Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.
The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)
Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.
Neoplasms containing cyst-like formations or producing mucin or serum.
Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.
Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.
Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.
Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.
A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.

Lymphangiosarcomas in cats: a retrospective study of 12 cases. (1/253)

Clinical, macroscopic, and histologic features of 12 lymphangiosarcomas in cats are described. Nine tumors were located in the subcutaneous tissue at the caudoventral abdominal wall (eight cats) or in the neck (one cat). The remaining three cats had lymphangiosarcomas around the cranial mesenteric artery (two cats) or precardial in the mediastinum (one cat). Macroscopically, the tumors were noncircumscribed, white, edematous, and intermixed with fat tissue. Histologic features varied from cleft-forming and cavernous growth to papilliform and solid patterns. Follow-up data were available for seven cats with subcutaneous lymphangiosarcomas. All these cats died or were euthanatized within 6 months after surgery because of poor wound healing, local recurrence, or distant metastases. The cats with abdominal or thoracic masses were either euthanatized at surgery or within 6 months after the first surgery because of recurrent chylothorax, chyloperitoneum, or distant metastases.  (+info)

Intramuscular desmoid tumor (musculoaponeurotic fibromatosis) in two horses. (2/253)

Intramuscular desmoid tumors (musculoaponeurotic fibromatosis) were discovered in two young adult horses. The tumor in one horse was in the lateral cervical musculature, and that in the second horse occurred in the pectoral musculature. Histopathologic features were similar in both horses and included proliferation of fibroblasts and cells expressing muscle actin (myofibroblasts), with extensive dissecting fibrosis within muscle. These features are similar to those of desmoid tumors in humans, particularly those also known as musculoaponeurotic fibromatosis. Dissection of these lesions revealed a single central (horse No. 1) or multiple central (horse No. 2) fluid-filled cavities with associated sterile inflammation. The presence of these cavities supports the hypothesis that equine desmoid tumors are traumatic in origin, possibly occurring at sites of injections or bursal rupture. Surgical excision of the tumor in horse No. 1 was apparently curative, but the extent of the tumor in horse No. 2 precluded surgical excision.  (+info)

Biosynthesis of heparin/heparan sulfate: kinetic studies of the glucuronyl C5-epimerase with N-sulfated derivatives of the Escherichia coli K5 capsular polysaccharide as substrates. (3/253)

The D-glucuronyl C5-epimerase involved in the biosynthesis of heparin and heparan sulfate was investigated with focus on its substrate specificity, its kinetic properties, and a comparison of epimerase preparations from the Furth mastocytoma and bovine liver, which synthesize heparin and heparan sulfate, respectively. New substrates for the epimerase were prepared from the capsular polysaccharide of Escherichia coli K5, which had been labeled at C5 of its D-glucuronic and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine moieties by growing the bacteria in the presence of D-[5-(3)H]glucose. Following complete or partial ( approximately 50%) N-deacetylation of the polysaccharide by hydrazinolysis, the free amino groups were sulfated by treatment with trimethylamine.SO(3)complex, which yielded products that were recognized as substrates by the epimerase and released tritium from C5 of the D-glucuronyl residues upon incubation with the enzyme. Comparison of the kinetic properties of the two substrates showed that the fully N-sulfated derivative was the best substrate in terms of its K(m)value, which was significantly lower than that of its partially N-acetylated counterpart. The V(max)values for the E.coli polysaccharide derivatives were essentially the same but were both lower than that of the O-desulfated [(3)H]heparin used in our previous studies. Surprisingly, the apparent K(m)values for all three substrates increased with increasing enzyme concentration. The reason for this phenomenon is not entirely clear at present. Partially purified C5-epimerase preparations from the Furth mastocytoma and bovine liver, respectively, behaved similarly in terms of their reactivity towards the various substrates, but the variation in apparent K(m)values with enzyme concentration precluded a detailed comparison of their kinetic properties.  (+info)

Tenosynovial giant cell tumor of finger, localized type: a case report. (4/253)

The authors report a typical case of tenosynovial giant cell tumor of the right middle finger of a 31-year-old man. Histologically, this tumor is characterized by a discrete proliferation of rounded synovial-like cells accompanied by a variable number of multinucleated giant cells, inflammatory cells, and xanthoma cells. Clinicopathologically, this tumor is a benign lesion that nonetheless possesses a capacity for local recurrence. Local excision with a small cuff of normal tissue is the treatment of choice in this tumor.  (+info)

Cytoplasmic domain mutants of beta1 integrin, expressed in beta 1-knockout lymphoma cells, have distinct effects on adhesion, invasion and metastasis. (5/253)

Structural requirements for beta 1 integrin cytoplasmic domain functions in adhesion, migration and signaling have been studied mainly for fibroblasts in vitro. The relevance for beta 1-dependent in vivo migration of lymphoid cells has not been assessed. To study this, we transfected beta 1 mutants into beta 1-deficient double knockout (DKO) ESb lymphoma cells, and tested the capacity of the cells to metastasize to liver and spleen. This was compared to alpha 4 beta 1-dependent invasion into cell monolayers in vitro and Mn2+-induced adhesion to fibronectin. Deletion of the five C-terminal residues or mutation of both threonines T788 and T789 to alanines blocked invasion and metastasis and greatly reduced adhesion, in line with known in vitro effects. However, mutations of the NPXY motif tyrosines had unexpected consequences. A Y783F mutation had no effect at all, but a Y783,795F double mutation strongly reduced Mn2+-induced adhesion, whereas it had limited effects on invasion and metastasis. Furthermore, cells expressing a beta 1 beta 2 chimeric subunit, which contains phenylalanines in the NPXY/F motifs, adhered poorly but invasion and metastasis was fully restored to the same levels as for cells expressing wild-type beta 1. We conclude that part of the functions of the beta 1 cytoplasmic domain that are required for adhesion are not essential for beta 1-dependent invasion and metastasis.  (+info)

Extra-abdominal desmoid tumor of the hand: a case report and review of the literature. (6/253)

Extra-abdominal desmoid tumor of the hand is rare and only 10 cases have been described in the literature. We present a 14-year-old boy with a recurrent extra-abdominal desmoid tumor in the dorsal site of the right hand. MR image demonstrated the tumor in the third dorsal interosseous muscle, and adhered to the radial side of the forth metacarpal bone. The lesion revealed iso-signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high intensity on T2. We performed a marginal excision. Histological examination of the tumor showed proliferation of the fibroblastic cells with abundant collagen bundles. He developed local recurrence for the third time. The size of the third recurrent tumor has not been changed for 2 years and 3 months. Therefore, we have not performed any additional surgery. Since extensive resection markedly diminishes the function of the hand, we consider that a marginal surgical margin is acceptable for the quality of daily life of patients with a desmoid tumor of the hand.  (+info)

Irradiation of a primary tumor, unlike surgical removal, enhances angiogenesis suppression at a distal site: potential role of host-tumor interaction. (7/253)

Changes in distal angiogenesis in response to irradiation of primary tumors are not known. To this end, PC-3, a human prostate carcinoma, and FSA-II, a murine fibrosarcoma, were grown in the gastrocnemius muscles of male nude mice. Distal angiogenesis was measured in gel containing human recombinant basic fibroblast growth factor placed in the cranial windows of these mice. PC-3-bearing mice showed inhibition of distal angiogenesis, as compared with non-tumor-bearing controls. Surgical removal of tumors tended to accelerate distal angiogenesis; in comparison, after irradiation of the PC-3 primary tumor, rates of angiogenesis in the cranial window were retarded. Irradiation of the non-tumor-bearing leg or of non-tumor-bearing animals showed no measurable effect on rate of growth of vessels in the cranial window. Similar results were found with the FSA-II tumors, with slowed distal angiogenesis in tumor-bearing animals and further suppression in animals with irradiated tumors. These results demonstrate that the effect of irradiation of a primary tumor on angiogenesis at a distal site may differ from the effect of surgical removal of the primary tumor. Unlike surgery, irradiation of a tumor may enhance angiogenic suppression at a distal site, and this difference may involve host-tumor interaction.  (+info)

h-Caldesmon as a specific marker for smooth muscle tumors. Comparison with other smooth muscle markers in bone tumors. (8/253)

Caldesmon is a protein widely distributed in smooth and non-smooth muscle cells and is thought to regulate cellular contraction. Its isoform, high-molecular-weight caldesmon (h-CD), was demonstrated to be specific for smooth muscle cells and smooth muscle tumors of the soft tissue and to never be expressed in myofibroblasts. We performed an immunohistochemical study to examine h-CD expression in the following bone tumors: conventional and non-conventional osteosarcoma, 13; malignant fibrous histiocytoma of bone, 5; giant cell tumors of bone, 5; chondroblastoma, 3; metastatic leiomyosarcoma, 2; and rhabdomyosarcoma, 1. Frequent immunoreactivity for muscle actin (alpha-smooth muscle actin or muscle-specific actin) was seen in 11 of 13 osteosarcomas and all other tumors, whereas h-CD was expressed intensely only in 2 leiomyosarcomas. h-CD is considered a specific and useful marker to distinguish smooth muscle tumor from bone tumors with myoid differentiation.  (+info)

Muscle neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the muscle tissue. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign muscle neoplasms are typically slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant muscle neoplasms, also known as soft tissue sarcomas, can grow quickly, invade nearby tissues, and metastasize (spread) to distant parts of the body.

Soft tissue sarcomas can arise from any of the muscles in the body, including the skeletal muscles (voluntary muscles that attach to bones and help with movement), smooth muscles (involuntary muscles found in the walls of blood vessels, digestive tract, and other organs), or cardiac muscle (the specialized muscle found in the heart).

There are many different types of soft tissue sarcomas, each with its own set of characteristics and prognosis. Treatment for muscle neoplasms typically involves a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, depending on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor.

A muscle is a soft tissue in our body that contracts to produce force and motion. It is composed mainly of specialized cells called muscle fibers, which are bound together by connective tissue. There are three types of muscles: skeletal (voluntary), smooth (involuntary), and cardiac. Skeletal muscles attach to bones and help in movement, while smooth muscles are found within the walls of organs and blood vessels, helping with functions like digestion and circulation. Cardiac muscle is the specific type that makes up the heart, allowing it to pump blood throughout the body.

Muscle proteins are a type of protein that are found in muscle tissue and are responsible for providing structure, strength, and functionality to muscles. The two major types of muscle proteins are:

1. Contractile proteins: These include actin and myosin, which are responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscles. They work together to cause muscle movement by sliding along each other and shortening the muscle fibers.
2. Structural proteins: These include titin, nebulin, and desmin, which provide structural support and stability to muscle fibers. Titin is the largest protein in the human body and acts as a molecular spring that helps maintain the integrity of the sarcomere (the basic unit of muscle contraction). Nebulin helps regulate the length of the sarcomere, while desmin forms a network of filaments that connects adjacent muscle fibers together.

Overall, muscle proteins play a critical role in maintaining muscle health and function, and their dysregulation can lead to various muscle-related disorders such as muscular dystrophy, myopathies, and sarcopenia.

Smooth muscle, also known as involuntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and functions without conscious effort. These muscles are found in the walls of hollow organs such as the stomach, intestines, bladder, and blood vessels, as well as in the eyes, skin, and other areas of the body.

Smooth muscle fibers are shorter and narrower than skeletal muscle fibers and do not have striations or sarcomeres, which give skeletal muscle its striped appearance. Smooth muscle is controlled by the autonomic nervous system through the release of neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine and norepinephrine, which bind to receptors on the smooth muscle cells and cause them to contract or relax.

Smooth muscle plays an important role in many physiological processes, including digestion, circulation, respiration, and elimination. It can also contribute to various medical conditions, such as hypertension, gastrointestinal disorders, and genitourinary dysfunction, when it becomes overactive or underactive.

Skeletal muscle, also known as striated or voluntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is attached to bones by tendons or aponeuroses and functions to produce movements and support the posture of the body. It is composed of long, multinucleated fibers that are arranged in parallel bundles and are characterized by alternating light and dark bands, giving them a striped appearance under a microscope. Skeletal muscle is under voluntary control, meaning that it is consciously activated through signals from the nervous system. It is responsible for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and lifting objects.

Skeletal muscle fibers, also known as striated muscle fibers, are the type of muscle cells that make up skeletal muscles, which are responsible for voluntary movements of the body. These muscle fibers are long, cylindrical, and multinucleated, meaning they contain multiple nuclei. They are surrounded by a connective tissue layer called the endomysium, and many fibers are bundled together into fascicles, which are then surrounded by another layer of connective tissue called the perimysium.

Skeletal muscle fibers are composed of myofibrils, which are long, thread-like structures that run the length of the fiber. Myofibrils contain repeating units called sarcomeres, which are responsible for the striated appearance of skeletal muscle fibers. Sarcomeres are composed of thick and thin filaments, which slide past each other during muscle contraction to shorten the sarcomere and generate force.

Skeletal muscle fibers can be further classified into two main types based on their contractile properties: slow-twitch (type I) and fast-twitch (type II). Slow-twitch fibers have a high endurance capacity and are used for sustained, low-intensity activities such as maintaining posture. Fast-twitch fibers, on the other hand, have a higher contractile speed and force generation capacity but fatigue more quickly and are used for powerful, explosive movements.

A smooth muscle within the vascular system refers to the involuntary, innervated muscle that is found in the walls of blood vessels. These muscles are responsible for controlling the diameter of the blood vessels, which in turn regulates blood flow and blood pressure. They are called "smooth" muscles because their individual muscle cells do not have the striations, or cross-striped patterns, that are observed in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. Smooth muscle in the vascular system is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and by hormones, and can contract or relax slowly over a period of time.

Muscle development, also known as muscle hypertrophy, refers to the increase in size and mass of the muscles through a process called myofiber growth. This is primarily achieved through resistance or strength training exercises that cause micro-tears in the muscle fibers, leading to an inflammatory response and the release of hormones that promote muscle growth. As the muscles repair themselves, they become larger and stronger than before. Proper nutrition, including adequate protein intake, and rest are also essential components of muscle development.

It is important to note that while muscle development can lead to an increase in strength and muscular endurance, it does not necessarily result in improved athletic performance or overall fitness. A well-rounded exercise program that includes cardiovascular activity, flexibility training, and resistance exercises is recommended for optimal health and fitness outcomes.

Muscle contraction is the physiological process in which muscle fibers shorten and generate force, leading to movement or stability of a body part. This process involves the sliding filament theory where thick and thin filaments within the sarcomeres (the functional units of muscles) slide past each other, facilitated by the interaction between myosin heads and actin filaments. The energy required for this action is provided by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Muscle contractions can be voluntary or involuntary, and they play a crucial role in various bodily functions such as locomotion, circulation, respiration, and posture maintenance.

Muscle fatigue is a condition characterized by a reduction in the ability of a muscle to generate force or power, typically after prolonged or strenuous exercise. It is often accompanied by sensations of tiredness, weakness, and discomfort in the affected muscle(s). The underlying mechanisms of muscle fatigue are complex and involve both peripheral factors (such as changes in muscle metabolism, ion handling, and neuromuscular transmission) and central factors (such as changes in the nervous system's ability to activate muscles). Muscle fatigue can also occur as a result of various medical conditions or medications that impair muscle function.

Fast-twitch muscle fibers, also known as type II fibers, are a type of skeletal muscle fiber that are characterized by their rapid contraction and relaxation rates. These fibers have a larger diameter and contain a higher concentration of glycogen, which serves as a quick source of energy for muscle contractions. Fast-twitch fibers are further divided into two subcategories: type IIa and type IIb (or type IIx). Type IIa fibers have a moderate amount of mitochondria and can utilize both aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways, making them fatigue-resistant. Type IIb fibers, on the other hand, have fewer mitochondria and primarily use anaerobic metabolism, leading to faster fatigue. Fast-twitch fibers are typically used in activities that require quick, powerful movements such as sprinting or weightlifting.

Muscle denervation is a medical term that refers to the loss of nerve supply to a muscle or group of muscles. This can occur due to various reasons, such as injury to the nerves, nerve compression, or certain medical conditions like neuromuscular disorders. When the nerve supply to the muscle is interrupted, it can lead to muscle weakness, atrophy (wasting), and ultimately, paralysis.

In denervation, the communication between the nervous system and the muscle is disrupted, which means that the muscle no longer receives signals from the brain to contract and move. Over time, this can result in significant muscle wasting and disability, depending on the severity and extent of the denervation.

Denervation may be treated with various therapies, including physical therapy, medication, or surgical intervention, such as nerve grafting or muscle transfers, to restore function and prevent further muscle wasting. The specific treatment approach will depend on the underlying cause and severity of the denervation.

Slow-twitch muscle fibers, also known as type I muscle fibers, are specialized skeletal muscle cells that contract relatively slowly and generate less force than fast-twitch fibers. However, they can maintain contraction for longer periods of time and have a higher resistance to fatigue. These fibers primarily use oxygen and aerobic metabolism to produce energy, making them highly efficient during prolonged, lower-intensity activities such as long-distance running or cycling. Slow-twitch muscle fibers also have an abundant blood supply, which allows for efficient delivery of oxygen and removal of waste products.

Smooth muscle myocytes are specialized cells that make up the contractile portion of non-striated, or smooth, muscles. These muscles are found in various organs and structures throughout the body, including the walls of blood vessels, the digestive system, the respiratory system, and the reproductive system.

Smooth muscle myocytes are smaller than their striated counterparts (skeletal and cardiac muscle cells) and have a single nucleus. They lack the distinctive banding pattern seen in striated muscles and instead have a uniform appearance of actin and myosin filaments. Smooth muscle myocytes are controlled by the autonomic nervous system, which allows them to contract and relax involuntarily.

These cells play an essential role in many physiological processes, such as regulating blood flow, moving food through the digestive tract, and facilitating childbirth. They can also contribute to various pathological conditions, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, and gastrointestinal disorders.

Mitochondria in muscle, also known as the "powerhouses" of the cell, are organelles that play a crucial role in generating energy for muscle cells through a process called cellular respiration. They convert the chemical energy found in glucose and oxygen into ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the main source of energy used by cells.

Muscle cells contain a high number of mitochondria due to their high energy demands for muscle contraction and relaxation. The number and size of mitochondria in muscle fibers can vary depending on the type of muscle fiber, with slow-twitch, aerobic fibers having more numerous and larger mitochondria than fast-twitch, anaerobic fibers.

Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to various muscle disorders, including mitochondrial myopathies, which are characterized by muscle weakness, exercise intolerance, and other symptoms related to impaired energy production in the muscle cells.

Pancreatic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the pancreas that can be benign or malignant. The pancreas is a gland located behind the stomach that produces hormones and digestive enzymes. Pancreatic neoplasms can interfere with the normal functioning of the pancreas, leading to various health complications.

Benign pancreatic neoplasms are non-cancerous growths that do not spread to other parts of the body. They are usually removed through surgery to prevent any potential complications, such as blocking the bile duct or causing pain.

Malignant pancreatic neoplasms, also known as pancreatic cancer, are cancerous growths that can invade and destroy surrounding tissues and organs. They can also spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body, such as the liver, lungs, or bones. Pancreatic cancer is often aggressive and difficult to treat, with a poor prognosis.

There are several types of pancreatic neoplasms, including adenocarcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors, solid pseudopapillary neoplasms, and cystic neoplasms. The specific type of neoplasm is determined through various diagnostic tests, such as imaging studies, biopsies, and blood tests. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and location of the neoplasm, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.

Neck muscles, also known as cervical muscles, are a group of muscles that provide movement, support, and stability to the neck region. They are responsible for various functions such as flexion, extension, rotation, and lateral bending of the head and neck. The main neck muscles include:

1. Sternocleidomastoid: This muscle is located on either side of the neck and is responsible for rotating and flexing the head. It also helps in tilting the head to the same side.

2. Trapezius: This large, flat muscle covers the back of the neck, shoulders, and upper back. It is involved in movements like shrugging the shoulders, rotating and extending the head, and stabilizing the scapula (shoulder blade).

3. Scalenes: These three pairs of muscles are located on the side of the neck and assist in flexing, rotating, and laterally bending the neck. They also help with breathing by elevating the first two ribs during inspiration.

4. Suboccipitals: These four small muscles are located at the base of the skull and are responsible for fine movements of the head, such as tilting and rotating.

5. Longus Colli and Longus Capitis: These muscles are deep neck flexors that help with flexing the head and neck forward.

6. Splenius Capitis and Splenius Cervicis: These muscles are located at the back of the neck and assist in extending, rotating, and laterally bending the head and neck.

7. Levator Scapulae: This muscle is located at the side and back of the neck, connecting the cervical vertebrae to the scapula. It helps with rotation, extension, and elevation of the head and scapula.

The oculomotor muscles are a group of extraocular muscles that control the movements of the eye. They include:

1. Superior rectus: This muscle is responsible for elevating the eye and helping with inward rotation (intorsion) when looking downwards.
2. Inferior rectus: It depresses the eye and helps with outward rotation (extorsion) when looking upwards.
3. Medial rectus: This muscle adducts, or moves, the eye towards the midline of the face.
4. Inferior oblique: The inferior oblique muscle intorts and elevates the eye.
5. Superior oblique: It extorts and depresses the eye.

These muscles work together to allow for smooth and precise movements of the eyes, enabling tasks such as tracking moving objects, reading, and maintaining visual fixation on a single point in space.

Striated muscle, also known as skeletal or voluntary muscle, is a type of muscle tissue that is characterized by the presence of distinct light and dark bands, or striations, when viewed under a microscope. These striations correspond to the arrangement of sarcomeres, which are the functional units of muscle fibers.

Striated muscle is under voluntary control, meaning that it is consciously activated by signals from the nervous system. It is attached to bones via tendons and is responsible for producing movements of the body. Striated muscle fibers are multinucleated, meaning that they contain many nuclei, and are composed of numerous myofibrils, which are rope-like structures that run the length of the fiber.

The myofibrils are composed of thick and thin filaments that slide past each other to cause muscle contraction. The thick filaments are made up of the protein myosin, while the thin filaments are composed of actin, tropomyosin, and troponin. When a nerve impulse arrives at the muscle fiber, it triggers the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which bind to troponin and cause a conformational change that exposes the binding sites on actin for myosin. The myosin heads then bind to the actin filaments and pull them towards the center of the sarcomere, causing the muscle fiber to shorten and contract.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that serve no physiological function. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms are aggressive, invasive, and can metastasize to distant sites.

Neoplasms occur when there is a dysregulation in the normal process of cell division and differentiation, leading to uncontrolled growth and accumulation of cells. This can result from genetic mutations or other factors such as viral infections, environmental exposures, or hormonal imbalances.

Neoplasms can develop in any organ or tissue of the body and can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and type. Treatment options for neoplasms include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, among others.

Muscle spindles are specialized sensory organs found within the muscle belly, which primarily function as proprioceptors, providing information about the length and rate of change in muscle length. They consist of small, encapsulated bundles of intrafusal muscle fibers that are interspersed among the extrafusal muscle fibers (the ones responsible for force generation).

Muscle spindles have two types of sensory receptors called primary and secondary endings. Primary endings are located near the equatorial region of the intrafusal fiber, while secondary endings are situated more distally. These endings detect changes in muscle length and transmit this information to the central nervous system (CNS) through afferent nerve fibers.

The activation of muscle spindles plays a crucial role in reflexive responses, such as the stretch reflex (myotatic reflex), which helps maintain muscle tone and joint stability. Additionally, they contribute to our sense of body position and movement awareness, known as kinesthesia.

Muscle relaxation, in a medical context, refers to the process of reducing tension and promoting relaxation in the skeletal muscles. This can be achieved through various techniques, including progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), where individuals consciously tense and then release specific muscle groups in a systematic manner.

PMR has been shown to help reduce anxiety, stress, and muscle tightness, and improve overall well-being. It is often used as a complementary therapy in conjunction with other treatments for conditions such as chronic pain, headaches, and insomnia.

Additionally, muscle relaxation can also be facilitated through pharmacological interventions, such as the use of muscle relaxant medications. These drugs work by inhibiting the transmission of signals between nerves and muscles, leading to a reduction in muscle tone and spasticity. They are commonly used to treat conditions such as multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, and spinal cord injuries.

Respiratory muscles are a group of muscles involved in the process of breathing. They include the diaphragm, intercostal muscles (located between the ribs), scalene muscles (located in the neck), and abdominal muscles. These muscles work together to allow the chest cavity to expand or contract, which draws air into or pushes it out of the lungs. The diaphragm is the primary muscle responsible for breathing, contracting to increase the volume of the chest cavity and draw air into the lungs during inhalation. The intercostal muscles help to further expand the ribcage, while the abdominal muscles assist in exhaling by compressing the abdomen and pushing up on the diaphragm.

Muscle weakness is a condition in which muscles cannot develop the expected level of physical force or power. This results in reduced muscle function and can be caused by various factors, including nerve damage, muscle diseases, or hormonal imbalances. Muscle weakness may manifest as difficulty lifting objects, maintaining posture, or performing daily activities. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment of muscle weakness.

Papillary muscles are specialized muscle structures located in the heart, specifically in the ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). They are attached to the tricuspid and mitral valves' leaflets via tendinous cords, also known as chordae tendineae. The main function of papillary muscles is to prevent the backflow of blood during contraction by providing tension to the valve leaflets through these tendinous cords.

There are two sets of papillary muscles in the heart:

1. Anterior and posterior papillary muscles in the left ventricle, which are attached to the mitral (bicuspid) valve.
2. Three smaller papillary muscles in the right ventricle, which are attached to the tricuspid valve.

These muscle structures play a crucial role in maintaining proper blood flow through the heart and ensuring efficient cardiac function.

Neoplasms: Neoplasms refer to abnormal growths of tissue that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They occur when the normal control mechanisms that regulate cell growth and division are disrupted, leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation.

Cystic Neoplasms: Cystic neoplasms are tumors that contain fluid-filled sacs or cysts. These tumors can be benign or malignant and can occur in various organs of the body, including the pancreas, ovary, and liver.

Mucinous Neoplasms: Mucinous neoplasms are a type of cystic neoplasm that is characterized by the production of mucin, a gel-like substance produced by certain types of cells. These tumors can occur in various organs, including the ovary, pancreas, and colon. Mucinous neoplasms can be benign or malignant, and malignant forms are often aggressive and have a poor prognosis.

Serous Neoplasms: Serous neoplasms are another type of cystic neoplasm that is characterized by the production of serous fluid, which is a thin, watery fluid. These tumors commonly occur in the ovary and can be benign or malignant. Malignant serous neoplasms are often aggressive and have a poor prognosis.

In summary, neoplasms refer to abnormal tissue growths that can be benign or malignant. Cystic neoplasms contain fluid-filled sacs and can occur in various organs of the body. Mucinous neoplasms produce a gel-like substance called mucin and can also occur in various organs, while serous neoplasms produce thin, watery fluid and commonly occur in the ovary. Both mucinous and serous neoplasms can be benign or malignant, with malignant forms often being aggressive and having a poor prognosis.

The abdominal muscles, also known as the abdominals or abs, are a group of muscles in the anterior (front) wall of the abdominopelvic cavity. They play a crucial role in maintaining posture, supporting the trunk, and facilitating movement of the torso. The main abdominal muscles include:

1. Rectus Abdominis: These are the pair of long, flat muscles that run vertically along the middle of the anterior abdominal wall. They are often referred to as the "six-pack" muscles due to their visible, segmented appearance in well-trained individuals. The primary function of the rectus abdominis is to flex the spine, allowing for actions such as sitting up from a lying down position or performing a crunch exercise.

2. External Obliques: These are the largest and most superficial of the oblique muscles, located on the lateral (side) aspects of the abdominal wall. They run diagonally downward and forward from the lower ribs to the iliac crest (the upper part of the pelvis) and the pubic tubercle (a bony prominence at the front of the pelvis). The external obliques help rotate and flex the trunk, as well as assist in side-bending and exhalation.

3. Internal Obliques: These muscles lie deep to the external obliques and run diagonally downward and backward from the lower ribs to the iliac crest, pubic tubercle, and linea alba (the strong band of connective tissue that runs vertically along the midline of the abdomen). The internal obliques help rotate and flex the trunk, as well as assist in forced exhalation and increasing intra-abdominal pressure during actions such as coughing or lifting heavy objects.

4. Transversus Abdominis: This is the deepest of the abdominal muscles, located inner to both the internal obliques and the rectus sheath (a strong, fibrous covering that surrounds the rectus abdominis). The transversus abdominis runs horizontally around the abdomen, attaching to the lower six ribs, the thoracolumbar fascia (a broad sheet of connective tissue spanning from the lower back to the pelvis), and the pubic crest (the front part of the pelvic bone). The transversus abdominis helps maintain core stability by compressing the abdominal contents and increasing intra-abdominal pressure.

Together, these muscles form the muscular "corset" of the abdomen, providing support, stability, and flexibility to the trunk. They also play a crucial role in respiration, posture, and various movements such as bending, twisting, and lifting.

The Quadriceps muscle, also known as the Quadriceps Femoris, is a large muscle group located in the front of the thigh. It consists of four individual muscles - the Rectus Femoris, Vastus Lateralis, Vastus Intermedius, and Vastus Medialis. These muscles work together to extend the leg at the knee joint and flex the thigh at the hip joint. The Quadriceps muscle is crucial for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and kicking.

Muscle cells, also known as muscle fibers, are specialized cells that have the ability to contract and generate force, allowing for movement of the body and various internal organ functions. There are three main types of muscle tissue: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth.

Skeletal muscle cells are voluntary striated muscles attached to bones, enabling body movements and posture. They are multinucleated, with numerous nuclei located at the periphery of the cell. These cells are often called muscle fibers and can be quite large, extending the entire length of the muscle.

Cardiac muscle cells form the contractile tissue of the heart. They are also striated but have a single nucleus per cell and are interconnected by specialized junctions called intercalated discs, which help coordinate contraction throughout the heart.

Smooth muscle cells are found in various internal organs such as the digestive, respiratory, and urinary tracts, blood vessels, and the reproductive system. They are involuntary, non-striated muscles that control the internal organ functions. Smooth muscle cells have a single nucleus per cell and can either be spindle-shaped or stellate (star-shaped).

In summary, muscle cells are specialized contractile cells responsible for movement and various internal organ functions in the human body. They can be categorized into three types: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth, based on their structure, location, and function.

The masseter muscle is a strong chewing muscle in the jaw. It is a broad, thick, quadrilateral muscle that extends from the zygomatic arch (cheekbone) to the lower jaw (mandible). The masseter muscle has two distinct parts: the superficial part and the deep part.

The superficial part of the masseter muscle originates from the lower border of the zygomatic process of the maxilla and the anterior two-thirds of the inferior border of the zygomatic arch. The fibers of this part run almost vertically downward to insert on the lateral surface of the ramus of the mandible and the coronoid process.

The deep part of the masseter muscle originates from the deep surface of the zygomatic arch and inserts on the medial surface of the ramus of the mandible, blending with the temporalis tendon.

The primary function of the masseter muscle is to elevate the mandible, helping to close the mouth and clench the teeth together during mastication (chewing). It also plays a role in stabilizing the jaw during biting and speaking. The masseter muscle is one of the most powerful muscles in the human body relative to its size.

Facial muscles, also known as facial nerves or cranial nerve VII, are a group of muscles responsible for various expressions and movements of the face. These muscles include:

1. Orbicularis oculi: muscle that closes the eyelid and raises the upper eyelid
2. Corrugator supercilii: muscle that pulls the eyebrows down and inward, forming wrinkles on the forehead
3. Frontalis: muscle that raises the eyebrows and forms horizontal wrinkles on the forehead
4. Procerus: muscle that pulls the medial ends of the eyebrows downward, forming vertical wrinkles between the eyebrows
5. Nasalis: muscle that compresses or dilates the nostrils
6. Depressor septi: muscle that pulls down the tip of the nose
7. Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi: muscle that raises the upper lip and flares the nostrils
8. Levator labii superioris: muscle that raises the upper lip
9. Zygomaticus major: muscle that raises the corner of the mouth, producing a smile
10. Zygomaticus minor: muscle that raises the nasolabial fold and corner of the mouth
11. Risorius: muscle that pulls the angle of the mouth laterally, producing a smile
12. Depressor anguli oris: muscle that pulls down the angle of the mouth
13. Mentalis: muscle that raises the lower lip and forms wrinkles on the chin
14. Buccinator: muscle that retracts the cheek and helps with chewing
15. Platysma: muscle that depresses the corner of the mouth and wrinkles the skin of the neck.

These muscles are innervated by the facial nerve, which arises from the brainstem and exits the skull through the stylomastoid foramen. Damage to the facial nerve can result in facial paralysis or weakness on one or both sides of the face.

Masticatory muscles are a group of skeletal muscles responsible for the mastication (chewing) process in humans and other animals. They include:

1. Masseter muscle: This is the primary muscle for chewing and is located on the sides of the face, running from the lower jawbone (mandible) to the cheekbone (zygomatic arch). It helps close the mouth and elevate the mandible during chewing.

2. Temporalis muscle: This muscle is situated in the temporal region of the skull, covering the temple area. It assists in closing the jaw, retracting the mandible, and moving it sideways during chewing.

3. Medial pterygoid muscle: Located deep within the cheek, near the angle of the lower jaw, this muscle helps move the mandible forward and grind food during chewing. It also contributes to closing the mouth.

4. Lateral pterygoid muscle: Found inside the ramus (the vertical part) of the mandible, this muscle has two heads - superior and inferior. The superior head helps open the mouth by pulling the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) downwards, while the inferior head assists in moving the mandible sideways during chewing.

These muscles work together to enable efficient chewing and food breakdown, preparing it for swallowing and digestion.

The intercostal muscles are a group of muscles located between the ribs (intercostal spaces) in the thoracic region of the body. They play a crucial role in the process of breathing by assisting in the expansion and contraction of the chest wall during inspiration and expiration.

There are two sets of intercostal muscles: the external intercostals and the internal intercostals. The external intercostals run from the lower edge of one rib to the upper edge of the next lower rib, forming a layer that extends from the tubercles of the ribs down to the costochondral junctions (where the rib meets the cartilage). These muscles help elevate the ribcage during inspiration.

The internal intercostals are deeper and run in the opposite direction, originating at the lower edge of a rib and inserting into the upper edge of the next higher rib. They assist in lowering the ribcage during expiration.

Additionally, there is a third layer called the innermost intercostal muscles, which are even deeper than the internal intercostals and have similar functions. The intercostal membranes connect the ends of the ribs and complete the muscle layers between the ribs. Together, these muscles help maintain the structural integrity of the chest wall and contribute to respiratory function.

Electromyography (EMG) is a medical diagnostic procedure that measures the electrical activity of skeletal muscles during contraction and at rest. It involves inserting a thin needle electrode into the muscle to record the electrical signals generated by the muscle fibers. These signals are then displayed on an oscilloscope and may be heard through a speaker.

EMG can help diagnose various neuromuscular disorders, such as muscle weakness, numbness, or pain, and can distinguish between muscle and nerve disorders. It is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests, such as nerve conduction studies, to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the nervous system.

EMG is typically performed by a neurologist or a physiatrist, and the procedure may cause some discomfort or pain, although this is usually minimal. The results of an EMG can help guide treatment decisions and monitor the progression of neuromuscular conditions over time.

Muscular atrophy is a condition characterized by a decrease in the size and mass of muscles due to lack of use, disease, or injury. This occurs when there is a disruption in the balance between muscle protein synthesis and degradation, leading to a net loss of muscle proteins. There are two main types of muscular atrophy:

1. Disuse atrophy: This type of atrophy occurs when muscles are not used or are immobilized for an extended period, such as after an injury, surgery, or prolonged bed rest. In this case, the nerves that control the muscles may still be functioning properly, but the muscles themselves waste away due to lack of use.
2. Neurogenic atrophy: This type of atrophy is caused by damage to the nerves that supply the muscles, leading to muscle weakness and wasting. Conditions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), spinal cord injuries, and peripheral neuropathies can cause neurogenic atrophy.

In both cases, the affected muscles may become weak, shrink in size, and lose their tone and mass. Treatment for muscular atrophy depends on the underlying cause and may include physical therapy, exercise, and medication to manage symptoms and improve muscle strength and function.

Isometric contraction is a type of muscle activation where the muscle contracts without any change in the length of the muscle or movement at the joint. This occurs when the force generated by the muscle matches the external force opposing it, resulting in a balanced state with no visible movement. It is commonly experienced during activities such as holding a heavy object in static position or trying to push against an immovable object. Isometric contractions are important in maintaining posture and providing stability to joints.

Skin neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the skin that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They result from uncontrolled multiplication of skin cells, which can form various types of lesions. These growths may appear as lumps, bumps, sores, patches, or discolored areas on the skin.

Benign skin neoplasms include conditions such as moles, warts, and seborrheic keratoses, while malignant skin neoplasms are primarily classified into melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. These three types of cancerous skin growths are collectively known as non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). Melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous form of skin cancer, while NMSCs tend to be less invasive but more common.

It's essential to monitor any changes in existing skin lesions or the appearance of new growths and consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and treatment if needed.

Satellite cells in skeletal muscle are undifferentiated stem cells that are crucial for postnatal growth, maintenance, and repair of skeletal muscle. They are located between the basal lamina and plasma membrane of myofibers. In response to muscle damage or injury, satellite cells become activated, proliferate, differentiate into myoblasts, fuse with existing muscle fibers, and contribute to muscle regeneration. Satellite cells also play a role in maintaining muscle homeostasis by fusing with mature muscle fibers to replace damaged proteins and organelles. They are essential for the adaptation of skeletal muscle to various stimuli such as exercise or mechanical load.

Multiple primary neoplasms refer to the occurrence of more than one primary malignant tumor in an individual, where each tumor is unrelated to the other and originates from separate cells or organs. This differs from metastatic cancer, where a single malignancy spreads to multiple sites in the body. Multiple primary neoplasms can be synchronous (occurring at the same time) or metachronous (occurring at different times). The risk of developing multiple primary neoplasms increases with age and is associated with certain genetic predispositions, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices such as smoking and alcohol consumption.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

The pectoralis muscles are a group of chest muscles that are primarily involved in the movement and stabilization of the shoulder joint. They consist of two individual muscles: the pectoralis major and the pectoralis minor.

1. Pectoralis Major: This is the larger and more superficial of the two muscles, lying just under the skin and fat of the chest wall. It has two heads of origin - the clavicular head arises from the medial half of the clavicle (collarbone), while the sternocostal head arises from the anterior surface of the sternum (breastbone) and the upper six costal cartilages. Both heads insert onto the lateral lip of the bicipital groove of the humerus (upper arm bone). The primary actions of the pectoralis major include flexion, adduction, and internal rotation of the shoulder joint.

2. Pectoralis Minor: This is a smaller, triangular muscle that lies deep to the pectoralis major. It originates from the third, fourth, and fifth ribs near their costal cartilages and inserts onto the coracoid process of the scapula (shoulder blade). The main function of the pectoralis minor is to pull the scapula forward and downward, helping to stabilize the shoulder joint and aiding in deep inspiration during breathing.

Together, these muscles play essential roles in various movements such as pushing, pulling, and hugging, making them crucial for daily activities and athletic performance.

Muscular diseases, also known as myopathies, refer to a group of conditions that affect the functionality and health of muscle tissue. These diseases can be inherited or acquired and may result from inflammation, infection, injury, or degenerative processes. They can cause symptoms such as weakness, stiffness, cramping, spasms, wasting, and loss of muscle function.

Examples of muscular diseases include:

1. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD): A genetic disorder that results in progressive muscle weakness and degeneration due to a lack of dystrophin protein.
2. Myasthenia Gravis: An autoimmune disease that causes muscle weakness and fatigue, typically affecting the eyes and face, throat, and limbs.
3. Inclusion Body Myositis (IBM): A progressive muscle disorder characterized by muscle inflammation and wasting, typically affecting older adults.
4. Polymyositis: An inflammatory myopathy that causes muscle weakness and inflammation throughout the body.
5. Metabolic Myopathies: A group of inherited disorders that affect muscle metabolism, leading to exercise intolerance, muscle weakness, and other symptoms.
6. Muscular Dystonias: Involuntary muscle contractions and spasms that can cause abnormal postures or movements.

It is important to note that muscular diseases can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, mobility, and overall health. Proper diagnosis and treatment are crucial for managing symptoms and improving outcomes.

Kidney neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the kidney tissues that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can originate from various types of kidney cells, including the renal tubules, glomeruli, and the renal pelvis.

Malignant kidney neoplasms are also known as kidney cancers, with renal cell carcinoma being the most common type. Benign kidney neoplasms include renal adenomas, oncocytomas, and angiomyolipomas. While benign neoplasms are generally not life-threatening, they can still cause problems if they grow large enough to compromise kidney function or if they undergo malignant transformation.

Early detection and appropriate management of kidney neoplasms are crucial for improving patient outcomes and overall prognosis. Regular medical check-ups, imaging studies, and urinalysis can help in the early identification of these growths, allowing for timely intervention and treatment.

A "second primary neoplasm" is a distinct, new cancer or malignancy that develops in a person who has already had a previous cancer. It is not a recurrence or metastasis of the original tumor, but rather an independent cancer that arises in a different location or organ system. The development of second primary neoplasms can be influenced by various factors such as genetic predisposition, environmental exposures, and previous treatments like chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

It is important to note that the definition of "second primary neoplasm" may vary slightly depending on the specific source or context. In general medical usage, it refers to a new, separate cancer; however, in some research or clinical settings, there might be more precise criteria for defining and diagnosing second primary neoplasms.

The psoas muscles are a pair of muscles that are located in the lower lumbar region of the spine and run through the pelvis to attach to the femur (thigh bone). They are deep muscles, meaning they are located close to the body's core, and are surrounded by other muscles, bones, and organs.

The psoas muscles are composed of two separate muscles: the psoas major and the psoas minor. The psoas major is the larger of the two muscles and originates from the lumbar vertebrae (T12 to L5) and runs through the pelvis to attach to the lesser trochanter of the femur. The psoas minor, which is smaller and tends to be absent in some people, originates from the lower thoracic vertebrae (T12) and upper lumbar vertebrae (L1-L3) and runs down to attach to the iliac fascia and the pectineal line of the pubis.

The primary function of the psoas muscles is to flex the hip joint, which means they help to bring the knee towards the chest. They also play a role in stabilizing the lumbar spine and pelvis during movement. Tightness or weakness in the psoas muscles can contribute to lower back pain, postural issues, and difficulty with mobility and stability.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Myofibrils are the basic contractile units of muscle fibers, composed of highly organized arrays of thick and thin filaments. They are responsible for generating the force necessary for muscle contraction. The thick filaments are primarily made up of the protein myosin, while the thin filaments are mainly composed of actin. Myofibrils are surrounded by a membrane called the sarcolemma and are organized into repeating sections called sarcomeres, which are the functional units of muscle contraction.

The temporalis muscle is a fan-shaped muscle located in the lateral aspect of the head, in the temporal fossa region. It belongs to the group of muscles known as muscles of mastication, responsible for chewing movements. The temporalis muscle has its origin at the temporal fossa and inserts into the coronoid process and ramus of the mandible. Its main function is to retract the mandible and assist in closing the jaw.

A hindlimb, also known as a posterior limb, is one of the pair of extremities that are located distally to the trunk in tetrapods (four-legged vertebrates) and include mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. In humans and other primates, hindlimbs are equivalent to the lower limbs, which consist of the thigh, leg, foot, and toes.

The primary function of hindlimbs is locomotion, allowing animals to move from one place to another. However, they also play a role in other activities such as balance, support, and communication. In humans, the hindlimbs are responsible for weight-bearing, standing, walking, running, and jumping.

In medical terminology, the term "hindlimb" is not commonly used to describe human anatomy. Instead, healthcare professionals use terms like lower limbs or lower extremities to refer to the same region of the body. However, in comparative anatomy and veterinary medicine, the term hindlimb is still widely used to describe the corresponding structures in non-human animals.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Thyroid neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the thyroid gland, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can vary in size and may cause a noticeable lump or nodule in the neck. Thyroid neoplasms can also affect the function of the thyroid gland, leading to hormonal imbalances and related symptoms. The exact causes of thyroid neoplasms are not fully understood, but risk factors include radiation exposure, family history, and certain genetic conditions. It is important to note that most thyroid nodules are benign, but a proper medical evaluation is necessary to determine the nature of the growth and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Adenocarcinoma, mucinous is a type of cancer that begins in the glandular cells that line certain organs and produce mucin, a substance that lubricates and protects tissues. This type of cancer is characterized by the presence of abundant pools of mucin within the tumor. It typically develops in organs such as the colon, rectum, lungs, pancreas, and ovaries.

Mucinous adenocarcinomas tend to have a distinct appearance under the microscope, with large pools of mucin pushing aside the cancer cells. They may also have a different clinical behavior compared to other types of adenocarcinomas, such as being more aggressive or having a worse prognosis in some cases.

It is important to note that while a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma, mucinous can be serious, the prognosis and treatment options may vary depending on several factors, including the location of the cancer, the stage at which it was diagnosed, and the individual's overall health.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Electric stimulation, also known as electrical nerve stimulation or neuromuscular electrical stimulation, is a therapeutic treatment that uses low-voltage electrical currents to stimulate nerves and muscles. It is often used to help manage pain, promote healing, and improve muscle strength and mobility. The electrical impulses can be delivered through electrodes placed on the skin or directly implanted into the body.

In a medical context, electric stimulation may be used for various purposes such as:

1. Pain management: Electric stimulation can help to block pain signals from reaching the brain and promote the release of endorphins, which are natural painkillers produced by the body.
2. Muscle rehabilitation: Electric stimulation can help to strengthen muscles that have become weak due to injury, illness, or surgery. It can also help to prevent muscle atrophy and improve range of motion.
3. Wound healing: Electric stimulation can promote tissue growth and help to speed up the healing process in wounds, ulcers, and other types of injuries.
4. Urinary incontinence: Electric stimulation can be used to strengthen the muscles that control urination and reduce symptoms of urinary incontinence.
5. Migraine prevention: Electric stimulation can be used as a preventive treatment for migraines by applying electrical impulses to specific nerves in the head and neck.

It is important to note that electric stimulation should only be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as improper use can cause harm or discomfort.

Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) are a group of rare, chronic blood cancers that originate from the abnormal proliferation or growth of one or more types of blood-forming cells in the bone marrow. These disorders result in an overproduction of mature but dysfunctional blood cells, which can lead to serious complications such as blood clots, bleeding, and organ damage.

There are several subtypes of MPDs, including:

1. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML): A disorder characterized by the overproduction of mature granulocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the bone marrow, leading to an increased number of these cells in the blood. CML is caused by a genetic mutation that results in the formation of the BCR-ABL fusion protein, which drives uncontrolled cell growth and division.
2. Polycythemia Vera (PV): A disorder characterized by the overproduction of all three types of blood cells - red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets - in the bone marrow. This can lead to an increased risk of blood clots, bleeding, and enlargement of the spleen.
3. Essential Thrombocythemia (ET): A disorder characterized by the overproduction of platelets in the bone marrow, leading to an increased risk of blood clots and bleeding.
4. Primary Myelofibrosis (PMF): A disorder characterized by the replacement of normal bone marrow tissue with scar tissue, leading to impaired blood cell production and anemia, enlargement of the spleen, and increased risk of infections and bleeding.
5. Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia (CNL): A rare disorder characterized by the overproduction of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) in the bone marrow, leading to an increased number of these cells in the blood. CNL can lead to an increased risk of infections and organ damage.

MPDs are typically treated with a combination of therapies, including chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, and stem cell transplantation. The choice of treatment depends on several factors, including the subtype of MPD, the patient's age and overall health, and the presence of any comorbidities.

Myosin Heavy Chains are the large, essential components of myosin molecules, which are responsible for the molecular motility in muscle cells. These heavy chains have a molecular weight of approximately 200 kDa and form the motor domain of myosin, which binds to actin filaments and hydrolyzes ATP to generate force and movement during muscle contraction. There are several different types of myosin heavy chains, each with specific roles in various tissues and cellular functions. In skeletal and cardiac muscles, for example, myosin heavy chains have distinct isoforms that contribute to the contractile properties of these tissues.

Calcium is an essential mineral that is vital for various physiological processes in the human body. The medical definition of calcium is as follows:

Calcium (Ca2+) is a crucial cation and the most abundant mineral in the human body, with approximately 99% of it found in bones and teeth. It plays a vital role in maintaining structural integrity, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, hormonal secretion, blood coagulation, and enzyme activation.

Calcium homeostasis is tightly regulated through the interplay of several hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, and vitamin D. Dietary calcium intake, absorption, and excretion are also critical factors in maintaining optimal calcium levels in the body.

Hypocalcemia refers to low serum calcium levels, while hypercalcemia indicates high serum calcium levels. Both conditions can have detrimental effects on various organ systems and require medical intervention to correct.

Neoplasm Overeating Inactivity & lack of muscle strength. See Physical inactivity and Physical activity. Pancreatic cancer ... Temporary muscle weakness Brain fog Fatigue Anxiety Temporary thought disorder, or inability to concentrate Visual problems, ... "Contraction stimulates translocation of glucose transporter GLUT4 in skeletal muscle through a mechanism distinct from that of ...
Small intestine: small intestine neoplasms, smooth muscle tumors, sarcomas, polyps, lymphomas, inflammation, etc. Large ...
This neoplasm is usually located within the muscle cone, which is lateral to the optic nerve. It is not usually treated unless ... In the eye, it may cause disruption or damage to the extraocular muscles and optic nerve which may manifest as double vision, ... Visual impairment happens when the optic nerve is compressed or the extraocular muscles are surrounded. There are several known ... and the structural support from the smooth muscle is hindered, causing leakage into the surrounding tissue. It is the leakage ...
... sebaceous gland neoplasms MeSH C04.588.805.776 - sweat gland neoplasms MeSH C04.588.839.500 - muscle neoplasms MeSH C04.588. ... skull base neoplasms MeSH C04.588.149.828 - spinal neoplasms MeSH C04.588.180.260 - breast neoplasms, male MeSH C04.588.180.390 ... bile duct neoplasms MeSH C04.588. - common bile duct neoplasms MeSH C04.588.274.120.401 - gallbladder neoplasms ... femoral neoplasms MeSH C04.588.149.721 - skull neoplasms MeSH C04.588.149.721.450 - jaw neoplasms MeSH C04.588.149.721.450.583 ...
... a rare neoplasm arising from transformed skeletal muscle. Despite their microscopic similarities, LCLC-RP is not associated ... They also more frequently express "non-carcinomatous" markers typically associated with "dedifferentiated" neoplasms. ... rhabdoid neoplasms (i.e. those that do not contain cells containing other histological variants) Lung cancers are now ... neoplasms other than LCLC, adenocarcinomas with rhabdoid features have been reported to have worse prognoses than ...
Increased appetite Jaundice Leukopenia Lymphadenopathy Lymphopenia Malaise Micturition frequency Muscle spasms Neoplasm ... Hair loss Headache Influenza-like illness Insomnia Irritability Itchiness Joint aches and pains Muscle aches and pains Muscle ...
... gastrointestinal and malabsorption disorders muscle weakness bone pain Neonatal hypoglycemia Neoplasms Congenital diaphragmatic ... One of the most noted features of OGS is the increased risk of neoplasms in certain OGSs. SGBS in particular has been found to ...
... and maxillofacial neoplasms. However, no other signs are present except those involved in changes in occlusion intraorally such ... The most obvious muscle of mastication is the masseter muscle, since it is the most superficial and one of the strongest. The ... Finally, the muscle undergoes spasm with malignant hyperthermia as do other skeletal muscles, but this one is easily noted, ... The action of the muscle during bilateral contraction of the entire muscle is to elevate the mandible, raising the lower jaw. ...
"The association of Epstein-Barr virus with smooth-muscle tumors occurring after organ transplantation". N. Engl. J. Med. 332 (1 ... ICD-10 classifies neoplasms into four main groups: benign neoplasms, in situ neoplasms, malignant neoplasms, and neoplasms of ... The word neoplasm is from Ancient Greek νέος- neo 'new' and πλάσμα plasma 'formation, creation'. A neoplasm can be benign, ... The process that occurs to form or produce a neoplasm is called neoplasia. The growth of a neoplasm is uncoordinated with that ...
... a neoplasm on the mouth's hard palate), muscle atrophy, and distorted facial features. Other symptoms usually occur, different ... Additional symptoms included muscle atrophy in the legs and hands, deafness, cataracts, and a tissue mass covering the roof of ... described an adult male intellectually disabled patient who had calcified pinnae and a neoplasm of the palate. The patient also ... Collacott, R.A.; O'Malley, B.P.; Young, I.D. (September 1986). "The syndrome of mental handicap, cataracts, muscle wasting and ...
Proton therapy Enucleation of the eye - Removal of the eye, but the muscles and eyelids are left intact. An implant is inserted ... Eye neoplasms can affect all parts of the eye, and can be a benign tumor or a malignant tumor (cancer). Eye cancers can be ... Large deep orbital dermoid cysts can cause pressure effects on the muscles and optic nerve, leading to diplopia and loss of ... Removal of the iris plus the ciliary body muscle. Eyewall resection - Cutting into the eye to remove a tumor e.g. melanoma. ...
GISTs arise in the smooth muscle pacemaker interstitial cell of Cajal, or similar cells. They are defined as tumors whose ... Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. ... malignant tumor of smooth muscle) would be reclassified as GISTs on the basis of immunohistochemical staining. All GIST tumors ...
Intramuscular (into a muscle), e.g. many vaccines, antibiotics, and long-term psychoactive agents. Recreationally the ... colloquial term 'muscling' is used. Intraocular, into the eye, e.g., some medications for glaucoma or eye neoplasms. ...
Other thyroid malignancies include thyroid lymphoma, various types of thyroid sarcoma, smooth muscle tumors, teratoma, squamous ... Thyroid neoplasm is a neoplasm or tumor of the thyroid. It can be a benign tumor such as thyroid adenoma, or it can be a ... Thyroid neoplasm might be classified as benign or malignant.[citation needed] Thyroid adenoma is a benign neoplasm of the ... The first step in diagnosing a thyroid neoplasm is a physical exam of the neck area. If any abnormalities exist, a doctor needs ...
This damage can occur with a stroke, Bell palsy, or parotid salivary gland cancer (malignant neoplasm) because the facial nerve ... muscle Temporoparietalis muscle Procerus muscle Nasalis muscle Depressor septi nasi muscle Orbicularis oculi muscle Corrugator ... Orbicularis oris muscle Depressor anguli oris muscle Risorius Zygomaticus major muscle Zygomaticus minor muscle Levator labii ... These muscles also cause wrinkles at right angles to the muscles' action line. The facial muscles are supplied by the facial ...
2016-01-01), "Approach to Tracheobronchial Neoplasms", Specialty Imaging: Thoracic Neoplasms, Specialty Imaging, Philadelphia: ... The trachealis muscle is a sheet of smooth muscle in the trachea. The trachealis muscle lies posterior to the trachea and ... The trachealis muscle also supports a thin cartilage on the inside of the trachea. It is the only smooth muscle present in the ... Tracheomalacia may involve hypotonia of the trachealis muscle. The trachealis muscle may become stiffer during ageing, which ...
It can range from a diffuse inflammatory process to a more localized inflammation of muscle, lacrimal gland or orbital fat. Its ... Its diagnosis is of exclusion once neoplasm, primary infection and systemic disorders have been ruled out. Once diagnosed, it ... T2 weighted imaging with fat suppression will show iso- or slight hyperintensity compared to muscle. There is also decreased ... Idipathic myositis involving the extraocular muscles. Ophthalmol Rec.12:471-478, 1903 Busse O, Hochheim W. cited by Dunnington ...
... and/or the myocytes/myoblasts that differentiate into muscle cells. FMTs are a heterogeneous group of soft tissue neoplasms (i. ... they express smooth muscle marker proteins such as smooth muscle actins, desmin, and caldesmon. The World Health Organization ... Connective and soft tissue neoplasms, Benign neoplasms, Cancer). ... Fibroblastic and Myofibroblastic Neoplasms of the Head and Neck ... Clarke LE (October 2012). "Fibrous and fibrohistiocytic neoplasms: an update". Dermatologic Clinics. 30 (4): 643-56, vi. doi: ...
... benign neoplasms, in situ neoplasms, malignant neoplasms, and neoplasms of uncertain or unknown behavior. Malignant neoplasms ... Vaginal cancers arise from vaginal tissue, with vaginal sarcomas develop from bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels or ... A neoplasm is an abnormal growth of tissue that usually forms a tissue mass. Vaginal neoplasms may be solid, cystic or of mixed ... p. Neoplasm. ISBN 978-0781733908. "NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms - Neoplasm". National Cancer Institute. 2011-02-02. Retrieved ...
Abdominal neoplasms Aberrant subclavian artery Ablepharon macrostomia syndrome Abnormal systemic venous return Abruzzo-Erickson ... syndrome Absence of gluteal muscle Absence of tibia with polydactyly Absent corpus callosum cataract immunodeficiency Absent T ... X-linked Adrenal incidentaloma Adrenal insufficiency Adrenal macropolyadenomatosis Adrenal medulla neoplasm Adrenocortical ... Abdominal cystic lymphangioma Abdominal defects Abdominal musculature absent microphthalmia joint laxity Abdominal neoplasm / ...
Neoplasia, the formation of a neoplasm, can result in the expression of tumors and ultimately progress into cancers. The ... Rhabdomyosarcoma is a sarcoma composed of skeletal muscle cells; irregular growth in the primitive form of these skeletal ... These neoplastic cells yield positive results for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, and desmin stains; however, myoglobin, myoD1 ... Sweeney HL, Hammers DW (February 2018). "Muscle Contraction". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. 10 (2): a023200. doi: ...
Her in vitro studies in cellular neurobiology shed light on both nerve- muscle relationships and axon myelination. Margaret R. ... The first 15 years of years of her career were devoted to the determination of the cellular origins of neoplasms. She ... Murray's laboratory focused primarily on the in vitro cultivation of neuronal cells, with a particular focus on nerve- muscle ...
The incidence of mammary desmoid tumors is less than 0.2% of primary breast neoplasms. In Gardner's syndrome, the incidence ... Desmoid tumors arise most frequently from the aponeurosis of the rectus abdominal muscle of multiparous women. The extra- ... Baranov E, Hornick JL (March 2020). "Soft Tissue Special Issue: Fibroblastic and Myofibroblastic Neoplasms of the Head and Neck ... and desmoids of the breast may arise in the mammary gland or may occur as an extension of a lesion arising from the muscles of ...
An alternative hypothesis is an origin from the smooth muscle of the nipple. Leiomyoma may spontaneously occur in any muscle. ... Mesenchymal neoplasms of the gallbladder are rare and in particular leiomyomas of the gallbladder have been rarely reported, ... that are thought to arise from vascular smooth muscle Dartoic (or genital) leiomyomas originating in the dartos muscles of the ... A leiomyoma, also known as a fibroid, is a benign smooth muscle tumor that very rarely becomes cancer (0.1%). They can occur in ...
In humans, myoglobin is only found in the bloodstream after muscle injury. High concentrations of myoglobin in muscle cells ... Wick MR, Hornick JL (2011). "Immunohistology of Soft Tissue and Osseous Neoplasms". Diagnostic Immunohistochemistry. Elsevier. ... Myoglobin is found in Type I muscle, Type II A, and Type II B; although many texts consider myoglobin not to be found in smooth ... Myoglobin (symbol Mb or MB) is an iron- and oxygen-binding protein found in the cardiac and skeletal muscle tissue of ...
The resected size and shape can be controlled, en bloc resection is possible even in a large neoplasm, and neoplasms with ... is an advanced surgical procedure using endoscopy to remove gastrointestinal tumors that have not entered the muscle layer. ESD ... So this technique can be applied to the resection of complex neoplasms such as large neoplasms, ulcerative non-lifting ... especially for large or ulcerative neoplasms. Recently, the ESD technique is applied to esophageal or colorectal neoplasms in ...
A lineage relationship to other cell types has been proposed, including smooth muscle cells, neural cells, NG2 glia, muscle ... Hemangiopericytoma is a rare vascular neoplasm, or abnormal growth, that may either be benign or malignant. In its malignant ... Pericytes in the skeletal striated muscle are of two distinct populations, each with its own role. The first pericyte subtype ( ... Birbrair A, Zhang T, Wang ZM, Messi ML, Enikolopov GN, Mintz A, Delbono O (January 2013). "Skeletal muscle pericyte subtypes ...
There are four main groups of vaginal neoplasms: benign neoplasms, in situ neoplasms, malignant neoplasms, and neoplasms of ... muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue. Epithelial and mesenchymal tissue are the origin of vulvar ... Vulvar tumors are those neoplasms of the vulva. Vulvar and vaginal neoplasms make up a small percentage (3%) of female genital ... Malignant vulvar neoplasms makes up 6% of all reproductive organ cancer and 0.7% of the total cancers in women in the United ...
Alternative treatment methods include muscle transfer techniques, such as the gracilis free muscle transfer or static ... Often, since facial neoplasms have such an intimate relationship with the facial nerve, removing tumors in this region becomes ... While this will inevitably lead to facial paralysis, safe removal of a malignant neoplasm is vital for patient survival. After ... Common culprits are facial neuromas, congenital cholesteatomas, hemangiomas, acoustic neuromas, parotid gland neoplasms, or ...
The movement of the eye is controlled by six distinct extraocular muscles, a superior, an inferior, a medial and a lateral ... Injury to any one of these structures by infection, trauma or neoplasm can cause temporary or permanent visual dysfunction, and ... Orbita Medial wall of left orbit Dissection showing origins of right ocular muscles, and nerves entering by the superior ... extraocular muscles, cranial nerves II, III, IV, V, and VI, blood vessels, fat, the lacrimal gland with its sac and duct, the ...
Uterine smooth muscle tumors are neoplasms composed of smooth muscle; they range from benign leiomyomas to low-grade and high- ... Multiple diagnoses may be considered, including atypical smooth muscle neoplasm, low-grade smooth muscle neoplasm, and ... Uterine smooth muscle tumors are neoplasms composed of smooth muscle; they range from benign leiomyomas to low-grade and high- ... 13] Smooth muscle tumors have the opposite characteristics. However, mixed smooth muscle and stromal neoplasms have been ...
Neoplasm Overeating Inactivity & lack of muscle strength. See Physical inactivity and Physical activity. Pancreatic cancer ... Temporary muscle weakness Brain fog Fatigue Anxiety Temporary thought disorder, or inability to concentrate Visual problems, ... "Contraction stimulates translocation of glucose transporter GLUT4 in skeletal muscle through a mechanism distinct from that of ...
Orthopedics, Medical Oncology, Muscle Neoplasms, Medicine VI Simpósio Multiinstitucional de Ortopedia Oncologica. ... Urologic Neoplasms, Kidney, Urinary Bladder, Urinary Bladder Diseases, Urinary Bladder Neoplasms, Urinary Incontinence, ... Thyroid Neoplasms, Health, Medicine, Medical Oncology 10º Simpósio Internacional de Economa da Saúde : Economia da Saúde em ... Neoplasms, Medical Oncology, Oncology Nursing, Radiotherapy, Antineoplastic Protocols, Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy ...
Colonic Neoplasms / complications * Colonic Neoplasms / diet therapy* * Colonic Neoplasms / physiopathology * Dietary ... Tumour-bearing mice showed reduced carcass, muscle and fat mass compared with controls. EDL muscle performance and total daily ... muscle and fat mass (loss in mass 45, 52 and 65% of TB-con, respectively (P,0.02)) and improved muscle performance (loss of max ... Dietary supplementation with a specific combination of high protein, leucine, and fish oil improves muscle function and daily ...
... the diagnosis and treatment of salivary gland neoplasms remain com... ... Neoplasms that arise in the salivary glands are relatively rare, yet they represent a wide variety of both benign and malignant ... Branches of the facial nerve that innervate the posterior auricular muscle, posterior digastric muscle, and stylohyoid muscle ... Salivary gland neoplasms make up 6% of all head and neck tumors. [1] The incidence of salivary gland neoplasms as a whole is ...
Urogenital Neoplasms. * Urinary Bladder Diseases. * Urologic Diseases. ELIGIBILITY Inclusion Criteria:. * Has a diagnosis of ... A Phase 1/2a Pilot Study of Intravesical TSD-001 for Treatment of Low-Grade, Stage Ta, Non Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer. ... Brief Title: Proliposomal Intravesical Paclitaxel for Treatment of Low-Grade, Stage Ta, Non Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer. ...
Keywords : Lipoma.; Muscle neoplasms.; Temporal muscle.. · abstract in Portuguese · text in English · pdf in English ... Because of its invasives characteristics, this neoplasm may be mistaken as a liposarcoma. Although image exams help in the ...
Muscle Neoplasms 100% * Aged, 80 and over 80% * Urinary Bladder Neoplasms 62% ... Treatment Patterns and Overall Survival Outcomes of Octogenarians with Muscle Invasive Cancer of the Bladder: An Analysis of ...
Paresthesias, tetany, muscle spasm and, rarely, seizures may occur in hypocalcemia. EEG findings include theta and polymorphic ... Hypercalcemia is associated with renal failure, neoplasms, bone destruction, parathyroid hormone (PTH)-releasing tumors, and ... The effective stimulus for action myoclonus is thought to be feedback from muscle afferents, although it may be related to ... 49] Electromyographic (EMG) recordings of the forearm muscles correlated with frontocentral rhythmic activity on EEG. This ...
Cancers, Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder NMIBC Non Muscle Invasive Bladder Neoplasms Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer Non-Muscle- ... Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Neoplasms Entry term(s). Bladder Cancer, Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancers, Non-Muscle-Invasive ... Cancer, Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder. Cancers, Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder. NMIBC. Non Muscle Invasive Bladder Neoplasms. Non- ... Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Neoplasms - Preferred Concept UI. M000753433. Scope note. A urothelial carcinoma found in the ...
However, a subset of neoplasms and tumor-like lesions may exhibit prominent areas of T2 hypointensity relative to skeletal ... muscle. The hypointensity observed on T2-weighted MRI can be caused by a variety of substances, including evolving blood ... a subset of neoplasms and tumor-like lesions may exhibit prominent areas of T2 hypointensity relative to skeletal muscle. The ...
Smooth muscle neoplasms of the uterus. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 1997 Feb. 9(1):48-51. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Leiomyomas are smooth muscle tumors that form in the uterine wall. The development and growth of uterine fibroids are ...
Neoplasms can arise from fat, muscle, or connective tissue. Benign lesions such as lipoma, leiomyoma, or neurofibroma are a few ...
BACKGROUND Leiomyomas are benign neoplasms of the smooth muscle. When found in the pulmonary system, a rare occurrence, ...
Their occurrence and clinical and prognostic associations in patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are ... which is associated with a significant increase in the risk for adverse muscle effects; the dose of simvastatin must be limited ... Somatic CALR Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms with Nonmutated JAK2. N. Engl. J. Med. 2013, 369, 2391-2405. [Google ... myeloproliferative neoplasms; polypharmacy; drug interactions; survival; thrombosis; polypharmacy; potentially inappropriate ...
A benign neoplasm of muscle (usually smooth muscle) with glandular elements. It occurs most frequently in the uterus and ...
... a neoplasm on the mouths hard palate), muscle atrophy, and distorted facial features. Other symptoms usually occur, different ... Testicular NeoplasmsTesticular DiseasesDysgerminomaSeminomaPancreatic NeoplasmsNeoplasmsNeoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous ... Testicular NeoplasmsTesticular DiseasesDysgerminomaSeminomaPancreatic NeoplasmsNeoplasmsNeoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous ... Mucinous Neoplasms: Mucinous neoplasms are a type of cystic neoplasm that is characterized by the production of mucin, a gel- ...
Be Balanced Multiple Myeloma Muscle Ache Myasthenia Gravis Myelodysplastic Syndrome Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Myocardial ... Visual Field Test Eye Muscle (Strabismus or Squint) Surgery Eye Muscle Surgery: Post-Surgery Instructions Eyelid Surgery Faecal ...
All MeSH CategoriesDiseases CategoryNeoplasmsNeoplasms by Histologic TypeNeoplasms, Connective and Soft TissueNeoplasms, Muscle ... All MeSH CategoriesDiseases CategoryNeoplasmsNeoplasms by Histologic TypeNeoplasms, Connective and Soft TissueSarcoma ... A sarcoma containing large spindle cells of smooth muscle. Although it rarely occurs in soft tissue, it is common in the ...
... studies suggest that the spindle-shaped cells constituting this neoplasm have a combined fibroblastic and smooth muscle typing ... It accounts for 11% of all odontogenic neoplasms. It is a slow-growing, persistent, and locally aggressive neoplasm of ... the expansion and perforation of bone are all in support of the behavior of a neoplasm including a neoplasm of tooth origin ... It is an uncommon, benign, but locally aggressive neoplasm. Nearly all cases so far have been described in the jaw bones. ...
... the diagnosis and treatment of salivary gland neoplasms remain com... ... Neoplasms that arise in the salivary glands are relatively rare, yet they represent a wide variety of both benign and malignant ... Branches of the facial nerve that innervate the posterior auricular muscle, posterior digastric muscle, and stylohyoid muscle ... Salivary gland neoplasms make up 6% of all head and neck tumors. [1] The incidence of salivary gland neoplasms as a whole is ...
Pituitary adenomas can also cause a number of visual field defects due to compression of the optic chiasm or extraocular muscle ... Syndromes of other functioning pancreatic and gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms can be found on Neuroendocrine ...
Dive into the research topics of Macrophages potentiate STAT3 signaling in skeletal muscles and regulate pancreatic cancer ... Macrophages potentiate STAT3 signaling in skeletal muscles and regulate pancreatic cancer cachexia. ...
Unveil the complexities of Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms with our in-depth analysis, treatment strategies, ... Gentle Exercise: Light exercises such as walking, swimming, or yoga can help maintain muscle tone, improve mood, and boost ... Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms: Key Terms Explained. Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms (GEP-NENs ... Diagnosing Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms. Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs) are a ...
It origins from the smooth muscle bundles and therefore it can be found at any organ with this kind of tissue. In the urinary ... of this type of neoplasms and corresponds to 0,04-0,5% of the bladder lesions in general, with no more than 300 cases reported ... It origins from the smooth muscle bundles and at the urinary tract the most common localizations are kidney and bladder. ... Blum`s irritative- inflamatory theory, which suggest the presence of a chronic inflamatory stimule over the smoth muscle. ...
It may be due to weak muscle of the heart that cannot pump normal amount of blood to the body or it may due to the heart pumps ... These are mostly benign or malignant neoplasms; they are primary or metastatic primary cardiac tumours are rare in the ... Cardiac Tumours arise primarily in the inner lining, muscle layer or the surrounding pericardium of the heart. ...
Health Condition 1: M629- Disorder of muscle, unspecified Health Condition 2: C506- Malignant neoplasm of axillary tail of ... Malignant neoplasm of central portion of breast Health Condition 5: C503- Malignant neoplasm of lower-innerquadrant of breast ... Malignant neoplasm of nipple and areola Health Condition 8: C502- Malignant neoplasm of upper-innerquadrant of breast Health ... breast Health Condition 3: C509- Malignant neoplasm of breast of unspecified site Health Condition 4: C501- ...
Most cystic lesions of the pancreas are inflammatory pseudocysts, but approximately 10% are cystic neoplasms.[2] We report a ... In contrast, abdominal enterogenous cysts usually contain gastrointestinal epithelium and smooth muscle. ... a bilayered smooth muscle wall, and a serosal surface were present in the cyst wall. ... case of enterogenous cyst of probable foregut origin that appeared clinically as a pancreatic cystic neoplasm. ...
Muscle Neoplasms. *Muscle Rigidity. *Muscle Spasticity. *Muscle Weakness. *Muscular Disorders, Atrophic. *Musculoskeletal Pain ...
Benign along with malignant malignancies may seem since acne nodules inside gingival muscle. Furthermore, cancer neoplasms, ... Cancer neoplasms were more established in elderly guys, appeared with more substantial size, along with a period of complaint ... Furthermore, cancerous neoplasms, specially squamous mobile or portable carcinoma, should be thought about in the differential ... Most cases (75.3%) had been malignant neoplasms. Nodules (Forty six.2%) as well as stomach problems (37.9%) have been the ...
  • A benign neoplasm of muscle (usually smooth muscle) with glandular elements. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Renal angiomyolipoma is a rare benign neoplasm composed of varying amounts of mature adipose tissue, smooth muscle, and blood vessels. (indianradiology.com)
  • Most series report that about 80% of parotid neoplasms are benign, with the relative proportion of malignancy increasing in the smaller glands. (medscape.com)
  • The most common tumor of the parotid gland is the pleomorphic adenoma , which represents about 60% of all parotid neoplasms, as seen in the table below. (medscape.com)
  • Common parotid neoplasms. (medscape.com)
  • [ 1 ] The incidence of salivary gland neoplasms as a whole is approximately 5.5 cases per 100,000 individuals in the United States, with malignant neoplasms accounting for 0.9 cases per 100,000. (medscape.com)
  • Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms. (lookformedical.com)
  • 1986. A retrospective study on malignant neoplasms of bladder, lung, and liver in Blackfoot disease endemic area in Taiwan. (cdc.gov)
  • Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs) are a group of rare tumors that originate in the neuroendocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. (zenonco.io)
  • This SEO-optimized content provides a brief overview of Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms, aiming to inform readers about the nature, diagnosis, and treatment of these rare tumors. (zenonco.io)
  • In summary, understanding these terms can significantly help individuals affected by Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms (GEP-NENs) to better comprehend their condition and the available treatments. (zenonco.io)
  • The majority of uterine smooth muscle tumors occur in the corpus, but the cervix, vaginal canal, broad ligament, and ovaries may also be involved. (medscape.com)
  • Although researchers have learned much from the study of this diverse group of tumors over the years, the diagnosis and treatment of salivary gland neoplasms remain complex and challenging problems for the head and neck surgeon. (medscape.com)
  • Salivary gland neoplasms make up 6% of all head and neck tumors. (medscape.com)
  • [ 4 , 5 ] ) Benign neoplasms occur more frequently in women than in men, but malignant tumors are distributed equally between the sexes. (medscape.com)
  • Almost half of all submandibular gland neoplasms and most sublingual and minor salivary gland tumors are malignant. (medscape.com)
  • Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms. (lookformedical.com)
  • [ 2 ] We report a case of enterogenous cyst of probable foregut origin that appeared clinically as a pancreatic cystic neoplasm. (medscape.com)
  • The etiology of salivary gland neoplasms is not fully understood. (medscape.com)
  • Recent evidence suggests that the bicellular stem cell theory is the more probable etiology of salivary gland neoplasms. (medscape.com)
  • Corticosteroid muscle and joint injections can be used as part of successful treatment in the recovery of sports injuries and surgeries and the long-term management of patients with chronic inflammatory diseases. (privatelondonrheumatologist.com)
  • In an attempt to decrease donor-site morbidity for rectus abdominis muscle harvest during free tissue transfer, we developed a technique of minimally invasive harvest. (omeka.net)
  • After the cadaver dissections were performed, the technique was used in a 30-year-old woman to harvest the left rectus abdominis muscle for free tissue transfer to a lower extremity defect. (omeka.net)
  • Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) are the most common type of soft tissue neoplasm in children. (etsu.edu)
  • It origins from the smooth muscle bundles and therefore it can be found at any organ with this kind of tissue. (isciii.es)
  • Most cystic lesions of the pancreas are inflammatory pseudocysts, but approximately 10% are cystic neoplasms. (medscape.com)
  • The bladder muscle is not involved. (bvsalud.org)
  • It origins from the smooth muscle bundles and at the urinary tract the most common localizations are kidney and bladder. (isciii.es)
  • Temporal muscle. (bvsalud.org)
  • Gubbels SP, Hartl RB, Crowson MG, Jenkns HA, Marsh M. Temporal bone neoplasms and lateral cranial base surgery. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When they degenerate, leiomyomata may assume a red discoloration, called carneous degeneration (the nodule looks like skeletal muscle). (medscape.com)
  • However, a subset of neoplasms and tumor-like lesions may exhibit prominent areas of T2 hypointensity relative to skeletal muscle. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • They typically arise from primitive skeletal muscle and are usually observed in either the head and neck or the genitourinary region. (etsu.edu)
  • In this case report the patient was diagnosed with pulmonary embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, which characteristically has cells that show variable degrees of skeletal muscle differentiation with spindled morphology and differentiated rhabdomyoblasts. (etsu.edu)
  • CT-guided biopsy on 8/2/2021 revealed a high-grade neoplasm with neuroendocrine features, and frequent mitotic figures, and tumor necrosis. (etsu.edu)
  • A sarcoma containing large spindle cells of smooth muscle. (nih.gov)
  • As a common malignant otorhinolaryngologic neoplasm, laryngeal cancer accounts for 90% of malignancies occurring in head and neck region [ 1 , 2 ]. (researchsquare.com)
  • In contrast, abdominal enterogenous cysts usually contain gastrointestinal epithelium and smooth muscle. (medscape.com)
  • [ 1 ] The incidence of salivary gland neoplasms as a whole is approximately 1.5 cases per 100,000 individuals in the United States. (medscape.com)
  • The incidence of hemorrhage in metastatic neoplasms is highest in melanoma, hypernephroma, bronchogenic carcinoma, and choriocarcinoma. (indianradiology.com)
  • Fibroblasts activated in the tumor microenvironment, named as myofibroblasts, peritumoral fibroblasts or cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), has been found typically expressing α-SMA and sharing some characteristics of fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells [ 7 ]. (researchsquare.com)
  • El leiomioma es el tumor benigno no epitelial más frecuente en la vejiga. (isciii.es)
  • In a murine cancer cachectic model, the effects of dietary supplementation with a specific combination of high protein, leucine and fish oil on weight loss, muscle function and physical activity were investigated. (nih.gov)
  • A benign smooth muscle neoplasm arising from the body of the uterus. (pgscatalog.org)
  • The case is unique, differing from previous reports in that ciliated respiratory epithelium, transitional epithelium, gastric mucosa, a bilayered smooth muscle wall, and a serosal surface were present in the cyst wall. (medscape.com)
  • Because of its invasives characteristics, this neoplasm may be mistaken as a liposarcoma. (bvsalud.org)
  • Contrasting information was derived through a literature review by Louredo et al, which indicated that in pediatric patients, most salivary gland neoplasms (75.4%) are malignant. (medscape.com)
  • Salivary gland neoplasms occurred with slightly greater frequency in girls (57.4% of patients) than in boys. (medscape.com)
  • Neoplasms that arise in the salivary glands are relatively rare, yet they represent a wide variety of both benign and malignant histologic subtypes as seen in the image below. (medscape.com)
  • Among salivary gland neoplasms, 80% arise in the parotid glands, 10-15% arise in the submandibular glands, and the remainder arise in the sublingual and minor salivary glands. (medscape.com)
  • Some common salivary gland neoplasms are listed in the table below. (medscape.com)
  • Common salivary gland neoplasms. (medscape.com)
  • Common submandibular neoplasms. (medscape.com)
  • Of such, squamous cell carcinoma is the most common neoplasm accounting for more than 95% of all the laryngeal carcinoma [ 1 , 3 ]. (researchsquare.com)
  • Normally, the pressure in the pulmonary arteries is low, allowing the right side of the heart to be less muscular than the left side (because relatively little muscle and effort are needed to push the blood through the lungs via the pulmonary arteries). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Salivary gland neoplasms are rare in children. (medscape.com)
  • An additional 3 cm incision was used to remove the muscle from the abdominal cavity. (omeka.net)
  • In children, 35% of salivary gland neoplasms are malignant. (medscape.com)
  • A malignant ovarian neoplasm, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. (lookformedical.com)
  • Robotic harvest of the rectus abdominis muscle: a preclinical investigation and case report. (omeka.net)
  • EDL muscle performance and total daily activity were impaired in the tumour-bearing mice. (nih.gov)
  • larger OKCs tend to expand bone, but mildly-obvious clinical expansion (which is the case in this patient) should be viewed with suspicion for a neoplasm. (washington.edu)
  • The age of the patient, the expansion and perforation of bone are all in support of the behavior of a neoplasm including a neoplasm of tooth origin such as an odontogenic myxoma. (washington.edu)