elevated in muscles from patients with CIM. In this study we investigated underlying mechanisms of apoptosis-related pathways in muscles with different fiber type composition in a rat model of CIM using denervation and glucocorticoid administration (denervation and steroid-induced myopathy, DSIM). Soleus and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles showed severe muscle atrophy (40-60 % of control muscle weight) and significant apoptosis in interstitial as well as myofiber nuclei that was similar between the two muscles with DSIM. Caspase-3 and -8 activities, but not ...
Objective: Skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is important for regulating glucose homeostasis, mitochondrial content and exercise capacity. R419 is a mitochondrial complex-I inhibitor that has recently been shown to acutely activate AMPK in myotubes. Our main objective was to examine whether R419 treatment improves insulin sensitivity and exercise capacity in obese insulin resistant mice and whether skeletal muscle AMPK was important for mediating potential effects. Methods: Glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, exercise capacity, and electron transport chain content/activity were examined in wildtype (WT) and AMPK β1β2 muscle-specific null (AMPK-MKO) mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without R419 supplementation. Results: There was no change in weight gain, adiposity, glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity between HFD-fed WT and AMPK-MKO mice. In both HFD-fed WT and AMPK-MKO mice, R419 enhanced insulin tolerance, insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, skeletal muscle ...
Due to insufficient exercise training, skeletal mucle loss is beginning form 25 years old. Sarcopenia is the critical reason to effect activities of daily life in seniors. Strength training has been proven to be a great strategy to increase mucle mass and functions. Exercise training provokes skeletal muscle protein synthesis, in the meantime also causes muscle injury, induces muscle protien degradation and muscle cell inflammatory. Net muscle protein balace will become negative in nutrients or rest deficiency. Muscle biogenesis decreasing with aging may induce by signal transmit weakening in muscle protein synthesis pathway. Current studies showed that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase /AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/ mTOR) pathway is an important pathway to regulate skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Therefore, the first year, resveratrol is uesd as a nutriental ergogenic aid which may activate related protein expression of muscle synthesis pathway. In order to understand promotion or ...
Skeletal muscle injuries are the most common sports-related injuries and present a challenge in primary care and sports medicine. Most types of muscle injuries would follow three stages: the acute inflammatory and degenerative phase, the repair phase and the remodeling phase. Present conservative treatment includes RICE (rest, ice, compression, elevation), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and physical therapy. However, if use improper, NSAIDs may suppress an essential inflammatory phase in the healing of injured skeletal muscle. Furthermore, it remains controversial whether or not they have adverse effects on the healing process or on the tensile strength. However, several growth factors might promote the regeneration of injured skeletal muscle, many novel treatments have involved on enhancing complete functional recovery. Exogenous growth factors have been shown to regulate satellite cell proliferation, differentiation and fusion in myotubes in vivo and in vitro, TGF-β1 antagonists behave
TY - JOUR. T1 - Age- and stroke-related skeletal muscle changes a review for the geriatric clinician. AU - Sions, Jaclyn Megan. AU - Tyrell, Christine M.. AU - Knarr, Brian A.. AU - Jancosko, Angela. AU - Binder-Macleod, Stuart A.. PY - 2012/7/1. Y1 - 2012/7/1. N2 - Independently, aging and stroke each have a significant negative impact on skeletal muscle, but the potential cumulative effects of aging and stroke have not been explored. Optimal interventions for individuals post-stroke may include those that specifically target skeletal muscle. Addressing changes in muscles may minimize activity limitations and enhance participation post stroke. This article reviews the impact of aging and stroke on muscle morphology and composition, including fiber atrophy, reductions in muscle cross-sectional area, changes in muscle fiber distributions, and increases in intramuscular fat. Relationships between changes in muscle structure, muscle function, and physical mobility are reviewed. Clinical ...
Mitochondrial dysfunction develops in skeletal muscle with aging and may contribute to insulin resistance, which increases cardiovascular risk. A link between skeletal muscle insulin resistance and perturbed mitochondrial fusion and fission has been suggested but not proven. Optic Atrophy 1 (OPA1) is an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that plays a fundamental role in mitochondrial fusion, quality control and respiratory function. OPA1 levels are reduced in muscle from elderly subjects; however, the specific roles of OPA1 in the aging muscle have not been studied. We, therefore, generated a mouse model with inducible deletion of the OPA1 gene in skeletal muscle of adult C57Bl6 mice, by crossing OPA1 floxed mice with HSA-Cre (ERT2) mice (KO). Four-week-old KO and wild-type (WT) mice were treated with tamoxifen for 5 days to induce recombination, resulting in a 60% reduction in OPA1 protein levels 8 weeks after treatment (12-wk-old mice). OPA1 deficiency resulted in altered mitochondrial ...
It has been demonstrated that skeletal muscle adaptions, including muscle fibers transition, angiogenesis, and mitochondrial biogenesis are involved in the regular exercise-induced improvement of endurance capacity and metabolic status. Herein, we investigated the effects of pterostilbene (PST) supplementation on skeletal muscle adaptations to exercise training in rats. Six-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into a sedentary control group (Sed), an exercise training group (Ex), and exercise training combined with 50 mg/kg PST (Ex + PST) treatment group. After 4 weeks of intervention, an exhaustive running test was performed, and muscle fiber type transformation, angiogenesis, and mitochondrial content in the soleus muscle were measured. Additionally, the effects of PST on muscle fiber transformation, paracrine regulation of angiogenesis, and mitochondrial function were tested in vitro using C2C12 myotubes. In vivo study showed that exercise training resulted in significant increases
Combining detailed musculoskeletal models and simulations with empirical data allows for the estimation of quantities that can greatly enhance our understanding of specific functional roles during dynamic movements [28,29,51]. Although anatomical and EMG studies can provide insight into muscle classification relative to gait events (e.g. stance versus swing phase), a detailed understanding of a muscles functional role(s) requires additional quantities that are not readily obtained using experimental techniques. The musculotendon force and mechanical work data generated in this study enable the determination of specific muscle mechanical roles such as motor, brake, strut or spring during gait [19-21]. These roles provide important information regarding how energy flows through the limb and generates the required external work during movement. Muscle functional roles were also mainly insensitive to optimization approach or gait type (table 4).. However, there were some subtle differences between ...
Quantification of skeletal muscle damage in response to injurious stretch-shortening cycles (SSCs) would be beneficial in elucidating the effect of different biomechanical exposures on the amount of muscle damage. Purpose: To investigate the effect of stretch-shortening cycle range of motion (ROM) on skeletal muscle damage in rats. Methods: Testing was performed on the dorsiflexor muscles of Spra
TY - JOUR. T1 - Validity of ultrasound muscle thickness measurements for predicting leg skeletal muscle mass in healthy Japanese middle-aged and older individuals. AU - Takai, Yohei. AU - Ohta, Megumi. AU - Akagi, Ryota. AU - Kato, Emika. AU - Wakahara, Taku. AU - Kawakami, Yasuo. AU - Fukunaga, Tetsuo. AU - Kanehisa, Hiroaki. PY - 2013/9/25. Y1 - 2013/9/25. N2 - Background: The skeletal muscle mass of the lower limb plays a role in its mobility during daily life. From the perspective of physical resources, leg muscle mass dominantly decreases after the end of the fifth decade. Therefore, an accurate estimate of the muscle mass is important for the middle-aged and older population. The present study aimed to clarify the validity of ultrasound muscle thickness (MT) measurements for predicting leg skeletal muscle mass (SM) in the healthy Japanese middle-aged and older population.Findings: MTs at four sites of the lower limb and the bone-free lean tissue mass (LTM) of the right leg were determined ...
We are interested in how skeletal muscle processes fat and its effect on insulin resistance. This is an important question since insulin resistance predates and predicts type 2 diabetes. We know that if pharmaceutical grade lipid is infused into people, they develop insulin resistance. Thus, we would like to infuse pharmaceutical grade lipid into trained subjects, believing that trained subjects will develop less insulin resistance, less decline in muscle energy function, and less accumulation of fat metabolites than untrained subjects. For comparing the effects of the pharmaceutical grade fat infusion, we will also have a group of trained and untrained subjects given a control (glycerol) infusion. Glycerol is basically the same as pharmaceutical grade lipid infusion without the lipid component.. Three visits will be required. The first visit will involve measurement of fitness. A second visit will involve measurement of insulin resistance. The third visit will involve an inpatient stay, with a ...
|P|Skeletal Muscle is a peer-reviewed, open access, online journal that publishes articles investigating molecular mechanisms underlying the biology of skeletal muscle. A wide range of skeletal muscle biology is included: development, metabolism, the regulation of mass and function, aging, degeneration, dystrophy and regeneration. The emphasis is on understanding adult skeletal muscle, its maintenance, and its interactions with non-muscle cell types and regulatory modulators.|/P| |P|Skeletal Muscle aims to provide a venue for the publication of novel, cutting-edge research and technological developments involving the application of molecular biology, cellular biology, and biochemistry-based approaches, and to answer questions relevant to the understanding of skeletal muscle.|/P|
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impact of Skeletal Muscle Mass on Long-Term Adverse Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease. AU - Harada, Kazuhiro. AU - Suzuki, Susumu. AU - Ishii, Hideki. AU - Aoki, Toshijiro. AU - Hirayama, Kenshi. AU - Shibata, Yohei. AU - Negishi, Yosuke. AU - Sumi, Takuya. AU - Kawashima, Kazuhiro. AU - Kunimura, Ayako. AU - Shimbo, Yusaku. AU - Tatami, Yosuke. AU - Kawamiya, Toshiki. AU - Yamamoto, Dai. AU - Morimoto, Ryota. AU - Yasuda, Yoshinari. AU - Murohara, Toyoaki. PY - 2017/4/15. Y1 - 2017/4/15. N2 - Sarcopenia, defined as skeletal muscle loss and dysfunction, is attracting considerable attention as a novel risk factor for cardiovascular events. Although the loss of skeletal muscle is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, the relation between sarcopenia and cardiovascular events in CKD patients is not well defined. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relation between skeletal muscle mass and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in CKD ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Motor unit composition has little effect on the short-range stiffness of feline medial gastrocnemius muscle. AU - Cui, Lei. AU - Perreault, Eric J.. AU - Sandercock, Thomas G.. PY - 2007/9. Y1 - 2007/9. N2 - Studies on skinned fibers and single motor units have indicated that slow-twitch fibers are stiffer than fast-twitch fibers. This suggests that skeletal muscles with different motor unit compositions may have different short-range stiffness (SRS) properties. Furthermore, the natural recruitment of slow before fast motor units may result in an SRS-force profile that is different from electrical stimulation. However, muscle architecture and the mechanical properties of surrounding tissues also contribute to the net SRS of a muscle, and it remains unclear how these structural features each contribute to the SRS of a muscle. In this study, the SRS-force characteristics of cat medial gastrocnemius muscle were measured during natural activation using the crossed-extension reflex, ...
- know that the main function of muscle is movement - know what the word contract/contraction means - know where you find skeletal muscle - know what the term myocyte is - know that skeletal muscle cells are as long as the belly of the muscle - know that the word striation means stripped or stripes - be able to identify striations - be able to identify skeletal muscle by its morphological characteristics This packet is about the histology of skeletal muscle. This packet will show you the morphological characteristics of skeletal muscle tissue that you need to know in order to identify it under a microscope. You will also learn about the basic functions of skeletal muscle in here as well.
1 Introduction Adult rodent skeletal muscles are composed of four types of myofibers (Bassel-Duby and Olson, 2006; Schiaffino and Reggiani, 1996; 2011), which are present in different proportions in different muscles. Slow-twitch (Type I) fibers have fatigue resistance properties by virtue of large numbers of mitochondria. The remaining three types are fast-twitch (Type II) fibers, subclassified as types IIA, IIX, and IIB. Of these, type IIA fibers exhibit the slowest shortening velocity and display fatigue resistance due to a high density of mitochondria. Conversely, type IIB fibers have the fastest shortening velocity and exhibit exercise intolerance due to a low density of mitochondria, while type IIX fibers are intermediate. Although the predominant fiber types in each muscle are determined during embryonic and fetal myogenesis (Agbulut et al., 2003; Lu et al., 1999), functional adaptations can lead to the alteration of these proportions through changes in gene expression (Oh et al., 2005; Swoap et
Most athletes stretch as part of their training regimen and it is commonly believed that this practice prevents muscle injury. We tested this belief using an animal model, in situ mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle. One lower hindlimb was slowly stretched for 1 min on alternate days for 12 days; the other leg served as a control. The mouse was lightly anaesthetized during the stretching protocol (isofluorane). Both legs were tested in situ by measuring maximum isometric force and Show moreMost athletes stretch as part of their training regimen and it is commonly believed that this practice prevents muscle injury. We tested this belief using an animal model, in situ mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle. One lower hindlimb was slowly stretched for 1 min on alternate days for 12 days; the other leg served as a control. The mouse was lightly anaesthetized during the stretching protocol (isofluorane). Both legs were tested in situ by measuring maximum isometric force and maximum ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular mechanisms regulating skeletal muscle homeostasis: effects of V1a AVP receptor overexpression. AU - Scicchitano, Bianca Maria. AU - Adamo, S.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - The maintenance of a working skeletal musculature is conferred by its capacity to regenerate after mechanical or pathological injury. Most muscle pathologies are characterized by the progressive loss of muscle tissue due to chronic degeneration combined with the inability of the regeneration machinery to replace damaged myofibers. Cachexia or muscle wasting is characterized by a loss of adipose and muscle mass associated with a compromised muscle regenerative ability. Arg-vasopressin (AVP) is a potent myogenesis promoting factor and activates both the calcineurin and CaMK pathways, whose combined activation leads to the formation of transcription factor complexes in vitro. The local over-expression of V1a AVP receptor (V1aR) in injured muscle results in enhanced regeneration. V1aR over-expressing muscle ...
Breaking up prolonged sitting has been beneficially associated with cardiometabolic risk markers in both observational and intervention studies. We aimed to define the acute transcriptional events induced in skeletal muscle by breaks in sedentary time. Overweight/obese adults participated in a randomized three-period, three-treatment crossover trial in an acute setting. The three 5-h interventions were performed in the postprandial state after a standardized test drink and included seated position with no activity and seated with 2-min bouts of light- or moderate-intensity treadmill walking every 20 min. Vastus lateralis biopsies were obtained in eight participants after each treatment, and gene expression was examined using microarrays validated with real-time quantitative PCR. There were 75 differentially expressed genes between the three conditions. Pathway analysis indicated the main biological functions affected were related to small-molecule biochemistry, cellular development, growth and ...
Definition of skeletal muscle cell in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is skeletal muscle cell? Meaning of skeletal muscle cell as a legal term. What does skeletal muscle cell mean in law?
Schrauwen, P., Xia, J., Walder, K., Snitker, S. and Ravussin, E. 1999, A novel polymorphism in the proximal UCP3 promoter region: effect on skeletal muscle UCP3 mRNA expression and obesity in male non-diabetic Pima Indians, International journal of obesity, vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 1242-1245, doi: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0801057. ...
Skeletal muscle atrophy is thought to result from hyperactivation of intracellular protein degradation pathways including autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. actin (HSA) MLN2238 promoter (KO mice) and subjected them to denervation. The plantaris muscles a fast-twitch glycolytic skeletal muscle from both KO and control (KO mice showed resistance to denervation at 7 d after denervation (Fig.?1B-D; Fig. S2A). However the soleus muscles from KO mice and control mice exhibited comparable muscle mass and myofiber size at 14 d after denervation. Notably dead myofibers were frequently observed in the KO soleus muscles at 14 d (Fig.?1C). The enhanced cell death at 14 d most likely contributes to the shrinking of the soleus muscle of KO mice. The phenotypes of soleus muscles of KO mice at 14 d after denervation are coincident with the previous study.4 However the phenotypes at a period earlier than 14 d after denervation were not investigated in that study. Thus our finding seemed to reflect ...
OBJECTIVE Fat metabolism is increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Endurance training has been shown to prevent hepatic steatosis and to alter skeletal muscle fat metabolism, and regional free fatty acid (FFA) uptake adaptations were suggested as a mechanism. Thus, we tested whether endurance training modifies the uptake of plasma FFAs occurring in the liver and in skeletal muscle during anabolic, i.e., hyperinsulinemic, conditions. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Trained and untrained healthy male subjects underwent positron emission tomography scanning of the liver and thigh regions, with the FFA analog 14(R,S)-[(18)F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid, during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia. Tracer influx rate constants in skeletal muscle (MK(i)) and liver (LK(i)) were multiplied by plasma FFA levels to obtain FFA uptake for skeletal muscle (MFU) and liver (LFU), respectively. RESULTS Athletes showed increased Vo(2max) (P | 0.0001), insulin-mediated glucose disposal (M value, 61 +/
Results. Coffee appears to induce autophagy, meaning that it upregulates the activity. This can prevent the accumulation of damaged protein and cellular components, optimizing function.. Two components of coffee, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid appear to increase skeletal muscle glucose transport into the cell. It also increases sensitivity to insulin.. Finally, coffee intake attenuates the loss of muscle mass and strength that occurs with age. It also appears to increase the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle in the aging adult.. Conclusions. Coffee appears to have multiple beneficial effects on skeletal muscle.. Regarding autophagy, coffee appears to help the body sweep up the damaged cellular products which can improve overall cellular activity.. It improves insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake, important not only for physical activity but for disease prevention.. Finally, it blunts the age-related skeletal muscle loss effects that occur naturally, known as sarcopenia, and may ...
The reduced capacity of insulin to stimulate glucose transport into skeletal muscle, termed insulin resistance, is a primary defect leading to the development of prediabetes and overt type 2 diabetes. Although the etiology of this skeletal muscle insulin resistance is multifactorial, there is accumulating evidence that one contributor is overactivity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Angiotensin II (ANG II) produced from this system can act on ANG II type 1 receptors both in the vascular endothelium and in myocytes, with an enhancement of the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Evidence from animal model and cultured skeletal muscle cell line studies indicates ANG II can induce insulin resistance. Chronic ANG II infusion into an insulin-sensitive rat produces a markedly insulin-resistant state that is associated with a negative impact of ROS on the skeletal muscle glucose transport system. ANG II treatment of L6 myocytes causes impaired insulin receptor substrate ...
A growing body of literature indicated the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration of skeletal muscle cells changes significantly during exercise-induced fatigue. But it is confusing whether cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration increase or decrease. Furthermore, current researches mainly adopt muscle tissue homogenate as experiment material, but the studies based on cellular and subcellular level is seldom. This study is aimed to establish rat skeletal muscle cell model of exercise-induced fatigue, and confirm the change of cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration of skeletal muscle cells in rats preand post- exercise-induced fatigue. In this research, six male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control group (n=3) and exercise-induced fatigue group (n=3). The former group were allowed to freely move and the latter were forced to loaded swimming to exhaustive. Three days later, all the rats were sacrificed, the muscle tissue from the same site of skeletal muscle were taken out and digested to ...
Mitochondria play a key role in the energy metabolism in skeletal muscle. A new concept has emerged suggesting that impaired mitochondrial oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle may be the underlying defect that causes insulin resistance. According to current knowledge, the causes and the underlying molecular mechanisms at the origin of decreased mitochondrial oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle still remain to be elucidated. The present review focuses on recent data investigating these issues in the area of metabolic disorders and describes the potential causes, mechanisms and consequences of mitochondrial dysfunction in the skeletal muscle.
It is concluded that: Plasma leucine decreased and plasma and muscle ammonia increased following sprint exercise and more so in in males than females. Such changes might counteract a possible sprint exercise-induced stimulation of muscle protein synthesis. There was some activation of mTOR signalling in skeletal muscle following sprint exercise and more so in females than males. The larger increase in serum insulin and lower decrease in plasma leucine in females might have contributed to the enhanced signalling response in females. Oral ingestion of essential amino acids and carbohydrates, as compared to placebo, resulted in a markedly higher activation of Akt/mTOR signalling in skeletal muscle following sprint exercise. In contrast to the hypothesis, an oral ingestion of essential amino acids and carbohydrates did not result in an increased activation of hVps34 in skeletal muscle. However, this does not exclude the permissive role of hVps34 in mediating the amino acidinduced activation of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lower physical activity is associated with skeletal muscle fat content in girls. AU - Farr, Joshua Nicholas. AU - Van Loan, Marta D.. AU - Lohman, Timothy G.. AU - Going, Scott B.. PY - 2012/7. Y1 - 2012/7. N2 - Fat contained within skeletal muscle is strongly associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. Physical inactivity may be a risk factor for greater fat infiltration within skeletal muscle during growth. Purpose: We sought to examine the relationship between physical activity and skeletal muscle fat content of the calf and thigh in girls. Methods: Data from 464 girls, age 8-13 yr, were used to examine the relationship between physical activity and skeletal muscle fat content of the calf and thigh. Calf and thigh muscle density (mg•cm), an index of skeletal muscle fat content, was assessed at the 66% tibia and 20% femur sites relative to the respective distal growth plates of the nondominant limb using peripheral quantitative computed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Skeletal muscle insulin resistance. T2 - the interplay of local lipid excess and mitochondrial dysfunction. AU - Chow, Lisa S. AU - From, Arthur H. AU - Seaquist, Elizabeth R. PY - 2010/1. Y1 - 2010/1. N2 - This review explores the complex relationship between excess lipid exposure, mitochondrial dysfunction, and insulin resistance at the level of human skeletal muscle. Lipotoxicity, that is, the elevation of lipids and/or associated lipid metabolites within blood and tissues with subsequent metabolic derangement, has been proposed as a possible mechanism of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Intravenous lipid infusion is a well-documented method of inducing insulin resistance. Although IMCL content has been correlated with insulin resistance, there is increasing evidence that lipid metabolites such as 4-HNE, DAG, ceramide, and LC-CoA may play a more significant role than TGs in producing skeletal muscle insulin resistance. The association between mitochondrial dysfunction and ...
Purpose: Erythropoietin (EPO) is a renal cytokine that is primarily involved in hematopoiesis while also playing a role in non-hematopoietic tissues expressing the EPO-receptor (EPOR). The EPOR is present in human skeletal muscle. In mouse skeletal muscle, EPO stimulation can activate the AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (AKT) signaling pathway, the main positive regulator of muscle protein synthesis. We hypothesized that a single intravenous EPO injection combined with acute resistance exercise would have a synergistic effect on skeletal muscle protein synthesis via activation of the AKT pathway.Methods: Ten young (24.2 ± 0.9 years) and 10 older (66.6 ± 1.1 years) healthy subjects received a primed, constant infusion of [ring-13C6] L-phenylalanine and a single injection of 10,000 IU epoetin-beta or placebo in a double-blind randomized, cross-over design. 2 h after the injection, the subjects completed an acute bout of leg extension resistance exercise to stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis
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Skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs) are involved in remodeling and hypertrophy processes of skeletal muscle. However, little knowledge exists on extrinsic factors that influence the content of SCs in skeletal muscle. In a comparative human study, we investigated the muscle fiber type-specific association between emergence of satellite cells (SCs), muscle growth, and remodeling in response to 12 wk unilateral resistance training performed as eccentric (Ecc) or concentric (Conc) resistance training ± whey protein (Whey, 19.5 g protein + 19.5 g glucose) or placebo (Placebo, 39 g glucose) supplementation. Muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were analyzed for fiber type-specific SCs, myonuclei, and fiber cross-sectional area (CSA). Following training, SCs increased with Conc in both type I and type II fibers (P , 0.01) and exhibited a group difference from Ecc (P , 0.05), which did not increase. Myonuclei content in type I fibers increased in all groups (P , 0.01), while a specific accretion of ...
View more ,Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is characterized by stenosis and occlusion of the lower limb arteries. Although leg blood flow is limited in PAD, it remains unclear whether skeletal muscle microvascular perfusion is affected. We compared whole leg blood flow and calf muscle microvascular perfusion after cuff occlusion and submaximal leg exercise between patients with PAD (n = 12, 69 ± 9 yr) and healthy age-matched control participants (n = 12, 68 ± 7 yr). Microvascular blood flow (microvascular volume × flow velocity) of the medial gastrocnemius muscle was measured before and immediately after the following: 1) 5 min of thigh-cuff occlusion, and 2) a 5-min bout of intermittent isometric plantar-flexion exercise (400 N) using real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Whole leg blood flow was measured after thigh-cuff occlusion and during submaximal plantar-flexion exercise using strain-gauge plethysmography. Postocclusion whole leg blood flow and calf muscle microvascular perfusion ...
Title:Adult Stem Cells and Skeletal Muscle Regeneration. VOLUME: 15 ISSUE: 4. Author(s):Domiziana Costamagna, Emanuele Berardi, Gabriele Ceccarelli and Maurilio Sampaolesi. Affiliation:Translational Cardiomyology Laboratory, Stem Cell Institute Leuven, KU Leuven, Belgium.. Keywords:Adult stem cells, Muscular dystrophy, Skeletal muscle regeneration.. Abstract:Satellite cells are unipotent stem cells involved in muscle regeneration. However, the skeletal muscle microenvironment exerts a dominant influence over stem cell function. The cell intrinsic complexity of the skeletal muscle niche located within the connective tissue between fibers includes motor neurons, tendons, blood vessels, immune response mediators and interstitial cells. All these cell types modulate the trafficking of stimuli responsible of muscle fiber regeneration. In addition, several stem cell types have been discovered in skeletal muscle tissue, mainly located in the interstitium. The majority of these stem cells appears to ...
Baak, M.A. van; Haan, A. de; Saris, W.H.M.; Kordelaar, E. van; Kuipers, H.; Vusse, G.J. van der, 1995: Beta -Adrenoceptor blockage and skeletal muscle energy metabolism during endurance exercise
The primary aim of our study was to validate the assessment of myonuclear and satellite cell number in biopsies from human skeletal muscle. We found that 25 type I and 25 type II fibers are sufficient to estimate the mean number of myonuclei per fiber. In contrast, the assessment of satellite cells improved when more fibers were included. Second, we report that small differences in counting satellite cells using CD56 and Pax7 antibodies can be attributed to the different staining profiles. Third, we provide support for the use of Ki67 in evaluating the proportion of active satellite cells. We observed very few (up to 1.3%) active satellite cells in healthy adult skeletal muscle at rest, but they increased significantly (up to 7-fold) following muscle activity. This study provides valuable tools to assess the behavior of satellite cells, both in pathological conditions and in response to physiological stimuli.. ...
Acute muscle soreness is the pain felt in muscles during and immediately after strenuous physical exercise. The pain appears within a minute of contracting the muscle and disappears within two or three minutes or up to several hours after relaxing it. The following causes have been proposed for acute muscle soreness: Accumulation of chemical end products of exercise in muscle cells, such as H+ Tissue edema caused by the shifting of blood plasma into the muscle tissue during contraction Muscle fatigue (the muscle tires and cannot contract any more) Acute muscle soreness reflects one form of exercise-induced muscle damage, the other being delayed onset muscle soreness, which appears between 24 and 72 hours after exercise. Michael Kjaer; Michael Krogsgaard; Peter Magnusson; Lars Engebretsen; Harald Roos; Timo Takala; Savio Woo (2008). Textbook of Sports Medicine: Basic Science and Clinical Aspects of Sports Injury and Physical Activity. John Wiley and Sons. p. 722. ISBN 978-1-4051-4057-7. Jack H. ...
Skeletal muscle atrophy is caused by a variety of diseases and conditions. In particular, skeletal muscle atrophy in the elderly contributes to a loss of independence with advanced age and increases the risk of falling. However, the effect of food consumed on a daily basis on skeletal muscle atrophy has been the focus of little research. In this study, the effects of dietary supplementation with shiikuwasha extract or grape extract on dexamethasone-induced skeletal muscle atrophy were evaluated in aged rats. Aged male rats (15-month-old) were fed a diet supplemented with either 1 % shiikuwasha extract or 1 % grape extract for 19 days. During the last 5 days of the feeding period, rats were injected with dexamethasone to induce muscle atrophy. Body weight and hind-limb muscle weight were significantly decreased by dexamethasone treatment. The supplementation of shiikuwasha extract showed no effect on body weight loss, but markedly attenuated tibialis anterior muscle weight loss induced by dexamethasone.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanisms for fiber-type specificity of skeletal muscle atrophy. AU - Wang, Yichen. AU - Pessin, Jeffrey E.. PY - 2013/5/1. Y1 - 2013/5/1. N2 - PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are a variety of pathophysiologic conditions that are known to induce skeletal muscle atrophy. However, muscle wasting can occur through multiple distinct signaling pathways with differential sensitivity between selective skeletal muscle fiber subtypes. This review summarizes some of the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for fiber-specific muscle mass regulation. RECENT FINDINGS: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha protects slow-twitch oxidative fibers from denervation/immobilization (disuse)-induced muscle atrophies. Nutrient-related muscle atrophies, such as those induced by cancer cachexia, sepsis, chronic heart failure, or diabetes, are largely restricted to fast-twitch glycolytic fibers, of which the underlying mechanism is usually related to abnormality of protein ...
1Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada, 2Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada. Introduction: In reconstructive surgery, skeletal muscle may endure protracted ischemia before reperfusion which may lead to significant ischemia/reperfusion injury. Other investigators reported that low local hypothermia (local cooling at 4-10°C) significantly reduced ischemia/reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle of different species of laboratory animals. However, this range of severe low local hypothermia is known to induce capillary damage. More recently, other investigators reported that low local mild hypothermia at 32-34°C significantly reduced ischemia/reperfusion injury in rabbit rectus femoris muscle in vivo. However, this infarct protective effect of low local hypothermia has not been tested in human skeletal muscle. The objective of this study was to use our established ex vivo human skeletal muscle culture model to study the efficacy of low local mild hypothermia (30-32°C) in ...
Skeletal muscle cells are terminally differentiated and require the activation of muscle progenitor (satellite) cells for their regeneration. There is a clinical need for faster and more efficient treatment methods for acute muscle injuries, and the stimulation of satellite cell proliferation is promising in this context. In this study, we designed and synthesized a laminin-mimetic bioactive peptide (LM/E-PA) system that is capable of accelerating satellite cell activation by emulating the structure and function of laminin, a major protein of the basal membrane of the skeletal muscle. The LM/E-PA nanofibers enhance myogenic differentiation in vitro and the clinical relevance of the laminin-mimetic bioactive scaffold system was demonstrated further by assessing its effect on the regeneration of acute muscle injury in a rat model. Laminin mimetic peptide nanofibers significantly promoted satellite cell activation in skeletal muscle and accelerated myofibrillar regeneration following acute muscle ...
Lab Exercise 10: Muscle Tissue and Physiology. 10A Overview of Muscle Tissue. Procedure: Identifying the Three Types of Muscle Tissue. 10B Structure and Function of Skeletal Muscle Fibers. Procedure: Identifying the Structures of a Skeletal Muscle Fiber. 10C Skeletal Muscle Contraction and Relaxation. Procedure 1: Understanding Skeletal Muscle Contraction and Relaxation. Procedure 2: Observing Skeletal Muscle Contraction Using Glycerinated Muscle. 10D Isotonic and Isometric Contractions. Procedure: Demonstrating Isotonic and Isometric Contractions. 10E Muscle Fatigue. Procedure: Demonstrating Muscle Fatigue. 10F PhysioEx™ Activities. PEx Activity 1: The Muscle Twitch and the Latent Period. PEx Activity 2: The Effect of Stimulus Voltage on Skeletal Muscle Contraction. PEx Activity 3: The Effect of Stimulus Frequency on Skeletal Muscle Contraction. PEx Activity 4: Tetanus in Isolated Skeletal Muscle. PEx Activity 5: Fatigue in Isolated Skeletal Muscle. PEx Activity 6: Skeletal Muscle ...
Skeletal muscle is a major insulin-target tissue and plays an important role in glucose homeostasis. Impaired insulin action in muscles leads to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. 5′ AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor, its activation increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and AMPK activators have been viewed as a targeted approach in combating insulin resistance. We previously reported AMPK activation and increased muscle glucose uptake by rosemary extract (RE). In the present study, we examined the effects and the mechanism of action of rosmarinic acid (RA), a major RE constituent, in L6 rat muscle cells. RA (5.0 μM) increased glucose uptake (186 ± 4.17% of control, p , 0.001) to levels comparable to maximum insulin (204 ± 10.73% of control, p , 0.001) and metformin (202 ± 14.37% of control, p , 0.001). Akt phosphorylation was not affected by RA, while AMPK phosphorylation was increased. The RAstimulated glucose uptake was inhibited by the AMPK inhibitor ...
Objective: This review aims at evaluating studies investigating the effects of anaesthesia on skeletal muscle blood flow and associated cardiovascular function in anaesthetized horses and discusses how the results of these studies contribute to our understanding of the pathogenesis and prevention of post-anaesthetic myopathy. Database used: Pubmed & personal files. Conclusion: There is little published information on the effects of anaesthesia on skeletal muscle blood flow in horses. Available reports predominantly refer to halothane and isoflurane. The effects of vasoactive drugs have mainly been studied in halothane-anaesthetized horses. The results of these studies support the importance of cardiac output in the maintenance of adequate arterial blood pressure, perfusion pressure and muscle blood flow. Adequate perfusion pressure appears to be important for overcoming the detrimental effects of high intra-compartmental pressure in dependent muscles and hydrostatic pressure in nondependent ...
BOULDER, Colo. - Edgewise Therapeutics, Inc., (NASDAQ: EWTX), a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on developing orally bioavailable, small molecule therapies for rare muscle disorders, today announced the publication of the first cross-sectional, retrospective study to describe selective elevation of fast but not slow skeletal muscle fiber injury biomarkers in the blood of patients with Becker and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (BMD, DMD) in the journal, Muscle & Nerve.. Human skeletal muscle is composed of fast and slow fibers in roughly equal proportion. Previous studies have demonstrated that DMD patient muscle is more prone to fast fiber injury compared to slow fiber injury. This study extends these findings to examine fiber-type specific biomarkers of muscle injury in patient blood. The results build on previous reports and suggest that slow skeletal muscle fibers do not appear to leak muscle proteins associated with muscle injury and damage in BMD and DMD. Furthermore, the ...
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Skeletal muscle metabolism is highly dependent on mitochondrial function, with impaired mitochondrial biogenesis associated with the development of metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Mitochondria display substantial plasticity in skeletal muscle, and are highly sensitive to levels of physical activity. It is thought that physical activity promotes mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle through increased expression of genes encoded in both the nuclear and the mitochondrial genome; however, how this process is co-ordinated at the cellular level is poorly understood. Nuclear receptors (NRs) are key signalling proteins capable of integrating environmental factors and mitochondrial function, thereby providing a potential link between exercise and mitochondrial biogenesis. The aim of this review is to highlight the function of NRs in skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and discuss the therapeutic potential of NRs for the management and treatment of chronic ...
Skeletal muscle satellite cells located between the plasma membrane and the basal lamina of muscle fibres, could for many years, only be studied in situ by electron microscopy. The introduction of immunohistochemistry and the discovery of molecular markers of satellite cells then made them accessible for light microscopic studies and a wealth of information is today available. Satellite cells are myogenic stem cells that can be activated from a quiescent state to proliferate for self-renewal or differentiate into myogenic cells. The satellite cells are involved in muscle growth during fetal and postnatal development and play a key role in repair and regeneration of damaged muscle fibres. The satellite cells are also essential for muscle fibre hypertrophy and maintenance of muscle mass in the adult. When the present thesis was initiated, studies on satellite cells in human skeletal muscle relied on the neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) as a marker for satellite cell identification. The ...
1. The functional properties of tibialis anterior muscles of normal adult (C57BL/10) and age-matched dystrophin-deficient (C57BL/10 mdx) mice have been investigated in situ. Comparisons were made between tibialis anterior muscle strength, rates of force development and relaxation, force-frequency responses and fatiguability. Subjecting mdx and C57 muscles to a regimen of eccentric exercise allowed the hypothesis to be tested that dystrophin-deficient muscles are more susceptible to exercise-induced muscle damage.. 2. mdx muscles were, on average, 30% stronger than C57 muscles and almost 80% heavier, but both had similar muscle lengths. Thus, although mdx muscles were stronger in absolute terms, their estimated force per unit cross-sectional area was significantly less than that of C57 muscles.. 3. The force-frequency relationships of C57 and mdx muscles differed in that whilst, at 40 Hz, the former developed 70% of the force developed at 100 Hz, the latter developed only 55% of the maximal ...
Coordinating the balance between progenitor self-renewal and myogenic differentiation is required for a regulated expansion of the developing muscles. Previous observation that neural crest cells (NCCs) migrate throughout the somite regions, where trunk skeletal muscles first emerge, suggests a potential role for these cells in influencing early muscle formation. However, specific signaling interactions between NCCs and skeletal muscle cells remain unknown. Here we show that mice with specific NCC and peripheral nervous system defects display impaired survival of skeletal muscle and show skeletal muscle progenitor cell (MPC) depletion due to precocious commitment to differentiation. We show that reduced NCC-derived Neuregulin1 (Nrg1) in the somite region perturbs ErbB3 signaling in uncommitted MPCs. Using a combination of explant culture experiments and genetic ablation in the mouse, we demonstrate that Nrg1 signals provided by the NCC lineage play a critical role in sustainable myogenesis, by ...
Several other research groups have studied PCr kinetics as a noninvasive and in vivo proxy for mitochondrial function in chronic HF patients using 31P MRS. Observational studies on skeletal muscle energetics from the past century showed that symptomatic HF patients had impaired oxidative mitochondrial capacity of the forearm flexor muscle compared to healthy controls.11 More recently, Weiss et al12 studied calf muscle energetics using 31P MRS in both heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) patients. Compared to healthy controls and HFrEF patients, HFpEF patients showed the most impaired oxidative skeletal muscle metabolism, already at low exercise intensity. Moreover, the PCr recovery rate in both HFrEF and HFpEF patients was markedly longer, with most delay in HFpEF patients.12 Another study confirmed these findings in a cohort of chronic HF patients who underwent 31P MRS of the calf muscle. HF patients had lower PCr at ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Exercise training impacts skeletal muscle gene expression related to the kynurenine pathway. AU - Allison, David J.. AU - Nederveen, Joshua P.. AU - Snijders, Tim. AU - Bell, Kirsten E.. AU - Kumbhare, Dinesh. AU - Phillips, Stuart M.. AU - Parise, Gianni. AU - Heisz, Jennifer J.. PY - 2019/3. Y1 - 2019/3. KW - aging. KW - kynurenine. KW - PGC-1 alpha. KW - physical activity. KW - skeletal muscle. KW - DEPRESSION. KW - ACID. U2 - 10.1152/ajpcell.00448.2018. DO - 10.1152/ajpcell.00448.2018. M3 - Article. VL - 316. SP - C444-C448. JO - American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology. JF - American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology. SN - 0363-6143. IS - 3. ER - ...
Few nutritional markers reflect the hypermetabolic state of athletes with high levels of skeletal muscle. Although branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) play crucial roles in protein metabolism in skeletal muscle, the relationship between skeletal muscle mass and amino acid imbalances caused by the metabolism of BCAA and aromatic amino acids remains unclear. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that athletes with high levels of skeletal muscle mass have plasma amino acid imbalances, assessed by serum BCAA to tyrosine ratio (BTR) which can be measured conveniently. The study enrolled 111 young Japanese men: 70 wrestling athletes and 41 controls. None of them were under any medications, extreme dietary restrictions or intense exercise regimens. Each participants body composition, serum concentrations of albumin and rapid turnover proteins including transthyretin and transferrin, BTR, and thyroid function were assessed. Compared to the controls, the athletes had significantly higher skeletal muscle
We have previously shown that non-specific blockade of the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes in skeletal muscle eliminates the normal increase in muscle protein synthesis following resistance exercise. The current study tested the hypothesis that this COX-mediated increase in postexercise muscle protein synthesis is specifically regulated by the COX-2 isoform. Sixteen males (23 ± 1 yr, 177 ± 2 cm, 81.5 ± 3.4 kg) were randomly assigned to one of two groups that received three doses of either a specific COX-2 inhibitor (celecoxib; 200 mg per dose, 600 mg total) or a placebo during the 24 hours following a single bout of resistance exercise with the knee extensors. Skeletal muscle fractional synthesis rate (FSR) was measured at rest and 24 hours postexercise using a primed constant infusion of [2H5]phenylalanine coupled with muscle biopsies of the vastus lateralis. Mixed muscle FSR was increased following exercise to a greater extent (206%, P,0.05) in the COX-2 group (0.052 ± 0.014 %Ih) as compared ...
OBJECTIVE: Physical activity and circadian rhythms are well-established determinants of human health and disease, but the relationship between muscle activity and the circadian regulation of muscle genes is a relatively new area of research. It is unknown whether muscle activity and muscle clock rhythms are coupled together, nor whether activity rhythms can drive circadian gene expression in skeletal muscle. METHODS: We compared the circadian transcriptomes of two mouse hindlimb muscles with vastly different circadian activity patterns, the continuously active slow soleus and the sporadically active fast tibialis anterior, in the presence or absence of a functional skeletal muscle clock (skeletal muscle-specific Bmal1 KO). In addition, we compared the effect of denervation on muscle circadian gene expression. RESULTS:We found that different skeletal muscles exhibit major differences in their circadian transcriptomes, yet core clock gene oscillations were essentially identical in fast and slow ...
Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of using combined glucose and fructose (GF) ingestion as a means to stimulate short-term (4 h) postexercise muscle glycogen synthesis compared to glucose only (G). Methods: On two separate occasions, six endurance-trained men performed an exhaustive glycogen-depleting exercise bout followed by a 4-h recovery period. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle at 0, 1, and 4 h after exercise. Subjects ingested carbohydrate solutions containing G (90 gIhj1) or GF (G = 60 gIhj1; F = 30 gIhj1) commencing immediately after exercise and every 30 min thereafter. Results: Immediate postexercise muscle glycogen concentrations were similar in both trials (G = 128 T 25 mmolIkgj1 dry muscle (dm) vs GF = 112 T 16 mmolIkgj1 dm; P 9 0.05). Total glycogen storage during the 4-h recovery period was 176 T 33 and 155 T 31 mmolIkgj1 dm for G and GF, respectively (G vs GF, P 9 0.05). Hence, mean muscle glycogen synthesis rates during the 4-h recovery period ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of muscle glycogen availability on ERK1/2 and Akt signaling after resistance exercise in human skeletal muscle. AU - Creer, Andrew. AU - Gallagher, Philip. AU - Slivka, Dustin. AU - Jemiolo, Bozena. AU - Fink, William. AU - Trappe, Scott. PY - 2005/9. Y1 - 2005/9. N2 - Two pathways that have been implicated for cellular growth and development in response to muscle contraction are the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and Akt signaling pathways. Although these pathways are readily stimulated after exercise, little is known about how nutritional status may affect stimulation of these pathways in response to resistance exercise in human skeletal muscle. To investigate this, experienced cyclists performed 30 repetitions of knee extension exercise at 70% of one repetition maximum after a low (2%) or high (77%) carbohydrate (LCHO or HCHO) diet, which resulted in low or high (∼174 or ∼591 mmol/kg dry wt) preexercise muscle glycogen content. Muscle biopsies ...
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Fatigue of intact skeletal muscle is the failure of a muscle to generate maximal force resulting from sustained exercise. Many theories regarding the etiology of muscle fatigue have been described, and they most likely all play a role in reducing the force-generating capacity of muscle following exercise. This paper describes the evidence behind fatigue stemming from the reduction of motor cortical drive to skeletal muscle in response to communication from type III/IV sensory afferent neurons. Studies demonstrate that these nerves are activated in response to increased concentrations of metabolic byproducts in skeletal muscle, mechanical stimulation from muscle contraction, and thermal energy. Their downstream effects impact the activity of the motor cortex and ability of the corticospinal tract to conduct electrical signals to lower motor neurons.
Rudnick, J.; Püttmann, B.; Tesch, P.A.; Alkner, Börn.; Schoser, B.G.H.; Salanova, M.; Kirsch, K.; Gunga, H-christian.; Schiffl, G.; Lück, G.; Blottner, D., 2004: Differential expression of nitric oxide synthases (NOS 1-3) in human skeletal muscle following exercise countermeasure during 12 weeks of bed rest
Tarantula has been used as a model system for studying skeletal muscle structure and function, yet data on the genes expressed in tarantula muscle are lacking. We constructed a cDNA library from Aphonopelma sp. (Tarantula) skeletal muscle and got 2507 high-quality 5ESTs (expressed sequence tags) from randomly picked clones. EST analysis showed 305 unigenes, among which 81 had more than 2 ESTs. Twenty abundant unigenes had matches to skeletal muscle-related genes including actin, myosin, tropomyosin, troponin-I, T and C, paramyosin, muscle LIM protein, muscle protein 20, a-actinin and tandem Ig/Fn motifs (found in giant sarcomere-related proteins). Matches to myosin light chain kinase and calponin were also identified. These results support the existence of both actin-linked and myosin-linked regulation in tarantula skeletal muscle. We have predicted full-length as well as partial cDNA sequences both experimentally and computationally for myosin heavy and light chains, actin, tropomyosin, and troponin-I
After excitation of skeletal muscle, the disturbed ion homeostasis is restored by Na+, K+ ATPase of the sarcolemma and Ca2+ ATPase of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Contrary to Na+, K+ ATPase, the concentration and isoenzyme distribution of SR Ca2+ ATPase in human skeletal muscle depend on fibre type and age. In cultured human muscle cells the concentration and activity of Na+, K+ ATPase and SR Ca2+ ATPase increase with maturation. In skeletal muscle and cultured muscle cells of patients suffering from myotonic dystrophy (MyD), the activity and the concentration of both Na+, K+ ATPase and SR Ca2+ ATPase are decreased by about 40%. In addition, we measured in cultured MyD muscle cells at rest an increased cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) caused by active voltage-operated Ca2+ channels, which are inactive in resting control cells. However, the restoration of a stimulus-induced Ca2+ transient is unaffected. A differentiation-related disturbance of membranes or a modulation defect of membrane
The skeletal muscles together with the heart muscle are composed of striated muscle tissue that forms parallel muscle fibers. Striated muscle tissue consists of myocytes arranged in long and thin multinucleated fibers that are crossed with a regular pattern of fine red and white lines, giving the muscle its distinctive appearance and its name. There are two types (fast and slow) of muscle fibers depending on the type of myosin present. These fiber types can not be distinguished in an ordinary hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining.. Development and normal activity of skeletal muscle are dependent and closely integrated with the nervous system. Skeletal muscles are attached to the bone and contract voluntarily (via nerve stimulation) as opposed to the other common types of muscle, i.e. cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.. The major cell type in skeletal muscle is the myocyte. Myocytes are fused together during development to form large multinucleated cells called syncytia. The cells are rich in ...
The excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle is modulated by nitric oxide via redox status modification of ryanodine receptor on sarcoplasmic reticulum during events that lead to muscle contraction. We have synthesized a derivative of antilipidemic drug gemfibrozil, in which a NO-donor furoxan mojety is joined to the fibrate by an ester linkage. Aim of the present study is to determine if the NO released from the above compound is capable to influence the NO-sensible EC coupling steps in skeletal muscle and if this effect could be potentially utilised for physiopathological studies and pharmaceutical applications. To obtain this goal we decided to study some of the excitation-contraction mechanisms in the presence of NO-releasing derivative of gemfibrozil in skeletal muscle C2C12 cell line.. ...
The serial sarcomere number of skeletal muscle changes in response to chronic length perturbation. The role of the intermediate filament desmin in regulating these changes was investigated by comparing the architectural adaptations of the tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus from wild-type mice with those of homozygous desmin knockout mice after hindlimb immobilization. After 28 days, serial sarcomere number increased significantly in the lengthened wild-type tibialis anterior (by approximately 9 %) and EDL (by approximately 17 %). Surprisingly, muscles from desmin knockout mice also experienced significant serial remodeling, with the serial sarcomere number of the tibialis anterior increasing by approximately 10 % and that of the EDL by approximately 27 %. A consistent result was observed in the shortened soleus: a significant decrease in sarcomere number was observed in the muscles from both wild-type (approximately 26 %) and knockout (approximately 12 %) mice. Thus, ...
In this report we demonstrate for the first time that activation of the dopamine 1/5 receptors results in increased skeletal muscle cAMP, increased non-atrophying muscle mass and reduced atrophy-induced loss of muscle mass and force production. By using knockout mice to differentiate the effects of activation of the dopamine 1 receptor from that of the dopamine 5 receptor, we demonstrate that both the dopamine 1 and dopamine 5 receptors mediate the anti-atrophy effects of the dopamine 1/5 receptor selective agonist SKF 81297. Genetic removal of the dopamine 1 receptor (with maintenance of the dopamine 5 receptor) results in a complete loss of the SKF 81297 mediated EDL mass/force preservation, data consistent with the idea that the dopamine 1 receptor mediates the effects of SKF 81297. In contrast, genetic removal of the dopamine 5 receptor (with maintenance of the dopamine 1 receptor) resulted in a partial loss of SKF 81297 mediated EDL mass/force preservation, data that is inconsistent with ...
Bochikun Hallux Valgus Supporter Foot Painfoot Pain Bochikun Abductor Hallucis Strain Abductor Hallucis Strain Abductor Hallucis Strain Ottawa Foot Clinic, Abductor Hallucis Strain Abductor Hallucis Strainsymptomscausestreatment Cold Therapy, Abductor Hallucis Strainsymptomscausestreatment Cold Therapy Abductor Hallucis Strain, Bochikun Hallux Valgus Supporter Foot Painfoot Pain Bochikun Abductor Hallucis Strain, ...
Here, the protein-coding genes expressed in the skeletal muscle are described and characterized, together with examples of immunohistochemically stained tissue sections that visualize protein expression patterns of proteins that correspond to genes with elevated expression in the skeletal muscle. Transcript profiling and RNA-data analyses based on normal human tissues have been described previously (Fagerberg et al., 2013). Analyses of mRNA expression including over 99% of all human protein-coding genes was performed using deep RNA sequencing of 124 individual samples corresponding to 32 different human normal tissue types. RNA sequencing results of 5 fresh frozen tissues representing normal skeletal muscle was compared to 119 other tissue samples corresponding to 31 tissue types, in order to determine genes with elevated expression in skeletal muscle. A tissue-specific score, defined as the ratio between mRNA levels in skeletal muscle compared to the mRNA levels in all other tissues, was used ...
BACKGROUND. Systemic inflammation and muscle wasting are highly prevalent and coexist in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). We aimed to determine the effects of systemic inflammation on skeletal muscle protein metabolism in MHD patients. METHODS. Whole body and skeletal muscle protein turnover were assessed by stable isotope kinetic studies. We incorporated expressions of E1, E214K, E3αI, E3αII, MuRF-1, and atrogin-1 in skeletal muscle tissue from integrin β1 gene KO CKD mice models. RESULTS. Among 129 patients with mean (± SD) age 47 ± 12 years, 74% were African American, 73% were male, and 22% had diabetes mellitus. Median high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentration was 13 (interquartile range 0.8, 33) mg/l. There were statistically significant associations between hs-CRP and forearm skeletal muscle protein synthesis, degradation, and net forearm skeletal muscle protein balance (P , 0.001 for all). The associations remained statistically significant after ...
1. The incorporation into protein, and the accumulation into the free amino acid pools, of radioactive l-leucine and glycine was studied in rat extensor digitorum longus muscle. 2. The tissue was incubated first with 14C-labelled and then with 3H-labelled amino acid. 3. The experimental results were consistent with a model based on the premise that the amino acids in protein were incorporated directly from the extracellular pool.. ...
Skeletal muscle[edit]. Skeletal striated muscle, or "voluntary muscle", primarily joins to bone with tendons. Skeletal muscle ... This term typically describes the function of skeletal muscles.[5] Antagonist muscles are simply the muscles that produce an ... Muscle fibres[edit]. Different skeletal muscle types: A: fusiform. B: unipennate. C: bipennate. (P.C.S., physiological cross- ... Actions of skeletal muscle[edit]. As well as anatomical terms of motion, which describe the motion made by a muscle, unique ...
Skeletal muscle[edit]. Resistance training and subsequent consumption of a protein-rich meal promotes muscle hypertrophy and ... Developing research has demonstrated that many of the benefits of exercise are mediated through the role of skeletal muscle as ... Egan B, Zierath JR (February 2013). "Exercise metabolism and the molecular regulation of skeletal muscle adaptation". Cell ... Unaccustomed overexertion of muscles leads to rhabdomyolysis (damage to muscle) most often seen in new army recruits.[90] ...
Saltin, Bengt; Gollnick, Philip D. (1983). "Skeletal muscle adaptability: Significance for metabolism and performance". In ... Saltin, Bengt; Gollnick, Philip D. (2011). "Skeletal Muscle Adaptability: Significance for Metabolism and Performance". ... The ANS regulates contraction of smooth muscle and cardiac muscle, along with secretions of many endocrine organs such as the ... Anaerobic exercise, such as weight lifting, builds additional muscle mass. Muscle contributes to the fat-free mass of an ...
Affects skeletal and smooth muscle as well as the eye, heart, endocrine system, and central nervous system; clinical findings, ... skeletal deformities; chest and back (scoliosis); muscle deformities (contractures of heels, legs; pseudohypertrophy of calf ... Muscle weakness (rapidly progressive); frequent falls; difficulty with motor skills (running, hopping, jumping); progressive ... Predisposition of acute myeloid leukemia; skeletal abnormalities; radial hypoplasia and vertebral defect and other physical ...
The toxin or toxins paralyze muscle tissue - in particular: *Skeletal muscles. This results in the overt paralysis for which ... Respiratory muscles. Initially this results in rapid, shallow breathing with an inability to cough. In advanced stages it is ... Laryngeal muscles. This results in an altered 'voice' and an increased risk of aspiration pneumonia (inhalation of food, saliva ... Oesophageal muscle. This results in drooling (of saliva) and regurgitation. It increases the risks of choking and aspiration ...
"Structural organization of the perimysium in bovine skeletal muscle: Junctional plates and associated intracellular subdomains" ... This muscle article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Perimysium is a sheath of connective tissue that groups muscle fibers into bundles (anywhere between 10 and 100 or more) or ... Studies of muscle physiology suggest that the perimysium plays a role in transmitting lateral contractile movements. This ...
Good simulant for skeletal muscle. Provides dynamic view of event. HOSDB-NIJ Foam Neoprene foam, EVA foam, sheet rubber Elastic ... Song, Bo; Chen, Weinong; Ge, Yun; Weerasooriya, Tusit (2007). "Dynamic and quasi-static compressive response of porcine muscle ...
... was shown to ameliorate the age-related dysfunction of skeletal muscle by rescuing the function of aged muscle stem cells. In ... A 2017 study found that super-physiological levels of GDF11 induced muscle wasting in the skeletal muscle of mice.[48] ... Effect on cardiac and skeletal muscle aging[edit]. GDF11 has been identified as a blood circulating factor that has the ability ... Lee SJ, McPherron AC (October 1999). "Myostatin and the control of skeletal muscle mass". Current Opinion in Genetics & ...
... is present in cardiac and slow skeletal muscle and the fast skeletal form Calsequestrin-1(CASQ1) is found in fast skeletal ... Cala SE, Jones LR (January 1991). "Phosphorylation of cardiac and skeletal muscle calsequestrin isoforms by casein kinase II. ... crystal structure of calsequestrin from rabbit skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum at 2.4 a resolution ... "Crystal structure of calsequestrin from rabbit skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum". Nat. Struct. Biol. 5 (6): 476-83. doi: ...
... (symbol Mb or MB) is an iron- and oxygen-binding protein found in the skeletal muscle tissue of vertebrates in ... slow-twitch skeletal muscle fiber contraction. • response to hypoxia. • enucleate erythrocyte differentiation. • response to ... Myoglobin is a 17.8-kD protein that is found exclusively in skeletal muscle and that forms complexes with iron molecules.. ... Berridge BR, Van Vleet JF, Herman E (2013). "Cardiac, Vascular, and Skeletal Muscle Systems". Haschek and Rousseaux's Handbook ...
In particular, Wnt10b is a Wnt protein that increases this sensitivity in skeletal muscle cells. Since its initial discovery, ... Skeletal Muscle. 3 (1): 5. doi:10.1186/2044-5040-3-5. PMC 3602004. PMID 23497616. Malinauskas T, Jones EY (December 2014). " ... catenin signaling increases insulin sensitivity through a reciprocal regulation of Wnt10b and SREBP-1c in skeletal muscle cells ... These processes are necessary for proper formation of important tissues including bone, heart and muscle. Its role in embryonic ...
Alpha-dystroglycan in skeletal muscles helps to prevent the breakdown of muscle fibers through stabilization and protection. ... FCMD mainly affects the brain, eyes, and muscles, in particular, the disorder affects development of the skeletal muscles ... Use of the destabilized muscle fibers over time causes them to break down and a gradual decline in muscle tone and atrophy of ... Skeletal Muscle. 1: 22. doi:10.1186/2044-5040-1-22. ISSN 2044-5040. PMC 3156645. Fukuyama type muscular dystrophy at NIH's ...
Skeletal Muscle. 3 (1): 1. doi:10.1186/2044-5040-3-1. PMC 3599653. PMID 23282144. Crosbie RH, Heighway J, Venzke DP, Lee JC, ... is a 25-kDa transmembrane protein located in the dystrophin-associated protein complex of skeletal muscle cells, where it is ... Without SSPN, Akt signaling pathways will be hindered and muscle regeneration will not occur. The loss of dystrophin results in ... "Sarcospan-dependent Akt activation is required for utrophin expression and muscle regeneration". The Journal of Cell Biology. ...
... skeletal muscle > pancreas. Data from Human Protein Atlas and RNA-Seq based suggest TRPV6 mRNA is low in most tissues except ... Exome sequencing of an infant with severe antenatal onset thoracic insufficiency with accompanying fetal skeletal abnormalities ... skeletal deformities, osteoarthritis, male sterility, Pendred syndrome, and certain sub-types of Cancer. Peng et al identified ... the insufficient maternal-fetal transport caused by pathogenic genomic variants of TRPV6 is thought to be a cause for skeletal ...
Joseph E. Muscolino (14 April 2014). Kinesiology: The Skeletal System and Muscle Function. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 315-. ... or because of muscular weakness or tightness in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles."[9] Pronation can be influenced by ...
... and not cardiac muscle or smooth muscle. Myoblasts in skeletal muscle that do not form muscle fibers dedifferentiate back into ... The striated cells of cardiac and skeletal muscles are referred to as muscle fibers.[3] Cardiomyocytes are the muscle fibres ... Skeletal muscle fibers are made when myoblasts fuse together; muscle fibers therefore are cells with multiple nuclei, known as ... Isometric contractions are skeletal muscle contractions that do not cause movement of the muscle. However, isotonic ...
The skeletal muscles are severely hypoplastic. The defective gene associated with LCCS1 is mRNA export mediator GLE1 at ...
"Retraction Note". BMC - Skeletal Muscle. BioMed Central Ltd. Retrieved 2021-04-08. McCook, Alison. "Journals flag two papers by ...
Muscle hypertrophy List of biological development disorders Hernandez, Richard; Kravitz, Len. "Skeletal muscle hypertrophy". ... 20-22, ISBN 978-1-59377-189-8 University of California Muscle Physiology Home Page: Hypertrophy. ... showing thickening of the cardiac muscle Kidney hypertrophy Wellcome L0005308 Athlete's heart Ventricular hypertrophy ( ...
... is a congenital neuromuscular channelopathy that affects skeletal muscles (muscles used for movement). It is ... But once the muscles are warmed up, they can once again function normally. This can happen in various muscles, even in muscles ... In skeletal muscle fibers the equilibrium potential for Cl− is around -80 mV, equal to that of K+ at rest. Cl− moves towards ... In skeletal muscle fibers, a large transverse tubule system with a high surface-area to volume ratio exists. The onset of ...
Skeletal muscle spasmEdit. Pharmacotherapy may be used for acute musculoskeletal conditions when physical therapy is ... Smooth muscle spasmEdit. One type of antispasmodics is used for smooth muscle relaxation, especially in tubular organs of the ... Chou, Roger; Peterson, Kim; Helfand, Mark (2004). "Comparative efficacy and safety of skeletal muscle relaxants for spasticity ... An antispasmodic (synonym: spasmolytic) is a pharmaceutical drug or other agent that suppresses muscle spasms.[1] ...
myocyte (skeletal muscle). muscular system. *epinephrine → β-adrenergic receptor. *produce glucose *stimulate glycogenolysis * ... In skeletal muscleEdit. Protein Kinase A is directed to specific sub cellular locations after tethering to Protein kinase A ... Regulates Phosphorylation and Function of the Skeletal Muscle Ryanodine Receptor". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (27): ... myocyte (cardiac muscle). cardiovascular. *norepinephrine → β-adrenergic receptor. *sequester Ca2+ in sarcoplasmic reticulum * ...
"Endocrine Crosstalk Between Skeletal Muscle and the Brain". Frontiers in Neurology. 9: 698. doi:10.3389/fneur.2018.00698. ISSN ... motor neurons and skeletal muscle and it is also found in saliva.[13][14] ... Adducins are membrane-skeletal proteins that cap the growing ends of actin filaments and promote their association with ...
They are affected by footwork and skeletal alignment. For the most part, hard techniques are direct. The key point of a hard ... Hard technique use muscle more than soft techniques. Soft technique[edit]. Further information: Tai sabaki ... Much like hard techniques they are effected by foot work and skeletal alignment. Where a hard technique in defense often aims ...
"The Impact of Shiftwork on Skeletal Muscle Health". Nutrients. 9 (3): 248. doi:10.3390/nu9030248. PMC 5372911. PMID 28282858.. ... Muscle health is also compromised by Shift work: Altered sleep and altered eating times. Changes to appetite regulating ...
... discovered by Denis Noble in cardiac muscle cells in 1960s and by Richard Adrian and Alan Hodgkin in 1970 in skeletal muscle ... "Slow changes in potassium permeability in skeletal muscle". The Journal of Physiology. 208 (3): 645-68. doi:10.1113/jphysiol. ... This type of inward-rectifier channel is distinct from delayed rectifier K+ channels, which help repolarize nerve and muscle ...
... skeletal muscle telomere lengths remain stable from ages 23-74.[4] In baboon skeletal muscle, that consists of fully ... Renault V, Thornell LE, Eriksson PO, Butler-Browne G, Mouly V (2003). "Regenerative potential of human skeletal muscle during ... telomere shortening does not appear to be a major factor in the aging of the differentiated cells of brain or skeletal muscle. ...
Adrian RH, Chandler WK, Hodgkin AL (July 1970). "Slow changes in potassium permeability in skeletal muscle". The Journal of ... discovered by Denis Noble in cardiac muscle cells in 1960s and by Richard Adrian and Alan Hodgkin in 1970 in skeletal muscle ... This type of inward-rectifier channel is distinct from delayed rectifier K+ channels, which help repolarize nerve and muscle ...
"Taurine transporter knockout depletes muscle taurine levels and results in severe skeletal muscle impairment but leaves cardiac ... It is essential for cardiovascular function, and development and function of skeletal muscle, the retina, and the central ... Taurine is necessary for normal skeletal muscle functioning.[24] Mice with a genetic taurine deficiency had a nearly complete ... Taurine is essential for cardiovascular function and development and function of skeletal muscle, the retina, and the central ...
In P.M. Tiidus (Eds.), Skeletal muscle damage and repair (pp. 219-230). United States of America: Human Kinetics. ... from a stretching of the muscle or tendon to a complete tear of the tendon from the muscle. Some of the most common places that ... A Soft tissue injury (STI) is the damage of muscles, ligaments and tendons throughout the body. Common soft tissue injuries ... A strain is a type of acute injury that occurs to the muscle or tendon. Similar to sprains, it can vary in severity, ...
The tongue muscle is anchored to the chin, and translation of the mandible forward pulls the tongue forward as well. If the ... The first involves surgery of the soft tissue (tonsillectomy, uvulopalatopharyngoplasty) and the second involves skeletal ...
Muscle atrophy of 5 to 15 percent may be expected, with a rehabilitation period of approximately 4 months given adequate ... Terry R. Yochum; Lindsay J. Rowe (2004). Essentials of Skeletal Radiology (3rd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & ...
Inactivity and starvation in mammals lead to atrophy of skeletal muscle, accompanied by a smaller number and size of the muscle ... Muscle atrophy is defined as a decrease in the mass of the muscle; it can be a partial or complete wasting away of muscle, and ... Other syndromes or conditions which can induce skeletal muscle atrophy are liver disease, and starvation. Muscle atrophy occurs ... Moreover, starvation eventually leads to muscle atrophy. Disuse of the muscles, such as when muscle tissue is immobilized for ...
skeletal muscle tissue development. •respiratory gaseous exchange. •blood circulation. •cell proliferation. •organ ...
Musculoskeletal imaging: PET has been shown to be a feasible technique for studying skeletal muscles during exercises like ... One of the main advantages of using PET is that it can also provide muscle activation data about deeper lying muscles such as ... This is due to the time it takes for FDG to accumulate in the activated muscles. ... which can be used only on superficial muscles (i.e., directly under the skin). A clear disadvantage is that PET provides no ...
Kohn, T. A.; Curry, J. W.; Noakes, T. D. (9 November 2011). "Black wildebeest skeletal muscle exhibits high oxidative capacity ... The presence of fast-twitch fibres and the ability of the muscles to use large amounts of oxygen help explain the rapid running ...
... although they do not become common as skeletal remains in the fossil record until the Neogene (last 20 million years).[2] In ... with blood being pumped through it by a series of muscles. The blood vascular system is minimal. Similarly, they have no gills ... part, their poor skeletal preservation is due to their restriction to high-energy environments, which tend to be erosional - ...
EL-Sobky TA, El-Haddad A, Elsobky E, Elsayed SM, Sakr HM (March 2017). "Reversal of skeletal radiographic pathology in a case ... and muscle, and these cells had been suggested to have the abilities of regenerating injured tissue in these organs. However, ... and hereditary skeletal dysplasias; notably malignant infantile osteopetrosis[6][7] and mucopolysaccharidosis.[8] ... post-procedural generalized skeletal pain, fatigue and reduced energy.[46] ...
Lacking skeletal support, the arms work as muscular hydrostats and contain longitudinal, transverse and circular muscles around ... The ingress of water is achieved by contraction of radial muscles in the mantle wall, and flapper valves shut when strong ... Once the shell is penetrated, the prey dies almost instantaneously, its muscles relax, and the soft tissues are easy for the ... It contains tetrodotoxin, which causes paralysis by blocking the transmission of nerve impulses to the muscles. This causes ...
These cellular units will then develop into skeletal and other tissues, such as cartilage, tendon, ligament and muscle tissue. ... Brian Keith Hall (2005). Bones and cartilage: developmental and evolutionary skeletal biology. Academic Press. pp. 150-. ISBN ... Loss of the regulator, Pten, of the Phophatidylinositol3' kinase pathway results in skeletal overgrowth and growth plate ... leads to chondronecrosis and abnormal skeletal development: a putative model for Kashin-Beck disease". PLOS Genet. 5 (8): ...
Most of these go to muscles and are therefore called motor impulses; some are secretory and enter glands; a portion are ... A subluxation is a health concern that manifests in the skeletal joints, and, through complex anatomical and physiological ... Norris P (2001). "How 'we' are different from 'them': occupational boundary maintenance in the treatment of musculo-skeletal ... Chiropractic diagnosis may involve a range of methods including skeletal imaging, observational and tactile assessments, and ...
Muscle mass[edit]. Males typically have more skeletal muscle mass than females. Androgens promote the enlargement of skeletal ... "Androgen receptor in human skeletal muscle and cultured muscle satellite cells: up-regulation by androgen treatment". The ... muscle cells and probably act in a coordinated manner to function by acting on several cell types in skeletal muscle tissue.[8] ... One cell type conveys hormone signals to generating muscle, the myoblast. Higher androgen levels lead to increased expression ...
... reduction in abnormal muscle tone and spasticity, and skeletal deformities. Other wheelchairs provide some of the same benefits ... people with some muscle diseases, and people with limited range of motion in the hip or knee joints.[10] Tilting options are ...
Norena, S. R.; Williams, T. M. (2000). "Body size and skeletal muscle myoglobin of cetaceans: adaptations for maximizing dive ... Their skeletal anatomy allows them to be fast swimmers. Most species have a dorsal fin.[43][44] ...
"Mini-muscle" allele[edit]. A gene recently discovered in laboratory house mice, termed "mini-muscle", causes a 50% reduction in ... Gruneberg came to these distinctions after experimenting on rats with skeletal mutations. He recognized that "spurious" ... For example, mice with the Mini Muscle mutation were observed to have a higher per-gram aerobic capacity.[37] The mini-muscle ... Mini Muscle Mice also exhibit larger kidneys and livers. All of these morphological deviations influence the behavior and ...
... of which is stored in skeletal muscles and the remainder in the liver (totaling about 2,000 kcal in the whole body). It is ... including but not limited to skeletal muscle) to be used to synthesize sugars for use as energy by the rest of the body. Most ... Some people follow a diet to gain weight (usually in the form of muscle). Diets can also be used to maintain a stable body ... These diets are not recommended for general use as they are associated with adverse side effects such as loss of lean muscle ...
... mature myostatin protein expression despite increasing skeletal muscle hypertrophy and satellite cell number in rodent muscle ... "Effect of Trenbolone enanthate on protein degradation in levator ani/bulbocavernosus (LABC) muscle in orchiectomized rats" ...
Further along the urethra is a sphincter of skeletal muscle, the sphincter of the membranous urethra (external urethral ... The smooth muscle of the bladder, known as the detrusor, is innervated by sympathetic nervous system fibers from the lumbar ... After urination, the female urethra empties partially by gravity, with assistance from muscles.[clarification needed] Urine ... Smooth muscle bundles pass on either side of the urethra, and these fibers are sometimes called the internal urethral sphincter ...
... a skeletal muscle essential for mammalian respiration". FEBS Journal. 280 (17): 4026-4035. doi:10.1111/febs.12274. ISSN 1742- ... Early tetrapods had a wide gaping jaw with weak muscles to open and close it. In the jaw were moderate-sized palatal and ... The tetrapod tongue is built from muscles that once controlled gill openings. The tongue is anchored to the hyoid bone, which ... When the muscles are relaxed, the bony scales spring back into position, generating considerable negative pressure within the ...
A joint dislocation can cause damage to the surrounding ligaments, tendons, muscles, and nerves.[2] Dislocations can occur in ... "Skeletal Radiol. 21 (3): 149-54. PMID 1604339.. External links[edit]. Classification. D ... This is due to the weakening of the muscles and ligaments which hold the joint in place. The shoulder is a prime example of ... the joint muscles, tendons and ligaments must also be strengthened. This is usually done through a course of physiotherapy, ...
... habilis skeletal anatomy for the first time, and revealing more Australopithecus-like than Homo-like features.[7] Because of ...
... s are stretch receptors within the body of a muscle that primarily detect changes in the length of the muscle. ... Muscle spindles are found within the belly of muscles, between extrafusal muscle fibers.[b] The specialised fibers that ... Muscle spindle. Mammalian muscle spindle showing typical position in a muscle (left), neuronal connections in spinal cord ( ... When a muscle is stretched, primary type Ia sensory fibers of the muscle spindle respond to both changes in muscle length and ...
Scott, J.H. (1957). "Muscle Growth and Function in Relation to Skeletal Morphology". American Journal of Physical Anthropology ... It does not closely link skeletal remains to their archaeological context, and is best viewed as a "skeletal biology of the ... She interpreted this sex-based pattern of skeletal difference as indicative of gendered work patterns. These kinds of skeletal ... and dental attrition are commonly used to estimate skeletal age. Differences in male and female skeletal anatomy are used by ...
"Normalization of current kinetics by interaction between the alpha 1 and beta subunits of the skeletal muscle dihydropyridine- ... membrane depolarization during atrial cardiac muscle cell action potential. • cardiac muscle cell action potential involved in ... It depolarizes at -30mV and helps define the shape of the action potential in cardiac and smooth muscle.[8] The protein encoded ... regulation of cardiac muscle contraction by regulation of the release of sequestered calcium ion. • positive regulation of ...
"Effect of the Intrinsic Foot Muscle Exercise Combined with Interphalangeal Flexion Exercise on Metatarsalgia with Morton's Toe ... Skeletal disorders. *Toes. Hidden categories: *All articles with unsourced statements. *Articles with unsourced statements from ...
1998). "Divergent effects of exercise on metabolic and mitogenic signaling pathways in human skeletal muscle". FASEB J. 12 (13 ...
... including skeletal muscles, the heart, the brain, or the liver. Common clinical manifestations include myopathy, hypotonia, and ... Myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF) is a disorder that affects many parts of the body, particularly the muscles ... which results in a weakened heart muscle that is unable to pump blood effectively. It is unclear why such mutations result in ...
Skeletal muscles produce reactive forces and moments at the joints. To avoid injury or fatigue, when person is performing a ... Individual muscle fiber ratios can be determined through a muscle biopsy. Other considerations are the ability to recruit ... Where, Sj is the muscle strength moment at joint, j, and Mj/L is the external moment at the joint, j, due to load, L and the ... The strength capability of the joint is denoted by the amount of moment that the muscle force can create at the joint to ...
Schoenfeld, B.J. (2012). "Does Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage Play a Role in Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy?". Journal of Strength ... Muscle tendon injuries[edit]. The entire muscle-tendon system works cohesively to slow down limb movement. The close ... Proof of muscle strengthening without damage: One recurring problem in ACL rehabilitation is improving muscle strength of the ... Muscle injury[edit]. Eccentric contractions are a frequent cause of muscle injury when engaging in unaccustomed exercise. But a ...
... whereas the liver and muscle types are predominant in adult liver and skeletal muscle, respectively.[5] ... Mutations in the muscle isoform of glycogen phosphorylase (PYGM) are associated with glycogen storage disease type V (GSD V, ... The glycogen phosphorylase monomer is a large protein, composed of 842 amino acids with a mass of 97.434 kDa in muscle cells. ... In mammals, the major isozymes of glycogen phosphorylase are found in muscle, liver, and brain. The brain type is predominant ...
Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle. It is a form of striated ... Quoted from National Skeletal Muscle Research Center; UCSD, Muscle Physiology Home Page - Skeletal Muscle Architecture, Effect ... Skeletal muscles[edit]. Connective tissue is present in all muscles as fascia. Enclosing each muscle is a layer of connective ... A skeletal muscle refers to multiple bundles (fascicles) of cells joined together called muscle fibers. The fibres and muscles ...
1RM will sufficiently activate skeletal muscle motor units, which is the driving mechanism for skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The ... This is a major research finding (alas, at the molecular level of muscle) which shows that skeletal muscle fiber hypertrophy ... of the muscle cell) during the early adaptations of skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Long-term changes in hypertrophy show ... and that SCs are also consequential in long-term changes in skeletal muscle hypertrophy (including the number of muscle fiber ...
Skeletal muscle, in vertebrates, most common of the three types of muscle in the body. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones ... Alternative Titles: somatic muscle, striated muscle, striped muscle, voluntary muscle. Skeletal muscle, also called voluntary ... Unlike smooth muscle and cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle is under voluntary control. Similar to cardiac muscle, however, ... skeletal musclePhotomicrograph showing the arrangement of skeletal muscle fibres in cross-section.. © Ed Reschke/Peter Arnold, ...
... This is "an interactive computer-based tutorial was developed to simulate eye movements provoked ... If you know the author of Extraocular Skeletal Muscles, please help us out by filling out the form below and clicking Send. ... You just viewed Extraocular Skeletal Muscles. Please take a moment to rate this material. ... by the contraction of individual and synergistic extraocular skeletal muscles. The objective for creating the courseware was to ...
Skeletal muscle has a remarkable regenerative capacity, which can largely be attributed to resident muscle stem cells (MuSCs). ... muscle disorders and aging. Finally, we discuss MuSC metabolism and its role, as well as the multifaceted regulation of MuSCs ... mainly due to its resident muscle stem cells (MuSCs). In this review, we introduce recently developed technologies and the ... Skeletal muscle has remarkable regeneration capabilities, mainly due to its resident muscle stem cells (MuSCs). In this review ...
This volume focuses on the cell biology and physiology of skeletal muscle regeneration. This Book is a collection of classic ... degeneration tissue repair skeletal muscle progenitor cells skeletal muscle growth regenerative therapy muscle Injury ... Eccentric Contraction-Induced Muscle Injury: Reproducible, Quantitative, Physiological Models to Impair Skeletal Muscles ... Subjects discussed include: inducing skeletal muscle injury by eccentric contraction; volumetric muscle loss; single myofiber ...
... culminating in a delicate balance between muscle protein synthesis and proteolysis. Loss of skeletal muscle mass, termed " ... Signaling pathways controlling skeletal muscle mass.. Egerman MA1, Glass DJ.. Author information. 1. Novartis Institutes for ... Recent studies have further defined the pathways leading to gain and loss of skeletal muscle as well as the signaling events ... The signaling pathways involved in the control of skeletal muscle atrophy and hypertrophy. Signaling activated by insulin-like ...
The image above shows a microscopic image of skeletal muscle damage. A muscle fiber is divided into functional units known as ... Exercise that violates the principle of progression can lead to this type of skeletal muscle damage. While the body eventually ... This disruption hampers the function of the muscle and has been implicated as one of the potential sources of muscle soreness. ... Microscopic disruption of muscle fibers is one of the leading explanations for muscle soreness. ...
This article reviews the clinical features of the skeletal muscle sodium channel diseases and highlights the phenotypic or ... Over 30 mutations of the muscle channel gene SCN4A, which encodes the muscle voltage-gated sodium channel, have been described ...
Skeletal Muscle in Health and Disease: A Textbook of Muscle Physiology. David A. Jones,Joan M. Round. Snippet view - 1990. ... Skeletal Muscle in Health and Disease: A Textbook of Muscle Physiology. David A. Jones,Joan M. Round. Snippet view - 1990. ... Muscle_Pathology.html?id=6WpsAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareAtlas of Skeletal Muscle Pathology. ... Atlas of Skeletal Muscle Pathology. Volume 9 of Current Histopathology Series, ISSN 0272-1465. ...
The deep lateral muscle fibres of the trout (Salmo irideus) have a polyaxonal and distributed motor innervation. Electrical ... Electrical activity of trout skeletal muscle fibres J Physiol (Paris). 1982-1983;78(9):814-20. ... It is concluded that the membrane of the muscle fibres has several electrical properties similar to those of twitch skeletal ... The deep lateral muscle fibres of the trout (Salmo irideus) have a polyaxonal and distributed motor innervation. Electrical ...
However, if use improper, NSAIDs may suppress an essential inflammatory phase in the healing of injured skeletal muscle. ... However, several growth factors might promote the regeneration of injured skeletal muscle, many novel treatments have involved ... Most types of muscle injuries would follow three stages: the acute inflammatory and degenerative phase, the repair phase and ... They prevent collagen deposition and block formation of muscle fibrosis, so that a complete functional recovery can be achieved ...
Although many features of the dynamic performance of muscle are determined by the rates of attachment and detachment of myosin ... Although many studies of the mechanism of muscle contraction9,10,11,12,13 have been based on this hypothesis, the alternative ... Muscles generate force and shortening in a cyclical interaction between the myosin head domains projecting from the myosin ... The stiffness of skeletal muscle in isometric contraction and rigor: the fraction of myosin heads bound to actin. Biophys. J. ...
Factors which effect proliferation and fusion of muscle precursor cells have been studied extensively in tissue culture, ... Towards understanding skeletal muscle regeneration Pathol Res Pract. 1991 Jan;187(1):1-22. doi: 10.1016/S0344-0338(11)81039-3. ... Injury and necrosis of mature skeletal muscle fibres 2) Phagocytosis of myofibre debris 3) Revascularisation of injured muscle ... tissue culture derived data with a view to understanding factors which may control the regeneration of mature skeletal muscle ...
... , Methocarbamol, Robaxin, Chlorzoxazone, Parafon Forte, Metaxalone, Skelaxin, Orphenadrine, Norflex, ... SKELETAL MUSCLE RELAXANTS, skeletal muscle relaxant, skeletal muscle relaxants, Skeletal muscle relaxant, Skeletal muscle ... Muscle Relaxants, Skeletal, Relaxants, Skeletal Muscle, SKELETAL MUSCLE RELAXANTS, skeletal muscle relaxants (medication), ... Skeletal muscle tone depressant, Skeletal muscle relaxant, NOS, Skeletal muscle tone depressant, NOS, Skeletal Muscle Relaxants ...
As the skeletal muscle cell is an efficient force transducer, it has been incorporated in bio-microdevices using electrical ... Optically controlled contraction of photosensitive skeletal muscle cells.. Asano T1, Ishizua T, Yawo H. ... To improve both the spatial and temporal resolutions, we made photosensitive skeletal muscle cells from murine C2C12 myoblasts ... This technique would have many applications in the bioengineering field, such as wireless drive of muscle-powered actuators/ ...
skeletal muscle synonyms, skeletal muscle pronunciation, skeletal muscle translation, English dictionary definition of skeletal ... n. A usually voluntary muscle that is made up of elongated, multinucleate, transversely striated muscle fibers and is typically ... Related to skeletal muscle: smooth muscle, cardiac muscle. skeletal muscle. n.. A usually voluntary muscle that is made up of ... axial muscle - a skeletal muscle of the trunk or head. musculus sartorius, sartorius, sartorius muscle - a muscle in the thigh ...
3D printed skeletal muscle biological machines. Caroline Cvetkovic, Ritu Raman, Vincent Chan, Brian J. Williams, Madeline ... 3D printed skeletal muscle biological machines. Caroline Cvetkovic, Ritu Raman, Vincent Chan, Brian J. Williams, Madeline ... Three-dimensionally printed biological machines powered by skeletal muscle. Caroline Cvetkovic, Ritu Raman, Vincent Chan, Brian ... Three-dimensionally printed biological machines powered by skeletal muscle Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ...
Gap junctions are found in cardiac and smooth muscle, where they function to increase the speed of... ... Skeletal muscle does not contain any type of cell-to-cell junctions, including gap junctions. ... Skeletal muscle does not contain any type of cell-to-cell junctions, including gap junctions. Gap junctions are found in ... In addition to gap junctions, other types of junctions include anchoring junctions and desmosomes, which keep muscle cells ...
... ; find Sigma-Aldrich-F15005 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical ... Feline Skeletal Muscle Cells (FSkMC) provide a useful system to study many aspects of muscular function and disease and can ... Skeletal Muscle Cells also play an instrumental role in the glucose metabolism and diabetes. ... 1st passage, ,500,000 cells in Feline Skeletal Muscle Cell Basal Medium containing 10% FBS & 10% DMSO ...
Prijs: € 144,90, ISBN/ISBN13: 9780128104224, Categorie: Boek, Nutrition and Skeletal Muscle provides coverage of the evidence ... Copper and skeletal muscle 29. Iron and skeletal muscle 30. Selenium and skeletal muscle 31. Zinc and skeletal muscle 32. ... Vitamin D and skeletal muscle of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 25. Vitamin E and skeletal muscle 26. Folate and skeletal muscle ... Arginine and skeletal muscle 43. Citrulline and skeletal muscle 44. Sulfur amino acids and skeletal muscle 45. Branched-chain ...
... mature and transplant skeletal muscle cells created from human pluripotent stem cells, which can produce all cell types of the ... The findings are a major step towards developing a stem cell replacement therapy for muscle diseases including Duchenne ... The skeletal muscle cells were not maturing properly, he explained. "We needed bigger, stronger muscle that also had the ... "We have found that just because a skeletal muscle cell produced in the lab expresses muscle markers, doesnt mean it is fully ...
Decline in skeletal muscle mitochondrial function with aging in humans. Kevin R. Short, Maureen L. Bigelow, Jane Kahl, Ravinder ... Decline in skeletal muscle mitochondrial function with aging in humans. Kevin R. Short, Maureen L. Bigelow, Jane Kahl, Ravinder ... Decline in skeletal muscle mitochondrial function with aging in humans Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Decline in skeletal muscle mitochondrial function with aging in humans. Kevin R. Short, Maureen L. Bigelow, Jane Kahl, Ravinder ...
They suggest that this technique offers a novel, but effective approach to improving skeletal muscle healing, particularly for ... University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine researchers have successfully used gene therapy to accelerate muscle regeneration ... three weeks prior to experimentally damaging the mices skeletal muscles. Four weeks after skeletal muscle injury, the ... Skeletal muscle injuries are the most common injuries encountered in sports medicine. Although such injuries can heal ...
Skeletal muscle represents a plentiful and accessible source of adult stem cells. Skeletal-muscle-derived stem cells, termed ... Figure 1: Skeletal muscle hypertrophy following functional overload. (a, b) Change in muscle weight following functional ... P. O. Mitchell and G. K. Pavlath, "Skeletal muscle atrophy leads to loss and dysfunction of muscle precursor cells," The ... We examined whether FO affects Wnt signaling in skeletal muscle by qRT-PCR analysis of plantaris muscle samples. Wnt3 and R- ...
Under normal conditions, skeletal muscle is responsible for the majority of insulin-stimulated whole-body glucose disposal; ... Activation of the RAS in skeletal muscle with local production of ANG II and ANG 1-7 may also regulate myocyte inflammation and ... In obesity, increased infiltration and activation of immune cells in skeletal muscle (mainly in IMAT/PMAT) and myocyte ... Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation occurs in skeletal muscle in obesity and is mainly manifested by increased ...
The functions of skeletal muscles are to bring about specific movements to the number of bones present in the human skeleton, ... What Are the Similarities Between Skeletal Muscles and Cardiac Muscles?. A: Both skeletal muscles and cardiac muscles contain ... A: The major types of muscle systems are the skeletal muscles, cardiac muscles and smooth muscles, explains Healthline. The ... Why Are the Biceps Classified As a Skeletal Muscle?. A: The biceps are classified as skeletal muscles because they attach ...
Skeletal muscle-specific deletion of lipoprotein lipase enhances insulin signaling in skeletal muscle but causes insulin ... along with FFAs that are transferred into skeletal muscle and ANG II produced within skeletal muscle, may themselves further ... Muscles, exercise and obesity: skeletal muscle as a secretory organ. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2012;8(8):457-465.. View this article ... The role of skeletal muscle insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007; ...
Ageing Effects on Skeletal Muscle. April 26, 2013 By timeadmin Leave a Comment ...
... is a type of striated muscle, usually attached to the skeleton. Skeletal muscles are used to create movement, ... Muscular tissue • Muscle contraction • Muscles of the human body. Types of muscles. Cardiac muscleSkeletal muscle • Smooth ... How skeletal muscle works. Main article: Muscle contraction. The strength of skeletal muscle is directly proportional to its ... Skeletal muscle is a type of striated muscle, usually attached to the skeleton. Skeletal muscles are used to create movement, ...
  • [1] Most skeletal muscles are attached to bones by bundles of collagen fibers known as tendons . (
  • A skeletal muscle refers to multiple bundles ( fascicles ) of cells joined together called muscle fibers. (
  • Muscle fibers are in turn composed of myofibrils . (
  • Another group of cells, the myosatellite cells are found between the basement membrane and the sarcolemma of muscle fibers. (
  • Individual muscle fibers are formed during development from the fusion of several undifferentiated immature cells known as myoblasts into long, cylindrical, multi-nucleated cells. (
  • Skeletal muscle exhibits a distinctive banding pattern when viewed under the microscope due to the arrangement of cytoskeletal elements in the cytoplasm of the muscle fibers. (
  • Muscle architecture refers to the arrangement of muscle fibers relative to the axis of force generation of the muscle. (
  • While the muscle fibers of a fascicle lie parallel to one another, the fascicles themselves can vary in their relationship to one another and to their tendons. (
  • The authors continue that these loads have been conventionally considered best for recruiting more motor units (the nerve and muscle fibers innervated by the nerve). (
  • Microscopic disruption of muscle fibers is one of the leading explanations for muscle soreness. (
  • Under normal conditions the Z-lines from adjacent muscle fibers are alligned. (
  • A usually voluntary muscle that is made up of elongated, multinucleate, transversely striated muscle fibers and is typically attached to a bone. (
  • A skeletal muscle is made up of multiple bundles of muscle fascicles of muscle cells known as muscle fibers. (
  • The fibers and muscles are surrounded by connective tissue layers called fasciae. (
  • Muscle fibers are the individual contractile cells within a muscle. (
  • Using the natural human development process as a guide, the researchers developed ways to mature muscle cells in the laboratory to create muscle fibers that restore dystrophin, the protein that is missing in the muscles of boys with Duchenne. (
  • For years, scientists have been trying different methods that direct human pluripotent stem cells to generate skeletal muscle stem cells that can function appropriately in living muscle and regenerate dystrophin-producing muscle fibers. (
  • Once they were able to isolate skeletal muscle cells using the newly identified surface markers, the research team matured those cells in the lab to create dystrophin-producing muscle fibers. (
  • The muscle fibers they created were uniformily muscle cells, but the fibers were still smaller than those found in real human muscle. (
  • Hicks discovered that a specific cell signaling pathway called TGF Beta needs to be turned off to enable generation of skeletal muscle fibers that contain the proteins that help muscles contract. (
  • These cells are located between the basal lamina and plasma membrane of skeletal muscle fibers in which they represent 2.5%-6% of all nuclei and remain in a quiescent state under normal physiological conditions [ 2 ]. (
  • In response to muscle injury or exercise, satellite cells are activated and proliferate and differentiate into mature fibers [ 3 ]. (
  • The fasciculi are made up of even smaller bundles that consist of cylindrical and elongated muscle cells known as fibers. (
  • Muscle cells (also called fibers) have an elongated, cylindrical shape, and are multinucleated (in vertebrates and flies). (
  • Using this classification scheme, there are two major types of fibers for skeletal muscles: Type I and Type II. (
  • Skeletal muscles are made up of skeletal muscle fibers, or cells. (
  • There are typically two types of skeletal muscle fibers found in humans, each one with unique properties. (
  • Skeletal muscles are considered striated, meaning one can find alternating bands of dark and light crossing the width of the muscle fibers. (
  • There are believed to be two types of muscle fibers common to the human species, type I and type IIb. (
  • Type I muscle fibers generally contract slowly. (
  • They typically do not succumb to fatigue as quickly as type IIb muscle fibers might. (
  • Large amounts of myoglobin , the protein that carries oxygen to cells, are usually found in type I muscle fibers. (
  • Type I muscle fibers are often found in their highest concentrations in the skeletal muscle tissue of the back, legs, and neck, as these muscles must work constantly to maintain posture and facilitate movement. (
  • Type IIb muscle fibers typically contract quickly. (
  • They do not generally receive the larger supplies of oxygen that type I muscle fibers receive. (
  • Type IIb muscle fibers are believed to fatigue more quickly than type I muscle fibers. (
  • Skeletal muscle tissue, however, is usually made up of a mix of both types of fibers, with the average person possessing 40 percent type I fibers and 60 percent type IIb fibers. (
  • Muscles are tissues composed of bundles of fibers ( fascicles ) having varying lengths and diameters that can shorten, thicken, or lengthen depending on the location and the message sent by the controlling neurons. (
  • The change in the muscle fibers allows for the movement of body parts, whether it is involuntary (e.g., breathing by moving the lungs and blood circulation by the pumping of the heart) or voluntary where the primate can exert control (e.g., arm and leg muscles). (
  • They are positive for sarcomeric myosin and negative for smooth muscle specific α-actin.New skeletal muscle cells originate from quiescent satellite cells, which are located in the muscle fibers between the basal lamina and the sarcolemma. (
  • After activation, the cells, now called myoblasts, start to proliferate and fuse with damaged muscle fibers or with one another forming new myotubes.SkMC are optimal for in vitro muscle studies. (
  • There is deposition of perimysial connective tissue and attenuation of several muscle fibers. (
  • Multiple deposits of deeply basophilic mineral are present in damaged muscle fibers. (
  • Elongated cylindrical cells, which are also called muscle fibers, also make up the structure of skeletal muscles. (
  • Muscle fibers have membranes as well as filaments called myofibrils , structures that are particularly important for their contractile function. (
  • Muscle fibers contract rapidly due to the presence of myofibrils, or tiny filaments that contain two overlapping proteins called actin and myosin . (
  • Transmission of electrical impulses that activate contraction occurs through transverse tubules that extend deep into muscle fibers. (
  • Meanwhile, the sarcoplasmic reticulum, located inside the muscle fibers, releases calcium during muscle contraction and stores calcium during muscle relaxation. (
  • Hypertrophy is the increase in the cross-sectional area of the muscle fibers. (
  • Similar to the lattice work found in lawn or pool chairs, the cross-sectioning of the fibers in skeletal muscle increases their force and power capabilities. (
  • Resistance training increases protein synthesis, or building, within the muscle fibers. (
  • Skeletal muscle can be broken down into two types: slow-twitch, or Type I, and fast-twitch, or Type II, muscle fibers. (
  • Basically, slow-twitch muscle fibers are involved in activity lasting over a period of time, while fast-twitch fibers are integral for rapid and powerful movements of short durations. (
  • Transplanted satellite cells with AMPKα1 deficiency had severely impaired myogenic capacity in regenerating muscle fibers. (
  • The myogenic cells then fuse with damaged muscle fibers to repair or form new muscle fibers to replace the necrotic ones. (
  • High-load strength-type exercise leads to growth of muscle fibers dominated by an increase in contractile proteins. (
  • Group of muscle fibers enclosed by perimysium and subdivided by endomysium. (
  • As its name suggests, skeletal muscle is linked to bone by bundles of collagen fibers known as tendons. (
  • Skeletal muscle is made up of individual components known as muscle fibers . (
  • These fibers are long, cylindrical, multinucleated cells composed of actin and myosin myofibrils repeated as a sarcomere, the basic functional unit of the cell and responsible for skeletal muscle's striated appearance and forming the basic machinery necessary for muscle contraction. (
  • The term muscle refers to multiple bundles of muscle fibers held together by connective tissue. (
  • Skeletal muscle myopathy is a hereditary muscle disorder in which there is a deficiency of type II muscle fibers leading to a notable decrease in skeletal muscle mass. (
  • In fact, recent studies of human skeletal muscle have revealed a decrease in the percentage of type I (oxidative) muscle fibers and parallel decreases in muscle glucose transport and lipid oxidation in obese individuals with and without type 2 diabetes relative to lean control subjects ( 2 , 3 , 5 , 6 ). (
  • Striated skeletal muscle fibers showing the cross-striation with dark A bands and light I bands. (
  • Skeletal striated muscle fibers in cross section showing several peripheral nuclei (multinucleated cells). (
  • The endomysium, containing capillaries, appear as thin lines surrounding the muscle fibers. (
  • The sarcomere is responsible for the striated appearance of skeletal muscle, and forms the basic machinery necessary for muscle contraction . (
  • The interaction of myosin and actin is responsible for muscle contraction. (
  • The sarcoplasmic reticulum surrounds the myofibrils and holds a reserve of the calcium ions needed to cause a muscle contraction. (
  • T tubules are the pathways for action potentials to signal the sarcoplasmic reticulum to release calcium, causing a muscle contraction. (
  • This is "an interactive computer-based tutorial was developed to simulate eye movements provoked by the contraction of individual and synergistic extraocular skeletal muscles. (
  • Huxley, A. F. Muscle structure and theories of contraction. (
  • Huxley, H. E. The mechanism of muscle contraction. (
  • Structure of the actin-myosin complex and its implications for muscle contraction. (
  • Geeves, M. A. & Holmes, K. C. Structural mechanism of muscle contraction. (
  • Dynamic measurement of myosin light-chain domain tilt and twist in muscle contraction. (
  • Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the body, providing elements of contraction and locomotion and acting as an important contributor to whole body protein and amino metabolism, glucose disposal and lipid metabolism. (
  • It is hypothesized that this pressure drop during rhythmic contraction actually increases blood flow through the muscle, and may be responsible for a portion of the increase in muscle blood flow immediately at the onset of activity. (
  • This explanation is attractive, because it would explain the readily observable tight coupling between muscle contraction and a rapid increase in muscle blood flow. (
  • Experiments have shown that a strong muscle contraction can occur without a corresponding increase in skeletal muscle blood flow. (
  • Given the proposed manner of action of the muscle pump to increase arterial blood flow, it would seem impossible for a muscle contraction and skeletal muscle hyperemia to be uncoupled. (
  • Contraction of the muscle causes the bones to rotate about the joint and the bones to move relative to one another (such as lifting of the upper arm in the case of the origin and insertion described here). (
  • Antagonism in the transmission of nerve impulses (epsp and ipsp balance) to the muscles means that it is impossible to stimulate the contraction of two antagonistic muscles at any one time. (
  • During ballistic motions such as throwing, the antagonist muscles act to 'brake' the agonist muscles throughout the contraction, particularly at the end of the motion. (
  • In the example of throwing, the chest and front of the shoulder (anterior Deltoid) contract to pull the arm forward, while the muscles in the back and rear of the shoulder (posterior Deltoid) also contract and undergo eccentric contraction to slow the motion down to avoid injury. (
  • The contraction or extension of the skeletal muscles causes the attached bones forming joints to move either by flexing or extending. (
  • Large heterogeneous protein complexes, including titin or dystrophin facilitate muscle contraction by connecting the skeletal muscle cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. (
  • A large component in musculoskeletal disorders is acute and chronic contraction-induced skeletal muscle injury [2]. (
  • In order to address this issue, there have been extensive studies to-date on acute contraction-induced muscle injury using both animals and humans. (
  • The length of the sarcomere-the structure within the muscle cell where filaments overlap to produce the movements required for muscle contraction-is shorter in the multifidus than in any other muscle cell," explained study's first author Samuel R. Ward, P.T., Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Radiology at UC San Diego School of Medicine. (
  • In skeletal muscle, rapidly generated calcium signals trigger muscle contraction. (
  • The Third International Symposium on Excitation-Contraction Coupling in Skeletal, Cardiac, and Smooth Muscle, organized by George Frank, C. Paul Bianchi, and Henk E. DJ. (
  • The theme of these symposia has been to recognize the similarities and dissimilarities of excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle. (
  • Cross fertilization of concepts of excitation-contraction coupling in these three types of muscle has occurred since the early studies in the late fifties and early sixties on skeletal muscle. (
  • The purpose of the symposia has been to bring together international investigators studying excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle so that we may learn from each other and hence provide a more global concept of excitation-contraction. (
  • The Third International Symposia has accomplished its objective as we recognize that calcium channels of the sarcolemma and the sarcoplasmic reticulum play key essential roles in excitation-contraction coupling in all three types of muscles. (
  • NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - New research suggests that disruptive mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene SCN4A - which codes for a protein called NaV1.4 involved in skeletal respiratory muscle contraction - are over-represented in infants who suffered from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). (
  • They also exercised the muscle rings daily, triggering the muscle with a flashing light, to make them stronger so that the bots moved farther with each contraction. (
  • When calcium ions are released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscles then combine with troponin, a chemical reaction, and thus muscular contraction, occurs. (
  • When calcium ions remain stored in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, no muscular contraction occurs and thus a muscle is said to be "resting" or in a relaxed state. (
  • The structure of skeletal muscles also consists of two membrane systems called the plasma or cell membrane and the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which are both involved in the contraction process. (
  • 189 14) The heads of the myosin myofilaments are called __________ when they link the thick and thin filaments together during skeletal muscle contraction. (
  • With an understanding of where a muscle originates and inserts, you can calculate the movements that will occur at a joint when these two points are brought together following an isotonic muscular contraction. (
  • This results in tetanic contraction , which causes maximal muscular contraction.skeletal muscles also contral the heart. (
  • Muscle contraction depends on the hydrolysis of ~P from ATP. (
  • To test ideas about muscle contraction on real cells. (
  • this triggers an action potential in the adjacent muscle fibre membrane and so sets in train the process of excitation-contraction coupling . (
  • Striated Muscle Contraction. (
  • It is a form of striated muscle tissue , which is under the voluntary control of the somatic nervous system . (
  • The fibres and muscles are surrounded by connective tissue layers called fasciae . (
  • Connective tissue is present in all muscles as fascia . (
  • enclosing each fascicle is a layer called the perimysium , and enclosing each muscle fiber is a layer of connective tissue called the endomysium . (
  • Skeletal muscle fibres are bound together by connective tissue and communicate with nerves and blood vessels . (
  • The structure of striated muscleStriated muscle tissue, such as the tissue of the human biceps muscle, consists of long, fine fibres, each of which is in effect a bundle of finer myofibrils. (
  • sarcomeres can be considered the primary structural and functional unit of muscle tissue. (
  • Representing 30-40% of our body mass, skeletal muscle is a highly organized tissue made up of a large number of syncytial cells, known as myofibers, which are formed by the fusion of myogenic progenitor cells. (
  • MuSCs typically exist in a quiescent state but may enter the cell cycle following injury in order to regenerate the skeletal muscle tissue and replenish the stem cell pool for future needs. (
  • and analysis of aerobic respiration in intact skeletal muscle tissue by microplate respirometry. (
  • An innovative strategy for regenerating skeletal muscle tissue using cells derived from the amniotic fluid is outlined in new research published by scientists at the UCL Institute of Child Health. (
  • This is the first time that regeneration of diseased muscle tissue has been obtained using cells derived from amniotic fluid. (
  • We are excited by this potential new approach for regenerating skeletal muscle tissue, but much more research is needed. (
  • We now need to perform more in-depth studies with human AFS cells in mouse models to see if it is viable to use cells derived from the amniotic fluid to treat diseases affecting skeletal muscle tissue. (
  • The formed scar tissue always is mechanically inferior and therefore much less able to perform the functions of a normal muscle fiber. (
  • Factors which effect proliferation and fusion of muscle precursor cells have been studied extensively in tissue culture, although little is known about these events in vivo. (
  • This review assesses the tissue culture derived data with a view to understanding factors which may control the regeneration of mature skeletal muscle in vivo. (
  • Representative images of skeletal muscle sections stained with H&E, obtained from naive (a) or infected mice treated with saline (b), MSCs (c), or MSC_IGF-1 (d), showing destruction of myofibers and substitution for fibrosis and adipose tissue in infected mice, when compared to naive mice, and recovery in MSC_IGF-1-treated mice (d). (
  • this enabled the reserchers to precisely isolate muscle cells from human tissue and separate them from various cell types created using human pluripotent stem cells. (
  • There also was significantly less fibrous scar tissue in the skeletal muscle of the gene-therapy treated mice compared to the control mice. (
  • Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation occurs in skeletal muscle in obesity and is mainly manifested by increased immune cell infiltration and proinflammatory activation in intermyocellular and perimuscular adipose tissue. (
  • Increased influx of fatty acids and inflammatory molecules from other tissues, particularly visceral adipose tissue, can also induce muscle inflammation and negatively regulate myocyte metabolism, leading to insulin resistance. (
  • A whole muscle, such as a bicep, is enclosed in connective tissue known as the epimysium. (
  • The whole muscle is wrapped in a special type of connective tissue , epimysium. (
  • What is Skeletal Muscle Tissue? (
  • Skeletal muscle tissue is one of three types of muscle tissue commonly found in the body, along with cardiac and smooth muscle tissue. (
  • Skeletal muscle tissue generally allows for physical movements of all sorts. (
  • The cells that make up skeletal muscle tissue are long and fibrous. (
  • The skeletal muscle is surrounded by a layer of connective tissue. (
  • This inhibits myogenic repair and leads to the replacement of muscle with fibrotic/scar tissue. (
  • Proliferative and non-proliferative lesions of the rat and mouse soft tissue, skeletal muscle, and mesothelium. (
  • The researchers began by growing rings of muscle tissue from a mouse cell line containing an added gene, such that a certain wavelength of blue light stimulates the muscle to contract, a technique called optogenetics . (
  • In addition to the modular design, the thin muscle rings had the advantages of allowing light and nutrients to diffuse into the tissue from all sides, in contrast with earlier biobot designs, which used a thick strip of muscle tissue grown around the skeleton. (
  • Three kinds of muscle tissue, including the skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscles, make up the human muscular system. (
  • This review discusses various aspects of skeletal muscle tissue including its development, structure, function and morphology, including the guidelines for histology methods. (
  • This pilot study will aid the development of a sonographic screening method used to obtain proxy measures of LBM and estimates of muscle composition that relate to Intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT), lipid metabolism, and insulin resistance. (
  • The primary goals of this project are to: 1) develop and validate a rapid, portable, cost-effective, screening method for sarcopenia using diagnostic ultrasound (US), and 2) determine if the US screening method provides viable estimates of intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) since muscle tissue age-related changes in muscle composition are associated with low muscle torque and metabolic dysfunction. (
  • Although muscle function is widely studied in terms of adaptive changes induced by exercise, or atrophy induced by some morbidities, much less is known about its possible illness-related role as an endocrine tissue, and about the interconnections between oxidative stress and myokine production. (
  • In humans, low-load endurance-type exercise leads to qualitative changes of muscle tissue characterized by an increase in structures supporting oxygen delivery and consumption, such as capillaries and mitochondria. (
  • While before Holloszy's seminal paper, most physiologists saw muscle tissue as inert and somewhat boring, research into muscle plasticity burgeoned afterwards. (
  • Numerous scientists since have shown that skeletal muscle in all species studied is an extremely malleable tissue. (
  • Many of the underlying molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the structural changes of muscle tissue have been unraveled over the last two decades. (
  • In addition, the enhanced release or uptake of metabolites from and into contracting muscle cells, respectively, likewise can act as a powerful mediator of tissue interactions, in particular in regard to the central nervous system. (
  • 10) The muscle tissue that normally exhibits voluntary contractions is __________ muscle. (
  • Internal connective sheath separating large portions of muscle tissue. (
  • Muscle is the contractile tissue of animals and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. (
  • the entire muscle is surrounded, except at the muscle tendon junction, by a dense connective tissue (epimysium). (
  • Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue of the human body (about 40%) and it plays essential role in locomotion and vital functions (heart rate, breathing). (
  • The paper shows that damaged muscle tissues can be treated with cells derived from the fluids which surround the foetus during development, leading to satisfactory regeneration and muscle activity. (
  • In relation to a vertebrae body, skeletal muscles are the tissues that are in the highest abundance. (
  • AT inflammation may contribute to whole-body insulin resistance and T2D via the endocrine effects of inflammatory molecules secreted by AT (known as adipokines) on insulin sensitivity in various tissues, particularly skeletal muscle (SM) and liver. (
  • A number of different tissues, including skeletal muscles, can be injured by exposure to these various factors [3]. (
  • 1996. Non-proliferative lesions of soft tissues and skeletal muscle in rats, MST-1. (
  • Regular exercise, which has been shown to stimulate the release of myokines, lowers the risk of many diseases, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, emphasizing the role of skeletal muscle in proper functioning of other tissues. (
  • Skeletal muscle-initiated crosstalk with other tissues is accomplished though the secretion of myokines, protein hormones which can exert autocrine, paracrine and long-distance endocrine effects. (
  • Recent observations in rodents and humans have demonstrated the ability of contracting myofibers to produce and release cytokines and other peptides, so-called myokines, which play a crucial role in the skeletal muscle crosstalk with other tissues and, together with muscle-controlled synthesis and degradation of metabolites, represent an essential mechanism to control whole-body homeostasis ( 14 ). (
  • However, a recent meta-analysis revealed that major gaps in the knowledge of the frequency-dependence of the permittivity in many tissues still exist, especially for those tissues such as skeletal muscle, in which this property is directionally dependent. (
  • The muscular system consists of skeletal muscles and their associated connective tissues. (
  • Chronically disabled stroke survivors experience accelerated skeletal muscle atrophy and other detrimental changes to muscle and surrounding tissues on the paretic side. (
  • Connective tissues connecting muscles to bones. (
  • Muscle fibres, or muscle cells , are formed from the fusion of developmental myoblasts in a process known as myogenesis . (
  • Muscle fibres are cylindrical, and have more than one nucleus . (
  • Muscle fibres are the individual contractile units within muscle. (
  • A single muscle such as the biceps brachii contains many muscle fibres. (
  • its long, thin, multinucleated fibres are crossed with a regular pattern of fine red and white lines, giving the muscle a distinctive appearance. (
  • The deep lateral muscle fibres of the trout (Salmo irideus) have a polyaxonal and distributed motor innervation. (
  • It is concluded that the membrane of the muscle fibres has several electrical properties similar to those of twitch skeletal fibres of vertebrates. (
  • Studies in animal models demonstrated a predominance of type II muscle fibres and an improvement in animal exercise tolerance secondary to training. (
  • In almost all mammalian/human extrafusal muscle fibres, the junction takes the form of a motor endplate but less extensive structures occur in some other locations. (
  • Internal connective sheath separating individual groups of muscle cells. (
  • Exercise that violates the principle of progression can lead to this type of skeletal muscle damage. (
  • There are several different ways to categorize the type of skeletal muscle. (
  • This type of skeletal muscle fiber is often found in the highest concentrations in the arms and shoulders, as these muscles are generally used less frequently than those of the back and neck. (
  • We need to consider how these mutations may affect skeletal muscle function. (
  • Under normal physiological conditions, a network of interconnected signals serves to control and coordinate hypertrophic and atrophic messages, culminating in a delicate balance between muscle protein synthesis and proteolysis. (
  • Signaling activated by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) positively regulates muscle mass, primarily via induction of protein synthesis, downstream of Akt and mTOR. (
  • Another more recently discovered E3 ligase is Fbxo40, which can ubiquitinate IRS1 upon IGF1 stimulation, short-circuiting this pathway unless the muscle is capable of synthesizing new IGF1, via maintenance of TORC1/protein synthesis signaling. (
  • In this study, the Pitt researchers injected mice with a gene therapy vector containing myostatin propeptide--a protein that blocks the activity of the muscle-growth inhibitor myostatin--three weeks prior to experimentally damaging the mice's skeletal muscles. (
  • One method uses the type of protein contained in myosin (one of the important proteins that is responsible for the ability of muscle to contract). (
  • altered light exposure, sleep patterns, and food and beverage consumption, and drivers of skeletal muscle health-protein intake, resistance training, and hormone release. (
  • Part of this testing could include skeletal muscle specific interventions such as targeted protein intake and/or resistance-training. (
  • For example, muscle protein metabolism rapidly adapts in response to physical exercise, dietary protein or anabolic hormones such as insulin-like growth factor 1 or testosterone ( 10 , 11 ). (
  • These findings suggest that a decrement in GLUT4 protein concentration in skeletal muscle may at least partially contribute to the insulin resistance of aging in humans. (
  • Twenty-two kDa protein specifically decreased in slow soleus muscle atrophy after 2-week hindlimb suspension (HS) of rats. (
  • This protein is abundant in soleus muscle but less in fast plantaris muscle. (
  • The two training groups will gain more muscle mass than the Protein Whey group, which will gain more than the Protein Collagen and the Carbohydrate groups that will loose quadriceps muscle cross sectional areas. (
  • The muscle injury increased monocytes, creatine kinase, C-reactive protein, reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration and lipid peroxidation. (
  • We found that muscle AK1 protein and enzymatic activity increased 2.9 and 90%, respectively, in obese women and 9.25 and 100%, respectively, in morbidly obese women. (
  • We propose that increased protein and enzymatic activity of AK1 is representative of a compensatory glycolytic drift to counteract reduced muscle mitochondrial function with the progression of obesity. (
  • Although mRNA transcript levels respond acutely to metabolic and mechanical disruptions within muscle, they do not always immediately translate into changes in the abundance of their corresponding protein products ( 7 , 9 ). (
  • Consequently, there is growing support for the use of protein profiling techniques to help produce a more comprehensive molecular etiology of muscle remodeling and disease states. (
  • Skeletal muscle mitochondrial and high fat feeding 9. (
  • We determined whether aging results in increased DNA oxidative damage and reduced mtDNA abundance and mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle of human subjects. (
  • The content of several mitochondrial proteins was reduced in older muscles, whereas the level of the oxidative DNA lesion, 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine, was increased, supporting the oxidative damage theory of aging. (
  • These results demonstrate that age-related muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is related to reduced mtDNA and muscle functional changes that are common in the elderly. (
  • Reduced muscle mitochondrial function could contribute to age-related muscle dysfunction and reduced aerobic capacity. (
  • The rate of synthesis of contractile and mitochondrial proteins in human skeletal muscle declines with advancing age and may alter muscle metabolic capacity in older people ( 2 - 4 ). (
  • The activity of oxidative enzymes and content mRNA transcripts encoding mitochondrial proteins are also reduced in older muscles ( 3 , 7 , 10 , 11 ). (
  • The major functional role of mitochondria is ATP generation, but it remains unclear whether mitochondrial ATP production rate (MAPR) in skeletal muscle declines with age in humans. (
  • We therefore performed a comprehensive study to examine whether muscle mitochondrial function declines with age in humans by using a large group of well-characterized healthy men and women across a wide age span. (
  • Antioxidant supplementation reduces skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis. (
  • However, exercise-induced ROS may regulate beneficial skeletal muscle adaptations, such as increased mitochondrial biogenesis. (
  • We therefore investigated the effects of long-term antioxidant supplementation with vitamin E and α-lipoic acid on changes in markers of mitochondrial biogenesis in the skeletal muscle of exercise-trained and sedentary rats. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: : Vitamin E and α-lipoic acid supplementation suppresses skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis, regardless of training status. (
  • Angquist, K.A. and Sjostrom, M. (1980) Intermittent claudication and muscle fiber fine structure: Morphometric data on mitochondrial volumes. (
  • Disturbances in mitochondrial oxidative capacity occur with statin use even in subjects without statin-induced muscle complaints. (
  • To determine whether differences exist in exercise performance, muscle function and mitochondrial oxidative capacity and content between symptomatic and asymptomatic statin users, and non-statin using controls. (
  • Statin use attenuates substrate use during maximal exercise performance, induces muscle fatigue during repeated muscle contractions and decreases mitochondrial oxidative capacity of the muscle. (
  • We assessed muscular mitochondrial function and lipid deposition in liver (HCL) and muscle (IMCL) using 31 P/ 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), insulin sensitivity and endogenous glucose production (EGP) by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps combined with isotopic tracer dilution in one female suffering from the MELAS syndrome and in six controls (CON). (
  • Impairment of muscle mitochondrial fitness promotes insulin resistance and could thereby contribute to the development of diabetes in certain patients with the MELAS syndrome. (
  • Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle . (
  • Unlike smooth muscle and cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle is under voluntary control. (
  • It does not include cardiac muscle and smooth muscle, which are associated with the systems in which they are found, such as the cardiovascular, digestive, urinary, or other organ systems. (
  • Skeletal muscle cells contract more forcefully than smooth or cardiac muscle cells. (
  • This volume focuses on the cell biology and physiology of skeletal muscle regeneration. (
  • This book addresses the topic by providing insight and research from international leaders, making it the go-to reference for those in skeletal muscle physiology. (
  • Hunt, Emma (2008), "Cardiovascular function in humans during exercise: role of the muscle pump", The Journal of Physiology, 586: 5045-5046, doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2008.162123, PMC 2652158, PMID 18801838 Point Sheriff D (Jul 2005). (
  • This is intended to be a bare-bones review of physiology of muscle function. (
  • In the first inclusion we shall discuss the physiology of muscle function, from its Basic Architecture to its Firing Pattern. (
  • Skeletal muscle physiology and its application to occupational ergonomics. (
  • The goal of this chapter is to provide a basic description of skeletal muscle physiology, injury mechanics, and motor control with application to occupational musculoskeletal disorders. (
  • 1) Centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxants: These drugs selectively act on the central nervous system that governs skeletal muscle tone and are used to control skeletal muscle spasms and treat tonic spasms or are used during surgical procedures. (
  • Which medications in the drug class Skeletal Muscle Relaxants are used in the treatment of Spasticity? (
  • Agents of treatment include Celecoxib (Celebrex), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), skeletal muscle relaxants, and local anesthetics. (
  • Muscle relaxants often are used to reduce muscle spasm after initial injury. (
  • Skeletal muscle relaxants are indicated as an adjunct to rest, physical therapy, and other measures for the relief of discomfort associated with acute painful musculoskeletal conditions. (
  • Skeletal muscle relaxants have modest short-term benefit as adjunctive therapy for nociceptive pain associated with muscle strains and are used intermittently for diffuse and certain regional chronic pain syndromes. (
  • Determining the optimal resistance training program for the development of skeletal muscle hypertrophy (size) is of great interest to many personal trainers working with clients who seek increases in muscularity. (
  • 2016) summarize current recommendations suggesting loads of 70% to 85% of a person's one-repetition maximum (1RM) are traditionally considered a criterion for maximizing skeletal muscle hypertrophy from resistance training. (
  • Unpredictably, the HR and LR were equally effective in stimulating skeletal muscle hypertrophy (as measured with muscle biopsy techniques) in this resistance-trained group of males. (
  • The researchers concluded that training to volitional failure is the most important variable for skeletal muscle hypertrophy gains in males. (
  • They summarized that trained males exercising to volitional failure between 30-90% 1RM will sufficiently activate skeletal muscle motor units, which is the driving mechanism for skeletal muscle hypertrophy. (
  • The signaling pathways involved in the control of skeletal muscle atrophy and hypertrophy. (
  • In the following review I will discuss new developments linking genetic and transcript abundance variability to an individual's potential to improve their aerobic capacity or endurance performance or induce muscle hypertrophy. (
  • Here, we found that functional overload, which is widely used to model resistance exercise, causes skeletal muscle hypertrophy and converts satellite cells from quiescent state to activated state. (
  • Potential therapies for muscle wasting include generation of new muscle cells (myogenesis) or increasing the mass of current muscle cells (hypertrophy). (
  • Skeletal muscles are attached to bones by tendons , and they produce all the movements of body parts in relation to each other. (
  • Because of these different architectures, the tension a muscle can create between its tendons varies by more than simply its size and fiber-type makeup. (
  • Skeletal muscles are generally to be found attached to the skeleton, usually by tendons . (
  • Answer: tendons Diff: 1 Page Ref: 185 13) The __________ zone of a sarcomere contains no actin filaments while the skeletal muscle is at rest (noncontractile state).12) Skeletal muscle is often attached to bone by strong. (
  • Human skeleton consists of both fused and individual bones supported and supplemented by ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage. (
  • [2] These cells are normally quiescent but can be activated by exercise or pathology to provide additional myonuclei for muscle growth or repair. (
  • Skeletal muscle has remarkable regeneration capabilities, mainly due to its resident muscle stem cells (MuSCs). (
  • This relies on resident muscle stem cells (MuSCs), also called "satellite cells" because of their unique anatomical position at the periphery of the myofibers. (
  • Chapters address the three major areas of study: provoking regeneration by inducing damage to muscle, analyzing the progenitor cells of skeletal muscle, and quantifying overall muscle function. (
  • Muscle derived stem cells are presently considered the best source for muscle regeneration. (
  • De Coppi's team has demonstrated that intravenous transplantation of amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells enhances the muscle strength and improves the survival rate of the affected animals. (
  • This is the first study to demonstrate the functional and stable integration of AFS cells into skeletal muscle, highlighting their value as a cell source for the treatment of muscular dystrophies. (
  • Gap junctions are found in cardiac and smooth muscle, where they function to increase the speed of electrical communication, or depolarization, between cells. (
  • In addition to gap junctions, other types of junctions include anchoring junctions and desmosomes, which keep muscle cells connected when they contract. (
  • Feline Skeletal Muscle Cells (FSkMC) provide a useful system to study many aspects of muscular function and disease and can serve as an intermediate model of human diseases. (
  • Skeletal Muscle Cells also play an instrumental role in the glucose metabolism and diabetes. (
  • Technical information for working with Feline Skeletal Muscle Cells including thawing, subculturing and cryopreservation. (
  • Vitamin D signaling and skeletal muscle cells 21. (
  • Skeletal muscle cells isolated using the ERBB3 and NGFR surface markers (right) restore human dystrophin (green) after transplantation significantly greater than previous methods (left). (
  • UCLA scientists have developed a new strategy to efficiently isolate, mature and transplant skeletal muscle cells created from human pluripotent stem cells, which can produce all cell types of the body. (
  • For a stem cell therapy for Duchenne to move forward, we must have a better understanding of the cells we are generating from human pluripotent stem cells compared to the muscle stem cells found naturally in the human body and during the development process. (
  • The skeletal muscle cells were not maturing properly, he explained. (
  • Using the ERBB3 and NGFR surface markers, the skeletal muscle cells were isolated and then injected into mice at the same time a TGF Beta inhibitor was administered. (
  • Skeletal muscle represents a plentiful and accessible source of adult stem cells. (
  • Skeletal-muscle-specific stem cells, termed satellite cells, contribute to the postnatal maintenance, growth, repair, and regeneration of skeletal muscle [ 1 ]. (
  • Exercise positively affects muscle fiber composition via regulation of satellite cells to improve muscle performance. (
  • Previous studies have shown that the number of satellite cells is increased by long-term or acute exercise training in humans and animals [ 4 , 5 ] and decreases during aging in conjunction with a reduction in the muscle quality and functional potential [ 6 ]. (
  • Satellite cells can be mitotically quiescent or in an activated proliferative state during skeletal muscle turnover. (
  • Physical exercise induces changes in extracellular signaling in skeletal muscle that affect satellite cells. (
  • In obesity, increased infiltration and activation of immune cells in skeletal muscle (mainly in IMAT/PMAT) and myocyte inflammation lead to increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, which negatively regulate myocyte metabolic functions through paracrine or autocrine effects. (
  • Both skeletal muscles and cardiac muscles contain striations among muscle cells and produce strong contractions, according to class notes from Yale Univers. (
  • Skeletal muscle cells are stimulated by acetylcholine , which is released at neuromuscular junctions by motor neurons . (
  • The ATP is produced by metabolizing creatine phosphate and glycogen within the muscle cells by mitochondria , as well as by metabolizing glucose and fatty acids , obtained from blood and within the cell. (
  • Each motor neuron activates a group of muscle cells, and collectively the neurons and muscle cells are known as motor units. (
  • Researchers at MIT and the University of Pennsylvania have genetically engineered skeletal muscle cells to respond to light . (
  • Primary Human Skeletal Muscle Cells (SkMC) are isolated from different skeletal muscles (e.g. (
  • Quiescent satellite cells are activated by stimuli such as muscle damage. (
  • Rigid quality control tests are performed for each lot of Human Skeletal Muscle Cells. (
  • Primary human skeletal muscle cells and culture medium optimized for the in vitro cultivation and differentiation of primary human skeletal muscle cells. (
  • During conditions of chronic or extensive muscle damage, persistent inflammation, prolonged fibroblastic activation, and attenuated reparative capacity of the satellite cells ultimately lead to excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix components. (
  • Optogenetic techniques have enabled noninvasive control of miniature biological robots, or biobots, powered by muscle cells, bringing such bots one step closer to application in health, sensing and the environment. (
  • Each skeletal muscle cell contains several hundred nuclei, as opposed to the single nucleus found in the cells of other muscle types. (
  • EuroStemCell researchers from the Institut Pasteur have isolated muscle stem cells displaying a high potential for muscle repair. (
  • These stem cells are much more effective in promoting muscle repair than the cultured cells previously used. (
  • This work, published on September 1st in Science, tells us more about adult muscle stem cells and sheds new light on the potential of these cells in the treatment of muscular defects. (
  • The researchers have developed a new purification procedure that gives direct access to muscle stem cells. (
  • These cells can both repair and contribute to the progenitor cell population of damaged muscles. (
  • Says researcher Didier Montarras: "the cells we have isolated are major contributors to muscle regeneration, and have therapeutic potential. (
  • The cells are also more efficient contributors to muscle repair than the cultured muscle precursor cells previously used. (
  • 20,000 purified muscle stem cells were as efficient as one million cultured cells in muscle fibre repair, when grafted in dystrophic mouse muscles. (
  • Margaret Buckingham, leading the Institut Pasteur team, explains: "this higher regenerative capacity reflects these cells' ability to more effectively colonise grafted muscle. (
  • This work from the Institut Pasteur and CNRS in France, follows a series of recent EuroStemCell discoveries about the origin and evolution of skeletal muscle stem cells. (
  • It paves the way for the isolation of human muscle stem cells and, ultimately, their therapeutic use for the repair of degenerated skeletal muscles. (
  • Muscle stem cell stem cell present in muscle that can make copies of itself as well as giving rise to the muscle precursor cells, which contribute to fiber repair or new fiber formation. (
  • To test the mediatory role of AMPKα1, we knocked out AMPKα1 and found that both proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells are reduced after injury and that muscle regeneration is severely impeded, reminiscent of hampered muscle regeneration seen in obese subjects. (
  • Satellite cells are the major postnatal myogenic cells in skeletal muscle ( 7 ). (
  • In response to muscle damage, satellite cells are activated and undergo asymmetric division, with one daughter cell to replenish the original cell and the other cell to undergo myogenic differentiation ( 8 ). (
  • On the other hand, successful muscle regeneration requires both sufficient quantity and proper myogenic differentiation of satellite cells ( 12 ). (
  • We previously identified the stimulatory effect of AMPKα1, the dominant AMPKα isoform in satellite cells, on myogenin expression and fusion into myotubes ( 20 , 21 ), which led us to hypothesize that AMPKα1 facilitates muscle regeneration and that obesity impedes muscle regeneration mainly through inhibition of AMPK. (
  • In endurance exercise, stress-induced signaling leads to transcriptional upregulation of genes, with Ca 2+ signaling and the energy status of the muscle cells sensed through AMPK being major input determinants. (
  • Muscle growth is further supported by DNA recruitment through activation and incorporation of satellite cells. (
  • Fill in the blank or provide a short answer: 9) Only __________ muscle cells are cylindrical and multinucleated. (
  • 11) Only __________ muscle cells possess intercalated discs. (
  • Multinucleate syncytium resulting from the fusion of many embryonic muscle cells (myoblasts). (
  • They are present in all muscle cells but vary in no. (
  • The striations on muscle cells consist of alternating light and dark regions. (
  • Muscle cells contain contractile filaments that move past each other and change the size of the cell. (
  • Under the microscope, the ends of the blocks look like lines, making skeletal muscle cells appear to have regularly arranged striations. (
  • Using cells taken from mice and humans, Spangenburg's team demonstrated that there were multiple isoforms of BRCA1 in skeletal muscle. (
  • When the investigators reduced the BRCA1 content in human skeletal muscle cells in culture, the mitochondria consumed less oxygen. (
  • Satellite cells are the resident stem cells of adult skeletal muscle. (
  • Thus, beta-catenin signalling in proliferating satellite cells directs these cells towards the self-renewal pathway and, so, contributes to the maintenance of this stem-cell pool in adult skeletal muscle. (
  • AU - Perez-Ruiz,Ana, AU - Ono,Yusuke, AU - Gnocchi,Viola F, AU - Zammit,Peter S, Y1 - 2008/04/08/ PY - 2008/4/10/pubmed PY - 2008/8/23/medline PY - 2008/4/10/entrez SP - 1373 EP - 82 JF - Journal of cell science JO - J Cell Sci VL - 121 IS - Pt 9 N2 - Satellite cells are the resident stem cells of adult skeletal muscle. (
  • However, muscle loss, atrophy or weakness can occur when there are metabolic imbalances, disuse or aging. (
  • Age-related muscle wasting, muscle weakness, and reduced aerobic capacity result in many metabolic disorders and diminished physical performance in humans ( 2 - 4 ). (
  • Furthermore, elevated levels of TGRLs, including diet/enterocyte-derived chylomicrons (CM) and liver-derived VLDL may undergo enhanced LPL-mediated triglyceride hydrolysis, increasing FA release and transfer into skeletal muscle (and AT) and contributing to myocyte inflammation and metabolic dysfunctions. (
  • Activation of the RAS in skeletal muscle with local production of ANG II and ANG 1-7 may also regulate myocyte inflammation and metabolic functions. (
  • Complications from aging and metabolic diseases like diabetes and metabolic syndrome are a factor in muscle wasting (atrophy). (
  • However, recent research hypothesizes that metabolic defects in skeletal muscle contribute to the etiology of diabetes and metabolic syndrome, suggesting that skeletal muscle has a larger role in these disease states than initially expected. (
  • One fundamental component of metabolic health is skeletal muscle, the largest organ in the body. (
  • The proposed US screening method may be used as a proxy measure of LBM and provide estimates of skeletal muscle composition that relate to IMAT, lipid metabolism, insulin homeostasis and inflammation - important factors that may impact impaired mobility and metabolic dysfunction in older African American Veterans. (
  • Metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes have become major health problems worldwide and are associated with attenuated muscle regeneration ( 16 , 17 ) and reduced AMPK activity ( 18 ). (
  • Even though the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the communication between muscle and brain is still poorly understood, physical activity represents one of the most effective strategies to reduce the prevalence and incidence of depression, cognitive, metabolic or degenerative neuronal disorders, and thus warrants further study. (
  • Holm, J., Dahllof, A.G. and Schersten, T. (1975) Metabolic activity of skeletal muscle in patients with peripheral arterial insufficiency. (
  • Side-differences in muscle metabolic characteristics in patients with unilateral arterial disease. (
  • This VA Merit Award will advance the investigators' understanding of the potential for strength training (ST) to reverse stroke-related muscle abnormalities to improve metabolic health, strength, and function. (
  • Obesity-related diseases such as the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes originate, in part, from the progressive metabolic deterioration of skeletal muscle. (
  • These observations indicate significant metabolic dysfunction in muscle from obese individuals that contributes to the development of glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and the eventual onset of type 2 diabetes. (
  • thus, dysregulation of skeletal muscle metabolism can strongly influence whole-body glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. (
  • Voluntary movement, which is effected by skeletal muscle, contributes greatly to energy metabolism and its regulation via glucose uptake and storage by insulin. (
  • Because skeletal muscle expresses the leptin receptor and plays a major role in determining energy metabolism, we studied leptin's effects on glucose and fatty acid (FA) metabolism in isolated mouse soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. (
  • The contralateral muscle was treated with insulin (10 mU/ml), leptin (0.01-10 μg/ml), or insulin plus leptin, and incorporation of [ 14 C]glucose or [ 14 C]oleate into CO 2 and into either glycogen or triacylglycerol (TAG) was determined. (
  • Leptin did not alter insulin-stimulated muscle glucose metabolism. (
  • Skeletal muscle, which accounts for 40% of body mass, is responsible for locomotion and is the major site for glucose and fatty acid utilization, playing a key role in preventing obesity and type 2 diabetes ( 1 - 3 ). (
  • In addition, skeletal muscle accounts for a large portion of oxidative metabolism and of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. (
  • Moreover, as a major storage site for glucose, lipids and amino acids, muscle is an essential coordinator of whole-body energy metabolism. (
  • The present study examined whether a reduction in the concentration of the insulin-stimulated glucose transporter (GLUT4) in skeletal muscle was associated with advancing age in men ( n = 55) and women ( n = 29). (
  • Skeletal muscle is by far the most common type of muscle in the body and it plays a major role in normal metabolism, e.g., after a meal, excess glucose is removed from the blood stream primarily by skeletal muscle. (
  • It is now widely accepted that skeletal muscle plays a considerable role in regulating levels of circulating glucose and lipids and that this capacity is significantly depressed in obese and/or inactive individuals ( 2 , 3 , 5 ). (
  • The molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle maintenance involve interplay between multiple signaling pathways. (
  • Molecular mechanism of post-meal regulation of muscle anabolism 7. (
  • Our group aims to analyze molecular changes within the skeletal muscle of pre-diabetic patients through the use of a clinical trial in humans. (
  • We currently have a good descriptive understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling the muscle phenotype. (
  • The plasticity of skeletal muscle is further illustrated by the myriad of effects that either endurance- or resistance-based training induce at the cellular and molecular levels ( 12 , 13 ). (
  • In summary, proteome analysis of muscle has helped us better describe the molecular etiology of obesity-related disease. (
  • New techniques for the unbiased ascertainment of complex molecular events in diseased, damaged, and exercise-adapted skeletal muscle include the use of oligonucleotide microarrays and proteomic analysis using mass spectroscopy ( 7 - 10 ). (
  • Skeletal muscle is innervated by somatic (as opposed to autonomic) motor axons at a synaptic structure called a motor endplate, where acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter. (
  • Understanding the regulation of muscle plasticity. (
  • The purpose of the present review is to give a short overview of the currently known factors and their role in skeletal muscle plasticity. (
  • These results suggest that the expression of αB-crystallin is dynamically related to the muscle plasticity. (
  • Skeletal muscle is a type of striated muscle , usually attached to the skeleton. (
  • Additionally, we present recent studies that link MuSC function with cellular heterogeneity, highlighting the complex regulation of self-renewal in regeneration, muscle disorders and aging. (
  • This Book is a collection of classic and cutting edge protocols optimized for mice, but in most cases adaptable to rat or other mammalian models, that will allow an investigator to develop and implement a research study on skeletal muscle regeneration. (
  • Cutting edge and practical, Skeletal Muscle Regeneration in the Mouse: Methods and Protocols is an essential laboratory reference for research in skeletal muscle growth, damage, repair, degeneration, and regenerative therapy in the mouse model system. (
  • Recent studies have further defined the pathways leading to gain and loss of skeletal muscle as well as the signaling events that induce differentiation and post-injury regeneration, which are also essential for the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. (
  • However, several growth factors might promote the regeneration of injured skeletal muscle, many novel treatments have involved on enhancing complete functional recovery. (
  • A regeneration process that is similar in most types of muscle injuries, has been observed. (
  • Recently, it has been suggested that growth factors might promote the regeneration of injured skeletal muscle, and many novel treatments have been developed. (
  • BALTIMORE, June 4 - University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine researchers have successfully used gene therapy to accelerate muscle regeneration in experimental animals with muscle damage, suggesting this technique may be a novel and effective approach for improving skeletal muscle healing, particularly for serious sports-related injuries. (
  • Four weeks after skeletal muscle injury, the investigators observed an enhancement of muscle regeneration in the gene-therapy treated mice compared to the non-gene-therapy treated control mice. (
  • Obesity is increasing rapidly worldwide and is accompanied by many complications, including impaired muscle regeneration. (
  • We hypothesized that the loss of AMPK activity is a major reason for hampered muscle regeneration in obese subjects. (
  • We found that obesity inhibits AMPK activity in regenerating muscle, which was associated with impeded satellite cell activation and impaired muscle regeneration. (
  • We also found that attenuated muscle regeneration in obese mice is rescued by AICAR, a drug that specifically activates AMPK, but AICAR treatment failed to improve muscle regeneration in obese mice with satellite cell-specific AMPKα1 knockout, demonstrating the importance of AMPKα1 in satellite cell activation and muscle regeneration. (
  • In summary, AMPKα1 is a key mediator linking obesity and impaired muscle regeneration, providing a convenient drug target to facilitate muscle regeneration in obese populations. (
  • Skeletal muscle regeneration is an integrated part of the physiological process in skeletal muscle. (
  • In both exercise-induced muscle damage and muscle trauma, skeletal muscle regeneration is required for recovery after injury ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • Moreover, sustained but attenuated muscle regeneration is indispensable in the etiology of muscular diseases, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy ( 6 ). (
  • Improper muscle regeneration leads to muscle atrophy and impairment of muscle contractile function ( 9 - 11 ). (
  • disrupted expression of MRFs negatively affects muscle regeneration ( 14 ). (
  • However, the role of AMPK in impaired muscle regeneration due to obesity and type 2 diabetes has not been defined. (
  • The myofibrils are composed of actin and myosin filaments, repeated in units called sarcomeres , which are the basic functional units of the muscle fiber. (
  • 3D rendering of a skeletal muscle fiber. (
  • Every single organelle and macromolecule of a muscle fiber is arranged to ensure form meets function. (
  • While the muscle fiber does not have a smooth endoplasmic cisternae, it contains a sarcoplasmic reticulum . (
  • These cross the muscle fiber from one side to the other. (
  • [4] The different fiber arrangements produce broad categories of skeletal muscle architectures including longitudinal, pennate , unipennate, bipennate, and multipennate. (
  • A muscle fiber is divided into functional units known as sarcomeres which are defined as the distance between 2 sets of Z - lines. (
  • Longitudinal architecture The fascicles of longitudinally arranged, parallel, or fusiform muscles run parallel to the axis of force generation, thus these muscles on a whole function similarly to a single, large muscle fiber. (
  • The nuclei of these muscles are located in the peripheral aspect of the cell, just under the plasma membrane , which vacates the central part of the muscle fiber for myofibrils . (
  • Each fiber of a muscle can contribute to force production only if it is recruited by the brain. (
  • One motor nerve can branch into tens, hundreds, or even a thousand branches, each one terminating on a different muscle fiber. (
  • The different muscle groups of the body usually consist of different concentrations of each type of muscle fiber , depending on the functions of each individual muscle group. (
  • Each muscle fiber is surrounded by the cell membrane, which has tubelike extensions called transverse tubules. (
  • What is a Motor Unit/Muscle Fiber? (
  • the amount of each type of fiber varies from muscle to muscle and from person to person. (
  • It will be the first study to thoroughly investigate the effects of ST on muscle atrophy, intramuscular fat, muscle fiber characteristics, capillary density and insulin sensitivity after stroke. (
  • Maximal incremental cycling tests and involuntary electrically stimulated isometric quadriceps muscle contractions were performed and a muscle biopsy was obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle. (
  • Nutrition and Skeletal Muscle provides coverage of the evidence of dietary components that have proven beneficial for bettering adverse changes in skeletal muscle from disuse and aging. (
  • Chronic adaptations are a result of consistent acute changes in skeletal muscle and persist for longer periods of time, as well. (
  • The Human Skeletal Muscle Development & Disease RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 key genes involved in skeletal muscle differentiation, function and disease-related processes. (
  • Fusion to myotubes with typical multinucleated syncytia can be induced by using the PromoCell Skeletal Muscle Cell Differentiation Medium. (
  • Muscles generate force and shortening in a cyclical interaction between the myosin head domains projecting from the myosin filaments and the adjacent actin filaments. (
  • As seen under a microscope, dark bands formed by myosin overlap light bands formed by actin, resulting in the striped appearance of the structure of skeletal muscles. (
  • Signaling pathways controlling skeletal muscle mass. (
  • Muscular dystrophies arise from inherited mutations in the genes encoding components of these complexes, and gene expression changes disrupting their normal contractile function dysregulate signaling pathways that control muscle growth. (
  • J. A. Powell, M. A. Carrasco, D. S. Adams, B. Drouet, J. Rios, M. Müller, M. Estrada, E. Jaimovich, IP 3 receptor function and localization in myotubes: An unexplored Ca 2+ signaling pathway in skeletal muscle. (
  • As a consequence, muscle structural and functional modifications can be achieved by an almost unlimited combination of inputs and downstream signaling events. (
  • Geometric design and material properties of the hydrogel bio-bots were optimized using stereolithographic 3D printing, and the effect of collagen I and fibrin extracellular matrix proteins and insulin-like growth factor 1 on the force production of engineered skeletal muscle was characterized. (
  • Reduced synthesis and activity of specific proteins can alter muscle functions. (
  • Is the Subject Area "Muscle proteins" applicable to this article? (
  • Also called striated muscle, the skeletal muscle has a striped appearance because of two overlapping proteins that allow the muscle to contract rapidly. (
  • In the present study, we analyzed skeletal muscle cytosolic proteins from lean, obese/overweight, and morbidly obese women to identify enzymes that may account for defects in muscle metabolism. (
  • Statin-induced myopathy is associated with skeletal muscle cell MHC I expression changes. (
  • Over 30 mutations of the muscle channel gene SCN4A, which encodes the muscle voltage-gated sodium channel, have been described and associated with neuromuscular disorders like hypo- and hyper-kalaemic periodic paralyses (hypoPP and hyperPP), paramyotonia congenita, sodium channel myotonias and congenital myasthenic syndrome. (
  • I will also comment on the idea that certain gene networks may be associated with muscle "adaptability" regardless the stimulus provided. (
  • QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for skeletal muscle research that enables analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, genotyping, and signal transduction pathway activation. (
  • Thus, IP3R on the nuclear membrane may be responsible for a nuclear calcium signal that regulates gene expression in stimulated muscles. (
  • But in work just published in the Journal of Lipid Research, investigators demonstrated the BRCA1 gene also is expressed in skeletal muscle. (
  • The total enzymatic activity of creatine kinase, which also regulates energy metabolism in muscle, was shown to increase 30% in obese/overweight women only. (
  • Taken together, the data suggest that BRCA1 is important in regulating energy metabolism in skeletal muscle. (
  • In Caenorhabditis elegans , muscle changes resembling those in humans precede neuronal changes, and are a determinant of morbidity ( 1 ). (
  • Humans, one type of primate, have more than 600 muscles, accounting for approximately 40 percent of the average male's weight. (
  • Lipids in skeletal muscle and insulin sensitivity 19. (
  • In addition to the loss of independence that is typically seen with diminished muscle mass and function (sarcopenia), age-related changes in lean body mass can have negative effects on insulin sensitivity. (
  • these filaments slide past one another as the muscle contracts and expands. (
  • There is marked fibrosis with attenuation and loss of muscle bundles. (
  • They prevent collagen deposition and block formation of muscle fibrosis, so that a complete functional recovery can be achieved. (
  • To minimize the disability and enhance full functional recovery after skeletal muscle injuries, the current conservative treatment includes limiting the bleeding with compression, elevation, and local cooling, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and physical therapy [ 3 ]. (
  • We have found that just because a skeletal muscle cell produced in the lab expresses muscle markers, doesn't mean it is fully functional," said Pyle. (
  • Many structural and functional changes occur with age in skeletal muscle in a wide range of species. (
  • Trovato FM, Imbesi R, Conway N, Castrogiovanni P. Morphological and Functional Aspects of Human Skeletal Muscle. (
  • The functions of skeletal muscles are to bring about specific movements to the number of bones present in the human skeleton, according to the University of the Western Cape. (
  • The biceps are classified as skeletal muscles because they attach directly to the skeleton. (
  • Skeletal muscles are the most abundant muscle type, as they cover and provide movement to the entire skeleton of the human body. (
  • Despite the post-mitotic nature of its myofibers, skeletal muscle has a robust regenerative capacity in response to injury. (
  • By analyzing human development, the researchers found a fetal skeletal muscle cell that is extraordinarily regenerative. (
  • The mitochondria from the subscapular muscle of naturally cold-stressed 10- to 15-year-old northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) were loosely coupled upon isolation, whereas the mitochondria from the same muscle of warm-acclimated pups of the same age were tightly coupled. (
  • Thus, loose-coupled muscle mitochondria might provide an important vehicle for nonshivering thermogenesis in this species. (
  • Oxidative stress in skeletal muscle and high fat feeding 12. (
  • In this review, we discuss possible mechanisms of iron dependent oxidative stress in skeletal muscle, its impact on muscle mass and endocrine function, as well as on neurodegeneration processes. (
  • In the skeletal muscle, oxidative stress not only causes muscle damage but also negatively impacts its endocrine function. (
  • Blood (CBC and damage/muscle inflammation markers), muscle (oxidative stress) and gonad (sperm parameters) samples were collected 72h after the injury. (
  • When human skeletal muscle is exposed to exercise training, the outcomes, in terms of physiological adaptation, are unpredictable. (
  • Physiological regulation of muscle mass 2. (
  • To understand how exposure to these factors results in muscle injury, it is necessary to understand the biological and physiological mechanisms that allow skeletal muscles to generate movement, maintain posture, and support loads. (
  • Whereas cardiac cell-driven biological actuators have been demonstrated, the requirements of these machines to respond to stimuli and exhibit controlled movement merit the use of skeletal muscle, the primary generator of actuation in animals, as a contractile power source. (
  • Skeletal muscles can generally be contracted and relaxed at will to perform voluntary functions, such as movement. (
  • The prime mover is the muscle that is most responsible for the movement. (
  • Antagonists are muscles that cause a movement opposite to that of the prime mover. (
  • Muscle connected to, and necessary for the movement of, bones. (
  • For more information on the structure and function of skeletal muscle, see muscle and muscle system, human . (
  • Children with a less severe form face the prospect of progressive muscle wasting, loss of mobility and motor function. (
  • This disruption hampers the function of the muscle and has been implicated as one of the potential sources of muscle soreness. (
  • Vitamin D and age-related loss of muscle mass and function 23. (
  • Skeletal muscles usually function in pairs, and their control is typically voluntary. (
  • Skeletal muscles typically function in pairs. (
  • Using laser diffraction methods that they developed to measure muscle internal properties during back surgery, they demonstrated that the multifidus' unique design serves a critical function as a stabilizer of the lumbar spine. (
  • Minimally invasive spine surgery techniques strive to minimize surgical trauma to these muscles in order to best preserve their function. (
  • When muscle function is poor due to back problems, support is lost. (
  • What is the function of Skeletal Muscle? (
  • Recent studies clearly indicate that the endocrine function of the skeletal muscle is essential for a long and healthy life. (
  • Further, iron overload in the skeletal muscle not only negatively affects muscle contractility but also might impact its endocrine function, thus possibly affecting the clinical outcome of diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases. (
  • therefore it can impair both the parasympathetic and sympathetic regulation in the blood vessels of skeletal muscle and affect long-term muscle function. (
  • In this review we have provided recent Hcy mediated mechanistic insights into different diseases and presented potential implications in the context of reduced muscle function and integrity. (
  • When children experience brachial plexus injury at birth, or are born with cerebral palsy, some of the most disabling problems that follow are muscle contractures, or tightness of muscles, that severely restrict limb function. (
  • Sarcopenia is diagnosed on the basis of skeletal muscle mass and muscle strength/function. (
  • However, more simple and accurate measures for muscle mass and muscle strength/function should be explored. (
  • By evaluating the relationship between muscle quality/quantity indicators and muscle mass/muscle function, we attempted to identify better muscle quantity and quality indicators for the diagnosis of sarcopenia. (
  • According to the receiver-operating characteristic analysis, quadriceps muscle thickness and thigh muscle volume were better indicators of muscle mass, whereas the quadriceps muscle echo intensity and thigh muscle density were more robust indicators of muscle function. (
  • The treatment resulted in longer survival in mice affected by a muscle variant of spinal muscular atrophy. (
  • The findings are a major step towards developing a stem cell replacement therapy for muscle diseases including Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, which affects approximately 1 in 5,000 boys in the U.S. and is the most common fatal childhood genetic disease. (
  • The muscular system consists of approximately 700 muscles that belong to one of three distinct categories: skeletal, smooth or cardiac. (
  • In this Review we focus on obesity-linked SM inflammation and its roles in muscle insulin resistance. (
  • Athletes sustain muscle injuries through a variety of mechanisms, including direct trauma (e.g., lacerations, strains, and contusions) and indirect injuries (related to ischemia and neurological dysfunctions). (
  • In skeletal muscle the recognition that E-C coupling consists of two parallel mechanisms, one dependent upon a dihydropyridine voltage-sensitive sensors coupled to calcium release from the terminal cisternae via the ryanodine sensitive channel in the foot structure of the triad. (
  • Although potentiation and fatigue have opposing effects on force production in skeletal muscle, these two presumed mechanisms can coexist. (
  • It is our hope that this review will raise awareness among scientists dealing with contractile responses of muscles that the underlying mechanisms of potentiation and fatigue can coexist, and that care must be taken in interpreting the contractile responses under such circumstances. (
  • Researchers have gained new insight into the mechanisms involved in how skeletal muscles lose their mass and strength as people age, called sarcopenia. (
  • These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Skeletal Muscle Relaxant. (
  • A synthetic propanediol dicarbamate derivative and an adjunct in the treatment of painful muscle spasms, Carisoprodol is a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant that relieves stiffness, pain, and discomfort caused by muscle injuries. (
  • A centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant whose mechanism of action is not completely understood but may be related to its sedative actions. (
  • Tizanidine is a centrally acting muscle relaxant metabolized in the liver and excreted in urine and feces. (
  • It is important to identify what each individual muscle does, and this is just a start, showing that the multifidus contributes significantly to spinal stabilization," said Garfin. (
  • Skeletal muscle , also called voluntary muscle , in vertebrates , most common of the three types of muscle in the body. (
  • Most skeletal muscles can be controlled consciously, and skeletal muscle is sometimes referred to as voluntary muscle. (
  • The investigators central hypothesis is that the muscle characteristics derived from ultrasound (US) will be significantly associated with estimates of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) LBM, CT scan measures of IMAT, estimates of insulin homeostasis, and serum levels of inflammatory cytokines. (
  • Skeletal muscle is an essential regulator of energy homeostasis and a potent coordinator of exercise-induced adaptations in other organs including the liver, fat or the brain. (
  • The myostatin/GDF11/activin pathway negatively regulates muscle size, as a result of the phosphorylation of SMAD2/3 - primarily by inhibiting Akt. (
  • Dominguez, R., Freyzon, Y., Trybus, K. M. & Cohen, C. Crystal structure of a vertebrate smooth muscle myosin motor domain and its complex with the essential light chain: visualisation of the pre-power stroke state. (
  • To evaluate the effects caused by skeletal muscle injuries on the inflammatory response and sperm parameters of male adult rats. (
  • Conformation of the myosin motor during force generation in skeletal muscle. (
  • Your search returned 5 myosin, light polypeptide kinase 2, skeletal muscle Biomolecules across 4 suppliers. (
  • The general injury and repair mechanism is similar in most types of muscle injuries. (
  • Transforming growth factor-beta in skeletal muscle strain injury. (
  • In this study, we assess the presence of transforming growth factor-beta in strain-induced muscle injury. (
  • Muscle biopsy samples were evaluated 24- and 48- hours after strain injury for the presence of transforming growth factor-beta using immunohistochemical techniques and Western immunoblot analysis. (
  • These results indicate that TGF-beta1 levels increase after acute strain injury following increases in TGF-beta1 mRNA correlating with increases in collagen I and collagen III transcripts, whereas TGF-beta2 may be a common resident in skeletal muscle awaiting activation. (
  • Muscle injury was induced by bruising, caused by the release of a 200 g weight from a height of 30 cm onto the gastrocnemius muscle. (
  • The acute systemic inflammatory response arising from skeletal muscle injury interferes in the male reproductive cell organelles (membrane and acrosome). (
  • Skeletal muscle injuries are the most common sports-related injuries and present a challenge in primary care and sports medicine. (
  • Most types of muscle injuries would follow three stages: the acute inflammatory and degenerative phase, the repair phase and the remodeling phase. (
  • A search of the literature on the treatment of skeletal muscle injuries was conducted using PubMed and Medscape. (
  • Skeletal muscle injuries are the most common injuries encountered in sports medicine. (
  • According to corresponding author Johnny Huard, Ph.D., the Henry J. Mankin Endowed Chair and Professor in Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, and Director of the Stem Cell Research Center of Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, this approach offers a significant, long-lasting method for treating serious, sports-related muscle injuries. (
  • Skeletal muscle injuries stimulate a systemic inflammatory response which may interfere in species reproduction. (
  • Acute adaptations or responses of skeletal muscle to resistance training occur during or shortly after a bout of exercise. (
  • One acute or immediate response resistance training has on skeletal muscle is the accumulation of fatigue-producing metabolites. (
  • Although there have been a number of microarray studies of diabetic and obese muscle across a variety of animal and human experimental models, the only real consensus is the apparent downregulation of genes encoding oxidative metabolism enzymes with obesity and diabetes ( 11 ). (