Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.Muscle Denervation: The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Muscle, Striated: One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.Muscle Spindles: Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Abdominal Muscles: Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Muscle Cells: Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.Masseter Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.Facial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Intercostal Muscles: Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Muscular Atrophy: Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle: Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.Pectoralis Muscles: The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.Psoas Muscles: A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.Myofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .Temporal Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Pharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.GlycogenNeuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Muscular Dystrophy, AnimalMyoblasts: Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Muscle Cramp: A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Mice, Inbred mdx: A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.Sarcomeres: The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.Myostatin: A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.MyoD Protein: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Muscle Stretching Exercises: Exercises that stretch the muscle fibers with the aim to increase muscle-tendon FLEXIBILITY, improve RANGE OF MOTION or musculoskeletal function, and prevent injuries. There are various types of stretching techniques including active, passive (relaxed), static, dynamic (gentle), ballistic (forced), isometric, and others.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Muscle Rigidity: Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Dystrophin: A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Myoblasts, Skeletal: Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Hindlimb Suspension: Technique for limiting use, activity, or movement by immobilizing or restraining animal by suspending from hindlimbs or tails. This immobilization is used to simulate some effects of reduced gravity and study weightlessness physiology.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Mice, Inbred C57BLThigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Muscle Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Pterygoid Muscles: Two of the masticatory muscles: the internal, or medial, pterygoid muscle and external, or lateral, pterygoid muscle. Action of the former is closing the jaws and that of the latter is opening the jaws, protruding the mandible, and moving the mandible from side to side.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Muscular Dystrophies: A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.Skeletal Muscle Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in skeletal muscle.Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.Muscle Relaxants, Central: A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)Sarcolemma: The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Muscle Spasticity: A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne: An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Torque: The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.Myositis: Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Myogenin: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Muscle Strength Dynamometer: A device that measures MUSCLE STRENGTH during muscle contraction, such as gripping, pushing, and pulling. It is used to evaluate the health status of muscle in sports medicine or physical therapy.Desmin: An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Smooth Muscle Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in smooth muscle.Receptors, Cholinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Reflex, Stretch: Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Tropomyosin: A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Citrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Sarcopenia: Progressive decline in muscle mass due to aging which results in decreased functional capacity of muscles.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Neuromuscular Diseases: A general term encompassing lower MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and certain MUSCULAR DISEASES. Manifestations include MUSCLE WEAKNESS; FASCICULATION; muscle ATROPHY; SPASM; MYOKYMIA; MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, myalgias, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Rana temporaria: A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.Deltoid Muscle: Thick triangular muscle in the SHOULDER whose function is to abduct, flex, and extend the arm. It is a common site of INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Myogenic Regulatory Factors: A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).Motor Endplate: The specialized postsynaptic region of a muscle cell. The motor endplate is immediately across the synaptic cleft from the presynaptic axon terminal. Among its anatomical specializations are junctional folds which harbor a high density of cholinergic receptors.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Rana pipiens: A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Creatine Kinase, MM Form: An isoenzyme of creatine kinase found in the MUSCLE.Running: An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.PAX7 Transcription Factor: A paired box transcription factor that is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and SKELETAL MUSCLE.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Muscle Hypertonia: Abnormal increase in skeletal or smooth muscle tone. Skeletal muscle hypertonicity may be associated with PYRAMIDAL TRACT lesions or BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Myogenic Regulatory Factor 5: A SKELETAL MUSCLE-specific transcription factor that contains a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF. It plays an essential role in MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT.Paraspinal Muscles: Deep muscles in the BACK whose function is to extend and rotate the SPINE and maintain POSTURE. It consists splenius, semispinalis, multifidus, rotatores, interspinales, intertransversarii and sacrospinalis.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Troponin: One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel: A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Recruitment, Neurophysiological: The spread of response if stimulation is prolonged. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Muscular Disorders, Atrophic: Disorders characterized by an abnormal reduction in muscle volume due to a decrease in the size or number of muscle fibers. Atrophy may result from diseases intrinsic to muscle tissue (e.g., MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY) or secondary to PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES that impair innervation to muscle tissue (e.g., MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL).Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Back: The rear surface of an upright primate from the shoulders to the hip, or the dorsal surface of tetrapods.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Weight Lifting: A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.Muscle Hypotonia: A diminution of the skeletal muscle tone marked by a diminished resistance to passive stretching.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
This is representative of whole muscle force. The Ib sensory feedback generates spinal reflexes and supraspinal responses which ... It lies at the origins and insertion of skeletal muscle fibers into the tendons of skeletal muscle. It provides the sensory ... When the muscle generates force, the sensory terminals are compressed. This stretching deforms the terminals of the Ib afferent ... The body of the organ is made up of strands of collagen that are connected at one end to the muscle fibers and at the other ...
In turn, muscles generate forces which actuate joints. Getting the pieces to work together is a challenging problem for the ... On the other hand, the main difference between the slow twitch muscle fiber (Type I) and fast twitch muscle fiber (Type II) has ... In this example, Ia afferent neurons are activated by muscle spindles when they deform due to the stretching of the muscle. In ... Thus, any stretching of a muscle automatically signals a reflexive contraction of that muscle, without any central control. As ...
This isoenzyme is found in skeletal muscle cells in the adult where it may play a role in muscle development and regeneration. ... Differential splicing in the 5'-untranslated sequence generates two forms of mRNA". European Journal of Biochemistry / FEBS. ... During fetal muscle development, there is a transcriptional switch from expressing ENO1 to ENO3 influenced by muscle ... This particular isoform is predominantly expressed in adult striated muscle, including skeletal and cardiac muscle. ...
Differential splicing in the 5'-untranslated sequence generates two forms of mRNA". European Journal of Biochemistry. 214 (2): ... "Structural features of the human gene for muscle-specific enolase. ... "Passenger deletions generate therapeutic vulnerabilities in cancer". Nature. 488 (7411): 337-42. doi:10.1038/nature11331. PMID ...
The use of hECTs in generating tissue engineered heart valves is also being explored to improve current heart valve constructs ... Even with current technologies, hECT structure and function is more at the level of newborn heart muscle than adult myocardium ... hECTs also have therapeutic potential for in vivo regeneration of heart muscle. hECTs provide a valuable resource to reproduce ... hESCs and hiPSCs are the primary cells used to generate hECTs. Human pluripotent stem cells are differentiated into ...
The muscles of the neck also generate pulling power. A horse with bull neck is best for non-speed sports. Bull neck is not ... The muscles of the front of the forearm are known as extensors and the back of the forearm are known as flexors. The muscling ... Good muscling of a long forearm is especially advantageous to jumping horses, as the strong forearm muscles absorb concussion ... Tendons, ligaments, & muscles have less lever system to pull across to effectively use or develop muscle strength for power & ...
One cell type conveys hormone signals to generating muscle, the myoblast. Higher androgen levels lead to increased expression ... Males typically have more skeletal muscle mass than females. Androgens promote the enlargement of skeletal muscle cells and ... "Androgen receptor in human skeletal muscle and cultured muscle satellite cells: up-regulation by androgen treatment". The ... Fusion of myoblasts generates myotubes, in a process linked to androgen receptor levels. Circulating levels of androgens can ...
The gastrointestinal tract generates motility using smooth muscle subunits linked by gap junctions. These subunits fire ... This process is carried out by the longitudinal muscles relaxing while circular muscles contract at alternating sections ... forcing it toward the anus into the next relaxed section of smooth muscle. This relaxed section then contracts, generating ... This, in turn, results in greater contraction force from the smooth muscle. Both amplitude and duration of the slow waves can ...
The non-muscle myosin IIa-c isoforms generates the forces in the cell that lead to signaling of early commitment markers. ... Nonmuscle myosin IIa generates the least force increasing to non-muscle myosin IIc. There are also factors in the cell that ... Such cells, called somatic cells, make up most of the human body, such as skin and muscle cells. Cells differentiate to ... The ECM surrounding brain, muscle and bone tissues range from soft to stiff. The transduction of the stem cells into these ...
Hypercapnia only occurs if severe disease or respiratory muscle fatigue occurs. Metabolism rapidly generates a large quantity ...
"Smooth muscle-selective alternatively spliced exon generates functional variation in Cav1.2 calcium channels". The Journal of ... The influx of calcium ions into the cell can initiate a myriad of calcium-dependent processes including muscle contraction, ...
They generate weak electrical fields from specialized electric organ muscles. To detect these fields from those created by ... To enable this specialized information processing, with each self-generated electrical discharge, an efference copy of it is ... in special neurocircuitry since it is dependent upon the ability to distinguish between self-generated and other generated ...
The opah's pectoral muscles generate most of its body heat. The opah retains heat with insulating layers of fat, which ... insulates the heart from the gills, and the pectoral muscles from the surrounding water. The opah is not homeothermic like ...
... other species either generate signals or receive them, but not both. Animals that either generate or receive electric fields ... Almost all the weakly electric fishes have electric organs derived from muscle cells (myogenic) ; the only exception is the ... and fish that sense but is unable to generate electric fields. Strongly electric fish generate strong electric field up to 500 ... Electric fish generate an electrostatic field shaped like a dipole, with field lines describing a curved arc from positive pole ...
Blood flows out of the capillaries into the venules, which have little smooth muscle and are 10-200 µm. The blood flows from ... Arterioles respond to metabolic stimuli that are generated in the tissues. When tissue metabolism increases, catabolic products ... Arterioles carry the blood to the capillaries, which are not innervated, have no smooth muscle, and are about 5-8 µm in ... Distension of the vessels due to increased blood pressure is a fundamental stimulus for muscle contraction in arteriolar walls ...
The resulting increase in calcium concentrations within the cells cause the muscle fibers to contract. This generates excessive ... and generates the excessive heat (hyperthermia) that is the hallmark of the disease. The muscle cell is damaged by the ... A muscle biopsy is carried out at an approved research center, under local anesthesia. The fresh biopsy is bathed in solutions ... Dantrolene is a muscle relaxant that appears to work directly on the ryanodine receptor to prevent the release of calcium. ...
Alternative splicing generates isoforms that are differentially expressed, with ratios changing during muscle cell maturation. ... "Smooth muscle myosin heavy chain isoforms and their role in muscle physiology". Microsc. Res. Tech. 50 (6): 532-40. doi:10.1002 ... 1994). "Smooth muscle myosin heavy chain locus (MYH11) maps to 16p13.13-p13.12 and establishes a new region of conserved ... 2005). "(+)Insert smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-B) isoform expression in human tissues". Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. ...
This actively engages more of the muscle fibers to generate more force. Traditional Chinese medicine Neigong Nei jing One inch ... commonly seen as a set of methods capable of generating the energy but further refined and focused through many more muscle ... The way it is explained is that the qi cannot penetrate the muscle to produce force. From a biomechanics perspective, the ... To generate the fa jin it is necessary to transfer Qi from Dantian towards the limb or body part (e.g. shoulder, head, hip) ...
Hill-type muscles, motors, or servos can be used to actuate joints. Adapters between neurons and actuators are used to generate ... Muscles are controlled by placing a voltage-tension adapter between a motor neuron and a muscle. Muscles also have stiffness ... Muscles can are placed to act on muscle attachment bodies in the mechanical simulation, which then apply the muscle tension ... Line graphs are useful for most data types, including neural and synaptic output, as well as body and muscle dynamics. Surface ...
These authors made the additional important observations that the response was generated from EMG (muscle) activity and that it ... In addition to the response in the SCM, similar reflexes can be shown for the masseter and for eye muscles (oVEMPs or OVEMPs = ... It was subsequently shown to be generated by a brief period of inhibition of motor unit discharge. VsEP assesses the non- ... This shaker provides a transient stimuli, can generate angular or linear acceleration, and can couple to the skull directly ( ...
The sonic muscles pull the elastic spring forward and extend the swimbladder. When the muscles relax, the tension in the spring ... Sound-generating mechanisms are often different between genders. In some catfishes, pectoral fins are longer in males than in ... Catfish also have a sound-generating mechanism in their pectoral fins. Many species in the catfish family possess an enhanced ... In these fishes, sonic muscles insert on the ramus Mulleri, also known as the elastic spring. ...
Large leg muscles can generate greater force, resulting in improved jumping performance. In addition to elongated leg elements ... Because the apodeme releases energy more quickly than muscle, its power output exceeds that of the muscle that produced the ... allows the muscles to operate closer to isometric on the force-velocity curve. This enables the muscles to do work over a ... physiological constraints limit muscle power to approximately 375 Watts per kilogram of muscle. To overcome this limitation, ...
... visceral or smooth muscle, found in the inner linings of organs; skeletal muscle, typically attached to bones, which generate ... Muscle cells form the active contractile tissue of the body known as muscle tissue or muscular tissue. Muscle tissue functions ... Animal tissues are grouped into four basic types: connective, muscle, nervous, and epithelial. Collections of tissues joined in ... Muscle tissue is separated into three distinct categories: ... gross movement; and cardiac muscle, found in the heart where it ...
Un-repaired DNA damages accumulate in non-replicating cells, such as cells in the brains or muscles of adult mammals and can ... Non-replicating cells do not generally generate mutations due to DNA damage-induced errors of replication. These non- ... When 40 particular proteins were evaluated in a muscle of rats, the majority of the proteins showed significant decreases ... Such cells, including, for example, brain neurons and muscle myocytes, have little or no cell turnover. ...
Long IPSPs are generated to prevent these events. The extensor muscles are inhibited to prevent competition between the ... The muscle fibers of the MRO are located on the dorsal side of the abdomen, each spanning the joint of two segments. They are ... The MoG then passes the signal to the FF muscles. It can also use a second route across a fast electrical synapse to a premotor ... This results in the firing of all motor giant (MoG) neurons and the flexion of all the phasic fast flexor (FF) muscles in the ...
muscle organ development. · regulation of cell migration. · establishment or maintenance of microtubule cytoskeleton polarity. ... Biogenesis of lamin A in normal cells and the failure to generate mature lamin A in HGPS. In the setting of ZMPSTE24 deficiency ...
However, no clear association between muscle strength and accelerometer-derived physical activity measures was identified. The ... are a group of rare conditions characterised by muscle inflammation (myositis). Accurate disease activity assessment is vital ... This capacitance variation generates an electrical signal, which is then converted into a digital or analog output. This output ... Muscle strength and muscle endurance during the first year of treatment of Polymyositis and Dermatomyositis: a prospective ...
... using stem cells generated from skin biopsies, which can be used to create large numbers of cardiac muscle cells that can ... "To date, the majority of studies using induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac muscle cells have focused on single cell ... Heart derived stem cells develop into heart muscle. April 23, 2008 04:27 PM ... testing of new drug treatments and therapies to repair damaged heart muscle. Source : University of Michigan Health System ...
If required by your instructor, you can add annotations to your citations. Just select Add Annotation while finalizing your citation. You can always edit a citation as well. ...
Carbon Nanotube Muscles Generate Giant Twist for Novel Motors. Twist Per Muscle Length is More Than 1,000 Times Higher Than for ... The demonstrated rotation of 250 per millimeter of muscle length is over a thousand times that of previous artificial muscles, ... New artificial muscles that twist like the trunk of an elephant, but provide a thousand times higher rotation per length, were ... These muscles, based on carbon nanotube yarns, paddle up to 590 revolutions per minute in 1.2 seconds, and then reverse this ...
Epithelium-generated neuropeptide Y induces smooth muscle contraction to promote airway hyperresponsiveness. ... Epithelium-generated neuropeptide Y induces smooth muscle contraction to promote airway hyperresponsiveness. ... these studies highlight the importance of paracrine signals from the airway epithelium to the underlying smooth muscle to ... which induces airway smooth muscle contraction. Together, ...
Muscle-generated BDNF is a sexually dimorphic myokine that controls metabolic flexibility.. Yang X1,2, Brobst D1, Chan WS3, Tse ... These mutant mice displayed myofiber necrosis, weaker muscle strength, reduced locomotion, and muscle-specific insulin ... which reduced ATP production in muscle. Fasting-induced muscle atrophy was also compromised in female MBKO mice, likely a ... Female mice with a muscle-specific deficiency in BDNF (MBKO mice) were unable to switch the predominant fuel source from ...
Researchers coax human stem cells to rapidly generate bone, heart muscle. A new study shows that combining positive and ... "The ability to generate pure populations of these cell types is very important for any kind of clinically important ... The ability to generate pure populations of these cell types is very important for any kind of clinically important ... By carefully guiding the cells choices at each fork in the road, Loh and Chen were able to generate bone cell precursors that ...
Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Generate Muscle Cells and Repair Muscle Degeneration. By Mari Dezawa, Hiroto Ishikawa, Yutaka Itokazu ... Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Generate Muscle Cells and Repair Muscle Degeneration. By Mari Dezawa, Hiroto Ishikawa, Yutaka Itokazu ... Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Generate Muscle Cells and Repair Muscle Degeneration Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a ... Transplantation of muscle-lineage cells offers a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of muscle degenerative ...
An important observation of this study was that the propulsion of single fecal pellets along the colon generated smooth muscle ... Rhythmic neuronal firing in the ENS was found to generate rhythmic neurogenic depolarizations in smooth muscle that underlie ... SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT How the enteric nervous system (ENS) generates neurogenic contractions of smooth muscle in the ... D, The actual discharge of action potentials in the smooth muscle in red and blue that represent the activity in the muscle as ...
Measurement of contractile stress generated by cultured rat muscle on silicon cantilevers for toxin detection and muscle ... Measurement of Contractile Stress Generated by Cultured Rat Muscle on Silicon Cantilevers for Toxin Detection and Muscle ... Measurement of Contractile Stress Generated by Cultured Rat Muscle on Silicon Cantilevers for Toxin Detection and Muscle ... Measurement of Contractile Stress Generated by Cultured Rat Muscle on Silicon Cantilevers for Toxin Detection and Muscle ...
This advantage results from an increased capacity of muscles to generate ground reaction forces. This increase in muscle ... This increase in muscle capacity while in a crouched posture may allow a patient to generate new movements to compensate for ... If a crouched posture reduces the capacity of muscles to generate ground reaction forces, patients may have to spend more ... A link between crouched gait postures and the capacity of muscles to generate ground reaction forces has several clinical ...
Measurement of the energy-generating capacity of human muscle mitochondria: diagnostic procedure and application to human ... Muscle, 81%) 24 (M) Complex V MT-ATP6 (Muscle, 77%) T8993G; (muscle, ,95%) 25 (F) Complex V MT-ATP6 (Muscle, 50%) T8993G; ( ... Muscle, 2%) 18 (F) PDHc PDHA1 (Muscle, 68%; fibroblast, 82%) del926 AAGTAAG PDHc-E1 (Muscle, 64%) 19 (F) PDHc PDHA1 (Muscle, 89 ... muscle, 81%) (Muscle, 18%) Complex III (Muscle, 84%) 13 (F) Complex II Genetic defect unknown (Muscle, 42%; fibroblast, 38%) 14 ...
Muscle, motor unit and muscle fibre type-specific differences in force-generating capacity have been investigated for many ... Force-generating capacity of human myosin isoforms extracted from single muscle fibre segments. Li, Meishan Uppsala University ... The force-generating capacity of the β/slow myosin isoform (type I) was weaker (P , 0.05) than the fast myosin isoform (type II ... The assay is proposed as a useful tool for clinical studies on the effects on muscle function of specific mutations or post- ...
... have engineered a new stem cell line to study the conversion of stem cells into muscle. Findings appeared ... ... To help patients with muscle disorders, scientists at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) ... The stem cells were generated from a patients skin cells and used to generate muscle. "Our current research provides a step-by ... Human bodies are constantly replacing skeletal muscle cells but muscle disorders make it difficult to replenish muscle due to ...
... but these essential muscles are major drivers of your running and jumping ability. Heres how to stretch them out, keep them ... Guardian Muscles: 3 Stretches to Unlock Your Hip Flexors and Generate Huge Power in Your Legs. ... Guardian Muscles: 3 Stretches to Unlock Your Hip Flexors and Generate Huge Power in Your Legs ... This group of 12 muscles-which includes the psoas, iliacus, and sartorius-helps you raise your thighs up (or in the case of ...
Training in hIPSC differentiation protocols to generate motor neuron-muscle cultures to replace rat models in study of ... Training in hIPSC differentiation protocols to generate motor neuron-muscle cultures to replace rat models in study of ... These neurons will be co-cultured with hiPSC-derived muscle cells on segregated microfluidic chambers, generating a ... The differentiation of hiPSCs into muscle cells will lead to further replacement of ~200 chicks or ~100 mice per year in Dr ...
Amount of ATP generated from glucose metabolism in the liver and muscle tissue. Show working out. HOW?. ... b) Would the same number of ATP be produced if the four molecules of glucose were being metabolised in the muscle tissue? How ... In case anyone is reading old questions... I think the unstated key to this question is that MUSCLES are often doing anaerobic ... Calculate the net number of ATP that can be generated from four (4) molecules of glucose in the liver. . Show all workings. ...
Generate muscle safely with legal steroids. Posted on November 13, 2017. (Updated: November 15, 2017. ) by admin ... It has in addition been seemed reliable in offering muscle mass some help with recovering much more quickly in instance of ... They are used to broaden muscle advancement and also create sex relevant top qualities associated with people. They are mostly ...
Smooth muscle-selective alternatively spliced exon generates functional variation in Cav1.2 calcium channels. ... Smooth muscle-selective alternatively spliced exon generates functional variation in Cav1.2 calcium channels. Journal of ...
How to extract muscle synergies is explained in Section 3. To generate the coordinating variation of joint angles, a synergy- ... To generate the gait pattern with muscle synergies is related to the problem of identifying the forward relationship between ... The second one is about how to generate self-adapted gait with muscle synergies while alleviating model sensitivity to sEMG ... In the following section, the muscle synergies are employed to generate hopping gait only for stance phase, while the joint ...
Unions put major muscle behind their Capitol agenda in California May 31, 2017 12:01 AM ...
Unions put major muscle behind their Capitol agenda in California May 31, 2017 12:01 AM ...
Muscling in on manufacturing. 3rd April 2003 12:00 am 15th December 2015 4:40 pm ... Contract win expected to generate $80 million. By System Administrator 3rd April 2003 12:00 am 15th December 2015 4:40 pm ... Starting in 2006, these contracts are expected to generate more than $1 billion for Smiths over the lifetime of the aircraft. ... The program is expected to generate more than $80 million in revenues, resulting from aircraft deliveries forecasted through to ...
... scientists have generated a data set of cancer-specific genetic variations and are making these data available to the research ... Injectable Gel With MicroRNA Regenerates Heart Muscles. Smoke-Free Laws Reduce New Cases of Lung Cancer. ... Scientists Generate Largest Data Set of Cancer-Related Genetic Variations. by Bidita Debnath on July 18, 2013 at 11:16 PM ... The data generated in this study provide means to identify new determinants of response and mechanisms of resistance to drugs, ...
Australian researchers have developed nanomaterials that can generate electricity directly from waste heat. The research has ... Injectable Gel With MicroRNA Regenerates Heart Muscles. Hip Steroid Injections Can Increase Osteonecrosis. ... Australian researchers have developed nanomaterials that can generate electricity directly from waste heat. The research has ...
  • The amino acids in protein help to repair the muscle fibres which get damaged due to heavy physical activity. (fitnesshealthzone.com)
  • In conclusion, the genetic reduction of Seps1 appears to specifically exacerbate the inflammatory profile of fast-twitch muscle fibres, which are typically more vulnerable to degeneration in dystrophy. (hindawi.com)
  • The different intracellular Ca 2+ patterns produced by electrical stimulation, testosterone, IGF-I and insulin, may help to understand the role of intracellular calcium kinetics in the regulation of gene expression by various stimuli in skeletal muscle cells. (conicyt.cl)
  • Skeletal muscle is a highly plastic tissue, capable of suffering striking changes upon increased use or disuse, indicating that a very active system of regulation of gene expression must be present in muscle cells at all times. (conicyt.cl)
  • Thus, fiber fate and differentiation processes cannot be completely dissociated from the continuous process of gene regulation that occurs upon muscle function. (conicyt.cl)
  • In addition, mechanical factors, temperature, ions and metabolite concentrations also change in the immediate surroundings of the fiber, making the study of factors that contribute to muscle gene regulation especially complex ( Fluck and Hoppeler 2003 ). (conicyt.cl)
  • The ability to generate pure populations of these cell types is very important for any kind of clinically important regenerative medicine," said Loh, "as well as to develop a basic road map of human embryonic development. (stanford.edu)
  • The idea here is that you'll be training hard to increase your body's ability to generate the highest possible amount of ATP during the event. (angelfire.com)
  • Because the palmar plate adheres to the flexor digitorum superficialis near the distal attachment of the muscle, it also increases the moment of flexor action. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order for motor neurons to form realistic synapses, the isolated neurons are co-cultured with muscle cells, requiring the use of additional animals. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • The neurosphere-derived cells migrated, proliferated, and generated neurons and glial cells that formed ganglion-like clusters within the recipient colon. (jci.org)
  • Although there is no distinction between red and white muscles, this article is of interest because it was the first to report retrograde tracing from muscles and motor neurons to the source of the motor neurons. (google.com)
  • Striated muscles receive their triggers from the brain via motor neurons. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Prevailing belief, by and large, is that the brain does not generate new neurons after its structure is complete, except in two specific regions, the olfactory bulb that mediates the sense of smell, and the hippocampus where initial memories of faces and places are laid down. (nytimes.com)
  • This consensus view was challenged a few years ago by Elizabeth Gould of Princeton, who reported finding new neurons in the cerebral cortex, along with the elegant idea that each day's memories might be recorded in the neurons generated that day. (nytimes.com)
  • Dr. Frisen's method will enable all regions of the brain to be dated to see if any new neurons are generated. (nytimes.com)
  • He finds these are exactly the same age as the individual, showing that new neurons are not generated after birth in this region of the cerebral cortex, or at least not in significant numbers. (nytimes.com)
  • And while your hip flexors are comparatively small muscles-rare is the bodybuilder who focuses on his psoas-they are absolutely essential for a range of athletic movements, from running to jumping to even heavy back squats. (mensjournal.com)
  • It is hypothesized that the CNS (central nervous system) coordinates groups of muscles with specific activation balances and temporal profiles, to simplify the generation of intricate movements [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It is very attractive to point out that these synergies make it possible for the motor intentions to be rapidly translated into muscle activation and the systems can learn and plan movements so fast [ 7 , 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Skeletal muscle cells are primarily specialized for voluntary movements, like dancing or snapping your fingers. (livestrong.com)
  • It will not interfere with coordination you need for fine muscle movements to play the piano or shoot a basketball. (baltimoresun.com)
  • We have compared the movements generated by stimulation of muscle, nerve, spinal roots and spinal cord in anesthetized, decerebrate and spinalized cats. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • In 5 dystonic patients with mobile involuntary movements, rhythmic EMG bursts in the contralateral muscles were coherent with the oscillations in the pallidal LFPs at the burst frequency. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In the case of dynamic motion such as jumping, an important fact in sEMG (surface Electromyogram) signal based control on exoskeletons, myoelectric prostheses, and rehabilitation gait is that multichannel sEMG signals contain mass data and vary greatly with time, which makes it difficult to generate compliant gait. (hindawi.com)
  • 7. An apparatus as claimed in claim 6, wherein the means for generating RF pulses comprises a modulator (43) in which a signal of an RF oscillator (40) is modulated by the signal from an envelope memory (45) which stores a number of envelope signals which are read in a cyclical order. (google.com)
  • Our muscles need signals from our brains and energy from our food to contract and move. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Calculated stress values were in excellent agreement with previously published results for cultured myotubes, but not adult skeletal muscle. (nih.gov)
  • Birbrair A, Wang ZM, Messi ML, Enikolopov GN, Delbono O (2011) Nestin-GFP transgene reveals neural precursor cells in adult skeletal muscle. (springer.com)
  • We isolated two morphologically distinct cell types with distinct tumorigenic potential from LA7-evoked tumors: cells with polygonal morphology that are characterized by expression of p21/(WAF1) and p63 and display hallmarks of CSCs and elongated epithelial cells, which generate tumors with far less heterogeneity than LA7 CSCs. (nih.gov)
  • These autologous T cells have been generated either by ex vivo manipulation of antigen-specific T cells with cytokines or by genetically engineering T cells to exhibit strong antitumor responses ( 5 - 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • however, ex vivo EDL muscle strength and endurance were unaltered. (hindawi.com)
  • To test the hypothesis that NF-E2 overexpression plays an integral role in the pathogenesis of MPNs in vivo, we have generated and characterized a novel murine model, a transgenic (tg) mouse overexpressing NF-E2 specifically in the hematopoietic lineages. (rupress.org)
  • The ability to make pure populations of these cells within days rather than the weeks or months previously required is a key step toward clinically useful regenerative medicine - potentially allowing researchers to generate new beating heart cells to repair damage after a heart attack or to create cartilage or bone to reinvigorate creaky joints or heal from trauma. (stanford.edu)
  • We think that by being able to generate pure populations, it will get rid of the variability, and therefore really help us combine with GWAS studies to identify allelic variations that are causative of a disease, at least in the liver," said Duncan. (brightsurf.com)
  • New artificial muscles that twist like the trunk of an elephant, but provide a thousand times higher rotation per length, were announced on Oct. 13 for publication in Science magazine by a team of researchers from The University of Texas at Dallas, The University of Wollongong in Australia, The University of British Columbia in Canada, and Hanyang University in Korea. (utdallas.edu)
  • From the computational perspective, with muscle synergies leading to dimensionality reduction that simplifies motor control and learning, such observation has recently raised the interest of many researchers to develop control strategies in robotic and biomechanical application [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Researchers have taken a major step towards developing a stem cell replacement therapy for debilitating muscle diseases. (pinterest.com)
  • We have demonstrated a biological microelectromechanical system (BioMEMS) based on silicon cantilevers and an AFM detection system for studying the physiology and kinetics of myotubes derived from embryonic rat skeletal muscle. (nih.gov)
  • and their neurites projected to muscle layers and the enteric ganglia of the recipient mice. (jci.org)
  • Female mice with a muscle-specific deficiency in BDNF (MBKO mice) were unable to switch the predominant fuel source from carbohydrates to fatty acids during fasting, which reduced ATP production in muscle. (nih.gov)
  • Fasting-induced muscle atrophy was also compromised in female MBKO mice, likely a result of autophagy inhibition. (nih.gov)
  • These mutant mice displayed myofiber necrosis, weaker muscle strength, reduced locomotion, and muscle-specific insulin resistance. (nih.gov)
  • The differentiation of hiPSCs into muscle cells will lead to further replacement of ~200 chicks or ~100 mice per year in Dr Rigby's experiments. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • Recently our group used severe combined immunodeficient (SCID)-hu mice bearing human thymus/liver (thy/liv) implants ( 27 - 29 ) to generate HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) from transduced hHSC ( 30 ). (pnas.org)
  • We transplanted neurospheres generated from fetal and postnatal intestinal neural crest-derived cells into the colon of postnatal mice. (jci.org)
  • Based on the observation that the transcription factor NF-E2 is often overexpressed in MPN patients, independent of the presence of other molecular aberrations, we generated mice expressing an NF-E2 transgene in hematopoietic cells. (rupress.org)
  • Au-EM was evaluated in BALB/c mice at a dose of 10 and 20 mg/kg for antinociceptive, muscle relaxant and sedative activities in comparison with the crude E. milii methanolic extract. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In dystrophic slow twitch soleus muscles, SEPS1 reduction had no effect on the inflammatory profile nor function. (hindawi.com)
  • Larsen, P.A., Marchán-Rivadeneira, M.R. and Baker, R.J. (2010) Natural Hybridization Generates Mammalian Lineage with Species Characteristics. (scirp.org)
  • The stem cell-derived cardiac cells did not exhibit contractile properties similar to normal adult cardiac muscle cells, said Charles Hong, M.D., Ph.D., and Björn Knollmann, M.D., Ph.D., who collaborated to develop the new method. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The data generated in this study provide means to identify new determinants of response and mechanisms of resistance to drugs, and offer opportunities to target genomic defects and overcome acquired resistance, according to Pommier. (medindia.net)
  • Immediately following muscle damage, neutrophils infiltrate the damaged area where they release cytokines to promote inflammation and reactive oxygen species break down cellular constituents [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Cell generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a byproduct, especially when energy consumption is high, such as during exercise. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This leads to constant muscle damage and degeneration, with persistent infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages and high levels of inflammatory cytokines within the muscle microenvironment and in circulation. (hindawi.com)
  • At the National Cancer Institute (NCI), scientists have generated a data set of cancer-specific genetic variations and are making these data available to the research community. (medindia.net)
  • The resulting sensorimotor disorders are frequently associated with an excessive level of neuromuscular fatigue [i.e., reduction in the ability of the muscle to produce force or power, whether the task can be sustained or not, as defined by Barry and Enoka (2007) ] when stroke patients performed the least effort. (frontiersin.org)
  • The demonstrated rotation of 250 per millimeter of muscle length is over a thousand times that of previous artificial muscles, which are based on ferroelectrics, shape memory alloys, or conducting organic polymers. (utdallas.edu)