Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.Muscle Denervation: The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Muscle, Striated: One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.Muscle Spindles: Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Abdominal Muscles: Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Muscle Cells: Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.Masseter Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.Facial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Intercostal Muscles: Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Muscular Atrophy: Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle: Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.Pectoralis Muscles: The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.Psoas Muscles: A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.Myofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .Temporal Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Pharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.GlycogenNeuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Muscular Dystrophy, AnimalMyoblasts: Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Muscle Cramp: A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Mice, Inbred mdx: A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.Sarcomeres: The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.Myostatin: A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.MyoD Protein: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Muscle Stretching Exercises: Exercises that stretch the muscle fibers with the aim to increase muscle-tendon FLEXIBILITY, improve RANGE OF MOTION or musculoskeletal function, and prevent injuries. There are various types of stretching techniques including active, passive (relaxed), static, dynamic (gentle), ballistic (forced), isometric, and others.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Muscle Rigidity: Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Dystrophin: A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Myoblasts, Skeletal: Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Hindlimb Suspension: Technique for limiting use, activity, or movement by immobilizing or restraining animal by suspending from hindlimbs or tails. This immobilization is used to simulate some effects of reduced gravity and study weightlessness physiology.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Mice, Inbred C57BLThigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Muscle Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Pterygoid Muscles: Two of the masticatory muscles: the internal, or medial, pterygoid muscle and external, or lateral, pterygoid muscle. Action of the former is closing the jaws and that of the latter is opening the jaws, protruding the mandible, and moving the mandible from side to side.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Muscular Dystrophies: A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.Skeletal Muscle Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in skeletal muscle.Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.Muscle Relaxants, Central: A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)Sarcolemma: The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Muscle Spasticity: A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne: An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Torque: The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.Myositis: Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Myogenin: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Muscle Strength Dynamometer: A device that measures MUSCLE STRENGTH during muscle contraction, such as gripping, pushing, and pulling. It is used to evaluate the health status of muscle in sports medicine or physical therapy.Desmin: An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Smooth Muscle Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in smooth muscle.Receptors, Cholinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Reflex, Stretch: Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Tropomyosin: A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Citrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 22.214.171.124.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Sarcopenia: Progressive decline in muscle mass due to aging which results in decreased functional capacity of muscles.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Neuromuscular Diseases: A general term encompassing lower MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and certain MUSCULAR DISEASES. Manifestations include MUSCLE WEAKNESS; FASCICULATION; muscle ATROPHY; SPASM; MYOKYMIA; MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, myalgias, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Rana temporaria: A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.Deltoid Muscle: Thick triangular muscle in the SHOULDER whose function is to abduct, flex, and extend the arm. It is a common site of INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Myogenic Regulatory Factors: A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).Motor Endplate: The specialized postsynaptic region of a muscle cell. The motor endplate is immediately across the synaptic cleft from the presynaptic axon terminal. Among its anatomical specializations are junctional folds which harbor a high density of cholinergic receptors.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Rana pipiens: A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Creatine Kinase, MM Form: An isoenzyme of creatine kinase found in the MUSCLE.Running: An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.PAX7 Transcription Factor: A paired box transcription factor that is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and SKELETAL MUSCLE.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Muscle Hypertonia: Abnormal increase in skeletal or smooth muscle tone. Skeletal muscle hypertonicity may be associated with PYRAMIDAL TRACT lesions or BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Myogenic Regulatory Factor 5: A SKELETAL MUSCLE-specific transcription factor that contains a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF. It plays an essential role in MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT.Paraspinal Muscles: Deep muscles in the BACK whose function is to extend and rotate the SPINE and maintain POSTURE. It consists splenius, semispinalis, multifidus, rotatores, interspinales, intertransversarii and sacrospinalis.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Troponin: One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel: A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Recruitment, Neurophysiological: The spread of response if stimulation is prolonged. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Muscular Disorders, Atrophic: Disorders characterized by an abnormal reduction in muscle volume due to a decrease in the size or number of muscle fibers. Atrophy may result from diseases intrinsic to muscle tissue (e.g., MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY) or secondary to PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES that impair innervation to muscle tissue (e.g., MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL).Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Back: The rear surface of an upright primate from the shoulders to the hip, or the dorsal surface of tetrapods.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Weight Lifting: A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.Muscle Hypotonia: A diminution of the skeletal muscle tone marked by a diminished resistance to passive stretching.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Requirement of a novel gene, Xin, in cardiac morphogenesis. (1/28646)A novel gene, Xin, from chick (cXin) and mouse (mXin) embryonic hearts, may be required for cardiac morphogenesis and looping. Both cloned cDNAs have a single open reading frame, encoding proteins with 2,562 and 1,677 amino acids for cXin and mXin, respectively. The derived amino acid sequences share 46% similarity. The overall domain structures of the predicted cXin and mXin proteins, including proline-rich regions, 16 amino acid repeats, DNA-binding domains, SH3-binding motifs and nuclear localization signals, are highly conserved. Northern blot analyses detect a single message of 8.9 and 5.8 kilo base (kb) from both cardiac and skeletal muscle of chick and mouse, respectively. In situ hybridization reveals that the cXin gene is specifically expressed in cardiac progenitor cells of chick embryos as early as stage 8, prior to heart tube formation. cXin continues to be expressed in the myocardium of developing hearts. By stage 15, cXin expression is also detected in the myotomes of developing somites. Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that the mXin protein is colocalized with N-cadherin and connexin-43 in the intercalated discs of adult mouse hearts. Incubation of stage 6 chick embryos with cXin antisense oligonucleotides results in abnormal cardiac morphogenesis and an alteration of cardiac looping. The myocardium of the affected hearts becomes thickened and tends to form multiple invaginations into the heart cavity. This abnormal cellular process may account in part for the abnormal looping. cXin expression can be induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in explants of anterior medial mesoendoderm from stage 6 chick embryos, a tissue that is normally non-cardiogenic. This induction occurs following the BMP-mediated induction of two cardiac-restricted transcription factors, Nkx2.5 and MEF2C. Furthermore, either MEF2C or Nkx2.5 can transactivate a luciferase reporter driven by the mXin promoter in mouse fibroblasts. These results suggest that Xin may participate in a BMP-Nkx2.5-MEF2C pathway to control cardiac morphogenesis and looping. (+info)
Coupling of the cell cycle and myogenesis through the cyclin D1-dependent interaction of MyoD with cdk4. (2/28646)Proliferating myoblasts express the muscle determination factor, MyoD, throughout the cell cycle in the absence of differentiation. Here we show that a mitogen-sensitive mechanism, involving the direct interaction between MyoD and cdk4, restricts myoblast differentiation to cells that have entered into the G0 phase of the cell cycle under mitogen withdrawal. Interaction between MyoD and cdk4 disrupts MyoD DNA-binding, muscle-specific gene activation and myogenic conversion of 10T1/2 cells independently of cyclin D1 and the CAK activation of cdk4. Forced induction of cyclin D1 in myotubes results in the cytoplasmic to nuclear translocation of cdk4. The specific MyoD-cdk4 interaction in dividing myoblasts, coupled with the cyclin D1-dependent nuclear targeting of cdk4, suggests a mitogen-sensitive mechanism whereby cyclin D1 can regulate MyoD function and the onset of myogenesis by controlling the cellular location of cdk4 rather than the phosphorylation status of MyoD. (+info)
Cloning and characterization of the promoters of the maxiK channel alpha and beta subunits. (3/28646)Large conductance, calcium-activated potassium (maxiK) channels are expressed in nerve, muscle, and other cell types and are important determinants of smooth muscle tone. To determine the mechanisms involved in the transcriptional regulation of maxiK channels, we characterized the promoter regions of the pore forming (alpha) and regulatory (beta) subunits of the human channel complex. Maximum promoter activity (up to 12.3-fold over control) occurred between nucleotides -567 and -220 for the alpha subunit (hSlo) gene. The minimal promoter is GC-rich with 5 Sp-1 binding sites and several TCC repeats. Other transcription factor-binding motifs, including c/EBP, NF-kB, PU.1, PEA-3, Myo-D, and E2A, were observed in the 5'-flanking sequence. Additionally, a CCTCCC sequence, which increases the transcriptional activity of the SM1/2 gene in smooth muscle, is located 27 bp upstream of the TATA-like sequence, a location identical to that found in the SM1/2 5'-flanking region. However, the promoter directed equivalent expression when transfected into smooth muscle and other cell types. Analysis of the hSlo beta subunit 5'-flanking region revealed a TATA box at position -77 and maximum promoter activity (up to 11.0-fold) in a 200 bp region upstream from the cap site. Binding sites for GATA-1, Myo-D, c-myb, Ets-1/Elk-1, Ap-1, and Ik-2 were identified within this sequence. Two CCTCCC elements are present in the hSlo beta subunit promoter, but tissue-specific transcriptional activity was not observed. The lack of tissue-specific promoter activity, particularly the finding of promoter activity in cells from tissues in which the maxiK gene is not expressed, suggests a complex channel regulatory mechanism for hSlo genes. Moreover, the lack of similarity of the promoters of the two genes suggests that regulation of coordinate expression of the subunits does not occur through equivalent cis-acting sequences. (+info)
Perioperative growth hormone treatment and functional outcome after major abdominal surgery: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. (4/28646)OBJECTIVE: To evaluate short- and long-term effects of perioperative human growth hormone (hGH) treatment on physical performance and fatigue in younger patients undergoing a major abdominal operation in a normal postoperative regimen with oral nutrition. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Muscle wasting and functional impairment follow major abdominal surgery. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with ulcerative colitis undergoing ileoanal J-pouch surgery were randomized to hGH (12 IU/day) or placebo treatment from 2 days before to 7 days after surgery. Measurements were performed 2 days before and 10, 30, and 90 days after surgery. RESULTS: The total muscle strength of four limb muscle groups was reduced by 7.6% in the hGH group and by 17.1% in the placebo group at postoperative day 10 compared with baseline values. There was also a significant difference between treatment groups in total muscle strength at day 30, and at the 90-day follow-up total muscle strength was equal to baseline values in the hGH group, but still significantly 5.9% below in the placebo group. The work capacity decreased by approximately 20% at day 10 after surgery, with no significant difference between treatment groups. Both groups were equally fatigued at day 10 after surgery, but at day 30 and 90 the hGH patients were less fatigued than the placebo patients. During the treatment period, patients receiving hGH had reduced loss of limb lean tissue mass, and 3 months after surgery the hGH patients had regained more lean tissue mass than placebo patients. CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative hGH treatment of younger patients undergoing major abdominal surgery preserved limb lean tissue mass, increased postoperative muscular strength, and reduced long-term postoperative fatigue. (+info)
Spinal cord-evoked potentials and muscle responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation in 10 awake human subjects. (5/28646)Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TCMS) causes leg muscle contractions, but the neural structures in the brain that are activated by TCMS and their relationship to these leg muscle responses are not clearly understood. To elucidate this, we concomitantly recorded leg muscle responses and thoracic spinal cord-evoked potentials (SCEPs) after TCMS for the first time in 10 awake, neurologically intact human subjects. In this report we provide evidence of direct and indirect activation of corticospinal neurons after TCMS. In three subjects, SCEP threshold (T) stimulus intensities recruited both the D wave (direct activation of corticospinal neurons) and the first I wave (I1, indirect activation of corticospinal neurons). In one subject, the D, I1, and I2 waves were recruited simultaneously, and in another subject, the I1 and I2 waves were recruited simultaneously. In the remaining five subjects, only the I1 wave was recruited first. More waves were recruited as the stimulus intensity increased. The presence of D and I waves in all subjects at low stimulus intensities verified that TCMS directly and indirectly activated corticospinal neurons supplying the lower extremities. Leg muscle responses were usually contingent on the SCEP containing at least four waves (D, I1, I2, and I3). (+info)
Wasting of the small hand muscles in upper and mid-cervical cord lesions. (6/28646)Four patients are described with destructive rheumatoid arthritis of the cervical spine and neurogenic wasting of forearm and hand muscles. The pathological connection is not immediately obvious, but a relationship between these two observations is described here with clinical, radiological, electrophysiological and necropsy findings. Compression of the anterior spinal artery at upper and mid-cervical levels is demonstrated to be the likely cause of changes lower in the spinal cord. These are shown to be due to the resulting ischaemia of the anterior part of the lower cervical spinal cord, with degeneration of the neurones innervating the forearm and hand muscles. These findings favour external compression of the anterior spinal artery leading to ischaemia in a watershed area as the likeliest explanation for this otherwise inappropriate and bizarre phenomenon. (+info)
Fas and Fas ligand interaction induces apoptosis in inflammatory myopathies: CD4+ T cells cause muscle cell injury directly in polymyositis. (7/28646)OBJECTIVE: To investigate the involvement of the Fas/Fas ligand (Fas/FasL) system in the inflammatory myopathies. METHODS: Frozen muscle sections obtained from 7 patients with polymyositis (PM), 4 patients with dermatomyositis (DM), and 3 controls were studied by immunochemistry. Apoptosis was detected by DNA electrophoresis and in situ labeling using the TUNEL method. RESULTS: Fas was detected on muscle fibers and infiltrating mononuclear cells (MNC) in 6 PM patients and 2 DM patients. FasL was expressed mainly on CD4+ T cells and some CD8+ T cells, and on macrophages surrounding Fas-positive muscles in 4 PM patients and 1 DM patient. In 3 of the 5 patients with FasL-positive MNC, the TUNEL method showed that both invaded myonuclei and MNC underwent apoptosis. Chromosomal DNA from the muscle tissue of these patients showed ladder formation. CONCLUSION: Fas/FasL is involved in muscle cell apoptosis in at least 2 of the inflammatory myopathies, PM and DM. Although CD8+-mediated cytotoxicity is thought to be the main mechanism of muscle injury in PM, our data suggest that CD4+ T cells also directly cause muscle cell damage. (+info)
A novel interaction mechanism accounting for different acylphosphatase effects on cardiac and fast twitch skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pumps. (8/28646)In cardiac and skeletal muscle Ca2+ translocation from cytoplasm into sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is accomplished by different Ca2+-ATPases whose functioning involves the formation and decomposition of an acylphosphorylated phosphoenzyme intermediate (EP). In this study we found that acylphosphatase, an enzyme well represented in muscular tissues and which actively hydrolyzes EP, had different effects on heart (SERCA2a) and fast twitch skeletal muscle SR Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA1). With physiological acylphosphatase concentrations SERCA2a exhibited a parallel increase in the rates of both ATP hydrolysis and Ca2+ transport; in contrast, SERCA1 appeared to be uncoupled since the stimulation of ATP hydrolysis matched an inhibition of Ca2+ pump. These different effects probably depend on phospholamban, which is associated with SERCA2a but not SERCA1. Consistent with this view, the present study suggests that acylphosphatase-induced stimulation of SERCA2a, in addition to an enhanced EP hydrolysis, may be due to a displacement of phospholamban, thus to a removal of its inhibitory effect. (+info)
Constitutive STAT3 Phosphorylation Contributes to Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes | Diabetes
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is involved in cytokine- and nutrient-induced insulin resistance. The role of STAT3 in the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D) pathogenesis is incompletely defined. We tested the hypothesis that STAT3 signaling contributes to skeletal muscle insulin resistance in T2D. Protein abundance and phosphorylation of STAT3 signaling molecules were determined in skeletal muscle biopsy specimens from BMI- and age-matched overweight individuals with normal glucose tolerant (NGT) and T2D patients. The direct role of STAT3 in the development of lipid-induced skeletal muscle insulin resistance was determined using small interfering (si)RNA. Phosphorylated STAT3, phosphorylated Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) protein abundance was increased in skeletal muscle from T2D patients. STAT3 phosphorylation positively correlated with free fatty acid level and measures of insulin ...
COMPOSITION FOR PROMOTING LOCAL MUSCLE GROWTH OR SLOWING DOWN OR PREVENTING LOCAL MUSCLE ATROPHY AND USE THEREOF - VICTORIA...
Disclosed is a composition for promoting local muscle growth or slowing down or preventing local muscle atrophy, which composition contains a polypeptide in the C2 region of the enterotoxin Staphylococcus aureus and a myostatin polypeptide. By means of the composition, the defect in the prior art of only systemic muscle growth being possible has been overcome so as to achieve effects of promoting local muscle growth, or slowing down or preventing local muscle atrophy.
Skeletal Muscle Chart - localprivate.info
Muscle chart series - just charts at muscles. Skeletal Muscle Chart allowed in order to my personal website, in this particular time period I will demonstrate about Skeletal muscle chart.. And after this, this is the initial graphic, skeletal muscle chart, skeletal muscle diagram, skeletal muscle diagram labeled, skeletal muscle diagram quiz, skeletal muscle diagram worksheet, skeletal muscle diagram posterior, skeletal muscle mass chart, skeletal muscle measurement chart, skeletal muscle identification chart, skeletal muscle flow chart :. ...
Studying skeletal muscle physiology to better understand diseases such as type II diabetes - Inspiration Dissemination
Studying Rac1. The activation of Rac1 causes reorganization of cell components creating "highways" that allow other proteins such as glucose transport 4 or GLUT4 to relocate to the cell membrane and allow sugar from blood to enter skeletal muscle cells for processing. Consequently, Rac1 shows increased activity in response to insulin and exercise promoting the metabolism and storage of sugar in skeletal muscle. Harrison suspects that the dysfunction of Rac1 may play a large role in insulin resistance, and his lab is looking to better understand the dysfunction of skeletal muscle physiology that may contribute to insulin resistance. To study insulin resistance, Harrison is currently comparing Rac1 activity in skeletal muscle cells and skeletal muscle tissue of lean and obese mice. Learn more about Rac1, GO TO ARTICLE.. Harrison has always been drawn to human health, and is particularly intrigued by how adaptable the human body is. He completed his undergraduate degree and Masters in Exercise ...
Antioxidants and Skeletal Muscle Performance: "Common Knowledge" vs. Experimental Evidence - Rogue Health and Fitness
Antioxidants are assumed to provide numerous benefits, including better health, a reduced rate of aging, and improved exercise performance. Specifically, antioxidants are commonly "prescribed" by the media, supplement industry, and "fitness experts" for individuals prior to training and performance, with assumed benefits of improved fatigue resistance and recovery. This has provoked expansion of the supplement industry which responded by creation of a plethora of products aimed at facilitating the needs of the active individual. However, what does the experimental evidence say about the efficacy of antioxidants on skeletal muscle function? Are antioxidants actually as beneficial as the general populous believes? Or, could they in fact lead to deleterious effects on skeletal muscle function and performance? This Mini Review addresses these questions with an unbiased look at what we know about antioxidant effects on skeletal muscle, and what we still need to know before conclusions can be made. ...
C57BL/6-GFP Mouse Skeletal Muscle Microvascular Endothelial Cells | Creative Bioarray
C57BL/6-GFP Mouse Skeletal Muscle Microvascular Endothelial Cells from Creative Bioarray are isolated from C57BL/6-Tg (CAG-EGFP) 1Osb/J mouse skeletal muscle tissue of pathogen-free laboratory mice. C57BL/6-GFP Mouse Skeletal Muscle Microvascular Endothelial Cells are grown in T25 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based coating solution for 2 min and incubated in Creative Bioarray Culture Complete Growth Medium generally for 3-7 days. Cultures are then expanded. Prior to shipping, cells are detached from flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 1x10^6 cells per ml and are delivered frozen. The method we use to isolate endothelial cells was developed based on a combination of established and our proprietary methods. These cells are pre-coated with PECAM-1 antibody, following the application of magnetic pre-coated with secondary antibody ...
Differences in Plantar Flexor Fascicle Length and Pennation Angle between Healthy and Poststroke Individuals and Implications...
Poststroke plantar flexor muscle weakness has been attributed to muscle atrophy and impaired activation, which cannot collectively explain the limitations in force-generating capability of the entire muscle group. It is of interest whether changes in poststroke plantar flexor muscle fascicle length and pennation angle influence the individual force-generating capability and whether plantar flexor weakness is due to uniform changes in individual muscle force contributions. Fascicle lengths and pennation angles for the soleus, medial, and lateral gastrocnemius were measured using ultrasound and compared between ten hemiparetic poststroke subjects and ten healthy controls. Physiological cross-sectional areas and force contributions to poststroke plantar flexor torque were estimated for each muscle. No statistical differences were observed for any muscle fascicle lengths or for the lateral gastrocnemius and soleus pennation angles between paretic, nonparetic, and healthy limbs. There was a significant
Human Muscle Cell Line - localprivate.info
Human muscle cell line - human body diagram at muscles. Human Muscle Cell Line encouraged for you to our website, on this period I am going to teach you with regards to Human muscle cell line.. Now, this can be a very first image, human muscle cell line, human muscle cell line atcc, human smooth muscle cell line, human skeletal muscle cell line atcc, human cardiac muscle cell line, human heart muscle cell line, human vascular smooth muscle cell line, human airway smooth muscle cell line, human skeletal muscle myoblast cell line, immortalized human skeletal muscle cell line :. ...
Effects of intermittent pressure imitating rolling manipulation on calcium ion homeostasis in human skeletal muscle cells<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of intermittent pressure imitating rolling manipulation on calcium ion homeostasis in human skeletal muscle cells. AU - Zhang, Hong. AU - Liu, Howe. AU - Lin, Qing. AU - Zhang, Guohui. AU - Mason, David C.. PY - 2016/8/26. Y1 - 2016/8/26. N2 - Background: Homeostasis imbalance of intracellular Ca2+ is one of the key pathophysiological factors in skeletal muscle injuries. Such imbalance can cause significant change in the metabolism of Ca2+-related biomarkers in skeletal muscle, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and creatine kinase (CK). Measurements of these biomarkers can be used to evaluate the degree of damage to human skeletal muscle cells (HSKMCs) injury. Rolling manipulation is the most popular myofascial release technique in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The mechanism of how this technique works in ameliorating muscle injury is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the possible Ca2+ mediated effects of intermittent pressure imitating ...
Mouse Skeletal Muscle Cells | Creative Bioarray
Satellite cells and skeletal muscle characteristics in sarcopenia</em>...
skeletal muscle tissue diagram diagram of skeletal muscle - Human Anatomy Charts
LIM and cysteine-rich domains 1 (LMCD1) regulates skeletal muscle hypertrophy, calcium handling, and force | Skeletal Muscle |...
Skeletal muscle mass and strength are crucial determinants of health. Muscle mass loss is associated with weakness, fatigue, and insulin resistance. In fact, it is predicted that controlling muscle atrophy can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with diseases such as cancer cachexia and sarcopenia. We analyzed gene expression data from muscle of mice or human patients with diverse muscle pathologies and identified LMCD1 as a gene strongly associated with skeletal muscle function. We transiently expressed or silenced LMCD1 in mouse gastrocnemius muscle or in mouse primary muscle cells and determined muscle/cell size, targeted gene expression, kinase activity with kinase arrays, protein immunoblotting, and protein synthesis levels. To evaluate force, calcium handling, and fatigue, we transduced the flexor digitorum brevis muscle with a LMCD1-expressing adenovirus and measured specific force and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release in individual fibers. Finally, to explore the relationship between
Treating the Heart Versus Treating Skeletal Muscle - Muscular Dystrophy
In DMD and many other types of muscular dystrophies, cardiac and skeletal muscles are both compromised. The interplay between heart disease and skeletal muscle disease remains to be fully appreciated. It is generally agreed that normalizing skeletal muscle function alone cannot halt heart disease (Muntoni et al. 1995; Towbin et al. 1993; Townsend et al. 2007; Zhu et al. 2002). Limb muscles and respiratory muscles (in particular, the diaphragm) are auxiliary pumps that promote venous return. When skeletal muscle contractility is severely compromised (such as in m-dko mice), cardiac output will decrease as a consequence of reduced venous return. This seems to suggest that treating skeletal muscle alone should increase cardiac output and improve heart function. If left unchecked, severe skeletal muscle disease will aggravate cardiomyopathy. This argument is supported by findings from two clinical studies (Hunsaker et al. 1982; Matsuda et al. 1977). Hunsaker et al. (1982) followed nine ambulant DMD ...
Influence of hormone replacement therapy with maximal eccentric exercise on estrogen receptor coregulators and skeletal muscle...
The use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a potential treatment to relieve symptoms of menopause and prevent the onset of disease such as osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Although estrogen has a possible protective effect against exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage, it is unclear if HRT enhances estrogen receptor (ER) transcriptional activity in skeletal muscle at rest and following resistance exercise. We sought to evaluate changes in the gene expression of ER coregulators (SRC-1 and SMRT) and markers of skeletal muscle damage (CK, LDH, and TNF-α) in postmenopausal women following a high-intensity resistance exercise bout. Fourteen postmenopausal women were divided into two groups: Control, women not using HRT (n=6, 59±4 yr, 63±17 kg), or HRT, women using traditional HRT (n=8, 59±4 yr, 89±24 kg). Both groups performed 10 sets of 10 maximal eccentric repetitions of single-leg extension on the Cybex dynamometer at 60°/s with 20 second rest periods between sets. Muscle ...
Distinct muscle apoptotic pathways are activated in muscles with different fiber types in a rat model of critical illness...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Distinct muscle apoptotic pathways are activated in muscles with different fiber types in a rat model of critical illness myopathy. AU - Barnes, Benjamin T.. AU - Confides, Amy L.. AU - Rich, Mark M.. AU - Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.. PY - 2015/6/18. Y1 - 2015/6/18. N2 - Critical illness myopathy (CIM) is associated with severe muscle atrophy and fatigue in affected patients. Apoptotic signaling is involved in atrophy and is elevated in muscles from patients with CIM. In this study we investigated underlying mechanisms of apoptosis-related pathways in muscles with different fiber type composition in a rat model of CIM using denervation and glucocorticoid administration (denervation and steroid-induced myopathy, DSIM). Soleus and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles showed severe muscle atrophy (40-60 % of control muscle weight) and significant apoptosis in interstitial as well as myofiber nuclei that was similar between the two muscles with DSIM. Caspase-3 and -8 activities, but not ...
Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation and Exercise Training on Skeletal Muscle Mass, Muscle Damage, and Exercise Performance ...
Due to insufficient exercise training, skeletal mucle loss is beginning form 25 years old. Sarcopenia is the critical reason to effect activities of daily life in seniors. Strength training has been proven to be a great strategy to increase mucle mass and functions. Exercise training provokes skeletal muscle protein synthesis, in the meantime also causes muscle injury, induces muscle protien degradation and muscle cell inflammatory. Net muscle protein balace will become negative in nutrients or rest deficiency. Muscle biogenesis decreasing with aging may induce by signal transmit weakening in muscle protein synthesis pathway. Current studies showed that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase /AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/ mTOR) pathway is an important pathway to regulate skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Therefore, the first year, resveratrol is uesd as a nutriental ergogenic aid which may activate related protein expression of muscle synthesis pathway. In order to understand promotion or ...
Expression of Nitric Oxide Synthase in Skeletal Muscle: A Novel Role for Nitric Oxide as a Modulator of Insulin Action |...
Previous studies have shown that nitric oxide synthase (NOS), the enzyme that catalyzes the formation of nitric oxide (NO), is expressed in skeletal muscle. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that NO can modulate glucose metabolism in slow- and fast-twitch skeletal muscles. Calcium-dependent NOS was detected in skeletal muscle, and the enzyme activity was greater in fast-type extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles than in slow-type soleus muscles. Both the neuronal-type (nNOS) and endothelial-type (eNOS) enzymes are expressed in resting skeletal muscles. However, nNOS protein was only detected in EDL muscles, whereas eNOS protein contents were comparable in soleus and EDL muscles. NOS expression in muscle cryosections (diaphorase histochemistry) was located in vascular endothelium and in muscle fibers, and the staining was greater in type lib than in type I and Ha fibers. The macrophage-type inducible NOS (iNOS) was not detected in resting muscle, but endotoxin treatment ...
Age- and stroke-related skeletal muscle changes a review for the geriatric clinician<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Age- and stroke-related skeletal muscle changes a review for the geriatric clinician. AU - Sions, Jaclyn Megan. AU - Tyrell, Christine M.. AU - Knarr, Brian A.. AU - Jancosko, Angela. AU - Binder-Macleod, Stuart A.. PY - 2012/7/1. Y1 - 2012/7/1. N2 - Independently, aging and stroke each have a significant negative impact on skeletal muscle, but the potential cumulative effects of aging and stroke have not been explored. Optimal interventions for individuals post-stroke may include those that specifically target skeletal muscle. Addressing changes in muscles may minimize activity limitations and enhance participation post stroke. This article reviews the impact of aging and stroke on muscle morphology and composition, including fiber atrophy, reductions in muscle cross-sectional area, changes in muscle fiber distributions, and increases in intramuscular fat. Relationships between changes in muscle structure, muscle function, and physical mobility are reviewed. Clinical ...
Abstract 12196: Optic Atrophy 1 Deficiency in Skeletal Muscle Results in Progressive Mitochondrial Dysfunction, but Prevents...
Mitochondrial dysfunction develops in skeletal muscle with aging and may contribute to insulin resistance, which increases cardiovascular risk. A link between skeletal muscle insulin resistance and perturbed mitochondrial fusion and fission has been suggested but not proven. Optic Atrophy 1 (OPA1) is an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that plays a fundamental role in mitochondrial fusion, quality control and respiratory function. OPA1 levels are reduced in muscle from elderly subjects; however, the specific roles of OPA1 in the aging muscle have not been studied. We, therefore, generated a mouse model with inducible deletion of the OPA1 gene in skeletal muscle of adult C57Bl6 mice, by crossing OPA1 floxed mice with HSA-Cre (ERT2) mice (KO). Four-week-old KO and wild-type (WT) mice were treated with tamoxifen for 5 days to induce recombination, resulting in a 60% reduction in OPA1 protein levels 8 weeks after treatment (12-wk-old mice). OPA1 deficiency resulted in altered mitochondrial ...
Molecules | Free Full-Text | Pterostilbene Enhances Endurance Capacity via Promoting Skeletal Muscle Adaptations to Exercise...
It has been demonstrated that skeletal muscle adaptions, including muscle fibers transition, angiogenesis, and mitochondrial biogenesis are involved in the regular exercise-induced improvement of endurance capacity and metabolic status. Herein, we investigated the effects of pterostilbene (PST) supplementation on skeletal muscle adaptations to exercise training in rats. Six-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into a sedentary control group (Sed), an exercise training group (Ex), and exercise training combined with 50 mg/kg PST (Ex + PST) treatment group. After 4 weeks of intervention, an exhaustive running test was performed, and muscle fiber type transformation, angiogenesis, and mitochondrial content in the soleus muscle were measured. Additionally, the effects of PST on muscle fiber transformation, paracrine regulation of angiogenesis, and mitochondrial function were tested in vitro using C2C12 myotubes. In vivo study showed that exercise training resulted in significant increases
Inferring muscle functional roles of the ostrich pelvic limb during walking and running using computer optimization | Journal...
Combining detailed musculoskeletal models and simulations with empirical data allows for the estimation of quantities that can greatly enhance our understanding of specific functional roles during dynamic movements [28,29,51]. Although anatomical and EMG studies can provide insight into muscle classification relative to gait events (e.g. stance versus swing phase), a detailed understanding of a muscles functional role(s) requires additional quantities that are not readily obtained using experimental techniques. The musculotendon force and mechanical work data generated in this study enable the determination of specific muscle mechanical roles such as motor, brake, strut or spring during gait [19-21]. These roles provide important information regarding how energy flows through the limb and generates the required external work during movement. Muscle functional roles were also mainly insensitive to optimization approach or gait type (table 4).. However, there were some subtle differences between ...
NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20025567 - Effects of range of motion on skeletal muscle morphology due to stretch-shortening...
Quantification of skeletal muscle damage in response to injurious stretch-shortening cycles (SSCs) would be beneficial in elucidating the effect of different biomechanical exposures on the amount of muscle damage. Purpose: To investigate the effect of stretch-shortening cycle range of motion (ROM) on skeletal muscle damage in rats. Methods: Testing was performed on the dorsiflexor muscles of Spra
Validity of ultrasound muscle thickness measurements for predicting leg skeletal muscle mass in healthy Japanese middle-aged...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Validity of ultrasound muscle thickness measurements for predicting leg skeletal muscle mass in healthy Japanese middle-aged and older individuals. AU - Takai, Yohei. AU - Ohta, Megumi. AU - Akagi, Ryota. AU - Kato, Emika. AU - Wakahara, Taku. AU - Kawakami, Yasuo. AU - Fukunaga, Tetsuo. AU - Kanehisa, Hiroaki. PY - 2013/9/25. Y1 - 2013/9/25. N2 - Background: The skeletal muscle mass of the lower limb plays a role in its mobility during daily life. From the perspective of physical resources, leg muscle mass dominantly decreases after the end of the fifth decade. Therefore, an accurate estimate of the muscle mass is important for the middle-aged and older population. The present study aimed to clarify the validity of ultrasound muscle thickness (MT) measurements for predicting leg skeletal muscle mass (SM) in the healthy Japanese middle-aged and older population.Findings: MTs at four sites of the lower limb and the bone-free lean tissue mass (LTM) of the right leg were determined ...
Training Effects on Skeletal Muscle Fatty Acid Metabolism - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
We are interested in how skeletal muscle processes fat and its effect on insulin resistance. This is an important question since insulin resistance predates and predicts type 2 diabetes. We know that if pharmaceutical grade lipid is infused into people, they develop insulin resistance. Thus, we would like to infuse pharmaceutical grade lipid into trained subjects, believing that trained subjects will develop less insulin resistance, less decline in muscle energy function, and less accumulation of fat metabolites than untrained subjects. For comparing the effects of the pharmaceutical grade fat infusion, we will also have a group of trained and untrained subjects given a control (glycerol) infusion. Glycerol is basically the same as pharmaceutical grade lipid infusion without the lipid component.. Three visits will be required. The first visit will involve measurement of fitness. A second visit will involve measurement of insulin resistance. The third visit will involve an inpatient stay, with a ...
Skeletal Muscle | Manuscript transfers
|P|Skeletal Muscle is a peer-reviewed, open access, online journal that publishes articles investigating molecular mechanisms underlying the biology of skeletal muscle. A wide range of skeletal muscle biology is included: development, metabolism, the regulation of mass and function, aging, degeneration, dystrophy and regeneration. The emphasis is on understanding adult skeletal muscle, its maintenance, and its interactions with non-muscle cell types and regulatory modulators.|/P| |P|Skeletal Muscle aims to provide a venue for the publication of novel, cutting-edge research and technological developments involving the application of molecular biology, cellular biology, and biochemistry-based approaches, and to answer questions relevant to the understanding of skeletal muscle.|/P|
Motor unit composition has little effect on the short-range stiffness of feline medial gastrocnemius muscle<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Motor unit composition has little effect on the short-range stiffness of feline medial gastrocnemius muscle. AU - Cui, Lei. AU - Perreault, Eric J.. AU - Sandercock, Thomas G.. PY - 2007/9. Y1 - 2007/9. N2 - Studies on skinned fibers and single motor units have indicated that slow-twitch fibers are stiffer than fast-twitch fibers. This suggests that skeletal muscles with different motor unit compositions may have different short-range stiffness (SRS) properties. Furthermore, the natural recruitment of slow before fast motor units may result in an SRS-force profile that is different from electrical stimulation. However, muscle architecture and the mechanical properties of surrounding tissues also contribute to the net SRS of a muscle, and it remains unclear how these structural features each contribute to the SRS of a muscle. In this study, the SRS-force characteristics of cat medial gastrocnemius muscle were measured during natural activation using the crossed-extension reflex, ...
Histology of Skeletal Muscle Tutorial | Sophia Learning
- know that the main function of muscle is movement - know what the word contract/contraction means - know where you find skeletal muscle - know what the term myocyte is - know that skeletal muscle cells are as long as the belly of the muscle - know that the word striation means stripped or stripes - be able to identify striations - be able to identify skeletal muscle by its morphological characteristics This packet is about the histology of skeletal muscle. This packet will show you the morphological characteristics of skeletal muscle tissue that you need to know in order to identify it under a microscope. You will also learn about the basic functions of skeletal muscle in here as well.
Frontiers | Deficiency of Vgll2 Gene Alters the Gene Expression Profiling of Skeletal Muscle Subjected to Mechanical Overload |...
1 Introduction Adult rodent skeletal muscles are composed of four types of myofibers (Bassel-Duby and Olson, 2006; Schiaffino and Reggiani, 1996; 2011), which are present in different proportions in different muscles. Slow-twitch (Type I) fibers have fatigue resistance properties by virtue of large numbers of mitochondria. The remaining three types are fast-twitch (Type II) fibers, subclassified as types IIA, IIX, and IIB. Of these, type IIA fibers exhibit the slowest shortening velocity and display fatigue resistance due to a high density of mitochondria. Conversely, type IIB fibers have the fastest shortening velocity and exhibit exercise intolerance due to a low density of mitochondria, while type IIX fibers are intermediate. Although the predominant fiber types in each muscle are determined during embryonic and fetal myogenesis (Agbulut et al., 2003; Lu et al., 1999), functional adaptations can lead to the alteration of these proportions through changes in gene expression (Oh et al., 2005; Swoap et
A 2 week routine stretching programme did not prevent contraction-induced injury in mouse muscle | IslandScholar
Most athletes stretch as part of their training regimen and it is commonly believed that this practice prevents muscle injury. We tested this belief using an animal model, in situ mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle. One lower hindlimb was slowly stretched for 1 min on alternate days for 12 days; the other leg served as a control. The mouse was lightly anaesthetized during the stretching protocol (isofluorane). Both legs were tested in situ by measuring maximum isometric force and Show moreMost athletes stretch as part of their training regimen and it is commonly believed that this practice prevents muscle injury. We tested this belief using an animal model, in situ mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle. One lower hindlimb was slowly stretched for 1 min on alternate days for 12 days; the other leg served as a control. The mouse was lightly anaesthetized during the stretching protocol (isofluorane). Both legs were tested in situ by measuring maximum isometric force and maximum ...
Skeletal muscle cell legal definition of skeletal muscle cell
A novel polymorphism in the proximal UCP3 promoter region: effect on skeletal muscle UCP3 mRNA expression and obesity in male...
Schrauwen, P., Xia, J., Walder, K., Snitker, S. and Ravussin, E. 1999, A novel polymorphism in the proximal UCP3 promoter region: effect on skeletal muscle UCP3 mRNA expression and obesity in male non-diabetic Pima Indians, International journal of obesity, vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 1242-1245, doi: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0801057. ...
Skeletal muscle atrophy is thought to result from hyperactivation of intracellular | Role of NK1 and NK2 receptors in mouse...
Skeletal muscle atrophy is thought to result from hyperactivation of intracellular protein degradation pathways including autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. actin (HSA) MLN2238 promoter (KO mice) and subjected them to denervation. The plantaris muscles a fast-twitch glycolytic skeletal muscle from both KO and control (KO mice showed resistance to denervation at 7 d after denervation (Fig.?1B-D; Fig. S2A). However the soleus muscles from KO mice and control mice exhibited comparable muscle mass and myofiber size at 14 d after denervation. Notably dead myofibers were frequently observed in the KO soleus muscles at 14 d (Fig.?1C). The enhanced cell death at 14 d most likely contributes to the shrinking of the soleus muscle of KO mice. The phenotypes of soleus muscles of KO mice at 14 d after denervation are coincident with the previous study.4 However the phenotypes at a period earlier than 14 d after denervation were not investigated in that study. Thus our finding seemed to reflect ...
Effect of training status on regional disposal of circulating free fatty acids in the liver and skeletal muscle during...
OBJECTIVE Fat metabolism is increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Endurance training has been shown to prevent hepatic steatosis and to alter skeletal muscle fat metabolism, and regional free fatty acid (FFA) uptake adaptations were suggested as a mechanism. Thus, we tested whether endurance training modifies the uptake of plasma FFAs occurring in the liver and in skeletal muscle during anabolic, i.e., hyperinsulinemic, conditions. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Trained and untrained healthy male subjects underwent positron emission tomography scanning of the liver and thigh regions, with the FFA analog 14(R,S)-[(18)F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid, during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia. Tracer influx rate constants in skeletal muscle (MK(i)) and liver (LK(i)) were multiplied by plasma FFA levels to obtain FFA uptake for skeletal muscle (MFU) and liver (LFU), respectively. RESULTS Athletes showed increased Vo(2max) (P | 0.0001), insulin-mediated glucose disposal (M value, 61 +/
Post - Lifestyle Medicine
Results. Coffee appears to induce autophagy, meaning that it upregulates the activity. This can prevent the accumulation of damaged protein and cellular components, optimizing function.. Two components of coffee, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid appear to increase skeletal muscle glucose transport into the cell. It also increases sensitivity to insulin.. Finally, coffee intake attenuates the loss of muscle mass and strength that occurs with age. It also appears to increase the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle in the aging adult.. Conclusions. Coffee appears to have multiple beneficial effects on skeletal muscle.. Regarding autophagy, coffee appears to help the body sweep up the damaged cellular products which can improve overall cellular activity.. It improves insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake, important not only for physical activity but for disease prevention.. Finally, it blunts the age-related skeletal muscle loss effects that occur naturally, known as sarcopenia, and may ...
Improvement of insulin sensitivity by antagonism of the renin-angiotensin system | Read by QxMD
The reduced capacity of insulin to stimulate glucose transport into skeletal muscle, termed insulin resistance, is a primary defect leading to the development of prediabetes and overt type 2 diabetes. Although the etiology of this skeletal muscle insulin resistance is multifactorial, there is accumulating evidence that one contributor is overactivity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Angiotensin II (ANG II) produced from this system can act on ANG II type 1 receptors both in the vascular endothelium and in myocytes, with an enhancement of the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Evidence from animal model and cultured skeletal muscle cell line studies indicates ANG II can induce insulin resistance. Chronic ANG II infusion into an insulin-sensitive rat produces a markedly insulin-resistant state that is associated with a negative impact of ROS on the skeletal muscle glucose transport system. ANG II treatment of L6 myocytes causes impaired insulin receptor substrate ...
Single molecular image of cytosolic free Ca2+ of skeletal muscle cells in rats pre- and post-exercise-induced fatigue | (2009) ...
A growing body of literature indicated the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration of skeletal muscle cells changes significantly during exercise-induced fatigue. But it is confusing whether cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration increase or decrease. Furthermore, current researches mainly adopt muscle tissue homogenate as experiment material, but the studies based on cellular and subcellular level is seldom. This study is aimed to establish rat skeletal muscle cell model of exercise-induced fatigue, and confirm the change of cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration of skeletal muscle cells in rats preand post- exercise-induced fatigue. In this research, six male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control group (n=3) and exercise-induced fatigue group (n=3). The former group were allowed to freely move and the latter were forced to loaded swimming to exhaustive. Three days later, all the rats were sacrificed, the muscle tissue from the same site of skeletal muscle were taken out and digested to ...
IJMS | Free Full-Text | Potential Mechanisms of Muscle Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Aging and Obesity and Cellular Consequences
Mitochondria play a key role in the energy metabolism in skeletal muscle. A new concept has emerged suggesting that impaired mitochondrial oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle may be the underlying defect that causes insulin resistance. According to current knowledge, the causes and the underlying molecular mechanisms at the origin of decreased mitochondrial oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle still remain to be elucidated. The present review focuses on recent data investigating these issues in the area of metabolic disorders and describes the potential causes, mechanisms and consequences of mitochondrial dysfunction in the skeletal muscle.
Human muscle response to sprint exercise and nutrient supply with focus on factors related to protein metabolism
It is concluded that: Plasma leucine decreased and plasma and muscle ammonia increased following sprint exercise and more so in in males than females. Such changes might counteract a possible sprint exercise-induced stimulation of muscle protein synthesis. There was some activation of mTOR signalling in skeletal muscle following sprint exercise and more so in females than males. The larger increase in serum insulin and lower decrease in plasma leucine in females might have contributed to the enhanced signalling response in females. Oral ingestion of essential amino acids and carbohydrates, as compared to placebo, resulted in a markedly higher activation of Akt/mTOR signalling in skeletal muscle following sprint exercise. In contrast to the hypothesis, an oral ingestion of essential amino acids and carbohydrates did not result in an increased activation of hVps34 in skeletal muscle. However, this does not exclude the permissive role of hVps34 in mediating the amino acidinduced activation of ...
Skeletal Muscle and Cardiovascular Adaptations to Exercise Conditioning in Older Coronary Patients | Circulation
The endurance exercise-training program induced substantial improvements in peak exercise capacity and work capacity in the study population at 3 and 12 months of training compared with control patients. The hypothesis that older patients condition predominantly by noncardiac adaptations is supported by the fact that the increases in peak aerobic exercise capacity were mediated primarily by an increase in peak exercise AVo2 Diff with no measurable increase in peak exercise cardiac output. The increase in peak AVo2 Diff was associated with adaptations of skeletal muscle fiber size, capillarity, and SDH activity with only subtle alterations in cardiac performance and no discernible alterations of peripheral arterial blood flow. The skeletal muscle adaptations consisted of an increased oxidative enzyme activity and an increased capillary density after 3 months of conditioning and an increased muscle fiber cross-sectional area after 12 months of conditioning. However, although directional changes of ...
Muscle - Biology-Online Dictionary
Muscles are a specialized body part that produces movement or locomotion in animals. The muscle is comprised (largely) of muscle tissues. A muscle tissue is made up of muscle cells, which in turn, consist of several myofibrils. The myofibril is the contractile thread of a muscle. Each myofibril is comprised of repeating sections of sarcomere. The sarcomere is composed of long fibrous proteins that slide past each other resulting in the appearance of dark and light bands under the microscope. The sarcomere is regarded as the basic structural unit of a muscle. Animal muscles are of three different types: (1) skeletal muscles, (2) smooth muscles, and (3) cardiac muscles. The skeletal muscles may be classified into fast twitch fibers and slow twitch fibers. The human body has approximately 650 skeletal muscles.1 The smooth muscles in turn may be subdivided into single-unit (unitary) smooth muscles and multiunit smooth muscles. The cardiac muscles are the muscles of the heart. These three types of ...
MicroRNA-23a has minimal effect on endurance exercise-induced adaptation of mouse skeletal muscle<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - MicroRNA-23a has minimal effect on endurance exercise-induced adaptation of mouse skeletal muscle. AU - Wada, Shogo. AU - Kato, Yoshio. AU - Sawada, Shuji. AU - Aizawa, Katsuji. AU - Park, Jong Hoon. AU - Russell, Aaron P.. AU - Ushida, Takashi. AU - Akimoto, Takayuki. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Skeletal muscles contain several subtypes of myofibers that differ in contractile and metabolic properties. Transcriptional control of fiber-type specification and adaptation has been intensively investigated over the past several decades. Recently, microRNA (miRNA)-mediated posttranscriptional gene regulation has attracted increasing attention. MiR-23a targets key molecules regulating contractile and metabolic properties of skeletal muscle, such as myosin heavy-chains and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α). In the present study, we analyzed the skeletal muscle phenotype of miR-23a transgenic (miR-23a Tg) mice to explore whether forced ...
Skeletal Muscle Diagram - Anatomy Chart Body
Investigation of the effects of bioactive peptide nanofibers on acute muscle injury regeneration
Skeletal muscle constitutes a large part of the human body. It is a hierarchically organized heterogeneous tissue and is composed of muscle fiber bundles, muscle fibers, myofibrils and myofilaments. Since muscle cells are terminally differentiated, they have limited capacity to renew themselves. Only new cells can fuse with muscle fibers and increase the size and volume of skeletal muscle. Myosatellite cells or satellite cells are small, mononuclear progenitor cells with virtually no cytoplasm. They are located in between the sarcolemma and basement membrane of terminally-differentiated muscle fibers. Satellite cells are precursors to skeletal muscle cells, and are able to give rise to satellite cells or differentiated skeletal muscle cells. They are normally found in silent state in adult muscle, but act as a reserve cell population that is able to proliferate in response to injury and give rise to regenerated muscle and to more satellite cells. Formation of the new muscular tissue is called ...
Reperfusion injury to skeletal muscle affects primarily type II muscle fibers. - Semantic Scholar
INTRODUCTION The injury caused by reperfusion of ischemic skeletal muscle is mediated by the membrane attack complex of complement (C) . This C activation results from local classical pathway activation after deposition of IgM in injured muscle, an event analogous to C deposition in the mucosa of the gut during reperfusion . Our past analysis has indicated that the injury is not uniform even within a single microscopic section. This study was performed to elucidate the exact site of IgM and C deposition on muscle injured by ischemia and reperfusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to 2 h of tourniquet-induced hindlimb ischemia followed by reperfusion for 0-6 h. Three muscle groups (vastus, gastrocnemius, and soleus) of varying fast-myosin content were compared for muscle fiber damage and C deposition. Adjacent paraffin-embedded cross-sections were immunostained to correlate C3 deposition with muscle fiber type as defined by monoclonal antibodies. RESULTS Muscle injury after
Effects of ageing and gender on the spatial organisation of nuclei in single human skeletal muscle cells
The aims of this study were to investigate the mechanisms underlying (1) the ageing-related motor handicap at the whole muscle, cellular, contractile protein and myonuclear levels; and (2) ageing-related differences in muscle adaptability.. In vivo muscles function was studied in the knee extensors. Decreases were observed in isokinetic and isometric torque outputs in old age in the sedentary men and women and elite master sprinters. A 20-week long specific sprint and resistance training successfully improved the maximal isometric force and rate of force development in a subgroup of master sprinters.. In vitro measurements were performed in muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle. Immunocytochemical and contractile measurements in single membrane permeabilized muscle fibres demonstrated ageing- and gender-related changes at the myofibrillar level. In sedentary subjects, data showed a preferential decrease in the size of muscle fibres expressing type IIa MyHC in men, lower force ...
Frontiers | Erythropoietin Does Not Enhance Skeletal Muscle Protein Synthesis Following Exercise in Young and Older Adults |...
Purpose: Erythropoietin (EPO) is a renal cytokine that is primarily involved in hematopoiesis while also playing a role in non-hematopoietic tissues expressing the EPO-receptor (EPOR). The EPOR is present in human skeletal muscle. In mouse skeletal muscle, EPO stimulation can activate the AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (AKT) signaling pathway, the main positive regulator of muscle protein synthesis. We hypothesized that a single intravenous EPO injection combined with acute resistance exercise would have a synergistic effect on skeletal muscle protein synthesis via activation of the AKT pathway.Methods: Ten young (24.2 ± 0.9 years) and 10 older (66.6 ± 1.1 years) healthy subjects received a primed, constant infusion of [ring-13C6] L-phenylalanine and a single injection of 10,000 IU epoetin-beta or placebo in a double-blind randomized, cross-over design. 2 h after the injection, the subjects completed an acute bout of leg extension resistance exercise to stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis
EMS Electrical Muscle Stimulation on sales of page 7 - Quality EMS Electrical Muscle Stimulation supplier
Influence of exercise contraction mode and protein supplementation on human skeletal muscle satellite cell content and muscle...
Skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs) are involved in remodeling and hypertrophy processes of skeletal muscle. However, little knowledge exists on extrinsic factors that influence the content of SCs in skeletal muscle. In a comparative human study, we investigated the muscle fiber type-specific association between emergence of satellite cells (SCs), muscle growth, and remodeling in response to 12 wk unilateral resistance training performed as eccentric (Ecc) or concentric (Conc) resistance training ± whey protein (Whey, 19.5 g protein + 19.5 g glucose) or placebo (Placebo, 39 g glucose) supplementation. Muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were analyzed for fiber type-specific SCs, myonuclei, and fiber cross-sectional area (CSA). Following training, SCs increased with Conc in both type I and type II fibers (P , 0.01) and exhibited a group difference from Ecc (P , 0.05), which did not increase. Myonuclei content in type I fibers increased in all groups (P , 0.01), while a specific accretion of ...
Leg blood flow and skeletal muscle microvascular perfusion responses to submaximal exercise in peripheral arterial disease
View more ,Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is characterized by stenosis and occlusion of the lower limb arteries. Although leg blood flow is limited in PAD, it remains unclear whether skeletal muscle microvascular perfusion is affected. We compared whole leg blood flow and calf muscle microvascular perfusion after cuff occlusion and submaximal leg exercise between patients with PAD (n = 12, 69 ± 9 yr) and healthy age-matched control participants (n = 12, 68 ± 7 yr). Microvascular blood flow (microvascular volume × flow velocity) of the medial gastrocnemius muscle was measured before and immediately after the following: 1) 5 min of thigh-cuff occlusion, and 2) a 5-min bout of intermittent isometric plantar-flexion exercise (400 N) using real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Whole leg blood flow was measured after thigh-cuff occlusion and during submaximal plantar-flexion exercise using strain-gauge plethysmography. Postocclusion whole leg blood flow and calf muscle microvascular perfusion ...
Adult Stem Cells and Skeletal Muscle Regeneration | Bentham Science
Title:Adult Stem Cells and Skeletal Muscle Regeneration. VOLUME: 15 ISSUE: 4. Author(s):Domiziana Costamagna, Emanuele Berardi, Gabriele Ceccarelli and Maurilio Sampaolesi. Affiliation:Translational Cardiomyology Laboratory, Stem Cell Institute Leuven, KU Leuven, Belgium.. Keywords:Adult stem cells, Muscular dystrophy, Skeletal muscle regeneration.. Abstract:Satellite cells are unipotent stem cells involved in muscle regeneration. However, the skeletal muscle microenvironment exerts a dominant influence over stem cell function. The cell intrinsic complexity of the skeletal muscle niche located within the connective tissue between fibers includes motor neurons, tendons, blood vessels, immune response mediators and interstitial cells. All these cell types modulate the trafficking of stimuli responsible of muscle fiber regeneration. In addition, several stem cell types have been discovered in skeletal muscle tissue, mainly located in the interstitium. The majority of these stem cells appears to ...
Beta -Adrenoceptor blockage and skeletal muscle energy metabolism during endurance exercise
Assessment of satellite cell number and activity status in human skeletal muscle biopsies
The primary aim of our study was to validate the assessment of myonuclear and satellite cell number in biopsies from human skeletal muscle. We found that 25 type I and 25 type II fibers are sufficient to estimate the mean number of myonuclei per fiber. In contrast, the assessment of satellite cells improved when more fibers were included. Second, we report that small differences in counting satellite cells using CD56 and Pax7 antibodies can be attributed to the different staining profiles. Third, we provide support for the use of Ki67 in evaluating the proportion of active satellite cells. We observed very few (up to 1.3%) active satellite cells in healthy adult skeletal muscle at rest, but they increased significantly (up to 7-fold) following muscle activity. This study provides valuable tools to assess the behavior of satellite cells, both in pathological conditions and in response to physiological stimuli.. ...
Acute muscle soreness - Wikipedia
Acute muscle soreness is the pain felt in muscles during and immediately after strenuous physical exercise. The pain appears within a minute of contracting the muscle and disappears within two or three minutes or up to several hours after relaxing it. The following causes have been proposed for acute muscle soreness: Accumulation of chemical end products of exercise in muscle cells, such as H+ Tissue edema caused by the shifting of blood plasma into the muscle tissue during contraction Muscle fatigue (the muscle tires and cannot contract any more) Acute muscle soreness reflects one form of exercise-induced muscle damage, the other being delayed onset muscle soreness, which appears between 24 and 72 hours after exercise. Michael Kjaer; Michael Krogsgaard; Peter Magnusson; Lars Engebretsen; Harald Roos; Timo Takala; Savio Woo (2008). Textbook of Sports Medicine: Basic Science and Clinical Aspects of Sports Injury and Physical Activity. John Wiley and Sons. p. 722. ISBN 978-1-4051-4057-7. Jack H. ...
Dietary supplementation with shiikuwasha extract attenuates dexamethasone-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in aged rats |...
Skeletal muscle atrophy is caused by a variety of diseases and conditions. In particular, skeletal muscle atrophy in the elderly contributes to a loss of independence with advanced age and increases the risk of falling. However, the effect of food consumed on a daily basis on skeletal muscle atrophy has been the focus of little research. In this study, the effects of dietary supplementation with shiikuwasha extract or grape extract on dexamethasone-induced skeletal muscle atrophy were evaluated in aged rats. Aged male rats (15-month-old) were fed a diet supplemented with either 1 % shiikuwasha extract or 1 % grape extract for 19 days. During the last 5 days of the feeding period, rats were injected with dexamethasone to induce muscle atrophy. Body weight and hind-limb muscle weight were significantly decreased by dexamethasone treatment. The supplementation of shiikuwasha extract showed no effect on body weight loss, but markedly attenuated tibialis anterior muscle weight loss induced by dexamethasone.
Mechanisms for fiber-type specificity of skeletal muscle atrophy<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanisms for fiber-type specificity of skeletal muscle atrophy. AU - Wang, Yichen. AU - Pessin, Jeffrey E.. PY - 2013/5/1. Y1 - 2013/5/1. N2 - PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are a variety of pathophysiologic conditions that are known to induce skeletal muscle atrophy. However, muscle wasting can occur through multiple distinct signaling pathways with differential sensitivity between selective skeletal muscle fiber subtypes. This review summarizes some of the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for fiber-specific muscle mass regulation. RECENT FINDINGS: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha protects slow-twitch oxidative fibers from denervation/immobilization (disuse)-induced muscle atrophies. Nutrient-related muscle atrophies, such as those induced by cancer cachexia, sepsis, chronic heart failure, or diabetes, are largely restricted to fast-twitch glycolytic fibers, of which the underlying mechanism is usually related to abnormality of protein ...
PSRC - Local Mild Hypothermia (30-32°C) Is Effective In Protection Of Ex Vivo Human Skeletal Muscle From Hypoxia/reoxygenation...
1Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada, 2Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada. Introduction: In reconstructive surgery, skeletal muscle may endure protracted ischemia before reperfusion which may lead to significant ischemia/reperfusion injury. Other investigators reported that low local hypothermia (local cooling at 4-10°C) significantly reduced ischemia/reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle of different species of laboratory animals. However, this range of severe low local hypothermia is known to induce capillary damage. More recently, other investigators reported that low local mild hypothermia at 32-34°C significantly reduced ischemia/reperfusion injury in rabbit rectus femoris muscle in vivo. However, this infarct protective effect of low local hypothermia has not been tested in human skeletal muscle. The objective of this study was to use our established ex vivo human skeletal muscle culture model to study the efficacy of low local mild hypothermia (30-32°C) in ...
Laminin mimetic peptide nanofibers regenerate acute muscle defect
Skeletal muscle cells are terminally differentiated and require the activation of muscle progenitor (satellite) cells for their regeneration. There is a clinical need for faster and more efficient treatment methods for acute muscle injuries, and the stimulation of satellite cell proliferation is promising in this context. In this study, we designed and synthesized a laminin-mimetic bioactive peptide (LM/E-PA) system that is capable of accelerating satellite cell activation by emulating the structure and function of laminin, a major protein of the basal membrane of the skeletal muscle. The LM/E-PA nanofibers enhance myogenic differentiation in vitro and the clinical relevance of the laminin-mimetic bioactive scaffold system was demonstrated further by assessing its effect on the regeneration of acute muscle injury in a rat model. Laminin mimetic peptide nanofibers significantly promoted satellite cell activation in skeletal muscle and accelerated myofibrillar regeneration following acute muscle ...
Human Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory Manual: A Hands-on Approach | 1st edition | Pearson
Lab Exercise 10: Muscle Tissue and Physiology. 10A Overview of Muscle Tissue. Procedure: Identifying the Three Types of Muscle Tissue. 10B Structure and Function of Skeletal Muscle Fibers. Procedure: Identifying the Structures of a Skeletal Muscle Fiber. 10C Skeletal Muscle Contraction and Relaxation. Procedure 1: Understanding Skeletal Muscle Contraction and Relaxation. Procedure 2: Observing Skeletal Muscle Contraction Using Glycerinated Muscle. 10D Isotonic and Isometric Contractions. Procedure: Demonstrating Isotonic and Isometric Contractions. 10E Muscle Fatigue. Procedure: Demonstrating Muscle Fatigue. 10F PhysioEx™ Activities. PEx Activity 1: The Muscle Twitch and the Latent Period. PEx Activity 2: The Effect of Stimulus Voltage on Skeletal Muscle Contraction. PEx Activity 3: The Effect of Stimulus Frequency on Skeletal Muscle Contraction. PEx Activity 4: Tetanus in Isolated Skeletal Muscle. PEx Activity 5: Fatigue in Isolated Skeletal Muscle. PEx Activity 6: Skeletal Muscle ...
Rosmarinic Acid, a Rosemary Extract Polyphenol, Increases Skeletal Muscle Cell Glucose Uptake and Activates AMPK
Skeletal muscle is a major insulin-target tissue and plays an important role in glucose homeostasis. Impaired insulin action in muscles leads to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. 5′ AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor, its activation increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and AMPK activators have been viewed as a targeted approach in combating insulin resistance. We previously reported AMPK activation and increased muscle glucose uptake by rosemary extract (RE). In the present study, we examined the effects and the mechanism of action of rosmarinic acid (RA), a major RE constituent, in L6 rat muscle cells. RA (5.0 μM) increased glucose uptake (186 ± 4.17% of control, p , 0.001) to levels comparable to maximum insulin (204 ± 10.73% of control, p , 0.001) and metformin (202 ± 14.37% of control, p , 0.001). Akt phosphorylation was not affected by RA, while AMPK phosphorylation was increased. The RAstimulated glucose uptake was inhibited by the AMPK inhibitor ...
Skeletal muscle blood flow in anaesthetized horses. Part II: effects of anaesthetics and vasoactive agents - Murdoch Research...
Objective: This review aims at evaluating studies investigating the effects of anaesthesia on skeletal muscle blood flow and associated cardiovascular function in anaesthetized horses and discusses how the results of these studies contribute to our understanding of the pathogenesis and prevention of post-anaesthetic myopathy. Database used: Pubmed & personal files. Conclusion: There is little published information on the effects of anaesthesia on skeletal muscle blood flow in horses. Available reports predominantly refer to halothane and isoflurane. The effects of vasoactive drugs have mainly been studied in halothane-anaesthetized horses. The results of these studies support the importance of cardiac output in the maintenance of adequate arterial blood pressure, perfusion pressure and muscle blood flow. Adequate perfusion pressure appears to be important for overcoming the detrimental effects of high intra-compartmental pressure in dependent muscles and hydrostatic pressure in nondependent ...
Electrical Muscle Stimulation in Bolingbrook | muscle stimulation, electrotherapy, muscle stimulator
Bolingbrook Chiropractor. Dr. Dr. Waleed Gabr provides Electrical Muscle Stimulation, muscle stimulation, electrotherapy, muscle stimulator to patients suffering from back spasms, neck spasms, muscle spasms, acute pain, chronic pain in Romeoville, IL, Plainfield, IL, Naperville, IL, . Romeoville, IL Chiropractor providing Electrical Muscle Stimulation in Bolingbrook, Illinois.
Electrical Muscle Stimulation in Urbandale | muscle stimulation, electrotherapy, muscle stimulator
Urbandale Chiropractor. Dr. Rob Coons provides Electrical Muscle Stimulation , muscle stimulation, electrotherapy, muscle stimulator to patients suffering from back spasms, neck spasms, muscle spasms, acute pain, chronic pain in Des Moines, Johnston, West Des Moines , . Des Moines Chiropractor providing Electrical Muscle Stimulation in Urbandale, Iowa.
Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle : molecular identification quantification and function
Skeletal muscle satellite cells located between the plasma membrane and the basal lamina of muscle fibres, could for many years, only be studied in situ by electron microscopy. The introduction of immunohistochemistry and the discovery of molecular markers of satellite cells then made them accessible for light microscopic studies and a wealth of information is today available. Satellite cells are myogenic stem cells that can be activated from a quiescent state to proliferate for self-renewal or differentiate into myogenic cells. The satellite cells are involved in muscle growth during fetal and postnatal development and play a key role in repair and regeneration of damaged muscle fibres. The satellite cells are also essential for muscle fibre hypertrophy and maintenance of muscle mass in the adult. When the present thesis was initiated, studies on satellite cells in human skeletal muscle relied on the neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) as a marker for satellite cell identification. The ...
Contractile properties and susceptibility to exercise-induced damage of normal and mdx mouse tibialis anterior muscle |...
1. The functional properties of tibialis anterior muscles of normal adult (C57BL/10) and age-matched dystrophin-deficient (C57BL/10 mdx) mice have been investigated in situ. Comparisons were made between tibialis anterior muscle strength, rates of force development and relaxation, force-frequency responses and fatiguability. Subjecting mdx and C57 muscles to a regimen of eccentric exercise allowed the hypothesis to be tested that dystrophin-deficient muscles are more susceptible to exercise-induced muscle damage.. 2. mdx muscles were, on average, 30% stronger than C57 muscles and almost 80% heavier, but both had similar muscle lengths. Thus, although mdx muscles were stronger in absolute terms, their estimated force per unit cross-sectional area was significantly less than that of C57 muscles.. 3. The force-frequency relationships of C57 and mdx muscles differed in that whilst, at 40 Hz, the former developed 70% of the force developed at 100 Hz, the latter developed only 55% of the maximal ...
Neural crest cell lineage restricts skeletal muscle progenitor cell differentiation through Neuregulin1-ErbB3 signaling - MDC...
Coordinating the balance between progenitor self-renewal and myogenic differentiation is required for a regulated expansion of the developing muscles. Previous observation that neural crest cells (NCCs) migrate throughout the somite regions, where trunk skeletal muscles first emerge, suggests a potential role for these cells in influencing early muscle formation. However, specific signaling interactions between NCCs and skeletal muscle cells remain unknown. Here we show that mice with specific NCC and peripheral nervous system defects display impaired survival of skeletal muscle and show skeletal muscle progenitor cell (MPC) depletion due to precocious commitment to differentiation. We show that reduced NCC-derived Neuregulin1 (Nrg1) in the somite region perturbs ErbB3 signaling in uncommitted MPCs. Using a combination of explant culture experiments and genetic ablation in the mouse, we demonstrate that Nrg1 signals provided by the NCC lineage play a critical role in sustainable myogenesis, by ...
Exercise training impacts skeletal muscle gene expression related to the kynurenine pathway<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Exercise training impacts skeletal muscle gene expression related to the kynurenine pathway. AU - Allison, David J.. AU - Nederveen, Joshua P.. AU - Snijders, Tim. AU - Bell, Kirsten E.. AU - Kumbhare, Dinesh. AU - Phillips, Stuart M.. AU - Parise, Gianni. AU - Heisz, Jennifer J.. PY - 2019/3. Y1 - 2019/3. KW - aging. KW - kynurenine. KW - PGC-1 alpha. KW - physical activity. KW - skeletal muscle. KW - DEPRESSION. KW - ACID. U2 - 10.1152/ajpcell.00448.2018. DO - 10.1152/ajpcell.00448.2018. M3 - Article. VL - 316. SP - C444-C448. JO - American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology. JF - American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology. SN - 0363-6143. IS - 3. ER - ...
The effect of a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor on human mixed muscle protein synthesis after acute resistance exercise
We have previously shown that non-specific blockade of the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes in skeletal muscle eliminates the normal increase in muscle protein synthesis following resistance exercise. The current study tested the hypothesis that this COX-mediated increase in postexercise muscle protein synthesis is specifically regulated by the COX-2 isoform. Sixteen males (23 ± 1 yr, 177 ± 2 cm, 81.5 ± 3.4 kg) were randomly assigned to one of two groups that received three doses of either a specific COX-2 inhibitor (celecoxib; 200 mg per dose, 600 mg total) or a placebo during the 24 hours following a single bout of resistance exercise with the knee extensors. Skeletal muscle fractional synthesis rate (FSR) was measured at rest and 24 hours postexercise using a primed constant infusion of [2H5]phenylalanine coupled with muscle biopsies of the vastus lateralis. Mixed muscle FSR was increased following exercise to a greater extent (206%, P,0.05) in the COX-2 group (0.052 ± 0.014 %Ih) as compared ...
The calcineurin-NFAT pathway controls activity-dependent circadian gene expression in slow skeletal muscle | Archivio della...
OBJECTIVE: Physical activity and circadian rhythms are well-established determinants of human health and disease, but the relationship between muscle activity and the circadian regulation of muscle genes is a relatively new area of research. It is unknown whether muscle activity and muscle clock rhythms are coupled together, nor whether activity rhythms can drive circadian gene expression in skeletal muscle. METHODS: We compared the circadian transcriptomes of two mouse hindlimb muscles with vastly different circadian activity patterns, the continuously active slow soleus and the sporadically active fast tibialis anterior, in the presence or absence of a functional skeletal muscle clock (skeletal muscle-specific Bmal1 KO). In addition, we compared the effect of denervation on muscle circadian gene expression. RESULTS:We found that different skeletal muscles exhibit major differences in their circadian transcriptomes, yet core clock gene oscillations were essentially identical in fast and slow ...
STORRE: Postexercise Muscle Glycogen Synthesis with Combined Glucose and Fructose Ingestion
Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of using combined glucose and fructose (GF) ingestion as a means to stimulate short-term (4 h) postexercise muscle glycogen synthesis compared to glucose only (G). Methods: On two separate occasions, six endurance-trained men performed an exhaustive glycogen-depleting exercise bout followed by a 4-h recovery period. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle at 0, 1, and 4 h after exercise. Subjects ingested carbohydrate solutions containing G (90 gIhj1) or GF (G = 60 gIhj1; F = 30 gIhj1) commencing immediately after exercise and every 30 min thereafter. Results: Immediate postexercise muscle glycogen concentrations were similar in both trials (G = 128 T 25 mmolIkgj1 dry muscle (dm) vs GF = 112 T 16 mmolIkgj1 dm; P 9 0.05). Total glycogen storage during the 4-h recovery period was 176 T 33 and 155 T 31 mmolIkgj1 dm for G and GF, respectively (G vs GF, P 9 0.05). Hence, mean muscle glycogen synthesis rates during the 4-h recovery period ...
Influence of muscle glycogen availability on ERK1/2 and Akt signaling after resistance exercise in human skeletal muscle<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of muscle glycogen availability on ERK1/2 and Akt signaling after resistance exercise in human skeletal muscle. AU - Creer, Andrew. AU - Gallagher, Philip. AU - Slivka, Dustin. AU - Jemiolo, Bozena. AU - Fink, William. AU - Trappe, Scott. PY - 2005/9. Y1 - 2005/9. N2 - Two pathways that have been implicated for cellular growth and development in response to muscle contraction are the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and Akt signaling pathways. Although these pathways are readily stimulated after exercise, little is known about how nutritional status may affect stimulation of these pathways in response to resistance exercise in human skeletal muscle. To investigate this, experienced cyclists performed 30 repetitions of knee extension exercise at 70% of one repetition maximum after a low (2%) or high (77%) carbohydrate (LCHO or HCHO) diet, which resulted in low or high (∼174 or ∼591 mmol/kg dry wt) preexercise muscle glycogen content. Muscle biopsies ...
ISMRM 2006) PPAR&[delta] Agonist Treatment Increases Skeletal Muscle Lipid Metabolism Without Altering Mitochondrial Coupling:...
acetate acid activated activation administration alteration altered altering animal animals assess assessed assessment belongs biology briefly cardiac clamp coil concentric consistent consumption content coupling cycle days decrease decreased dependent development direct dose dosing efficiency either endocrinology energy enrichment examined examining exercise expenditure expressed expression extracts family fatty fibers flux fold gene genes glucose glut glutamate hawk heart illustrating in vivo initiated invasive investigative involved king laboratory leads lipid manner measure measured mediated metabolic metabolism metabolite mice muscle noninvasive oral oxidation period precursor presence press protein rats recently receptor recruitment regulating regulation reported respectively response safety saturating sciences selective selectively separate setup skeletal slight spectroscopy stimulation substrate summary surface synthesis system technology temporal throughout throughput tissues tolerance ...
"Mechanisms of Centrally-Mediated Skeletal Muscle Fatigue: Small Fiber" by Amelia Marie Campbell
Fatigue of intact skeletal muscle is the failure of a muscle to generate maximal force resulting from sustained exercise. Many theories regarding the etiology of muscle fatigue have been described, and they most likely all play a role in reducing the force-generating capacity of muscle following exercise. This paper describes the evidence behind fatigue stemming from the reduction of motor cortical drive to skeletal muscle in response to communication from type III/IV sensory afferent neurons. Studies demonstrate that these nerves are activated in response to increased concentrations of metabolic byproducts in skeletal muscle, mechanical stimulation from muscle contraction, and thermal energy. Their downstream effects impact the activity of the motor cortex and ability of the corticospinal tract to conduct electrical signals to lower motor neurons.
Differential expression of nitric oxide synthases (NOS 1-3) in human skeletal muscle following exercise countermeasure during...
Rudnick, J.; Püttmann, B.; Tesch, P.A.; Alkner, Börn.; Schoser, B.G.H.; Salanova, M.; Kirsch, K.; Gunga, H-christian.; Schiffl, G.; Lück, G.; Blottner, D., 2004: Differential expression of nitric oxide synthases (NOS 1-3) in human skeletal muscle following exercise countermeasure during 12 weeks of bed rest
The excitation-contraction coupling on C2C12 skeletal muscle myotubes was modulated by NO-donor ester of gemfibrozil | IRIS...
The excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle is modulated by nitric oxide via redox status modification of ryanodine receptor on sarcoplasmic reticulum during events that lead to muscle contraction. We have synthesized a derivative of antilipidemic drug gemfibrozil, in which a NO-donor furoxan mojety is joined to the fibrate by an ester linkage. Aim of the present study is to determine if the NO released from the above compound is capable to influence the NO-sensible EC coupling steps in skeletal muscle and if this effect could be potentially utilised for physiopathological studies and pharmaceutical applications. To obtain this goal we decided to study some of the excitation-contraction mechanisms in the presence of NO-releasing derivative of gemfibrozil in skeletal muscle C2C12 cell line.. ...
Sarcomere number regulation maintained after immobilization in desmin-null mouse skeletal muscle | Journal of Experimental...
The serial sarcomere number of skeletal muscle changes in response to chronic length perturbation. The role of the intermediate filament desmin in regulating these changes was investigated by comparing the architectural adaptations of the tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus from wild-type mice with those of homozygous desmin knockout mice after hindlimb immobilization. After 28 days, serial sarcomere number increased significantly in the lengthened wild-type tibialis anterior (by approximately 9 %) and EDL (by approximately 17 %). Surprisingly, muscles from desmin knockout mice also experienced significant serial remodeling, with the serial sarcomere number of the tibialis anterior increasing by approximately 10 % and that of the EDL by approximately 27 %. A consistent result was observed in the shortened soleus: a significant decrease in sarcomere number was observed in the muscles from both wild-type (approximately 26 %) and knockout (approximately 12 %) mice. Thus, ...
Activation of the dopamine 1 and dopamine 5 receptors increase skeletal muscle mass and force production under non-atrophying...
In this report we demonstrate for the first time that activation of the dopamine 1/5 receptors results in increased skeletal muscle cAMP, increased non-atrophying muscle mass and reduced atrophy-induced loss of muscle mass and force production. By using knockout mice to differentiate the effects of activation of the dopamine 1 receptor from that of the dopamine 5 receptor, we demonstrate that both the dopamine 1 and dopamine 5 receptors mediate the anti-atrophy effects of the dopamine 1/5 receptor selective agonist SKF 81297. Genetic removal of the dopamine 1 receptor (with maintenance of the dopamine 5 receptor) results in a complete loss of the SKF 81297 mediated EDL mass/force preservation, data consistent with the idea that the dopamine 1 receptor mediates the effects of SKF 81297. In contrast, genetic removal of the dopamine 5 receptor (with maintenance of the dopamine 1 receptor) resulted in a partial loss of SKF 81297 mediated EDL mass/force preservation, data that is inconsistent with ...
Abductor Hallucis Strain - Anatomy
Bochikun Hallux Valgus Supporter Foot Painfoot Pain Bochikun Abductor Hallucis Strain Abductor Hallucis Strain Abductor Hallucis Strain Ottawa Foot Clinic, Abductor Hallucis Strain Abductor Hallucis Strainsymptomscausestreatment Cold Therapy, Abductor Hallucis Strainsymptomscausestreatment Cold Therapy Abductor Hallucis Strain, Bochikun Hallux Valgus Supporter Foot Painfoot Pain Bochikun Abductor Hallucis Strain, ...
The human proteome in skeletal muscle - The Human Protein Atlas
Here, the protein-coding genes expressed in the skeletal muscle are described and characterized, together with examples of immunohistochemically stained tissue sections that visualize protein expression patterns of proteins that correspond to genes with elevated expression in the skeletal muscle. Transcript profiling and RNA-data analyses based on normal human tissues have been described previously (Fagerberg et al., 2013). Analyses of mRNA expression including over 99% of all human protein-coding genes was performed using deep RNA sequencing of 124 individual samples corresponding to 32 different human normal tissue types. RNA sequencing results of 5 fresh frozen tissues representing normal skeletal muscle was compared to 119 other tissue samples corresponding to 31 tissue types, in order to determine genes with elevated expression in skeletal muscle. A tissue-specific score, defined as the ratio between mRNA levels in skeletal muscle compared to the mRNA levels in all other tissues, was used ...
JCI Insight - Systemic inflammation is associated with exaggerated skeletal muscle protein catabolism in maintenance...
BACKGROUND. Systemic inflammation and muscle wasting are highly prevalent and coexist in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). We aimed to determine the effects of systemic inflammation on skeletal muscle protein metabolism in MHD patients. METHODS. Whole body and skeletal muscle protein turnover were assessed by stable isotope kinetic studies. We incorporated expressions of E1, E214K, E3αI, E3αII, MuRF-1, and atrogin-1 in skeletal muscle tissue from integrin β1 gene KO CKD mice models. RESULTS. Among 129 patients with mean (± SD) age 47 ± 12 years, 74% were African American, 73% were male, and 22% had diabetes mellitus. Median high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentration was 13 (interquartile range 0.8, 33) mg/l. There were statistically significant associations between hs-CRP and forearm skeletal muscle protein synthesis, degradation, and net forearm skeletal muscle protein balance (P , 0.001 for all). The associations remained statistically significant after ...
Relationship between intracellular amino acids and protein synthesis in the extensor digitorum longus muscle of rats |...
1. The incorporation into protein, and the accumulation into the free amino acid pools, of radioactive l-leucine and glycine was studied in rat extensor digitorum longus muscle. 2. The tissue was incubated first with 14C-labelled and then with 3H-labelled amino acid. 3. The experimental results were consistent with a model based on the premise that the amino acids in protein were incorporated directly from the extracellular pool.. ...
Is electrical muscle stimulation the same as magnetic or/ magnetic electrotherapy? BIG NO!
Equery UAE get a lot of questions about the system and the big one is... Q - Is electrical muscle stimulation the same as magnetic or/ magnetic electrotherapy? A - BIG NO! So what is the difference? MAGNETIC OR MAGNETIC ELECTROTHERAPY The main difference is that the electrical muscle stimulation is actually making the
The regulation of skeletal muscle growth via the myostatin signalling pathway - Spectrum: Concordia University Research...
Myostatin (Mstn) is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle fibre size and satellite cell proliferation whose role in mature fibre compensatory growth has not been fully characterized. Myostatin knockout (Mstn-/-) mice display consistently larger skeletal muscle masses, as well as an overall increase in size and number of myofibres within the muscle, compared to the wild-type mice. Previous research has shown that Mstn plays a major role in the attenuation of both the hypertrophic and hyperplasic pathways of myofibre growth. Immunohistochemical staining of overloaded plantaris muscles was performed to analyze phenotypic and morphological changes in wild-type and Mstn-/- muscles. Preliminary results of these analyses indicated a tendency for muscles from Mstn-/- mice to express an increased number of myofibres, whereas muscles from Mstn+/+ mice tended to display hypertrophied pre-existing mature myofibres as a response to the overload stimulus. Additionally, using semi-quantitative PCR and ...
STIM-Orai Channels - Inhibitors of Protein Methyltransferases as Chemical Tools
History Denervation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy leads to significant biochemical and physiological adjustments potentially resulting in disastrous outcomes including increased mortality. pathways inside a rat skeletal muscle tissue atrophy model. Materials/Strategies The rat denervation-induced skeletal muscle tissue atrophy model was founded. miRNA-206 was overexpressed with or without TGF-β1 inhibitor in the rats. The mRNA and proteins manifestation of HDAC4 TGF-β1 and Smad3 was dependant on real-time PCR and traditional western blot. The gastrocnemius muscle cross-sectional area and relative muscle mass were measured. MyoD1 TGF-β1 and Pax7 were determined by immunohistochemical staining. Saracatinib Results After sciatic nerve surgical transection basic muscle characteristics such as relative muscle weight deteriorated continuously during a 2-week period. Injection of miR-206 (30 μg/rat) attenuated morphological and physiological deterioration of muscle characteristics prevented ...
The decrease in mature myostatin protein in male skeletal muscle is developmentally regulated by growth hormone
Myostatin inhibits myogenesis and there is reduced abundance of the mature protein in skeletal muscles of adult male compared with female mice. This reduction probably occurs after translation, which suggests that it is a regulated mechanism to reduce the availability of myostatin in males. Reduced myostatin may, thereby, contribute to the development of sexually dimorphic growth of skeletal muscle. Our first objective was to determine if the decrease in mature myostatin protein occurs before the linear growth phase to aid growth, or afterwards to maintain the mass of adult muscle. Mice were killed from 2 to 32 weeks and the gastrocnemius muscle was excised. Myostatin mRNA increased from 2 to 32 weeks and was higher in males than females (P , 0.001). In contrast, mature protein decreased in males after 6 weeks (P , 0.001). Our second objective was to determine if growth hormone (GH) induces the decrease in mature myostatin protein. GH increased myostatin mRNA and decreased the abundance of ...
Skeletal muscle phosphocreatine depletion depresses myocellular energy status during sepsis<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Skeletal muscle phosphocreatine depletion depresses myocellular energy status during sepsis. AU - Lara, Tirso M.. AU - Wong, Michael S. AU - Rounds, Jan. AU - Robinson, Malcolm K.. AU - Wilmore, Douglas W.. AU - Jacobs, Danny O.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - Objective: To determine the effects of phosphocreatine (PCr) depletion on myocellular energetics. Design: Randomized controlled study. Setting: University laboratory. Materials: Thirty-eight adult male Wistar rats (110121 g). Methods: The poorly metabolized creatine analogue β-guanidinopropionic acid, (β-GPA, 2% of a gel diet) was fed to the rats for 14 days to replace (75%) endogenous PCr stores before cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Rats were randomized to receive sham operation and gel diet (sham-gel group [n = 10]), sham operation and βGPA diet (sham-β-GPA group [n = 9]), CLP and gel diet (CLP-gel group [n = 101), and CLP and β-GPA diet (CLPβ-GPA group [n=9]). On day 14, all animals underwent operation. Twenty-four ...
Regulation of insulin-like growth factor I in skeletal muscle and muscle cells - Minerva Endocrinologica 2003 March;28(1):53-74...
Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) are potent regulators of muscle mass. Transgenic mice that over-express these proteins exhibit dramatically enlarged skeletal muscles. In contrast, malnutrition, critical illness, sepsis, and aging are all associated with a dramatic reduction in muscle mass and function. The circulating concentration of IGF-I and the expression of IGF-I in skeletal muscle are also reduced during catabolic states. Consequently, GH has been used clinically to increase lean body mass in patients with muscle wasting. Likewise, delivery of IGF-I specifically into muscle has been proposed as a genetic therapy for muscle disorders. A better understanding of the regulation of IGF-I expression in skeletal muscle and muscle cells is therefore of importance. Yet, our knowledge in this area has been limited by a lack of GH responsive muscle cells. In addition the IGF-I gene spans over 90 kb of genomic DNA and it exhibits a very complex regulatory pattern. This ...
Altmetric - Skeletal muscle protein metabolism in the elderly: Interventions to counteract the 'anabolic resistance' of ageing
Age-related muscle wasting (sarcopenia) is accompanied by a loss of strength which can compromise the functional abilities of the elderly. Muscle proteins are in a dynamic equilibrium between their respective rates of synthesis and breakdown. It has been suggested that age-related sarcopenia is due to: i) elevated basal-fasted rates of muscle protein breakdown, ii) a reduction in basal muscle protein synthesis (MPS), or iii) a combination of the two factors. However, basal rates of muscle protein synthesis and breakdown are unchanged with advancing healthy age. Instead, it appears that the muscles of the elderly are resistant to normally robust anabolic stimuli such as amino acids and resistance exercise. Ageing muscle is less sensitive to lower doses of amino acids than the young and may require higher quantities of protein to acutely stimulate equivalent muscle protein synthesis above rest and accrue muscle proteins. With regard to dietary protein recommendations, emerging evidence suggests ...
β2-adrenergic stimulation enhances Ca2+ release and contractile properties of skeletal muscles, and counteracts exercise...
TY - JOUR. T1 - β2-adrenergic stimulation enhances Ca2+ release and contractile properties of skeletal muscles, and counteracts exercise-induced reductions in Na+/K+-ATPase Vmax in trained men. AU - Hostrup, Morten. AU - Kalsen, A. AU - Ortenblad, N. AU - Juel, Carsten. AU - Mørch, K. AU - Rzeppa, S. AU - Karlsson, S. AU - Backer, Vibeke. AU - Bangsbo, Jens. N1 - CURIS 2014 NEXS 343. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of beta2-adrenergic stimulation on skeletal muscle contractile properties, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) rates of Ca(2+) release and uptake, and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase-activity before and after fatiguing exercise in trained men. The study consisted of two experiments (EXP1, n = 10 M, EXP2, n = 20 M), where beta2-adrenoceptor agonist (terbutaline) or placebo was randomly administered in double-blinded crossover designs. In EXP1, maximal voluntary isometric contraction of m.quadriceps (MVC) was measured, followed by exercise to fatigue at ...
Anatomical terms of muscle
Skeletal muscle. Skeletal striated muscle, or "voluntary muscle", primarily joins to bone with tendons. Skeletal muscle ... This term typically describes the function of skeletal muscles. Antagonist muscles are simply the muscles that produce an ... Muscle fibres. Different skeletal muscle types: A: fusiform. B: unipennate. C: bipennate. (P.C.S., physiological cross- ... Actions of skeletal muscle. As well as anatomical terms of motion, which describe the motion made by a muscle, unique ...
Basal metabolic rate
Saltin, Bengt; Gollnick, Philip D. (1983). "Skeletal muscle adaptability: Significance for metabolism and performance". In ... Saltin, Bengt; Gollnick, Philip D. (2011). "Skeletal Muscle Adaptability: Significance for Metabolism and Performance". ... The ANS regulates contraction of smooth muscle and cardiac muscle, along with secretions of many endocrine organs such as the ... Anaerobic exercise, such as weight lifting, builds additional muscle mass. Muscle contributes to the fat-free mass of an ...
Skeletal muscle. Resistance training and subsequent consumption of a protein-rich meal promotes muscle hypertrophy and ... Developing research has demonstrated that many of the benefits of exercise are mediated through the role of skeletal muscle as ... Egan B, Zierath JR (February 2013). "Exercise metabolism and the molecular regulation of skeletal muscle adaptation". Cell ... Unaccustomed overexertion of muscles leads to rhabdomyolysis (damage to muscle) most often seen in new army recruits. ...
Affects skeletal and smooth muscle as well as the eye, heart, endocrine system, and central nervous system; clinical findings, ... skeletal deformities; chest and back (scoliosis); muscle deformities (contractures of heels, legs; pseudohypertrophy of calf ... Muscle weakness (rapidly progressive); frequent falls; difficulty with motor skills (running, hopping, jumping); progressive ... Predisposition of acute myeloid leukemia; skeletal abnormalities; radial hypoplasia and vertebral defect and other physical ...
"Structural organization of the perimysium in bovine skeletal muscle: Junctional plates and associated intracellular subdomains" ... This muscle article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Perimysium is a sheath of connective tissue that groups muscle fibers into bundles (anywhere between 10 and 100 or more) or ... Studies of muscle physiology suggest that the perimysium plays a role in transmitting lateral contractile movements. This ...
The toxin or toxins paralyze muscle tissue - in particular: *Skeletal muscles. This results in the overt paralysis for which ... Respiratory muscles. Initially this results in rapid, shallow breathing with an inability to cough. In advanced stages it is ... Laryngeal muscles. This results in an altered 'voice' and an increased risk of aspiration pneumonia (inhalation of food, saliva ... Oesophageal muscle. This results in drooling (of saliva) and regurgitation. It increases the risks of choking and aspiration ...
... is present in cardiac and slow skeletal muscle and the fast skeletal form Calsequestrin-1(CASQ1) is found in fast skeletal ... Cala SE, Jones LR (January 1991). "Phosphorylation of cardiac and skeletal muscle calsequestrin isoforms by casein kinase II. ... crystal structure of calsequestrin from rabbit skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum at 2.4 a resolution ... "Crystal structure of calsequestrin from rabbit skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum". Nat. Struct. Biol. 5 (6): 476-83. doi: ...
Pronation of the foot
... was shown to ameliorate the age-related dysfunction of skeletal muscle by rescuing the function of aged muscle stem cells. In ... A 2017 study found that super-physiological levels of GDF11 induced muscle wasting in the skeletal muscle of mice. ... Effect on cardiac and skeletal muscle aging. GDF11 has been identified as a blood circulating factor that has the ability ... Lee SJ, McPherron AC (October 1999). "Myostatin and the control of skeletal muscle mass". Current Opinion in Genetics & ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
"Endocrine Crosstalk Between Skeletal Muscle and the Brain". Frontiers in Neurology. 9: 698. doi:10.3389/fneur.2018.00698. ISSN ... motor neurons and skeletal muscle and it is also found in saliva. ... Adducins are membrane-skeletal proteins that cap the growing ends of actin filaments and promote their association with ...
Hard and soft (martial arts)
They are affected by footwork and skeletal alignment. For the most part, hard techniques are direct. The key point of a hard ... Hard technique use muscle more than soft techniques. Soft technique. Further information: Tai sabaki ... Much like hard techniques they are effected by foot work and skeletal alignment. Where a hard technique in defense often aims ...
Inward-rectifier potassium channel
... discovered by Denis Noble in cardiac muscle cells in 1960s and by Richard Adrian and Alan Hodgkin in 1970 in skeletal muscle ... "Slow changes in potassium permeability in skeletal muscle". The Journal of Physiology. 208 (3): 645-68. doi:10.1113/jphysiol. ... This type of inward-rectifier channel is distinct from delayed rectifier K+ channels, which help repolarize nerve and muscle ...
... skeletal muscle telomere lengths remain stable from ages 23-74. In baboon skeletal muscle, that consists of fully ... Renault V, Thornell LE, Eriksson PO, Butler-Browne G, Mouly V (2003). "Regenerative potential of human skeletal muscle during ... telomere shortening does not appear to be a major factor in the aging of the differentiated cells of brain or skeletal muscle. ...
Inward-rectifier potassium channel
Adrian RH, Chandler WK, Hodgkin AL (July 1970). "Slow changes in potassium permeability in skeletal muscle". The Journal of ... discovered by Denis Noble in cardiac muscle cells in 1960s and by Richard Adrian and Alan Hodgkin in 1970 in skeletal muscle ... This type of inward-rectifier channel is distinct from delayed rectifier K+ channels, which help repolarize nerve and muscle ...
Soft tissue injury
In P.M. Tiidus (Eds.), Skeletal muscle damage and repair (pp. 219-230). United States of America: Human Kinetics. ... from a stretching of the muscle or tendon to a complete tear of the tendon from the muscle. Some of the most common places that ... A Soft tissue injury (STI) is the damage of muscles, ligaments and tendons throughout the body. Common soft tissue injuries ... A strain is a type of acute injury that occurs to the muscle or tendon. Similar to sprains, it can vary in severity, ...
Metabolic rate - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Muscle mass. Males typically have more skeletal muscle mass than females. Androgens promote the enlargement of skeletal ... "Androgen receptor in human skeletal muscle and cultured muscle satellite cells: up-regulation by androgen treatment". The ... muscle cells and probably act in a coordinated manner to function by acting on several cell types in skeletal muscle tissue. ... One cell type conveys hormone signals to generating muscle, the myoblast. Higher androgen levels lead to increased expression ...
... and not cardiac muscle or smooth muscle. Myoblasts in skeletal muscle that do not form muscle fibers dedifferentiate back into ... The striated cells of cardiac and skeletal muscles are referred to as muscle fibers. Cardiomyocytes are the muscle fibres ... Skeletal muscle fibers are made when myoblasts fuse together; muscle fibers therefore are cells with multiple nuclei, known as ... Isometric contractions are skeletal muscle contractions that do not cause movement of the muscle. However, isotonic ...
Skeletal muscle fiber, with sarcoplasmic reticulum colored in blue.. The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), from the Greek σάρξ sarx ... In muscle cells, it regulates calcium ion concentration. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum is found in a variety of cell types (both ... while the sarcoplasmic reticulum stores calcium ions and pumps them out into the sarcoplasm when the muscle fiber is stimulated ... calcium ions interact with contractile proteins that utilize ATP to shorten the muscle fiber. The sarcoplasmic reticulum plays ...
High intensity exercise has been shown to result in reduced DNA methylation in skeletal muscle. Promoter methylation of PGC ... "Acute exercise remodels promoter methylation in human skeletal muscle". Cell Metabolism. 15 (3): 405-11. doi:10.1016/j.cmet. ... Hypomethylation of DNA affects gene that alter smooth muscle cell proliferation, cause endothelial cell dysfunction, and ... The down regulation of MCT3 impairs lactate transport, and significantly increases smooth muscle cell proliferation, which ...
Whole body vibration
"Adaptive responses of human skeletal muscle to vibration exposure". Clinical Physiology. 19 (2): 183-7. doi:10.1046/j.1365- ... These forces cause the muscles to lengthen, and this signal is received by the muscle spindle, a small organ in the muscle. ... This spindle transmits the signal through the central nervous system to the muscles involved (Abercromby et al. 2007, ... Marín PJ, Rhea MR (March 2010). "Effects of vibration training on muscle power: a meta-analysis". Journal of Strength and ...
Lindinger MI, Kowalchuk JM, Heigenhauser GJ (September 2005). "Applying physicochemical principles to skeletal muscle acid-base ... In 1808, Jöns Jacob Berzelius discovered that lactic acid (actually L-lactate) also is produced in muscles during exertion. ... Oxidation back to pyruvate by well-oxygenated muscle cells, heart cells, and brain cells *Pyruvate is then directly used to ... "Why does lactic acid build up in muscles? And why does it cause soreness?". Retrieved 23 January 2006.. ...
... induces tremor in skeletal muscle, and increases glycogenolysis in the liver and skeletal muscle. Stimulation of β3 ... vascular smooth muscle, and skeletal muscle. β3-adrenergic receptors are located in fat cells. ... Ahrens RC (1990). "Skeletal muscle tremor and the influence of adrenergic drugs". The Journal of Asthma. 27 (1): 11-20. doi: ... Beta receptors are found on cells of the heart muscles, smooth muscles, airways, arteries, kidneys, and other tissues that are ...
REED, R.; HOUSTON, T. W.; TODD, P. M. (30 July 1966). "Structure and Function of the Sarcolemma of Skeletal Muscle". Nature. ... Campbell, Kevin P.; Stull, James T. (11 April 2003). "Skeletal Muscle Basement Membrane-Sarcolemma-Cytoskeleton Interaction ... Sarcolemma in myocytes: "Sarcolemma" is the name given to the cell membrane of myocytes (also known as muscle cells). ... For instance, the sarcolemma transmits synaptic signals, helps generate action potentials, and is very involved in muscle ...
regulation of muscle contraction. • skeletal muscle contraction. • regulation of striated muscle contraction. • regulation of ... muscle filament sliding. • muscle contraction. • sarcomere organization. • cardiac muscle contraction. Sources:Amigo / QuickGO ... Fast skeletal muscle troponin T (fTnT) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TNNT3 gene. ... In the N-terminal region of fsTnT, exons 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 are alternatively spliced in adult skeletal muscle cells. ...
Inactivity and starvation in mammals lead to atrophy of skeletal muscle, accompanied by a smaller number and size of the muscle ... Muscle atrophy is defined as a decrease in the mass of the muscle; it can be a partial or complete wasting away of muscle, and ... Other syndromes or conditions which can induce skeletal muscle atrophy are liver disease, and starvation. Muscle atrophy occurs ... Moreover, starvation eventually leads to muscle atrophy. Disuse of the muscles, such as when muscle tissue is immobilized for ...
Elastina - Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre
Positron emission tomography
Musculoskeletal imaging: PET has been shown to be a feasible technique for studying skeletal muscles during exercises like ... One of the main advantages of using PET is that it can also provide muscle activation data about deeper lying muscles such as ... This is due to the time it takes for FDG to accumulate in the activated muscles. ... which can be used only on superficial muscles (i.e., directly under the skin). A clear disadvantage is that PET provides no ...
... although they do not become common as skeletal remains in the fossil record until the Neogene (last 20 million years). In ... with blood being pumped through it by a series of muscles. The blood vascular system is minimal. Similarly, they have no gills ... part, their poor skeletal preservation is due to their restriction to high-energy environments, which tend to be erosional - ...
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
EL-Sobky TA, El-Haddad A, Elsobky E, Elsayed SM, Sakr HM (March 2017). "Reversal of skeletal radiographic pathology in a case ... and muscle, and these cells had been suggested to have the abilities of regenerating injured tissue in these organs. However, ... and hereditary skeletal dysplasias; notably malignant infantile osteopetrosis and mucopolysaccharidosis. ... post-procedural generalized skeletal pain, fatigue and reduced energy. ...
Lacking skeletal support, the arms work as muscular hydrostats and contain longitudinal, transverse and circular muscles around ... The ingress of water is achieved by contraction of radial muscles in the mantle wall, and flapper valves shut when strong ... Once the shell is penetrated, the prey dies almost instantaneously, its muscles relax, and the soft tissues are easy for the ... It contains tetrodotoxin, which causes paralysis by blocking the transmission of nerve impulses to the muscles. This causes ...
Most of these go to muscles and are therefore called motor impulses; some are secretory and enter glands; a portion are ... A subluxation is a health concern that manifests in the skeletal joints, and, through complex anatomical and physiological ... Norris P (2001). "How 'we' are different from 'them': occupational boundary maintenance in the treatment of musculo-skeletal ... Chiropractic diagnosis may involve a range of methods including skeletal imaging, observational and tactile assessments, and ...
"Mini-muscle" allele. A gene recently discovered in laboratory house mice, termed "mini-muscle", causes a 50% reduction in ... Gruneberg came to these distinctions after experimenting on rats with skeletal mutations. He recognized that "spurious" ... For example, mice with the Mini Muscle mutation were observed to have a higher per-gram aerobic capacity. The mini-muscle ... Mini Muscle Mice also exhibit larger kidneys and livers. All of these morphological deviations influence the behavior and ...
... of which is stored in skeletal muscles and the remainder in the liver (totaling about 2,000 kcal in the whole body). It is ... including but not limited to skeletal muscle) to be used to synthesize sugars for use as energy by the rest of the body. Most ... Some people follow a diet to gain weight (usually in the form of muscle). Diets can also be used to maintain a stable body ... These diets are not recommended for general use as they are associated with adverse side effects such as loss of lean muscle ...
ادرار کردن - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
Further along the urethra is a sphincter of skeletal muscle, the sphincter of the membranous urethra (external urethral ... The smooth muscle of the bladder, known as the detrusor, is innervated by sympathetic nervous system fibers from the lumbar ... After urination, the female urethra empties partially by gravity, with assistance from muscles.[clarification needed] Urine ... Smooth muscle bundles pass on either side of the urethra, and these fibers are sometimes called the internal urethral sphincter ...
A joint dislocation can cause damage to the surrounding ligaments, tendons, muscles, and nerves. Dislocations can occur in ... "Skeletal Radiol. 21 (3): 149-54. PMID 1604339.. External links. Classification. D ... This is due to the weakening of the muscles and ligaments which hold the joint in place. The shoulder is a prime example of ... the joint muscles, tendons and ligaments must also be strengthened. This is usually done through a course of physiotherapy, ...
... s are stretch receptors within the body of a muscle that primarily detect changes in the length of the muscle. ... Muscle spindles are found within the belly of muscles, between extrafusal muscle fibers.[b] The specialised fibers that ... Muscle spindle. Mammalian muscle spindle showing typical position in a muscle (left), neuronal connections in spinal cord ( ... When a muscle is stretched, primary type Ia sensory fibers of the muscle spindle respond to both changes in muscle length and ...
Scott, J.H. (1957). "Muscle Growth and Function in Relation to Skeletal Morphology". American Journal of Physical Anthropology ... It does not closely link skeletal remains to their archaeological context, and is best viewed as a "skeletal biology of the ... She interpreted this sex-based pattern of skeletal difference as indicative of gendered work patterns. These kinds of skeletal ... and dental attrition are commonly used to estimate skeletal age. Differences in male and female skeletal anatomy are used by ...
"Normalization of current kinetics by interaction between the alpha 1 and beta subunits of the skeletal muscle dihydropyridine- ... membrane depolarization during atrial cardiac muscle cell action potential. • cardiac muscle cell action potential involved in ... It depolarizes at -30mV and helps define the shape of the action potential in cardiac and smooth muscle. The protein encoded ... regulation of cardiac muscle contraction by regulation of the release of sequestered calcium ion. • positive regulation of ...
... including skeletal muscles, the heart, the brain, or the liver. Common clinical manifestations include myopathy, hypotonia, and ... Myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF) is a disorder that affects many parts of the body, particularly the muscles ... which results in a weakened heart muscle that is unable to pump blood effectively. It is unclear why such mutations result in ...
Skeletal muscles produce reactive forces and moments at the joints. To avoid injury or fatigue, when person is performing a ... Individual muscle fiber ratios can be determined through a muscle biopsy. Other considerations are the ability to recruit ... Where, Sj is the muscle strength moment at joint, j, and Mj/L is the external moment at the joint, j, due to load, L and the ... The strength capability of the joint is denoted by the amount of moment that the muscle force can create at the joint to ...
... whereas the liver and muscle types are predominant in adult liver and skeletal muscle, respectively. ... Mutations in the muscle isoform of glycogen phosphorylase (PYGM) are associated with glycogen storage disease type V (GSD V, ... The glycogen phosphorylase monomer is a large protein, composed of 842 amino acids with a mass of 97.434 kDa in muscle cells. ... In mammals, the major isozymes of glycogen phosphorylase are found in muscle, liver, and brain. The brain type is predominant ...
FOXP2 - 维基百科，自由的百科全书
Obstructive sleep apnea
During REM sleep, in particular, muscle tone of the throat and neck, as well as the vast majority of all skeletal muscles, is ... Old age is often accompanied by muscular and neurological loss of muscle tone of the upper airway. Decreased muscle tone is ... The chest muscles and diaphragm contract and the entire body may thrash and struggle. ... As the muscle tone of the body ordinarily relaxes during sleep, and the airway at the throat is composed of walls of soft ...
Skeletal Muscle and Cardiovascular Adaptations to Exercise Conditioning in Older Coronary Patients | Circulation
Skeletal Muscle Morphometry. Skeletal muscle biopsy samples were obtained at rest from the vastus lateralis muscle with a ... Skeletal Muscle Oxidative Enzyme Capacity. Skeletal muscle oxidative capacity was assessed by measurement of succinate ... These include increases in AVo2 Diff, skeletal muscle oxidative enzyme activity, and muscle fiber capillarity.16 17 49 50 In ... Skeletal Muscle and Cardiovascular Adaptations to Exercise Conditioning in Older Coronary Patients. Philip A. Ades, Mary L. ...
Skeletal muscle cell legal definition of skeletal muscle cell
What is skeletal muscle cell? Meaning of skeletal muscle cell as a legal term. What does skeletal muscle cell mean in law? ... Definition of skeletal muscle cell in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Skeletal muscle cell legal definition of skeletal muscle cell https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/skeletal+muscle+ ... Related to skeletal muscle cell: smooth muscle cell, Cardiac muscle cell cell. (Enemy combatants), noun enemy group, exxremist ...
Histology of Skeletal Muscle Tutorial | Sophia Learning
... know where you find skeletal muscle - know what the term myocyte is - know that skeletal muscle cells are as long as the belly ... be able to identify skeletal muscle by its morphological characteristics This packet is about the histology of skeletal muscle ... This packet will show you the morphological characteristics of skeletal muscle tissue that you need to know in order to ... You will also learn about the basic functions of skeletal muscle in here as well. ...
Skeletal muscle - Wikipedia
Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle. It is a form of striated ... Quoted from National Skeletal Muscle Research Center; UCSD, Muscle Physiology Home Page - Skeletal Muscle Architecture, Effect ... Skeletal muscles. Connective tissue is present in all muscles as fascia. Enclosing each muscle is a layer of connective ... A skeletal muscle refers to multiple bundles (fascicles) of cells joined together called muscle fibers. The fibres and muscles ...
Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy
1RM will sufficiently activate skeletal muscle motor units, which is the driving mechanism for skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The ... This is a major research finding (alas, at the molecular level of muscle) which shows that skeletal muscle fiber hypertrophy ... of the muscle cell) during the early adaptations of skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Long-term changes in hypertrophy show ... and that SCs are also consequential in long-term changes in skeletal muscle hypertrophy (including the number of muscle fiber ...
Skeletal muscle | anatomy | Britannica.com
Skeletal muscle, in vertebrates, most common of the three types of muscle in the body. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones ... Alternative Titles: somatic muscle, striated muscle, striped muscle, voluntary muscle. Skeletal muscle, also called voluntary ... Unlike smooth muscle and cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle is under voluntary control. Similar to cardiac muscle, however, ... skeletal musclePhotomicrograph showing the arrangement of skeletal muscle fibres in cross-section.. © Ed Reschke/Peter Arnold, ...
Skeletal Muscle Regeneration in the Mouse | SpringerLink
This volume focuses on the cell biology and physiology of skeletal muscle regeneration. This Book is a collection of classic ... degeneration tissue repair skeletal muscle progenitor cells skeletal muscle growth regenerative therapy muscle Injury ... Eccentric Contraction-Induced Muscle Injury: Reproducible, Quantitative, Physiological Models to Impair Skeletal Muscles ... Subjects discussed include: inducing skeletal muscle injury by eccentric contraction; volumetric muscle loss; single myofiber ...
Signaling pathways controlling skeletal muscle mass. - PubMed - NCBI
... culminating in a delicate balance between muscle protein synthesis and proteolysis. Loss of skeletal muscle mass, termed " ... Signaling pathways controlling skeletal muscle mass.. Egerman MA1, Glass DJ.. Author information. 1. Novartis Institutes for ... Recent studies have further defined the pathways leading to gain and loss of skeletal muscle as well as the signaling events ... The signaling pathways involved in the control of skeletal muscle atrophy and hypertrophy. Signaling activated by insulin-like ...
Microscopic Image of Skeletal Muscle Damage
The image above shows a microscopic image of skeletal muscle damage. A muscle fiber is divided into functional units known as ... Exercise that violates the principle of progression can lead to this type of skeletal muscle damage. While the body eventually ... This disruption hampers the function of the muscle and has been implicated as one of the potential sources of muscle soreness. ... Microscopic disruption of muscle fibers is one of the leading explanations for muscle soreness. ...
Human skeletal muscle sodium channelopathies | SpringerLink
Atlas of Skeletal Muscle Pathology - Janice R. Anderson - Google Books
Skeletal Muscle in Health and Disease: A Textbook of Muscle Physiology. David A. Jones,Joan M. Round. Snippet view - 1990. ... Skeletal Muscle in Health and Disease: A Textbook of Muscle Physiology. David A. Jones,Joan M. Round. Snippet view - 1990. ... Muscle_Pathology.html?id=6WpsAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareAtlas of Skeletal Muscle Pathology. ... Atlas of Skeletal Muscle Pathology. Volume 9 of Current Histopathology Series, ISSN 0272-1465. ...
Extraocular Skeletal Muscles
... This is "an interactive computer-based tutorial was developed to simulate eye movements provoked ... If you know the author of Extraocular Skeletal Muscles, please help us out by filling out the form below and clicking Send. ... You just viewed Extraocular Skeletal Muscles. Please take a moment to rate this material. ... by the contraction of individual and synergistic extraocular skeletal muscles. The objective for creating the courseware was to ...
Electrical activity of trout skeletal muscle fibres
The deep lateral muscle fibres of the trout (Salmo irideus) have a polyaxonal and distributed motor innervation. Electrical ... Electrical activity of trout skeletal muscle fibres J Physiol (Paris). 1982-1983;78(9):814-20. ... It is concluded that the membrane of the muscle fibres has several electrical properties similar to those of twitch skeletal ... The deep lateral muscle fibres of the trout (Salmo irideus) have a polyaxonal and distributed motor innervation. Electrical ...
Human Skeletal Muscle Possesses an Epigenetic Memory of Hypertrophy | Scientific Reports
We report, for the first time in humans, genome-wide DNA methylation (850,000 CpGs) and gene expression analysis after muscle ... Overall, we identify an important epigenetic role for a number of largely unstudied genes in muscle hypertrophy/memory. ... gene expression and muscle mass after later reloading, indicating an epigenetic memory in these genes. Finally, genes; GRIK2, ... a single bout of resistance exercise that was maintained 22 weeks later with the largest increase in gene expression and muscle ...
Towards understanding skeletal muscle regeneration
Factors which effect proliferation and fusion of muscle precursor cells have been studied extensively in tissue culture, ... Towards understanding skeletal muscle regeneration Pathol Res Pract. 1991 Jan;187(1):1-22. doi: 10.1016/S0344-0338(11)81039-3. ... Injury and necrosis of mature skeletal muscle fibres 2) Phagocytosis of myofibre debris 3) Revascularisation of injured muscle ... tissue culture derived data with a view to understanding factors which may control the regeneration of mature skeletal muscle ...
Skeletal Muscle Relaxant
... , Methocarbamol, Robaxin, Chlorzoxazone, Parafon Forte, Metaxalone, Skelaxin, Orphenadrine, Norflex, ... SKELETAL MUSCLE RELAXANTS, skeletal muscle relaxant, skeletal muscle relaxants, Skeletal muscle relaxant, Skeletal muscle ... Muscle Relaxants, Skeletal, Relaxants, Skeletal Muscle, SKELETAL MUSCLE RELAXANTS, skeletal muscle relaxants (medication), ... Skeletal muscle tone depressant, Skeletal muscle relaxant, NOS, Skeletal muscle tone depressant, NOS, Skeletal Muscle Relaxants ...
Optically controlled contraction of photosensitive skeletal muscle cells. - PubMed - NCBI
As the skeletal muscle cell is an efficient force transducer, it has been incorporated in bio-microdevices using electrical ... Optically controlled contraction of photosensitive skeletal muscle cells.. Asano T1, Ishizua T, Yawo H. ... To improve both the spatial and temporal resolutions, we made photosensitive skeletal muscle cells from murine C2C12 myoblasts ... This technique would have many applications in the bioengineering field, such as wireless drive of muscle-powered actuators/ ...
Does Skeletal Muscle Have Gap Junctions? | Reference.com
Gap junctions are found in cardiac and smooth muscle, where they function to increase the speed of... ... Skeletal muscle does not contain any type of cell-to-cell junctions, including gap junctions. ... Skeletal muscle does not contain any type of cell-to-cell junctions, including gap junctions. Gap junctions are found in ... In addition to gap junctions, other types of junctions include anchoring junctions and desmosomes, which keep muscle cells ...
Nutrition And Skeletal Muscle
Prijs: € 144,90, ISBN/ISBN13: 9780128104224, Categorie: Boek, Nutrition and Skeletal Muscle provides coverage of the evidence ... Copper and skeletal muscle 29. Iron and skeletal muscle 30. Selenium and skeletal muscle 31. Zinc and skeletal muscle 32. ... Vitamin D and skeletal muscle of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 25. Vitamin E and skeletal muscle 26. Folate and skeletal muscle ... Arginine and skeletal muscle 43. Citrulline and skeletal muscle 44. Sulfur amino acids and skeletal muscle 45. Branched-chain ...
UCLA researchers create skeletal muscle from stem cells | EurekAlert! Science News
... mature and transplant skeletal muscle cells created from human pluripotent stem cells, which can produce all cell types of the ... The findings are a major step towards developing a stem cell replacement therapy for muscle diseases including Duchenne ... The skeletal muscle cells were not maturing properly, he explained. "We needed bigger, stronger muscle that also had the ... "We have found that just because a skeletal muscle cell produced in the lab expresses muscle markers, doesnt mean it is fully ...
Decline in skeletal muscle mitochondrial function with aging in humans | PNAS
Decline in skeletal muscle mitochondrial function with aging in humans. Kevin R. Short, Maureen L. Bigelow, Jane Kahl, Ravinder ... Decline in skeletal muscle mitochondrial function with aging in humans. Kevin R. Short, Maureen L. Bigelow, Jane Kahl, Ravinder ... Decline in skeletal muscle mitochondrial function with aging in humans Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Decline in skeletal muscle mitochondrial function with aging in humans. Kevin R. Short, Maureen L. Bigelow, Jane Kahl, Ravinder ...
Functional Overload Enhances Satellite Cell Properties in Skeletal Muscle
Skeletal muscle represents a plentiful and accessible source of adult stem cells. Skeletal-muscle-derived stem cells, termed ... Figure 1: Skeletal muscle hypertrophy following functional overload. (a, b) Change in muscle weight following functional ... P. O. Mitchell and G. K. Pavlath, "Skeletal muscle atrophy leads to loss and dysfunction of muscle precursor cells," The ... We examined whether FO affects Wnt signaling in skeletal muscle by qRT-PCR analysis of plantaris muscle samples. Wnt3 and R- ...
Functional Overload Enhances Satellite Cell Properties in Skeletal Muscle
P. O. Mitchell and G. K. Pavlath, "Skeletal muscle atrophy leads to loss and dysfunction of muscle precursor cells," The ... P. S. Zammit, F. Relaix, Y. Nagata et al., "Pax7 and myogenic progression in skeletal muscle satellite cells," Journal of Cell ... W. G. Aschenbach, R. C. Ho, K. Sakamoto et al., "Regulation of dishevelled and β-catenin in rat skeletal muscle: an alternative ... Functional Overload Enhances Satellite Cell Properties in Skeletal Muscle. Shin Fujimaki,1,2 Masanao Machida,3 Tamami ...
JCI - Skeletal muscle inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity
Skeletal muscle-specific deletion of lipoprotein lipase enhances insulin signaling in skeletal muscle but causes insulin ... along with FFAs that are transferred into skeletal muscle and ANG II produced within skeletal muscle, may themselves further ... Muscles, exercise and obesity: skeletal muscle as a secretory organ. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2012;8(8):457-465.. View this article ... The role of skeletal muscle insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007; ...
... is a type of striated muscle, usually attached to the skeleton. Skeletal muscles are used to create movement, ... Muscular tissue • Muscle contraction • Muscles of the human body. Types of muscles. Cardiac muscle • Skeletal muscle • Smooth ... How skeletal muscle works. Main article: Muscle contraction. The strength of skeletal muscle is directly proportional to its ... Skeletal muscle is a type of striated muscle, usually attached to the skeleton. Skeletal muscles are used to create movement, ...
Filed Under: Skeletal Muscle Tagged With: Basic Architecture, Motor Unit, Physiology, Skeletal Muscle ... Filed Under: Featured, Skeletal Muscle Tagged With: Basic Architecture, Motor Unit, Physiology, Skeletal Muscle ... Filed Under: Articles, Featured, Skeletal Muscle Tagged With: Motor Unit, Physiology, Skeletal Muscle ... Basic Skeletal Muscle Physiology. This is intended to be a bare-bones review of physiology of muscle function. The concepts ...
Aging impacts epigenome in human skeletal muscle
Further reports about: , DNA , DNA methylation , brain aging , cell death , genetic marker , muscle mass , skeletal muscle ... DNA »DNA methylation »brain aging »cell death »genetic marker »muscle mass »skeletal muscle ... Research at the Buck Institute reveals that aging also effects the epigenome in human skeletal muscle. The study, appearing on ... In this study researchers compared DNA methylation in samples of skeletal muscle taken from healthy young (18 - 27 years of age ...
Researchers Engineer Light-Activated Skeletal Muscle - Slashdot
Researchers at MIT and the University of Pennsylvania have genetically engineered skeletal muscle cells to respond to light. ... skeletal muscle contraction. TFA is about a way to control the twitching of skeletal muscles without requiring a biological ... Researchers Engineer Light-Activated Skeletal Muscle 20 Posted by samzenpus on Monday September 03, 2012 @08:12AM. from the ... "Researchers at MIT and the University of Pennsylvania have genetically engineered skeletal muscle cells to respond to light. ...
What is Skeletal Muscle Tissue? (with pictures)
Its made up of two types of muscle fibers: type... ... Skeletal muscle tissue is one of three types of muscle tissue ... Skeletal muscles are made up of skeletal muscle fibers, or cells. There are typically two types of skeletal muscle fibers found ... Skeletal muscle tissue is one of three types of muscle tissue commonly found in the body, along with cardiac and smooth muscle ... Type IIb muscle fibers are believed to fatigue more quickly than type I muscle fibers. This type of skeletal muscle fiber is ...
Skeletal Muscle: Myogenesis & Myopathy - QIAGEN
Skeletal Muscle Myogenesis and Myopathy RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Rat Skeletal Muscle Development & Disease RT² Profiler PCR ... Skeletal Muscle Myogenesis and Myopathy RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Human Skeletal Muscle Development & Disease RT² Profiler PCR ... Skeletal Muscle Myogenesis and Myopathy RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Mouse Skeletal Muscle Development & Disease RT² Profiler PCR ... including titin or dystrophin facilitate muscle contraction by connecting the skeletal muscle cytoskeleton to the extracellular ...
Rat Skeletal Muscle CDC6 | MicroscopyU
A culture of rat skeletal muscle tissue cells (L6 cell line; myoblasts) were immunofluorescently labeled with primary anti-cdc6 ... Rat Skeletal Muscle CDC6. CFP Bandpass Emission (Narrow Bandwidth Excitation) Blue-Violet Set. Fluorescence emission intensity ... from a culture of rat skeletal muscle tissue cells (L6 cell line; myoblasts) that were immunofluorescently labeled with primary ...
Uncovering the genetics of skeletal muscle growth and regeneration | EurekAlert! Science News
Using genetic mapping, they found that zebrafish larvae with a mutation in DDX27 showed reduced muscle growth and impaired ... Brigham and Womens Hospital bombarded zebrafish with chemical mutagen and screened for larvae with defective skeletal muscle ... To investigate the mechanism behind skeletal muscle growth and regeneration, researchers from ... Skeletal muscle has a remarkable capacity to regenerate - a capacity that is diminished in many skeletal muscle diseases and ...
Human skeletalAtrophyTissueAbstractSuggest that treating skeletHypertrophyBiopsiesMetabolismRegenerationCellsMyoblastsRegulationGeneExerciseNegativelyPhysiologicalMyogenesisFunctions of skeletalFindingsMiceInsulin-stimulated glucoseFunctionRelaxantsType of skeletal muscleMitochondrialAffect skeletal muscleCardiac muscleMolecularOxidativePlasticityContractionsSomaticRegenerationEnergy metabolismGlucoseTendonsActinAttached to the skeletonAmyotrophic lateral sChanges in skeletal muscleSuggest that skeletal muscleProtein synthesis and degradationSignalingMyopathyIntact skeletal muscleRegulatesDiseasesStimulationAdultFiberMechanismEffects on skeletalHomeostasisExtracellularFunctionalSkeletonHumansPathologyPathwaysRelaxantVertebratesInsulin sensitivityContributesAcuteFibreVoluntary muscle
- A novel atlas of gene expression in human skeletal muscle reveals molecular changes associated with aging. (lu.se)
- To address these issues, we have performed a complete re-annotation of public microarray data from human skeletal muscle biopsies and constructed a muscle expression compendium consisting of nearly 3000 samples. (lu.se)
- This packet will show you the morphological characteristics of skeletal muscle tissue that you need to know in order to identify it under a microscope. (sophia.org)
- Furthermore, current researches mainly adopt muscle tissue homogenate as experiment material, but the studies based on cellular and subcellular level is seldom. (spie.org)
- Three days later, all the rats were sacrificed, the muscle tissue from the same site of skeletal muscle were taken out and digested to cells. (spie.org)
- After primary culture of the two kinds of skeletal muscle cells from tissue, a fluorescent dye-Fluo-3 AM was used to label the cytosolic free Ca 2+ . (spie.org)
- Mouse Skeletal Muscle Cells are isolated form normal mouse skeletal muscle tissue. (creative-bioarray.com)
- Muscle quality is influenced by fatty infiltration or myosteatosis, which can be assessed on computed tomography (CT) scans by analysing skeletal muscle density (SMD) and the amount of intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT). (biomedcentral.com)
- Myosteatosis can be apparent within muscle fibres and evaluated on CT scans by measuring skeletal muscle density (SMD), or between muscle fibres and evaluated on CT scans by measuring the amount of adipose tissue between muscles (also termed intermuscular adipose tissue or IMAT). (biomedcentral.com)
- We investigated the genetic and non-genetic regulation of FTO mRNA in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, and their influence on in vivo glucose and fat metabolism. (ku.dk)
- FTO mRNA expression was determined in subcutaneous adipose tissue (n=226) and skeletal muscle biopsies (n=158). (ku.dk)
- FTO mRNA expression in skeletal muscle was regulated by age and sex, whereas age and BMI were predictors of adipose tissue FTO mRNA expression. (ku.dk)
- The heritability of FTO expression in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle is low and not influenced by obesity-associated FTO genotype. (ku.dk)
- In livestock, skeletal muscle is a tissue of major economic importance for meat production and muscle mass is largely determined during the prenatal period by the number and the size of muscle fibres. (wur.nl)
- The improvement in the quality of the muscle tissue after treatment with uP-mGM affected the increase in the TA muscle mass and the maximum running speed on a treadmill. (biomedcentral.com)
Suggest that treating skelet1
- 1999). MyoD is involved in skeletal, but not cardiac, muscle regeneration. (fitness-vip.com)
- and muscle fiber number during regeneration. (biomedcentral.com)
- Efficient regeneration of the injured muscle is thought to compete with fibrotic healing, and excessive fibrosis is thought to impede regeneration. (biomedcentral.com)
- A growing body of literature indicated the cytosolic free Ca 2+ concentration of skeletal muscle cells changes significantly during exercise-induced fatigue. (spie.org)
- This study is aimed to establish rat skeletal muscle cell model of exercise-induced fatigue, and confirm the change of cytosolic free Ca 2+ concentration of skeletal muscle cells in rats preand post- exercise-induced fatigue. (spie.org)
- In conclusion, cytosolic free Ca 2+ concentration of skeletal muscle cells has a close relation with exercise-induced fatigue, and the increase of cytosolic free Ca 2+ concentration may be one of the important factors of exercise-induced fatigue. (spie.org)
- Harold Laughlin found that diaphragm muscle cells and smooth muscle cells behave differently-a finding that could influence future research on respiratory ailments associated with diabetes. (missouri.edu)
- However, in the past, researchers have not differentiated diaphragm muscle cells and the muscle cells of limb skeletal muscle in their studies. (missouri.edu)
- Now, researchers from the University of Missouri have found that diaphragm muscle cells and other skeletal muscle cells behave differently-a finding that could influence future research on respiratory ailments associated with diabetes. (missouri.edu)
- One of the crucial problems facing individuals with Type 2 diabetes is that small blood vessels essentially disappear making it harder for muscle cells, even those cells that make up the diaphragm, to respond to insulin," said M. Harold Laughlin , Curators Professor and chair of the Department of Biomedical Sciences in the College of Veterinary Medicine and an investigator at the Dalton Cardiovascular Research Center at MU. (missouri.edu)
- Previous research on respiratory distress has focused on the similarities in limb skeletal muscle cells and diaphragm cells. (missouri.edu)
- Because diaphragm muscle cells are similarly arranged as other skeletal muscle cells, the two have often been studied together. (missouri.edu)
- We found that smooth muscle cells in the arteries of the diaphragm do undergo adaptive changes in response to exercise training," Laughlin said. (missouri.edu)
- Here, I investigated the function of mTOR for the activation of newly found S6K1 homologue, S6K2, and for the regulation of skeletal muscle myotube growth. (illinois.edu)
- Conclusion: Adaptation to lipid overfeeding and regulation of fuel partitioning in human muscle appear to rely on a dissociation between the regulatory functions of the sirtuin-PGC-1 alpha pathway on fatty acid oxidation and on mitochondrial regulation. (epfl.ch)
- Main Outcome Measures: Change in gene expression, mitochondrial respiration, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) content, and acetylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1 alpha) in skeletal muscle was measured. (epfl.ch)
- The understanding of gene expression changes during prenatal pig muscle development is still limited. (wur.nl)
- Our results indicate just the opposite-in obese patients suffering from diabetes skeletal muscle arteries and diaphragm arteries adapt to exercise in different ways. (missouri.edu)
- Using this data set, we aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of muscle aging and to describe how physical exercise may alleviate negative physiological effects. (lu.se)
Functions of skeletal1
- It is generally agreed that normalizing skeletal muscle function alone cannot halt heart disease (Muntoni et al. (fitness-vip.com)
- 1990). A recent mouse study also found that transgenic amelioration of skeletal muscle disease alone increased physical activity and worsened heart function (Townsend et al. (fitness-vip.com)
- Relationships between changes in muscle structure, muscle function, and physical mobility are reviewed. (elsevier.com)
- 1) Centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxants: These drugs selectively act on the central nervous system that governs skeletal muscle tone and are used to control skeletal muscle spasms and treat tonic spasms or are used during surgical procedures. (scirp.org)
- Which medications in the drug class Skeletal Muscle Relaxants are used in the treatment of Spasticity? (medscape.com)
- Agents of treatment include Celecoxib (Celebrex), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), skeletal muscle relaxants, and local anesthetics. (medscape.com)
- Muscle relaxants often are used to reduce muscle spasm after initial injury. (medscape.com)
- Skeletal muscle relaxants are indicated as an adjunct to rest, physical therapy, and other measures for the relief of discomfort associated with acute painful musculoskeletal conditions. (medscape.com)
- Skeletal muscle relaxants have modest short-term benefit as adjunctive therapy for nociceptive pain associated with muscle strains and are used intermittently for diffuse and certain regional chronic pain syndromes. (medscape.com)
Type of skeletal muscle3
- Exercise that violates the principle of progression can lead to this type of skeletal muscle damage. (mhhe.com)
- There are several different ways to categorize the type of skeletal muscle. (bionity.com)
- This type of skeletal muscle fiber is often found in the highest concentrations in the arms and shoulders, as these muscles are generally used less frequently than those of the back and neck. (wisegeek.com)
- Skeletal muscle mitochondrial and high fat feeding 9. (vanstockum.nl)
- We determined whether aging results in increased DNA oxidative damage and reduced mtDNA abundance and mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle of human subjects. (pnas.org)
- The content of several mitochondrial proteins was reduced in older muscles, whereas the level of the oxidative DNA lesion, 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine, was increased, supporting the oxidative damage theory of aging. (pnas.org)
- These results demonstrate that age-related muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is related to reduced mtDNA and muscle functional changes that are common in the elderly. (pnas.org)
- Reduced muscle mitochondrial function could contribute to age-related muscle dysfunction and reduced aerobic capacity. (pnas.org)
- The activity of oxidative enzymes and content mRNA transcripts encoding mitochondrial proteins are also reduced in older muscles ( 3 , 7 , 10 , 11 ). (pnas.org)
- The major functional role of mitochondria is ATP generation, but it remains unclear whether mitochondrial ATP production rate (MAPR) in skeletal muscle declines with age in humans. (pnas.org)
- We therefore performed a comprehensive study to examine whether muscle mitochondrial function declines with age in humans by using a large group of well-characterized healthy men and women across a wide age span. (pnas.org)
- Here, we analyze the ability of skeletal muscle to respire lactate by using an in situ mitochondrial preparation that leaves the native tubular reticulum and subcellular interactions of the organelle unaltered. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Antioxidant supplementation reduces skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis. (biomedsearch.com)
- However, exercise-induced ROS may regulate beneficial skeletal muscle adaptations, such as increased mitochondrial biogenesis. (biomedsearch.com)
- We therefore investigated the effects of long-term antioxidant supplementation with vitamin E and α-lipoic acid on changes in markers of mitochondrial biogenesis in the skeletal muscle of exercise-trained and sedentary rats. (biomedsearch.com)
- CONCLUSIONS: : Vitamin E and α-lipoic acid supplementation suppresses skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis, regardless of training status. (biomedsearch.com)
- Disturbances in mitochondrial oxidative capacity occur with statin use even in subjects without statin-induced muscle complaints. (greenmedinfo.com)
- To determine whether differences exist in exercise performance, muscle function and mitochondrial oxidative capacity and content between symptomatic and asymptomatic statin users, and non-statin using controls. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Statin use attenuates substrate use during maximal exercise performance, induces muscle fatigue during repeated muscle contractions and decreases mitochondrial oxidative capacity of the muscle. (greenmedinfo.com)
- We assessed muscular mitochondrial function and lipid deposition in liver (HCL) and muscle (IMCL) using 31 P/ 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), insulin sensitivity and endogenous glucose production (EGP) by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps combined with isotopic tracer dilution in one female suffering from the MELAS syndrome and in six controls (CON). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Impairment of muscle mitochondrial fitness promotes insulin resistance and could thereby contribute to the development of diabetes in certain patients with the MELAS syndrome. (diabetesjournals.org)
- We propose that increased protein and enzymatic activity of AK1 is representative of a compensatory glycolytic drift to counteract reduced muscle mitochondrial function with the progression of obesity. (diabetesjournals.org)
Affect skeletal muscle1
- Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle . (wikipedia.org)
- Unlike smooth muscle and cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle is under voluntary control. (britannica.com)
- It does not include cardiac muscle and smooth muscle, which are associated with the systems in which they are found, such as the cardiovascular, digestive, urinary, or other organ systems. (cliffsnotes.com)
- Skeletal muscle cells contract more forcefully than smooth or cardiac muscle cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle maintenance involve interplay between multiple signaling pathways. (nih.gov)
- These studies collectively suggest that skeletal muscle cells could be epigenetically regulated, as they appear to not only retain information from the environmental niche from which they originated, but also to pass this molecular 'signature' onto future daughter cell progeny in-vitro . (nature.com)
- Furthermore, we have recently reported that mouse skeletal muscle cells (C2C12), following an early-life inflammatory stress, pass molecular information onto future generations (30 cellular divisions), through a process of DNA methylation 11 . (nature.com)
- Molecular mechanism of post-meal regulation of muscle anabolism 7. (vanstockum.nl)
- Our group aims to analyze molecular changes within the skeletal muscle of pre-diabetic patients through the use of a clinical trial in humans. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Charge, S. B. & Rudnicki, M. A. Cellular and molecular regulation of muscle regeneration. (nature.com)
- We currently have a good descriptive understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling the muscle phenotype. (biologists.org)
- The plasticity of skeletal muscle is further illustrated by the myriad of effects that either endurance- or resistance-based training induce at the cellular and molecular levels ( 12 , 13 ). (frontiersin.org)
- In summary, proteome analysis of muscle has helped us better describe the molecular etiology of obesity-related disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
- New techniques for the unbiased ascertainment of complex molecular events in diseased, damaged, and exercise-adapted skeletal muscle include the use of oligonucleotide microarrays and proteomic analysis using mass spectroscopy ( 7 - 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Consequently, there is growing support for the use of protein profiling techniques to help produce a more comprehensive molecular etiology of muscle remodeling and disease states. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The present review addresses current understanding of the functional roles of the molecular clock with respect to skeletal muscle and the potential of chronotherapy for diseases associated with skeletal muscle. (dovepress.com)
- Oxidative stress in skeletal muscle and high fat feeding 12. (vanstockum.nl)
- In this review, we discuss possible mechanisms of iron dependent oxidative stress in skeletal muscle, its impact on muscle mass and endocrine function, as well as on neurodegeneration processes. (frontiersin.org)
- In the skeletal muscle, oxidative stress not only causes muscle damage but also negatively impacts its endocrine function. (frontiersin.org)
- In addition, skeletal muscle accounts for a large portion of oxidative metabolism and of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. (frontiersin.org)
- Although there have been a number of microarray studies of diabetic and obese muscle across a variety of animal and human experimental models, the only real consensus is the apparent downregulation of genes encoding oxidative metabolism enzymes with obesity and diabetes ( 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Understanding the regulation of muscle plasticity. (nih.gov)
- The purpose of the present review is to give a short overview of the currently known factors and their role in skeletal muscle plasticity. (biologists.org)
- These results suggest that the expression of αB-crystallin is dynamically related to the muscle plasticity. (go.jp)
- Both skeletal muscles and cardiac muscles contain striations among muscle cells and produce strong contractions, according to class notes from Yale Univers. (reference.com)
- Maximal incremental cycling tests and involuntary electrically stimulated isometric quadriceps muscle contractions were performed and a muscle biopsy was obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Theriault E, Diamond J. Nociceptive cutaneous stimuli evoke localized contractions in a skeletal muscle. (unboundmedicine.com)
- TY - JOUR T1 - Nociceptive cutaneous stimuli evoke localized contractions in a skeletal muscle. (unboundmedicine.com)
- These muscles are under the control of the somatic nervous system , the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with voluntary muscle contractions. (biology-online.org)
- This Book is a collection of classic and cutting edge protocols optimized for mice, but in most cases adaptable to rat or other mammalian models, that will allow an investigator to develop and implement a research study on skeletal muscle regeneration. (springer.com)
- Chapters address the three major areas of study: provoking regeneration by inducing damage to muscle, analyzing the progenitor cells of skeletal muscle, and quantifying overall muscle function. (springer.com)
- Cutting edge and practical, Skeletal Muscle Regeneration in the Mouse: Methods and Protocols is an essential laboratory reference for research in skeletal muscle growth, damage, repair, degeneration, and regenerative therapy in the mouse model system. (springer.com)
- Recent studies have further defined the pathways leading to gain and loss of skeletal muscle as well as the signaling events that induce differentiation and post-injury regeneration, which are also essential for the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. (nih.gov)
- Muscle derived stem cells are presently considered the best source for muscle regeneration. (ucl.ac.uk)
- Skeletal-muscle-specific stem cells, termed satellite cells, contribute to the postnatal maintenance, growth, repair, and regeneration of skeletal muscle [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
- To investigate the mechanism behind skeletal muscle growth and regeneration, researchers from Brigham and Women's Hospital bombarded zebrafish with chemical mutagen and screened for larvae with defective skeletal muscle structure. (eurekalert.org)
- Using genetic mapping, they found that zebrafish larvae with a mutation in DDX27 showed reduced muscle growth and impaired regeneration. (eurekalert.org)
- Looking ahead the researchers hope to further explore the mechanism by which protein synthesis is changed in different disease conditions and develop approaches to target DDX27 regulated pathways to restore muscle growth and regeneration in skeletal muscle disorders. (eurekalert.org)
- In vitro models of muscle self-repair would facilitate the basic understanding of muscle regeneration and the screening of therapies for muscle disease. (nature.com)
- Lepper, C., Partridge, T. A. & Fan, C. M. An absolute requirement for Pax7-positive satellite cells in acute injury-induced skeletal muscle regeneration. (nature.com)
- Tidball, J. G. & Villalta, S. A. Regulatory interactions between muscle and the immune system during muscle regeneration. (nature.com)
- Turner, N. J. & Badylak, S. F. Regeneration of skeletal muscle. (nature.com)
- Obesity is increasing rapidly worldwide and is accompanied by many complications, including impaired muscle regeneration. (diabetesjournals.org)
- We hypothesized that the loss of AMPK activity is a major reason for hampered muscle regeneration in obese subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
- We found that obesity inhibits AMPK activity in regenerating muscle, which was associated with impeded satellite cell activation and impaired muscle regeneration. (diabetesjournals.org)
- To test the mediatory role of AMPKα1, we knocked out AMPKα1 and found that both proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells are reduced after injury and that muscle regeneration is severely impeded, reminiscent of hampered muscle regeneration seen in obese subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
- We also found that attenuated muscle regeneration in obese mice is rescued by AICAR, a drug that specifically activates AMPK, but AICAR treatment failed to improve muscle regeneration in obese mice with satellite cell-specific AMPKα1 knockout, demonstrating the importance of AMPKα1 in satellite cell activation and muscle regeneration. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In summary, AMPKα1 is a key mediator linking obesity and impaired muscle regeneration, providing a convenient drug target to facilitate muscle regeneration in obese populations. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Skeletal muscle regeneration is an integrated part of the physiological process in skeletal muscle. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In both exercise-induced muscle damage and muscle trauma, skeletal muscle regeneration is required for recovery after injury ( 4 , 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Moreover, sustained but attenuated muscle regeneration is indispensable in the etiology of muscular diseases, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy ( 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Improper muscle regeneration leads to muscle atrophy and impairment of muscle contractile function ( 9 - 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- On the other hand, successful muscle regeneration requires both sufficient quantity and proper myogenic differentiation of satellite cells ( 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- disrupted expression of MRFs negatively affects muscle regeneration ( 14 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- However, the role of AMPK in impaired muscle regeneration due to obesity and type 2 diabetes has not been defined. (diabetesjournals.org)
- We previously identified the stimulatory effect of AMPKα1, the dominant AMPKα isoform in satellite cells, on myogenin expression and fusion into myotubes ( 20 , 21 ), which led us to hypothesize that AMPKα1 facilitates muscle regeneration and that obesity impedes muscle regeneration mainly through inhibition of AMPK. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Voluntary movement, which is effected by skeletal muscle, contributes greatly to energy metabolism and its regulation via glucose uptake and storage by insulin. (qiagen.com)
- Because skeletal muscle expresses the leptin receptor and plays a major role in determining energy metabolism, we studied leptin's effects on glucose and fatty acid (FA) metabolism in isolated mouse soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Moreover, as a major storage site for glucose, lipids and amino acids, muscle is an essential coordinator of whole-body energy metabolism. (frontiersin.org)
- The total enzymatic activity of creatine kinase, which also regulates energy metabolism in muscle, was shown to increase 30% in obese/overweight women only. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Taken together, the data suggest that BRCA1 is important in regulating energy metabolism in skeletal muscle. (asbmb.org)
- Skeletal muscle functions in locomotion, postural support, and energy metabolism. (dovepress.com)
- thus, dysregulation of skeletal muscle metabolism can strongly influence whole-body glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. (jci.org)
- The contralateral muscle was treated with insulin (10 mU/ml), leptin (0.01-10 μg/ml), or insulin plus leptin, and incorporation of [ 14 C]glucose or [ 14 C]oleate into CO 2 and into either glycogen or triacylglycerol (TAG) was determined. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Leptin did not alter insulin-stimulated muscle glucose metabolism. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Skeletal muscle, which accounts for 40% of body mass, is responsible for locomotion and is the major site for glucose and fatty acid utilization, playing a key role in preventing obesity and type 2 diabetes ( 1 - 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- The present study examined whether a reduction in the concentration of the insulin-stimulated glucose transporter (GLUT4) in skeletal muscle was associated with advancing age in men ( n = 55) and women ( n = 29). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Skeletal muscle is by far the most common type of muscle in the body and it plays a major role in normal metabolism, e.g., after a meal, excess glucose is removed from the blood stream primarily by skeletal muscle. (thefreedictionary.com)
- It is now widely accepted that skeletal muscle plays a considerable role in regulating levels of circulating glucose and lipids and that this capacity is significantly depressed in obese and/or inactive individuals ( 2 , 3 , 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Skeletal muscles are attached to bones by tendons , and they produce all the movements of body parts in relation to each other. (britannica.com)
- Skeletal muscles are generally to be found attached to the skeleton, usually by tendons . (wisegeek.com)
- Answer: tendons Diff: 1 Page Ref: 185 13) The __________ zone of a sarcomere contains no actin filaments while the skeletal muscle is at rest (noncontractile state).12) Skeletal muscle is often attached to bone by strong. (scribd.com)
- Because of these different architectures, the tension a muscle can create between its tendons varies by more than simply its size and fiber-type makeup. (wikipedia.org)
- The myofibrils are composed of actin and myosin filaments, repeated in units called sarcomeres , which are the basic functional units of the muscle fiber. (wikipedia.org)
- This work introduces such a method, which analyzes fluctuations of anisotropy of a few actin molecules in muscle. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
Attached to the skeleton1
Amyotrophic lateral s3
- Vitamin D and skeletal muscle of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 25. (vanstockum.nl)
- Additional diseases of the skeletal muscle include amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and myasthenia gravis . (wisegeek.com)
- Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also referred to as ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease, is one of the most debilitating skeletal muscle diseases. (wisegeek.com)
Changes in skeletal muscle2
- Nutrition and Skeletal Muscle provides coverage of the evidence of dietary components that have proven beneficial for bettering adverse changes in skeletal muscle from disuse and aging. (vanstockum.nl)
- Chronic adaptations are a result of consistent acute changes in skeletal muscle and persist for longer periods of time, as well. (livestrong.com)
Suggest that skeletal muscle1
Protein synthesis and degradation2
- Signaling pathways controlling skeletal muscle mass. (nih.gov)
- Signaling activated by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) positively regulates muscle mass, primarily via induction of protein synthesis, downstream of Akt and mTOR. (nih.gov)
- Another more recently discovered E3 ligase is Fbxo40, which can ubiquitinate IRS1 upon IGF1 stimulation, short-circuiting this pathway unless the muscle is capable of synthesizing new IGF1, via maintenance of TORC1/protein synthesis signaling. (nih.gov)
- Vitamin D signaling and skeletal muscle cells 21. (vanstockum.nl)
- Physical exercise induces changes in extracellular signaling in skeletal muscle that affect satellite cells. (hindawi.com)
- J. A. Powell, M. A. Carrasco, D. S. Adams, B. Drouet, J. Rios, M. Müller, M. Estrada, E. Jaimovich, IP 3 receptor function and localization in myotubes: An unexplored Ca 2+ signaling pathway in skeletal muscle. (sciencemag.org)
- In endurance exercise, stress-induced signaling leads to transcriptional upregulation of genes, with Ca 2+ signaling and the energy status of the muscle cells sensed through AMPK being major input determinants. (biologists.org)
- As a consequence, muscle structural and functional modifications can be achieved by an almost unlimited combination of inputs and downstream signaling events. (biologists.org)
Intact skeletal muscle1
- This article reviews the clinical features of the skeletal muscle sodium channel diseases and highlights the phenotypic or genetic overlap in these disorders. (springer.com)
- The findings are a major step towards developing a stem cell replacement therapy for muscle diseases including Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, which affects approximately 1 in 5,000 boys in the U.S. and is the most common fatal childhood genetic disease. (eurekalert.org)
- Skeletal muscle has a remarkable capacity to regenerate - a capacity that is diminished in many skeletal muscle diseases and aging. (eurekalert.org)
- A major hindrance in the development of effective therapies for skeletal muscle diseases thus far has been a lack of understanding of the biological processes that promote muscle growth and repair," said corresponding author Vandana Gupta, PhD, of the Division of Genetics at BWH. (eurekalert.org)
- Our study is one of the first efforts to provide specificity to the processes controlling protein synthesis in muscles, which will hopefully allow for the development of effective targeted treatments for skeletal muscle diseases. (eurekalert.org)
- Loss of muscle mass is a debilitating feature that is a common manifestation of a wide array of diseases, and leads to reduced muscle function and increased morbidity and mortality. (eurekalert.org)
- What Are the Different Types of Skeletal Muscle Diseases? (wisegeek.com)
- There are a variety of different skeletal muscle diseases, each of which carries its own unique set of symptoms. (wisegeek.com)
- Some of the most common diseases affecting the skeletal muscles include muscular dystrophy , fibromyalgia , and cerebral palsy . (wisegeek.com)
- If the patient or caregiver has any questions or concerns about the diagnosis of specific skeletal muscle diseases, a doctor or other medical professional should be consulted. (wisegeek.com)
- Muscular dystrophy and cerebral palsy are among the most frequently diagnosed skeletal muscle diseases among children. (wisegeek.com)
- Diagnosing skeletal muscle diseases can be very difficult and this certainly applies to fibromyalgia. (wisegeek.com)
- Skeletal muscle health is particularly important for the prevention of various diseases. (mdpi.com)
- We have also discussed, sarcopenia, age-related muscle diseases and exercise. (mdpi.com)
- Further, iron overload in the skeletal muscle not only negatively affects muscle contractility but also might impact its endocrine function, thus possibly affecting the clinical outcome of diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases. (frontiersin.org)
- In this review we have provided recent Hcy mediated mechanistic insights into different diseases and presented potential implications in the context of reduced muscle function and integrity. (mdpi.com)
- However, because other diseases affecting the heart and lungs, muscles and adrenal glands may produce symptoms of exercise-intolerance similar to HMLR, it is important that these disorders be ruled out as well. (labbies.com)
- Twitch potentiation and fatigue in skeletal muscle are two conditions in which force production is affected by the stimulation history. (scielo.br)
- Fatigue is the force decrease observed after a period of repeated muscle stimulation. (scielo.br)
- But electricity can cause adverse side effects to a biological environment and does not allow for selective stimulation of distinct regions of muscle to steer the biobot, said research professor Rashid Bashir. (photonics.com)
- 2. Electrophysiological analysis of EMG activity in the muscle reflexly evoked by direct electrical stimulation of individual DCNs revealed a distinct topographic relationship, in that the shortest latency response of EMG activity in the muscle was consistently located approximately 1.0 cm rostral to the dermatome of the stimulated DCN. (unboundmedicine.com)
- First, we show that-in contrast with injured neonatal-derived engineered muscle-adult-derived engineered muscle fails to properly self-repair after injury, even when treated with pro-regenerative cytokines. (nature.com)
- The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of fetal undernutrition on the passive mechanical properties of skeletal muscle of weaned and young adult rats. (scielo.br)
- Modifications in muscle fiber type distribution in both young and adult mammals have been reported as well as a decrease in the fiber density in the diaphragm of pups whose mothers had suffered nutritional deprivation. (scielo.br)
- 3D rendering of a skeletal muscle fiber. (wikipedia.org)
- Every single organelle and macromolecule of a muscle fiber is arranged to ensure form meets function. (wikipedia.org)
- While the muscle fiber does not have a smooth endoplasmic cisternae, it contains a sarcoplasmic reticulum . (wikipedia.org)
- These cross the muscle fiber from one side to the other. (wikipedia.org)
- The different fiber arrangements produce broad categories of skeletal muscle architectures including longitudinal, pennate , unipennate, bipennate, and multipennate. (wikipedia.org)
- A muscle fiber is divided into functional units known as sarcomeres which are defined as the distance between 2 sets of Z - lines. (mhhe.com)
- The nuclei of these muscles are located in the peripheral aspect of the cell, just under the plasma membrane , which vacates the central part of the muscle fiber for myofibrils . (bionity.com)
- Each fiber of a muscle can contribute to force production only if it is recruited by the brain. (time-to-run.com)
- One motor nerve can branch into tens, hundreds, or even a thousand branches, each one terminating on a different muscle fiber. (time-to-run.com)
- The different muscle groups of the body usually consist of different concentrations of each type of muscle fiber , depending on the functions of each individual muscle group. (wisegeek.com)
- What is a Motor Unit/Muscle Fiber? (studystack.com)
- the amount of each type of fiber varies from muscle to muscle and from person to person. (wikidoc.org)
- It will be the first study to thoroughly investigate the effects of ST on muscle atrophy, intramuscular fat, muscle fiber characteristics, capillary density and insulin sensitivity after stroke. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Longitudinal architecture The fascicles of longitudinally arranged, parallel, or fusiform muscles run parallel to the axis of force generation, thus these muscles on a whole function similarly to a single, large muscle fiber. (wikipedia.org)
- A motor neuron axon branches many times after entering a target muscle, and each branch makes its way to a different muscle fiber. (getbodysmart.com)
- As it approaches the midpoint of a muscle fiber, the axon splits again, forming a small cluster of terminal branches. (getbodysmart.com)
- The tips of the terminal branches expand into small synaptic bulbs, which fit into grooves along the surface of the muscle fiber. (getbodysmart.com)
Effects on skeletal2
- The investigators central hypothesis is that the muscle characteristics derived from ultrasound (US) will be significantly associated with estimates of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) LBM, CT scan measures of IMAT, estimates of insulin homeostasis, and serum levels of inflammatory cytokines. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Skeletal muscle is an essential regulator of energy homeostasis and a potent coordinator of exercise-induced adaptations in other organs including the liver, fat or the brain. (frontiersin.org)
- Experiments were designed to develop a reproducible technique for producing chronic strain injury to rat skeletal muscles as a model for cumulative trauma disorder (CTD), and to measure the functional outcome of repeated microtrauma in order to develop strategies and programs for its prevention. (cdc.gov)
- A dynamometer was designed and built to control the velocity and range of movement of the rat foot during a strain overload and test the functional outcome in terms of muscle strength, endurance, and stiffness in-vivo. (cdc.gov)
- We have found that just because a skeletal muscle cell produced in the lab expresses muscle markers, doesn't mean it is fully functional," said Pyle. (eurekalert.org)
- Many structural and functional changes occur with age in skeletal muscle in a wide range of species. (pnas.org)
- From a functional point of view, muscle passive properties are important to take into account because (1) these characteristics contribute in part to the maximal joint range of motion, (2) part of the force developed by the contracting muscle will be devoted to the stretch of passive antagonist and (3) a relation between passive stiffness and spindle discharge has been shown. (scielo.br)
- The functions of skeletal muscles are to bring about specific movements to the number of bones present in the human skeleton, according to the University of the Western Cape. (reference.com)
- The biceps are classified as skeletal muscles because they attach directly to the skeleton. (reference.com)
- The skeletal muscles are responsible for moving parts of the skeleton (such as in locomotion ). (biology-online.org)
- In Caenorhabditis elegans , muscle changes resembling those in humans precede neuronal changes, and are a determinant of morbidity ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
- These findings suggest that a decrement in GLUT4 protein concentration in skeletal muscle may at least partially contribute to the insulin resistance of aging in humans. (diabetesjournals.org)
- These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Skeletal Muscle Relaxant. (fpnotebook.com)
- A synthetic propanediol dicarbamate derivative and an adjunct in the treatment of painful muscle spasms, Carisoprodol is a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant that relieves stiffness, pain, and discomfort caused by muscle injuries. (fpnotebook.com)
- Tizanidine is a centrally acting muscle relaxant metabolized in the liver and excreted in urine and feces. (medscape.com)