Lip: Either of the two fleshy, full-blooded margins of the mouth.Cleft Lip: Congenital defect in the upper lip where the maxillary prominence fails to merge with the merged medial nasal prominences. It is thought to be caused by faulty migration of the mesoderm in the head region.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Lip Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIP.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Lip DiseasesMuscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.Muscle Denervation: The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Cleft Palate: Congenital fissure of the soft and/or hard palate, due to faulty fusion.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Facial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Muscle, Striated: One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.Muscle Spindles: Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Abdominal Muscles: Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Muscle Cells: Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.Masseter Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Intercostal Muscles: Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Muscular Atrophy: Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle: Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.Pectoralis Muscles: The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.Psoas Muscles: A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.Myofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .Temporal Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Pharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.GlycogenNeuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Muscular Dystrophy, AnimalRats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Myoblasts: Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Muscle Cramp: A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.MyoD Protein: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Mice, Inbred mdx: A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.Sarcomeres: The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.Myostatin: A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Muscle Stretching Exercises: Exercises that stretch the muscle fibers with the aim to increase muscle-tendon FLEXIBILITY, improve RANGE OF MOTION or musculoskeletal function, and prevent injuries. There are various types of stretching techniques including active, passive (relaxed), static, dynamic (gentle), ballistic (forced), isometric, and others.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Muscle Rigidity: Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Dystrophin: A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Myoblasts, Skeletal: Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).Mice, Inbred C57BLImmunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Hindlimb Suspension: Technique for limiting use, activity, or movement by immobilizing or restraining animal by suspending from hindlimbs or tails. This immobilization is used to simulate some effects of reduced gravity and study weightlessness physiology.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Thigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Muscle Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Pterygoid Muscles: Two of the masticatory muscles: the internal, or medial, pterygoid muscle and external, or lateral, pterygoid muscle. Action of the former is closing the jaws and that of the latter is opening the jaws, protruding the mandible, and moving the mandible from side to side.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Muscular Dystrophies: A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.Skeletal Muscle Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in skeletal muscle.Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.Muscle Relaxants, Central: A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)Sarcolemma: The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Cheilitis: Inflammation of the lips. It is of various etiologies and degrees of pathology.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Muscle Spasticity: A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne: An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)Torque: The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Myositis: Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Myogenin: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Muscle Strength Dynamometer: A device that measures MUSCLE STRENGTH during muscle contraction, such as gripping, pushing, and pulling. It is used to evaluate the health status of muscle in sports medicine or physical therapy.Desmin: An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Smooth Muscle Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in smooth muscle.Receptors, Cholinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.Reflex, Stretch: Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Tropomyosin: A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Citrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 22.214.171.124.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Sarcopenia: Progressive decline in muscle mass due to aging which results in decreased functional capacity of muscles.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Neuromuscular Diseases: A general term encompassing lower MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and certain MUSCULAR DISEASES. Manifestations include MUSCLE WEAKNESS; FASCICULATION; muscle ATROPHY; SPASM; MYOKYMIA; MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, myalgias, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Rana temporaria: A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.Deltoid Muscle: Thick triangular muscle in the SHOULDER whose function is to abduct, flex, and extend the arm. It is a common site of INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Myogenic Regulatory Factors: A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).Motor Endplate: The specialized postsynaptic region of a muscle cell. The motor endplate is immediately across the synaptic cleft from the presynaptic axon terminal. Among its anatomical specializations are junctional folds which harbor a high density of cholinergic receptors.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Rana pipiens: A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Creatine Kinase, MM Form: An isoenzyme of creatine kinase found in the MUSCLE.Running: An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.PAX7 Transcription Factor: A paired box transcription factor that is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and SKELETAL MUSCLE.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Muscle Hypertonia: Abnormal increase in skeletal or smooth muscle tone. Skeletal muscle hypertonicity may be associated with PYRAMIDAL TRACT lesions or BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.Recruitment, Neurophysiological: The spread of response if stimulation is prolonged. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Myogenic Regulatory Factor 5: A SKELETAL MUSCLE-specific transcription factor that contains a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF. It plays an essential role in MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT.Paraspinal Muscles: Deep muscles in the BACK whose function is to extend and rotate the SPINE and maintain POSTURE. It consists splenius, semispinalis, multifidus, rotatores, interspinales, intertransversarii and sacrospinalis.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Troponin: One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Smiling: A facial expression which may denote feelings of pleasure, affection, amusement, etc.Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel: A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection. Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection. This article ... Cheek, upper lip. Skull: Orbital floor, maxillary sinus, upper teeth, nasal cavity, and palate, cheekbone. Nerves of the orbit ... Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection. Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection. ... Ophthalmic nerve Ophthalmic nerve Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection. ...
Orofacial myological disorders
... weak chewing muscles (masseter); weak lip muscles (orbicularis oris); overdeveloped chin muscles (mentalis); muscular imbalance ... Other causes of open-mouth posture are weakness of lip muscles, overall lack of tone in the body or hypotonia, and prolonged/ ... and facial muscles to facilitate correct resting posture of tongue, lips, and jaw Establish mature swallowing patterns Prevent ... Some of these questions are geared toward tongue protrusion and an opening of lips when the client is in repose; habitual mouth ...
Staffordshire Bull Terrier
The cheek muscles are very pronounced. The lips show no looseness. The teeth form a scissor bite. The head tapers down to a ... The hind quarters are well-muscled. They are coloured brindle, black, red, fawn, blue, white, or any blending of these colours ... This dog has a broad, wedge-shaped head (male considerably more so than female), defined occipital muscles, a relatively short ... strong well-muscled neck and shoulders placed on squarely spaced forelimbs. They are tucked up into their loins and the last 1- ...
The lips use seven muscles to manipulate and tear at plants. Manatees use their lips and front flippers to move the plants into ... The manatee has prehensile lips; the upper lip pad is split into left and right sides which can move independently. ... prehensile upper lip. They use the lip to gather food and eat, as well as using it for social interactions and communications. ... The manatee does not have front teeth, however, behind the lips, on the roof of the mouth, there are dense, ridged pads. These ...
Deltoid tubercle of spine of scapula
This lip is called the deltoid tubercle. Middle and inferior fibres of trapezius muscle, and deltoid muscle, attached to the ... Trapezius muscle. Posterior view. Deltoid muscle. Posterior view. Acromion Spine of scapula R.M.H. McMinn "Lasts Anatomy ... The deltoid tubercle marks the beginning of attachment of deltoid muscle. Left scapula. Animation. Deltoid tubercle is shown in ... The spine, at lateral to the root of the spine, curves down and laterally to form lip. ...
Their cheek muscles are well-developed and produce tight-fitting lips. Their muzzles, jaws, and teeth tend to be very strong, ... The loins of a Red-Tiger Bulldog should be short, strong, and deeply muscled. Their tails are always docked at 3-5 vertebra ( ... The Red-Tiger Bulldog's shoulders are moderately to heavily loaded with muscle and have moderate to maximal definition. Their ...
"Vestiges of vibrissal capsular muscles exist in the human upper lip". Clin Anat. 20 (6): 628-31. doi:10.1002/ca.20497. PMID ... some humans even still develop vestigial vibrissal muscles in the upper lip, consistent with the hypothesis that previous ... Jin, T.-E.; Witzemann, V; Brecht, M (March 31, 2004). "Fiber Types of the Intrinsic Whisker Muscle and Whisking Behavior". The ... A small muscle 'sling' is attached to each macrovibrissa and can move it more-or-less independently of the others, whilst ...
Some symptoms that are usually found in infants, besides poor muscle tone, would be a lack of eye coordination; some are born ... Another sign of this condition is a thin upper lip. More aspects seen in a clinical overview include hypotonia ... In newborns symptoms include weak muscles, poor feeding, and slow development. Beginning in childhood the person becomes ... The symptoms can range from poor muscle tone during infancy to behavioral problems in early childhood. ...
Four muscles attach to the medial border. Serratus anterior has a long attachment on the anterior lip. Three muscles insert ... Levator scapulae muscle (red) Rhomboid minor muscle (red) Rhomboid major muscle (red) The scapula is ossified from 7 or more ... These two muscles act as a force couple within the glenohumeral joint to properly elevate the acromion process, and if a muscle ... The intrinsic muscles of the scapula include the muscles of the rotator cuff-the subscapularis, teres minor, supraspinatus, and ...
Often, the upper lip is retracted due to muscle shrinkage. Occasionally, the cranial nerves V and VIII are affected. If cranial ... The mouth and lips may tend to get dry with the Möbius patient. Lack of a good oral seal (lips together) allows the gingiva ( ... There may be low tone of the muscles of the soft palate, pharynges, and the masticatory system. The palate may be arched ... This should be completed in most situations before the smile surgery where the gracilis muscle is grafted to the face. Genetic ...
In the setting of lip incompetence (the upper and lower lips do not touch each other at rest), the mentalis muscle contraction ... The mentalis is a paired central muscle of the lower lip, situated at the tip of the chin. It originates from the mentum and ... Position of mentalis (red). Action of the mentalis muscle. Lips and Perioral Region Anatomy at eMedicine. ... In conjunction with orbicularis contraction, the mentalis muscle allows the lips to "pout." Externally, mentalis contraction ...
... benign tumors of nerve tissue on the tongue and lips); Digestive problems; Muscle, joint, and spinal problems; Typical facial ... muscle deformities (contractures of heels, legs; pseudohypertrophy of calf muscles) ... Muscle weakness (rapidly progressive); frequent falls; difficulty with motor skills (running, hopping, jumping); progressive ... Affects skeletal and smooth muscle as well as the eye, heart, endocrine system, and central nervous system; clinical findings, ...
The lip is continuous and is produced beyond the body whorl. The inner surface is dark metallic blue and green, with yellow ... The muscle impression is distinct and roughened. The back of the shell is convex and angled at the row of perforations. The ... The columellar plate is broad, passing into the expanded continuation of the outer lip above. It is not truncate below. Its ...
In horses, it is the muscle that allows it to flick a fly off its back. In many non-human mammals, the upper lip and sinus area ... This muscle is found in ≈5% of humans. The plantaris muscle is composed of a thin muscle belly and a long thin tendon. The ... The orbitalis muscle is a vestigial or rudimentary nonstriated muscle (smooth muscle) of the eye that crosses from the ... The Occipitalis Minor is a muscle in the back of the head which normally joins to the auricular muscles of the ear. This muscle ...
Marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve
Insertion: Lower lip at midline, blends with muscle from opposite side. Depressor anguli oris (triangularis) - lowers the ... The marginal mandibular branch innervates the following muscles: Depressor labii inferioris - lowers bottom lip down and ... supplying the muscles of the lower lip and chin, and communicating with the mental branch of the inferior alveolar nerve. ... Mentalis - raises and protrudes lower lip as it wrinkles skin on chin. Origin: Mandible inferior to incisor teeth. Insertion: ...
... does not require much muscle strength but it does require a high degree of muscle coordination. Individuals can develop ... With the lips closed, this is called humming. The sound of each individual's singing voice is entirely unique not only because ... to a dynamic relationship between the breathing-in muscles and the breathing-out muscles known as the breath support mechanism ... Controversy has also arisen due to cases where pop singers have been found to be lip-syncing to a pre-recorded recording of ...
Muscle mis-coordination becomes apparent. Movements are slow and labored, accompanied by a stumbling pace and mild confusion, ... Lips, ears, fingers, and toes may become blue. As the temperature decreases, further physiological systems falter and heart ... Heat is primarily generated in muscle tissue, including the heart, and in the liver, while it is lost through the skin (90%) ... Below 30 °C (86 °F), the exposed skin becomes blue and puffy, muscle coordination very poor, and walking almost impossible, and ...
Muzzle: strong, lips close with no excessive looseness. Teeth strong and even with full scissor bite. Neck: strong, elegant, ... Head: medium-sized, full of quality with strong bones and powerful cheek and jaw muscles. Slight bull terrier characteristics ... Shoulders and forelegs: strong, well laid back and developed without excessive muscle tone. Forelegs should be set square and ... Back, hindquarters and hind legs: back and loins, muscular, strong and well coupled, with well defined muscle development. ...
Pursed-lip breathing Accessory muscle use, including the scalene and intercostal muscles. Diaphragmatic breathing, paradoxical ... Retractions can also be intercostal, in which there is visible contraction of the intercostal muscles (between the ribs) to aid ... Retractions can be supra-sternal, where the accessory muscles of respirations of the neck are contracting to aid inspiration. ...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Weight loss and muscle weakness, as well as the presence of other diseases, should also be taken into account. A chest X-ray ... Pursed lip breathing exercises may be useful. Tai chi exercises appear to be safe to practice for people with COPD, and may be ... General muscle wasting that often occurs in COPD may be partly due to inflammatory mediators released by the lungs into the ... Many people with more advanced COPD breathe through pursed lips and this action can improve shortness of breath in some. In ...
List of Home and Away characters (2011)
List of kanji by concept
Facial feedback hypothesis
The Lip position would contract the orbicularis oris muscle, resulting in a frown. The Teeth position would cause the ... Thus, while motor efference commands to the facial muscles remain intact, sensory afference from extrafusal muscle fibers, and ... to temporarily paralyze facial muscles. Botox selectively blocks muscle feedback by blocking presynaptic acetylcholine ... It has been suggested that more effort may be involved in holding a pen with the lips compared with the teeth. To avoid the ...
Forensic facial reconstruction
Next, the nose and lips are reconstructed before any of the other muscles are formed. The lips are approximately as wide as the ... The muscles of facial expression and the soft tissue around the eyes are added next. Additional measurements are made according ... First, the facial muscles are layered onto the cast in the following order: temporalis, masseter, buccinator and occipito- ... ruggedness of muscle attachments, profile of the mandible, symmetry of the nasal bones, dentition, and wear of the occlusal ...
The deeper muscles are best seen as numerous distinct fasciculi in a cross-section of the trunk. The trunk is a multipurpose ... The distinctive trunk is an elongation of the nose and upper lip combined; the nostrils are at its tip, which has a one finger- ... Four basic muscle masses-the radial, the longitudinal and two oblique layers-and the size and attachments points of the tendon ... The trunk contains as many as 60,000 muscles, which consist of longitudinal and radiating sets. The longitudinals are mostly ...
Trapezius muscle. Hyperinflation. Hyperinflation or hyperaeration is where the lung volume is abnormally increased, with ... Inhalation begins with the contraction of the muscles attached to the rib cage; this causes an expansion in the chest cavity. ... Lip balm. *Medicated shampoo. *Dermal patch. *Transdermal patch. *Contact (rubbed into break in the skin) ...
... people with some muscle diseases, and people with limited range of motion in the hip or knee joints. Tilting options are ... to enter the shower without needing to overcome a barrier or lip. ... reduction in abnormal muscle tone and spasticity, and skeletal deformities. Other wheelchairs provide some of the same benefits ...
The patient places his or her lips around the blue mouthpiece. The teeth go between the nubs and the shield, and the lips go ... Pmax is the asymptotically maximal pressure that can be developed by the respiratory muscles at any lung volume and Pi is the ... It is a marker of respiratory muscle function and strength. Represented by centimeters of water pressure (cmH2O) and ...
Vocal warm up
... while activating the lips and the tongue in a variety of exercises to stretch the muscles and prepare for the more defined ... Muscles all over the body are used when singing/acting. Stretching helps to activate and prepare the large muscle groups that ... Often we also try and use our jaw for articulation, which creates unnecessary tension in the facial muscles and tongue. A good ... Changing pitch undoubtedly stretches the vocal muscles, and singing or projecting one's voice for acting requires a more ...
Tapping the tendon stretches the thigh muscle, which activates stretch receptors within the muscle called muscle spindles. Each ... In the fingertips and lips, innervation density of slowly adapting type I and rapidly adapting type I mechanoreceptors are ... Muscle spindles and the stretch reflex. The knee jerk is the popularly known stretch reflex (involuntary kick of the ... Some of the branches of the I-a axons synapse directly with alpha motor neurons.These carry impulses back to the same muscle ...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
COPD often leads to reduction in physical activity, in part due to shortness of breath. In later stages of COPD muscle ... Pursed lip breathing exercises may be useful. Tai chi exercises appear to be safe to practice for people with COPD, and ... People with COPD who are underweight can improve their breathing muscle strength by increasing their calorie intake. When ... muscle wasting, osteoporosis, lung cancer, anxiety disorder, sexual dysfunction, and depression. In those with severe ...
Obstructive sleep apnea
During REM sleep, in particular, muscle tone of the throat and neck, as well as the vast majority of all skeletal muscles, is ... all air comes out of the pursed lips, none from the nose. If it is impossible to say the sound without fogging a nasal mirror, ... Old age is often accompanied by muscular and neurological loss of muscle tone of the upper airway. Decreased muscle tone is ... The chest muscles and diaphragm contract and the entire body may thrash and struggle. ...
Regular use of lip balm and moisturizer is recommended throughout a course of treatment to reduce these problems. The dose may ... Uncommon and rare side effects include muscle aches and pains (myalgias), and headaches. Isotretinoin is known to cause birth ... The most common adverse effects are a transient worsening of acne (lasting 1-4 months), dry lips (cheilitis), dry and fragile ... Other common mucocutaneous side effects are inflammation and chapping of the lips (cheilitis), redness of the skin (erythema), ...
Instead, it has sensitive touch receptors (Merkel cells). The rhinarium, upper lip, and gums are tightly connected by a fold of ... a ridge of bone on the top of the skull to which jaw muscles attach) and canine teeth. Lorisoids exhibit some sexual ... which leaves it less mobile than the upper lips of simians. The philtrum creates a gap (diastema) between the roots ... non-mobile lips, and reduced facial enervation restrict the use of facial expressions in strepsirrhines. Short-range calls, ...
Lips: Thick and close-fitting. The upper lip covers the lower. Well-pigmented. ... Loins: Medium length, broad, well-muscled. Pronounced above the upper line.. *Croup: Medium length, broad and slightly sloping ... Tightly joined to the body, well-muscled. Angle between shoulder blade and shoulder bone is approximately 105°. ...
Ellis-van Creveld syndrome
Chest muscles. The push up requires the work of many muscle groups, with one of the primary muscle groups being the chest ... The lips must come within 1 inch of the floor while keeping the neck in line with the straight spine to qualify as a valid push ... "What Muscles Do Push-Ups Work?". MDhealth.com.. *^ Matthew Schirm. "Which Muscles Does a Push-Up Work?". Live Well - Jillian ... Muscles worked. While the push-up primarily targets the muscles of the chest, arms, and shoulders, support required from ...
Human digestive system
The suspensory muscle attaches the ascending duodenum to the diaphragm. This muscle is thought to be of help in the digestive ... The vestibule is the area between the teeth, lips and cheeks, and the rest is the oral cavity proper. Most of the oral ... It starts at the duodenal bulb and ends at the suspensory muscle of duodenum. The attachment of the suspensory muscle to the ... At either side of the soft palate are the palatoglossus muscles which also reach into regions of the tongue. These muscles ...
Vitamin D toxicity
Lips P (July 2010). "Worldwide status of vitamin D nutrition". The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 121 ( ... Muscle weakness. *Metastatic calcification of the soft tissues. Symptoms of vitamin D toxicity appear several months after ... Lips P (March 2007). "Vitamin D status and nutrition in Europe and Asia". The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular ...
Vitamin D deficiency
Muscle aches and weakness. *Muscle twitching (fasciculations) is commonly seen due to reduced ionised calcium, arising from ... Mithal A, Wahl DA, Bonjour JP, Burckhardt P, Dawson-Hughes B, Eisman JA, El-Hajj Fuleihan G, Josse RG, Lips P, Morales-Torres J ... It can also worsen osteomalacia and osteoporosis in adults, leading to an increased risk of bone fractures. Muscle ... Chel V, Wijnhoven HA, Smit JH, Ooms M, Lips P (2008). "Efficacy of different doses and time intervals of oral vitamin D ...
The signs and symptoms include fatigue; lightheadedness upon standing or difficulty standing, muscle weakness, fever, weight ... the vermilion border of the lips, and genital skin. These skin changes are not encountered in secondary and tertiary ... loss, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, sweating, changes in mood or personality, and joint and muscle pains. Some ...
... or neck and lip muscles. Others recommended shortening the uvula or removing the tonsils. All were abandoned due to the high ... Nonverbal-these are visible or audible speech behaviors, such as lip smacking, throat clearing, head thrusting, etc., usually ... strengthening the tongue as a muscle, and various herbal remedies were used. Similarly, in the past people have subscribed ... including escape behaviours such as eye blinking and lip movements, may be used, as well as fear and avoidance of sounds, words ...
Tight lips, without flews. The muzzle tapers a little from the base to the nose, but it is not pointed at the tip. ... Shoulders: Well muscled. Shoulder blades are laid back. They should meet the upper arms at an angle of 105-110 degrees. ... Hindquarters: Hindlegs should be slender, with good bone, well muscled and parallel to each other. The rear angulation should ...
Sweat - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sweat glands are distributed over the entire body, except for the lips, nipples and external genital organs. The sweat gland is ... Sweating is your body's major way of getting rid of excess body heat, which is produced by metabolism or working muscles. The ... Perspiration, or sweat, is your body's way of cooling itself, whether that extra heat comes from hardworking muscles or from ...
Neck Muscles Used To Create Fuller Lips - Redorbit
Augmenting the lips with grafts of muscle and connective tissue from the neck appears to result in improved appearance for at ... "The postoperative recovery after sternocleidomastoid fascia and muscle grafts to the lips is straightforward," the authors ... As an individual ages, the groove on the upper lip flattens, the white lip lengthens and the amount of vermilion (pink tissue) ... "After the first month of lip swelling, the patient should expect that the lips will still be slightly swollen. The senior ...
Quadrate muscle of upper lip | Define Quadrate muscle of upper lip at Dictionary.com
Quadrate muscle of upper lip definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and ... quadrate muscle of upper lip. n.. *A muscle composed of three heads usually described as three muscles: the elevator muscle of ... the upper lip and wing of the nose, the elevator muscle of the upper lip, and the lesser zygomatic muscle. ...
Electromyographic Analysis of Masticatory Muscles in Cleft Lip and Palate Children with Pain-Related Temporomandibular Disorders
45] The temporalis anterior muscle: vertically along the anterior margin of the muscle; the masseter muscle: parallel to the ... The aim of this study was to assess the electrical activity of temporalis and masseter muscles in children with cleft lip and ... Our study also revealed the influence of TMD-P on masticatory muscle EMG potentials in children with cleft lip and palate. ... For these reasons, it is essential to determine temporalis and masseter muscle activity in cleft lip and palate children with ...
2019 Silicone Facial Slimmer Face Slim Exerciser Muscle Lips Trainer Tightener Lip Massage Mask Muscle Anti Wrinkle Fitness...
... silicone facial slimmer face slim exerciser muscle lips trainer tightener lip massage mask muscle anti-wrinkle fitness ... Product Name: Silicone Facial Slimmer Face Slim Exerciser Muscle Lips Trainer Tightener Lip Massage Mask Muscle Anti-Wrinkle ... Silicone Facial Slimmer Face Slim Exerciser Muscle Lips Trainer Tightener Lip Massage Mask Muscle Anti-Wrinkle Fitness ... Silicone Facial Slimmer Face Slim Exerciser Muscle Lips Trainer Tightener Lip Massage Mask Muscle Anti-Wrinkle Fitness ...
Levator muscle of upper lip | definition of levator muscle of upper lip by Medical dictionary
What is levator muscle of upper lip? Meaning of levator muscle of upper lip medical term. What does levator muscle of upper lip ... Looking for online definition of levator muscle of upper lip in the Medical Dictionary? levator muscle of upper lip explanation ... tarsal muscles See Müllers palpebral muscles.. tensor tarsi muscle See Horners muscle.. yoke muscles Muscles of the two ... abducens muscle See lateral rectus muscle.. adducens muscle See medial rectus muscle.. agonistic muscle A muscle that performs ...
Muscle reconstruction of the lip in the primary surgical treatment of cleft lip: A comprehensive review. - Open Access Library
... surgical management of the cleft lip is a technique which may contribute to the functional and esthetic repair of cleft lips. ... Keywords: Cleft lip , primary lip surgery , muscular lip reconstruction , functional lip reconstruction ... In cleft lip patients, the normal anatomy of the paranasal muscles and the orbicularis oris muscle is disordered. This results ... Muscle reconstruction of the lip in the primary surgical treatment of cleft lip: A comprehensive review.. ...
Lip twitching: Causes and treatment
A look at lip twitching, a complaint causing involuntary movement. Included is detail on the role caffeine intoxication plays ... Lip twitching is the involuntary movement of muscles in the lip.. *The muscles in the face and lips are controlled by the ... Why is my lip muscle twitching?. An involuntary twitching of the lips can be annoying and difficult to ignore. ... Lip twitching is the result of a miscommunication between the lip nerve and the muscles it controls. This could be due to ...
muscle cramps | An Instant on the Lips
My mixed dog seemingly pulled a muscle - Questions & Answers | VetInfo/QA
Red spots on lower dog lip. My dog has red spots on his lower lip. Two of them are on both sides of lip by his fangs and one is ... Dog with swollen lip. What is it?. IF my dog has a swollen lip and it itches and shes in pain what is it and what should be ... Red bump on dog lip?. I have a four year old Beagle and he has a big red bump in his lower lip. Its been there for a week just ... My boxer seems to have strained a muscle in his back leg. My boxer seems to have strained a muscle in his back leg...Sometimes ...
Best over the counter lip plumper - Muscle Advance - Nov 9, 2017
Lip Plumpers [Archive] - Club Vogue. Sports nutritionals. Muscle Advance Weight Gainer with 810 Calories, 52g Protein, 94g ... www.buyforhealth.com/lip/best-over-the-count er-lip-plumper/) lip plumpers, lip plumping, pouty lips, luscious lips, best lip ... lip plumping, pouty lips, luscious lips, best lip plumpers, plumping products, lip plumping device, angelina lips,fuller lips, ... 15 Sep 2012 lip plumpers, lip plumping, pouty lips, luscious lips, best lip... In the last decade, scores of over-the-counter ...
Adjusting Muscles around the Mouth
Adjust the Pucker Lips value to pucker the lips as if your model is ready for a kiss. ... Drag the slider to raise the upper lip, which can affect muscles around the nose. ... Adjusting Muscles around the Mouth. When decoding emotional expressions, the mouth can also give clues, just like the eyes. In ... Click the Muscles button in the Modify Panel, and pick the mouth area shown in the illustration.. ...
Novelty Smiling and Facial Muscle Exerciser Lip Orthotics in Pink | Sammydress.com Mobile
Lip - Wikipedia
MusclesEdit. The muscles acting on the lips are considered part of the muscles of facial expression. All muscles of facial ... "Lips" redirects here. For the band, see Lips (New Zealand band). For the surname, see Lips (surname). For other uses, see Lip ( ... Because they have their own muscles and bordering muscles, the lips are easily movable. Lips are used for eating functions, ... Inflammation of the lips is termed cheilitis. This can be in several forms such as chapped lips (dry, peeling lips), angular ...
British 'stiff upper lip' may prevent early presentation for cancer symptoms - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com
Bones and Muscles. 12/16/2017 Bones and Muscles New medicine for rare bone disease ... The traditional British stiff upper lip could be preventing people from seeing their doctor. We need to support people to ... Home Cancers British stiff upper lip may prevent early presentation for cancer symptoms ... stiff upper lip may help explain some of the differences in cancer survival rates between the UK and other high-income ...
Study calls for better support for fathers of children with cleft lip or palate - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com
Bones and Muscles. 11/19/2018 Bones and Muscles Skeletal imitation reveals how bones grow atom-by-atom ... She said, "Cleft lip/palate is the most common congenital craniofacial condition, affecting one in every 700 babies born per ... The Cleft Lip and Palate Association (CLAPA) has supported Nicola to promote the study. Chief Executive Officer Rosanna Preston ... "Following a diagnosis of cleft lip/palate in their child, fathers typically adopted an information-seeking and support-giving ...
Kissing muscle that purses the lips. Kissing muscle that purses the lips.
Kissing muscle that purses the lips. Orbicularis oris muscle - Wikipedia. Posted on 29.04.2018. 29.04.2018. by Mule ... I have found that unattached lines on tha unsurpassed lip are often kissing muscle that purses the lips with a hysterectomy ... muscle that has the major responsibility for producing a specific movement . Action: closes lips; purses and protrudes lips; ... orbicularis oris muscle. Facial muscle. Origin: adjacent facial muscles that surround mouth. ...
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Correction of Minor-Form and Microform Cleft Lip Using Modified Muscle Overlapping with a Minimal Skin Incision
... and then the muscle on each side is split transversely into 3 muscle slips. The muscle slips are interdigitated in a basket- ... Oribicularis oris muscle defects in philtral deformities in the repaired cleft lip. J Korean Soc Plast Reconstr Surg 2010;37: ... In this patient, Z-plasty and overlapping of the muscle on the lip, reverse-U incision, V-Y plasty, and alar base advancement ... In this patient, Z-plasty and overlapping of the muscle on the lip, reverse-U incision, V-Y plasty, and alar base advancement ...
Voluntary muscle development in prolabium of bilateral congenital clefts on the upper lip | Virtual Health Sciences Library
Keywords: Cleft Lip / Congenital Board Subjects: Lip ,anatomy & histology ,Muscles ,Electromyography Citation: Kaniz Fatima ... Voluntary muscle development in prolabium of bilateral congenital clefts on the upper lip Amla Kaniz Fatima; Specialist Q. 1989 ... Voluntary muscle development in prolabium of bilateral congenital clefts on the upper lip ... Voluntary muscle development in prolabium of bilateral congenital clefts on the upper lip, Specialist Q. 1989; 5 (4): 98-103 ...
Slower Reps Builds Bigger Muscles - AnabolicMinds.com
Nevertheless, muscle time under tension looks set to become a familiar concept, and one we cant ignore. ... HPS on Amazon; Get Lip shield for only $14.99 Last Post By: chedapalooza ... Equally important is muscle time under tension: the amount of time that muscles are placed under tension during weight ... These results suggest that the time the muscle is under tension during exercise may be important in optimizing muscle growth, ...
Trisomy 13: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Articulation: Facial Muscles Facial Muscles:. The Facial Muscles, and in particular those in the lips, help to shape the sound ... For speech, the most important facial muscles are those that move the lips. All other muscles we want to relax as much as ... Facial Muscles (on this page) *Tongue *intrinsic muscles *extrinsic muscles *Pharyngeal Constrictors *Palates *Hard Palate * ... risoris: draws the lips in a smile *buccinator: pulls the lips wide and tight *depressor labii: lowers the lower lips * ...
Tingling Lips: 10 Possible Causes
If you experience other symptoms, like blurred vision, with your tingling lips, its best to see your doctor. ... Tingling lips generally arent a cause for concern, but sometimes they may be a sign of an underlying condition. Heres 10 ... muscle aches. *swollen lymph nodes. Cold sores are usually caused by certain strains of the herpes simplex virus (HSV). ... Tumors can form anywhere on the lips, but theyre more common on the bottom lip. Risk factors for oral cancer, specifically lip ...
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January 2012 - Volume 129 - Issue 1 : Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Lower Lip Suspension Using Bilateral Temporalis Muscle Flaps and Fascia Lata Grafts. Chan, Rodney K.; Bojovic, Branko; Talbot, ... Modified Technique of Presurgical Infant Maxillary Orthopedics for Complete Bilateral Cleft Lip and Palate. Choo, HyeRan; ... Modified Technique of Presurgical Infant Maxillary Orthopedics for Complete Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate. Choo, HyeRan; ... Correction: Perfusion-Related Complications Are Similar for DIEP and Muscle-Sparing Free TRAM Flaps Harvested on Medial or ...
Assessing the Results of Lip Surgery in Patients With Cleft Lip and Palate - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Patients with repaired cleft lip who receive lip revision surgery. Procedure: Lip revision surgery Full or partial muscle ... Cleft Lip Cleft Lip and Palate Procedure: Lip revision surgery Phase 2 Phase 3 ... a) Estimate the effect of cleft lip and palate on function after primary lip and palate repair but prior to lip revision ... surgery to the lip in patients with cleft lip and palate is effective in improving lip function and appearance. ...
InvoluntaryNervesCrampsContractionPotassiumSkinSymptomsOrbicularis oris mFacial MusclesWing of tBalmMasseter muscleCheekPlatysma muscleNerveTissueNostrilsFuller LipsPurses the lipsNeckLabii SuperiorisDepressor labiiTwitchesDeformityEyebrow musclesSphincter muscleTemporalis muscleFatigueAnatomyTightenLabialMentalisForeheadFullnessTeethUpper or lower lipEyelidSurgicalSkeletalBuccinator muscleNasalSeizuresOccursAugmentationEyelidsSkin of the lipsPlumperBilateralMandibleVermilionPuckerResection
- Treating muscle cramps requires a multi-tiered approach that includes lifestyle changes, dietary changes and nutritional supplements. (earthclinic.com)
- Several factors contribute to muscle cramps. (earthclinic.com)
- Overuse, dehydration, muscle strain and inactivity are several of the primary causes of cramps. (earthclinic.com)
- With a variety of causes, muscle cramps also have a variety of treatments. (earthclinic.com)
- Sodium is actually the electrolyte of most concern when it comes to muscle cramps. (earthclinic.com)
- Muscle cramps range in intensity and can elevate to a medical emergency fairly quickly. (earthclinic.com)
- A tablespoon of blackstrap molasses is full of important nutrients and a great natural treatment for muscles cramps. (earthclinic.com)
- If you are prone to waking up at night with a muscle cramp, taking a tablespoon of blackstrap molasses before bed will help to prevent those cramps. (earthclinic.com)
- Apple cider vinegar can be taken in a glass of water (1 tablespoon per glass of water) for muscle cramps. (earthclinic.com)
- Muscle cramps can come upon you quickly when you are dehydrated. (earthclinic.com)
- Do you have a natural remedy for muscle cramps? (earthclinic.com)
- Somebody suggested pressing the spot just under the nose or biting the upper lip to stop leg cramps. (earthclinic.com)
Orbicularis oris m4
- In cleft lip patients, the normal anatomy of the paranasal muscles and the orbicularis oris muscle is disordered. (oalib.com)
- The surgical technique involves restoration of the notched vermillion using Z-plasty, formation of the philtral column using overlapping of an orbicularis oris muscle flap through an intraoral incision, and correction of the cleft lip nasal deformity using a reverse-U incision and V-Y plasty. (e-aps.org)
- The reestablishment of orbicularis oris muscle (OOM) continuity is important aesthetically for lip symmetry during repose, is important functionally during movement, and is essential to creating a natural philtral column [ 11 ]. (e-aps.org)
- The underlying orbicularis oris muscle is not involved. (medscape.com)
- The Facial Muscles, and in particular those in the lips, help to shape the sound and air stream into recognizable speech. (yorku.ca)
- This image features a clear side view of the facial muscles. (yorku.ca)
- For speech, the most important facial muscles are those that move the lips. (yorku.ca)
- In fact, some models are now having 'botox', a form of botulism toxin, injected into some of their facial muscles, like the corrugator and frontalis, so that the muscles won't work and won't create wrinkles. (yorku.ca)
- The FaceMaster delivers low pulses of electricity, or microcurrents, into the facial muscles. (reference.com)
- Did you know that we use 30 facial muscles when kissing (or furthermore, that we even have 30 facial muscles)? (womansday.com)
- Putting some work into your facial muscles can help give you a more attractive face to show the world. (wikihow.com)
- Pull your lips downward so that your facial muscles tighten, then pull your lips to one side. (wikihow.com)
- According to expert face trainers, engaging the facial muscles--of which there are over 57--can tone, lift, and firm skin on the face, while also improving blood circulation and oxygenation, and stimulating the lymphatic system to help cleanse toxicity. (huffingtonpost.com)
- There are several scientific articles showing increased collagen production from exercise, [but] I believe you will get more of an impact focusing on exercising your body compared to exercising your facial muscles. (huffingtonpost.com)
- Face trainer Erika Boldis of Desiredface has developed her own European Workout Facial to rejuvenate the facial muscles and skin for a more youthful glow. (huffingtonpost.com)
- Moroever, an inability to move the eyes and facial muscles may result in a decreased secretion of tears, leading to additional pathology of the eyes. (petmd.com)
Wing of t1
- There was a significant increase in the Asymmetry Index for temporalis and masseter muscle rest activity in the TMD-P group. (hindawi.com)
- Posteriorly: anterior edge of masseter muscle. (slideshare.net)
- The cheek region is subdivided by the anterior prominence of the clenched masseter muscle. (medscape.com)
- The malar subunit is around the zygoma anterior to the masseter muscle. (medscape.com)
- DermaWand is safe to use around the eyes and lips and, with consistent use, possibly lifts eyebrows, removes skin folds around the eyes, diminishes cheek puffiness, reduces pore size and softens laugh lines. (reference.com)
- Moves with muscles of cheek during speech and mastication. (slideshare.net)
- With each palm firmly against each cheek, pull the top of the upper lip and lip corners up toward the temples, exposing your upper teeth and gums. (huffingtonpost.com)
- 8. Clinical Features Swelling of cheek, lower eyelid & upper lip. (slideshare.net)
- Cheek, upper lip. (wikipedia.org)
- There were no deformities in lip contour, limitations in head movement, neck pain or nerve injuries associated with the grafts. (redorbit.com)
- At the signal of an impulse traveling down the nerve, the muscle fiber changes chemical energy into mechanical energy, and the result is muscle contraction. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Lip twitching is the result of a miscommunication between the lip nerve and the muscles it controls. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The muscles in the face and lips are controlled by the facial nerve. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- A pinched nerve in the neck is caused by compression on the nerve from other tissues in the neck such as bones, tendons, cartilage or muscles, according to. (reference.com)
- In humans with hypertension, the elevation in muscle sympathetic nerve activity seen during postexercise ischemia, a maneuver that selectively excites chemically sensitive muscle afferents, was higher than that in normotensive subjects ( 10 ). (physiology.org)
- These rodent and human studies suggest that the skeletal muscle contraction-mediated reflex sympathetic nerve response is exaggerated in hypertension, thereby contributing to the excess sympathoexcitation and blood pressure elevation seen during exercise in this pathological condition. (physiology.org)
- Like the other muscles of the nose is innervated by branches of the facial nerve and supplied by the facial artery. (intechopen.com)
- Ophthalmic nerve Ophthalmic nerve Extrinsic eye muscle. (wikipedia.org)
- Augmenting the lips with grafts of muscle and connective tissue from the neck appears to result in improved appearance for at least two years, according to a report in the March/April issue of Archives of Facial Plastic Surgery, one of the JAMA/Archives journals. (redorbit.com)
- As an individual ages, the groove on the upper lip flattens, the white lip lengthens and the amount of vermilion (pink tissue) that shows decreases. (redorbit.com)
- Anurag Agarwal, M.D., of The Aesthetic Surgery Center, Naples, Fla., and colleagues report on the results of 25 consecutive patients who underwent lip augmentation with segments of their own sternocleidomastoid, a muscle running along the side of the neck, and the connective tissue that overlies it (fascia). (redorbit.com)
- Groups of fibers are bundled together into fascicles , surrounded by a tough sheet of connective tissue to form a muscle group such as the biceps. (thefreedictionary.com)
- They use creatine supplements for their ability to help support building of muscle tissue and increasing energy during workouts, allowing serious bodybuilders to increase their workout and get ripped faster. (herbalous.com)
- A cleft lip can occur when there isn't enough tissue in the lip area of a fetus. (reference.com)
- A bovine carcass matured at above +2°C produces a drop in the pH of muscle tissue to between 5.3 - 5.7 within 24 hours of slaughter. (fao.org)
- RT-PCR and immunoblot experiments showed that mRNA and protein for gp91 phox , a NADPH oxidase subunit, in skeletal muscle tissue were upregulated in hypertensive rats. (physiology.org)
- Reduction cheiloplasty, as performed through classically described techniques, has traditionally focused on reduction of lip volume through excision of a single strip or ellipse of tissue, with direct closure and a change in the posture of the lip. (medscape.com)
- The excess tissue forms an accessory lip, which is more apparent during smiling. (medscape.com)
- The subumbrellar cavity of the hydromedusae, and the layer of striated muscle that lines it, are originated by a morphogenetic pattern very similar to schizocoely, with a third layer of tissue that is formed between ecto- and endo-derm and that becomes hollow. (encyclopedia.com)
Purses the lips4
- Kissing muscle that purses the lips. (maisondorcas.com)
- I have found that unattached lines on tha unsurpassed lip are often kissing muscle that purses the lips with a hysterectomy devoted in statement-bearing kissing muscle that purses the lips due mucsle women, endometriosis or transport cancer. (maisondorcas.com)
- Reveal The affiliate of this kissing muscle that purses the lips is only in the intention fibers near and above the finest of the bright. (maisondorcas.com)
- In meet to these, shares from the quadratus labii superioris, the zygomaticus, and the quadratus labii inferioris kissing muscle that purses the lips with the ageless no above described, and have dangerously an suitably direction. (maisondorcas.com)
- These progressive age-related changes lead many patients to seek lip augmentation procedures, often as their main concern in the midst of an aging face and neck. (redorbit.com)
- This will give you a huge long list of all the muscles in the head and neck which you can use to learn more about these structures. (yorku.ca)
- There are approximately 50 muscles in your face, and exercising them has the added benefit of helping eye strain and releasing neck and facial tension. (wikihow.com)
- It is raised by the levator labii superioris and is connected to the lower lip by the thin lining of the lip itself. (wikipedia.org)
- The Frenulum Labii Superioris is the frenulum of the upper lip. (wikipedia.org)
- Boundaries Superiorly: levator superioris alaque nasi and levator labii superioris Inferiorly: caninus muscle Medially: anterolateral surface of maxilla Posteriorly: buccinator mucsle. (slideshare.net)
- As illustrated below, primary lip surgery of the infant dramatically improves the severe deformity of the perioral and nasal region. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The double lip deformity occurs because of the persistence of the transverse sulcus between the inner pars villosa and the outer pars glabra, resulting in glandular hypertrophy along with redundant labial mucosa. (medscape.com)
- Ascher syndrome is identical to double lip deformity, with associated blepharochalasis and endocrine disorders. (medscape.com)
- Its hyperactivity in some rhinoplasty patients while they smiling or speaking causes a deformity that includes drooping of the nasal tip, elevation and shortening of the upper lip, and increased maxillary gingival show. (intechopen.com)
- Aim of this comprehensive review is to present the most contemporary views concerning the anatomy of the nasolabial area and the various surgical techniques for the cleft lip, based on the principles of the muscle reconstruction, as well as to discuss the clinical effectiveness of this technique according to the currently existing literature. (oalib.com)
- Muscle reconstruction is based on the precise knowledge of the normal and pathologic anatomy of the nasolabial area, as well as of the growth pattern of the maxilla. (oalib.com)
- It supplies the skin and mucous membrane of the lower lip and labial gingiva (gum) anteriorly. (wikipedia.org)
- This artery supplies both lips by its superior and inferior labial branches. (wikipedia.org)
- Bikini" lip reduction, introduced in 2007, is characterized by a restoration of an attractive labial contour. (medscape.com)
- The senior author's experience has been that approximately 75 percent of the immediate intraoperative lip fullness is maintained at one month post-operatively, while approximately 50 percent of the immediate intraoperative lip fullness is maintained at one year postoperatively. (redorbit.com)
- Well, this article is for those of us in the latter group who could use a boost in muscle fullness. (anabolicminds.com)
- Although we may never be able to match the genetically gifted freaks of fullness like current Mr. Olympia Phil Heath or former almost-Mr.-Olympia Flex Wheeler, we can all significantly, even dramatically, increase the fullness of our muscle bellies by using one or more of the following strategies. (anabolicminds.com)
- Make no mistake about it, fascia isn't easy to stretch, but over time it does respond to pressure by expanding and subsequently causing (or allowing) an increase in the volume and visual fullness of the muscle it surrounds. (anabolicminds.com)
- My experience, as well as that of many other bodybuilding-type coaches, has shown that increasing TUT does, in fact, lead to an increase in muscle fullness. (anabolicminds.com)
- Products for White Teeth and Plump Lips - ABC News (http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/story%3Fid%3D124570) 17 Feb 2004 More and more women want plumper lips these days, but plastic surgery. (herbalous.com)
- The zygomaticus major muscle draws the angle of the mouth upwards and backwards, as occurs when we laugh, and depressor labii inferioris, in turn, depresses the lower lip to show the lower teeth, as in the expression of irony. (maisondorcas.com)
- Muscles trump bone and teeth. (claimingpower.com)
Upper or lower lip2
- Twitching usually occurs in the upper or lower lip separately, as the lips are independent of one another. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Its upper half is of usual skin color and has a depression at its center, directly under the nasal septum, called the philtrum , which is Latin for lower nose, while its lower half is a markedly different, red-colored skin tone more similar to the color of the inside of the mouth, and the term vermillion refers to the colored portion of either the upper or lower lip. (wikipedia.org)
- It supplies not only the upper lip, but much of the skin of the face between the upper lip and the lower eyelid, except for the bridge of the nose. (wikipedia.org)
- This exercise helps to build muscles under the eyelid for more open, awake-looking eyes. (huffingtonpost.com)
- The eyelid is a complex structure with multiple subunits that mimic the underlying orbicularis oculi muscle. (medscape.com)
- With careful patient selection and surgical technique, sternocleidomastoid muscle and fascia implantation is a valuable tool when treating the aging lip," the authors conclude. (redorbit.com)
- Muscle reconstruction of the lip in the primary surgical treatment of cleft lip: A comprehensive review. (oalib.com)
- Muscle reconstruction during the primary surgical management of the cleft lip is a technique which may contribute to the functional and esthetic repair of cleft lips. (oalib.com)
- The objectives of the surgical repair of minor-form and microform CL are to eliminate any notch of the vermillion, to correct the drooping or flattened ala, and to restore muscle continuity [ 2 ]. (e-aps.org)
- It is likely that the different surgical procedures for both primary lip closure and secondary lip revision could be improved if the effects of alternative surgical techniques on function were better understood. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The dissection of the depressor septi muscle during rhinoplasty can improve the tip-upper lip relationship in appropriately selected patients.To manage this functional part of rhinoplasty, we aimed to clarify the anatomic study, surgical indications, rationale for the operative technique, and clinical cases are presented. (intechopen.com)
- These are the skeletal muscles that enable the body to move, and there are more than 600 of them in the human body. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Taken together, hese results suggest that increased ANG II in hypertension induces oxidative stress in skeletal muscle, thereby exaggerating the muscle reflex. (physiology.org)
- There main parameters used to evaluate the DSNM, NL (nasal length), TP (tip projection) and UL (upper lip height). (intechopen.com)
- After resection of the muscle, the nasal tip is released. (intechopen.com)
- A) Preoperative patient with gingival smile, lowering of the nasal tip, upper lip shortening. (intechopen.com)
- Is a small, paired muscle located on either side of the nasal septum, has four proximal attachments, footplates of the medial crura, caudal septum, dermocartilaginous ligament and anterior nasal spine, The muscle is divided by the nasal septum into bilateral and symmetric portions. (intechopen.com)
- In 1992 Cachay velazquez described these modifications as rhino-gingivolabial syndrome of the smile (drooping of the nasal tip, elevation and shortening of the upper lip, and increased maxillary gingival show) [ 3 ]. (intechopen.com)
- This understanding enables us to better prescribe exercise to those wishing to build bigger muscles and to prevent muscle loss that occurs with aging or disease. (anabolicminds.com)
- Mayo Clinic notes that a cleft lip occurs when the tissues which form the lip fail to fuse or fuse only partially, leaving an opening in the lip. (reference.com)
- Mayo Clinic points out that a cleft lip commonly occurs in women who drink alcohol, smoke cigarettes or take certain drugs while pregnant. (reference.com)
- it most often occurs in the upper lip. (medscape.com)
- The quest for the ideal permanent lip augmentation procedure has been fraught with challenges," they continue, including resorption, asymmetry, reactions, extrusion, an unnatural feel or appearance and the formation of cysts. (redorbit.com)
- The patients were subjectively pleased with the results, although one requested additional lip augmentation with an injectable gel. (redorbit.com)
- This method also preserves the continuity and function of the muscle and provides sufficient augmentation of the philtral column and nostril sill. (e-aps.org)
Skin of the lips3
- With darker skin color this effect is less prominent, as in this case the skin of the lips contains more melanin and thus is visually darker. (wikipedia.org)
- The skin of the lips is stratified squamous epithelium . (wikipedia.org)
- The skin of the lips is thinner than skin elsewhere on the body, consisting of three to five cellular layers instead of up to 16. (huffingtonpost.com)
- Makeup Advice and Tips from BeingGirl (http://www.beinggirl.com/article/best-lip-plumper/) Pick out the best lip plumper with these helpful tips and tricks from BeingGirl. (herbalous.com)
- Ask.com (http://www.ask.com/question/best-lip-plumper) Over-the-counter lip plumper products tend to last around six hours, frequently less. (herbalous.com)
- WASABI Lip Plumper (http://www.californiaseasonsdesigns.com/blog/2013/0 3/18/WASABI-Lip-Plumper-.aspx) 18 Mar 2013 My granddaughter brought home some lip balms she swears by. (herbalous.com)
- After an average of two years, the amount of vermilion showing increased by an average of 20 percent to 24 percent for the upper and lower lip. (redorbit.com)
- The vermilion border of the upper lip is known as the cupid's bow . (wikipedia.org)
- Thinning of the vermilion of the upper lip and flattening of the philtrum are two of the facial characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome , a lifelong disability caused by the mother's consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)