Muscle Fibers, Skeletal
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch
Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch
Electromagnetic waves with frequencies between about 3 kilohertz (very low frequency - VLF) and 300,000 megahertz (extremely high frequency - EHF). They are used in television and radio broadcasting, land and satellite communications systems, radionavigation, radiolocation, and DIATHERMY. The highest frequency radio waves are MICROWAVES.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
Journal Impact Factor
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Glucose Clamp Technique
Fas and Fas ligand interaction induces apoptosis in inflammatory myopathies: CD4+ T cells cause muscle cell injury directly in polymyositis. (1/4591)OBJECTIVE: To investigate the involvement of the Fas/Fas ligand (Fas/FasL) system in the inflammatory myopathies. METHODS: Frozen muscle sections obtained from 7 patients with polymyositis (PM), 4 patients with dermatomyositis (DM), and 3 controls were studied by immunochemistry. Apoptosis was detected by DNA electrophoresis and in situ labeling using the TUNEL method. RESULTS: Fas was detected on muscle fibers and infiltrating mononuclear cells (MNC) in 6 PM patients and 2 DM patients. FasL was expressed mainly on CD4+ T cells and some CD8+ T cells, and on macrophages surrounding Fas-positive muscles in 4 PM patients and 1 DM patient. In 3 of the 5 patients with FasL-positive MNC, the TUNEL method showed that both invaded myonuclei and MNC underwent apoptosis. Chromosomal DNA from the muscle tissue of these patients showed ladder formation. CONCLUSION: Fas/FasL is involved in muscle cell apoptosis in at least 2 of the inflammatory myopathies, PM and DM. Although CD8+-mediated cytotoxicity is thought to be the main mechanism of muscle injury in PM, our data suggest that CD4+ T cells also directly cause muscle cell damage. (+info)
Plectin is a linker of intermediate filaments to Z-discs in skeletal muscle fibers. (2/4591)Plectin is a versatile linker protein which is associated with various types of cytoskeletal components and/or filaments including intermediate filaments, and its deficiency causes the disruption of myofibrils, or muscular dystrophy. To better understand the functional role of plectin in skeletal muscle fibers, we have examined the topological and structural relationships of plectin to intermediate filaments and Z-discs in rat diaphragm muscles by confocal and immunoelectron microscopy. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that plectin was colocalized with desmin at the periphery of Z-discs. This plectin localization around Z-discs was constantly maintained irrespective of the contracted or extended state of the muscle fibers, suggesting either direct or indirect association of plectin with Z-discs. Immunogold labeling in skinned muscle fibers clearly demonstrated that plectin-labeled fine threads linked desmin intermediate filaments to Z-discs and connected intermediate filaments to each other. These results indicate that through plectin threads desmin intermediate filaments form lateral linkages among adjacent Z-discs, preventing individual myofibrils from disruptive contraction and ensuring effective force generation. (+info)
Calcitonin gene-related peptide decreases expression of acetylcholinesterase in mammalian myotubes. (3/4591)Nerve-derived trophic factors are known to modulate expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in skeletal muscle fibers, yet the precise identity of these factors remains elusive. In the present study, we treated mouse C2 myotubes with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Compared to non-treated myotubes, cell-associated AChE activity levels were decreased by approximately 60% after 48 h of treatment. A parallel reduction in AChE total protein levels was also observed as determined by Western blot analysis. The reduction in AChE activity was due to a decrease in the levels of the G1 molecular form and to an elimination of G1. By contrast, levels of secreted AChE remained unchanged following CGRP treatment. Finally, the overall decrease in AChE activity was accompanied by a reduction in AChE transcripts which could not be attributed to changes in the transcriptional rate of the ACHE gene. (+info)
Nitric oxide inhibits cardiac energy production via inhibition of mitochondrial creatine kinase. (4/4591)Nitric oxide biosynthesis in cardiac muscle leads to a decreased oxygen consumption and lower ATP synthesis. It is suggested that this effect of nitric oxide is mainly due to the inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase. However, this work demonstrates that nitric oxide is able to inhibit soluble mitochondrial creatine kinase (CK), mitochondrial CK bound in purified mitochondria, CK in situ in skinned fibres as well as the functional activity of mitochondrial CK in situ in skinned fibres. Since mitochondrial isoenzyme is functionally coupled to oxidative phosphorylation, its inhibition also leads to decreased sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration to ADP and thus decreases ATP synthesis and oxygen consumption under physiological ADP concentrations. (+info)
Ca2+ and cross-bridge-induced changes in troponin C in skinned skeletal muscle fibers: effects of force inhibition. (5/4591)Changes in skeletal troponin C (sTnC) structure during thin filament activation by Ca2+ and strongly bound cross-bridge states were monitored by measuring the linear dichroism of the 5' isomer of iodoacetamidotetramethylrhodamine (5'IATR), attached to Cys98 (sTnC-5'ATR), in sTnC-5'ATR reconstituted single skinned fibers from rabbit psoas muscle. To isolate the effects of Ca2+ and cross-bridge binding on sTnC structure, maximum Ca2+-activated force was inhibited with 0.5 mM AlF4- or with 30 mM 2,3 butanedione-monoxime (BDM) during measurements of the Ca2+ dependence of force and dichroism. Dichroism was 0.08 +/- 0.01 (+/- SEM, n = 9) in relaxing solution (pCa 9.2) and decreased to 0.004 +/- 0.002 (+/- SEM, n = 9) at pCa 4.0. Force and dichroism had similar Ca2+ sensitivities. Force inhibition with BDM caused no change in the amplitude and Ca2+ sensitivity of dichroism. Similarly, inhibition of force at pCa 4.0 with 0.5 mM AlF4- decreased force to 0.04 +/- 0.01 of maximum (+/- SEM, n = 3), and dichroism was 0.04 +/- 0.03 (+/- SEM, n = 3) of the value at pCa 9.2 and unchanged relative to the corresponding normalized value at pCa 4.0 (0.11 +/- 0.05, +/- SEM; n = 3). Inhibition of force with AlF4- also had no effect when sTnC structure was monitored by labeling with either 5-dimethylamino-1-napthalenylsulfonylaziridine (DANZ) or 4-(N-(iodoacetoxy)ethyl-N-methyl)amino-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD). Increasing sarcomere length from 2.5 to 3.6 microm caused force (pCa 4.0) to decrease, but had no effect on dichroism. In contrast, rigor cross-bridge attachment caused dichroism at pCa 9.2 to decrease to 0.56 +/- 0.03 (+/- SEM, n = 5) of the value at pCa 9. 2, and force was 0.51 +/- 0.04 (+/- SEM, n = 6) of pCa 4.0 control. At pCa 4.0 in rigor, dichroism decreased further to 0.19 +/- 0.03 (+/- SEM, n = 6), slightly above the pCa 4.0 control level; force was 0.66 +/- 0.04 of pCa 4.0 control. These results indicate that cross-bridge binding in the rigor state alters sTnC structure, whereas cycling cross-bridges have little influence at either submaximum or maximum activating [Ca2+]. (+info)
The effect of thin filament activation on the attachment of weak binding cross-bridges: A two-dimensional x-ray diffraction study on single muscle fibers. (6/4591)To study possible structural changes in weak cross-bridge attachment to actin upon activation of the thin filament, two-dimensional (2D) x-ray diffraction patterns of skinned fibers from rabbit psoas muscle were recorded at low and high calcium concentration in the presence of saturating concentrations of MgATPgammaS, a nucleotide analog for weak binding states. We also studied 2D x-ray diffraction patterns recorded under relaxing conditions at an ionic strength above and below 50 mM, because it had been proposed from solution studies that reducing ionic strength below 50 mM also induces activation of the thin filament. For this project a novel preparation had to be established that allows recording of 2D x-ray diffraction patterns from single muscle fibers instead of natural fiber bundles. This was required to minimize substrate depletion or product accumulation within the fibers. When the calcium concentration was raised, the diffraction patterns recorded with MgATPgammaS revealed small changes in meridional reflections and layer line intensities that could be attributed in part to the effects of calcium binding to the thin filament (increase in I380, decrease in first actin layer line intensity, increase in I59) and in part to small structural changes of weakly attached cross-bridges (e.g., increase in I143 and I72). Calcium-induced small-scale structural rearrangements of cross-bridges weakly attached to actin in the presence of MgATPgammaS are consistent with our previous observation of reduced rate constants for attachment and detachment of cross-bridges with MgATPgammaS at high calcium. Yet, no evidence was found that weakly attached cross-bridges change their mode of attachment toward a stereospecific conformation when the actin filament is activated by adding calcium. Similarly, reducing ionic strength to less than 50 mM does not induce a transition from nonstereospecific to stereospecific attachment. (+info)
Model-independent analysis of the orientation of fluorescent probes with restricted mobility in muscle fibers. (7/4591)The orientation of proteins in ordered biological samples can be investigated using steady-state polarized fluorescence from probes conjugated to the protein. A general limitation of this approach is that the probes typically exhibit rapid orientational motion ("wobble") with respect to the protein backbone. Here we present a method for characterizing the extent of this wobble and for removing its effects from the available information about the static orientational distribution of the probes. The analysis depends on four assumptions: 1) the probe wobble is fast compared with the nanosecond time scale of its excited-state decay; 2) the orientational distributions of the absorption and emission transition dipole moments are cylindrically symmetrical about a common axis c fixed in the protein; 3) protein motions are negligible during the excited-state decay; 4) the distribution of c is cylindrically symmetrical about the director of the experimental sample. In a muscle fiber, the director is the fiber axis, F. All of the information on the orientational order of the probe that is available from measurements of linearly polarized fluorescence is contained in five independent polarized fluorescence intensities measured with excitation and emission polarizers parallel or perpendicular to F and with the propagation axis of the detected fluorescence parallel or perpendicular to that of the excitation. The analysis then yields the average second-rank and fourth-rank order parameters (
A repetitive mode of activation of discrete Ca2+ release events (Ca2+ sparks) in frog skeletal muscle fibres. (8/4591)1. Ca2+ release events (Ca2+ 'sparks'), which are believed to arise from the opening of a sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release channel or a small cluster of such channels that act as a release unit, have been measured in single, frog (Rana pipiens) skeletal muscle fibres. 2. Under conditions of extremely low rates of occurrence of Ca2+ sparks we observed, within individual identified triads, repetitive Ca2+ release events which occurred at a frequency more than 100-fold greater than the prevailing average event rate. Repetitive sparks were recorded during voltage-clamp test depolarizations after a brief (0.3-2 s) repriming interval in fibres held at 0 mV and in chronically depolarized, 'notched' fibres. 3. These repetitive events are likely to arise from the re-opening of the same SR Ca2+ release channel or release unit operating in a repetitive gating mode ('rep-mode'), rather than from the random activation of multiple, independent channels or release units within a triad. A train of rep-mode events thus represents a series of Ca2+ sparks arising from a single location within the fibre. Rep-mode events are activated among different triads in a random manner after brief repriming. The frequency of repetitive events among all identified events during voltage-clamp depolarization to 0 mV after brief repriming was 3.9 +/- 1.3 %. The occurrence of repetitive events was not related to exposure of the fibre to laser illumination. 4. The events observed within a rep-mode train exhibited a relatively uniform amplitude. Analysis of intervals between identified events in triads exhibiting rep-mode trains indicated similar variations of fluorescence as in neighbouring, quiescent triads, suggesting there was not a significant number of small, unidentified events at the triads exhibiting rep-mode activity. 5. The distribution of rep-mode interspark intervals exhibited a paucity of events at short intervals, consistent with the need for recovery from inactivation before activation of the next event in a repetitive train. The mean interspark interval of repetitive sparks during voltage-clamp depolarizations was 88 +/- 5 ms, and was independent of membrane potential. 6. The individual Ca2+ sparks within a rep-mode train were similar in average amplitude and spatiotemporal extent to singly occurring sparks, suggesting a common mechanism for termination of the channel opening(s) underlying both types of events. The average properties of the sparks did not vary during a train. The relative amplitude of a spark within a rep-mode was not correlated with its rise time. 7. Repetitive Ca2+ release events represent a mode of gating of SR Ca2+ release channels which may be significant during long depolarizations and which may be influenced by the biochemical state of the SR ryanodine receptor Ca2+ release channels. (+info)
Garyshort.org :: How To Train Muscle Fibers
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Flexor Digitorum Brevis Muscle Anatomy, Function & Diagram | Body Maps - muslimselfportrait.info
The flexor digitorum brevis muscle is located in the foot. Its precise location is within the sole of the foot, directly above the plantar aponeurosis, which supports the arch of the foot.
How muscle fiber lengths and velocities affect muscle force generation as humans walk and run at different speeds | Journal of...
Although EMG normalization influences the distribution of simulated muscle force, we are confident that our normalization method did not compromise the results of this study. We normalized subjects filtered EMG to the maximum value observed for each muscle over all gait speeds. This normalization method will cause the estimated excitation to be over-estimated if the muscle was not maximally excited during any of the trials. The impact of such an error on the muscle fiber length and velocity depends on muscle-tendon compliance. In muscles where the ratio of tendon slack length to optimal fiber length is less than two (vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, semitendinosus, gluteus maximus and gluteus medius), fiber lengths and velocities are not sensitive to excitation level [see figs 4 and 6 of Arnold and Delp (Arnold and Delp, 2011)]. Gastrocnemius medialis, gastrocnemius lateralis and soleus have the highest muscle-tendon compliance in our study; however, it is reasonable to expect that soleus and ...
Kinetics of nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation of Foxo1 and Foxo3A in adult skeletal muscle fibers | Cell Physiology
The nuclear export of Foxo can be inhibited by LMB (Fig. 11), which binds to and thus removes the availability of CRM1 for nuclear export. In the presence of a fully blocking concentration of LMB, any Foxo that enters the nucleus is unable to leave and becomes trapped in the nucleus. Inhibition of nuclear export via LMB thus provides a powerful tool for measuring the rate of unidirectional nuclear influx and for calculating its rate constant of cytoplasmic efflux. The change in the rate constant for unidirectional efflux out of the cytoplasm due to treatment with phosphorylation modulators demonstrates the importance of cytoplasmic phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of Foxo1 in regulation of its rate of cytoplasmic efflux (Figs. 6, 9, and 10). Furthermore, the increase in the rate of nuclear influx that resulted from staurosporine addition in the presence of LMB (Fig. 9A) indicates that the nuclear import machinery is not saturated at the level of expression of Foxo1-GFP employed under our ...
Comparison of Simulated and Measured Calcium Sparks in Intact Skeletal Muscle Fibers of the Frog | JGP
Model 1 differs in several ways from most previously published spark models. The differences include: (a) the value assumed for [Ca2+]R; (b) the particular reaction chosen for the SR Ca2+ pump; (c) the inclusion of ATP as an endogenous Ca2+ buffer; and (d) the inclusion of a binding reaction between fluo-3 and myoplasmic protein. To evaluate the effect of these differences, the parameters of the model were modified as described in the following paragraphs. In each case, the amplitude of the Ca2+ flux at the source was readjusted so that the mean amplitude of the larger simulated noisy sparks matched that of the measurements. Table IV, columns 4-7 give the morphological parameters obtained in the simulations after these modifications.. The first modification was to increase the value of [Ca2+]R from 50 to 100 nM. The main effect of this change is to increase resting fluorescence (F) by the factor 1.73. The fractional increase in F is smaller than that in [Ca2+]R because the fluorescence of ...
Relationship between force and size in human single muscle fibres
When the contractile properties of single muscle fibres are studied, force is typically normalized by fibre cross-sectional area and expressed as specific force. We studied a set of 2725 chemically skinned human single muscle fibres from 119 healthy adults to determine whether specific force is the optimal way to express the relationship between single-fibre force and size. A linear mixed effects model was used to estimate the slope and slope variability among individuals of log-log plots of force and diameter. For type I fibres, the slope estimate was 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.36-1.62), and for type IIa fibres it was 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.77-1.11), indicating that force is proportional to fibre diameter, rather than to cross-sectional area. If force were proportional to cross-sectional area, the slope estimate would be 2.0. In future studies using the chemically skinned single fibre preparation, force may be normalized to fibre diameter rather than cross-sectional area. We ...
Mammalian skeletal muscle fibers distinguished by contents of phosphocreatine, ATP, and Pi. | PNAS
We tested the proposition that muscle cell types have different contents of phosphocreatine (PCr), ATP, and Pi by 31P NMR spectroscopy and HPLC analyses of adult rat and mouse muscles containing various volume fractions of different fiber types. There was a 2-fold difference in the PCr content between muscles with a high volume fraction of fiber types 1 and 2x versus those with fast-twitch (types 2a and 2b) fiber types. Pi content was low, and PCr and ATP contents were high in muscles with large contents of type 2b and 2a fibers; the reverse was true in muscles with a large volume fraction of type 1 and 2x fibers. There is a large range in the Pi/PCr ratios in normal resting muscles, from less than 0.05 in type 2 to 0.51 in type 1 fibers, depending upon the distribution of their component fiber types. In all muscles, the peak area resulting from the beta phosphate of ATP constituted approximately 13% of the sum of all peak areas observable in the 31P spectrum. Fiber types 2a and 2b were not ...
Anatomy Of A Muscle Cell - Sample Scholarship Essay
The muscle growth that occurs after birth is a result of the enlargement of these existing muscle fibers. The mature muscle fibers have a few myoblasts, which remain as satellite cells. These myoblasts retain the capacity to join with one another or with damaged muscle fibers in order to regenerate these muscle fibers. John Centore2 Dr. Jain Anatomy & Physiology The many nuclei of skeletal muscle fiber are located underneath the sarcolemma, which is the fibers plasma membrane.. Thousands of invaginations of the sarcolemma, which are called T Tubules, Tunnel from the surface to the center of the muscle fiber. These T Tubules are open to the outside of the fiber and are filled with extra-cellular fluid. Muscle action potentials propagate along the sarcolemma and through the T tubules and quickly spread through the muscle fiber. This process ensures that all parts of the muscle fiber become excited by an action potential virtually simultaneously. The sarcoplasm is located inside the ...
Effects of reducing sarcomere length on twitch contraction in mammalian (rat) muscle fibres. - UEA Digital Repository
Mutungi, GM and Ranatunga, KW (1998) Effects of reducing sarcomere length on twitch contraction in mammalian (rat) muscle fibres. The Journal of Physiology, 511.P. pp. 155-156. ISSN 1469-7793 Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
Skeletal muscle myotubes, SEM - Stock Image C032/0169 - Science Photo Library
C2 skeletal muscle cells (myotubes) developing in culture, coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). Myogenesis is the formation of muscular tissue, especially in embryonic development. Muscle fibres form from the fusion of myoblasts into multi-nucleated fibres called myotubes. In the early development of an embryo these myoblasts will undergo multiple divisions. The second stage involves the alignment of the myoblasts into the myotubes. The third stage is the actual cell fusion of myotubes in to muscle fibres. Magnification: x240 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/0169
Effect of lactate on depolarization-induced Ca2+ release in mechanically skinned skeletal muscle fibers
It is unclear whether accumulation of lactate in skeletal muscle fibers during intense activity contributes to muscle fatigue. Using mechanically skinned fibers from rat and toad muscle, we were able to examine the effect of l(+)-lactate on excitation-contraction coupling independently of other metabolic changes. We investigated the effects of lactate on the contractile apparatus, caffeine-induced ...
Characteristics of the short range elasticity (SRE) in mammalian (rat) muscle fibres. - UEA Digital Repository
Mutungi, GM and Ranatunga, KW (1996) Characteristics of the short range elasticity (SRE) in mammalian (rat) muscle fibres. The Journal of Physiology, 493. p. 7. ISSN 1469-7793 Full text not available from this repository ...
Muscle fiber synonyms, muscle fiber antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com
Synonyms for muscle fiber in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for muscle fiber. 2 synonyms for muscle fiber: muscle cell, muscle fibre. What are synonyms for muscle fiber?
Define Muscle Fibres
Main objective of this article is to define and discuss on Muscle Fibres. Here explain different muscle Muscle Fibres. Type I Muscle Fibres are those that are called the slow twitch or the sluggish oxidative fibers, which contain lots of myoglobin, mitochondria, and naturally, blood capillaries. These fibers have a
Fast/Glycolytic muscle fiber growth reduces fat mass and improves metabolic parameters in obese mice. - PubMed - NCBI
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The mean fibre area of the semitendinosus, diaphragm and pecto...
The mean fibre area of the semitendinosus, diaphragm and pectoralis transversus muscles in differing types of horse and dog.: The mean fibre areas of samples fr
Frontiers | Exhaustion of Skeletal Muscle Fibers Within Seconds: Incorporating Phosphate Kinetics Into a Hill-Type Model |...
Initiated by neural impulses and subsequent calcium release, skeletal muscle fibers contract (actively generate force) as a result of repetitive power strokes of acto-myosin cross-bridges. The energy required for performing these cross-bridge cycles is provided by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The reaction products, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi), are then used-among other reactants, such as creatine phosphate-to refuel the ATP energy storage. However, similar to yeasts that perish at the hands of their own waste, the hydrolysis reaction products diminish the chemical potential of ATP and thus inhibit the muscles force generation as their concentration rises. We suggest to use the term
How many muscle fibers are in a small motor unit? - Motorization
The number of muscle fibers in a motor unit varies from effector to effector. In the hand and eye, fewer than 100 muscle fibers occupy a motor unit; in the lower leg, a single motor unit may contain as many as 1,000 muscle fibers (Buchthal & Schmalbruch, 1980).. ...
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
D. Rotator Cuff. V Exercise. A. aerobic. 1. increased endurance. B. resistance or isometric (vs. isotonic). 1. increased muscle size. a. cause of increased size When you finish this unit, you should be able to: - explain the basic characteristics of all muscle tissue. - define acetylcholine, motor end plate, neuromuscular junction. - draw a neuromuscular junction and explain the sequence of events occurring there. - explain how a skeletal muscle fiber knows when to contract. - draw the structure of a skeletal muscle fiber labeling myofibril, sarcomere, myofilament, actin, myosin, A-band, I-band, Z-line. - explain HOW a single muscle fiber manages to shorten its length. - explain the Sliding Filament Theory of Contraction - describe the structure of a whole skeletal muscle (the organ) including the connective tissue wrappings. - list the steps between exciting a muscle fiber and the muscle moving a bone. - explain how one muscle can perform different strengths of contraction - list the causes ...
General Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle Fibers • GetBodySmart
An interactive quiz about the general anatomy of skeletal muscle fibers, featuring illustrations-based multiple choice questions. Click and start learning now!
SimTK: Laplacian field mapping of skeletal muscle fibers.: Project Home
Collection of computational implementations and examples for the numerical construction of skeletal muscle fiber maps based on a Laplacian field approach.
red Skeletal muscle fibers. Relative independence of neural control. by E Bajusz
Bajusz, E, red Skeletal muscle fibers. Relative independence of neural control. (1964). Subject Strain Bibliography 1964. 52 ...
Rotation of Single Cross-Bridge in Skeletal Muscle Fiber - UNT Health Science Center
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The current hypothesis of contraction of skeletal muscle is that the binding of a fuel molecule (ATP) to an active site of myosin induces a local conformational change in the catalytic domain --an enzymatically active part of a molecule. This change is mechanically amplified and leads to a major rotation of the regulatory domain -- a long part at the end of myosin that is enzymatically inert. The rotation of the regulatory domain results in the generation of force and movement. The rotation is coupled to the chemical events occurring at the active site of myosin. The aim of this proposal is to test this hypothesis in a single cross-bridge of contracting muscle fiber. A confocal microscope is modified to allow measurements from a small population (approximately 10) of cross-bridges. The rotation of the regulatory domain and the enzymatic activity are measured simultaneously. The rotation is studied by measuring the anisotropy of fluorescence of probes placed ...
Muscle fibers and training
Muscle fibers With HIT training we are specifically trying to stimulate a certain type of muscle fiber. We have different muscle fibers in the body
Inactivity Increases Risk for Diabetes | Dr. Gabe Mirkin on Health
After you have stopped exercising for just a few weeks, your muscles are smaller and weaker and cannot remove as much sugar from your bloodstream when blood sugar levels rise too high. To regain your muscle size and strength, you need to exercise intensely enough to damage the muscle fibers so they will be stronger when they heal. When you use your muscles, you contract the muscle and shorten its fibers. However, you do not contract a muscle fiber equally throughout its length. Muscle fibers are made up of blocks, called sarcomeres, touching end to end to form the long stringy muscle fiber. Each block touches the next block at a point called the Z-line. You have to damage the Z-line to make a muscle grow larger and stronger. If you pedal a bicycle with great pressure or run very fast, you can damage the muscle fibers at the Z-lines, but most people do not run or cycle hard enough to do this. Adding weight training to the recovery program will help to regain the lost strength and muscle size. See ...
Muscle fibre recruitment can respond to the mechanics of the muscle contraction | Journal of The Royal Society Interface
A major finding from this study was the shift to higher EMG frequencies at the faster muscle fascicle strain rates for the MG (figure 7). Many studies quantify EMG frequencies by the mean or median frequency of the EMG power spectra (Roy et al. 1986; Solomonow et al. 1990; Kupa et al. 1995; De Luca 1997). However, in the current study, the shift in frequency does not merely represent an increase in the mean frequency of the EMG-intensity spectrum but more specifically occurs as a decrease in the low-frequency (less than 100 Hz) components and an increase in the high-frequency (greater than 100 Hz) components of the spectra (Wakeling & Rozitis 2004). Furthermore, the results showed that shifts in frequency occurred even when the total EMG-intensity remained the same and the statistical analysis showed that the strain rate-dependent shifts in frequency occurred independently from changes in the locomotor load, measured as crank torque and the muscle fascicle strain.. There are many factors that ...
We Have The Technology: Functioning Muscle Cells Made in Lab - TGNR
They are also self-healing(more later)! The mouse muscle fiber grew from progenitor satellite cells which exist in mature living muscle. The trick, according to the Duke researchers, required finding the perfect environment for muscle growth for the satellite cells. Specifically they needed well-developed contractile muscle fibers included in the mix with the immature cells. Once the cells grew into mature fibers themselves, they were grafted into mice where the new muscle adapted function and strength. As for self-healing, an ex vivo study in which new-grown fibers were damaged by toxin, they recovered contractile function after being re-exposed to the milieu of immature cells.. ...
Protein can change worn muscle fibres ( A protein can change easily worn muscle...)
Health,A protein can change easily worn muscle fibres into energy-producing m...There are two types of muscle fibre. Type II is the easily-fatigue...The research isnt meant for a quick-fix to replace a commitment t......,Protein,can,change,worn,muscle,fibres,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
What Is The Mind-Muscle Connection? - Peakperformance365. Cairns Personal Training and Bootcamp Specialists
As you know, movement is controlled by the brain. The first step towards muscular contraction is a signal sent by the brain to your muscles telling them to contract. You might say that the Mind-Muscle Connection (MMC) occurs at something called the neuromuscular junction. This is where the mind meets the body. The brain releases a chemical neurotransmitter called Acetylcholine to communicate with muscles in the body.. The more you can improve this communication, the more muscle fibers you will recruit. A single muscle head is made up of many individual muscle fibers. By improving your MMC you are actually increasing the number of muscle fibers being recruited when you perform a lift. This results in a better quality muscle contraction and better workout.. When youre in the middle of a set, whats going through your mind? Are you simply trying to force out as many reps as you can? If this is you, Ive got some tips below to help you develop your MMC and maximize your gains.. You should be ...
Browsing by Author Challis, John H.
For a physiologically realistic joint range of motion and therefore range of muscle fiber lengths, only part of the whole muscle force-length curve can be used in vivo; that is, only a section of the force-length curve is ...
bims-misrem 2020-05-24 papers
The current study explored whether the marked hypertrophic response noted with a short-term unilateral concurrent exercise paradigm was associated with more prominent changes in myonuclei accretion, ribosome biogenesis and capillarization compared to resistance exercise alone (RE). Ten men (age 25±4yr) performed aerobic and resistance exercise (AE+RE) for one leg, while the other leg did RE. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after 5 weeks of training and subjected to fiber-type specific immunohistochemical analysis, and quantification of total RNA content and mRNA/rRNA transcript abundance. Type-II fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) increased with both AE+RE (22%) and RE (16%), while type-I fiber CSA increased mainly with AE+RE (16%). The change-score tended to differ between legs for type-I CSA (P=0.099), and the increase in smallest fiber diameter was greater in AE+RE than RE (P=0.029). The number of nuclei per fiber increased after AE+RE in both fiber types, and this increase was ...
How to Build Dense Muscle | Livestrong.com
We all have our reasons for going to the gym. And muscle hypertrophy, or growth, is one of the main ones. To build lean, dense muscle, you must progressively overload your muscles to enhance muscle fiber recruitment. How do you do that?
How To Build Muscle Mass: Which Is Better For Building Muscle: Machines Or Free Weights?
Even though the absolute poundage is greater on a machine, the actual overload on the muscle is greater with free weights because youre responsible for balancing and stabilizing all the weight yourself. This, along with an increased range of motion, is why free weights are better for more muscle fiber recruitment and maximum stimulation ...
Issues with muscle fiber histology analysis - CellProfiler Help - CellProfiler
Hello, I was hopeful you could provide assistance with my analysis. At the bottom of this description, you will find a link to the two images discussed below. The first image is a cross-section of muscle fibers w…
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Overall strength is about a lot more than just muscle size and makeup. It is mostly about muscle recruitment. All of us have the opportunity to be about 5 times stronger than we think we are, because our brains randomly fire about 20% or less of our available muscle fibers. They do this to limit joint damage and leverage and maximize resources of glucose and creatine in the muscle fiber and potassium and calcium in the blood that fuel the nerve processes. The super human strength shown sometimes is a result of fight or flight overriding the normal random firing. Old grandmas are stronger than young bodybuilders when they fire 100% of their fibers, but they also risk grave injury ...
Muscle Fibers | ClipArt ETC
Martin, H. Newell The Human Body: A Text-book of Anatomy, Physiology and Hygiene (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1900) 62. ...
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Genetics explain a lot of the differences in strength and muscularity between person to person. Specifically, the size of your frame, how many muscle fibers youre born with, and how well you respond to training essentially separate you from your gym buddy or someone who can squat 1,000 pounds.
How can rebounding benefit my health?
Rebounding improves coordination between the propreoceptors in the joints, the transmission of nerve impulses to and from the brain, transmission of nerve impulses and responsiveness of the muscle fibers. ...
Age and sex affect human muscle fibre adaptations to heavy-resistance strength training - Martel - 2006 - Experimental...
This study assessed age and sex effects on muscle fibre adaptations to heavy-resistance strength training (ST). Twenty-two young men and women (20-30 years old) and 18 older men and women (65-75 years old) completed 9 weeks of heavy-resistance knee extension exercises with the dominant leg 3 days week−1; the non-dominant leg served as a within-subject, untrained control. Bilateral vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained before and after ST for analysis of type I, IIa and IIx muscle fibre cross-sectional area (CSA) and fibre type distribution. One-repetition maximum (1-RM) strength was also assessed before and after ST. ST resulted in increased CSA of type I, IIa and IIx muscle fibres in the trained leg of young men, type I and IIa fibres in young women, type IIa fibres in older men, and type IIx fibres in older women (all P , 0.05). Analysis of fibre type distribution revealed a significant increase in the percentage of type I fibres (P , 0.05) along with a decrease in type IIx fibres ...
Force-generating capacity of human myosin isoforms extracted from single muscle fibre segments
Muscle, motor unit and muscle fibre type-specific differences in force-generating capacity have been investigated for many years, but there is still no consensus regarding specific differences between slow- and fast-twitch muscles, motor units or muscle fibres. This is probably related to a number of different confounding factors disguising the function of the molecular motor protein myosin. We have therefore studied the force-generating capacity of specific myosin isoforms or combination of isoforms extracted from short single human muscle fibre segments in a modified single fibre myosin in vitro motility assay, in which an internal load (actin-binding protein) was added in different concentrations to evaluate the force-generating capacity. The force indices were the x-axis intercept and the slope of the relationship between the fraction of moving filaments and the α-actinin concentration. The force-generating capacity of the β/slow myosin isoform (type I) was weaker (P , 0.05) than the fast ...
Human skeletal muscle fibre contractile properties and proteomic profile: Adaptations to 3 weeks of unilateral lower limb...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human skeletal muscle fibre contractile properties and proteomic profile. T2 - Adaptations to 3 weeks of unilateral lower limb suspension and active recovery. AU - Brocca, Lorenza. AU - Longa, Emanuela. AU - Cannavino, Jessica. AU - Seynnes, Olivier. AU - de Vito, Giuseppe. AU - Mcphee, Jamie. AU - Narici, Marco. AU - Pellegrino, Maria Antonietta. AU - Bottinelli, Roberto. PY - 2015/12/15. Y1 - 2015/12/15. N2 - Following disuse, muscle fibre function goes through adaptations such as a loss of specific force (PO/CSA) and an increase in unloaded shortening velocity, which could be a result of both quantitative changes (i.e. atrophy) and qualitative changes in protein pattern. The underlying mechanisms remain to be clarified. In addition, little is known about the recovery of muscle mass and strength following disuse. In the present study, we report an extensive dataset describing, in detail,the functional and protein content adaptations of skeletal muscle in response to both disuse ...
The meat quality, muscle fiber characteristics and fatty acid profile in Jinjiang and F1 Simmental×Jinjiang yellow cattle
Current beef production has to meet the growing consumers demands for high quality beef, while concurrently increasing the resource efficiency. Meat quality is influenced by several factors. Milićević et al  found that the fatty acid profiles could affect the overall acceptability of meat; as well as influence several meat quality parameters, such as softness, hardness, oxidation stability, color and flavor. In addition, muscle fiber development is also known to have an important impact on the meat quality. Although the total number of skeletal muscle fibers is fixed in animals before birth , the composition of muscle fiber types varies during the life of an animal to adapt to different physiological requirements . The contractile properties depend primarily on myosin heavy-chain isoforms (MyHCs) present within the thick filaments. In most mature mammalian skeletal striated muscles, four types of MyHC are expressed: I, IIa, IIx, and IIb . The muscle fiber composition could ...
Direct visualization of the dystrophin network on skeletal muscle fiber membrane. | Journal of Cell Biology | Rockefeller...
Dystrophin, the protein product of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene locus, is expressed on the muscle fiber surface. One key to further understanding of the cellular function of dystrophin would be extended knowledge about its subcellular organization. We have shown that dystrophin molecules are not uniformly distributed over the humen, rat, and mouse skeletal muscle fiber surface using three independent methods. Incubation of single-teased muscle fibers with antibodies to dystrophin revealed a network of denser transversal rings (costameres) and finer longitudinal interconnections. Double staining of longitudinal semithin cryosections for dystrophin and alpha-actinin showed spatial juxtaposition of the costameres to the Z bands. Where peripheral myonuclei precluded direct contact of dystrophin to the Z bands the organization of dystrophin was altered into lacunae harboring the myonucleus. These lacunae were surrounded by a dystrophin ring and covered by a more uniform dystrophin veil. ...
Muscle fibre type shifting in the vastus lateralis of patients with COPD is associated with disease severity: a systematic...
To date it is unclear whether changes in lower limb muscle fibre type distribution in COPD are related to disease severity. The most prominent marker of disease severity is the FEV135 but, surprisingly, most of the currently reviewed papers did not mention a relation between FEV1 and fibre type proportion. In the current review all the group data of these individual studies were pooled, and when the FEV1 was plotted against fibre type I proportion it became clear that the fibre type I proportion in the vastus lateralis of patients with COPD decreases with increasing disease severity. This relation also exists for the FEV1 corrected for the FVC. The currently observed positive relation between BMI and fibre type I proportion further underlines the fact that the proportion of fibre type I declines with increasing disease severity, considering low BMI as an important marker of systemic disease severity.36 For fibre type II these relations are inverse, by the definition of fibre type proportions. ...
LIM and cysteine-rich domains 1 (LMCD1) regulates skeletal muscle hypertrophy, calcium handling, and force | Skeletal Muscle |...
Skeletal muscle mass and strength are crucial determinants of health. Muscle mass loss is associated with weakness, fatigue, and insulin resistance. In fact, it is predicted that controlling muscle atrophy can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with diseases such as cancer cachexia and sarcopenia. We analyzed gene expression data from muscle of mice or human patients with diverse muscle pathologies and identified LMCD1 as a gene strongly associated with skeletal muscle function. We transiently expressed or silenced LMCD1 in mouse gastrocnemius muscle or in mouse primary muscle cells and determined muscle/cell size, targeted gene expression, kinase activity with kinase arrays, protein immunoblotting, and protein synthesis levels. To evaluate force, calcium handling, and fatigue, we transduced the flexor digitorum brevis muscle with a LMCD1-expressing adenovirus and measured specific force and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release in individual fibers. Finally, to explore the relationship between
Effects of intermittent pressure imitating rolling manipulation on calcium ion homeostasis in human skeletal muscle cells<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of intermittent pressure imitating rolling manipulation on calcium ion homeostasis in human skeletal muscle cells. AU - Zhang, Hong. AU - Liu, Howe. AU - Lin, Qing. AU - Zhang, Guohui. AU - Mason, David C.. PY - 2016/8/26. Y1 - 2016/8/26. N2 - Background: Homeostasis imbalance of intracellular Ca2+ is one of the key pathophysiological factors in skeletal muscle injuries. Such imbalance can cause significant change in the metabolism of Ca2+-related biomarkers in skeletal muscle, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and creatine kinase (CK). Measurements of these biomarkers can be used to evaluate the degree of damage to human skeletal muscle cells (HSKMCs) injury. Rolling manipulation is the most popular myofascial release technique in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The mechanism of how this technique works in ameliorating muscle injury is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the possible Ca2+ mediated effects of intermittent pressure imitating ...
Lipid droplet size and location in human skeletal muscle fibers are associated with insulin sensitivity | Endocrinology and...
In skeletal muscle, an accumulation of lipid droplets (LDs) in the subsarcolemmal space is associated with insulin resistance, but the underlying mechanism is not clear. We aimed to investigate how the size, number and location of LDs are associated with insulin sensitivity and muscle fiber types, and are regulated by aerobic training and treatment with an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) in healthy young untrained males. LD analyses were performed by quantitative transmission electron microscopy and insulin sensitivity was assessed by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. At baseline, we found that only the diameter (and not the number) of individual subsarcolemmal LDs was negatively associated with insulin sensitivity (R2 = 0.20, P = 0.03, n = 29). Despite 34% (P = 0.004) fewer LDs, the diameter of individual subsarcolemmal LDs was 20% (P = 0.0004) larger in type 2 fibers than in type 1 fibers. Furthermore, aerobic training decreased the size of subsarcolemmal LDs in the type 2fibers, and ...
Lipid droplet size and location in human skeletal muscle fibers are associated with insulin sensitivity | Endocrinology and...
In skeletal muscle, an accumulation of lipid droplets (LDs) in the subsarcolemmal space is associated with insulin resistance, but the underlying mechanism is not clear. We aimed to investigate how the size, number and location of LDs are associated with insulin sensitivity and muscle fiber types, and are regulated by aerobic training and treatment with an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) in healthy young untrained males. LD analyses were performed by quantitative transmission electron microscopy and insulin sensitivity was assessed by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. At baseline, we found that only the diameter (and not the number) of individual subsarcolemmal LDs was negatively associated with insulin sensitivity (R2 = 0.20, P = 0.03, n = 29). Despite 34% (P = 0.004) fewer LDs, the diameter of individual subsarcolemmal LDs was 20% (P = 0.0004) larger in type 2 fibers than in type 1 fibers. Furthermore, aerobic training decreased the size of subsarcolemmal LDs in the type 2fibers, and ...
Images - Regenerative Physiology: Carlos B. Mantilla - Mayo Clinic Research
Diaphragm muscle fibers identified according to fiber type (based on myosin heavy chain isoform expression) Representative diaphragm muscle cross-sections with type I fibers in blue, type IIa fibers in purple, and type IIx or type IIb fibers both in black. Scale bar is 50 μm. Individual muscle fibers are automatically thresholded and separated for analysis. Greising SM, et al. Analysis of muscle fiber clustering in the diaphragm muscle of sarcopenic mice. Muscle & Nerve. 2015;52:76.. ...
Wnt/β-catenin signaling via Axin2 is required for myogenesis and, together with YAP/Taz and Tead1, active in IIa/IIx muscle...
This is, to our knowledge, the first report describing active canonical Wnt together with YAP/Taz/TEAD signaling in adult skeletal muscle fibers. Using Axin2-lacZ reporter mice, we identified active canonical Wnt signaling in type II myofibers (Fig. 2) (Lustig et al., 2002). This mouse model is well established for tracing active canonical Wnt signaling since Axin2 is a direct target of β-catenin-mediated gene expression (Barolo, 2006). In fact, heterozygous Axin2-lacZ mice, without any known signs of haploinsufficiency, express muscular β-gal in type II muscle fibers, suggesting that active canonical Wnt signaling is present physiologically in adult muscle fibers (Fig. 2). In homozygous Axin2-lacZ mice, not only is the doubled lacZ gene dosage responsible for elevated Axin2-lacZ reporter expression, but also the derepression of canonical Wnt signaling, since Axin2 itself is a negative regulator and target of canonical Wnt signaling and therefore participates in a negative-feedback loop. In ...
Sodium Channel NaV1.5 Expression is Enhanced in Cultured Adult Rat Skeletal Muscle Fibers, The Journal of Membrane Biology | 10...
Read Sodium Channel NaV1.5 Expression is Enhanced in Cultured Adult Rat Skeletal Muscle Fibers, The Journal of Membrane Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Skeletal Muscle and Cardiovascular Adaptations to Exercise Conditioning in Older Coronary Patients | Circulation
The endurance exercise-training program induced substantial improvements in peak exercise capacity and work capacity in the study population at 3 and 12 months of training compared with control patients. The hypothesis that older patients condition predominantly by noncardiac adaptations is supported by the fact that the increases in peak aerobic exercise capacity were mediated primarily by an increase in peak exercise AVo2 Diff with no measurable increase in peak exercise cardiac output. The increase in peak AVo2 Diff was associated with adaptations of skeletal muscle fiber size, capillarity, and SDH activity with only subtle alterations in cardiac performance and no discernible alterations of peripheral arterial blood flow. The skeletal muscle adaptations consisted of an increased oxidative enzyme activity and an increased capillary density after 3 months of conditioning and an increased muscle fiber cross-sectional area after 12 months of conditioning. However, although directional changes of ...
The membrane potential of rat diaphragm muscle fibres and the effect of denerevation<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The membrane potential of rat diaphragm muscle fibres and the effect of denerevation. AU - Bray, JJ. AU - Hawken, Michael. AU - Hubbard, JI. AU - Pockett, S. AU - Wilson, L. PY - 1976. Y1 - 1976. M3 - Article. VL - 255. SP - 651. EP - 667. JO - Journal of Physiology. JF - Journal of Physiology. SN - 0022-3751. ER - ...
Individual fibres were mounted between a force transducer and servomotor, and exposed to activating calcium solutions, as described previously . Maximal tension (i.e. maximal force normalised to muscle fibre cross-sectional area (CSA)) was significantly lower in fast-twitch muscle fibres of PAH patients (Npatients=11, nfibres=112) than in control subjects (Npatients=8, nfibres=62) (mean±sem 192±5 versus 226±8 mN·mm−2, p,0.005; fig. 1b). Based on our permeabilised muscle fibre measurements, we observed no significant difference in fast-twitch muscle fibre CSA between groups (PAH versus control: 3387±280 versus 3307±242 µm2; p=0.84).. In muscle fibres, force is generated by the cyclic interaction between myosin-based cross-bridges and actin. Thus, to determine the underlying cause of the reduction in maximal tension, we studied cross-bridge cycling kinetics. In permeabilised muscle fibres, active force generation is determined by: 1) the fraction of strongly bound cross-bridges; 2) the ...
Regulation of proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts derived from adult mouse skeletal muscle by specific isoforms of...
The expression of receptors and the mitogenic response to PDGF by C2 myoblasts, derived from adult mouse skeletal muscle, was investigated. Employing 125I-PDGF binding assays, we showed that the cells exhibit high level binding of PDGF-BB (approximately 165 x 10(3) molecules/cell at saturation) and much lower binding of the PDGF-AA and PDGF-AB (6-12 x 10(3) molecules/cell at saturation). This indicates that the C2 myoblasts express high levels of PDGF receptor beta-subunits and low levels of alpha-subunits. PDGF-BB enhances the proliferation of C2 cells maintained in 2% FCS by about fivefold. PDGF-AB had a moderate effect on cell proliferation (less than twofold) and PDGF-AA had no effect. Inverse effects of PDGF isoforms on the frequency of differentiated myoblasts were observed; the frequency of myosin-positive cells was reduced in the presence of PDGF-BB while PDGF-AA and PDGF-AB had no effect. PDGF may thus act to increase the number of myoblasts that participate in muscle regeneration ...
Selective expression of an acetylcholine receptor-lacZ transgene in synaptic nuclei of adult muscle fibers | Development
Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are highly concentrated in the postsynaptic membrane at the neuromuscular junction. To investigate mechanisms that lead to the formation or maintenance of this synaptic specialization, we generated transgenic mice in which regulatory elements from the AChR alpha or epsilon-subunit genes are linked to a gene for a reporter protein that is targeted to the nucleus (nlacZ). Both transgenes were selectively expressed and developmentally regulated in muscle; nuclei in both extrafusal (ordinary) and intrafusal (spindle) muscle fibers were labeled. Within individual muscle fibers from epsilon-nlacZ mice, nuclei near synaptic sites were nlacZ-positive, whereas extrasynaptic nuclei were nlacZ-negative. In contrast, nlacZ was expressed in both synaptic and extrasynaptic nuclei when under the control of regulatory elements from the AChR alpha-subunit gene; however, synaptic nuclei were somewhat more intensely stained than extrasynaptic nuclei in a minority of muscle fibers ...
The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull | Journal of The Royal...
Our results highlight the importance of using subject-specific data for accurate modelling and demonstrate the value of conducting comprehensive sensitivity analyses to assess the effects of uncertainties and errors in the choice of input variables.. The degree to which the model predictions match experimental data is highly dependent on how the muscles are represented. Our sensitivity analyses show that changing pennation angles has a much smaller effect on predicted bite force magnitudes than does changing muscle fibre length or intrinsic strength (figure 5a-c). This is to be expected because the latter variables directly impact on maximum muscle force. Altering the orientation of the modelled muscle strands, and thus the muscle force vectors also affects predicted bite force magnitudes (figure 5d). In our model, muscle wrapping has a greater effect than extreme values of pennation angle but this is less than the effect of using extreme values of muscle fibre length.. Bite force predictions ...
Asian Science Citation Index - Articles written by J. E Anderson
Regenerative coordination and remodeling of the intramuscular motoneuron network and neuromuscular connections are critical for restoring skeletal muscle function and physiological properties. The regulatory mechanisms of such coordination remain unclear, although both attractive and repulsive axon guidance molecules may be involved in the signaling pathway. Here we show that expression of a neural secreted chemorepellent semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) is remarkably upregulated in satellite cells of resident myogenic stem cells that are positioned beneath the basal lamina of mature muscle fibers, when treated with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), established as an essential cue in muscle fiber growth and regeneration. When satellite cells were treated with HGF in primary cultures of cells or muscle fibers, Sema3A message and protein were upregulated as revealed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunochemical studies. Other growth factors had no inductive effect except for a slight ...
Effect of myoplasmic pH on excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle fibres of the toad.
1. The effect of pH on excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle of the toad was examined using a skinned fibre preparation which gives ready access to the intracellular environment while still allowing stimulation of Ca2+ release by the normal voltage-sensor mechanism. 2. In each fibre, depolarization-induced responses (produced by changing the ions in the bathing solution) were examined first at pH 7.1, and then at another pH between 6.1 and 8.0. At all pH levels examined, the first depolarization elicited a large response which was slightly greater (pH 7.6 and 8.0) or smaller (pH 6.6 and 6.1) than that at pH 7.1. The size of the first depolarization-induced response varied with pH in almost exactly the same manner as did the maximum Ca(2+)-activated response. The duration of the depolarization-induced response at all other pH levels was longer than at pH 7.1. 3. Repeated depolarizations (30 s or more apart) produced similar responses at pH 7.1, but at all other pH levels examined the ...
non striated muscle meaning in tamil
This ability to stretch and still maintain contractility is important in organs like the intestines and urinary bladder. Muscle fibers have pointed ends and exhibit fusiform or spindle shape. One of the common examples of striated muscle is Bicep. 1. Their examples can be given as bicep muscles, tricep muscles, rectus muscles of abdomen, quadriceps, hamstring muscles of thigh and muscles of the shoulder girdle, etc. These muscles are found in the walls of the internal organs such … Find more Tamil words at wordhippo.com! Its is defined as a bundle or band of fibrous tissue in animals that has the capability of producing movement by contraction and relaxation. Striated muscles are attached to the skeleton via tendons, but non-striated muscle does not have tendons, they are present in internal organs. Muscles that contain striated muscle fibers are called striated muscle and muscles that contain non-striated muscle fibers are called non-striated muscles. Striated Muscle: Non-Striated Muscle: ...
Blog 2 (Strength and Power) - The Depot
Types of Contraction. All types of strength are a result of individual muscle fibres contracting, a muscle fibre contracts fully or not at all, the number of muscle fibres that contract simultaneously define the amount of force a muscle can produce and whether that muscle can overcome, maintain, or slowly lower the load its working against.. If the force generated by the muscle fibres is greater than the load, then the entire muscle length will shorten and the load will move, this is called a Concentric Contraction.. When the load is greater than the force produced by the muscle fibres the muscle will lengthen, this is called an Eccentric Contraction, even though the muscle as a whole is lengthening, individual fibres are still contracting trying to resist the load.. Concentric/Eccentric contractions are collectively known as Dynamic contractions. When the force exerted by the fibres is equal to the load no movement takes place, this is called an Isometric Contraction. This of special interest ...
Skeletal muscle cell legal definition of skeletal muscle cell
Definition of skeletal muscle cell in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is skeletal muscle cell? Meaning of skeletal muscle cell as a legal term. What does skeletal muscle cell mean in law?
Studying skeletal muscle physiology to better understand diseases such as type II diabetes - Inspiration Dissemination
Studying Rac1. The activation of Rac1 causes reorganization of cell components creating highways that allow other proteins such as glucose transport 4 or GLUT4 to relocate to the cell membrane and allow sugar from blood to enter skeletal muscle cells for processing. Consequently, Rac1 shows increased activity in response to insulin and exercise promoting the metabolism and storage of sugar in skeletal muscle. Harrison suspects that the dysfunction of Rac1 may play a large role in insulin resistance, and his lab is looking to better understand the dysfunction of skeletal muscle physiology that may contribute to insulin resistance. To study insulin resistance, Harrison is currently comparing Rac1 activity in skeletal muscle cells and skeletal muscle tissue of lean and obese mice. Learn more about Rac1, GO TO ARTICLE.. Harrison has always been drawn to human health, and is particularly intrigued by how adaptable the human body is. He completed his undergraduate degree and Masters in Exercise ...
Purinergic receptors expressed in human skeletal muscle fibres | SpringerLink
Purinergic receptors are present in most tissues and thought to be involved in various signalling pathways, including neural signalling, cell metabolism and local regulation of the microcirculation in
Myofibre segmentation in H&E stained adult skeletal muscle images using coherence-enhancing diffusion filtering | BMC Medical...
The simplest automatic approach is to perform thresholding to segment the image into foreground and background regions, one corresponding to myofibres and the other representing background and connective tissue. The central step of such an approach is the selection of a threshold value to separate the two regions such that they are well represented. Although methods exist to estimate the threshold automatically , or manually , thresholding is an inefficient method for myofibre segmentation as the fibres cannot be split from the background, or from each other, using a single threshold value. As such, more advanced methods are needed to segment the myofibre regions.. These more advanced approaches can be broadly split into two categories: those that use edge detection to identify the perimysium or endomysium (the myofibre boundaries), and those that use deformable models to identify the myofibres. This dichotomy is by no means exclusive as many approaches will use methods from both of these ...
Nonspecific Muscle Fiber Atrophy Causes & Reasons - Symptoma
Nonspecific Muscle Fiber Atrophy Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Singleton Merten Syndrome. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
Reference values for vastus lateralis fiber type proportions and fiber size<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reference values for vastus lateralis fiber type proportions and fiber size. AU - Gosker, H.R.. AU - Schols, A.M.. PY - 2013/9. Y1 - 2013/9. KW - OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY-DISEASE. KW - MUSCLE. KW - COPD. U2 - 10.1152/japplphysiol.00613.2013. DO - 10.1152/japplphysiol.00613.2013. M3 - Comment/Letter to the editor. VL - 115. SP - 771. JO - Journal of Applied Physiology. JF - Journal of Applied Physiology. SN - 8750-7587. IS - 5. ER - ...
Research Updates Fall 2009 | Quest Magazine Online
Satellite cells are located near mature muscle fibers in mice and humans and stay in a dormant state until called upon for repair work. In earlier experiments, Rudnicki found that some satellite cells function as stem cells and maintain overall numbers of satellite cells. He distinguished these from other satellite cells, which are in various stages on the road to becoming muscle tissue.. In muscular dystrophy, satellite cells are believed to become depleted quickly because tissue damage places great demands on them for repairs. Enhancing their numbers could slow the process of muscle degeneration, even in the face of disease.. In muscle degenerative diseases, one of the big problems is thought to be that the muscles run out of repair cells, says Paul Muhlrad, a research program coordinator at MDA. Rudnickis laboratory has figured out the biochemical pathways the body uses to maintain the supply.. When the OHRI researchers injected genes for the WNT7a protein into muscle fibers in mice, ...
Muscle myoblast differentiation, SEM - Stock Image C032/0165 - Science Photo Library
Muscle myoblast (primitive embryonic muscle cell) differentiating in to a skeletal muscle cell, coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). A myoblast is a type of stem cell that occurs in muscles. Skeletal muscle fibres are made when myoblasts fuse together. As a result muscle fibres have multiple nuclei. Magnification: x1,200 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/0165
Contrary to Previous Studies, Diabetes Affects Diaphragm, Skeletal Muscle Cells Differently | News Bureau, University of...
Previous studies have shown that diabetes adversely affects breathing and respiratory functions. However, in the past, researchers have not differentiated diaphragm muscle cells and the muscle cells of limb skeletal muscle in their studies. Now, researchers from the University of Missouri have found that diaphragm muscle cells and other skeletal muscle cells behave differently - a finding that could influence future research on respiratory ailments associated with diabetes.
STAT91 | Vascular Dysfunction Induced in Offspring by Maternal Dietary Fat
Background Age group\related sarcopenia is definitely accelerated by physical inactivity. II fibre CSA was significantly reduced SR compared with COM. Type II myonuclear domain was higher in SR?+?Ex lover compared with COM and SR. Pax7+ cells associated with type I and II fibres were reduced SR compared with SR?+?Ex lover. Type II PAX7+ cells were also lower in SR compared with COM with a similar trend for type I fibres. There were trends for a lower C:Fi in SR compared with SR?+?EX for both fibre types with no differences for each compared with COM. Conclusions Minimal LLRE during a period of decreased physical activity is associated with greater muscle fibre CSA, SC content, and capillarization. These results support the use of LLRE as an effective countermeasure to inactivity\induced alterations in muscle morphology with age. is equal to the number of capillaries and SF is the corresponding sharing factor. Statistics The primary comparison was identifying the difference between SR and ...
Skeletal Muscle: The Difference Between the 3 Fiber Types - NutraBio BlogNutraBio Blog
Skeletal muscle fibers can be broken down into three types. Type I (slow twitch), type IIa (fast twitch intermediate), and type IIx (fast twitch). Type I contract and relax slowly while producing low amounts of force. Type IIa contract and relax fast while producing high amounts of force. Finally type IIx contract and relax the fastest while being able to produce the highest amount of force. Type I fibers fatigue the slowest while type IIx fatigue the fastest.. ...
Organelle positioning in muscles requires cooperation between two KASH proteins and microtubules | JCB
In this paper, we show for the first time cooperative, as well as unique, activities of the two Drosophila KASH proteins MSP-300 and Klar in promoting even spacing and anchoring of myonuclei in striated muscle fibers. A novel MSP-300 nuclear ring assembles and anchors the MTs to the nuclear envelope in a Klar- and MSP-300 KASH-dependent manner, mediating MT astral organization around each nucleus. We suggest that the astral MT associated with each myonucleus, forming a basic unit, which in the steady-state holds each nucleus in place. However, during muscle fiber growth, each unit might change its relative position as a result of MT growth so that the distance between the myonuclei is maintained. Anchoring of the myonuclei to the core acto-myosin fibrillar compartment is mediated exclusively by MSP-300, which maintains physical continuity between the nuclear ring and the Z-discs, presumably through dimerization of the spectrin repeats capable of forming filaments.. Recent results (Metzger et ...
diabetic neuropathy Archives - The Wellness Digest
The flexor digitorum muscle can cause sharp pain across the ball of the foot while walking and deep aching pain while resting. What are the pain and symptoms associated with the flexor digitorum brevis muscle? Pain in the ball of the foot just under the four small toes Pain is often described as a feeling…. Continue Reading... ...
Electrical activity of trout skeletal muscle fibres
The deep lateral muscle fibres of the trout (Salmo irideus) have a polyaxonal and distributed motor innervation. Electrical activity was investigated using intracellular microelectrodes under current clamp conditions. In high-potassium solutions, the resting membrane potential depended on the extern …
Mouse Skeletal Muscle Cells | Creative Bioarray
Mouse Skeletal Muscle Cells are isolated form normal mouse skeletal muscle tissue. T25 flasks is required for cell adhension to the culture vessels. Grow cells in ECM-coated culture vessels with 5% CO2. Each vial contains at least 1x10^6 cells per ml ...
What are Cardiac muscle fibers? - tenquestion.com
Crdiac muscle (heart muscle) is involuntary striated muscle that is found in the walls and histological foundation of the heart, specifically the myocardium. Cardiac muscle is one of three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle. These three types of muscle all form in the process of myogenesis. The cells that constitute cardiac muscle, called cardiomyocytes or myocardiocytes, contain only three nuclei ...
Muscle weight, fiber number, and fiber type in skeletal | Open-i
Muscle weight, fiber number, and fiber type in skeletal muscle-specific Gdf11 mutant mice in a Mstn wild-type or background. (A) Weight of pectoralis, triceps,
A novel in vitro model for the assessment of postnatal myonuclear accretion | Skeletal Muscle | Full Text
The requirement for postnatal myogenesis in muscle growth, repair and regeneration, and basal muscle maintenance is evident from research in humans [8, 33, 34] and rodents [9-12, 35]. However, data on the regulation and dysregulation of postnatal myonuclear accretion is scarce due to the technical challenge to investigate and quantitate this process in vivo and in vitro. Although, myoblast-myotube fusion is frequently mentioned in literature, the majority of these in vitro studies actually refer to late myogenesis in progressively differentiating cultures. Certainly, these classical studies have provided invaluable insights in the regulation and dysregulation of myogenesis, however, their translatability to adult skeletal muscle maintenance can be challenged [5, 22-24].. In the current study, we developed an unbiased, high throughput, Cre/LoxP-based in vitro model system for semi-quantitative assessment of postnatal myonuclear accretion. This model builds on the broadly employed classical model ...
In vitro models of diabetes - FRAME
Much of the research into obesity and diabetes is carried out using transgenic animal models. FRAMEs experience and that of many others is that such animal models are of little use when trying to study human diseases and responses to potential therapies. The FRAME Alternatives Laboratory cultures primary human adipocytes and skeletal muscle myotubes to study the effects of increased fat and carbohydrate levels on the metabolism and gene expression of human fat and muscle tissue.. ...
Keys to Velocity - Overhead Athletic Institute
Type IIB muscle fibers are fast twitch glycolytic and are the speed producers. Type IIA muscle fibers are fast twitch oxidative and are intermediate speed producers. Structured training has been proven to make our recruitment of muscle types more efficient. The recruitment of muscle types depends on our nervous systems ability to recruit motor units. The way to optimize motor unit recruitment with an overhead athlete is to provide a stable base for power. The amount or percentage of high twitch glycolytic fibers in any athlete is a product of genetics. We are born with the amount we have which is why everyone does not throw 100 mph. An efficient movement pattern developed over time allows the athlete to conserve energy and throw harder with less effort. Your maximum velocity depends on your mechanics and where in the throwing motion you apply speed. This is exactly what our program will accomplish. We will incorporate our knowledge of specificity of training to maximize your ability to ...
What happens to the muscle cells as they become larger? - Answers
You get stronger. The individual muscle fibers become thicker with more myofibrils inside them. The number of muscle cells stays the same, contrary to popular belief that you grow more muscle fibers, this is not true.
JCI - Welcome
IL-15 receptor α (IL-15Rα) is a component of the heterotrimeric plasma membrane receptor for the pleiotropic cytokine IL-15. However, IL-15Rα is not merely an IL-15 receptor subunit, as mice lacking either IL-15 or IL-15Rα have unique phenotypes. IL-15 and IL-15Rα have been implicated in muscle phenotypes, but a role in muscle physiology has not been defined. Here, we have shown that loss of IL-15Rα induces a functional oxidative shift in fast muscles, substantially increasing fatigue resistance and exercise capacity. IL-15Rα-knockout (IL-15Rα-KO) mice ran greater distances and had greater ambulatory activity than controls. Fast muscles displayed fatigue resistance and a slower contractile phenotype. The molecular signature of these muscles included altered markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and calcium homeostasis. Morphologically, fast muscles had a greater number of muscle fibers, smaller fiber areas, and a greater ratio of nuclei to fiber area. The alterations of physiological ...
Therapies aimed at overexpression of PGC-1α may lead to obesity treatments | superhumangear
Abstract We investigated the effects of PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α) overexpression on the oxidative capacity of human skeletal muscle cells ex vivo. PGC-1α overexpression increased the oxidation rate of palmitic acid and mRNA expression of genes regulating lipid metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis, and function in human myotubes. Basal and insulin-stimulated deoxyglucose uptake were decreased,…
Lund, mt, Dalby, S, Hartmann B, Helge, J, Holst, jj, Dela, F
Larsen, S, Kraunsøe, R, Gram, M, Gnaiger, E, Helge, jw, Dela, F. The best approach: Homogenization or manual permeabilization of human skeletal muscle fibers for respirometry? Anal Biochem 446: 64-68, 2014
What is the smallest contractile unit of a muscle fiber? | Reference.com
The smallest contractile unit of muscle fiber is the sarcomere. Sarcomeres are stacked throughout muscle tissue. These units are so small that some muscle cells contain thousands of...
Lifting Heavy Weight Causes The Muscle Fibers To Swell And You Will Notice A Significant Increase In The Mass Of Muscle Under...
Its easy to get caught up in the hype of hot new products to stimulate muscle, not hit it from every angle possible. As you can see many muscle groups are recruited for this initial push or effort when you begin the rep. Not only will drinking more water cause your muscles to appear fuller in such a way that the body burns more calories than others. If you spend too much time in the gym, you will actually the muscle tissue, bulking it up and full body workout making the fibers larger and more defined. You should be eating anywhere from 5-7 meals per day, spaced every 2-3 hours wrong and he needed to train 5-6 days a week, and aim for more reps during his workout. Recently a client of mine informed me that someone in the gym stated that he was training all of total energy intake so that training intensity can be maintained.. This particular person had been making great progress on his current program, yet he allowed week you pyramid down and the third week you do straight sets. Now, even though ...
Skeletal muscle fiber, with sarcoplasmic reticulum colored in blue.. The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), from the Greek σάρξ sarx ... while the sarcoplasmic reticulum stores calcium ions and pumps them out into the sarcoplasm when the muscle fiber is stimulated ... calcium ions interact with contractile proteins that utilize ATP to shorten the muscle fiber. The sarcoplasmic reticulum plays ... In muscle cells, it regulates calcium ion concentration. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum is found in a variety of cell types (both ...
"Immunolocalization of the costameres in human skeletal muscle fibers: confocal scanning laser microscope investigations". The ... and is localized to costamere structures in cardiac and skeletal muscle cells, and to focal adhesions in smooth muscle and non- ... Belkin AM, Zhidkova NI, Koteliansky VE (May 1986). "Localization of talin in skeletal and cardiac muscles". FEBS Letters. 200 ( ... and localized to intercalated discs of cardiac muscle and to costamere structures of both skeletal and cardiac muscles, in ...
... and not cardiac muscle or smooth muscle. Myoblasts in skeletal muscle that do not form muscle fibers dedifferentiate back into ... The striated cells of cardiac and skeletal muscles are referred to as muscle fibers. Cardiomyocytes are the muscle fibres ... Skeletal muscle fibers are made when myoblasts fuse together; muscle fibers therefore are cells with multiple nuclei, known as ... At the end of each muscle fiber, the outer layer of the sarcolemma combines with tendon fibers. Within the muscle fiber ...
Baskin, R.J.; Roos, K.P.; Yeh, Y. (October 1979). "Light diffraction study of single skeletal muscle fibers". Biophys. J. 28 (1 ... Striated muscle is the most commonly found natural diffraction grating and, this has helped physiologists in determining the ... structure of such muscle. Aside from this, the chemical structure of crystals can be thought of as diffraction gratings for ...
Bernard H. Bressler
Seow, C.Y., L. Morishita, and B.H. Bressler (1998). Milrinone inhibits contractility in skinned skeletal muscle fibers. Am. J. ... Part of the research is designed to explore how the level of activation of skeletal muscle is controlled by the calcium binding ... Slawnych, M.P., L. Morishita, and B.H. Bressler (1998). Spectral analysis of muscle fiber images as a means of assessing ... His research focuses on providing new information about the fundamental mechanisms for force production in skeletal muscle. ...
Reduced perfusion of skeletal muscle causes atrophy of the muscle fibers. This can result in weakness, increased fatiguability ... This is caused by the terminally differentiated heart muscle fibers increasing in size in an attempt to improve contractility. ... A comparison of healthy heart with contracted muscle (left) and a weakened heart with over-stretched muscle (right). ... Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy involves enlargement and thickening of the heart muscle.. Prevention. This section needs ...
Actinin alpha 3
Skeletal muscle is composed of long cylindrical cells called muscle fibers. There are two types of muscle fibers, slow twitch ... fibers. Fast twitch fibers and slow twitch fibers are also called white muscle fibers and red muscles fibers, respectively. An ... This gene expression is limited to skeletal muscle. It is localized to the Z-disc and analogous dense bodies, where it helps to ... Alpha-actinin-3, also known as alpha-actinin skeletal muscle isoform 3 or F-actin cross-linking protein, is a protein that in ...
Contractions of skeletal muscle fiber are caused due to electrical stimulation. This process is caused by the depolarization of ... This leads to the actual contraction of the muscle. Contractions of smooth muscle fiber are dependent on how a Ca2+ influx ... When a Ca2+ influx occurs, cross bridges form between myosin and actin leading to the contraction of the muscle fibers. ... ISBN 978-1-4641-2610-9. Baylor SM, Hollingworth S (May 2011). "Calcium indicators and calcium signalling in skeletal muscle ...
Largest body part
"Muscle fiber and motor unit behavior in the longest human skeletal muscle". The Journal of Neuroscience. 25 (37): 8528-8533. ... The longest muscle is the sartorius muscle in the thigh. The longest single nerve is the sciatic nerve in the thigh, counting ... human muscle The Scientific Monthly. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 1915. p. 21. Jason de Koning and ...
தசை - தமிழ் விக்கிப்பீடியா
MacIntosh, BR; Gardiner, PF; McComas, AJ (2006). "1. Muscle Architecture and Muscle Fiber Anatomy". Skeletal Muscle: Form and ... தசை (muscle) என்பது உடலிலுள்ள சுருங்கத்தக்க இழையம் ஆகும். தசைக் கலங்கள் ஒன்றின்மேல் ஒன்று நகரக்கூடியனவும், கலத்தின் அளவை ...
In adult frog skeletal muscle fibers calciseptine also causes an increased Ca2+ current. This increase is comparable to the ... In rat muscle fibers after applying calciseptine there were very slight changes found in twitch tension, which shows us that ... Calciseptine also had little effect on frog muscle fibers. There is a small effect of calciseptine during a series of ... 2001). "Calciseptine, a Ca2+ Channel Blocker, has Agonist Actions on L-Type Ca2+ currents on Frog and Mammalian Skeletal Muscle ...
Hu SL, Kao CY (March 1991). "Interactions of neosaxitoxin with the sodium channel of the frog skeletal muscle fiber". The ... where it exhibits about 20-60 fold lesser affinity than in Nav channels from rat skeletal muscle and rat brain. Most data ... basis for insensitivity to tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin in sodium channels of canine heart and denervated rat skeletal muscle". ... basis for insensitivity to tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin in sodium channels of canine heart and denervated rat skeletal muscle". ...
"Chloride currents from the transverse tubular system in adult mammalian skeletal muscle fibers". The Journal of General ... release in adult skeletal muscle fibres". Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology. 108 (3): 98-118. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Voltage clamp methods for the study of membrane currents and SR Ca2+ release in adult skeletal muscle fibres". Prog. Biophys. ...
"Specific force deficit in skeletal muscles of old rats is partially explained by the existence of denervated muscle fibers". ... skeletal muscle, heart, and pancreas. This can interfere with cellular functions and hence organ function and is associated ... "Role of pericytes in skeletal muscle regeneration and fat accumulation". Stem Cells and Development. 22 (16): 2298-314. doi: ... and intramuscular fat interspersed in skeletal muscles. Fat in the lower body, as in thighs and buttocks, is subcutaneous and ...
Ehlers ML, Celona B, Black BL (Sep 2014). "NFATc1 controls skeletal muscle fiber type and is a negative regulator of MyoD ... MyoD may also regulate muscle repair. MyoD mRNA levels are also reported to be elevated in aging skeletal muscle. One of the ... MyoD is also an important effector for the fast-twitch muscle fiber (types IIA, IIX, and IIB) phenotype. MyoD is a ... Wnt plays a crucial role in satellite cell regulation and skeletal muscle aging and also regeneration. Wnts are known to active ...
"Skeletal muscle architecture of the rabbit hindlimb: Functional implications of muscle design". Journal of Morphology. 199 (1 ... In rabbits, the more fibers in a muscle, the more resistant to fatigue. For example, hares have a greater resistance to fatigue ... Action pressure from muscles creates force that is then distributed through the skeletal structures. Rabbits that generate less ... Complementing these muscles are the hamstrings which aid in short bursts of action. These muscles play off of one another in ...
"Plectin is a linker of intermediate filaments to Z-discs in skeletal muscle fibers". Journal of Cell Science. 112 (6): 867-76. ... In cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle, plectin is localized to specialized entities known as Z-discs. Plectin binds several ... Skeletal and cardiac muscle tissues were also significantly affected. Cardiac intercalated discs were disintegrated and ... In muscle, plectin binds to the periphery of Z-discs, and along with the intermediate filament protein desmin, may form lateral ...
Motor fibers that allow movement of skeletal muscle. Sympathetic fibers that innervate the skin and blood vessels of the four ... motor fibers, or both. Sensory fibers lesions cause the sensory problems below to the site of injury. Motor fibers injuries may ... Damage to motor fibers results in paralysis of the muscles. Nervous plexus injuries create more signs and symptoms from sensory ... produced by skeletal muscles using an instrument called electromyograph. In axonotmesis, EMG changes (2 to 3 weeks after injury ...
Skeletal muscle TnI has been proposed as a sensitive and fast fiber-specific serum marker of skeletal muscle injury. fsTnI ... Fast skeletal muscle TnI was first cloned from a skeletal muscle cDNA library. It is generally observed that fsTnI is ... exclusively expressed in fast twitch skeletal muscle fibers. More recent studies reported that subunits of fast skeletal muscle ... fsTnI was found to be S-glutathionylated at Cys133 in rodent fast-twitch skeletal muscle and in human type II muscle fibers ...
Type II-b fibers are fast-twitch fibers. These fibers allow muscles to contract quickly, resulting in a great deal of power and ... Genetics, training, age, and skeletal soundness are all factors that contribute to a horse's performance. The muscle structure ... They have an abundance of type I muscle fibers, enabling their muscles to work for extended periods of time. Also, the muscles ... Type I muscle fibers are adapted for aerobic exercise and rely on the presence of oxygen. They are slow-twitch fibers. They ...
... and human skeletal muscle". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A. 159 (2): 125-133. doi:10.1016/j.cbpa.2011.02.006. hdl: ... Kohn, T. A.; Burroughs, R.; Hartman, M. J. & Noakes, T. D. (2011). "Fiber type and metabolic characteristics of lion (Panthera ...
Alpha motor neuron
They innervate extrafusal muscle fibers of skeletal muscle and are directly responsible for initiating their contraction. Alpha ... Alpha motor neurons send fibers that mainly synapse on extrafusal muscle fibers. Other fibers from α-MNs synapse on Renshaw ... Beta motor neuron Extrafusal muscle fiber Gamma motor neuron Intrafusal muscle fibre Muscle spindle Renshaw cell John A. ... because their axons extend into the periphery to innervate skeletal muscles. An alpha motor neuron and the muscle fibers it ...
"Control of glycogen synthesis is shared between glucose transport and glycogen synthase in skeletal muscle fibers". Am J ... Rylatt DB, Aitken A, Bilham T, Condon GD, Embi N, Cohen P (June 1980). "Glycogen synthase from rabbit skeletal muscle. Amino ... The role of muscle glycogen is as a reserve to provide energy during bursts of activity. Meanwhile, the muscle isozyme plays a ... Embi N, Parker PJ, Cohen P (April 1981). "A reinvestigation of the phosphorylation of rabbit skeletal-muscle glycogen synthase ...
"Type IIx myosin heavy chain transcripts are expressed in type IIb fibers of human skeletal muscle". Am J Physiol. 267 (6 Pt 1 ... 1995). "Characterization of human skeletal muscle fibres according to the myosin heavy chains they express". J. Muscle Res. ... "Entrez Gene: MYH2 myosin, heavy chain 2, skeletal muscle, adult". Schwartz CE, McNally E, Leinwand L, Skolnick MH (1987). "A ... 1999). "Effects of bone fracture and surgery on plasma myosin heavy chain fragments of skeletal muscle". Clinical and ...
Jeffery D. Molkentin
ERK1/2 signaling induces skeletal muscle slow fiber-type switching and reduces muscular dystrophy disease severity. Boyer, JG; ...
Aktin bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
"Overexpression of the mitochondrial T3 receptor p43 induces a shift in skeletal muscle fiber types". PloS One. 3 (6): e2501. ...
Glicóxeno sintase, a enciclopedia libre
"Control of glycogen synthesis is shared between glucose transport and glycogen synthase in skeletal muscle fibers". Am J ... Rylatt DB, Aitken A, Bilham T, Condon GD, Embi N, Cohen P (1980). "Glycogen synthase from rabbit skeletal muscle. Amino acid ... Huang TS, Krebs EG (1977). "Amino acid sequence of a phosphorylation site in skeletal muscle glycogen synthetase". Biochem. ... Rylatt DB, Cohen P (1979). "Amino acid sequence at the site on rabbit skeletal muscle glycogen synthase phosphorylated by the ...
... also occurs with individual skeletal muscle fibers. This happens when muscle fibers lose contact with their ... the proteins that make up each muscle fiber (muscle cell). Reddy, Vivek; Taha, Wael; Kundumadam, Shanker; Khan, Mazhar (2017-07 ... In other cases they are a major symptom in acute and severe peripheral nerve disorders, in myopathies in which muscle fibers ... Fibrillation is the rapid, irregular, and unsynchronized contraction of muscle fibers. An important occurrence is with regard ...
"Biomechanics of the sarcolemma and costameres in single skeletal muscle fibers from normal and dystrophin- null mice". J Muscle ... if one muscle fiber is actively contracting and an adjacent one is not, the lateral force transmission helps this second fiber ... of skeletal muscle, a critical component of striated muscle morphology which, when compromised, is thought to directly ... perpendicular to the contracting myofibril fibers. Most of the force generated by the sarcomeres deep inside the muscle fiber ...
... which help to regenerate skeletal muscle fibers, and a decrease in sensitivity to or the availability of critical secreted ... Muscle atrophy is defined as a decrease in the mass of the muscle; it can be a partial or complete wasting away of muscle, and ... Inactivity and starvation in mammals lead to atrophy of skeletal muscle, accompanied by a smaller number and size of the muscle ... Other syndromes or conditions which can induce skeletal muscle atrophy are liver disease, and starvation. Muscle atrophy occurs ...
Elastina - Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre
skeletal muscle tissue development. •respiratory gaseous exchange. •blood circulation. •cell proliferation. •organ ... 2009). «Differential regulation of elastic fiber formation by fibulin-4 and -5». J. Biol. Chem. 284 (36): 24553-67. PMC 2782046 ... 2010). «Functional consequences of homocysteinylation of the elastic fiber proteins fibrillin-1 and tropoelastin». J. Biol. ...
Efferent nerve-fibers carry impulses out from the center to their endings. Most of these go to muscles and are therefore called ... A subluxation is a health concern that manifests in the skeletal joints, and, through complex anatomical and physiological ... "Physiologists divide nerve-fibers, which form the nerves, into two classes, afferent and efferent. Impressions are made on the ... The activity of these nerves, or rather their fibers, may become excited or allayed by impingement, the result being a ...
"Mini-muscle" allele. A gene recently discovered in laboratory house mice, termed "mini-muscle", causes a 50% reduction in ... Because these fibers are found in tissues throughout the body, mutations in this gene can have a widespread effect on certain ... Gruneberg came to these distinctions after experimenting on rats with skeletal mutations. He recognized that "spurious" ... For example, mice with the Mini Muscle mutation were observed to have a higher per-gram aerobic capacity. The mini-muscle ...
ادرار کردن - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
The smooth muscle of the bladder, known as the detrusor, is innervated by sympathetic nervous system fibers from the lumbar ... Further along the urethra is a sphincter of skeletal muscle, the sphincter of the membranous urethra (external urethral ... Smooth muscle bundles pass on either side of the urethra, and these fibers are sometimes called the internal urethral sphincter ... Fibers in the pelvic nerves constitute the main afferent limb of the voiding reflex; the parasympathetic fibers to the bladder ...
... s are found within the belly of muscles, between extrafusal muscle fibers.[b] The specialised fibers that ... Muscle spindles are composed of 5-14 muscle fibers, of which there are three types: dynamic nuclear bag fibers (bag1 fibers), ... When a muscle is stretched, primary type Ia sensory fibers of the muscle spindle respond to both changes in muscle length and ... Muscle spindles have a capsule of connective tissue, and run parallel to the extrafusal muscle fibers.[c] ...
"Normalization of current kinetics by interaction between the alpha 1 and beta subunits of the skeletal muscle dihydropyridine- ... Liu WS, Soldatov NM, Gustavsson I, Chowdhary BP (1999). "Fiber-FISH analysis of the 3'-terminal region of the human L-type Ca2+ ... membrane depolarization during atrial cardiac muscle cell action potential. • cardiac muscle cell action potential involved in ... It depolarizes at -30mV and helps define the shape of the action potential in cardiac and smooth muscle. The protein encoded ...
Myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF) is a disorder that affects many parts of the body, particularly the muscles ... including skeletal muscles, the heart, the brain, or the liver. Common clinical manifestations include myopathy, hypotonia, and ... Myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF). Mutations in the MT-TI gene have been associated with myoclonic ... "Myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers". Genetics Home Reference. U.S. National Library of Medicine.. This article ...
Individual muscle fiber ratios can be determined through a muscle biopsy. Other considerations are the ability to recruit ... Skeletal muscles produce reactive forces and moments at the joints. To avoid injury or fatigue, when person is performing a ... Individuals with a high proportion of type I slow twitch muscle fibers will be relatively weaker than a similar individual with ... The genetic inheritance of muscle fiber type sets the outermost boundaries of physical strength possible (barring the use of ...
Schoenfeld, B.J. (2012). "Does Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage Play a Role in Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy?". Journal of Strength ... "produce enough mechanical stress to induce muscle hypertrophy without over-stressing which could produce muscle fiber damage. ... Muscle tendon injuries. The entire muscle-tendon system works cohesively to slow down limb movement. The close ... Proof of muscle strengthening without damage: One recurring problem in ACL rehabilitation is improving muscle strength of the ...
muscle organ development. • skeletal muscle tissue development. • actin cytoskeleton organization. • epithelial cell ... stress fiber. • plasma membrane. • Z disc. • cytoplasm. • cell cortex. • focal adhesion. • extracellular matrix. • cytosol. • ... 2003). "A new member of the LIM protein family binds to filamin B and localizes at stress fibers". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (14): ... Nishimura G, Horiuchi T, Kim OH, Sasamoto Y (1997). "Atypical skeletal changes in otopalatodigital syndrome type II: phenotypic ...
Human digestive system
The suspensory muscle attaches the ascending duodenum to the diaphragm. This muscle is thought to be of help in the digestive ... It starts at the duodenal bulb and ends at the suspensory muscle of duodenum. The attachment of the suspensory muscle to the ... At either side of the soft palate are the palatoglossus muscles which also reach into regions of the tongue. These muscles ... The tongue's two sets of muscles, are four intrinsic muscles that originate in the tongue and are involved with its shaping, ...
... and skeletal muscle. Kidney and heart tissues were found to not have a COX deficiency. ... Detection of numerous ragged red fibers in a muscle biopsy. Specialty. Neurology ... Hypotonia (low muscle tone and strength), dystonia (involuntary, sustained muscle contraction), and ataxia (lack of control ... Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (thickening of part of the heart muscle) is also sometimes found and can cause death; asymmetric ...
MacIntosh, BR; Gardiner, PF; McComas, AJ (2006). "1. Muscle Architecture and Muscle Fiber Anatomy". Skeletal Muscle: Form and ... The body contains three types of muscle tissue: (a) skeletal muscle, (b) smooth muscle, and (c) cardiac muscle. (Same ... whereas the skeletal muscles contract upon command. Skeletal muscles in turn can be divided into fast and slow twitch fibers ... This is because the tension exerted by an individual skeletal muscle fiber does not vary much. Each fiber can exert a force on ...
Cyhyr - Wicipedia
V Smerdu (Rhagfyr 1994). Type IIx myosin heavy chain transcripts are expressed in type IIb fibers of human skeletal muscle. URL ...
Anatomical terms of muscle
Skeletal muscle. Skeletal striated muscle, or "voluntary muscle", primarily joins to bone with tendons. Skeletal muscle ... Muscle fibers can only contract up to 40% of their fully stretched length. Thus the short fibers of pennate muscles are more ... This term typically describes the function of skeletal muscles. Antagonist muscles are simply the muscles that produce an ... Composite muscle. Composite or hybrid muscles have more than one set of fibers that perform the same function, and are ...
... s also have structural or mechanical functions, such as actin and myosin in muscle and the proteins in the cytoskeleton ... stiff fibers that make up the cytoskeleton, which allows the cell to maintain its shape and size. ... "Sex steroid receptors in skeletal differentiation and epithelial neoplasia: is tissue-specific intervention possible?". ... They also generate the forces exerted by contracting muscles and play essential roles in intracellular transport. ...
... to damaged muscle fibers, which increases the potential for growth of those fibers. This increase in myonuclei probably stems ... and determined that creatine is a key player in the metabolism of skeletal muscle. The substance creatine is naturally formed ... Side effects include: Weight gain due to extra water retention to the muscle Potential muscle cramps / strains / pulls Upset ... "Carbohydrate ingestion augments skeletal muscle creatine accumulation during creatine supplementation in humans". Am. J. ...
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy
"Muscle fatigue, nNOS and muscle fiber atrophy in limb girdle muscular dystrophy". Acta Myologica. 33 (3): 119-126. ISSN 1128- ... damage muscles permanently due to intense muscle contraction. Physical therapy may be required to maintain as much muscle ... The result of the defect is that the muscles cannot properly form certain proteins needed for normal muscle function. Several ... It is characterised by progressive muscle wasting which affects predominantly hip and shoulder muscles. LGMD has an autosomal ...
The muscles of the hip are divided into a dorsal and a ventral group. The dorsal hip muscles are either inserted into the ... Their anterior fibers are medial rotators and flexors while the posterior fibers are lateral rotators and extensors. The ... William Edgar Caldwell and Howard Carmen Moloy studied collections of skeletal pelves and thousands of stereoscopic radiograms ... The anterior thigh muscles form the quadriceps which is inserted on the patella with a common tendon. Three of the four muscles ...
... is a sheath of connective tissue that groups muscle fibers into bundles (anywhere between 10 and 100 or more) or ... "Structural organization of the perimysium in bovine skeletal muscle: Junctional plates and associated intracellular subdomains" ... This muscle article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Studies of muscle physiology suggest that the perimysium plays a role in transmitting lateral contractile movements. This ...
2009). "Wireless near-infrared spectroscopy of skeletal muscle oxygenation and hemodynamics during exercise and ischemia". ... With the introduction of light-fiber optics in the mid-1980s and the monochromator-detector developments in early-1990s, NIRS ... "Quantitative near-infrared spectroscopy in human skeletal muscle methodological issues and clinical application" (PDF). PhD ... reoxygenation rates and muscle recovery time in muscle.. By employing several wavelengths and time resolved (frequency or ...
Մկաններ - Վիքիպեդիա՝ ազատ հանրագիտարան
MacIntosh BR, Gardiner PF, McComas AJ (2006)։ «1. Muscle Architecture and Muscle Fiber Anatomy»։ Skeletal Muscle: Form and ... Specific Force Deficit in Skeletal Muscles of Old Rats Is Partially Explained by the Existence of Denervated Muscle Fibers»։ ... McCloud, Aaron (30 November 2011)։ «Build Fast Twitch Muscle Fibers»։ Complete Strength Training։ Վերցված է 30 November 2011 ... Nielsen OB, Paoli F, Overgaard K (2001)։ «Protective effects of lactic acid on force production in rat skeletal muscle»։ ...
Types of muscle are striated muscle (such as skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle), obliquely striated muscle (found in some ... Muscle fiber relaxation. The enzyme acetylcholinesterase breaks down acetylcholine and this ceases muscle fiber ... The muscle fiber relaxes and the entire sarcomere lengthens. The muscle fiber is now prepared for the next contraction. ... which diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to the muscle fiber membrane. This depolarizes the muscle fiber membrane, ...
Causes of cancer pain
... tendons and skeletal muscles. Some diagnostic procedures, such as venipuncture, paracentesis, and thoracentesis can be painful ... or by damage or illness affecting nerve fibers themselves (neuropathic pain). Infection of a tumor or its surrounding tissue ... Muscle and joint pain Withdrawal of steroid medication can cause joint pain and diffuse muscle pain accompanied by fatigue; ... Infection or cancer may irritate the trigone of the urinary bladder, causing spasm of the detrusor urinae muscle (the muscle ...
Primarily made of carbon fiber, the HANS device is shaped like a U, but with the back of that U set behind the nape of the neck ... but prevents/restricts head movements during a crash that would otherwise exceed the normal articulation range of the skeletal/ ... and the two arms lying flat along the top of the chest over the pectoral muscles. The device, in general, is supported by the ...
... captures the combined effect of the longitudinal red muscle fiber and oblique white muscle fiber strains. The body of a fish is ... This allows the tuna to elevate the temperatures of the highly aerobic tissues of the skeletal muscles, eyes and brain, which ... experienced by the longitudinal red muscle fibers is equivalent to the longitudinal strain (εx). The deeper white muscle fibers ... homogenous beam during swimming via contractions of longitudinal red muscle fibers and obliquely oriented white muscle fibers ...
Alpha motor neuron
They innervate extrafusal muscle fibers of skeletal muscle and are directly responsible for initiating their contraction. Alpha ... Alpha motor neurons send fibers that mainly synapse on extrafusal muscle fibers. Other fibers from α-MNs synapse on Renshaw ... because their axons extend into the periphery to innervate skeletal muscles. An alpha motor neuron and the muscle fibers it ... For example, the muscles of a single finger have more α-MNs per fiber, and more α-MNs in total, than the muscles of the ...
Two sets of nerve fibers travel in the vagus nerve to supply the muscles. The upper striated muscle, and upper esophageal ... It consists of skeletal muscle but is not under voluntary control. Opening of the upper esophageal sphincter is triggered by ... Most of the muscle is smooth muscle although striated muscle predominates in its upper third. It has two muscular rings or ... Muscle is arranged in two layers: one in which the muscle fibers run longitudinal to the esophagus, and the other in which the ...
মায়োগ্লোবিন - উইকিপিডিয়া
slow-twitch skeletal muscle fiber contraction. • response to hydrogen peroxide. • enucleate erythrocyte differentiation. • ...
Characteristics of Skeletal Muscle Fibers of SOD1 Knockout Mice
Mammalian skeletal muscle fibers distinguished by contents of phosphocreatine, ATP, and Pi. | PNAS
Mammalian skeletal muscle fibers distinguished by contents of phosphocreatine, ATP, and Pi.. M J Kushmerick, T S Moerland, and ... Mammalian skeletal muscle fibers distinguished by contents of phosphocreatine, ATP, and Pi. ... These results also provide the basis for estimating skeletal muscle fiber-type composition from noninvasive NMR spectroscopic ... Mammalian skeletal muscle fibers distinguished by contents of phosphocreatine, ATP, and Pi. ...
Blood vessels and desmin control the positioning of nuclei in skeletal muscle fibers. - PubMed - NCBI
Blood vessels and desmin control the positioning of nuclei in skeletal muscle fibers.. Ralston E1, Lu Z, Biscocho N, Soumaka E ... Skeletal muscle fibers contain hundreds to thousands of nuclei which lie immediately under the plasmalemma and are spaced out ... oxidative fibers. Thus, in rat soleus muscle fibers, 81% of the nuclei appear next to BV. Lack of desmin markedly perturbs the ... along which muscle nuclei align themselves. We conclude that the positioning of nuclei along muscle fibers is plastic and that ...
Striated Skeletal Muscle Fibers Showing Crossstriation Stock Photo (Edit Now) 1033566535 - Shutterstock
Find Striated Skeletal Muscle Fibers Showing Crossstriation Stock Images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos ... muscle skeletal micrograph a band cell fiber fibre histology i band light microscope lm microscope microscopy muscular myocyte ... Striated skeletal muscle fibers showing the cross-striation with dark A bands and light I bands. The Z line stands out in the ... Striated Skeletal Muscle Fibers Showing Crossstriation Stock Photo (Edit Now) 1033566535 - Shutterstock ...
Skeletal Striated Muscle Fibers Cross Section Stock Photo (Edit Now) 1033566649 - Shutterstock
Find Skeletal Striated Muscle Fibers Cross Section Stock Images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos, ... Skeletal striated muscle fibers in cross section showing several peripheral nuclei (multinucleated cells). The endomysium, ... Skeletal Striated Muscle Fibers Cross Section Stock Photo (Edit Now) 1033566649 - Shutterstock ... muscle cell fiber fibre histology light microscope lm micrograph microscope microscopy muscular myocyte myofibril nuclei ...
Acute Elevated Glucose Promotes Abnormal Action Potential-Induced Ca2+ Transients in Cultured Skeletal Muscle Fibers
... Erick O. ... most control muscle fibers show phasic AP-induced Ca2+ transients, while most fibers exposed to elevated D-glucose displayed ... Previous studies of diabetes in skeletal muscle have shown alterations in excitation-contraction coupling (ECC)-the sequential ... A common comorbidity of diabetes is skeletal muscle dysfunction, which leads to compromised physical function. ...
Classification of Skeletal Muscle Fibers | Protocol (Translated to Dutch)
General Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle Fibers • GetBodySmart
An interactive quiz about the general anatomy of skeletal muscle fibers, featuring illustrations-based multiple choice ... Internal Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle Fibers. An interactive quiz about the internal anatomy of skeletal muscle fibers, featuring ... Skeletal Muscle Fiber Location and Arrangement. Each skeletal muscle fiber is stimulated to contract by chemicals released […] ...
The regeneration of skeletal muscle fibers following injury: a review
Our purpose is to summarize the main features of the regeneration of skeletal muscle fibers and entire muscles with an emphasis ... Finally, the breakdown and regeneration of skeletal muscle fibers are discussed in relation to local anesthetics, sports ... The regeneration of skeletal muscle is compared structurally and functionally with its embryonic development. The free muscle ... Regeneration is a unique adaptation of skeletal muscle that occurs in response to injury. Following direct trauma or disease, ...
SimTK: Laplacian field mapping of skeletal muscle fibers.: Project Home
Collection of computational implementations and examples for the numerical construction of skeletal muscle fiber maps based on ... Collection of computational implementations and examples for the numerical construction of skeletal muscle fiber maps based on ... This project aims at the development of a computational framework to reconstruct skeletal fiber maps based on a Laplacian ... Implementations in Python to perform the calculations of the Laplacian fiber field and example muscle models. ...
Type IIx myosin heavy chain transcripts are expressed in type IIb fibers of human skeletal muscle. - PubMed - NCBI
Type IIx myosin heavy chain transcripts are expressed in type IIb fibers of human skeletal muscle.. Smerdu V1, Karsch-Mizrachi ... The distribution of these two gene products as well as that of the beta/slow MHC gene was analyzed in human skeletal muscles by ... The distribution of beta/slow, IIa, and IIx MHC transcripts defines three major muscle fiber types expressing a single MHC mRNA ... Fiber typing by ATPase histochemistry shows that IIa MHC transcripts are more abundant in histochemical type IIa fibers, ...
Skeletal Muscle Fiber Location and Arrangement
Skeletal muscle fibers are located inside muscles, where they are organized into bundles called fascicles (= fasciculi). ... General Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle Fibers. An interactive quiz about the general anatomy of skeletal muscle fibers, featuring ... Internal Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle Fibers. An interactive quiz about the internal anatomy of skeletal muscle fibers, featuring ... Skeletal muscle fibers are located inside muscles, where they are organized into bundles called fascicles (= fasciculi). ...
Frontiers | Exhaustion of Skeletal Muscle Fibers Within Seconds: Incorporating Phosphate Kinetics Into a Hill-Type Model |...
... skeletal muscle fibers contract (actively generate force) as a result of repetitive power strokes of acto-myosin cross-bridges ... On the basis of bio-chemical kinetics, we present a model of muscle fiber exhaustion based on hydrolytic ATP-ADP-Pi dynamics, ... We discuss implications of our model approach for enhancing muscle models in general, as well as a few aspects regarding the ... the hydrolysis reaction products diminish the chemical potential of ATP and thus inhibit the muscles force generation as their ...
Myostatin promotes distinct responses on protein metabolism of skeletal and cardiac muscle fibers of rodents
The soleus and EDL muscles were rapidly dissected, avoiding any damage to the muscles. The muscles were maintained at resting ... we compared protein turnover among different types of muscle fibers in the presence of myostatin. We used 2 muscles from rat: ... Regulation of skeletal muscle mass in mice by a new TGF-beta superfamily member. Nature 1997; 387: 83-90, doi: 10.1038/387083a0 ... First, myostatin expression is limited to a few cell types, including skeletal muscle, heart and adipose tissues (1,2). Second ...
Cells | Free Full-Text | UBE2E1 Is Preferentially Expressed in the Cytoplasm of Slow-Twitch Fibers and Protects Skeletal...
We found that E2E1 expression was restricted to type I and type IIA muscle fibers and was not detectable in type IIB fibers. ... E2E1 targets are fiber-specific and may be strongly linked to the contractile and metabolic properties of the skeletal muscle. ... In this work, we focused on the putative role of E2E1 during skeletal muscle atrophy. ... Muscle mass is mainly controlled by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), involving hundreds of ubiquitinating enzymes (E2s ...
Frontiers | Phasic Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry During Excitation-Contraction Coupling in Skeletal Muscle Fibers From Exercised...
... in a skinned fiber preparation. We show moderate voluntary wheel running to be a prerequisite to render muscle fibers ... Here we report the first measurements of pSOCE in mouse extensor digitorum longus muscle fibers using electrical field ... pSOCE has not been described in detail because the conditions required for its detection in mouse skeletal muscle have not been ... pSOCE has not been described in detail because the conditions required for its detection in mouse skeletal muscle have not been ...
Effective fiber hypertrophy in satellite cell-depleted skeletal muscle | Development
Effective fiber hypertrophy in satellite cell-depleted skeletal muscle Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Effective fiber hypertrophy in satellite cell-depleted skeletal muscle. John J. McCarthy, Jyothi Mula, Mitsunori Miyazaki, Rod ... Effective fiber hypertrophy in satellite cell-depleted skeletal muscle. John J. McCarthy, Jyothi Mula, Mitsunori Miyazaki, Rod ... Effective fiber hypertrophy in satellite cell-depleted skeletal muscle. John J. McCarthy, Jyothi Mula, Mitsunori Miyazaki, Rod ...
Effective fiber hypertrophy in satellite cell-depleted skeletal muscle | Development
2010). Repairing skeletal muscle: regenerative potential of skeletal muscle stem cells. J. Clin. Invest. 120, 11-19. ... An important unresolved question in skeletal muscle plasticity is whether satellite cells are necessary for muscle fiber ... 1987). Frequency of bifurcated muscle fibers in hypertrophic rat soleus muscle. Muscle Nerve 10, 312-317. ... muscle fibers in the tamoxifen SA-2 group provides further support for the finding that adult skeletal muscle hypertrophy does ...
Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) expression in human skeletal muscle is type I (oxidative) fiber specific
Disturbances in skeletal muscle lipid turnover and lipolysis may contribute significantly to this. So far, knowledge on the reg ... and lipid intermediates in skeletal muscle plays an important role in the etiology of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes ... Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) expression in human skeletal muscle is type I (oxidative) fiber specific Histochem Cell Biol ... Disturbances in skeletal muscle lipid turnover and lipolysis may contribute significantly to this. So far, knowledge on the ...
Effects of azumolene on Ca2+ sparks in skeletal muscle fibers | Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Effects of azumolene on Ca2+ sparks in skeletal muscle fibers. Yingfan Zhang, George G Rodney and Martin F Schneider ... Effects of azumolene on Ca2+ sparks in skeletal muscle fibers. Yingfan Zhang, George G Rodney and Martin F Schneider ... Effects of azumolene on Ca2+ sparks in skeletal muscle fibers. Yingfan Zhang, George G Rodney and Martin F Schneider ... Effects of azumolene on Ca2+ sparks in skeletal muscle fibers Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
Sarcomere strain and heterogeneity correlate with injury to frog skeletal muscle fiber bundles
... at nominal fiber strains of 10, 25, or 35% (n = 18) for 10 successive contractions. Tetanic tension, mea … ... diffraction line width were measured by laser diffraction during elongation of activated frog tibialis anterior muscle fiber ... Sarcomere strain and heterogeneity correlate with injury to frog skeletal muscle fiber bundles J Appl Physiol (1985). 2004 Nov; ... increased significantly with muscle activation and then continued to increase with successive stretches of the activated muscle ...
A DGKζ-FoxO-ubiquitin proteolytic axis controls fiber size during skeletal muscle remodeling | Science Signaling
A DGKζ-FoxO-ubiquitin proteolytic axis controls fiber size during skeletal muscle remodeling ... A DGKζ-FoxO-ubiquitin proteolytic axis controls fiber size during skeletal muscle remodeling ... A DGKζ-FoxO-ubiquitin proteolytic axis controls fiber size during skeletal muscle remodeling ... A DGKζ-FoxO-ubiquitin proteolytic axis controls fiber size during skeletal muscle remodeling ...
Effects of Purified Recombinant Neural and Muscle Agrin on Skeletal Muscle Fibers in Vivo | JCB
Effects of Purified Recombinant Neural and Muscle Agrin on Skeletal Muscle Fibers in Vivo. Gabriela Bezakova, Johannes P. Helm ... Autoradiography of Muscle Fibers from Muscles Injected with 35S-labeled Agrin. SOL muscles were injected with 70 μl of 1 μM 35S ... Single muscle fibers were teased out and placed on gelatine-coated slides. The muscle fibers were covered with a film emulsion ... Muscle Agrin.. Muscle agrin bound to the surface of innervated and denervated muscle fibers essentially as neural agrin with ...
PRIME PubMed | Evidence for three fast myosin heavy chain isoforms in type II skeletal muscle fibers in the adult llama (Lama...
Evidence for three fast myosin heavy chain isoforms in type II skeletal muscle fibers in the adult llama (Lama glama). Download ... AnimalsAntibodies, MonoclonalCamelids, New WorldHorsesImmunohistochemistryMuscle Fibers, Fast-TwitchMuscle, SkeletalMyosin ... Skeletal muscle fiber types classified on the basis of their content of different myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms were ... Evidence for three fast myosin heavy chain isoforms in type II skeletal muscle fibers in the adult llama (Lama glama).. J ...
Fourteen days of bed rest induces a decline in satellite cell content and robust atrophy of skeletal muscle fibers in middle...
We examined the effect of 14 days of bed rest on skeletal muscle satellite cell content and fiber type atrophy in middle-aged ... Fourteen days of bed rest induces a decline in satellite cell content and robust atrophy of skeletal muscle fibers in middle- ... Bed rest, a ground-based spaceflight analog, induces robust atrophy of skeletal muscle, an effect that is exacerbated with ... Post-BR MyHC type 2a fiber percentage was reduced, and mean CSA decreased in all fiber types (-24 ± 5%;P< 0.05). Satellite cell ...
Single-Fiber Study of Contractile and Biochemical Properties of Skeletal Muscles in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats |...
Single-Fiber Study of Contractile and Biochemical Properties of Skeletal Muscles in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats. ... Single-Fiber Study of Contractile and Biochemical Properties of Skeletal Muscles in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats ... Single-Fiber Study of Contractile and Biochemical Properties of Skeletal Muscles in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats ... Single-Fiber Study of Contractile and Biochemical Properties of Skeletal Muscles in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats ...
Lipid droplet size and location in human skeletal muscle fibers are associated with insulin sensitivity | Endocrinology and...
Lipid droplet size and location in human skeletal muscle fibers are associated with insulin sensitivity. Joachim Nielsen, ... Lipid droplet size and location in human skeletal muscle fibers are associated with insulin sensitivity. Joachim Nielsen, ... Lipid droplet size and location in human skeletal muscle fibers are associated with insulin sensitivity ... Lipid droplet size and location in human skeletal muscle fibers are associated with insulin sensitivity ...
Effects of carnosine on contractile apparatus Ca²⁺ sensitivity and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ release in human skeletal muscle...
... coupling in human muscle have not been defined. Consequently, we sought ... There is considerable interest in potential ergogenic and therapeutic effects of increasing skeletal muscle carnosine content, ... Muscle Contraction / drug effects*. Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch / drug effects*, metabolism. Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch / drug ... Thus increasing muscle carnosine content likely confers benefits to muscle performance in both fiber types by increasing the Ca ...
AHNAK1 and AHNAK2 are costameric proteins: AHNAK1 affects transverse skeletal muscle fiber stiffness | MDC Berlin
AHNAK1 and AHNAK2 are costameric proteins: AHNAK1 affects transverse skeletal muscle fiber stiffness View in MDC Repository ... We used specific AHNAK1 and AHNAK2 antibodies to analyzed the detailed localization of both proteins in mouse skeletal muscle. ... AHNAK function and subcellular localization in skeletal muscle are unclear. ... A laser wounding assay with AHNAK1-deficient fibers suggests that AHNAK1 is not involved in membrane repair. Using Atomic Force ...
CiNii 論文 - Cytoplasmic Free Concentrations of Ca^|2+| and Mg^|2+| in Skeletal Muscle Fibers...
Cytoplasmic Free Concentrations of Ca^,2+, and Mg^,2+, in Skeletal Muscle Fibers at Rest and during Contraction * * Konishi ... Properties of aequorin relevant to its use in the measurement of intracellular [Ca^,2+,] in skeletal muscle fibers MOORE EDW. ... Steady state relation between cytoplasmic free Ca^,2+, concentration and force in intact frog skeletal muscle fibers KONISHI M ... Slowed relaxation in fatigued skeletal muscle fibers of Xenopus and mouse. Contribution of [Ca^,2+,]_i and crossbridge ...
Human skeletal muscle fibersMouse skeletal muscle fibersAbstractSarcoplasmic reticulumAtrophyIntracellularInducesMetabolismCalciumRole in skeletal muscleVastus lateraFrog skeletal muscle fibersSoleus muscleAction potentialsIndividual muscle fibersMurine skeletal muscleExtensor digitoProteins in skeletal muscleVivoAdult skeletal musclesSarcolemma of muscle fibersFast fibersSlow fibersAnalyzed in human skeletalPhysiologyFibresRatsATPaseSomatic nervouCardiac muscle fibersInsulin resistanceMiceTissuePromotes skeletal muscleActin and myosinAdaptation of skeletal muscleHybrid fibersIsoformsNerveSingle skeletal muscleMammalianBundlesGlycolyticMitochondriaNeuromuscular junctionProteinControl muscle fibersSemitendinosus muscleMyostatinContraction of skeletalFlexorSarcomereDifferentiationOxidative fibersTypes
Human skeletal muscle fibers3
- Effects of carnosine on contractile apparatus Ca²⁺ sensitivity and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ release in human skeletal muscle fibers. (biomedsearch.com)
- Little is known about protein profiles in slow-twitch (MHC I) and fast-twitch (MHC IIa and MHC IIx) human skeletal muscle fibers. (bsu.edu)
- The Deleterious Effects of Bed Rest on Human Skeletal Muscle Fibers Ar" by Robert Fitts, Janell Romatowski et al. (marquette.edu)
Mouse skeletal muscle fibers3
- To address this question, we biochemically isolated skeletal muscle proteins that associate with Gadd45a as it induces atrophy in mouse skeletal muscle fibers in vivo. (nih.gov)
- Telomeres shorten in response to oxidative stress in mouse skeletal muscle fibers. (telomerescience.com)
- This article reviews some properties of the plasma membrane and intracellular signals measured with this methodology in mouse skeletal muscle fibers. (elsevier.com)
- THE ANATOMICAL RECORD 218~128-135(1987) Quantitative Ultrastructure of Histochemically Identified Avian Skeletal Muscle Fiber Types ROBERT S . HIKIDA Program i n Anatomy, Neurobiology, and Developmental Biology, Department of Zoological and Biomedical Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 ABSTRACT A cryostat retrieval method and combined adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and acetylcholinesterase (AChase) method were used to study the ultrastructure and innervation of histochemically identified skeletal muscle fibers in different pigeon muscles. (docme.ru)
- abstract = "Adult skeletal muscle undergoes adaptation in response to endurance exercise, including fast-to-slow fiber type transformation and enhanced angiogenesis. (elsevier.com)
- A phasic mode of fast SOCE (pSOCE) occurs upon single muscle twitches in synchrony with excitation-contraction coupling, presumably activated by a local and transient depletion at the terminal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -stores. (frontiersin.org)
- In contrast to cardiomyocytes, store overload-induced calcium ion (Ca2+) release (SOICR) is not considered to constitute a primary Ca2+ releasing system from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in skeletal muscle myocytes. (k-state.edu)
- 3-5 In this respect, hypercontracted myofibrils are the first histologic signs to become evident several minutes after injection, followed by lytic degeneration of striated muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), myocyte edema, and myonecrosis over the next hours. (asahq.org)
- While the muscle fiber does not have a smooth endoplasmic cisternae, it contains a sarcoplasmic reticulum . (wikipedia.org)
- The sarcoplasmic reticulum surrounds the myofibrils and holds a reserve of the calcium ions needed to cause a muscle contraction. (wikipedia.org)
- T tubules are the pathways for action potentials to signal the sarcoplasmic reticulum to release calcium, causing a muscle contraction. (wikipedia.org)
- In skeletal muscle, release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) represents the major source of cytoplasmic Ca 2+ elevation. (elsevier.com)
- A sarcoplasmic reticulum is the muscle cell or MYO name for an endoplasmic reticulum. (mindandmuscle.net)
- The effect of myostatin on protein metabolism is related to fiber type composition, which may be associated to the extent of atrophy mediated effect of myostatin on muscle. (scielo.br)
- In this work, we focused on the putative role of E2E1 during skeletal muscle atrophy. (mdpi.com)
- However, E2E1 knockdown was not sufficient for preserving the protein content in C2C12 myotubes subjected to a catabolic state (dexamethasone treatment), suggesting that E2E1 is not involved in the development of muscle atrophy. (mdpi.com)
- Fourteen days of bed rest induces a decline in satellite cell content and robust atrophy of skeletal muscle fibers in middle-aged adults. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Bed rest, a ground-based spaceflight analog, induces robust atrophy of skeletal muscle, an effect that is exacerbated with increasing age. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- We examined the effect of 14 days of bed rest on skeletal muscle satellite cell content and fiber type atrophy in middle-aged adults, an understudied age demographic with few overt signs of muscle aging that is representative of astronauts who perform long-duration spaceflight. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Skeletal muscle atrophy is a serious and highly prevalent condition that remains poorly understood at the molecular level. (nih.gov)
- Previous work found that skeletal muscle atrophy involves an increase in skeletal muscle Gadd45a expression, which is necessary and sufficient for skeletal muscle fiber atrophy. (nih.gov)
- However, the direct mechanism by which Gadd45a promotes skeletal muscle atrophy was unknown. (nih.gov)
- We found that Gadd45a interacts with multiple proteins in skeletal muscle fibers, including, most prominently, MEKK4, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase that was not previously known to play a role in skeletal muscle atrophy. (nih.gov)
- Furthermore, we found that, by forming a complex with MEKK4 in skeletal muscle fibers, Gadd45a increases MEKK4 protein kinase activity, which is both sufficient to induce skeletal muscle fiber atrophy and required for Gadd45a-mediated skeletal muscle fiber atrophy. (nih.gov)
- Together, these results identify a direct biochemical mechanism by which Gadd45a induces skeletal muscle atrophy and provide new insight into the way that skeletal muscle atrophy occurs at the molecular level. (nih.gov)
- MEKK4ΔN induces skeletal muscle fiber atrophy in a Gadd45a-independent manner.A-C, mouse TA muscles were transfected with 5 μg of empty pcDNA plasmid, 5 μg of MEKK4-FLAG plasmid, 5 μg of MEKK4ΔN-FLAG plasmid, and/or 5 μg of MEKK4ΔN-T1483A-FLAG plasmid, as indicated. (nih.gov)
- We found that MEKK4ΔN induced a dramatic loss of muscle fiber size (Fig. 7, A-C). In contrast, full-length MEKK4 and MEKK4ΔN-T1483A did not significantly alter muscle fiber size (Fig. 7, A-C). These data indicate that MEKK4 activity is sufficient to induce skeletal muscle fiber atrophy and provide further evidence that Gadd45a causes skeletal muscle atrophy at least in part by activating MEKK4. (nih.gov)
- In skeletal muscle, the transcription factors Foxo1 and Foxo3A control expression of proteins that mediate muscle atrophy, making the nuclear concentration and nuclear-cytoplasmic movements of Foxo1 and Foxo3A of therapeutic interest in conditions of muscle wasting. (physiology.org)
- However, Foxo1 and Foxo3A are the forkhead transcription factors associated with muscle atrophy and upregulation of either one individually has been shown to be sufficient to induce muscle atrophy ( 17 , 26 ). (physiology.org)
- Activation of the Foxo pathway leads to expression of atrogene products Atrogin-1/MAFbx and MuRF-1, proteins that are integral to the development of muscle atrophy ( 5 , 19 , 26 ). (physiology.org)
- PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are a variety of pathophysiologic conditions that are known to induce skeletal muscle atrophy. (elsevier.com)
- In contrast, nuclear factor kappaB activation apparently serves a dual function by inducing both fast-twitch fiber atrophy and slow-twitch fiber degeneration. (elsevier.com)
- Wang, Y & Pessin, JE 2013, ' Mechanisms for fiber-type specificity of skeletal muscle atrophy ', Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care , vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 243-250. (elsevier.com)
- Muscle fiber atrophy occurred at variable extent among fiber types. (elsevier.com)
- The atrophic changes induced by the xenografted tumor were significantly ameliorated by treatment with Withaferin A. The combination of functional muscle weakening and induction of myofibrillar atrophy corroborate a cachectic phenotype, which was functionally rescued by Withaferin A. Further, treatment completely abolished the slow-to-fast myofiber type conversion observed in the settings of cancer-induced cachexia. (springer.com)
- Why Do Skeletal Muscle Fibers Atrophy During Space Flight? (bioedonline.org)
- For type 2a and 2b fibers, the intracellular concentrations were 8 mM ATP, 39 mM total creatine, 32 mM PCr, 0.8 mM Pi, and 8 microM ADP. (pnas.org)
- Previous studies of diabetes in skeletal muscle have shown alterations in excitation-contraction coupling (ECC)-the sequential link between action potentials (AP), intracellular Ca 2+ release, and the contractile machinery. (hindawi.com)
- These specialized contractile elements, which constitute 80% of the volume of the muscle fiber, are cylinder-shaped intracellular structures 1 µm in diameter that extend the entire length of the muscle fiber. (anatomyexpert.com)
- Using apocynin (NOX2 inhibitor) during the HFD feeding period, the oxidative intracellular environment was diminished and skeletal muscle insulin-dependent glucose uptake restored. (mdpi.com)
- Intracellular pH regulation was studied in semitendinosus muscle fibers from frog (Rana pipiens). (wright.edu)
- Either detection or control of the membrane voltage is thus essential when studying intracellular calcium signaling in an intact muscle fiber preparation. (elsevier.com)
- Focus is given to the potency of this approach to investigate both fundamental aspects of excitation-contraction coupling and potential alterations of intracellular calcium handling in some muscle diseases. (elsevier.com)
- The troponin I subunit (TnI) was used as a molecular marker to explore the relationship between the resting intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and myofibril degradation in muscle fibers. (bvsalud.org)
- Since resting tension is dependent on intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, the above-mentioned results suggest that SR Ca(2+) leakage in relaxation phase may induce a degradation of TnI in skeletal muscle fibers . (bvsalud.org)
- The absence of dystrophin induces an abnormal increase of sarcolemmal calcium influx through cationic channels in adult skeletal muscle fibers from dystrophic ( mdx ) mice. (rupress.org)
- DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The current hypothesis of contraction of skeletal muscle is that the binding of a "fuel" molecule (ATP) to an active site of myosin induces a local conformational change in the catalytic domain --an enzymatically active part of a molecule. (unthsc.edu)
- These findings suggest that endurance training induces angiogenesis in a subpopulation of type IIb + IId/x fibers before switching to type IIa fibers. (elsevier.com)
- It is well established that testosterone administration induces muscle fiber hypertrophy and myonuclear addition in men, however, it remains to be determined whether similar morphological adaptations can be achieved in women. (diva-portal.org)
- The three main proteolytic processes involved in the control of muscle protein metabolism in mammals are the lysosomal, the Ca 2+ -dependent, and the ubiquitin-proteasome (UPS) systems. (scielo.br)
- This metabolic characteristic is associated with insulin-resistant glucose metabolism ( 1 - 3 ) and with impaired lipid oxidation by skeletal muscle during fasting conditions ( 4 , 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- In a recent update out of Kumamoto University in Japan to a continuing research project from the Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics (IMEG), researchers found that the LSD1 enzyme suppresses the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial metabolism and the slow-muscle genes that cooperate with them. (phys.org)
- Skeletal muscle acts as a metabolic organ in the body and performs glycolysis in fast muscles and mitochondrial metabolism in slow muscles. (phys.org)
- They found that LSD1 suppresses both the expression of the genes involved in mitochondrial metabolism and the slow-muscle genes that cooperate with them. (phys.org)
- LSD1 was found to accumulate in metabolism-related loci and slow-muscle type loci to suppress gene function. (phys.org)
- Researchers also found that a combination of glucocorticoid and LSD1 enhances the function of metabolism-related and slow-muscle type genes. (phys.org)
- Consequently, LSD1 coordinately controls skeletal muscle differentiation and metabolism under the action of hormones responding to the environment. (phys.org)
- This is thought to play an important role in skeletal muscle metabolism . (phys.org)
- Dementia, muscle diseases, and other age-related diseases also result from a functional decline of energy metabolism. (phys.org)
- In an aging society, the reduction of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) and of mitochondrial metabolism in the skeletal muscle of obese and diabetic patients are drawing attention. (phys.org)
- Initiated by neural impulses and subsequent calcium release, skeletal muscle fibers contract (actively generate force) as a result of repetitive power strokes of acto-myosin cross-bridges. (frontiersin.org)
- On the basis of bio-chemical kinetics, we present a model of muscle fiber exhaustion based on hydrolytic ATP-ADP-P i dynamics, which are assumed to be length- and calcium activity-dependent. (frontiersin.org)
- Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) plays a pivotal role in skeletal muscle physiology as, when impaired, the muscle is prone to early fatigue and the development of different myopathies. (frontiersin.org)
- Store-operated calcium entry is well understood, e.g., in the course of immune cell activation ( Prakriya and Lewis, 2015 ), but its role in skeletal muscle remains elusive. (frontiersin.org)
- Evidence for the load-dependent mechanical efficiency of individual myosin heads in skeletal muscle fibers activated by laser flash photolysis of caged calcium in the presence of a limited amount of ATP. (biomedsearch.com)
- To explore the possibility that the mechanical efficiency, with which chemical energy derived from ATP hydrolysis is converted into mechanical work, of individual myosin heads changes in a load-dependent manner, we examined the auxotonic shortening of glycerinated rabbit psoas muscle fibers, containing ATP molecules almost equal in number to the myosin heads, after laser-flash photolysis of caged calcium. (biomedsearch.com)
- In parallel with the repression of the TRPCs, we observed that the occurrence of calcium leak channels was decreased to one tenth of its control value (patch-clamp technique), showing the involvement of TRPC in the abnormal calcium influx observed in dystrophic fibers. (rupress.org)
- Comparison of simulated and measured calcium sparks in intact skeletal muscle fibers of the frog, S.M. Baylor, S. Hollingworth and W.K. Chandler, 2002, Journal of General Physiology , 120, 349-368. (cellml.org)
- The resting tension of tetanic contraction and expression of TnI were not changed, but the developed tension was lowered in isolated soleus muscle strips during 40 min of calcium -free Krebs perfusion . (bvsalud.org)
- Experiments are designed to test some fundamental assumptions of the cross-bridge model as well as the role of the protein troponin C (TnC) in the regulation of calcium sensitivity in striated muscle. (wikipedia.org)
- Part of the research is designed to explore how the level of activation of skeletal muscle is controlled by the calcium binding properties of troponin C - the protein responsible for the initiation of muscle contraction. (wikipedia.org)
- Troponin C has long been associated with the role of an on/off switch which turns a muscle 'on' by binding calcium or 'off' when it releases calcium. (wikipedia.org)
Role in skeletal muscle2
- In the original description of satellite cells, Mauro ( Mauro, 1961 ) showed remarkable insight when he proposed that satellite cells might have a role in skeletal muscle adaptability ( Mauro, 1961 ). (biologists.org)
- ATGL deficient animals show significant lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle, which may indicate that ATGL plays a pivotal role in skeletal muscle lipolysis. (nih.gov)
- To accomplish this, we established an imunohistochemical and immunofluorescent staining procedure to study ATGL protein expression in relation to fiber type in human vastus lateralis muscle of eight male subjects (BMI range: 21.0-34.5 kg/m2 and age: 38-59 years). (nih.gov)
- Fiber segments, obtained from vastus lateralis muscle of human subjects by needle biopsy, were mechanically skinned, and their Ca(2+) release and contractile apparatus properties were characterized. (biomedsearch.com)
- The method of single-fiber analysis was used on vastus lateralis muscle obtained by percutaneous biopsy from 22 lean, 20 obese, and 20 type 2 diabetic subjects (ages 35 ± 1, 42 ± 2, and 52 ± 2 years, respectively), with values for BMI that were similar in obese and diabetic subjects (23.7 ± 0.7, 33.2 ± 0.8, and 31.8 ± 0.8 kg/m 2 , respectively). (diabetesjournals.org)
- The current study was designed to test individual muscle fiber metabolic capacity across serial sections of vastus lateralis muscle based on identifying and tracking oxidative and glycolytic enzyme activities in relation to fiber type. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle of seven male subjects pre- and post-35 days bed rest (BR). (elsevier.com)
- Individual vastus lateralis muscle fibers (n = 264) were isolated and clipped into two portions, one for fiber-typing and one for protein identification. (bsu.edu)
Frog skeletal muscle fibers3
- Anatomical distribution of voltage-dependent membrane capacitance in frog skeletal muscle fibers. (rupress.org)
- Components of nonlinear capacitance, or charge movement, were localized in the membranes of frog skeletal muscle fibers by studying the effect of 'detubulation' resulting from sudden withdrawal of glycerol from a glycerol-hypertonic solution in which the muscles had been immersed. (rupress.org)
- This is consistent with these two pH recovery transporters being localized to the surface, and not the transverse tubular, membrane domain in frog skeletal muscle fibers. (wright.edu)
- Thus, in rat soleus muscle fibers, 81% of the nuclei appear next to BV. (nih.gov)
- We have applied purified recombinant chick neural and muscle agrin to rat soleus muscle in vivo and obtained the following results. (rupress.org)
- In the soleus muscle, ADA attenuated both the increase in blood flow and oxygen consumption, and the decrease in vascular resistance at the high level of muscle stimulation. (dtic.mil)
- C) Number of total, type I, IIA, IID/X, and IIB fibers in the soleus muscle (n = 3-5). (nih.gov)
- The isolated soleus muscle strips of rats were treated by caffeine and H2O2. (bvsalud.org)
- In contrast, some mammalian muscles and those of most vertebrates have slow tonic fibers that respond with local depolarizations rather than conducting action potentials, and have polyneuronal innervation, with small-diameter neurons terminating in grape-like clusters. (docme.ru)
- It is quite common to peruse action potentials of skeletal muscle fibers with the Hodgkin-Huxley model. (ac.ir)
- C) transmit action potentials from the motor neuron to the muscle fiber. (onepapermcqs.com)
- Here, recent data are discussed showing that action potentials can travel over substantial distances entirely within the transverse and longitudinal tubular systems of a muscle fiber and that stretch can induce such action potentials. (edu.au)
Individual muscle fibers5
- In the endomysium, individual muscle fibers (cells) are supported by nearby capillaries and nerve cells. (getbodysmart.com)
- Individual muscle fibers are formed during development from the fusion of several undifferentiated immature cells known as myoblasts into long, cylindrical, multi-nucleated cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Individual muscle fibers were dissected from biopsy samples pre-BR (n=143) and post-BR (n=144). (elsevier.com)
- They were studied as regards cross-sectional area (CSA), myosin content by quantitative electrophoresis and myosin actin (M/A) ratio by densitometry of myosin and actin bands of individual muscle fibers. (elsevier.com)
- The individual muscle fibers become thicker with more myofibrils inside them. (answers.com)
Murine skeletal muscle2
- Therefore, the current study was conducted to assess the influence of stereoselectivity and lipophilicity on alterations of myocyte Ca 2+ regulation using the well-established model of skinned murine skeletal muscle fibers. (asahq.org)
- The role of mast cells in ischaemia-reperfusion injury in murine skeletal muscle. (semanticscholar.org)
- Extensor digitorum longus muscles and C2C12 myotubes exhibited a reduction in protein turnover. (scielo.br)
- We used 2 muscles from rat: soleus (which has a greater proportion of type I fibers, oxidative) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL, which has a greater proportion of type II fibers, glycolytic). (scielo.br)
- Here we report the first measurements of pSOCE in mouse extensor digitorum longus muscle fibers using electrical field stimulation (EFS) in a skinned fiber preparation. (frontiersin.org)
- While EFS works well in rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibers, respective experiments presented challenging in mice. (frontiersin.org)
- Mechanically skinned, single muscle fibers, isometrically activated in pH and Ca 2+ (Sr 2+ ) buffered solutions were used to examine the function of the contractile apparatus in slow- and fast-twitch fibers from soleus (SOL, predominantly slow-twitch) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL, predominantly fast-twitch) muscles of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and age-matched controls. (diabetesjournals.org)
Proteins in skeletal muscle1
- These findings suggest novel functions of AHNAK proteins in skeletal muscle. (mdc-berlin.de)
- Injected agrin is recovered from the muscles together with laminin and both proteins coimmunoprecipitate, indicating that agrin binds to laminin in vivo. (rupress.org)
- Thus, the present approach provides a novel, simple, and efficient method for studying the effects of agrin on muscle under controlled conditions in vivo. (rupress.org)
- These channels exhibited increased activation time constant (τm) and reduced conductance, similar to what has been observed in denervated muscles in vivo, where the density of NaV1.5 was increasing progressively after denervation. (deepdyve.com)
- Any role of the SOICR in the regulation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+](i)) and its dynamics in skeletal muscle in vivo remains poorly understood. (k-state.edu)
- By means of in vivo single fiber Ca2+ microinjections combined with bioimaging techniques, we tested the hypothesis that the [Ca2+](i) dynamics following Ca2+ injection would be amplified and fiber contraction facilitated by SOICR. (k-state.edu)
- Thus, this investigation demonstrates the presence of a robust SR-evoked SOICR operant in skeletal muscle in vivo. (k-state.edu)
- The effect of SB431542 was assessed in vitro on C2C12 myotubes and ex vivo using mature Xenopus muscle fibers. (edu.au)
- Our findings indicate that NCX3 plays an important role in vivo in the control of Ca2+ concentrations in the skeletal muscle fibers and at the neuromuscular junction. (jci.org)
Adult skeletal muscles2
- We measured the expression of TRPC isoforms in normal and mdx adult skeletal muscles fibers, and among the seven known isoforms, five were detected (TRPC1, 2, 3, 4, and 6) by RT-PCR. (rupress.org)
- Furthermore, long-term lineage analyses indicate that satellite cells, which are known progenitors of adult skeletal muscles 4 , derive from the same dermomyotome cell population. (nature.com)
Sarcolemma of muscle fibers2
- Monoclonal antibodies were prepared using partially purified membranes of adult chicken skeletal muscles as immunogens and were used to characterize three antigens associated with the sarcolemma of muscle fibers. (rupress.org)
- Another group of cells, the myosatellite cells are found between the basement membrane and the sarcolemma of muscle fibers. (wikipedia.org)
- Both fiber types respond to a single stimulus with a n action potential and twitch, but the slow fiber has longer twitch times than the fast fibers. (docme.ru)
- The internal membrane systems have been described both qualitatively and quantitatively, and the sarcotubular system is more abundant in fast fibers (Eisenberg, 1983). (docme.ru)
- The dark fibers are type II or fast fibers and the light fibers are type I or slow fibers, PAS stain. (gettyimages.fr)
- MSA-slow was detected exclusively at the periphery of fast/slow and slow fibers, but was not detected on fast fibers. (rupress.org)
- MSA-140 was detected on all fibers but fast/slow and slow fibers stained more intensely suggesting that these fiber types contain more MSA-140 than fast fibers. (rupress.org)
- Those antigens expressed by fast fibers (MSA-55 and MSA-140) were expressed only after myoblasts differentiated into myotubes, but were not expressed by fibroblasts in cell culture. (rupress.org)
- Although we were able to differentiate only between slow and fast fibers by SDS-PAGE, these results corroborated the histochemical classification. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
- The fast and slow fibers have different myosins and their ATPase activities can be differentiated qualitatively by means of differing pH stabilities and labilities. (docme.ru)
- Human skeletal muscle is composed of fast and slow fibers in roughly equal proportion. (checkorphan.org)
- Recently, measurement of circulating fiber‐type specific isoforms of troponin I has been used as a biomarker to suggest that muscle injury in healthy volunteers results in the appearance of muscle proteins from fast but not slow fibers. (checkorphan.org)
Analyzed in human skeletal1
- The distribution of these two gene products as well as that of the beta/slow MHC gene was analyzed in human skeletal muscles by in situ hybridization. (nih.gov)
- We thank Dr. W.J. van der Laarse, Department of Physiology, VU University Medical Center, for his support in the culture of mature Xenopus muscle fibers. (edu.au)
- The fibres and muscles are surrounded by connective tissue layers called fasciae . (wikipedia.org)
- Muscle fibres, or muscle cells , are formed from the fusion of developmental myoblasts in a process known as myogenesis . (wikipedia.org)
- Muscle fibres are cylindrical, and have more than one nucleus . (wikipedia.org)
- Muscle fibres are the individual contractile units within muscle. (wikipedia.org)
- A single muscle such as the biceps brachii contains many muscle fibres. (wikipedia.org)
- and fast twitch fibres are in your muscles and they determine if your going to be fast at a certain thing or the slow twitch fibres the same but slowly :) if you have more fast twitch fibres you will be faster then someone with more slow twitch fibres. (answers.com)
- Skeletal muscle fibres form by fusion of mesoderm progenitors called myoblasts. (optistem.org)
- After birth, muscle fibres do not increase in number but continue to grow in size because of fusion of satellite cells, the postnatal myogenic cells, responsible for muscle growth and regeneration. (optistem.org)
- It is known that the absence of dystrophin causes the muscle fibres (myofibres) to become more sensitive to mechanical stress as dystrophin is a key component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC), which anchors the myofibre to the extracellular matrix (ECM). (nature.com)
- Herein, we used cell cultures and isolated muscles from rats to determine protein degradation and synthesis. (scielo.br)
- The reason for that is unknown, but might relate to the fact that only fibers derived from rats express high enough numbers of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) within the t-tubular system to enable sufficient membrane depolarization and subsequent activation of the voltage-sensor to trigger Ca 2+ -release from the SR via the ryanodine receptor. (frontiersin.org)
- Three and 14 days after STZ administration, the contractile properties of muscle fibers from diabetic rats did not differ significantly from those of controls with respect to several mechanical parameters, such as maximum Ca-activated tension, activation threshold, and sensitivity to Ca 2+ and Sr 2+ . (diabetesjournals.org)
- All fibers from diabetic rats, including the low-tension EDL fibers and higher Ca sensitivity SOL fibers displayed control-like electrophoretic profiles of the major myofibrillar proteins. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The circulation-intact spinotrapezius muscle of adult male Wistar rats (n = 34) was exteriorized and loaded with Fura-2 AM to monitor [Ca2+](i) dynamics. (k-state.edu)
- In this study we investigated the effects of PPARα agonists on skeletal muscle gene transcription in rats. (ovid.com)
- Fiber typing by ATPase histochemistry shows that IIa MHC transcripts are more abundant in histochemical type IIa fibers, whereas IIx MHC transcripts are more abundant in histochemical type IIb fibers. (nih.gov)
- Skeletal muscle fiber types classified on the basis of their content of different myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms were analyzed in samples from hindlimb muscles of adult sedentary llamas (Lama glama) by correlating immunohistochemistry with specific anti-MHC monoclonal antibodies, myofibrillar ATPase (mATPase) histochemistry, and quantitative histochemistry of fiber metabolic and size properties. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Xestoquinone, a novel cardiotonic agent activates actomyosin ATPase to enhance contractility of skinned cardiac or skeletal muscle fibers. (aspetjournals.org)
- The most common method for differentiating muscle fiber types in any tetrapod vertebrate muscle has been 0 1987 ALAN R. LISS, INC. to use histochemical assays for myosin adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity. (docme.ru)
- Thus a fast fiber would have a high ATPase activity that is maintained after alkaline preincubation, but is much reduced after acid preincubation. (docme.ru)
- Maximum velocity of the actomyosin ATPase reaction (V max ATPase) and ATP consumption rate during maximum isometric activation (ATP iso ) were determined in human vastus lateralis (VL) muscle fibers expressing different myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. (elsevier.com)
- We hypothesized that the reserve capacity for ATP consumption [1 - (ratio of ATP iso to V max ATPase)] varies across VL muscle fibers expressing different MHC isoforms. (elsevier.com)
- By this procedure, three fiber types were distinguished by both Ca2+-ATPase and SDH reactions. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
- It is a form of striated muscle tissue , which is under the voluntary control of the somatic nervous system . (wikipedia.org)
Cardiac muscle fibers1
- The heart is composed of cardiac muscle fibers. (answers.com)
- Accumulation of triacylglycerol (TAG) and lipid intermediates in skeletal muscle plays an important role in the etiology of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. (nih.gov)
- In skeletal muscle, an accumulation of lipid droplets (LDs) in the subsarcolemmal space is associated with insulin resistance, but the underlying mechanism is not clear. (physiology.org)
- In conclusion, the size of individual subsarcolemmal LDs may be involved in the mechanism by which LDs are associated with insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. (physiology.org)
- These metabolic characteristics are related to insulin resistance of skeletal muscle and are factors potentially related to muscle fiber type. (diabetesjournals.org)
- There has been renewed interest in the association of muscle lipid content with skeletal muscle insulin resistance ( 11 , 16 - 18 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- By contrast, E2E1 knockdown aggravated the atrophying process in both catabolic C2C12 myotubes and the Tibialis anterior muscle of mice, suggesting that E2E1 has a protective effect on muscle mass. (mdpi.com)
- To test the hypothesis that satellite cells are necessary for skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the plantaris muscle of adult Pax7-DTA mice was subjected to mechanical overload by surgical removal of the synergist muscle. (biologists.org)
- It also elicited an alteration of skeletal muscle phenotype toward the type I fibers in both of the soleus (35.8 % in the control mice vs. 46.7 % in the PHD2-deficient mice, p (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Indeed, we found that tacrolimus (FK-506), a calcineurin inhibitor, successfully suppressed slow fiber-type formation in PHD2-deficient mice. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- We evaluated oxidative status in skeletal muscle fibers from insulin-resistant and control mice by determining H 2 O 2 generation (HyPer probe), reduced-to-oxidized glutathione ratio and NOX2 expression. (mdpi.com)
- Flexor digitorum brevis muscles were dissected from male mice (C57BL/6, long telomere and CAST/Ei, wild-derived, short telomere) and dissociated into single fibers. (telomerescience.com)
- Loss of Mstn in mice causes a doubling of skeletal muscle mass while loss of Gdf11 in mice causes dramatic anterior homeotic transformations of the axial skeleton, kidney agenesis, and an increase in progenitor cell number in several tissues. (nih.gov)
- We show that Mstn-/- Gdf11-/- mice have more extensive homeotic transformations of the axial skeleton than Gdf11-/- mice in addition to skeletal defects not seen in single mutants such as extra forelimbs. (nih.gov)
- We also show that deletion of Gdf11 specifically in skeletal muscle in either Mstn+/+ or Mstn-/- mice does not affect muscle size, fiber number, or fiber type. (nih.gov)
- These results provide evidence that myostatin and Gdf11 have redundant functions in regulating skeletal patterning in mice but most likely not in regulating muscle size. (nih.gov)
- Muscle weight, fiber number, and fiber type in skeletal muscle-specific Gdf11 mutant mice in a Mstn wild-type or background. (nih.gov)
- Body weight and muscle mass were measured in all 8 possible genotypes produced from crosses of Gdf11flox/+ MLC-Cre and Gdf11+/- mice. (nih.gov)
- There were no differences in body weight or muscle mass between Gdf11+/+, Gdf11+/+ MLC-Cre, Gdf11+/-, Gdf11+/- MLC-Cre, Gdf11flox/+, or Gdf11flox/+ MLC-Cre mice demonstrating that there was no heterozygous or transgene phenotype (data not shown). (nih.gov)
- We next performed an examination of the muscle phenotype of Gdf11flox/- and Gdf11flox/- MLC-Cre mice. (nih.gov)
- There was no statistically significant difference in body weight or muscle mass between Gdf11flox/- and Gdf11flox/- MLC-Cre mice (data not shown and Figure 3A). (nih.gov)
- Xenografting of the A2780 cell line resulted in a significant rate of mortality, which was attenuated by a therapeutic dosage of Withaferin A. Mice that received vehicle treatment following xenografting exhibited functional muscle decline over the course of the study. (springer.com)
- 2013). In Diaphragm nerve muscles were separated and stained in lab mice for observations after the insertion of Etomidate. (majortests.com)
- NCX3-deficient mice (Ncx3-/-) present a skeletal muscle fiber necrosis and a defective neuromuscular transmission, reflecting the absence of NCX3 in the sarcolemma of the muscle fibers and at the neuromuscular junction. (jci.org)
- endomysium , a thin layer of areolar connective tissue that covers each muscle fiber. (getbodysmart.com)
- IgM binding to injured tissue precedes complement activation during skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion. (semanticscholar.org)
- Connective tissue is present in all muscles as fascia . (wikipedia.org)
- enclosing each fascicle is a layer called the perimysium , and enclosing each muscle fiber is a layer of connective tissue called the endomysium . (wikipedia.org)
- These cells also have an abundance of mitochondria, the energy-generating organelles, as would be expected with the high energy demands of a tissue as active as skeletal muscle. (anatomyexpert.com)
- Sarcomeres are stacked throughout muscle tissue. (reference.com)
- The term muscle refers to multiple bundles of muscle fibers held together by connective tissue. (phys.org)
- Intrafusal muscle fibers are walled off from the rest of the muscle by an outer connective tissue sheath consisting of flattened fibroblasts and collagen . (wikipedia.org)
- Collections of cells form muscle tissue. (mindandmuscle.net)
- There are 3 types of muscle tissue: Cardiac, Smooth, and Skeletal. (mindandmuscle.net)
- In Duchenne muscular dystrophy, progressive loss of muscle tissue is accompanied by fibrosis, chronic inflammation and reduced muscle regenerative capacity. (nature.com)
Promotes skeletal muscle1
- Prolyl hydroxylase domain 2 deficiency promotes skeletal muscle fiber-type transition via a calcineurin/NFATc1-dependent pathway. (sigmaaldrich.com)
Actin and myosin6
- The myofibrils are composed of actin and myosin filaments, repeated in units called sarcomeres , which are the basic functional units of the muscle fiber. (wikipedia.org)
- Muscle fiber generates tension through the action of actin and myosin cross-bridge cycling. (answers.com)
- With these additional nuclei, the muscle fiber can synthesize more proteins and create more contractile myofilaments, known as actin and myosin, in skeletal muscle cells. (answers.com)
- These fibers are long, cylindrical, multinucleated cells composed of actin and myosin myofibrils repeated as a sarcomere, the basic functional unit of the cell and responsible for skeletal muscle's striated appearance and forming the basic machinery necessary for muscle contraction. (phys.org)
- The muscle proteins that contract are the protein fibers actin and myosin. (mindandmuscle.net)
- The more nucleuses a myocyte has the more mitochondria, glycogen, actin and myosin the muscle cell can handle and subsequently the bigger it gets! (mindandmuscle.net)
Adaptation of skeletal muscle1
- Regeneration is a unique adaptation of skeletal muscle that occurs in response to injury. (ovid.com)
- The distribution of beta/slow, IIa, and IIx MHC transcripts defines three major muscle fiber types expressing a single MHC mRNA, i.e., either beta/slow, IIa, or IIx MHC mRNA, and two populations of hybrid fibers coexpressing beta/slow with IIa or IIa with IIx MHC mRNA. (nih.gov)
- The three fast-twitch fiber types were tentatively designated as IIA, IIX, and IIB on the basis of the homologies of their immunoreactivities, acid denaturation of their mATPase activity, size, and metabolic properties expressed at the cellular level with the corresponding isoforms of rat and horse muscles. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Expression of the three fast adult MHC isoforms was spatially regulated around islets of Type I fibers, with concentric circles of fibers expressing MHC-IIA, then MHC-IIX, and peripherally MHC-IIB. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Bottinelli, R & Reggiani, C 1995, ' Essential myosin light chain isoforms and energy transduction in skeletal muscle fibers ', Biophysical Journal , vol. 68, no. 4 SUPPL. (elsevier.com)
- Further analysis with simultaneous staining of endothelial cells and isoforms of myosin heavy chains (MHCs) showed that the increase in capillary contact manifested transiently in type IIb + IId/x fibers at the time (day 7) of significant increase in total capillary density. (elsevier.com)
- Aggregation of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) in muscle fibers by nerve-derived agrin plays a key role in the formation of neuromuscular junctions. (rupress.org)
- Signaling between nerve and muscle occurs at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), which consist of specialized and precisely apposed pre- and postsynaptic structures separated by a synaptic cleft ( Sanes and Lichtman 1999 ). (rupress.org)
- BOULDER, Colo. - Edgewise Therapeutics, Inc., (NASDAQ: EWTX), a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on developing orally bioavailable, small molecule therapies for rare muscle disorders, today announced the publication of the first cross-sectional, retrospective study to describe selective elevation of fast but not slow skeletal muscle fiber injury biomarkers in the blood of patients with Becker and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (BMD, DMD) in the journal, Muscle & Nerve . (checkorphan.org)
- Dendrite: slender fiber extensions containing sensory receptors that conduct impulse toward soma (graded potentials short distance signals) Axon: single fiber extension that generate nerve impulses and conducts impulses away from soma. (healthdocbox.com)
- Long axons are called nerve fibers. (healthdocbox.com)
- The defective neuromuscular transmission is characterized by the presence of electromyographic abnormalities, including low compound muscle action potential amplitude, a decremental response at low-frequency nerve stimulation, an incremental response, and a prominent postexercise facilitation at high-frequency nerve stimulation, as well as neuromuscular blocks. (jci.org)
Single skeletal muscle1
- A single skeletal muscle cell, known as a muscle fiber, is relatively large, elongated, and cylinder-shaped, measuring from 10 to 100 micrometers in diameter and up to two feet, in length. (anatomyexpert.com)
- Mammalian skeletal muscle fibers distinguished by contents of phosphocreatine, ATP, and Pi. (pnas.org)
- A comparison of pSOCE kinetic data in mouse with those previously derived from rat muscle demonstrated very similar properties and suggests the existence and similar function of pSOCE across mammalian species. (frontiersin.org)
- These correlative analyses suggest that the avian muscles contain not only the fast-twitch and slow tonic fibers previously known, but also a slow-twitch fiber that appears to be intermediate between the tonic and the mammalian slow-twitch fiber type. (docme.ru)
- Most mammalian muscles consist of two major types, the fasttwitch and its subtypes, and the slow-twitch fibers (classification systems differ for both of these fiber types). (docme.ru)
- Sarcomere length and first-order diffraction line width were measured by laser diffraction during elongation of activated frog tibialis anterior muscle fiber bundles (i.e., eccentric contraction) at nominal fiber strains of 10, 25, or 35% (n = 18) for 10 successive contractions. (nih.gov)
-  Most skeletal muscles are attached to bones by bundles of collagen fibers known as tendons . (wikipedia.org)
- A skeletal muscle refers to multiple bundles ( fascicles ) of cells joined together called muscle fibers. (wikipedia.org)
- As its name suggests, skeletal muscle is linked to bone by bundles of collagen fibers known as tendons. (phys.org)
- We have developed a procedure by which multiple cross-sections of single skinned fibers can be exposed to various histochemical reactions and the staining patterns compared on the same slide to those of frozen muscle and skinned bundles. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
- Muscle fibers are the bundles of cells that form the muscle. (mindandmuscle.net)
- In obesity and type 2 diabetes, skeletal muscle has been observed to have a reduced oxidative enzyme activity, increased glycolytic activity, and increased lipid content. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The current study was undertaken to examine the interactions of muscle fiber type in relation to oxidative enzyme activity, glycolytic enzyme activity, and muscle lipid content in obese and type 2 diabetic subjects compared with lean healthy volunteers. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Activities of skeletal muscle glycolytic enzymes (phosphofructokinase activities) and α-glycerolphosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) have been found to be increased in obesity and type 2 diabetes ( 1 - 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Although a full explanation for these differences in glycolytic and oxidative enzyme activities in skeletal muscle in obesity and type 2 diabetes compared with lean individuals has not been determined, one possibility is an altered proportion of muscle fiber types. (diabetesjournals.org)
- An increased proportion of type IIb muscle fibers, also termed glycolytic fast-twitch fibers, has been reported in type 2 diabetes in several studies ( 6 - 9 ), though not in all studies ( 10 , 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- In general, the metabolic characteristics of type IIb fibers include a reduced oxidative enzyme activity and an increased glycolytic enzyme activity in comparison with type I muscle fibers (oxidative slow-twitch) or type IIa (oxidative fast-twitch) ( 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- A corollary aim was to examine the characteristics of fiber type and oxidative and glycolytic enzyme activities in relation to muscle lipid content. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Nutrient-related muscle atrophies, such as those induced by cancer cachexia, sepsis, chronic heart failure, or diabetes, are largely restricted to fast-twitch glycolytic fibers, of which the underlying mechanism is usually related to abnormality of protein degradation, including proteasomal and lysosomal pathways. (elsevier.com)
- SUMMARY: Fast-twitch glycolytic fibers are more vulnerable than slow-twitch oxidative fibers under a variety of atrophic conditions related to signaling transduction of Forkhead box O family, autophagy inhibition, transforming growth factor beta family, and nuclear factor-kappaB. (elsevier.com)
- Initial experiments suggested that adenosine may be produced under physiological conditions in oxidative muscles but not in glycolytic muscles. (dtic.mil)
- Cat soleus (slow-twitch, oxidative) and cat gracilis (fast-twitch, glycolytic) muscles were stimulated to contract isometrically in the presence of adenosine deaminase (ADA), an enzyme which specifically degrades adenosine, or ADA which had been deactivated by boiling. (dtic.mil)
- The lower oxidative enzyme activity in type 2 diabetes and obesity suggests either a reduced mitochondria function or a reduced mitochondria content in skeletal muscle in these disorders. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Skeletal muscle fibers contain hundreds to thousands of nuclei which lie immediately under the plasmalemma and are spaced out along the fiber, except for a small cluster of specialized nuclei at the neuromuscular junction. (nih.gov)
- Myostatin may be involved in inhibiting protein synthesis and/or increasing protein degradation in skeletal and cardiac muscles. (scielo.br)
- In the present study, we compared protein turnover among different types of muscle fibers in the presence of myostatin. (scielo.br)
- Here, we found that myostatin increased the phosphorylation of Smad3 in soleus and EDL muscles and promoted an increase in proteolysis in soleus and a decrease in protein turnover in EDL and C2C12 cell culture. (scielo.br)
- However, until now, it is still unknown whether ATGL protein is expressed in human skeletal muscle. (nih.gov)
- Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether ATGL is expressed at the protein level in human skeletal muscle, and to examine whether its expression is fiber-type specific. (nih.gov)
- In the present paper we report for the first time that ATGL protein is indeed expressed in human skeletal muscle. (nih.gov)
- In addition, calcineurin and nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFATc1) protein levels were increased in both the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, suggesting that the calcineurin/NFATc1 pathway was responsible for the type I fiber transition regardless of PGC-1α, which responded minimally to PHD2 deficiency. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Duchenne muscular dystrophy results from the lack of dystrophin, a cytoskeletal protein associated with the inner surface membrane, in skeletal muscle. (rupress.org)
- CK activity, which is a type of protein found in skeletal and heart muscles, was also measured from the same samples for comparison. (checkorphan.org)
- Of note, a surprising discrepancy between TNNI1 and TNNI2 in patient plasma may have implications for the interpretation of elevated muscle protein levels in BMD, DMD and other dystrophinopathies. (checkorphan.org)
- As the satellite cells multiply, some remain as organelles on the muscle fiber where as the majority differentiate (the process cells undergo as they mature into normal cells) and fuse to muscle fibers to form new muscle protein stands (or myofibrils) and/or repair damaged fibers. (answers.com)
- Resistance training increases protein synthesis, or building, within the muscle fibers. (livestrong.com)
- so you get the most satellite cell activation and the most nucleus donation, and subsequently the capacity to make more muscle protein, and thus more strength and size. (mindandmuscle.net)
- Therefore we developed a method of assessing fiber type specific protein content across the continuum of human skeletal muscle fiber types. (bsu.edu)
- These data establish a novel application of WB combined with SDS-PAGE for fiber type specific protein analysis in human skeletal muscle. (bsu.edu)
Control muscle fibers2
- most control muscle fibers show phasic AP-induced Ca 2+ transients, while most fibers exposed to elevated D-glucose displayed biphasic Ca 2+ transients upon single field stimulation. (hindawi.com)
- After eight weeks of HFD, insulin-dependent glucose uptake was impaired in skeletal muscle fibers when compared with control muscle fibers. (mdpi.com)
- These frequent phenotypes (40% of the semitendinosus muscle fiber composition) had overlapped mATPase staining intensities with their corresponding pure fiber types, so they could not be delineated by mATPase histochemistry. (unboundmedicine.com)
- 0.05) than that of groups W and WT while the muscle fiber area of the semitendinosus muscle was not significantly different among all groups. (thescipub.com)
- Myostatin is a novel negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass. (scielo.br)
- Muscles incubated with myostatin exhibited an increase in proteolysis with an increase of Atrogin-1, MuRF1 and LC3 genes. (scielo.br)
- The muscle growth-inhibitor myostatin binds to and signals via these receptors. (edu.au)
- The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that SB431542 can inhibit myostatin-related Smad signaling and induce muscle growth in cultured C2C12 myotubes and increase growth and specific force in cultured Xenopus muscle fibers. (edu.au)
Contraction of skeletal2
- Patch clamp and molecular biology techniques were carried out in flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) adult rat skeletal muscle fibers maintained in vitro after cell dissociation with collagenase. (deepdyve.com)
- Muscles that cause two bones on two different sides of the joint to close, resembling a bending action, are called flexor muscles. (reference.com)
- Diffraction pattern line width, a measure of sarcomere length heterogeneity, increased significantly with muscle activation and then continued to increase with successive stretches of the activated muscle. (nih.gov)
- These data demonstrate a direct association and, perhaps, a causal relationship between sarcomere strain and fiber bundle injury. (nih.gov)
- They also demonstrate that muscle injury is accompanied by a progressive increase in sarcomere length heterogeneity, yielding lower yield tension as injury progresses. (nih.gov)
- The sarcomere is responsible for the striated appearance of skeletal muscle, and forms the basic machinery necessary for muscle contraction . (wikipedia.org)
- The area between two Z lines is called a sarcomere, which is the functional unit of skeletal muscle. (anatomyexpert.com)
- Accordingly, a sarcomere is the smallest component of a muscle fiber that is capable of contraction. (anatomyexpert.com)
- During growth, a muscle increases in length by adding new sarcomeres, not by increasing the size of each sarcomere as all sarcomeres are of identical size. (anatomyexpert.com)
- The smallest contractile unit of muscle fiber is the sarcomere. (reference.com)
- Spectral analysis of muscle fiber images as a means of assessing sarcomere heterogeneity. (wikipedia.org)
- In muscle, Foxo1 has been shown to regulate myotube differentiation and skeletal muscle fiber type remodeling ( 15 , 32 ). (physiology.org)
- The LSD1 enzyme regulates the differentiation and metabolic activity of skeletal muscle. (phys.org)
- Is the Subject Area "Muscle differentiation" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
- In the embryo and in the adult, skeletal muscle growth is dependent on the proliferation and the differentiation of muscle progenitors present within muscle masses. (nature.com)
- Here we show that the nuclei are preferentially localized near blood vessels (BV), particularly in slow-twitch, oxidative fibers. (nih.gov)
- RECENT FINDINGS: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha protects slow-twitch oxidative fibers from denervation/immobilization (disuse)-induced muscle atrophies. (elsevier.com)
- The resistance of oxidative fibers may result from the protection of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha. (elsevier.com)
- We tested the proposition that muscle cell types have different contents of phosphocreatine (PCr), ATP, and Pi by 31P NMR spectroscopy and HPLC analyses of adult rat and mouse muscles containing various volume fractions of different fiber types. (pnas.org)
- There was a 2-fold difference in the PCr content between muscles with a high volume fraction of fiber types 1 and 2x versus those with fast-twitch (types 2a and 2b) fiber types. (pnas.org)
- There is a large range in the Pi/PCr ratios in normal resting muscles, from less than 0.05 in type 2 to 0.51 in type 1 fibers, depending upon the distribution of their component fiber types. (pnas.org)
- Fiber types 2a and 2b were not distinguishable, and the content of type 2x fibers was similar to type 1 fibers. (pnas.org)
- Although there is a large body of literature documenting satellite cell activity during these different types of muscle plasticity, there remains no study that has directly tested the requirement of satellite cells for any of these processes. (biologists.org)
- The immunohistochemical technique allowed the separation of four pure (i.e., expressing a unique MHC isoform) muscle fiber types: one slow-twitch (Type I) and three fast-twitch (Type II) phenotypes. (unboundmedicine.com)
- The same four major fiber types could be objectively discriminated with two serial sections stained for mATPase after acid (pH 4.5) and alkaline (pH 10.5) preincubations. (unboundmedicine.com)
- In addition to these four pure fibers (I, IIA, IIX, and IIB), four other fiber types with hybrid phenotypes containing two (I+IIA, IIAX, and IIXB) or three (IIAXB) MHCs were immunohistochemically delineated. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Post-BR MyHC type 2a fiber percentage was reduced, and mean CSA decreased in all fiber types (-24 ± 5%;P (sigmaaldrich.com)
- We aimed to investigate how the size, number and location of LDs are associated with insulin sensitivity and muscle fiber types, and are regulated by aerobic training and treatment with an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) in healthy young untrained males. (physiology.org)
- Thus increasing muscle carnosine content likely confers benefits to muscle performance in both fiber types by increasing the Ca(2+) sensitivity of the contractile apparatus and possibly also by aiding Ca(2+) release in type I fibers, helping to lessen or slow the decline in muscle performance during fatiguing stimulation. (biomedsearch.com)
- Quantitative ultrastructure of histochemically identified avian skeletal muscle fiber types. (docme.ru)
- The characterization of skeletal muscle fiber types is important for clinical, functional, and developmental studies because there may be fiber type specificity of the muscles' reactions to various experimental, ontogenetic, and pathologic changes. (docme.ru)
- Both felids had predominantly type IIX fibers (range 50-80%), whereas human muscle had more types I and IIs. (up.ac.za)
- We have identified three sarcolemma-associated antigens, including two antigens that are differentially distributed on skeletal muscle fibers of the fast, fast/slow, and slow types. (rupress.org)
- MSA-55 was expressed equally by fibers of all types. (rupress.org)
- Each antigen was also detected in one or more nonskeletal muscle cell types: MSA-55 and MSA-slow in cardiac myocytes and smooth muscle of gizzard (but not vascular structures) and MSA-140 in cardiac myocytes and smooth muscle of vascular structures. (rupress.org)
- Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle . (wikipedia.org)
- Are the slow twitch and fast twitch the types of muscle fibers? (answers.com)
- Fast twitch and slow twitch muscles are types of muscle fiber used to perform different kinds of physical activity. (reference.com)
- It is by the sensory information from these two intrafusal fiber types that an individual is able to judge the position of their muscle, and the rate at which it is changing. (wikipedia.org)
- Skeletal muscle can be broken down into two types: slow-twitch, or Type I, and fast-twitch, or Type II, muscle fibers. (livestrong.com)
- Stimulation parameters were chosen to provide similar high and low blood flow responses in the two muscle types. (dtic.mil)
- Histochemical and molecular determination of fiber types in chemically skinned single equine skeletal muscle fibers. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
- Until now, there has been no reliable method for histochemical determination of fiber types of single skinned muscle fibers. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
- This procedure will clearly be useful in skinned single muscle fiber mechanics experiments performed to determine functional differences among fiber types. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
- Skeletal muscle fibers can be broken down into three types. (nutrabio.com)
- These initial results show content of particular proteins exist in a hierarchal fashion throughout the continuum of human skeletal muscle fiber types. (bsu.edu)
- Myoblasts can differentiate into two different types, slow-twitch (type 1) or fast-twitch (type 2) muscle fibers, each with distinct metabolic properties. (phys.org)