Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).
Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Precursor cells destined to differentiate into smooth muscle myocytes (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.
The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.
A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.
Precursor cells destined to differentiate into cardiac myocytes (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC).
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.
Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.
Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)
Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.
Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.
Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).
The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.
A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.
A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.
A paired box transcription factor that is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and SKELETAL MUSCLE.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
A SKELETAL MUSCLE-specific transcription factor that contains a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF. It plays an essential role in MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.
A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.
An autosomal dominant degenerative muscle disease characterized by slowly progressive weakness of the muscles of the face, upper-arm, and shoulder girdle. The onset of symptoms usually occurs in the first or second decade of life. Affected individuals usually present with impairment of upper extremity elevation. This tends to be followed by facial weakness, primarily involving the orbicularis oris and orbicularis oculi muscles. (Neuromuscul Disord 1997;7(1):55-62; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1420)
Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.
An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)
A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
... and not cardiac muscle or smooth muscle. Myoblasts in skeletal muscle that do not form muscle fibers dedifferentiate back into ... Skeletal muscle fibers are made when myoblasts fuse together; muscle fibers therefore are cells with multiple nuclei, known as ... The striated cells of cardiac and skeletal muscles are referred to as muscle fibers.[3] Cardiomyocytes are the muscle fibres ... is the type of cell found in muscle tissue. Myocytes are long, tubular cells that develop from myoblasts to form muscles in a ...
... isoforms in differentiating myoblasts". J. Muscle Res. Cell. Motil. 20 (7): 669-79. doi:10.1023/A:1005524623337. PMID 10672515 ... 1991). "Alternative splicing of human synexin mRNA in brain, cardiac, and skeletal muscle alters the unique N-terminal domain ... 1995). "Expression and localization of annexin VII (synexin) in muscle cells". J. Cell Sci. 108 (1): 85-95. PMID 7738119. Zhang ... heart and skeletal muscle. The transcripts also differ in their 3'-non coding regions by the use of two alternative poly(A) ...
... were obtained through serial passage of myoblasts cultured from the thigh muscle of C3H mice after crush injury. In their ... C2C12 is an immortalized mouse myoblast cell line. The C2C12 cell line is a subclone of myoblasts that were originally obtained ... C2C12 cells demonstrate rapid development and maturation into functional skeletal muscle cells or cardiac muscle cells with the ... Normal mouse myoblasts were cultured from 2-month old C3H mice after crush injury. Within two days, the normal cells ...
"Canonical Wnt signaling induces BMP-4 to specify slow myofibrogenesis of fetal myoblasts". Skeletal Muscle. 3 (1): 5. doi: ... In particular, Wnt10b is a Wnt protein that increases this sensitivity in skeletal muscle cells. Since its initial discovery, ... These processes are necessary for proper formation of important tissues including bone, heart and muscle. Its role in embryonic ... These progenitor cells further differentiate into cell types such as endothelial, cardiac and vascular smooth muscle lineages. ...
Similarly, in muscle tissue, myoblasts can be recruited for fusion by IL-4. Before cells can fuse, they must be in contact with ... Cell fusion also occurs in a multitude of mammalian cells including gametes and myoblasts. Proteins that allow viral or cell ...
Outside the nervous system, GPR56 has been linked to muscle function and male fertility. The expression of GPR56 is upregulated ... Investigation of Gpr56 knockout mice and BFPP patients showed that GPR56 is required for in vitro myoblast fusion via signaling ... GPR56 is expressed in liver, muscle, tendon, neural, and cytotoxic lymphoid cells in human as well as in hematopoietic ... December 2013). "G-protein coupled receptor 56 promotes myoblast fusion through serum response factor- and nuclear factor of ...
These muscle fibers form from secondary myoblasts and usually develop as fast muscle fibers. Finally, the muscle fibers that ... Primary muscle fibers originate from primary myoblasts and tend to develop into slow muscle fibers. Secondary muscle fibers ... In mice lacking this gene, severe muscle hypoplasia affected most of the body muscles, specifically hypaxial muscles. There are ... prevent postnatal muscle growth. Satellite cells are described as quiescent myoblasts and neighbor muscle fiber sarcolemma. ...
Ectopic expression of Myc-nick accelerates the differentiation of committed myoblasts into muscle cells. A large body of ...
Administration of IGF-1Eb (mechanogrowth factor) stimulates proliferation of myoblasts and induces muscle hypertrophy. ...
One cell type conveys hormone signals to generating muscle, the myoblast. Higher androgen levels lead to increased expression ... Males typically have more skeletal muscle mass than females. Androgens promote the enlargement of skeletal muscle cells and ... "Androgen receptor in human skeletal muscle and cultured muscle satellite cells: up-regulation by androgen treatment". The ... Fusion of myoblasts generates myotubes, in a process linked to androgen receptor levels. Circulating levels of androgens can ...
... muscle differentiation and expression of muscle-specific proteins is initiated. The researchers ablated various parts of the ... MyoG and MyoD have also been shown to involve in myoblast differentiation. They act by transactivating cathepsin B promotor ... A splice-variant of the E2-2 was discovered in 1997 and was found to inhibit the promoter of a muscle-specific gene. Since then ... Ramamoorthy, S; Donohue, M; Buck, M. (2009). "Decreased Jun-D and myogenin expression in muscle wasting of human cachexia". Am ...
Talin-2 appears to play a role in skeletal muscle development; specifically, in myoblast fusion, sarcomere assembly, and the ... The expression of talin-2 in striated muscle is developmentally regulated. Undifferentiated myoblasts primarily express talin-1 ... skeletal muscle, kidney and testis; however expression is highest in cardiac muscle. A detailed analysis of the TLN2 gene ... "Talin2 is induced during striated muscle differentiation and is targeted to stable adhesion complexes in mature muscle". Cell ...
The Myomaker gene encodes a transmembrane protein that is found on the surface of muscle cells. Mutations in this protein ... "A defect in myoblast fusion underlies Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome". Nat Commun 8:16077. doi: 10.1038/ncomms16077 Hedberg- ... Oldfors C, Lindberg C, Oldfors A (2018). "Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome with mutations in the myomaker gene and muscle fiber ... result in failure of myoblast fusion. Diagnosis is made by sequencing the MYMK gene. Previously diagnosis could be made on ...
Although MyoD marks myoblast commitment, muscle development is not dramatically ablated in mouse mutants lacking the MyoD gene ... MyoD, also known as myoblast determination protein 1, is a protein in animals that plays a major role in regulating muscle ... KAP1 is localized at muscle-related genes in myoblasts along with both MyoD and Mef2 (a myocyte transcription enhancer factor ... As the muscle completes repair Wnt7b and Wnt3a are increased as well. This patterning of Wnt signalling expression in muscle ...
"Osteopontin and skeletal muscle myoblasts: Association with muscle regeneration and regulation of myoblast function in vitro". ... smooth muscle, skeletal muscle myoblasts, endothelial cells, and extraosseous (non-bone) cells in the inner ear, brain, kidney ... Ikeda T, Shirasawa T, Esaki Y, Yoshiki S, Hirokawa K (December 1993). "Osteopontin mRNA is expressed by smooth muscle-derived ... Evidence is accumulating that suggests that osteopontin plays a number of roles in diseases of skeletal muscle, such as ...
"The myogenic factor Myf5 supports efficient skeletal muscle regeneration by enabling transient myoblast amplification". Stem ... Although it is expressed in both the epaxial (to become muscles of the back) and hypaxial (body wall and limb muscles) portions ... Furthermore, Myf5 is a master regulator of muscle development, possessing the ability to induce a muscle phenotype upon its ... even though larval muscle forms normally. As no muscle is formed in Myf5;Myod double mutant zebrafish, Myf5 cooperates with ...
"Characterization of functional urotensin II receptors in human skeletal muscle myoblasts: comparison with angiotensin II ...
Rabbit and bovine aortic smooth muscle myoblasts were also able to adhere to the gelatin fibres. They formed aggregates on ... When muscle is cultivated in vivo, this issue is circumvented as the ECM delivers nutrients into the muscle through blood ... the interspersion of fat and muscle - has yet to be developed. Muscle and fat cells require different cues in order to grow ... It was made from over 20,000 thin strands of muscle tissue, cost Dr. Post over $300,000 to make and over 2 years to produce. ...
2003). "IL-4 acts as a myoblast recruitment factor during mammalian muscle growth". Cell. 113 (4): 483-94. doi:10.1016/s0092- ... was able to determine that factor NFATc2 was a foundational component that allotted myoblast cells to fuse and develop muscle ... The lab that Horsley worked in discovered that smaller muscles in mice were associated with a lack of transcription factor ... Horsley later decided to shift away from muscle research to complete her postdoctoral training under the guidance of Elaine ...
The myotome cells will give rise to myoblasts (embryonic progenitor cells) which will align to form myotubules and then muscle ... Consequently, the myotome will become three muscle sheets that form the layers of abdominal wall muscles. The muscle of concern ... When FBGF runs out myoblasts stop migrating, cease division and differentiate into myotubules that form muscle fibers. ... The ectoderm gives rise to skin and the CNS, the mesoderm gives rise to muscle and the endoderm gives rise to organs. The focus ...
This could mean that C16orf86 could be muscle cell differentiation in skeletal myoblast cells. Protein C16orf86 is mainly ... and day 15 for skeletal myoblasts. This DNA methylation at day 3, day 8, and day 15 for skeletal myoblasts profiles were used ... This transcription factor are supposed to be down-regulated during muscle cell differentiation. This can be seen when first ... and skeletal muscles. C16orf86 has tissue expression high in the testes along with expression in regions such as the kidney, ...
striated muscle cell differentiation. • cellular response to oxygen levels. • myoblast fusion. • myoblast differentiation. • ... muscle cell fate commitment. • cellular response to estradiol stimulus. • skeletal muscle fiber adaptation. • muscle organ ... MyoD, also known as myoblast determination protein 1[5], is a protein in animals that plays a major role in regulating muscle ... positive regulation of myoblast differentiation. • skeletal muscle fiber development. • histone H3 acetylation. • myotube ...
However, it has been shown experimentally that loss of myoferlin results in reduced myoblast fusion and muscle size. There is ... Skeletal muscles experience micro-damages during exercising and daily activities. When muscles are damaged, dysferlin ... In dysferlin-null muscles, these vesicles still accumulate at the damage site, but they cannot fuse and therefore, are unable ... Doherty KR, Cave A, Davis DB, Delmonte AJ, Posey A, Earley JU, Hadhazy M, McNally EM (December 2005). "Normal myoblast fusion ...
CRP 3 plays a role in development of myoblasts, while CRP 1 is active in fibro blast cells. CRP 1 has more roles involved with ... The purpose of these proteins is their role in myogenesis and muscle structure. Although, it was found that structural role is ... LIM proteins are also implicated in a variety of heart and muscle conditions, oncogenesis, neurological disorders and other ... It is responsible for effecting specific muscle adherens junctions and mechanosensory functions of touch receptor neurons. The ...
The myoblasts from the hypaxial division form the muscles of the thoracic and anterior abdominal walls. The epaxial muscle mass ... The myotome is that part of a somite that forms the muscles of the animal. Each myotome divides into an epaxial part (epimere ... In the developing vertebrate embryo, somites split to form dermatomes, skeletal muscle (myotomes), tendons and cartilage ( ... skeletal muscle, cartilage, tendons, and skin (of the back). The word somite is sometimes also used in place of the word ...
... elements that arise from the fusion of mononucleated myoblasts. Accumulation of DNA damage with age in mammalian muscle has ... Muscle strength, and stamina for sustained physical effort, decline in function with age in humans and other species. Skeletal ... reported that the oxidative DNA damage 8-OHdG accumulates in heart and skeletal muscle (as well as in brain, kidney and liver) ... In humans, increases in 8-OHdG with age were reported for skeletal muscle. Catalase is an enzyme that removes hydrogen peroxide ...
Talin-1 is also found at focal adhesions of smooth muscle cells and non-muscle cells. In undifferentiated cultures of myoblasts ... Trimarchi F, Favaloro A, Fulle S, Magaudda L, Puglielli C, Di Mauro D (2006). "Culture of human skeletal muscle myoblasts: ... and to focal adhesions in smooth muscle and non-muscle cells. Talin-1 functions to mediate cell-cell adhesion via the linkage ... Molony L, McCaslin D, Abernethy J, Paschal B, Burridge K (Jun 1987). "Properties of talin from chicken gizzard smooth muscle". ...
... aortic smooth muscle cells, myoblasts, and several different human tumors, including melanoma. Although NG2 is a single-pass ... myoblasts, and pericytes, as well as several different tumors including glioblastoma multiforme and melanoma. NG2 cDNA contains ...
the MSD (Muscle Specific Domain), which is thought to play a positive role in myoblast fusion. In skeletal muscle it is found ... In nerves, NCAM1 regulates homophilic (like-like) interactions between neurons and between neurons and muscle; it associates ... glia and skeletal muscle. Although CD56 is often considered a marker of neural lineage commitment due to its discovery site, ... "Polysialic acid and mucin type o-glycans on the neural cell adhesion molecule differentially regulate myoblast fusion". The ...
muscle organ development. · regulation of cell migration. · establishment or maintenance of microtubule cytoskeleton polarity. ... Association of emerin with nuclear and cytoplasmic actin is regulated in differentiating myoblasts. Biochem. Biophys. Res. ...
... s are stretch receptors within the body of a muscle that primarily detect changes in the length of the muscle. ... Muscle spindles are found within the belly of muscles, between extrafusal muscle fibers.[b] The specialised fibers that ... Muscle spindle. Mammalian muscle spindle showing typical position in a muscle (left), neuronal connections in spinal cord ( ... When a muscle is stretched, primary type Ia sensory fibers of the muscle spindle respond to both changes in muscle length and ...
negative regulation of myoblast differentiation. • positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling. • regulation of insulin ... positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation. • positive regulation of protein kinase activity. • positive ... positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. • negative regulation of gene expression. • protein ... "The diseasome of physical inactivity - and the role of myokines in muscle-fat cross talk". J Physiol. 587 (23): 5559-5568. doi ...
positive regulation of myoblast differentiation. • positive regulation of vasculogenesis. • regulation of transcription from ... Webb J.D., Muranyi A., Pugh C.W., Ratcliffe P.J., Coleman M.L. (2009). MYPT1, the targeting subunit of smooth-muscle myosin ...
During development, myoblasts (muscle progenitor cells) either remain in the somite to form muscles associated with the ... Deep muscles, superficial muscles, muscles of the face and internal muscles all correspond with dedicated regions in the ... The body contains three types of muscle tissue: (a) skeletal muscle, (b) smooth muscle, and (c) cardiac muscle. (Same ... Mackenzie, Colin (1918). The Action of Muscles: Including Muscle Rest and Muscle Re-education. England: Paul B. Hoeber. p. 1. ...
This muscle article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Perimysium is a sheath of connective tissue that groups muscle fibers into bundles (anywhere between 10 and 100 or more) or ... Studies of muscle physiology suggest that the perimysium plays a role in transmitting lateral contractile movements. This ... in ungulate flexor carpi radialis muscles constructed by Emilie Passerieux.[1] The overall comprehensive organization of the ...
Types of muscle are striated muscle (such as skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle), obliquely striated muscle (found in some ... Striated muscle has transverse bands of filaments. In obliquely striated muscle, the filaments are staggered. Smooth muscle has ... Muscle contraction consists of the simultaneous shortening of multiple sarcomeres.[3] Muscle fiber contraction[edit]. The axon ... Muscle fiber relaxation[edit]. The enzyme acetylcholinesterase breaks down acetylcholine and this ceases muscle fiber ...
myoblast proliferation. • skeletal muscle satellite cell maintenance involved in skeletal muscle regeneration. • positive ... positive regulation of cardiac muscle hypertrophy. • positive regulation of smooth muscle cell migration. • تنسخ الحمض النووي ... positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. • negative regulation of vascular associated smooth muscle ... muscle organ development. • positive regulation of Ras protein signal transduction. • response to heat. • ...
Yan X, Ding L, Li Y, Zhang X, Liang Y, Sun X, Teng CB (2012). "Identification and profiling of microRNAs from skeletal muscle ... "The microRNA miR-181 targets the homeobox protein Hox-A11 during mammalian myoblast differentiation". Nature Cell Biology. 8 (3 ... Safdar A, Abadi A, Akhtar M, Hettinga BP, Tarnopolsky MA (2009). "miRNA in the regulation of skeletal muscle adaptation to ... It has been shown that miR-181 targets the homeobox protein Hox-A11 and participates in establishing muscle tissue ...
... into myoblasts (skeletal muscle cells). Later studies by the same group of investigators at FHCRC further characterized the ... "MyoD is a sequence-specific DNA binding protein requiring a region of myc homology to bind to the muscle creatine kinase ... and elicit an entire program of muscle cell differentiation. In a series of sequential experiments, Weintraub and his students ... "Transfection of a DNA locus that mediates the conversion of 10T1/2 fibroblasts to myoblasts". Cell. 47 (5): 649-656. doi: ...
... have revealed several genes that are required for the formation of multinucleated muscle cells by fusion of myoblasts.[16] Some ... For example, very long (several inches) skeletal muscle cells are formed by fusion of thousands of myocytes. Genetic studies of ...
Myosin-9 also known as myosin, heavy chain 9, non-muscle or non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIa (NMMHC-IIA) is a protein which in ... myoblast fusion. • membrane protein ectodomain proteolysis. • actomyosin structure organization. • angiogenesis. • integrin- ... Class II myosins include muscle and non-muscle myosins that are organized as hexameric molecules consisting of two heavy chains ... "Direct evidence for functional smooth muscle myosin II in the 10S self-inhibited monomeric conformation in airway smooth muscle ...
... s are skeletal muscle fibers that serve as specialized sensory organs (proprioceptors) that detect the ... Intrafusal muscle fibers are walled off from the rest of the muscle by an outer connective tissue sheath consisting of ... Intrafusal muscle fibers are not to be confused with extrafusal muscle fibers, which contract, generating skeletal movement and ... This muscle article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ...
... and not cardiac muscle or smooth muscle. Myoblasts in skeletal muscle that do not form muscle fibers dedifferentiate back into ... Skeletal muscle fibers are made when myoblasts fuse together; muscle fibers therefore are cells with multiple nuclei, known as ... The striated cells of cardiac and skeletal muscles are referred to as muscle fibers.[3] Cardiomyocytes are the muscle fibres ... is the type of cell found in muscle tissue. Myocytes are long, tubular cells that develop from myoblasts to form muscles in a ...
striated muscle cell differentiation. • Ras protein signal transduction. • myoblast differentiation. • viral process. • ... skeletal muscle cell differentiation. • sister chromatid biorientation. • protein localization to chromosome, centromeric ... Furthermore, when cycling C2C12 myoblast cells differentiated (by being placed into a differentiation medium), only un- ... "Interaction of myogenic factors and the retinoblastoma protein mediates muscle cell commitment and differentiation". Cell. 72 ( ...
where ρ is the density of the muscle: ρ. =. muscle mass. muscle volume. .. {\displaystyle \rho ={{\text{muscle mass}} \over {\ ... muscle volume. fiber length. =. muscle mass. ρ. ⋅. fiber length. ,. {\displaystyle {\text{PCSA}}={{\text{muscle volume}} \over ... muscle volume. ⋅. cos. ⁡. Φ. fiber length. =. muscle mass. ⋅. cos. ⁡. Φ. ρ. ⋅. fiber length. ,. {\displaystyle {\text{PCSA}}_{2 ... One advantage of pennate muscles is that more muscle fibers can be packed in parallel, thus allowing the muscle to produce more ...
Muscle contraction. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f Hong, TingTing; Shaw, Robin M. (2017-01-01). "Cardiac T-Tubule ... They are found in ventricular muscle cells in most species, and in atrial muscle cells from large mammals.[4] In cardiac muscle ... "The tubular vacuolation process in amphibian skeletal muscle". Journal of Muscle Research & Cell Motility. 19 (6): 613-629. doi ... In cells lacking T-tubules such as smooth muscle cells, diseased cardiomyocytes, or muscle cells in which T-tubules have been ...
myoblast proliferation. • skeletal muscle satellite cell maintenance involved in skeletal muscle regeneration. • positive ... positive regulation of cardiac muscle hypertrophy. • positive regulation of smooth muscle cell migration. • همانندسازی. • ... positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation. • cellular protein metabolic process. • muscle hypertrophy. • protein ... positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. • negative regulation of vascular associated smooth muscle ...
Adult skeletal muscle is a possible exception. It may be argued that if present in skeletal muscle, gap junctions might ... 1978). "Toward a mechanism of myoblast fusion". Prog Clin Biol Res. 23: 563-8. PMID 96453.. ... muscle,[23] Daphnia hepatic caecum,[24] Hydra muscle,[25] monkey retina,[26] rabbit cornea,[27] fish blastoderm,[28] frog ... At least in some cases this may not be the case as shown in other muscle types that do have gap junctions.[45] An indication of ...
Muscle fibers, or muscle cells, are formed from the fusion of developmental myoblasts in a process known as myogenesis. Muscle ... Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle. It is a form of striated ... Arrangement of muscle fibersEdit. Main article: Muscle architecture. Muscle architecture refers to the arrangement of muscle ... Muscle Physiology Home Page - Skeletal Muscle Architecture, Effect of Muscle Architecture on Muscle Function ...
Laterally, muscle fibers insert into ribs 6-12. In the back, muscle fibres insert into the vertebra at T12 and two appendages, ... The pleuroperitoneal membrane and body wall myoblasts, from somatic lateral plate mesoderm, meet the septum transversum to ... involves the internal intercostal muscles used in conjunction with the abdominal muscles, which act as an antagonist paired ... The muscle fibres from these attachments converge in a central tendon, which forms the crest of the dome.[5] Its peripheral ...
Skeletal muscle myosin, the most conspicuous of the myosin superfamily due to its abundance in muscle fibers, was the first to ... Main article: Muscle contraction. Multiple myosin II molecules generate force in skeletal muscle through a power stroke ... Myosin II (also known as conventional myosin) is the myosin type responsible for producing muscle contraction in muscle cells ... Twarog BM (October 1976). "Aspects of smooth muscle function in molluscan catch muscle". Physiological Reviews. 56 (4): 829-38 ...
The number of muscle fibers within each unit can vary within a particular muscle and even more from muscle to muscle; the ... Estimates of innervation ratios of motor units in human muscles: Muscle. Number of Motor Axons. Number of Muscle Fibers. ... whereas smaller muscles contain fewer muscle fibers in each motor unit.[1] For instance, thigh muscles can have a thousand ... Larger motor units contract along with small motor units until all muscle fibers in a single muscle are activated, thus ...
miR-133 is expressed in muscle tissue and appears to repress the expression of non-muscle genes. It is proposed that Insulin ... miR-133 enhances myoblast proliferation by repressing serum response factor (SRF) mIR-133 suppresses SP1 expression In rats, ... RhoA expression is negatively regulated by miR-133a in bronchial smooth muscles (BSM)and miR-133a downregulation causes an ... BMP2 controls bone cell determination by inducing miRNAs that target muscle genes but mainly by down-regulating multiple miRNAs ...
Ectopic expression of Myc-nick accelerates the differentiation of committed myoblasts into muscle cells. ...
myoblast proliferation. • skeletal muscle satellite cell maintenance involved in skeletal muscle regeneration. • positive ... positive regulation of cardiac muscle hypertrophy. • positive regulation of smooth muscle cell migration. • 脫氧核糖核酸複製. • ... positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. • negative regulation of vascular associated smooth muscle ... muscle organ development. • positive regulation of Ras protein signal transduction. • response to heat. • ...
The differentiation of mononucleate myoblast cells into postmitotic multinucleated myotubes is accompanied by the activation ... Satellite Cell Human Skeletal Muscle Cryostat Section Motor Neuron Disease Myoblast Cell These keywords were added by machine ... The chosen test systems were cell cultures of human muscle that contain myoblasts, fibroblasts and myotubes and cryostat ... Differential Expression of Cell-Surface Antigens on Muscle Satellite Cells and Myoblasts. ...
Jamb and Jamc are an essential cell surface receptor pair that interact to drive fusion between muscle precursor cells during ...
The effect of insulin on delta5 desaturation in hepG2 human hepatoma cells and L6 rat muscle myoblasts.. Loizou CL1, Ozanne SE ... This has been interpreted as indicating a link between the activity of the delta5 desaturase enzyme and muscle insulin ... The present study addressed the possibility that insulin regulates delta5 desaturase activity using L6 rat myoblasts and hepG2 ... insulin has no direct effect on delta5 desaturase activity in the liver but can alter arachidonic acid production in muscle by ...
Dynamics of the Skeletal Muscle Secretome during Myoblast Differentiation. Jeanette Henningsen, Kristoffer T. G. Rigbolt, ... Dynamics of the Skeletal Muscle Secretome during Myoblast Differentiation. Jeanette Henningsen, Kristoffer T. G. Rigbolt, ... Dynamics of the Skeletal Muscle Secretome during Myoblast Differentiation Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Dynamics of the Skeletal Muscle Secretome during Myoblast Differentiation. Jeanette Henningsen, Kristoffer T. G. Rigbolt, ...
Fast muscles were generally normal in size. These results provide in vivo evidence that limb myoblast diversity arises prior to ... Slow and fast muscle fibers are preferentially derived from myoblasts migrating into the chick limb bud at different ... We used in vivo surgical transplantation and anatomical analyses of thigh muscle patterns to ask whether myoblasts migrating ... few thigh muscles were found at stages 30-33. Primordia that were present corresponded to muscles that normally contain a ...
We show that elastase activity is increased in dystrophic (mdx4cv) muscle and impairs myoblast survival in culture. While the ... We have developed a proteomics method to discover dystrophy-associated changes in the muscle progenitor cell niche, which ... regulation of myoblast behaviour as a potential mechanism underlying loss of regenerative capacity in dystrophic muscle. ... Additionally, elastase impairs differentiation of both primary and C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes. Our findings evidence the ...
A myoblast is a type of stem cell that occurs in muscles. Skeletal muscle fibres are made when myoblasts fuse together. As a ... primitive embryonic muscle cell) differentiating in to a skeletal muscle cell, coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). ... result muscle fibres have multiple nuclei. Magnification: x1,200 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image ... Caption: Muscle myoblast (primitive embryonic muscle cell) differentiating in to a skeletal muscle cell, coloured scanning ...
... cure of muscle and non-muscle diseases through myoblast-mediated gene transfer.. Despite the lack of success in human trials, ... Re-building muscle from cultured satellite cells: Novel Approaches to improve myoblast transplantation. ... On the long term: a) reconstruction or replacement by myoblast transplantation of damaged or missing muscle following accident ... Another aim of the project is to explore the potential use of SF in enhancing the efficiency of myoblast transplant. For this ...
Hind limb bud myoblasts isolated from 5-day-old … ... Evidence is presented which shows that myoblasts, isolated at ... Myoblasts isolated from the thigh muscle of embryos older than 10 days form large myotubes which synthesize a myosin the light ... Chick and quail limb bud myoblasts, isolated at different times during muscle development, express stage-specific phenotypes ... myoblasts, is present in the muscles of embryos older than 8 days. This result, however, is also compatible with the hypothesis ...
... expression in bovine skeletal muscles and myoblasts isolated from double-muscled (DM) and normal-muscled (NM) Japanese ... expression in bovine skeletal muscles and myoblasts isolated from double-muscled (DM) and normal-muscled (NM) Japanese ... in the skeletal muscle ex vivo and in myoblasts at 72 h after differentiation in vitro was higher in DM cattle than in NM ... In differentiated myoblasts, the expression of GLUT1, GLUT4, and MEF2c mRNAs was greater in DM cattle than in NM cattle (P < ...
Engineered muscle tissue has great potential in regenerative medicine, as disease model and also as an alternative source for ... Engineering Skeletal Muscle Tissues from Murine Myoblast Progenitor Cells and Application of Electrical Stimulation. Daisy W. J ... Other cells may be considered as well, e.g. alternative cell lines such as L6 rat myoblasts 4, neonatal muscle derived ... Here we describe the engineering of a muscle construct, in this case from mouse myoblast progenitor cells, and the stimulation ...
Mouse myoblast differentiation Muscle repair Kinin-B2 receptor HOE-140 Janaina M. Alves, Antonio H. Martins, Claudiana Lameu ... 2004). C2C12 murine myoblasts as a model of skeletal muscle development: Morpho-functional characterization. European Journal ... Effects of myogenin on muscle fiber types and key metabolic enzymes in gene transfer mice and C2C12 myoblasts. Gene, 532(2), ... Abmayr, S. M., & Pavlath, G. K. (2012). Myoblast fusion: lessons from flies and mice. Development, 139, 641-656.CrossRefGoogle ...
PDGF may thus act to increase the number of myoblasts that participate in muscle regeneration following muscle trauma by ... The expression of receptors and the mitogenic response to PDGF by C2 myoblasts, derived from adult mouse skeletal muscle, was ... Regulation of proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts derived from adult mouse skeletal muscle by specific isoforms of ... Regulation of proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts derived from adult mouse skeletal muscle by specific isoforms of ...
... in myoblasts that will form the indirect flight muscles. The early events of muscle development are normal in ewg mutants. ... ERECT WING, the Drosophila member of a family of DNA binding proteins is required in imaginal myoblasts for flight muscle ... ERECT WING, the Drosophila member of a family of DNA binding proteins is required in imaginal myoblasts for flight muscle ... ERECT WING, the Drosophila member of a family of DNA binding proteins is required in imaginal myoblasts for flight muscle ...
Here, we used human muscle satellite cells as model targets to examine the impact of the transduced genes on the genotypic and ... was extremely efficient at inducing the continuous growth of primary myoblasts, but the resulting cells rapidly accumulated ... Lentivector-mediated transfer of Bmi-1 and telomerase in muscle satellite cells yields a duchenne myoblast cell line with long- ... Home , Lentivector-mediated transfer of Bmi-1 and telomerase in muscle satellite cells yields a duchenne myoblast cell line ...
During differentiation, BET caused an increase of muscle-specific markers and IGF-1 R protein levels. Our findings provide the ... However, BET effects on skeletal muscle differentiation and hypertrophy are still poorly understood. We examined BET action on ... In addition, we investigated BET role on myoblasts proliferation and differentiation. During proliferation, BET did not modify ... not only in sport performance but also in clinical conditions characterized by muscle function impairment. ...
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Cell cycle-regulated expression of the muscle determination factor Myf5 in proliferating myoblasts. ... In proliferating myoblasts, the levels of Myf5 and MyoD detected from cell to cell are very heterogeneous. We find that some of ... muscle-specific factor to be expressed in vivo and its expression is associated with determination of the myoblast lineage. In ...
Chromatin plasticity as a differentiation index during muscle differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts. ... Chromatin plasticity as a differentiation index during muscle differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts. Biochemical and Biophysical ... During muscle differentiation, remodeling of the epigenetic landscape is also known to take place on a large scale, determining ... Skeletal muscle undergoes complicated differentiation steps that include cell-cycle arrest, cell fusion, and maturation, which ...
Myoblasts constantly proliferate to provide sufficient number of cells for myogenic differentiation and for continuous muscle ... Myoblasts are mononucleated undifferentiated muscle cells that express myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). The formation of ... myoblasts marks the initiation of the early stages of myotomal differentiation. ...
During metamorphosis in Drosophila, a set of larval muscles ... Pattern formation in muscle development is often mediated by ... Larval Muscles Do Not Split in Absence of Imaginal Myoblasts. Imaginal myoblasts, specified in the embryo, divide actively ... In the absence of imaginal myoblasts, the larval muscles do not split during pupation. (a) The larval muscles at 15 h APF ... In the absence of imaginal myoblasts, the larval muscles do not split during pupation. (a) The larval muscles at 15 h APF ...
Dynamics of the skeletal muscle secretome during myoblast differentiation. During recent years, increased efforts have focused ... Quelle: Irina Kratschmorova: "Dynamics of the skeletal muscle secretome during myoblast differentiation" - Freiburg Institute ... Through secreted molecules, skeletal muscle affects local muscle biology in an auto/paracrine manner as well as having systemic ... frias/school-of-lifenet/veranstaltungen/irina-kratschmorova-dynamics-of-the-skeletal-muscle-secretome-during-myoblast- ...
Compared with the sections from the atrophic muscle at the same age, different sizes of muscle cells were found in some muscle ... Then, the bilateral triceps muscles were cut off for index detection.. Muscle electrophysiology. Rats were subjected to muscle ... they form new muscle cells, or bind with the original muscle cells (the latter is the main mode of muscle regeneration after ... more connective tissues appeared between muscle bundles, the sizes of the muscle cells between different muscle fascicles ...
Before Tx, more than 80% of the cultured skeletal muscle cells were skeletal myoblasts (by immunostaining for desmin protein; ... Skeletal myoblasts were immunohistochemically identified using an antibody against desmin.15 Myoblasts (5×106) were harvested ... Bupivacaine (0.5 mL) was injected into rat hind limb tibialis anterior muscles. Forty-eight hours later, preconditioned muscles ... Figure 1. Skeletal myoblasts in culture. Representative images illustrating cultured skeletal myoblasts under light microscopy ...
Myoblast fusion in skeletal muscle is a complex process but how this is regulated is unclear. Here, the authors identify Ash1L ... is required for muscle growth and repair, and its alteration contributes to muscle diseases. The mechanisms governing this ... Its physiological role in skeletal muscle is unknown. Here we report that Ash1L expression is positively correlated with MF and ... a histone methyltransferase, as modulating myoblast fusion via activation of the myogenesis gene Cdon, and observe decreased ...
Cultures of Primary Skeletal Myoblasts.. Cultures of primary rat myoblasts were performed as reported previously (14). ... 1991) The mechanical hypothesis of excitation-contraction (EC) coupling in skeletal muscle. J Muscle Res Cell Motil 12:127-135. ... The key players in the process of Ca2+ release in skeletal muscle cells are RyR1 on the junctional SR and DHPR on the T tubule/ ... Immunolabeling of primary rat skeletal muscle cells at 2 (A-I), 4 (J-O), and 6 (P-X) days after induction of differentiation. ...
Diabetic Type I and Type II Human Skeletal Muscle Myoblasts (HSMM) are isolated from donors diagnosed with either Diabetes Type ... Diseased cells are tested in the same SkGM™-2 Skeletal Muscle Growth Media as the normal cells allowing for easy comparisons ...
Here, we have utilized myoblasts isolated from FSHD patients (FSHD myoblasts) to investigate the effect of estrogens on muscle ... we used myoblasts isolated from affected patients compared with myoblasts from healthy individuals. Four myoblast cell cultures ... Conversely, ERα is expressed in the murine myoblast cell line C2C12 and in murine muscles, thus making it necessary to exercise ... E2 enhances differentiation of primary FSHD-isolated myoblasts. (A) Percentage of MHC+ myoblasts from indicated healthy ...
... we were able to generate a battery of immortalized human muscle stem-cell lines from patients with various neuromuscular ... and maintained their potential to differentiate both in vitro and in vivo after transplantation into regenerating muscle of ... including those associated with muscle aging, and for developing innovative gene-based, cell-based or pharmacological ... Investigations into both the pathophysiology and therapeutic targets in muscle dystrophies have been hampered by the limited ...
Our results suggest that GDF-11 regulates growth of skeletal muscles by inhibiting myoblast differentiation in an autocrine/ ... was increased in gastrocnemius muscles from 2 to 6 weeks-a period of rapid postnatal muscle growth-and remained higher in male ... a known inhibitor of skeletal muscle development. The role of GDF-11 in regulating skeletal muscle growth remains unclear and ... We collected gastrocnemius muscles from male and female mice at 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 20 and 32 weeks of age (n = 6 per sex and age ...
  • The differentiation of mononucleate myoblast cells into postmitotic multinucleated myotubes is accompanied by the activation and repression of many gene families. (springer.com)
  • The chosen test systems were cell cultures of human muscle that contain myoblasts, fibroblasts and myotubes and cryostat sections of control and diseased human muscle. (springer.com)
  • Primordia that were present corresponded to muscles that normally contain a majority of slow myotubes. (nih.gov)
  • In limbs transplanted slightly later (stages late 17-18), the only missing muscles were those that normally contain the highest numbers of fast myotubes. (nih.gov)
  • These findings suggest that the earliest myoblast migrants give rise mainly to slow primary myotubes, the later migrants to fast myotubes. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, elastase impairs differentiation of both primary and C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes. (nature.com)
  • Evidence is presented which shows that myoblasts, isolated at different stages during chick and quail limb bud development, will form, in culture, myotubes which can be distinguished with a combination of morphological as well as biochemical criteria. (nih.gov)
  • Hind limb bud myoblasts isolated from 5-day-old embryos form very short myotubes which synthesize a myosin, the light chains of which are predominantly LC1F and LC2S. (nih.gov)
  • Myoblasts isolated from the thigh muscle of embryos older than 10 days form large myotubes which synthesize a myosin the light chains of which are predominantly LC1F and LC2F. (nih.gov)
  • Here we show that kinin-B2 receptors are expressed throughout differentiation of murine C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes. (springer.com)
  • Our findings provide the first evidence that BET could promote muscle fibers differentiation and increase myotubes size by IGF-1 pathway activation, suggesting that BET might represent a possible new drug/integrator strategy, not only in sport performance but also in clinical conditions characterized by muscle function impairment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lumican expression was significantly higher in the cell lysates and conditioned media (CM) of myotubes than those of undifferentiated myoblasts, and the known anabolic effects of myotube CM on osteoblasts were reduced by excluding lumican from the CM. Lumican stimulated preosteoblast viability and differentiation, resulting in increased calvaria bone formation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Immunofluorescence analyses revealed that myoblasts seeded on muscle matrix and fibronectin differentiated to form long, well-aligned myotubes, while myoblasts seeded on collagen were less organized. (edu.au)
  • Under appropriate conditions, the myoblasts withdraw from the cell cycle to differentiate into mononucleated myocytes, which, in turn, align with each other and fuse to form multinucleated myotubes or myofibers. (rupress.org)
  • Employing a new algorithm for identifying differentially methylated regions (DMRs) from reduced representation bisulfite sequencing profiles, we identified 1972 hypermethylated and 3250 hypomethylated myogenic DMRs in a comparison of myoblasts (Mb) and myotubes (Mt) with 16 types of nonmuscle cell cultures. (mdpi.com)
  • SMF-enhanced parallel orientation of myotubes is relevant to tissue engineering of a highly organized tissue such as skeletal muscle. (elsevier.com)
  • The ability to efficiently organize myoblasts to form aligned myotubes in vitro would greatly benefit efforts in muscle tissue engineering. (naver.com)
  • Further growth on these substrates with aligned myoblasts promoted fusion, yielding healthy aligned myotubes. (naver.com)
  • Until now, mechanistic data generated in this domain have been confined to animal experiments, human muscle biopsy specimens, C 2 C 12 mouse myoblasts and L6 myotubes cell lines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, by generating in vitro cultures of primary skeletal muscle myoblasts and myotubes from HF patients, we may increase the near future ability of identifying novel mechanisms contributing to loss of skeletal muscle mass in this patient population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We previously showed that actin mutations can cause four different biochemical phenotypes and that expression of NM associated actin mutants in fibroblasts, myoblasts and myotubes induces a range of cellular defects. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Apoptosis occurs concurrently with differentiation of muscle progenitor cells (MPCs) before they fuse to form myotubes. (biologists.org)
  • In the microfibre scaffolds, C2C12 myoblasts were able to differentiate into viable myotubes and to internalize BNNTs, also upon US irradiation, so as to obtain a nanotech-assisted 3D in vitro model. (supsi.ch)
  • The effects of linoleic and oleic acids on regeneration of lacerated gastrocnemius muscle in rats and on cultured myoblasts, myotubes and fibroblasts were examined. (usp.br)
  • Oleic acid abolished the changes in contratile activity and the increase in the fibrous area, raised the expressions of MyoD in myoblasts, desmin in myotubes and inhibited the expressions of PCNA , collagen and fibronectin in fibroblasts. (usp.br)
  • Myogenesis is a dynamic multistep process regulated by Myogenic Regulator Factors (MRFs), responsible of the commitment of myogenic cell into skeletal muscle: mononucleated undifferentiated myoblasts break free from cell cycle, elongate and fuse to form multinucleated myotubes. (ironmagazine.com)
  • The expression of dysferlin in myotubes was significantly increased compared to that in myoblast by immunostaining and western blot analysis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Using the differentiating mouse C2C12 postnatal skeletal muscle myoblast cell line, we have determined that proteins for the AMPK subunit isoforms alpha2 and gamma2 are constitutively expressed, while those for alpha1, beta1 and beta2 are undetectable in undifferentiated myoblasts but increasingly expressed with differentiation to myotubes. (uclouvain.be)
  • Although the gamma3 subunit is expressed at a low level in myoblasts, it too is expressed increasingly with differentiation to myotubes. (uclouvain.be)
  • Myotubes displayed higher basal and stimulated alpha1/alpha2 AMPK activation than myoblasts. (uclouvain.be)
  • Furthermore, serum starvation resulted in less apoptosis of differentiated myotubes than of undifferentiated myoblasts. (uclouvain.be)
  • Slow and fast muscle fibers are preferentially derived from myoblasts migrating into the chick limb bud at different developmental times. (nih.gov)
  • A skeletal muscle myoblast that differentiates into slow muscle fibers. (zfin.org)
  • We also show that interaction between imaginal myoblasts and larval muscles is necessary for transformation of the larval fibers. (rupress.org)
  • Multinucleated muscle fibers arise from the fusion and differentiation of mononucleated progenitors, myoblasts. (rupress.org)
  • Muscle fibers differ from each other in their position, innervation, patterns of gene expression, and physiological properties. (rupress.org)
  • Myoblasts must be able to seek out epidermal sites of muscle formation, fuse to form properly oriented fibers, and get appropriately innervated to give rise to the precise pattern that is observed in the mature animal. (rupress.org)
  • Postoperative indexes such as muscle wet weight, cell section areas, content of collagen fibers and DNA, electrophysiology, numbers of SCs in the triceps muscle of calf were dynamically tested. (conicyt.cl)
  • These features together with the great genetic tools available for embryo happens between two types of muscle mass cells: muscle mass founder cells and fusion-competent myoblasts (2 3 Muscle mass founder cells determine the position orientation and size of the future muscle mass materials whereas fusion-competent myoblasts migrate toward abide by and fuse with founder cells to generate multinucleated muscle mass fibers. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Percentage of dystrophin-positive fibers in a muscle biopsy 3 or 6 months after myoblast transplantation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The presence of dystrophin positive fibers will be assessed in a muscle biopsy done 6 months after the myoblast transplantation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In adults, MSCs cycle through the steps of embryonic myogenesis to either add to or replace buy 1063-77-0 current muscle fibers [15C19]. (neuroart2006.com)
  • Fetal adaptations to placental insufficiency alter postnatal metabolic homeostasis in skeletal muscle by reducing glucose oxidation rates, impairing insulin action, and lowering the proportion of oxidative fibers. (vt.edu)
  • In animal models of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), skeletal muscle fibers have less myonuclei at birth. (vt.edu)
  • This means that myoblasts, the sole source for myonuclei accumulation in fibers, are compromised. (vt.edu)
  • Endogenous and recombinant SLIM1 localized to the nucleus, stress fibers, and focal adhesions in skeletal myoblasts plated on fibronectin, collagen, or laminin. (monash.edu)
  • The striated cells of cardiac and skeletal muscles are referred to as muscle fibers . (wikipedia.org)
  • [4] Skeletal muscle fibers help support and move the body and tend to have peripheral nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the end of each muscle fiber, the outer layer of the sarcolemma combines with tendon fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, skeletal muscles are formed by morphological units referred to as muscle fibers . (wikipedia.org)
  • [4] Skeletal muscle fibers help support and move the body and are called syncytia - multinucleated structures formed by fusion of individual myoblasts during embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) transmits signals from motor neurons to multinucleated muscle fibers. (jneurosci.org)
  • During skeletal muscle development, mononucleated myoblasts fuse to form multinucleated, contractile muscle fibers. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • Skeletal muscle hypertrophy can be defined as a result of an increase in the size of pre-existing skeletal muscle fibers accompanied by increased protein synthesis, mainly regulated by Insulin Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1), PI3-K/AKT signaling pathways.Aim of this work was the study of RSV effects on proliferation, differentiation process and hypertrophy in C2C12 murine cells. (ironmagazine.com)
  • This mutation causes a 90-95% loss of caveolin-3 protein levels and reduced formation of caveolae in skeletal muscle fibers. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The immunoreactivity of dysferlin was strongly expressed in regenerative muscle fibers of myopathies except dysferlinpathy, which was co-localization with N-CAM by double immunohistochemistry. (bvsalud.org)
  • These results indicated that the expression of dysferlin increased in regenerative and degenerative muscle fibers and also increased in myoblast differentiation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Furthermore, myogenic cells engineered in vitro (or derived from genetically modified mice) to express forms of the Met receptor enhanced in its signalling ability will also be used to repopulate muscle. (europa.eu)
  • It has recently emerged that low-energy laser irradiation is capable of improving satellite cell proliferation in vitro and muscle regeneration in vivo. (europa.eu)
  • The expression of GLUT4 messenger RNA (mRNA) in the skeletal muscle ex vivo and in myoblasts at 72 h after differentiation in vitro was higher in DM cattle than in NM cattle (P (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Conditions that promote primary human skeletal myoblast culture and muscle differentiation in vitro. (duke.edu)
  • Conditions under which skeletal myoblasts are cultured in vitro are critical to growth and differentiation of these cells into mature skeletal myofibers. (duke.edu)
  • This study showed that 100 μg/ml GFR-MG coating and 2% equine serum-supplemented differentiation medium enhanced HSkM differentiation and myogenic miR expression and that addition of antisense miR-133a alone can accelerate primary human skeletal muscle differentiation in vitro. (duke.edu)
  • The myogenic cell line L6, an in vitro model of muscle development, was used to investigate the effect of a 80 ± mT SMF generated by a custom-made magnet. (elsevier.com)
  • Tissue-engineered muscle is a viable option for tissue repair, though presently technologies are not developed enough to produce tissue in vitro identical to that in vivo. (naver.com)
  • This paper reports alignment of prefused and differentiated skeletal muscle cells in vitro by use of continuous micropatterned wavy silicone surfaces, with features sized 3, 6 and 12 μm in periodicity. (naver.com)
  • These data suggest that epinephrine induces IL-6 synthesis in skeletal muscle in vivo and myocytes in vitro. (elsevier.com)
  • Our in vitro studies may constitute novel proof of principle to potential applications of the compound to prevent or reverse muscle impairment by stimulating myogenesis, and emphasize new possible use of resveratrol to enhance muscle performance. (ironmagazine.com)
  • FSHD Myoblasts: in vitro Studies. (bokus.com)
  • If these in vitro events can also occur in vivo, they could have implications for pathologies such as muscle wasting, in which undifferentiated satellite stem cells may be easier apoptotic targets than their differentiated counterparts. (uclouvain.be)
  • To determine the role of recombinant human ciliary neurotrophic factor (rhCNTF) in myogenesis , we observed the effects of rhCNTF (0 10 ng/ml) on myoblast differentiation of adult human in vitro . (bvsalud.org)
  • These findings demonstrate that exogenous rhCNTF can reversibly inhibit differentiation but permits proliferation of adult human myoblasts in vitro . (bvsalud.org)
  • Pharmacological inhibition of Plk1 similarly inhibits proliferation but promotes differentiation of myoblasts in vitro, and blocks muscle regeneration in vivo. (elifesciences.org)
  • Walsh F.S., Moore S.E., Nayak R. (1985) Differential Expression of Cell-Surface Antigens on Muscle Satellite Cells and Myoblasts. (springer.com)
  • The effect of insulin on delta5 desaturation in hepG2 human hepatoma cells and L6 rat muscle myoblasts. (nih.gov)
  • The present study addressed the possibility that insulin regulates delta5 desaturase activity using L6 rat myoblasts and hepG2 human hepatoma cells. (nih.gov)
  • While the effect of elastase on C2C12 cell survival correlates with the kinetics of elastase-mediated degradation of the substrate to which the cells adhere, the effect of elastase on satellite cell-derived primary myoblast growth and differentiation is substrate-independent and even more dramatic than the effect on C2C12 cells, suggesting a detrimental role for elastase on myogenesis in vivo . (nature.com)
  • Satellite cells are resident muscle progenitors defined by their anatomical position between the plasma membrane of the myofibre and the surrounding basal lamina 7 . (nature.com)
  • In healthy muscle, satellite cells are mitotically quiescent, but poised to become quickly activated in response to myofibre injury. (nature.com)
  • It seems likely that the key to overcome these failures will be found in autologous transplantation of satellite cells (either genetically modified or not) and in the identification and use of novel cytokines involved in muscle regeneration. (europa.eu)
  • Two of the crucial issues that need to be addressed are: 1) the generation of large numbers of myogenic cells, sufficient to replace a useful amount of muscle in the body, and 2) the promotion of their survival, proliferation and dispersal upon re-introduction. (europa.eu)
  • This result, however, is also compatible with the hypothesis that all muscle cells are the same at all times during development, and that the different phenotypes simply reflect differences in the environmental conditions. (nih.gov)
  • Here we describe the engineering of a muscle construct, in this case from mouse myoblast progenitor cells, and the stimulation by electrical pulses. (jove.com)
  • In summary, the present work reveals to date no functions described for the B2 receptor in muscle regeneration due to the control of proliferation and differentiation of muscle precursor cells. (springer.com)
  • PDGF may thus act to increase the number of myoblasts that participate in muscle regeneration following muscle trauma by stimulating the proliferation and by inhibiting the differentiation of myogenic cells. (rupress.org)
  • Upon a growth stimulus or injury, satellite cells start proliferating and turn in committed myogenic cells (myoblasts). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we used human muscle satellite cells as model targets to examine the impact of the transduced genes on the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of the immortalized cells. (epfl.ch)
  • The most commonly used immortalizing gene, the SV40 large T antigen (T-Ag), was extremely efficient at inducing the continuous growth of primary myoblasts, but the resulting cells rapidly accumulated major chromosomal aberrations and exhibited profound phenotypic changes. (epfl.ch)
  • Myoblasts are mononucleated undifferentiated muscle cells that express myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). (lifemapsc.com)
  • Myoblasts constantly proliferate to provide sufficient number of cells for myogenic differentiation and for continuous muscle growth. (lifemapsc.com)
  • Pattern formation in muscle development is often mediated by special cells called muscle organizers. (rupress.org)
  • Here we used a quantitative proteomics platform to investigate the factors secreted during the differentiation of murine C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. (uni-freiburg.de)
  • The extensive presence of these proteins that can act as potent signaling mediators to other cells and tissues strongly highlights the important role of the skeletal muscle as a prominent secretory organ. (uni-freiburg.de)
  • In order to explore the change rule of myoblast stem cells (satellite cells, SCs) in the denervated and re-innervated muscle and to investigate the cellular mechanism of the morphological and functional changes of the muscle, denervated muscle atrophy and nerve regeneration models were established in one-month-old rats. (conicyt.cl)
  • With the rise of study on embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells in recent years, more and more scholars have realized that muscle satellite cells (SCs) play an important role in atrophic muscle regeneration, and SCs have been more and more extensively accepted as muscle adult stem cells (Schmalbruch & Lewis, 1994). (conicyt.cl)
  • Conclusions- Regardless of whether the cells were injected into the infarct or the noninfarcted myocardium early after an myocardial infarction or later, skeletal myoblasts improved cardiac function by preventing ventricular dilation and preserving matrix architecture in the remote region, likely mediated by paracrine effects. (ahajournals.org)
  • More than a decade of preclinical studies and initial clinical trials indicate that the progression of postmyocardial infarction (MI) cardiac failure can be limited by the implantation of either skeletal myoblasts or bone marrow cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Such enhancements could be suitable for therapies involving myoblasts, bone marrow cells, or both. (ahajournals.org)
  • During embryonic development, mononucleated muscle cells, termed myoblasts, undergo massive proliferation, providing the required number of precursor cells to build skeletal muscles. (nature.com)
  • The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of skeletal muscle cells is a complex network of tubules and cisternae that share a common lumen delimited by a single continuous membrane. (pnas.org)
  • The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of muscle cells is a specialized form of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dedicated to storage and release of Ca 2+ . (pnas.org)
  • Assembly of the SR starts in embryonic muscle cells, where an apparently disorganized accumulation of membranes is observed ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Diseased cells are tested in the same SkGM™-2 Skeletal Muscle Growth Media as the normal cells allowing for easy comparisons between diseased and normal tissue. (creative-bioarray.com)
  • Differentiated and committed, myoblasts are not stem cells. (scirp.org)
  • Mammalian skeletal muscle can remodel, repair, and regenerate itself by mobilizing satellite cells, a resident population of myogenic progenitor cells. (pnas.org)
  • Muscle injury and subsequent activation of myogenic progenitor cells is associated with oxidative stress. (pnas.org)
  • Exhaustion of muscle progenitor cells (MPCs) is thought to be an important factor contributing to the progressive weakness and atrophy of peripheral skeletal muscle that occurs with various skeletal myopathies and during normal aging ( 1 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) reversibly suppressed myotube formation and expression of acetylcholine receptors in cultures of Day 15 mouse embryo presumptive myoblasts, but was totally ineffective in cultures of adult mouse satellite cells. (nih.gov)
  • A unique aspect of smooth muscle cells is their retention of mitotic capability throughout life. (fsu.edu)
  • Indeed, cardiac muscle cells are completely incapable of regeneration, while those of skeletal muscles can only regenerate due to the occurrence of satellite cells . (fsu.edu)
  • Located in shallow depressions on the surface of skeletal muscle cells, satellite cells may undergo mitosis and help increase muscle mass under certain conditions such as weight training or injury. (fsu.edu)
  • These regenerative cells are not necessary to smooth muscles, however, which are capable of creating new cells whenever necessary. (fsu.edu)
  • In addition to mitosis, new smooth muscle cells may be generated by the differentiation of the pericytes associated with some blood vessels. (fsu.edu)
  • B ) C2C12 cells were seeded on microscope slides and treated as described in A. Representative immunofluorescence images of C2C12 myoblasts treated for 72 h with 50 ng/ml IGF-1 stained with anti-myosin heavy chain (MHC) antibody and propidium iodide are shown. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study injects a person's own stem cells into heart muscle tissue after a person has one or more heart attacks. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patient will receive injections of cultured, expanded skeletal myoblasts into the myocardium at a dose of 400 million cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Satellite cells are the primary stem cells in adult skeletal muscle and are responsible for postnatal muscle growth, hypertrophy, and muscle regeneration. (frontiersin.org)
  • In myotome, the muscle precursor cells establish their myogenic fate to form proliferating myoblasts by selectively expressing one or a few myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). (rupress.org)
  • Thus, C2C12 cells represent an excellent cell culture model to study the proliferation and differentiation of MSC-derived myoblasts. (rupress.org)
  • Here we show that myostatin functions by controlling the proliferation of muscle precursor cells. (scienceopen.com)
  • Expression of MLC/SOD1 G93A in C2C12 cells resulted in dramatic inhibition of myoblast differentiation. (hindawi.com)
  • Muscle, a multinucleate syncytium formed by the fusion of mononuclear myoblasts, arises from quiescent progenitors (satellite cells) via activation of muscle-specific transcription factors (MyoD, Myf5, myogenin: MYOG, MRF4). (neuroart2006.com)
  • muscle satellite cells (MSCs) have shown that genes associated with cell cycle and division, DNA replication, and phosphate buy 1063-77-0 metabolism are differentially expressed. (neuroart2006.com)
  • MYF5, MYOD, and MRF4 also spur the expression of genes that are essential for muscle satellite cells (MSCs) proliferation [8, 13, 14]. (neuroart2006.com)
  • To identify novel interacting proteins of conventional PKC (cPKC) at the nuclear level during myogenesis and to find new PKC isozyme-specific phosphosubstrates, we performed a proteomics analysis of immunoprecipitated nuclear samples from mouse myoblast C2C12 cells following insulin administration. (mcponline.org)
  • In these cells, upon a differentiation stimulus, muscle-specific transcription factors, such as myogenin, are induced as are the muscle genes they regulate. (mcponline.org)
  • In particular, investigations on skeletal muscle development strengthen the contention that nuclear PLCβ 1 signaling is required for the activation of the cyclin D3 promoter in C2C12 cells ( 8 , 9 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Adult muscle stem cells, satellite cells SCs, endow skeletal muscle with tremendous regenerative capacity. (duhnnae.com)
  • Adult skeletal muscle regeneration relies on the activity of resident satellite cells in skeletal muscle niche. (aiche.org)
  • Cell types currently investigated for cellular delivery include embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and adult stem cell lineages such as skeletal myoblasts, bone-marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and cardiac stem cells (CSCs). (hindawi.com)
  • Cardiac muscle cells are striated muscle cells that are responsible for heart contraction. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This class encompasses the muscle cells responsible for heart* contraction in both vertebrates and arthropods. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Insects hearts additionally contain ostial cells, also transversely striated muscle cells, but which do not participate in heart contraction. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • however, SMF effects on skeletal muscle cells are poorly investigated. (elsevier.com)
  • Homogenates from gastrocnemius muscles of mice injected with the venom of the snake Bothrops asper or with 2 tissue-damaging toxins were added to cultures of C2C12 myogenic cells. (wiley.com)
  • Has anybody here worked with primary muscle cells? (protocol-online.org)
  • In my experience myoblasts are best isolated by first isolating satellite cells and then differentiating them into myocytes. (protocol-online.org)
  • This method will be useful for applications in which differentiated myogenic cells need to be aligned unidirectionally as in the development of engineered muscle. (naver.com)
  • The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the stress hormone epinephrine increases inflammatory cytokine expression in skeletal muscle and muscle cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Epinephrine had a similar effect in C 2 C 12 muscle cells, where the hormone increased IL-6 protein and mRNA in a dose- and time-dependent manner. (elsevier.com)
  • We aimed to introduce and characterize the primary culture of skeletal muscle cells from individual HF patients as a supportive model to study this muscle loss. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although animal models and immortalized cell lines are convenient sources to study the basic features of muscle cells, they are devoid of typical human traits. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the present study, we aimed to characterize primary cultures of skeletal muscle from HF origin in relation to healthy donor cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results confirm that NM associated α-actin mutations induce a range of defects at the biochemical level as well as in cultured fibroblasts and muscle cells. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Dysregulated apoptosis in MPCs contributes to the low regeneration capability in aged muscle and decreases the survival rate of donor cells in stem cell-based therapies for muscular dystrophies. (biologists.org)
  • Disruption of M-cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesion by M-cadherin RNA interference in confluent C2C12 myoblasts sensitized the cells to mitochondria-associated intrinsic apoptosis induced by cell confluence or serum starvation. (biologists.org)
  • Muscle progenitor cells (MPCs) or satellite cells remain quiescent both metabolically and mitotically in adult muscles under normal basal physiological conditions. (biologists.org)
  • However, its role in regulating the survival and death of muscle progenitor cells or myoblasts has never been addressed. (biologists.org)
  • In the present study, we investigated the role of M-cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesion on the survival of mouse C2C12 myoblasts as well as primary muscle progenitor cells during myogenic differentiation. (biologists.org)
  • Myocytes are long, tubular cells that develop from myoblasts to form muscles in a process known as myogenesis . (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] [6] Smooth muscle cells control involuntary movements such as the peristalsis contractions in the oesophagus and stomach . (wikipedia.org)
  • The unusual microstructure of muscle cells has led cell biologists to create specialized terminology. (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiac , and smooth muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar invasive protrusions mediate the induced fusion of cultured Drosophila non-muscle cells, and the fusion of mammalian myoblasts, osteoclasts and macrophages. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • In this communication, we introduce boron nitride nanotube (BNNT)-functionalised muscle cell/microfibre mesh constructs, obtained via tissue engineering, as a three-dimensional (3D) platform to study a wireless stimulation system for electrically responsive cells and tissues. (supsi.ch)
  • Resveratrol - When you do strength training your muscle tissue is continuously extracting stem cells from your blood so that they can then grow into mature muscle cells. (ironmagazine.com)
  • The researchers studied the effect of resveratrol on muscle cells simply because they were curious about it. (ironmagazine.com)
  • Montesano wanted to know what resveratrol did to young muscle cells in test tubes. (ironmagazine.com)
  • Resveratrol boosted the amount of AMPK and of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 [ERK1] [ERK2] in the muscle cells. (ironmagazine.com)
  • AMPK is a protein that becomes active when muscle cells have no energy left. (ironmagazine.com)
  • ERK1 and ERK2 are proteins that start up processes in muscle cells in response to growth factors that are active outside the muscle cells. (ironmagazine.com)
  • AMPK and ERK1/2 regulate the development of muscle cells in opposite directions: AMPK stops anabolic processes, but stimulates the production of mitochondria, while extracellular signal-related kinases transmit the anabolic stimulus of IGF-1 to the DNA in the muscle cells. (ironmagazine.com)
  • The results of this study demonstrate that caveolin-3 mutations associated with LGMD-1C disrupt normal cellular signal transduction pathways associated with caveolae and cause apoptosis in muscle cells, all of which may reflect pathogenetic pathways that lead to muscle degeneration in these disorders. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The muscles that allow animal's to move are built predominantly of cells called myofibers. (elifesciences.org)
  • In adults, this phenomenon occurs when muscles regenerate after an injury, and new myofibers differentiate from so-called satellite cells that already reside within the muscles. (elifesciences.org)
  • Previously it was reported that the TFIID complex was eliminated from cells during muscle differentiation, and that an alternative protein complex called TBP2/TAF3 recognizes and regulates the promoters of muscle-specific genes. (elifesciences.org)
  • Further experiments also showed that the TBP2 protein is not required for differentiation of muscle cells or for the regeneration of injured muscles, and is actually absent in muscle cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • Skeletal muscle satellite cells, which are found between the muscle fiber and the basal lamina, remain quiescent and undifferentiated unless stimulated to remodel skeletal muscle or repair injured skeletal muscle tissue. (colorado.edu)
  • In this study, we investigated if activation of the Raf-MKK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling cascade plays a role in FGF-dependent repression of differentiation and proliferation of MM14 cells, a skeletal muscle satellite cell line. (colorado.edu)
  • We conclude that FGF-stimulated ERK1/2 signaling is required during the G1 phase of the cell cycle for commitment of myoblasts to DNA synthesis but is not required for mitosis once cells have entered the S-phase. (colorado.edu)
  • The changing AMPK expression profile in differentiating mouse skeletal muscle myoblast cells helps confer increasing resistance to apoptosis. (uclouvain.be)
  • However, its role in aiding survival of adult skeletal muscle precursor cells is unclear. (uclouvain.be)
  • This was indicated by higher DNA incorporation of thymidine and a higher number of cells expressing PCNA in intact muscle, accompanied by higher Pax7 levels, all reflecting a higher number of myogenic cells, and suggesting that the increased hypertrophy can be attributed to a higher reservoir of myogenic progeny cells produced in response to the TM. (core.ac.uk)
  • A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Here, we determined whether a low-therapeutic (0.5 mM) dose of lithium could promote myoblast fusion and myogenic differentiation in C2C12 cells. (mdpi.com)
  • These results indicate that a low-therapeutic dose of LiCl is sufficient to promote myoblast fusion and myogenic differentiation in muscle cells, which has implications for the treatment of several myopathic conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • Muscle development and regeneration require delicate cell cycle regulation of embryonic myoblasts and adult muscle satellite cells (MuSCs). (elifesciences.org)
  • Muscles have their own population of stem cells, called muscle satellite cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • These cells are essential for muscle growth and repair. (elifesciences.org)
  • The rest mature into new muscle cells or join with damaged muscle fibres to help them repair. (elifesciences.org)
  • In muscle satellite cells, progression through the cell cycle is tightly controlled to ensure they divide and grow the correct amount. (elifesciences.org)
  • deleted the gene that makes PLK1 only in mouse muscle satellite cells to find out the role this protein plays in controlling the cell cycle in stem cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • A closer look at the muscle satellite cells revealed the source of the problem. (elifesciences.org)
  • They tried to become muscle cells, but they did not make it. (elifesciences.org)
  • Instead, the muscle satellite cells started to act as though their DNA had been damaged, and then they self-destructed. (elifesciences.org)
  • Muscle satellite cells become less able to divide as we get older. (elifesciences.org)
  • Understanding how muscle satellite cells control their cell cycle could help us to find out what causes them to go wrong. (elifesciences.org)
  • Muscle regeneration relies on a population of muscle resident stem cells, known as muscle satellite cells (MuSCs). (elifesciences.org)
  • The remarkable regeneration capability of skeletal muscle depends on the coordinated proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells (SCs). (jci.org)
  • A muscle cell also known as a myocyte when referring to a cardiac muscle cell (cardiomyocyte), or a smooth muscle cell as these are both small muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac muscle cells form the chambers of the heart, and have a single central nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • and the cell membrane is termed the sarcolemma in muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The myofibrils of smooth muscle cells are not arranged into sarcomeres. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is widely believed that rather than being intrinsically flawed, attempts at myoblast transplantation in human subjects were done prematurely, without a sufficiently thorough knowledge of the molecular and cell biological aspects of muscle regeneration. (europa.eu)
  • In the adulthood at steady state, myoblast fusion events are sporadic but necessary for muscle regeneration. (nature.com)
  • 4) this novel myoblast model test system is suitable for defining muscle development/regeneration processes, identification of molecular targets for development of therapies, and potential regenerative medicine applications. (tdl.org)
  • Myoblast implantation is a unique, patented technology of muscle regeneration being tested in Phase III clinical trials of muscular dystrophy, ischemic cardiomyopathy, Phase II trial of cancer, and Phase I trial of Type II diabetes. (scirp.org)
  • Myoblasts transduced with VEGF 165 allow concomitant regeneration of blood capillaries and myofibers. (scirp.org)
  • Collectively, our data demonstrate that cytoglobin serves an important role in muscle regeneration. (pnas.org)
  • Consistent with this finding, the capacity for muscle regeneration was severely impaired in mice deficient for skeletal-muscle cytoglobin. (pnas.org)
  • Collectively, these data demonstrate that cytoglobin serves an important role in muscle repair and regeneration. (pnas.org)
  • A better understanding of the processes and proteins involved in myogenesis and muscle regeneration may enable the design of innovative therapies to improve the care of victims of severe muscle trauma, patients with skeletal myopathies, and the elderly. (pnas.org)
  • Skeletal muscle stem cell-derived myoblasts are mainly responsible for postnatal muscle growth and injury-induced muscle regeneration. (rupress.org)
  • c-MET Regulates Myoblast Motility and Myocyte Fusion during Adult Skeletal Muscle Regeneration - Descarga este documento en PDF. (duhnnae.com)
  • Using a genetic system to eliminate c-MET function specifically in adult mouse SCs, we found that c-MET was required for muscle regeneration in response to acute muscle injury. (duhnnae.com)
  • In conclusion, these results shed light on the potential of NANOG to restore the myogenic differentiation potential of senescent myoblasts and to reverse the loss of muscle regeneration due to aging. (aiche.org)
  • And we use mouse as a mammalian model to study the role for myoblast fusion in skeletal muscle regeneration and disease. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • Effect of linoleic and oleic acids on regeneration of gastrocnemius muscle after laceration in rats. (usp.br)
  • There was incomplete regeneration and partial recovery of the contractile function of the injured muscle. (usp.br)
  • Linoleic acid impaired regeneration whereas oleic acid optimized the regenerative capacity and contractile function of the injured muscle. (usp.br)
  • We show here that TBP2 null mice have an intact regeneration potential upon injury and that TBP2 is not expressed in established C2C12 muscle cell or in primary mouse MuSCs. (elifesciences.org)
  • This encoding gene is mutated in patients with dysferlinopathy (limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2B and Miyoshi myopathy), which is characterized byan active muscle degeneration and regeneration process. (bvsalud.org)
  • Our study supports that dysferlin not only has a role in skeletal muscle development but also in regeneration/repair process. (bvsalud.org)
  • Thus, cell cycle regulation of MuSCs is critical for precise control of the number of myoblasts that is needed for muscle regeneration. (elifesciences.org)
  • The self-renewal of SCs is critical for long-term maintenance of muscle regeneration potential. (jci.org)
  • Abstract: The actin-associated protein palladin has been shown to be involved in differentiation processes in non-muscle tissues. (osti.gov)
  • abstract = "Although an individual's genetic makeup is a major determinant of muscle mass, other influences, such as hormones, cytokines, nutrition, and exercise can also modulate muscle size. (elsevier.com)
  • Regulation of proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts derived from adult mouse skeletal muscle by specific isoforms of PDGF. (rupress.org)
  • However, the cellular signaling pathways controlling the proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts are not fully understood. (rupress.org)
  • Wang J, Tan J, Qi Q, Yang L, Wang Y, Zhang C, Hu L, Chen H, Fang X. miR-487b-3p Suppresses the Proliferation and Differentiation of Myoblasts by Targeting IRS1 in Skeletal Muscle Myogenesis. (ijbs.com)
  • Together with MYF5 and MYOG, co-occupies muscle-specific gene promoter core region during myogenesis. (uniprot.org)
  • Thus, an enhanced understanding of cytoglobin's role in myogenesis may enable the development of therapeutic approaches for treating patients with muscle injuries and other neuromuscular disorders. (pnas.org)
  • Over the course of a mammal's lifetime, the maintenance, adaptation, and repair of skeletal muscle depend on the continual ability to initiate myogenesis ( 4 , 5 , 10 ⇓ - 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • This review outlines the published data regarding DNA methylation changes along the skeletal muscle program, in both physiological and pathological conditions, to better understand the epigenetic mechanisms that control myogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we found that miR-487b-3p expression was significantly higher in goat muscle tissues than in other tissues and was higher in fetal goat muscle tissues than in mature goat tissues, suggesting that miR-487b-3p has an important effect on skeletal muscle myogenesis. (ijbs.com)
  • Furthermore, IRS1 silencing markedly inhibited proliferation and differentiation in cultured C2C12 myoblasts, confirming the important role of IRS1 in myogenesis. (ijbs.com)
  • These results reveal an IRS1-mediated regulatory link between miR-487b-3p and the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk pathways during skeletal muscle myogenesis. (ijbs.com)
  • Since intact actin-cytoskeletal remodeling is necessary for myogenesis, in the present study, we pursue to investigate the role of actin-associated palladin in skeletal muscle differentiation. (osti.gov)
  • In musculoskeletal myogenesis, aligning myoblasts in preparation for myotube formation is a crucial step. (naver.com)
  • A number of hypotheses have been put forth to explain the loss of muscle mass, some of which are physiologic, including prolonged immobilization and malnutrition, or pathologic, such as insulin resistance, impaired myogenesis and inflammation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Resveratrol promotes myogenesis and hypertrophy in murine myoblasts. (ironmagazine.com)
  • In skeletal muscle, RSV acts on protein catabolism and muscle function, conferring resistance against oxidative stress, injury and cell death, but its action mechanisms and protein targets in myogenesis process are not completely known. (ironmagazine.com)
  • Through analysis of the Polo-like kinase (Plk) family cell-cycle regulators in mice, we show that Plk1's expression closely mirrors myoblast dynamics during embryonic and postnatal myogenesis. (elifesciences.org)
  • Muscle myoblast (primitive embryonic muscle cell) differentiating in to a skeletal muscle cell, coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). (sciencephoto.com)
  • In vertebrates, development of skeletal muscle that commences at the embryonic stage ends only after postnatal growth during which an organism attains its fully developed size [1]. (neuroart2006.com)
  • Here we employed a doxycycline (Dox) regulatable system to show that expression of the embryonic transcription factor NANOG restored the impaired myogenic differentiation potential of senescent myoblasts. (aiche.org)
  • The p50 but not the p72 isoform of the embryonic alpha subunit homologue MELK is expressed only in proliferating myoblasts, while the ARK5 alpha subunit homologue is increasingly expressed with differentiation. (uclouvain.be)
  • We show that incubation at 39.5°C (increase of 1.7°C from normal conditions) from embryonic days 16 to 18 (E16 to E18) for 3 or 6 h daily increased diameter of myofibers as of day 13 of age and enhanced absolute muscle growth relative to controls, until day 35 of age. (core.ac.uk)
  • Cell-specific deletion of Plk1 in embryonic myoblasts leads to depletion of myoblasts, developmental failure and prenatal lethality. (elifesciences.org)
  • When myoblast migration was interrupted by transplanting limb bud tissue to the coelomic cavity of a host embryo early in the migratory period (stages 16-early 17), few thigh muscles were found at stages 30-33. (nih.gov)
  • To determine whether the early limb bud environment defines the fate of migrating myoblasts, we assessed fiber type patterns in limbs that developed from young limb bud tissue (stages 15-early 16) transplanted to older hosts (stage 17). (nih.gov)
  • In Duchenne muscular dystrophy, progressive loss of muscle tissue is accompanied by fibrosis, chronic inflammation and reduced muscle regenerative capacity. (nature.com)
  • Engineered muscle tissue has great potential in regenerative medicine, as disease model and also as an alternative source for meat. (jove.com)
  • Mammalian skeletal muscle is a dynamic and plastic tissue, capable of responding to physiological demands and pathophysiological stresses. (pnas.org)
  • Autologous myoblasts are harvested from a patient's skeletal muscle tissue. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patient will undergo biopsy of muscle tissue and biopsy tissue will be sent to lab. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Skeletal muscle is unique in that this tissue arises from the fusion of mononuclear myoblasts accompanied by the expression of several myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) following cell cycle exit to ensure the coordinated response to neural input [2C7]. (neuroart2006.com)
  • Our observations suggest that traces of venom in muscle tissue might inhibit myotube formation and preclude a successful regenerative response. (wiley.com)
  • Specimens of skeletal muscle tissue have been used mainly to study changes in histologic and (ultra)structural features. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A myocyte (also known as a muscle cell ) [1] is the type of cell found in muscle tissue . (wikipedia.org)
  • Boron nitride nanotube-functionalised myoblast/microfibre constructs: a nanotech-assisted tissue-engineered platform for muscle stimulation. (supsi.ch)
  • An immunohistochemical analysis of dysferlin and N-CAM in biopsied muscle tissue obtained from eleven patients with myopathies [six patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), two patients with dermatomyositis (DM), two patients with polymyositis (PM), and one patient with dysferlinopathy (MM)] and eight normal controls. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cultured human myoblast obtained from normal muscle tissue was also analyzed by the expression of dysferlin through immunocytochemical staining and western blot. (bvsalud.org)
  • The alternative splicing event is tissue specific and the mRNA containing the cassette exon is prevalent in brain, heart and skeletal muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our results suggest that GDF-11 regulates growth of skeletal muscles by inhibiting myoblast differentiation in an autocrine/paracrine manner and, perhaps, also plays a role in regulating sexually dimorphic growth. (scirp.org)
  • miR-487b-3p is expressed in muscle, and the detailed mechanism by which it regulates myoblast proliferation and differentiation has not been explored. (ijbs.com)
  • The aim of this study is to determine if the Odc1 gene, which encodes ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, is directly regulated by the androgen receptor (AR) in skeletal muscle myoblasts and if Odc1 regulates myoblast proliferation and differentiation. (edu.au)
  • Induces fibroblasts to differentiate into myoblasts. (uniprot.org)
  • Expression of skeletal muscle markers and regenerative capacity were decreased after pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of the B2 receptor, while its antagonism increased the number of myoblasts in culture. (springer.com)
  • Functional studies showed that miR-487b-3p overexpression significantly suppressed C2C12 myoblast proliferation and differentiation, which was accompanied by the down-regulation of functional genes related to proliferation (MyoD, Pax7 and PCNA) and differentiation (Myf5, MyoG and Mef2c), whereas the inhibition of miR-487b-3p accelerated C2C12 myoblast proliferation and differentiation and was accompanied by the up-regulation of functional genes. (ijbs.com)
  • In addition, the NH2 domain of p57 Kip2 necessary for inhibition of cyclin E-Cdk2 activity was sufficient to inhibit MyoD phosphorylation and to stabilize it, leading to its accumulation in proliferative myoblasts. (asm.org)
  • Overexpression of wild-type GSK-3β in confluent C2C12 myoblasts exacerbated the apoptosis, whereas chemical inhibition of GSK-3β using TDZD-8, or forced expression of constitutively active Akt (myrAkt), or a kinase-deficient GSK-3β mutant [GSK-3β(K85R)], attenuated apoptosis and rescued the impaired myogenic differentiation that is caused by M-cadherin RNA interference. (biologists.org)
  • Additionally, inhibition of MKK1/2 by treatment with pharmacological inhibitors also blocks FGF-mediated stimulation of ERK1/2 and blocks the G1 to S phase transition of myoblasts. (colorado.edu)
  • Mechanistically, Plk1 deletion upregulates p53, and inhibition of p53 promotes survival of the Plk1 -null myoblasts. (elifesciences.org)
  • By employing microarray, expressed sequence tag (EST) followed by RNA-Seq techniques to MSCs satellite cell analysis, we were able to delineate the regulatory network of genes corresponding to different transcription factors and certain prominent members of the extracellular protein family, involved in controlling myoblast differentiation [20, 21]. (neuroart2006.com)
  • Through secreted molecules, skeletal muscle affects local muscle biology in an auto/paracrine manner as well as having systemic effects on other tissues. (uni-freiburg.de)
  • Cytoglobin is a hemoprotein expressed in response to oxidative stress in a variety of tissues, including striated muscle. (pnas.org)
  • Skeletal muscle is one of the major insulin-responsive tissues that express PKC isoforms from each of the categories, and a number of the isoforms have been shown to be activated by insulin or conditions important for effective insulin stimulation ( 14 ). (mcponline.org)
  • M-cadherin is specifically expressed in skeletal muscle and certain neural tissues. (biologists.org)
  • In response to muscle injury or exercise, these quiescent MSCs become activated, as indicated by the expression of MyoD, reenter the cell cycle, and actively proliferate to form myoblasts. (rupress.org)
  • Upon injury, SCs activate, proliferate, and migrate as myoblasts to the injury site where they become myocytes that fuse to form new muscle. (duhnnae.com)
  • Upon activation, MuSCs proliferate to generate a pool of myoblasts that eventually return to the quiescent state to replenish the MuSCs pool or differentiate to repair muscle injuries. (elifesciences.org)
  • Accordingly, immunofluorescence staining of adult skeletal muscle sections has shown that most longitudinal SR proteins, including SERCA pumps and the inositol-trisphosphate receptors (InsP3R), are detected predominantly in correspondence with the Z disk and with a weaker signal over the M band ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Background: The p38\(\alpha\) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is a critical mediator of myoblast differentiation, and does so in part through the phosphorylation and regulation of several transcription factors and chromatin remodelling proteins. (harvard.edu)
  • Results: Applying the technique to p38\(\alpha\) resulted in the identification of seven in vivo phosphorylation sites on six proteins, four of which are cytoplasmic, in lysate derived from differentiating myoblasts. (harvard.edu)
  • Decellularized whole muscle three-dimensional scaffolds also supported cell adhesion and spreading, with myoblasts aligning along specific tracts of matrix proteins within the scaffolds. (edu.au)
  • Muscular dystrophy is caused by genetic mutations that interfere with the production of muscle proteins that are needed to build and maintain healthy muscles. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Their self assembly results in the formation of actin filaments that in muscle are part of the thin filaments and that interact with the various actin binding proteins such as α-actinin, tropomyosin and myosin in muscle. (beds.ac.uk)
  • While TFIID subunits and TBP are downregulated during myoblast differentiation, reduced amounts of these proteins form a complex that is detectable on promoters of muscle genes and is essential for their expression. (elifesciences.org)
  • ALDH1A3 Regulations of Matricellular Proteins Promote Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Results of a triple blind clinical study of myoblast transplantations without immunosuppressive treatment in young boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. (naver.com)
  • We demonstrate that Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) is required for myoblast proliferation and that it also functions as a checkpoint to prevent myoblasts from premature differentiation. (rupress.org)
  • ERK1/2 is required for myoblast proliferation but is dispensable for muscle gene expression and cell fusion. (colorado.edu)
  • The expression of receptors and the mitogenic response to PDGF by C2 myoblasts, derived from adult mouse skeletal muscle, was investigated. (rupress.org)
  • The results show that down-regulation of palladin decreased migratory activity of mouse skeletal muscle C2C12 myoblasts. (osti.gov)
  • Deliberate knockdown of JAK1 in both primary and immortalized myoblasts induces precocious myogenic differentiation with a concomitant reduction in cell proliferation. (rupress.org)
  • Data showed that RSV regulates cell cycle exit and induces C2C12 muscle differentiation. (ironmagazine.com)
  • We have produced a panel of antibodies (Ab's) that define muscle differentiation antigens in an attempt to produce antigenic markers for each of the main muscle-cell lineages. (springer.com)
  • We have developed a proteomics method to discover dystrophy-associated changes in the muscle progenitor cell niche, which identified serine proteases, and especially neutrophil elastase, as candidates. (nature.com)
  • However, in the presence of chronic injury, such as in DMD, the various waves of inflammatory cell infiltration are not synchronized as multiple foci of injury, often very close to one another in the same muscle unit, can be triggered at any time asynchronously. (nature.com)
  • A myoblast is a type of stem cell that occurs in muscles. (sciencephoto.com)
  • During the last year a new ligand-receptor pair (Scatter Factor / Met) that controls cell growth and motility, has been shown to be implicated in muscle development. (europa.eu)
  • In proliferating myoblasts, the levels of Myf5 and MyoD detected from cell to cell are very heterogeneous. (pasteur.fr)
  • After denervation, the muscle wet weight and cell area reduced rapidly, and the collagen fiber content increased slowly. (conicyt.cl)
  • Our results promote Ash1L as an important epigenetic regulator of MF and suggest that its activity could be targeted to improve cell therapy for muscle diseases. (nature.com)
  • r\nPodia were postulated to play a role in cell-cell adhesion in conjunction with Neural Cadherin (N-cadherin), an adhesion molecule important in myoblast differentiation. (tdl.org)
  • Myoblast fusion in has turned into a powerful genetic system with which to unravel the mechanisms underlying cell fusion. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • siRNA-mediated depletion of cytoglobin from C2C12 myoblasts increased levels of reactive oxygen species and apoptotic cell death both at baseline and in response to stress stimuli. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, limb presumptive myoblasts are a heterogeneous population, and part of the distinct TPA-resistant subpopulation may represent satellite cell precursors. (nih.gov)
  • This serum free culture system has revealed that the correct muscle ECM facilitates more rapid cell organisation and differentiation than single matrix glycoprotein substrates. (edu.au)
  • Eventually, these proliferating myoblasts irreversibly withdraw from cell cycles, differentiate, and fuse with existing myofibers. (rupress.org)
  • Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis revealed that myostatin prevented the progression of myoblasts from the G(1)- to S-phase of the cell cycle. (scienceopen.com)
  • This, in turn, leads to the arrest of myoblasts in G(1)-phase of cell cycle. (scienceopen.com)
  • To determine the role of mutant SOD1 gene (SOD1 G93A ) on muscle cell differentiation, we derived C2C12 muscle cell lines carrying a stably transfected SOD1 G93A gene under the control of a myosin light chain (MLC) promoter-enhancer cassette. (hindawi.com)
  • c-MET, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is required for myogenic precursor cell migration into the limb for muscle development during embryogenesis. (duhnnae.com)
  • Overexpression of SLIM1 in Sol8 myoblasts inhibited cell adhesion and promoted cell spreading and migration. (monash.edu)
  • Additionally, we found that NM associated actin mutants induce cell membrane blebbing in differentiating myoblasts (Rommelaere et al. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The sarcolemma is the cell membrane of a striated muscle fiber and receives and conducts stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sarcoplasm is the cytoplasm of a muscle fiber/cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sarcolemma was historically synonymous with the cell membrane of a striated muscle fiber or muscle cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our genetic and cell biological studies led to the discovery of an actin-enriched podosome-like structure (PLS) at the site of Drosophila myoblast fusion. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • Using both Drosophila myoblast fusion and our reconstituted cell-fusion culture system, we discovered mechanosensory responses in the receiving fusion partner. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • I detta protokoll presenterar vi procedurerna i upprättandet Dystrofia myotonika 1 myoblast modeller, inklusive optimerade C2C12 cell underhåll, gen transfektion / transduktion, och myocyt differentiering. (jove.com)
  • Myoblast cell lines generated from the muscle biopsy samples obtained above. (rochester.edu)
  • TMs had immediate (E17) and later (up to 2 wk posthatch) effects in elevating muscle cell proliferation relative to controls. (core.ac.uk)
  • Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation promotes intimal hyperplasia (IH) in occluding vascular diseases. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A cardiac muscle cell is often described as a cardiac muscle fiber since it is also striated like skeletal muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • A skeletal muscle cell is long and threadlike with many nuclei and is called a muscle fiber. (wikipedia.org)
  • The unusual microscopic anatomy of a muscle cell gave rise to its own terminology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cytoplasm of a nonmuscle cell is termed the sarcoplasm in a muscle cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each muscle fiber contains myofibrils, which are very long chains of sarcomeres, the contractile units of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cell from the biceps muscle may contain 80,000 sarcomeres. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspase-3 activation is a cell requirement during early stages of the skeletal myoblast differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • CAD leads to the initiation of the DNA strand breakage, which occurs during terminal differentiation of some cell, such as skeletal muscle cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • We collected gastrocnemius muscles from male and female mice at 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 20 and 32 weeks of age (n = 6 per sex and age). (scirp.org)
  • In addition, gastrocnemius muscles were col- lected from male wild-type and myostatin knockout mice at 4, 6, 12 and 20 weeks of age (n = 6 per age and genotype). (scirp.org)
  • Northern analysis identified an expected 4.4 kb mRNA transcript for GDF-11 in gastrocnemius muscles of mice. (scirp.org)
  • The concentration of GDF-11 mRNA, as determined by quantitative PCR, was increased in gastrocnemius muscles from 2 to 6 weeks-a period of rapid postnatal muscle growth-and remained higher in male than female mice from 4 to 20 weeks of age (P (scirp.org)
  • Interestingly, the mRNA concentration of GDF-11 and its cognate receptors (ActRIIA, ActIIB and Alk5) were increased in gastrocnemius muscles of myostatin knockout compared with wild-type mice (P (scirp.org)
  • In support, recombi- nant GDF-11 inhibited differentiation of C2C12 mur- ine myoblasts and those isolated from myostatin knockout and wild-type mice (P (scirp.org)
  • 9] McPherron, A.C., Lawler, A.M. and Lee, S.J. (1997) Regulation of skeletal muscle mass in mice by a new TGF-beta superfamily member. (scirp.org)
  • Mice in which cytoglobin was knocked out specifically in skeletal muscle were generated to examine the role of cytoglobin in vivo. (pnas.org)
  • We previously showed that expression of Odc1 is decreased in muscle from AR knockout male mice. (edu.au)
  • In this study, we show in vivo that Odc1 expression is also decreased >60% in muscle from male muscle-specific AR knockout mice. (edu.au)
  • Hey, looking for a protocol to isolate myoblasts from my Knockout and WT mice. (protocol-online.org)
  • Mice that overexpress IL-6 fail to thrive and/or have reduced skeletal muscle mass. (elsevier.com)
  • However, BET effects on skeletal muscle differentiation and hypertrophy are still poorly understood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We used RT 2 -PCR array, Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis to study the BET effects on morphological features of C2C12 and on signaling pathways involved in muscle differentiation and hypertrophy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This adaptive response would suppress insulin signaling, myoblast incorporation, fiber hypertrophy, and glucose oxidation. (vt.edu)
  • Inhibited dif-ferentiation of C2C12 myoblasts was associated with decreased mRNA expression of early and late mo- lecular markers of differentiation (MyoD, myogenin, IGF-II, desmin and MyHC, P (scirp.org)
  • Transfected SOD1 G93A gene expression in postmitotic skeletal myocytes downregulated the expression of relevant markers of committed and differentiated myoblasts such as MyoD, Myogenin, MRF4, and the muscle specific miRNA expression. (hindawi.com)
  • Among basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and MADS-box families of MRFs (MYOD, MYF5, MRF4, and myogenin: MYOG) that Rabbit Polyclonal to DRD4 play a critical role in myogenic differentiation, MYOD and MYF5 specifically play redundant roles during myoblast proliferation [8]. (neuroart2006.com)
  • In transient transfection assays, transcriptional transactivation of the mouse muscle creatine kinase promoter by MyoD was enhanced by the Cdk inhibitors. (asm.org)
  • Forced expression of p57 Kip2 correlated with hypophosphorylation of MyoD in C2C12 myoblasts. (asm.org)
  • Taken together, our data suggest that repression of cyclin E-Cdk2-mediated phosphorylation of MyoD by p57 Kip2 could play an important role in the accumulation of MyoD at the onset of myoblast differentiation. (asm.org)
  • Myogenic differentiation is under the control of a family of muscle-specific transcription factors (MRFs) which includes MyoD ( 7 ), myogenin ( 12 , 59 ), Myf5 ( 4 ), and MRF4 ( 45 ), also known as herculin ( 34 ) or Myf6 ( 5 ). (asm.org)
  • Moreover, ERK1/2 signaling is not required either to repress differentiation, to promote skeletal muscle gene expression, or to promote myoblast fusion. (colorado.edu)
  • The muscle matrix supported myoblast proliferation and differentiation equally as well as collagen and fibronectin. (edu.au)
  • Background- The inability of skeletal myoblasts to transdifferentiate into cardiomyocytes suggests that their beneficial effects on cardiac function after a myocardial infarction are mediated by paracrine effects. (ahajournals.org)
  • Neither skeletal nor cardiac muscle possesses this ability. (fsu.edu)
  • The skeletal muscle LIM protein 1 (SLIM1) is highly expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscle, and its expression is downregulated significantly in dilated human cardiomyopathy. (monash.edu)
  • We used in vivo surgical transplantation and anatomical analyses of thigh muscle patterns to ask whether myoblasts migrating into the limb bud at different developmental times adopt different fates. (nih.gov)
  • On the short term: optimisation of myoblast transplantation techniques by enhancing their proliferative and migratory potential. (europa.eu)
  • On the long term: a) reconstruction or replacement by myoblast transplantation of damaged or missing muscle following accident, surgery and ageing and b) cure of muscle and non-muscle diseases through myoblast-mediated gene transfer. (europa.eu)
  • This Phase I/II of the clinical trial is to investigate whether the transplantation of normal myoblasts throughout one muscle (the extensor carpi radialis) of the patients is safe and will improve the strength of that muscle. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The strength of both muscles will be measured at 3 months post transplantation to verify whether the myoblast transplantation improved the strength of the muscle. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The regenerative capacity of adult skeletal muscle is not unlimited. (pnas.org)
  • Human adult skeletal muscle has a limited ability to regenerate after injury and therapeutic options for volumetric muscle loss are few. (edu.au)
  • In healthy adult muscles, they spend most of their time inactive, but when there is an injury, they reawaken and start dividing. (elifesciences.org)
  • Adult skeletal muscle has an efficient regenerative capacity in response to muscle injury or physiological stimuli (i.e. intense exercise training). (elifesciences.org)
  • Using molecular markers that label myoblasts and the larval muscles themselves, we show that splitting of the larval muscles is concomitant with invasion by imaginal myoblasts and the onset of differentiation. (rupress.org)
  • These studies provide a genetic and molecular handle for the understanding of mechanisms underlying the use of muscle organizers in muscle patterning. (rupress.org)
  • 18. Histological, Immunological, Molecular and Ultrastructural Characteristics of FSHD Muscle. (bokus.com)
  • We investigated the cellular and molecular bases for the promotion of muscle development and growth by temperature manipulations (TMs) during late-term chick embryogenesis. (core.ac.uk)
  • During differentiation, BET caused an increase of muscle-specific markers and IGF-1 R protein levels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We show that the Erect wing protein, an early marker of muscle differentiation, is not only expressed in myoblasts just before and after fusion, but also in remnant larval nuclei during muscle differentiation. (rupress.org)
  • In contrast, the small muscle-specific isoform of ankyrin 1 (ank1.5), a transmembrane protein of the longitudinal SR known to interact with the myofibrillar protein obscurin, is preferentially localized near the M band and, to a lesser extent, to the Z disk ( 11 - 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • Growth and differentiation factor-11 (GDF-11) is a secreted protein that is closely related to myostatin, a known inhibitor of skeletal muscle development. (scirp.org)
  • Equally loaded protein was checked by expression of the non-muscle-specific β isoform of actin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Western analysis indicated that myostatin specifically up-regulated p21(Waf1, Cip1), a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, and decreased the levels and activity of Cdk2 protein in myoblasts. (scienceopen.com)
  • Infusion of epinephrine in vivo for 2 h increased IL-6 protein (15-fold) and mRNA (40-fold) in skeletal muscle but not in liver. (elsevier.com)
  • Given that α-actin is an essential protein for muscle function it is not surprising that mutations in this protein cause diseases (reviewed in Tondeleire et al. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Resveratrol boosted the production of the contracting motor muscle protein Myosin Heavy Chain [MyHC], the most important component in mature muscle fibres. (ironmagazine.com)
  • Further studies are now needed to explore how the TFIID-containing complex works with other regulatory protein complexes that are known to help make muscle-specific genes accessible to TFIID. (elifesciences.org)
  • Although the signaling pathways involved are poorly understood, the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade has been implicated in the regulation of skeletal muscle growth and differentiation by FGFs. (colorado.edu)
  • Its physiological role in skeletal muscle is unknown. (nature.com)
  • Results of the present study suggest that myostatin inhibits the expression of GLUT4 mRNA possibly via MEF2c and that the greater ability of the DM cattle to produce muscle relative to the NM cattle may be due to their greater sensitivity to insulin and greater use of glucose. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Lithium, a common medication for bipolar disorder, inhibits GSK3 via Mg + competition and increased Ser21 (GSK3α) or Ser9 (GSK3β) phosphorylation, leading to enhanced myoblast fusion and myogenic differentiation. (mdpi.com)
  • Thus, under serum free conditions, intact acellular muscle matrices provided cues to direct myoblast adhesion and migration. (edu.au)
  • Palladin knockdown decreases C2C12 myoblast migration ability. (osti.gov)
  • c-MET mutant myoblasts were defective in lamellipodia formation, had shorter ranges of migration, and migrated slower compared to control myoblasts. (duhnnae.com)
  • Surprisingly, c-MET was also required for efficient myocyte fusion, implicating c-MET in dual functions of regulating myoblast migration and myocyte fusion. (duhnnae.com)
  • These results provide in vivo evidence that limb myoblast diversity arises prior to the entry of myoblasts into the limb. (nih.gov)
  • Myf5 is the earliest-known muscle-specific factor to be expressed in vivo and its expression is associated with determination of the myoblast lineage. (pasteur.fr)
  • Methods: To further characterise the involvement of p38\(\alpha\) during myoblast differentiation, we developed and applied a simple technique for identifying relevant in vivo kinase substrates and their phosphorylation sites. (harvard.edu)
  • and 2) subsequently, utilize this model to investigate mechanisms of myoblast adhesion, fusion, and differentiation. (tdl.org)
  • We are using three different model organisms, Drosophila , zebrafish and mouse, to study mechanisms of myoblast fusion. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • Myoblast fusion (MF) is required for muscle growth and repair, and its alteration contributes to muscle diseases. (nature.com)
  • While we know extensively about the structural and signaling components required for myoblast fusion, the gene expression regulation underlying this important process is poorly understood. (nature.com)
  • Importantly, no epigenetic regulator of myoblast fusion has ever been defined. (nature.com)
  • Myoblast fusion was inhibited by exposure to soluble anti-Neural-cadherin antibody, but this treatment increased MHC levels assessed using immunohistochemistry. (tdl.org)
  • With this chapter we describe standard chemical fixation and high-pressure freezing/freeze substitution methods for visualizing fusion intermediates during myoblast fusion. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • One popular technique to monitor myoblast fusion is definitely imaging fixed or live embryos with light microscopy. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • exposed several fusion intermediates in the ultrastructural level including combined vesicles with electron-dense margins uncommon electron-dense plaques and multiple membrane discontinuities (fusion skin pores) along the apposing myoblast membranes. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Samples inside a and C are prepared … Fig. 3 Embryo staging during myoblast fusion. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • To day there has been only one published immunoelectron microscopic study of myoblast fusion (9). (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Myoblasts proliferation and fusion were assessed. (wiley.com)
  • Myoblast fusion is an evolutionarily conserved process that occurs from insects to mammals. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • We use Drosophila as a powerful genetic model to conduct unbiased genetic screens to identify new genes in myoblast fusion and characterize their functions. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • Genetic screens identified essential functions for the actin nucleation-promoting factors of the Arp2/3 complex in myoblast fusion. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) slows myogenic differentiation and myoblast fusion partly by inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. (mdpi.com)
  • Acts as a transcriptional activator that promotes transcription of muscle-specific target genes and plays a role in muscle differentiation. (uniprot.org)
  • Downstream of JAK1, of all the signal transducer and activator of transcriptions (STATs) present in myoblasts, we find that only STAT1 knockdown promotes myogenic differentiation in both primary and immortalized myoblasts. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, JAK1-STAT1-STAT3 constitutes a signaling pathway that promotes myoblast proliferation and prevents premature myoblast differentiation. (rupress.org)
  • We show that elastase activity is increased in dystrophic ( mdx 4cv ) muscle and impairs myoblast survival in culture. (nature.com)
  • Developmental programming in response to intrauterine growth restriction impairs myoblast function and skeletal muscle metabolism. (vt.edu)
  • Although much is known about the development of fibrosis and chronic inflammation in muscular dystrophy, less is known about how they are mechanistically linked to loss of muscle regenerative capacity. (nature.com)
  • Our findings evidence the importance of neutrophil-mediated inflammation in muscular dystrophy and indicate elastase-mediated regulation of myoblast behaviour as a potential mechanism underlying loss of regenerative capacity in dystrophic muscle. (nature.com)
  • In contrast, the NM and DM cattle did not differ with respect to skeletal muscle expression of GLUT1 and myocyte enhancer factor-2c (MEF2c), a transcription factor of GLUT4. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Inactivation ofthe Raf-MKK1/2-ERK1/2 pathway in myoblasts through the overexpression of dominant negative mutants of Raf-1 blocks ERK1/2 activity and prevents myoblast proliferation. (colorado.edu)
  • A ) C2C12 myoblasts were pre-incubated for 30 minutes with sphingosine kinase (SK) inhibitor (10 μM SKI-2) before being challenged with 50 ng/ml insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) for the indicated time intervals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Palladin in C2C12 myoblasts is knocked-down using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). (osti.gov)