Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.
A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.
A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.
A superorder of marine CRUSTACEA, free swimming in the larval state, but permanently fixed as adults. There are some 800 described species, grouped in several genera, and comprising of two major orders of barnacles: stalked (Pedunculata) and sessile (Sessilia).
A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Long, pliable, cohesive natural or manufactured filaments of various lengths. They form the structure of some minerals. The medical significance lies in their potential ability to cause various types of PNEUMOCONIOSIS (e.g., ASBESTOSIS) after occupational or environmental exposure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p708)
The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.
Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The specialized postsynaptic region of a muscle cell. The motor endplate is immediately across the synaptic cleft from the presynaptic axon terminal. Among its anatomical specializations are junctional folds which harbor a high density of cholinergic receptors.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
A TEXTILE fiber obtained from the pappus (outside the SEEDS) of cotton plant (GOSSYPIUM). Inhalation of cotton fiber dust over a prolonged period can result in BYSSINOSIS.
A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.
The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Catalyzes the reduction of tetrazolium compounds in the presence of NADH.
Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
An edible species of the family Ranidae, occurring in Europe and used extensively in biomedical research. Commonly referred to as "edible frog".
Myosin type II isoforms found in skeletal muscle.
The family of true frogs of the order Anura. The family occurs worldwide except in Antarctica.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).
Modified cardiac muscle fibers composing the terminal portion of the heart conduction system.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.
Bundles of actin filaments (ACTIN CYTOSKELETON) and myosin-II that span across the cell attaching to the cell membrane at FOCAL ADHESIONS and to the network of INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS that surrounds the nucleus.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Muscle contraction with negligible change in the force of contraction but shortening of the distance between the origin and insertion.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Technique for limiting use, activity, or movement by immobilizing or restraining animal by suspending from hindlimbs or tails. This immobilization is used to simulate some effects of reduced gravity and study weightlessness physiology.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.
An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
Progressive myopathies characterized by the presence of inclusion bodies on muscle biopsy. Sporadic and hereditary forms have been described. The sporadic form is an acquired, adult-onset inflammatory vacuolar myopathy affecting proximal and distal muscles. Familial forms usually begin in childhood and lack inflammatory changes. Both forms feature intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions in muscle tissue. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1409-10)
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex of skeletal muscle. It is a calcium-binding protein.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)
One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.
The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Axons of certain cells in the DENTATE GYRUS. They project to the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus and to the proximal dendrites of PYRAMIDAL CELLS of the HIPPOCAMPUS. These mossy fibers should not be confused with mossy fibers that are cerebellar afferents (see NERVE FIBERS).
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.
Solutions that have a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.
Methods of preparing tissue for examination and study of the origin, structure, function, or pathology.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.
A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, becoming fairly common in the southern United States and almost pantropical. The secretions from the skin glands of this species are very toxic to animals.
The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.
An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
The striated muscle groups which move the LARYNX as a whole or its parts, such as altering tension of the VOCAL CORDS, or size of the slit (RIMA GLOTTIDIS).
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).
Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A superfamily of various freshwater CRUSTACEA, in the infraorder Astacidea, comprising the crayfish. Common genera include Astacus and Procambarus. Crayfish resemble lobsters, but are usually much smaller.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).
The spread of response if stimulation is prolonged. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)
Metallochrome indicator that changes color when complexed to the calcium ion under physiological conditions. It is used to measure local calcium ion concentrations in vivo.
An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.
An infraorder of chiefly marine, largely carnivorous CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, including the genera Cancer, Uca, and Callinectes.
Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
Diseases characterized by inflammation involving multiple muscles. This may occur as an acute or chronic condition associated with medication toxicity (DRUG TOXICITY); CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES; infections; malignant NEOPLASMS; and other disorders. The term polymyositis is frequently used to refer to a specific clinical entity characterized by subacute or slowly progressing symmetrical weakness primarily affecting the proximal limb and trunk muscles. The illness may occur at any age, but is most frequent in the fourth to sixth decade of life. Weakness of pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles, interstitial lung disease, and inflammation of the myocardium may also occur. Muscle biopsy reveals widespread destruction of segments of muscle fibers and an inflammatory cellular response. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1404-9)
A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.
A paired box transcription factor that is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and SKELETAL MUSCLE.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Parts of the myosin molecule resulting from cleavage by proteolytic enzymes (PAPAIN; TRYPSIN; or CHYMOTRYPSIN) at well-localized regions. Study of these isolated fragments helps to delineate the functional roles of different parts of myosin. Two of the most common subfragments are myosin S-1 and myosin S-2. S-1 contains the heads of the heavy chains plus the light chains and S-2 contains part of the double-stranded, alpha-helical, heavy chain tail (myosin rod).
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC
A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.

Fas and Fas ligand interaction induces apoptosis in inflammatory myopathies: CD4+ T cells cause muscle cell injury directly in polymyositis. (1/4591)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the involvement of the Fas/Fas ligand (Fas/FasL) system in the inflammatory myopathies. METHODS: Frozen muscle sections obtained from 7 patients with polymyositis (PM), 4 patients with dermatomyositis (DM), and 3 controls were studied by immunochemistry. Apoptosis was detected by DNA electrophoresis and in situ labeling using the TUNEL method. RESULTS: Fas was detected on muscle fibers and infiltrating mononuclear cells (MNC) in 6 PM patients and 2 DM patients. FasL was expressed mainly on CD4+ T cells and some CD8+ T cells, and on macrophages surrounding Fas-positive muscles in 4 PM patients and 1 DM patient. In 3 of the 5 patients with FasL-positive MNC, the TUNEL method showed that both invaded myonuclei and MNC underwent apoptosis. Chromosomal DNA from the muscle tissue of these patients showed ladder formation. CONCLUSION: Fas/FasL is involved in muscle cell apoptosis in at least 2 of the inflammatory myopathies, PM and DM. Although CD8+-mediated cytotoxicity is thought to be the main mechanism of muscle injury in PM, our data suggest that CD4+ T cells also directly cause muscle cell damage.  (+info)

Plectin is a linker of intermediate filaments to Z-discs in skeletal muscle fibers. (2/4591)

Plectin is a versatile linker protein which is associated with various types of cytoskeletal components and/or filaments including intermediate filaments, and its deficiency causes the disruption of myofibrils, or muscular dystrophy. To better understand the functional role of plectin in skeletal muscle fibers, we have examined the topological and structural relationships of plectin to intermediate filaments and Z-discs in rat diaphragm muscles by confocal and immunoelectron microscopy. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that plectin was colocalized with desmin at the periphery of Z-discs. This plectin localization around Z-discs was constantly maintained irrespective of the contracted or extended state of the muscle fibers, suggesting either direct or indirect association of plectin with Z-discs. Immunogold labeling in skinned muscle fibers clearly demonstrated that plectin-labeled fine threads linked desmin intermediate filaments to Z-discs and connected intermediate filaments to each other. These results indicate that through plectin threads desmin intermediate filaments form lateral linkages among adjacent Z-discs, preventing individual myofibrils from disruptive contraction and ensuring effective force generation.  (+info)

Calcitonin gene-related peptide decreases expression of acetylcholinesterase in mammalian myotubes. (3/4591)

Nerve-derived trophic factors are known to modulate expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in skeletal muscle fibers, yet the precise identity of these factors remains elusive. In the present study, we treated mouse C2 myotubes with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Compared to non-treated myotubes, cell-associated AChE activity levels were decreased by approximately 60% after 48 h of treatment. A parallel reduction in AChE total protein levels was also observed as determined by Western blot analysis. The reduction in AChE activity was due to a decrease in the levels of the G1 molecular form and to an elimination of G1. By contrast, levels of secreted AChE remained unchanged following CGRP treatment. Finally, the overall decrease in AChE activity was accompanied by a reduction in AChE transcripts which could not be attributed to changes in the transcriptional rate of the ACHE gene.  (+info)

Nitric oxide inhibits cardiac energy production via inhibition of mitochondrial creatine kinase. (4/4591)

Nitric oxide biosynthesis in cardiac muscle leads to a decreased oxygen consumption and lower ATP synthesis. It is suggested that this effect of nitric oxide is mainly due to the inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase. However, this work demonstrates that nitric oxide is able to inhibit soluble mitochondrial creatine kinase (CK), mitochondrial CK bound in purified mitochondria, CK in situ in skinned fibres as well as the functional activity of mitochondrial CK in situ in skinned fibres. Since mitochondrial isoenzyme is functionally coupled to oxidative phosphorylation, its inhibition also leads to decreased sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration to ADP and thus decreases ATP synthesis and oxygen consumption under physiological ADP concentrations.  (+info)

Ca2+ and cross-bridge-induced changes in troponin C in skinned skeletal muscle fibers: effects of force inhibition. (5/4591)

Changes in skeletal troponin C (sTnC) structure during thin filament activation by Ca2+ and strongly bound cross-bridge states were monitored by measuring the linear dichroism of the 5' isomer of iodoacetamidotetramethylrhodamine (5'IATR), attached to Cys98 (sTnC-5'ATR), in sTnC-5'ATR reconstituted single skinned fibers from rabbit psoas muscle. To isolate the effects of Ca2+ and cross-bridge binding on sTnC structure, maximum Ca2+-activated force was inhibited with 0.5 mM AlF4- or with 30 mM 2,3 butanedione-monoxime (BDM) during measurements of the Ca2+ dependence of force and dichroism. Dichroism was 0.08 +/- 0.01 (+/- SEM, n = 9) in relaxing solution (pCa 9.2) and decreased to 0.004 +/- 0.002 (+/- SEM, n = 9) at pCa 4.0. Force and dichroism had similar Ca2+ sensitivities. Force inhibition with BDM caused no change in the amplitude and Ca2+ sensitivity of dichroism. Similarly, inhibition of force at pCa 4.0 with 0.5 mM AlF4- decreased force to 0.04 +/- 0.01 of maximum (+/- SEM, n = 3), and dichroism was 0.04 +/- 0.03 (+/- SEM, n = 3) of the value at pCa 9.2 and unchanged relative to the corresponding normalized value at pCa 4.0 (0.11 +/- 0.05, +/- SEM; n = 3). Inhibition of force with AlF4- also had no effect when sTnC structure was monitored by labeling with either 5-dimethylamino-1-napthalenylsulfonylaziridine (DANZ) or 4-(N-(iodoacetoxy)ethyl-N-methyl)amino-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD). Increasing sarcomere length from 2.5 to 3.6 microm caused force (pCa 4.0) to decrease, but had no effect on dichroism. In contrast, rigor cross-bridge attachment caused dichroism at pCa 9.2 to decrease to 0.56 +/- 0.03 (+/- SEM, n = 5) of the value at pCa 9. 2, and force was 0.51 +/- 0.04 (+/- SEM, n = 6) of pCa 4.0 control. At pCa 4.0 in rigor, dichroism decreased further to 0.19 +/- 0.03 (+/- SEM, n = 6), slightly above the pCa 4.0 control level; force was 0.66 +/- 0.04 of pCa 4.0 control. These results indicate that cross-bridge binding in the rigor state alters sTnC structure, whereas cycling cross-bridges have little influence at either submaximum or maximum activating [Ca2+].  (+info)

The effect of thin filament activation on the attachment of weak binding cross-bridges: A two-dimensional x-ray diffraction study on single muscle fibers. (6/4591)

To study possible structural changes in weak cross-bridge attachment to actin upon activation of the thin filament, two-dimensional (2D) x-ray diffraction patterns of skinned fibers from rabbit psoas muscle were recorded at low and high calcium concentration in the presence of saturating concentrations of MgATPgammaS, a nucleotide analog for weak binding states. We also studied 2D x-ray diffraction patterns recorded under relaxing conditions at an ionic strength above and below 50 mM, because it had been proposed from solution studies that reducing ionic strength below 50 mM also induces activation of the thin filament. For this project a novel preparation had to be established that allows recording of 2D x-ray diffraction patterns from single muscle fibers instead of natural fiber bundles. This was required to minimize substrate depletion or product accumulation within the fibers. When the calcium concentration was raised, the diffraction patterns recorded with MgATPgammaS revealed small changes in meridional reflections and layer line intensities that could be attributed in part to the effects of calcium binding to the thin filament (increase in I380, decrease in first actin layer line intensity, increase in I59) and in part to small structural changes of weakly attached cross-bridges (e.g., increase in I143 and I72). Calcium-induced small-scale structural rearrangements of cross-bridges weakly attached to actin in the presence of MgATPgammaS are consistent with our previous observation of reduced rate constants for attachment and detachment of cross-bridges with MgATPgammaS at high calcium. Yet, no evidence was found that weakly attached cross-bridges change their mode of attachment toward a stereospecific conformation when the actin filament is activated by adding calcium. Similarly, reducing ionic strength to less than 50 mM does not induce a transition from nonstereospecific to stereospecific attachment.  (+info)

Model-independent analysis of the orientation of fluorescent probes with restricted mobility in muscle fibers. (7/4591)

The orientation of proteins in ordered biological samples can be investigated using steady-state polarized fluorescence from probes conjugated to the protein. A general limitation of this approach is that the probes typically exhibit rapid orientational motion ("wobble") with respect to the protein backbone. Here we present a method for characterizing the extent of this wobble and for removing its effects from the available information about the static orientational distribution of the probes. The analysis depends on four assumptions: 1) the probe wobble is fast compared with the nanosecond time scale of its excited-state decay; 2) the orientational distributions of the absorption and emission transition dipole moments are cylindrically symmetrical about a common axis c fixed in the protein; 3) protein motions are negligible during the excited-state decay; 4) the distribution of c is cylindrically symmetrical about the director of the experimental sample. In a muscle fiber, the director is the fiber axis, F. All of the information on the orientational order of the probe that is available from measurements of linearly polarized fluorescence is contained in five independent polarized fluorescence intensities measured with excitation and emission polarizers parallel or perpendicular to F and with the propagation axis of the detected fluorescence parallel or perpendicular to that of the excitation. The analysis then yields the average second-rank and fourth-rank order parameters ( and ) of the angular distribution of c relative to F, and and , the average second-rank order parameters of the angular distribution for wobble of the absorption and emission transition dipole moments relative to c. The method can also be applied to other cylindrically ordered systems such as oriented lipid bilayer membranes and to processes slower than fluorescence that may be observed using longer-lived optically excited states.  (+info)

A repetitive mode of activation of discrete Ca2+ release events (Ca2+ sparks) in frog skeletal muscle fibres. (8/4591)

1. Ca2+ release events (Ca2+ 'sparks'), which are believed to arise from the opening of a sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release channel or a small cluster of such channels that act as a release unit, have been measured in single, frog (Rana pipiens) skeletal muscle fibres. 2. Under conditions of extremely low rates of occurrence of Ca2+ sparks we observed, within individual identified triads, repetitive Ca2+ release events which occurred at a frequency more than 100-fold greater than the prevailing average event rate. Repetitive sparks were recorded during voltage-clamp test depolarizations after a brief (0.3-2 s) repriming interval in fibres held at 0 mV and in chronically depolarized, 'notched' fibres. 3. These repetitive events are likely to arise from the re-opening of the same SR Ca2+ release channel or release unit operating in a repetitive gating mode ('rep-mode'), rather than from the random activation of multiple, independent channels or release units within a triad. A train of rep-mode events thus represents a series of Ca2+ sparks arising from a single location within the fibre. Rep-mode events are activated among different triads in a random manner after brief repriming. The frequency of repetitive events among all identified events during voltage-clamp depolarization to 0 mV after brief repriming was 3.9 +/- 1.3 %. The occurrence of repetitive events was not related to exposure of the fibre to laser illumination. 4. The events observed within a rep-mode train exhibited a relatively uniform amplitude. Analysis of intervals between identified events in triads exhibiting rep-mode trains indicated similar variations of fluorescence as in neighbouring, quiescent triads, suggesting there was not a significant number of small, unidentified events at the triads exhibiting rep-mode activity. 5. The distribution of rep-mode interspark intervals exhibited a paucity of events at short intervals, consistent with the need for recovery from inactivation before activation of the next event in a repetitive train. The mean interspark interval of repetitive sparks during voltage-clamp depolarizations was 88 +/- 5 ms, and was independent of membrane potential. 6. The individual Ca2+ sparks within a rep-mode train were similar in average amplitude and spatiotemporal extent to singly occurring sparks, suggesting a common mechanism for termination of the channel opening(s) underlying both types of events. The average properties of the sparks did not vary during a train. The relative amplitude of a spark within a rep-mode was not correlated with its rise time. 7. Repetitive Ca2+ release events represent a mode of gating of SR Ca2+ release channels which may be significant during long depolarizations and which may be influenced by the biochemical state of the SR ryanodine receptor Ca2+ release channels.  (+info)

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The flexor digitorum brevis muscle is located in the foot. Its precise location is within the sole of the foot, directly above the plantar aponeurosis, which supports the arch of the foot.
Although EMG normalization influences the distribution of simulated muscle force, we are confident that our normalization method did not compromise the results of this study. We normalized subjects filtered EMG to the maximum value observed for each muscle over all gait speeds. This normalization method will cause the estimated excitation to be over-estimated if the muscle was not maximally excited during any of the trials. The impact of such an error on the muscle fiber length and velocity depends on muscle-tendon compliance. In muscles where the ratio of tendon slack length to optimal fiber length is less than two (vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, semitendinosus, gluteus maximus and gluteus medius), fiber lengths and velocities are not sensitive to excitation level [see figs 4 and 6 of Arnold and Delp (Arnold and Delp, 2011)]. Gastrocnemius medialis, gastrocnemius lateralis and soleus have the highest muscle-tendon compliance in our study; however, it is reasonable to expect that soleus and ...
The nuclear export of Foxo can be inhibited by LMB (Fig. 11), which binds to and thus removes the availability of CRM1 for nuclear export. In the presence of a fully blocking concentration of LMB, any Foxo that enters the nucleus is unable to leave and becomes trapped in the nucleus. Inhibition of nuclear export via LMB thus provides a powerful tool for measuring the rate of unidirectional nuclear influx and for calculating its rate constant of cytoplasmic efflux. The change in the rate constant for unidirectional efflux out of the cytoplasm due to treatment with phosphorylation modulators demonstrates the importance of cytoplasmic phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of Foxo1 in regulation of its rate of cytoplasmic efflux (Figs. 6, 9, and 10). Furthermore, the increase in the rate of nuclear influx that resulted from staurosporine addition in the presence of LMB (Fig. 9A) indicates that the nuclear import machinery is not saturated at the level of expression of Foxo1-GFP employed under our ...
Model 1 differs in several ways from most previously published spark models. The differences include: (a) the value assumed for [Ca2+]R; (b) the particular reaction chosen for the SR Ca2+ pump; (c) the inclusion of ATP as an endogenous Ca2+ buffer; and (d) the inclusion of a binding reaction between fluo-3 and myoplasmic protein. To evaluate the effect of these differences, the parameters of the model were modified as described in the following paragraphs. In each case, the amplitude of the Ca2+ flux at the source was readjusted so that the mean amplitude of the larger simulated noisy sparks matched that of the measurements. Table IV, columns 4-7 give the morphological parameters obtained in the simulations after these modifications.. The first modification was to increase the value of [Ca2+]R from 50 to 100 nM. The main effect of this change is to increase resting fluorescence (F) by the factor 1.73. The fractional increase in F is smaller than that in [Ca2+]R because the fluorescence of ...
When the contractile properties of single muscle fibres are studied, force is typically normalized by fibre cross-sectional area and expressed as specific force. We studied a set of 2725 chemically skinned human single muscle fibres from 119 healthy adults to determine whether specific force is the optimal way to express the relationship between single-fibre force and size. A linear mixed effects model was used to estimate the slope and slope variability among individuals of log-log plots of force and diameter. For type I fibres, the slope estimate was 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.36-1.62), and for type IIa fibres it was 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.77-1.11), indicating that force is proportional to fibre diameter, rather than to cross-sectional area. If force were proportional to cross-sectional area, the slope estimate would be 2.0. In future studies using the chemically skinned single fibre preparation, force may be normalized to fibre diameter rather than cross-sectional area. We ...
We tested the proposition that muscle cell types have different contents of phosphocreatine (PCr), ATP, and Pi by 31P NMR spectroscopy and HPLC analyses of adult rat and mouse muscles containing various volume fractions of different fiber types. There was a 2-fold difference in the PCr content between muscles with a high volume fraction of fiber types 1 and 2x versus those with fast-twitch (types 2a and 2b) fiber types. Pi content was low, and PCr and ATP contents were high in muscles with large contents of type 2b and 2a fibers; the reverse was true in muscles with a large volume fraction of type 1 and 2x fibers. There is a large range in the Pi/PCr ratios in normal resting muscles, from less than 0.05 in type 2 to 0.51 in type 1 fibers, depending upon the distribution of their component fiber types. In all muscles, the peak area resulting from the beta phosphate of ATP constituted approximately 13% of the sum of all peak areas observable in the 31P spectrum. Fiber types 2a and 2b were not ...
The muscle growth that occurs after birth is a result of the enlargement of these existing muscle fibers. The mature muscle fibers have a few myoblasts, which remain as satellite cells. These myoblasts retain the capacity to join with one another or with damaged muscle fibers in order to regenerate these muscle fibers. John Centore2 Dr. Jain Anatomy & Physiology The many nuclei of skeletal muscle fiber are located underneath the sarcolemma, which is the fibers plasma membrane.. Thousands of invaginations of the sarcolemma, which are called T Tubules, Tunnel from the surface to the center of the muscle fiber. These T Tubules are open to the outside of the fiber and are filled with extra-cellular fluid. Muscle action potentials propagate along the sarcolemma and through the T tubules and quickly spread through the muscle fiber. This process ensures that all parts of the muscle fiber become excited by an action potential virtually simultaneously. The sarcoplasm is located inside the ...
Mutungi, GM and Ranatunga, KW (1998) Effects of reducing sarcomere length on twitch contraction in mammalian (rat) muscle fibres. The Journal of Physiology, 511.P. pp. 155-156. ISSN 1469-7793 Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
C2 skeletal muscle cells (myotubes) developing in culture, coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). Myogenesis is the formation of muscular tissue, especially in embryonic development. Muscle fibres form from the fusion of myoblasts into multi-nucleated fibres called myotubes. In the early development of an embryo these myoblasts will undergo multiple divisions. The second stage involves the alignment of the myoblasts into the myotubes. The third stage is the actual cell fusion of myotubes in to muscle fibres. Magnification: x240 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/0169
It is unclear whether accumulation of lactate in skeletal muscle fibers during intense activity contributes to muscle fatigue. Using mechanically skinned fibers from rat and toad muscle, we were able to examine the effect of l(+)-lactate on excitation-contraction coupling independently of other metabolic changes. We investigated the effects of lactate on the contractile apparatus, caffeine-induced ...
Mutungi, GM and Ranatunga, KW (1996) Characteristics of the short range elasticity (SRE) in mammalian (rat) muscle fibres. The Journal of Physiology, 493. p. 7. ISSN 1469-7793 Full text not available from this repository ...
Synonyms for muscle fiber in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for muscle fiber. 2 synonyms for muscle fiber: muscle cell, muscle fibre. What are synonyms for muscle fiber?
Main objective of this article is to define and discuss on Muscle Fibres. Here explain different muscle Muscle Fibres. Type I Muscle Fibres are those that are called the slow twitch or the sluggish oxidative fibers, which contain lots of myoglobin, mitochondria, and naturally, blood capillaries. These fibers have a
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The mean fibre area of the semitendinosus, diaphragm and pectoralis transversus muscles in differing types of horse and dog.: The mean fibre areas of samples fr
Initiated by neural impulses and subsequent calcium release, skeletal muscle fibers contract (actively generate force) as a result of repetitive power strokes of acto-myosin cross-bridges. The energy required for performing these cross-bridge cycles is provided by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The reaction products, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi), are then used-among other reactants, such as creatine phosphate-to refuel the ATP energy storage. However, similar to yeasts that perish at the hands of their own waste, the hydrolysis reaction products diminish the chemical potential of ATP and thus inhibit the muscles force generation as their concentration rises. We suggest to use the term
The number of muscle fibers in a motor unit varies from effector to effector. In the hand and eye, fewer than 100 muscle fibers occupy a motor unit; in the lower leg, a single motor unit may contain as many as 1,000 muscle fibers (Buchthal & Schmalbruch, 1980).. ...
D. Rotator Cuff. V Exercise. A. aerobic. 1. increased endurance. B. resistance or isometric (vs. isotonic). 1. increased muscle size. a. cause of increased size When you finish this unit, you should be able to: - explain the basic characteristics of all muscle tissue. - define acetylcholine, motor end plate, neuromuscular junction. - draw a neuromuscular junction and explain the sequence of events occurring there. - explain how a skeletal muscle fiber knows when to contract. - draw the structure of a skeletal muscle fiber labeling myofibril, sarcomere, myofilament, actin, myosin, A-band, I-band, Z-line. - explain HOW a single muscle fiber manages to shorten its length. - explain the Sliding Filament Theory of Contraction - describe the structure of a whole skeletal muscle (the organ) including the connective tissue wrappings. - list the steps between exciting a muscle fiber and the muscle moving a bone. - explain how one muscle can perform different strengths of contraction - list the causes ...
An interactive quiz about the general anatomy of skeletal muscle fibers, featuring illustrations-based multiple choice questions. Click and start learning now!
Collection of computational implementations and examples for the numerical construction of skeletal muscle fiber maps based on a Laplacian field approach.
Bajusz, E, red Skeletal muscle fibers. Relative independence of neural control. (1964). Subject Strain Bibliography 1964. 52 ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The current hypothesis of contraction of skeletal muscle is that the binding of a fuel molecule (ATP) to an active site of myosin induces a local conformational change in the catalytic domain --an enzymatically active part of a molecule. This change is mechanically amplified and leads to a major rotation of the regulatory domain -- a long part at the end of myosin that is enzymatically inert. The rotation of the regulatory domain results in the generation of force and movement. The rotation is coupled to the chemical events occurring at the active site of myosin. The aim of this proposal is to test this hypothesis in a single cross-bridge of contracting muscle fiber. A confocal microscope is modified to allow measurements from a small population (approximately 10) of cross-bridges. The rotation of the regulatory domain and the enzymatic activity are measured simultaneously. The rotation is studied by measuring the anisotropy of fluorescence of probes placed ...
Muscle fibers With HIT training we are specifically trying to stimulate a certain type of muscle fiber. We have different muscle fibers in the body
After you have stopped exercising for just a few weeks, your muscles are smaller and weaker and cannot remove as much sugar from your bloodstream when blood sugar levels rise too high. To regain your muscle size and strength, you need to exercise intensely enough to damage the muscle fibers so they will be stronger when they heal. When you use your muscles, you contract the muscle and shorten its fibers. However, you do not contract a muscle fiber equally throughout its length. Muscle fibers are made up of blocks, called sarcomeres, touching end to end to form the long stringy muscle fiber. Each block touches the next block at a point called the Z-line. You have to damage the Z-line to make a muscle grow larger and stronger. If you pedal a bicycle with great pressure or run very fast, you can damage the muscle fibers at the Z-lines, but most people do not run or cycle hard enough to do this. Adding weight training to the recovery program will help to regain the lost strength and muscle size. See ...
A major finding from this study was the shift to higher EMG frequencies at the faster muscle fascicle strain rates for the MG (figure 7). Many studies quantify EMG frequencies by the mean or median frequency of the EMG power spectra (Roy et al. 1986; Solomonow et al. 1990; Kupa et al. 1995; De Luca 1997). However, in the current study, the shift in frequency does not merely represent an increase in the mean frequency of the EMG-intensity spectrum but more specifically occurs as a decrease in the low-frequency (less than 100 Hz) components and an increase in the high-frequency (greater than 100 Hz) components of the spectra (Wakeling & Rozitis 2004). Furthermore, the results showed that shifts in frequency occurred even when the total EMG-intensity remained the same and the statistical analysis showed that the strain rate-dependent shifts in frequency occurred independently from changes in the locomotor load, measured as crank torque and the muscle fascicle strain.. There are many factors that ...
They are also self-healing(more later)! The mouse muscle fiber grew from progenitor satellite cells which exist in mature living muscle. The trick, according to the Duke researchers, required finding the perfect environment for muscle growth for the satellite cells. Specifically they needed well-developed contractile muscle fibers included in the mix with the immature cells. Once the cells grew into mature fibers themselves, they were grafted into mice where the new muscle adapted function and strength. As for self-healing, an ex vivo study in which new-grown fibers were damaged by toxin, they recovered contractile function after being re-exposed to the milieu of immature cells.. ...
Health,A protein can change easily worn muscle fibres into energy-producing m...There are two types of muscle fibre. Type II is the easily-fatigue...The research isnt meant for a quick-fix to replace a commitment t......,Protein,can,change,worn,muscle,fibres,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
As you know, movement is controlled by the brain. The first step towards muscular contraction is a signal sent by the brain to your muscles telling them to contract. You might say that the Mind-Muscle Connection (MMC) occurs at something called the neuromuscular junction. This is where the mind meets the body. The brain releases a chemical neurotransmitter called Acetylcholine to communicate with muscles in the body.. The more you can improve this communication, the more muscle fibers you will recruit. A single muscle head is made up of many individual muscle fibers. By improving your MMC you are actually increasing the number of muscle fibers being recruited when you perform a lift. This results in a better quality muscle contraction and better workout.. When youre in the middle of a set, whats going through your mind? Are you simply trying to force out as many reps as you can? If this is you, Ive got some tips below to help you develop your MMC and maximize your gains.. You should be ...
For a physiologically realistic joint range of motion and therefore range of muscle fiber lengths, only part of the whole muscle force-length curve can be used in vivo; that is, only a section of the force-length curve is ...
Two criteria to consider when classifying the types of muscle fibers are how fast some fibers contract relative to others, and how fibers produce ATP. U...
The current study explored whether the marked hypertrophic response noted with a short-term unilateral concurrent exercise paradigm was associated with more prominent changes in myonuclei accretion, ribosome biogenesis and capillarization compared to resistance exercise alone (RE). Ten men (age 25±4yr) performed aerobic and resistance exercise (AE+RE) for one leg, while the other leg did RE. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after 5 weeks of training and subjected to fiber-type specific immunohistochemical analysis, and quantification of total RNA content and mRNA/rRNA transcript abundance. Type-II fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) increased with both AE+RE (22%) and RE (16%), while type-I fiber CSA increased mainly with AE+RE (16%). The change-score tended to differ between legs for type-I CSA (P=0.099), and the increase in smallest fiber diameter was greater in AE+RE than RE (P=0.029). The number of nuclei per fiber increased after AE+RE in both fiber types, and this increase was ...
We all have our reasons for going to the gym. And muscle hypertrophy, or growth, is one of the main ones. To build lean, dense muscle, you must progressively overload your muscles to enhance muscle fiber recruitment. How do you do that?
Even though the absolute poundage is greater on a machine, the actual overload on the muscle is greater with free weights because youre responsible for balancing and stabilizing all the weight yourself. This, along with an increased range of motion, is why free weights are better for more muscle fiber recruitment and maximum stimulation ...
Hello, I was hopeful you could provide assistance with my analysis. At the bottom of this description, you will find a link to the two images discussed below. The first image is a cross-section of muscle fibers w…
Overall strength is about a lot more than just muscle size and makeup. It is mostly about muscle recruitment. All of us have the opportunity to be about 5 times stronger than we think we are, because our brains randomly fire about 20% or less of our available muscle fibers. They do this to limit joint damage and leverage and maximize resources of glucose and creatine in the muscle fiber and potassium and calcium in the blood that fuel the nerve processes. The super human strength shown sometimes is a result of fight or flight overriding the normal random firing. Old grandmas are stronger than young bodybuilders when they fire 100% of their fibers, but they also risk grave injury ...
Martin, H. Newell The Human Body: A Text-book of Anatomy, Physiology and Hygiene (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1900) 62. ...
Genetics explain a lot of the differences in strength and muscularity between person to person. Specifically, the size of your frame, how many muscle fibers youre born with, and how well you respond to training essentially separate you from your gym buddy or someone who can squat 1,000 pounds.
Rebounding improves coordination between the propreoceptors in the joints, the transmission of nerve impulses to and from the brain, transmission of nerve impulses and responsiveness of the muscle fibers. ...
This study assessed age and sex effects on muscle fibre adaptations to heavy-resistance strength training (ST). Twenty-two young men and women (20-30 years old) and 18 older men and women (65-75 years old) completed 9 weeks of heavy-resistance knee extension exercises with the dominant leg 3 days week−1; the non-dominant leg served as a within-subject, untrained control. Bilateral vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained before and after ST for analysis of type I, IIa and IIx muscle fibre cross-sectional area (CSA) and fibre type distribution. One-repetition maximum (1-RM) strength was also assessed before and after ST. ST resulted in increased CSA of type I, IIa and IIx muscle fibres in the trained leg of young men, type I and IIa fibres in young women, type IIa fibres in older men, and type IIx fibres in older women (all P , 0.05). Analysis of fibre type distribution revealed a significant increase in the percentage of type I fibres (P , 0.05) along with a decrease in type IIx fibres ...
Muscle, motor unit and muscle fibre type-specific differences in force-generating capacity have been investigated for many years, but there is still no consensus regarding specific differences between slow- and fast-twitch muscles, motor units or muscle fibres. This is probably related to a number of different confounding factors disguising the function of the molecular motor protein myosin. We have therefore studied the force-generating capacity of specific myosin isoforms or combination of isoforms extracted from short single human muscle fibre segments in a modified single fibre myosin in vitro motility assay, in which an internal load (actin-binding protein) was added in different concentrations to evaluate the force-generating capacity. The force indices were the x-axis intercept and the slope of the relationship between the fraction of moving filaments and the α-actinin concentration. The force-generating capacity of the β/slow myosin isoform (type I) was weaker (P , 0.05) than the fast ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human skeletal muscle fibre contractile properties and proteomic profile. T2 - Adaptations to 3 weeks of unilateral lower limb suspension and active recovery. AU - Brocca, Lorenza. AU - Longa, Emanuela. AU - Cannavino, Jessica. AU - Seynnes, Olivier. AU - de Vito, Giuseppe. AU - Mcphee, Jamie. AU - Narici, Marco. AU - Pellegrino, Maria Antonietta. AU - Bottinelli, Roberto. PY - 2015/12/15. Y1 - 2015/12/15. N2 - Following disuse, muscle fibre function goes through adaptations such as a loss of specific force (PO/CSA) and an increase in unloaded shortening velocity, which could be a result of both quantitative changes (i.e. atrophy) and qualitative changes in protein pattern. The underlying mechanisms remain to be clarified. In addition, little is known about the recovery of muscle mass and strength following disuse. In the present study, we report an extensive dataset describing, in detail,the functional and protein content adaptations of skeletal muscle in response to both disuse ...
Current beef production has to meet the growing consumers demands for high quality beef, while concurrently increasing the resource efficiency. Meat quality is influenced by several factors. Milićević et al [1] found that the fatty acid profiles could affect the overall acceptability of meat; as well as influence several meat quality parameters, such as softness, hardness, oxidation stability, color and flavor. In addition, muscle fiber development is also known to have an important impact on the meat quality. Although the total number of skeletal muscle fibers is fixed in animals before birth [2], the composition of muscle fiber types varies during the life of an animal to adapt to different physiological requirements [3]. The contractile properties depend primarily on myosin heavy-chain isoforms (MyHCs) present within the thick filaments. In most mature mammalian skeletal striated muscles, four types of MyHC are expressed: I, IIa, IIx, and IIb [4]. The muscle fiber composition could ...
Dystrophin, the protein product of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene locus, is expressed on the muscle fiber surface. One key to further understanding of the cellular function of dystrophin would be extended knowledge about its subcellular organization. We have shown that dystrophin molecules are not uniformly distributed over the humen, rat, and mouse skeletal muscle fiber surface using three independent methods. Incubation of single-teased muscle fibers with antibodies to dystrophin revealed a network of denser transversal rings (costameres) and finer longitudinal interconnections. Double staining of longitudinal semithin cryosections for dystrophin and alpha-actinin showed spatial juxtaposition of the costameres to the Z bands. Where peripheral myonuclei precluded direct contact of dystrophin to the Z bands the organization of dystrophin was altered into lacunae harboring the myonucleus. These lacunae were surrounded by a dystrophin ring and covered by a more uniform dystrophin veil. ...
To date it is unclear whether changes in lower limb muscle fibre type distribution in COPD are related to disease severity. The most prominent marker of disease severity is the FEV135 but, surprisingly, most of the currently reviewed papers did not mention a relation between FEV1 and fibre type proportion. In the current review all the group data of these individual studies were pooled, and when the FEV1 was plotted against fibre type I proportion it became clear that the fibre type I proportion in the vastus lateralis of patients with COPD decreases with increasing disease severity. This relation also exists for the FEV1 corrected for the FVC. The currently observed positive relation between BMI and fibre type I proportion further underlines the fact that the proportion of fibre type I declines with increasing disease severity, considering low BMI as an important marker of systemic disease severity.36 For fibre type II these relations are inverse, by the definition of fibre type proportions. ...
Skeletal muscle mass and strength are crucial determinants of health. Muscle mass loss is associated with weakness, fatigue, and insulin resistance. In fact, it is predicted that controlling muscle atrophy can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with diseases such as cancer cachexia and sarcopenia. We analyzed gene expression data from muscle of mice or human patients with diverse muscle pathologies and identified LMCD1 as a gene strongly associated with skeletal muscle function. We transiently expressed or silenced LMCD1 in mouse gastrocnemius muscle or in mouse primary muscle cells and determined muscle/cell size, targeted gene expression, kinase activity with kinase arrays, protein immunoblotting, and protein synthesis levels. To evaluate force, calcium handling, and fatigue, we transduced the flexor digitorum brevis muscle with a LMCD1-expressing adenovirus and measured specific force and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release in individual fibers. Finally, to explore the relationship between
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of intermittent pressure imitating rolling manipulation on calcium ion homeostasis in human skeletal muscle cells. AU - Zhang, Hong. AU - Liu, Howe. AU - Lin, Qing. AU - Zhang, Guohui. AU - Mason, David C.. PY - 2016/8/26. Y1 - 2016/8/26. N2 - Background: Homeostasis imbalance of intracellular Ca2+ is one of the key pathophysiological factors in skeletal muscle injuries. Such imbalance can cause significant change in the metabolism of Ca2+-related biomarkers in skeletal muscle, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and creatine kinase (CK). Measurements of these biomarkers can be used to evaluate the degree of damage to human skeletal muscle cells (HSKMCs) injury. Rolling manipulation is the most popular myofascial release technique in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The mechanism of how this technique works in ameliorating muscle injury is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the possible Ca2+ mediated effects of intermittent pressure imitating ...
In skeletal muscle, an accumulation of lipid droplets (LDs) in the subsarcolemmal space is associated with insulin resistance, but the underlying mechanism is not clear. We aimed to investigate how the size, number and location of LDs are associated with insulin sensitivity and muscle fiber types, and are regulated by aerobic training and treatment with an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) in healthy young untrained males. LD analyses were performed by quantitative transmission electron microscopy and insulin sensitivity was assessed by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. At baseline, we found that only the diameter (and not the number) of individual subsarcolemmal LDs was negatively associated with insulin sensitivity (R2 = 0.20, P = 0.03, n = 29). Despite 34% (P = 0.004) fewer LDs, the diameter of individual subsarcolemmal LDs was 20% (P = 0.0004) larger in type 2 fibers than in type 1 fibers. Furthermore, aerobic training decreased the size of subsarcolemmal LDs in the type 2fibers, and ...
In skeletal muscle, an accumulation of lipid droplets (LDs) in the subsarcolemmal space is associated with insulin resistance, but the underlying mechanism is not clear. We aimed to investigate how the size, number and location of LDs are associated with insulin sensitivity and muscle fiber types, and are regulated by aerobic training and treatment with an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) in healthy young untrained males. LD analyses were performed by quantitative transmission electron microscopy and insulin sensitivity was assessed by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. At baseline, we found that only the diameter (and not the number) of individual subsarcolemmal LDs was negatively associated with insulin sensitivity (R2 = 0.20, P = 0.03, n = 29). Despite 34% (P = 0.004) fewer LDs, the diameter of individual subsarcolemmal LDs was 20% (P = 0.0004) larger in type 2 fibers than in type 1 fibers. Furthermore, aerobic training decreased the size of subsarcolemmal LDs in the type 2fibers, and ...
Diaphragm muscle fibers identified according to fiber type (based on myosin heavy chain isoform expression) Representative diaphragm muscle cross-sections with type I fibers in blue, type IIa fibers in purple, and type IIx or type IIb fibers both in black. Scale bar is 50 μm. Individual muscle fibers are automatically thresholded and separated for analysis. Greising SM, et al. Analysis of muscle fiber clustering in the diaphragm muscle of sarcopenic mice. Muscle & Nerve. 2015;52:76.. ...
This is, to our knowledge, the first report describing active canonical Wnt together with YAP/Taz/TEAD signaling in adult skeletal muscle fibers. Using Axin2-lacZ reporter mice, we identified active canonical Wnt signaling in type II myofibers (Fig. 2) (Lustig et al., 2002). This mouse model is well established for tracing active canonical Wnt signaling since Axin2 is a direct target of β-catenin-mediated gene expression (Barolo, 2006). In fact, heterozygous Axin2-lacZ mice, without any known signs of haploinsufficiency, express muscular β-gal in type II muscle fibers, suggesting that active canonical Wnt signaling is present physiologically in adult muscle fibers (Fig. 2). In homozygous Axin2-lacZ mice, not only is the doubled lacZ gene dosage responsible for elevated Axin2-lacZ reporter expression, but also the derepression of canonical Wnt signaling, since Axin2 itself is a negative regulator and target of canonical Wnt signaling and therefore participates in a negative-feedback loop. In ...
Read Sodium Channel NaV1.5 Expression is Enhanced in Cultured Adult Rat Skeletal Muscle Fibers, The Journal of Membrane Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The endurance exercise-training program induced substantial improvements in peak exercise capacity and work capacity in the study population at 3 and 12 months of training compared with control patients. The hypothesis that older patients condition predominantly by noncardiac adaptations is supported by the fact that the increases in peak aerobic exercise capacity were mediated primarily by an increase in peak exercise AVo2 Diff with no measurable increase in peak exercise cardiac output. The increase in peak AVo2 Diff was associated with adaptations of skeletal muscle fiber size, capillarity, and SDH activity with only subtle alterations in cardiac performance and no discernible alterations of peripheral arterial blood flow. The skeletal muscle adaptations consisted of an increased oxidative enzyme activity and an increased capillary density after 3 months of conditioning and an increased muscle fiber cross-sectional area after 12 months of conditioning. However, although directional changes of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The membrane potential of rat diaphragm muscle fibres and the effect of denerevation. AU - Bray, JJ. AU - Hawken, Michael. AU - Hubbard, JI. AU - Pockett, S. AU - Wilson, L. PY - 1976. Y1 - 1976. M3 - Article. VL - 255. SP - 651. EP - 667. JO - Journal of Physiology. JF - Journal of Physiology. SN - 0022-3751. ER - ...
Individual fibres were mounted between a force transducer and servomotor, and exposed to activating calcium solutions, as described previously [9]. Maximal tension (i.e. maximal force normalised to muscle fibre cross-sectional area (CSA)) was significantly lower in fast-twitch muscle fibres of PAH patients (Npatients=11, nfibres=112) than in control subjects (Npatients=8, nfibres=62) (mean±sem 192±5 versus 226±8 mN·mm−2, p,0.005; fig. 1b). Based on our permeabilised muscle fibre measurements, we observed no significant difference in fast-twitch muscle fibre CSA between groups (PAH versus control: 3387±280 versus 3307±242 µm2; p=0.84).. In muscle fibres, force is generated by the cyclic interaction between myosin-based cross-bridges and actin. Thus, to determine the underlying cause of the reduction in maximal tension, we studied cross-bridge cycling kinetics. In permeabilised muscle fibres, active force generation is determined by: 1) the fraction of strongly bound cross-bridges; 2) the ...
The expression of receptors and the mitogenic response to PDGF by C2 myoblasts, derived from adult mouse skeletal muscle, was investigated. Employing 125I-PDGF binding assays, we showed that the cells exhibit high level binding of PDGF-BB (approximately 165 x 10(3) molecules/cell at saturation) and much lower binding of the PDGF-AA and PDGF-AB (6-12 x 10(3) molecules/cell at saturation). This indicates that the C2 myoblasts express high levels of PDGF receptor beta-subunits and low levels of alpha-subunits. PDGF-BB enhances the proliferation of C2 cells maintained in 2% FCS by about fivefold. PDGF-AB had a moderate effect on cell proliferation (less than twofold) and PDGF-AA had no effect. Inverse effects of PDGF isoforms on the frequency of differentiated myoblasts were observed; the frequency of myosin-positive cells was reduced in the presence of PDGF-BB while PDGF-AA and PDGF-AB had no effect. PDGF may thus act to increase the number of myoblasts that participate in muscle regeneration ...
Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are highly concentrated in the postsynaptic membrane at the neuromuscular junction. To investigate mechanisms that lead to the formation or maintenance of this synaptic specialization, we generated transgenic mice in which regulatory elements from the AChR alpha or epsilon-subunit genes are linked to a gene for a reporter protein that is targeted to the nucleus (nlacZ). Both transgenes were selectively expressed and developmentally regulated in muscle; nuclei in both extrafusal (ordinary) and intrafusal (spindle) muscle fibers were labeled. Within individual muscle fibers from epsilon-nlacZ mice, nuclei near synaptic sites were nlacZ-positive, whereas extrasynaptic nuclei were nlacZ-negative. In contrast, nlacZ was expressed in both synaptic and extrasynaptic nuclei when under the control of regulatory elements from the AChR alpha-subunit gene; however, synaptic nuclei were somewhat more intensely stained than extrasynaptic nuclei in a minority of muscle fibers ...
Our results highlight the importance of using subject-specific data for accurate modelling and demonstrate the value of conducting comprehensive sensitivity analyses to assess the effects of uncertainties and errors in the choice of input variables.. The degree to which the model predictions match experimental data is highly dependent on how the muscles are represented. Our sensitivity analyses show that changing pennation angles has a much smaller effect on predicted bite force magnitudes than does changing muscle fibre length or intrinsic strength (figure 5a-c). This is to be expected because the latter variables directly impact on maximum muscle force. Altering the orientation of the modelled muscle strands, and thus the muscle force vectors also affects predicted bite force magnitudes (figure 5d). In our model, muscle wrapping has a greater effect than extreme values of pennation angle but this is less than the effect of using extreme values of muscle fibre length.. Bite force predictions ...
Regenerative coordination and remodeling of the intramuscular motoneuron network and neuromuscular connections are critical for restoring skeletal muscle function and physiological properties. The regulatory mechanisms of such coordination remain unclear, although both attractive and repulsive axon guidance molecules may be involved in the signaling pathway. Here we show that expression of a neural secreted chemorepellent semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) is remarkably upregulated in satellite cells of resident myogenic stem cells that are positioned beneath the basal lamina of mature muscle fibers, when treated with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), established as an essential cue in muscle fiber growth and regeneration. When satellite cells were treated with HGF in primary cultures of cells or muscle fibers, Sema3A message and protein were upregulated as revealed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunochemical studies. Other growth factors had no inductive effect except for a slight ...
1. The effect of pH on excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle of the toad was examined using a skinned fibre preparation which gives ready access to the intracellular environment while still allowing stimulation of Ca2+ release by the normal voltage-sensor mechanism. 2. In each fibre, depolarization-induced responses (produced by changing the ions in the bathing solution) were examined first at pH 7.1, and then at another pH between 6.1 and 8.0. At all pH levels examined, the first depolarization elicited a large response which was slightly greater (pH 7.6 and 8.0) or smaller (pH 6.6 and 6.1) than that at pH 7.1. The size of the first depolarization-induced response varied with pH in almost exactly the same manner as did the maximum Ca(2+)-activated response. The duration of the depolarization-induced response at all other pH levels was longer than at pH 7.1. 3. Repeated depolarizations (30 s or more apart) produced similar responses at pH 7.1, but at all other pH levels examined the ...
This ability to stretch and still maintain contractility is important in organs like the intestines and urinary bladder. Muscle fibers have pointed ends and exhibit fusiform or spindle shape. One of the common examples of striated muscle is Bicep. 1. Their examples can be given as bicep muscles, tricep muscles, rectus muscles of abdomen, quadriceps, hamstring muscles of thigh and muscles of the shoulder girdle, etc. These muscles are found in the walls of the internal organs such … Find more Tamil words at! Its is defined as a bundle or band of fibrous tissue in animals that has the capability of producing movement by contraction and relaxation. Striated muscles are attached to the skeleton via tendons, but non-striated muscle does not have tendons, they are present in internal organs. Muscles that contain striated muscle fibers are called striated muscle and muscles that contain non-striated muscle fibers are called non-striated muscles. Striated Muscle: Non-Striated Muscle: ...
Types of Contraction. All types of strength are a result of individual muscle fibres contracting, a muscle fibre contracts fully or not at all, the number of muscle fibres that contract simultaneously define the amount of force a muscle can produce and whether that muscle can overcome, maintain, or slowly lower the load its working against.. If the force generated by the muscle fibres is greater than the load, then the entire muscle length will shorten and the load will move, this is called a Concentric Contraction.. When the load is greater than the force produced by the muscle fibres the muscle will lengthen, this is called an Eccentric Contraction, even though the muscle as a whole is lengthening, individual fibres are still contracting trying to resist the load.. Concentric/Eccentric contractions are collectively known as Dynamic contractions. When the force exerted by the fibres is equal to the load no movement takes place, this is called an Isometric Contraction. This of special interest ...
Definition of skeletal muscle cell in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is skeletal muscle cell? Meaning of skeletal muscle cell as a legal term. What does skeletal muscle cell mean in law?
Studying Rac1. The activation of Rac1 causes reorganization of cell components creating highways that allow other proteins such as glucose transport 4 or GLUT4 to relocate to the cell membrane and allow sugar from blood to enter skeletal muscle cells for processing. Consequently, Rac1 shows increased activity in response to insulin and exercise promoting the metabolism and storage of sugar in skeletal muscle. Harrison suspects that the dysfunction of Rac1 may play a large role in insulin resistance, and his lab is looking to better understand the dysfunction of skeletal muscle physiology that may contribute to insulin resistance. To study insulin resistance, Harrison is currently comparing Rac1 activity in skeletal muscle cells and skeletal muscle tissue of lean and obese mice. Learn more about Rac1, GO TO ARTICLE.. Harrison has always been drawn to human health, and is particularly intrigued by how adaptable the human body is. He completed his undergraduate degree and Masters in Exercise ...
Purinergic receptors are present in most tissues and thought to be involved in various signalling pathways, including neural signalling, cell metabolism and local regulation of the microcirculation in
The simplest automatic approach is to perform thresholding to segment the image into foreground and background regions, one corresponding to myofibres and the other representing background and connective tissue. The central step of such an approach is the selection of a threshold value to separate the two regions such that they are well represented. Although methods exist to estimate the threshold automatically [6], or manually [4], thresholding is an inefficient method for myofibre segmentation as the fibres cannot be split from the background, or from each other, using a single threshold value. As such, more advanced methods are needed to segment the myofibre regions.. These more advanced approaches can be broadly split into two categories: those that use edge detection to identify the perimysium or endomysium (the myofibre boundaries), and those that use deformable models to identify the myofibres. This dichotomy is by no means exclusive as many approaches will use methods from both of these ...
Nonspecific Muscle Fiber Atrophy Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Singleton Merten Syndrome. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reference values for vastus lateralis fiber type proportions and fiber size. AU - Gosker, H.R.. AU - Schols, A.M.. PY - 2013/9. Y1 - 2013/9. KW - OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY-DISEASE. KW - MUSCLE. KW - COPD. U2 - 10.1152/japplphysiol.00613.2013. DO - 10.1152/japplphysiol.00613.2013. M3 - Comment/Letter to the editor. VL - 115. SP - 771. JO - Journal of Applied Physiology. JF - Journal of Applied Physiology. SN - 8750-7587. IS - 5. ER - ...
Satellite cells are located near mature muscle fibers in mice and humans and stay in a dormant state until called upon for repair work. In earlier experiments, Rudnicki found that some satellite cells function as stem cells and maintain overall numbers of satellite cells. He distinguished these from other satellite cells, which are in various stages on the road to becoming muscle tissue.. In muscular dystrophy, satellite cells are believed to become depleted quickly because tissue damage places great demands on them for repairs. Enhancing their numbers could slow the process of muscle degeneration, even in the face of disease.. In muscle degenerative diseases, one of the big problems is thought to be that the muscles run out of repair cells, says Paul Muhlrad, a research program coordinator at MDA. Rudnickis laboratory has figured out the biochemical pathways the body uses to maintain the supply.. When the OHRI researchers injected genes for the WNT7a protein into muscle fibers in mice, ...
Muscle myoblast (primitive embryonic muscle cell) differentiating in to a skeletal muscle cell, coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). A myoblast is a type of stem cell that occurs in muscles. Skeletal muscle fibres are made when myoblasts fuse together. As a result muscle fibres have multiple nuclei. Magnification: x1,200 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/0165
Previous studies have shown that diabetes adversely affects breathing and respiratory functions. However, in the past, researchers have not differentiated diaphragm muscle cells and the muscle cells of limb skeletal muscle in their studies. Now, researchers from the University of Missouri have found that diaphragm muscle cells and other skeletal muscle cells behave differently - a finding that could influence future research on respiratory ailments associated with diabetes.
Background Age group\related sarcopenia is definitely accelerated by physical inactivity. II fibre CSA was significantly reduced SR compared with COM. Type II myonuclear domain was higher in SR?+?Ex lover compared with COM and SR. Pax7+ cells associated with type I and II fibres were reduced SR compared with SR?+?Ex lover. Type II PAX7+ cells were also lower in SR compared with COM with a similar trend for type I fibres. There were trends for a lower C:Fi in SR compared with SR?+?EX for both fibre types with no differences for each compared with COM. Conclusions Minimal LLRE during a period of decreased physical activity is associated with greater muscle fibre CSA, SC content, and capillarization. These results support the use of LLRE as an effective countermeasure to inactivity\induced alterations in muscle morphology with age. is equal to the number of capillaries and SF is the corresponding sharing factor. Statistics The primary comparison was identifying the difference between SR and ...
Skeletal muscle fibers can be broken down into three types. Type I (slow twitch), type IIa (fast twitch intermediate), and type IIx (fast twitch). Type I contract and relax slowly while producing low amounts of force. Type IIa contract and relax fast while producing high amounts of force. Finally type IIx contract and relax the fastest while being able to produce the highest amount of force. Type I fibers fatigue the slowest while type IIx fatigue the fastest.. ...
In this paper, we show for the first time cooperative, as well as unique, activities of the two Drosophila KASH proteins MSP-300 and Klar in promoting even spacing and anchoring of myonuclei in striated muscle fibers. A novel MSP-300 nuclear ring assembles and anchors the MTs to the nuclear envelope in a Klar- and MSP-300 KASH-dependent manner, mediating MT astral organization around each nucleus. We suggest that the astral MT associated with each myonucleus, forming a basic unit, which in the steady-state holds each nucleus in place. However, during muscle fiber growth, each unit might change its relative position as a result of MT growth so that the distance between the myonuclei is maintained. Anchoring of the myonuclei to the core acto-myosin fibrillar compartment is mediated exclusively by MSP-300, which maintains physical continuity between the nuclear ring and the Z-discs, presumably through dimerization of the spectrin repeats capable of forming filaments.. Recent results (Metzger et ...
The flexor digitorum muscle can cause sharp pain across the ball of the foot while walking and deep aching pain while resting. What are the pain and symptoms associated with the flexor digitorum brevis muscle? Pain in the ball of the foot just under the four small toes Pain is often described as a feeling…. Continue Reading... ...
The deep lateral muscle fibres of the trout (Salmo irideus) have a polyaxonal and distributed motor innervation. Electrical activity was investigated using intracellular microelectrodes under current clamp conditions. In high-potassium solutions, the resting membrane potential depended on the extern …
Mouse Skeletal Muscle Cells are isolated form normal mouse skeletal muscle tissue. T25 flasks is required for cell adhension to the culture vessels. Grow cells in ECM-coated culture vessels with 5% CO2. Each vial contains at least 1x10^6 cells per ml ...
Crdiac muscle (heart muscle) is involuntary striated muscle that is found in the walls and histological foundation of the heart, specifically the myocardium. Cardiac muscle is one of three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle. These three types of muscle all form in the process of myogenesis. The cells that constitute cardiac muscle, called cardiomyocytes or myocardiocytes, contain only three nuclei ...
Muscle weight, fiber number, and fiber type in skeletal muscle-specific Gdf11 mutant mice in a Mstn wild-type or background. (A) Weight of pectoralis, triceps,
The requirement for postnatal myogenesis in muscle growth, repair and regeneration, and basal muscle maintenance is evident from research in humans [8, 33, 34] and rodents [9-12, 35]. However, data on the regulation and dysregulation of postnatal myonuclear accretion is scarce due to the technical challenge to investigate and quantitate this process in vivo and in vitro. Although, myoblast-myotube fusion is frequently mentioned in literature, the majority of these in vitro studies actually refer to late myogenesis in progressively differentiating cultures. Certainly, these classical studies have provided invaluable insights in the regulation and dysregulation of myogenesis, however, their translatability to adult skeletal muscle maintenance can be challenged [5, 22-24].. In the current study, we developed an unbiased, high throughput, Cre/LoxP-based in vitro model system for semi-quantitative assessment of postnatal myonuclear accretion. This model builds on the broadly employed classical model ...
Much of the research into obesity and diabetes is carried out using transgenic animal models. FRAMEs experience and that of many others is that such animal models are of little use when trying to study human diseases and responses to potential therapies. The FRAME Alternatives Laboratory cultures primary human adipocytes and skeletal muscle myotubes to study the effects of increased fat and carbohydrate levels on the metabolism and gene expression of human fat and muscle tissue.. ...
Type IIB muscle fibers are fast twitch glycolytic and are the speed producers. Type IIA muscle fibers are fast twitch oxidative and are intermediate speed producers. Structured training has been proven to make our recruitment of muscle types more efficient. The recruitment of muscle types depends on our nervous systems ability to recruit motor units. The way to optimize motor unit recruitment with an overhead athlete is to provide a stable base for power. The amount or percentage of high twitch glycolytic fibers in any athlete is a product of genetics. We are born with the amount we have which is why everyone does not throw 100 mph. An efficient movement pattern developed over time allows the athlete to conserve energy and throw harder with less effort. Your maximum velocity depends on your mechanics and where in the throwing motion you apply speed. This is exactly what our program will accomplish. We will incorporate our knowledge of specificity of training to maximize your ability to ...
You get stronger. The individual muscle fibers become thicker with more myofibrils inside them. The number of muscle cells stays the same, contrary to popular belief that you grow more muscle fibers, this is not true.
IL-15 receptor α (IL-15Rα) is a component of the heterotrimeric plasma membrane receptor for the pleiotropic cytokine IL-15. However, IL-15Rα is not merely an IL-15 receptor subunit, as mice lacking either IL-15 or IL-15Rα have unique phenotypes. IL-15 and IL-15Rα have been implicated in muscle phenotypes, but a role in muscle physiology has not been defined. Here, we have shown that loss of IL-15Rα induces a functional oxidative shift in fast muscles, substantially increasing fatigue resistance and exercise capacity. IL-15Rα-knockout (IL-15Rα-KO) mice ran greater distances and had greater ambulatory activity than controls. Fast muscles displayed fatigue resistance and a slower contractile phenotype. The molecular signature of these muscles included altered markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and calcium homeostasis. Morphologically, fast muscles had a greater number of muscle fibers, smaller fiber areas, and a greater ratio of nuclei to fiber area. The alterations of physiological ...
Abstract We investigated the effects of PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α) overexpression on the oxidative capacity of human skeletal muscle cells ex vivo. PGC-1α overexpression increased the oxidation rate of palmitic acid and mRNA expression of genes regulating lipid metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis, and function in human myotubes. Basal and insulin-stimulated deoxyglucose uptake were decreased,…
Larsen, S, Kraunsøe, R, Gram, M, Gnaiger, E, Helge, jw, Dela, F. The best approach: Homogenization or manual permeabilization of human skeletal muscle fibers for respirometry? Anal Biochem 446: 64-68, 2014
The smallest contractile unit of muscle fiber is the sarcomere. Sarcomeres are stacked throughout muscle tissue. These units are so small that some muscle cells contain thousands of...
Its easy to get caught up in the hype of hot new products to stimulate muscle, not hit it from every angle possible. As you can see many muscle groups are recruited for this initial push or effort when you begin the rep. Not only will drinking more water cause your muscles to appear fuller in such a way that the body burns more calories than others. If you spend too much time in the gym, you will actually the muscle tissue, bulking it up and full body workout making the fibers larger and more defined. You should be eating anywhere from 5-7 meals per day, spaced every 2-3 hours wrong and he needed to train 5-6 days a week, and aim for more reps during his workout. Recently a client of mine informed me that someone in the gym stated that he was training all of total energy intake so that training intensity can be maintained.. This particular person had been making great progress on his current program, yet he allowed week you pyramid down and the third week you do straight sets. Now, even though ...
Baskin, R.J.; Roos, K.P.; Yeh, Y. (October 1979). "Light diffraction study of single skeletal muscle fibers". Biophys. J. 28 (1 ... Striated muscle is the most commonly found natural diffraction grating and, this has helped physiologists in determining the ... structure of such muscle. Aside from this, the chemical structure of crystals can be thought of as diffraction gratings for ...
Seow, C.Y., L. Morishita, and B.H. Bressler (1998). Milrinone inhibits contractility in skinned skeletal muscle fibers. Am. J. ... Part of the research is designed to explore how the level of activation of skeletal muscle is controlled by the calcium binding ... Slawnych, M.P., L. Morishita, and B.H. Bressler (1998). Spectral analysis of muscle fiber images as a means of assessing ... His research focuses on providing new information about the fundamental mechanisms for force production in skeletal muscle. ...
Typing of skeletal muscle fibers in paraffin embedded sections". Histochemistry. 83 (3): 231-5. doi:10.1007/bf00953989. PMID ... The expression of the CA3 gene is strictly tissue-specific and present at high levels in skeletal muscle and much lower levels ... 1980). "Characterization of human carbonic anhydrase III from skeletal muscle". Biochemical Genetics. 17 (9-10): 837-54. doi: ... CA3 is insufficient in muscles of Myasthenia Gravis patients. A proportion of carriers of Duchenne muscle dystrophy have a ...
... and not cardiac muscle or smooth muscle. Myoblasts in skeletal muscle that do not form muscle fibers dedifferentiate back into ... In skeletal muscle, at the end of each muscle fiber, the outer layer of the sarcolemma combines with tendon fibers at the ... A skeletal muscle cell is long and threadlike with many nuclei and is called a muscle fiber. Muscle cells (including myocytes ... A single muscle such as the biceps brachii in a young adult human male contains around 253,000 muscle fibers. Skeletal muscle ...
Skeletal muscle is composed of long cylindrical cells called muscle fibers. There are two types of muscle fibers, slow twitch ... fibers. Fast twitch fibers and slow twitch fibers are also called white muscle fibers and red muscles fibers, respectively. The ... This gene expression is limited to skeletal muscle. It is localized to the Z-disc and analogous dense bodies, where it helps to ... Alpha-actinin-3, also known as alpha-actinin skeletal muscle isoform 3 or F-actin cross-linking protein, is a protein that in ...
2003) Immunohistochemical fiber typing of harbor seal skeletal muscle. Journal of Experimental Biology 206:4105-4111 Polasek L ... Aerobic capacities in the skeletal muscles of Weddell seals: key to longer dive durations? Journal of Experimental Biology 205: ... 2001) Heterogeneity of myoglobin distribution in the locomotory muscles of five cetacean species. Journal of Experimental ... Spatial heterogeneity of aerobic and glycolytic enzyme activities and myoglobin concentration in the epaxial swimming muscles ...
... also occurs with individual skeletal muscle fibers. This happens when muscle fibers lose contact with their ... the proteins that make up each muscle fiber (muscle cell). Reddy, Vivek; Taha, Wael; Kundumadam, Shanker; Khan, Mazhar (2017-07 ... In other cases they are a major symptom in acute and severe peripheral nerve disorders, in myopathies in which muscle fibers ... Fibrillation is the rapid, irregular, and unsynchronized contraction of muscle fibers. An important occurrence is with regard ...
Skeletal muscle includes skeletal muscle fibers, blood vessels, nerve fibers, and connective tissue. Skeletal muscle is wrapped ... There are two types of striated muscle: Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) Skeletal muscle (muscle attached to the skeleton) ... Both smooth muscle cells and cardiac muscle cells have a single nucleus, and skeletal muscle cells have many nuclei. The main ... Unlike skeletal and cardiac muscle tissue, smooth muscle tissue is not striated since there are no sarcomeres present. Skeletal ...
In adult frog skeletal muscle fibers calciseptine also causes an increased Ca2+ current. This increase is comparable to the ... In rat muscle fibers after applying calciseptine there were very slight changes found in twitch tension, which shows us that ... Calciseptine also had little effect on frog muscle fibers. There is a small effect of calciseptine during a series of ... 2001). "Calciseptine, a Ca2+ Channel Blocker, has Agonist Actions on L-Type Ca2+ currents on Frog and Mammalian Skeletal Muscle ...
"Chloride currents from the transverse tubular system in adult mammalian skeletal muscle fibers". The Journal of General ... release in adult skeletal muscle fibres". Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology. 108 (3): 98-118. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Skeletal muscle biopsies are used to examine muscle fibers. Biopsies in individuals with BD often show variation in muscle ... The gene involved in BD encodes the fast-twitch skeletal muscle ATPase, SERCA1. SERCA1 is a protein pump that uses ATP to pump ... This event allows the muscle fibers to overlap, causing a contraction. In BD, Ca2+ levels are high in the cytoplasm, which ... Brody myopathy, also called Brody disease, is a rare disorder that affects skeletal muscle function. BD was first characterized ...
... fibers. Intrafusal muscle fibers are not to be confused with extrafusal muscle fibers, which contract, generating skeletal ... Intrafusal muscle fibers are skeletal muscle fibers that serve as specialized sensory organs (proprioceptors). They detect the ... There are two types of intrafusal muscle fibers: nuclear bag fibers and nuclear chain fibers. They bear two types of sensory ... Alpha motor neuron Beta motor neuron Extrafusal muscle fiber Gamma motor neuron Type Ia sensory fiber Type II sensory fiber ...
"Immunolocalization of the costameres in human skeletal muscle fibers: confocal scanning laser microscope investigations". The ... and is localized to costamere structures in cardiac and skeletal muscle cells, and to focal adhesions in smooth muscle and non- ... Trimarchi F, Favaloro A, Fulle S, Magaudda L, Puglielli C, Di Mauro D (2006). "Culture of human skeletal muscle myoblasts: ... Belkin AM, Zhidkova NI, Koteliansky VE (May 1986). "Localization of talin in skeletal and cardiac muscles". FEBS Letters. 200 ( ...
"Skeletal muscle architecture of the rabbit hindlimb: Functional implications of muscle design". Journal of Morphology. 199 (1 ... In rabbits, the more fibers in a muscle, the more resistant to fatigue. For example, hares have a greater resistance to fatigue ... Action pressure from muscles creates force that is then distributed through the skeletal structures. Rabbits that generate less ... Complementing these muscles are the hamstrings, which aid in short bursts of action. These muscles play off of one another in ...
"Plectin is a linker of intermediate filaments to Z-discs in skeletal muscle fibers". Journal of Cell Science. 112 (6): 867-76. ... In cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle, plectin is localized to specialized entities known as Z-discs. Plectin binds several ... Skeletal and cardiac muscle tissues were also significantly affected. Cardiac intercalated discs were disintegrated and ... In muscle, plectin binds to the periphery of Z-discs, and along with the intermediate filament protein desmin, may form lateral ...
Contractions of skeletal muscle fiber are caused due to electrical stimulation. This process is caused by the depolarization of ... This leads to the actual contraction of the muscle. Contractions of smooth muscle fiber are dependent on how a Ca2+ influx ... When a Ca2+ influx occurs, cross bridges form between myosin and actin leading to the contraction of the muscle fibers. ... ISBN 978-1-4641-2610-9. Baylor SM, Hollingworth S (May 2011). "Calcium indicators and calcium signalling in skeletal muscle ...
Deleting myogenin results in nearly complete loss of differentiated muscle fibers and severe loss of skeletal muscle mass in ... These muscle fibers form from secondary myoblasts and usually develop as fast muscle fibers. Finally, the muscle fibers that ... Primary muscle fibers originate from primary myoblasts and tend to develop into slow muscle fibers. Secondary muscle fibers ... Myogenesis is the formation of skeletal muscular tissue, particularly during embryonic development. Muscle fibers generally ...
Skeletal muscle TnI has been proposed as a sensitive and fast fiber-specific serum marker of skeletal muscle injury. fsTnI ... Fast skeletal muscle TnI was first cloned from a skeletal muscle cDNA library. It is generally observed that fsTnI is ... exclusively expressed in fast twitch skeletal muscle fibers. More recent studies reported that subunits of fast skeletal muscle ... fsTnI was found to be S-glutathionylated at Cys133 in rodent fast-twitch skeletal muscle and in human type II muscle fibers ...
The sodium channels expressed in skeletal muscle fibers have evolved into relatively pH-insensitive channels. This has been ... Khan A, Romantseva L, Lam A, Lipkind G, Fozzard HA (August 2002). "Role of outer ring carboxylates of the rat skeletal muscle ... These effects are shared with disease-causing mutants in neuronal, skeletal muscle, and cardiac tissue and may be compounded in ... or under-excitability in skeletal muscles, as blood pH levels are highly susceptible to change during movement. Recently, a ...
Type II-b fibers are fast-twitch fibers. These fibers allow muscles to contract quickly, resulting in a great deal of power and ... Genetics, training, age, and skeletal soundness are all factors that contribute to a horse's performance. The muscle structure ... They have an abundance of type I muscle fibers, enabling their muscles to work for extended periods of time. Also, the muscles ... Type I muscle fibers are adapted for aerobic exercise and rely on the presence of oxygen. They are slow-twitch fibers. They ...
"Muscle fiber and motor unit behavior in the longest human skeletal muscle". The Journal of Neuroscience. 25 (37): 8528-8533. ... The longest muscle is the sartorius muscle in the thigh. The longest single nerve is the sciatic nerve in the thigh, counting ... human muscle The Scientific Monthly. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 1915. p. 21. Jason de Koning and ...
They innervate extrafusal muscle fibers of skeletal muscle and are directly responsible for initiating their contraction. Alpha ... Alpha motor neurons send fibers that mainly synapse on extrafusal muscle fibers. Other fibers from α-MNs synapse on Renshaw ... because their axons extend into the periphery to innervate skeletal muscles. An alpha motor neuron and the muscle fibers it ... Voluntary muscle control is lost because α-MNs relay voluntary signals from upper motor neurons to muscle fibers. Loss of ...
"Type IIx myosin heavy chain transcripts are expressed in type IIb fibers of human skeletal muscle". Am J Physiol. 267 (6 Pt 1 ... 1995). "Characterization of human skeletal muscle fibres according to the myosin heavy chains they express". J. Muscle Res. ... "Entrez Gene: MYH2 myosin, heavy chain 2, skeletal muscle, adult". Schwartz CE, McNally E, Leinwand L, Skolnick MH (1987). "A ... 1999). "Effects of bone fracture and surgery on plasma myosin heavy chain fragments of skeletal muscle". Clinical and ...
"Control of glycogen synthesis is shared between glucose transport and glycogen synthase in skeletal muscle fibers". Am J ... Rylatt DB, Aitken A, Bilham T, Condon GD, Embi N, Cohen P (June 1980). "Glycogen synthase from rabbit skeletal muscle. Amino ... The role of muscle glycogen is as a reserve to provide energy during bursts of activity. Meanwhile, the muscle isozyme plays a ... Embi N, Parker PJ, Cohen P (April 1981). "A reinvestigation of the phosphorylation of rabbit skeletal-muscle glycogen synthase ...
ERK1/2 signaling induces skeletal muscle slow fiber-type switching and reduces muscular dystrophy disease severity. Boyer, JG; ...
Such conditions result in fusion of committed cells (satellite cells) into myotubes, to form muscle fibers. Skeletal actin ... "Entrez Gene: ACTA1 actin, alpha 1, skeletal muscle". Bandman E (December 1992). "Contractile protein isoforms in muscle ... alpha skeletal muscle is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTA1 gene. Actin alpha 1 which is expressed in skeletal ... "Alpha-skeletal actin induces a subset of muscle genes independently of muscle differentiation and withdrawal from the cell ...
Hu SL, Kao CY (March 1991). "Interactions of neosaxitoxin with the sodium channel of the frog skeletal muscle fiber". The ... where it exhibits about 20-60 fold lesser affinity than in Nav channels from rat skeletal muscle and rat brain. Most data ... basis for insensitivity to tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin in sodium channels of canine heart and denervated rat skeletal muscle". ... basis for insensitivity to tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin in sodium channels of canine heart and denervated rat skeletal muscle". ...
"Biomechanics of the sarcolemma and costameres in single skeletal muscle fibers from normal and dystrophin- null mice". J Muscle ... if one muscle fiber is actively contracting and an adjacent one is not, the lateral force transmission helps this second fiber ... of skeletal muscle, a critical component of striated muscle morphology which, when compromised, is thought to directly ... perpendicular to the contracting myofibril fibers. Most of the force generated by the sarcomeres deep inside the muscle fiber ...
"Interaction of triadin with histidine-rich Ca2+-binding protein at the triadic junction in skeletal muscle fibers". J. Muscle ... which are expressed in skeletal muscle, and Trisk 32 (CT1), which is mainly expressed in cardiac muscle. TRDN has been shown to ... 2003). "Human skeletal muscle triadin: gene organization and cloning of the major isoform, Trisk 51". Biochem. Biophys. Res. ... Caswell, A H; Motoike H K; Fan H; Brandt N R (Jan 1999). "Location of ryanodine receptor binding site on skeletal muscle ...
Ehlers ML, Celona B, Black BL (Sep 2014). "NFATc1 controls skeletal muscle fiber type and is a negative regulator of MyoD ... Ehlers ML, Celona B, Black BL (Sep 2014). "NFATc1 controls skeletal muscle fiber type and is a negative regulator of MyoD ... MyoD may also regulate muscle repair. MyoD mRNA levels are also reported to be elevated in aging skeletal muscle. One of the ... MyoD is also an important effector for the fast-twitch muscle fiber (types IIA, IIX, and IIB) phenotype. MyoD is a ...
The dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) comprises a group of proteins that are critical to the stability of muscle fiber ... and dystrophin molecules in normal skeletal myofiber: triple immunogold labeling electron microscopy". Microscopy Research and ... sarcoglycan in smooth muscle and its interaction with the smooth muscle sarcoglycan-sarcospan complex". The Journal of ... Roberds SL, Anderson RD, Ibraghimov-Beskrovnaya O, Campbell KP (Nov 1993). "Primary structure and muscle-specific expression of ...
A muscle is made up of several muscle bundles, which in turn are made up of muscle fibers. Muscle fibers have myofibrils, which ... though it is not the same skeletal structure as an ankle in humans; known to anatomists as the metacarpophalangeal (front) or ... extensor muscle). Therefore, one muscle of the pair must be relaxed in order for the other muscle in the pair to contract and ... When a muscle contracts, it pulls a tendon, which acts on the horse's bones to move them. Muscles are commonly arranged in ...
Staining of skeletal muscle samples with hematoxylin and eosin may reveal the ragged red fibers sign indicating disrupted ... Patients suffer from exercise intolerance and may also have neuromuscular symptoms such as ataxia, dysarthia and muscle ...
Dutka TL, Lamb GD (September 2007). "Na+-K+ pumps in the transverse tubular system of skeletal muscle fibers preferentially use ... "Inhibition of glycogenolysis prolongs action potential repriming period and impairs muscle function in rat skeletal muscle". ... Recently, glycolysis has also been shown to be of particular importance for Na⁺/K⁺-ATPases in skeletal muscles, where ... release from the muscle cells' sarcoplasmic reticulum. Immediately after muscle contraction, intracellular Ca²⁺ is quickly ...
... photocontact Continuous muscle fiber activity hereditary Continuous spike-wave during slow sleep syndrome Contractural ... Camptocormism Camptodactyly fibrous tissue hyperplasia skeletal dysplasia Camptodactyly joint contractures facial skeletal ... ventricle neoplasms Cerebro facio articular syndrome Cerebro facio thoracic dysplasia Cerebro oculo dento auriculo skeletal ... Cerebro reno digital syndrome Cerebroarthrodigital syndrome Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome Cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal ...
... in certain genes give rise to structural abnormalities in nervous system networks responsible for voluntary skeletal muscle ... which may lead to a partial failure of axonal fiber crossing and encourage development of an abnormal ipsilateral connection. ... Patients also often experience discomfort or pain in the upper limbs due to prolonged use of the same muscles. Therefore, ...
... neuron conducts the nerve signal to the spinal root where efferent nerve fibers carry the motor signal toward the target muscle ... Skeletal system). ... The internal arcuate fibers decussate and continue ascending as ... Neurogenic shock lasts for weeks and can lead to a loss of muscle tone due to disuse of the muscles below the injured site. The ... Additionally, lower motor neurons are characterized by muscle weakness, hypotonia, hyporeflexia and muscle atrophy. Spinal ...
It has even been found that norepinephrine may play a role in enhancing the uptake of glucose in skeletal muscle and adipose ... When the body receives sensory information, the sympathetic nervous system sends a signal to preganglionic nerve fibers, which ... The neurotransmitter acetylcholine causes the excitation of the nerves that innervate the skeletal muscles along with the ... Ball, Derek (2015-02-01). "Metabolic and endocrine response to exercise: sympathoadrenal integration with skeletal muscle". The ...
... but also in skeletal muscles (type I fibers). This isoform is distinct from the fast isoform of cardiac myosin heavy chain, ... MHC-β is the major protein comprising the thick filament in cardiac muscle and plays a major role in cardiac muscle contraction ... MHC-β is a hexameric, asymmetric motor forming the bulk of the thick filament in cardiac muscle. MHC-β is composed of N- ... Another condition associated to mutations in this gene is paraspinal and proximal muscle atrophy. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
... and Myofiber Regeneration in Skeletal Muscle Following Contusion Injury". Frontiers in Physiology. 8: 93. doi:10.3389/fphys. ... Collagen fibers have about a 4% elastic zone where fibers stretch out with increased load on the joint. However, exceeding this ... Strains typically present with pain, cramping, muscle spasm, and muscle weakness, and fractures typically present with bone ... These fibers can be found in various organizational patterns (parallel, oblique, spiral, etc.) depending on the function of the ...
Skeletal muscle is arranged in discrete muscles, an example of which is the biceps brachii. The tough, fibrous epimysium of ... One particularly important aspect of gross anatomy of muscles is pennation or lack thereof. In most muscles, all the fibers are ... but this same orientation allows for more fibers (thus more force) in a muscle of a given size. Pennate muscles are usually ... In pennate muscles, the individual fibers are oriented at an angle relative to the line of action, attaching to the origin and ...
... progressive weakness of ocular muscles and levator muscle of the upper eyelid and patients with it may also manifest skeletal ... ragged-red fibers and atrophy shown on muscle biopsy, cataracts, hearing loss, sensory axonal neuropathy, ataxia, depression, ...
Their findings suggest that in atrophied slow types of skeletal muscle, there is no evidence of fiber damage when the muscles ... However, since the mean fiber size was also reduced, the number of capillaries per unit of CSA of skeletal muscle tissue ... Day, MK; Allen, DL; Mohajerani, L; Greenisen, MC; Roy, RR; Edgerton, VR (1995). "Adaptations of human skeletal muscle fibers to ... Thus, it is apparent that skeletal muscle fibers of humans, monkeys, and rodents share similar patterns of myofiber alterations ...
As an adaptation for feeding on plants underwater, the nose is equipped with fatty pads and muscles that close the nostrils ... However, the rest of its skull structure, skeletal structure and teeth bore strong resemblance to those features that are ... Thus, the moose's digestive system has evolved to accommodate this relatively low-fiber diet. Unlike most hooved, domesticated ... and skeletal changes in the joints and toes that suggest an adaptation to marshy, taiga environments. Cervalces carnutorum was ...
In most relaxed skeletal muscle fibers, passive elastic properties maintain the muscle fibers length near optimal, as ... including for example skeletal muscles, arthropod muscle and cardiac (heart) muscle. As striated muscle is stretched, active ... In order to relate the work of the heart to skeletal muscle mechanics, Frank observed changes in diastolic pressure with ... Starling's data and associated diagrams, provided evidence that the length of the muscle fibers, and resulting tension, altered ...
On October 9, 2001, the skeletal remains of a young white female were found by a survey crew at the bottom of the shoulder of I ... One of these wounds contained clothing fibers and a dime that had been driven into the body by a .45 caliber bullet. Due to the ... with a medium to large frame and average muscle development. It was estimated the man died months earlier that same year. On ... On March 7, 1992, the skeletal remains of a teenager or young adult were found in a vacant building in the Central West End of ...
... one of which separates it from the infraspinatus muscle, the other from the teres major muscle. Its fibers run obliquely ... "The teres minor muscle in rotator cuff tendon tears". Skeletal Radiology. 40 (10): 1335-1344. doi:10.1007/s00256-011-1178-3. ... Damage to the fibers innervating the teres minor is clinically significant. Sometimes a group of muscle fibres from teres minor ... Teres minor muscle Accessory muscles of the scapula This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 441 of the ...
Myosin Isoform Expression in Rodent Skeletal Muscle: The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of microgravity ... and IIB muscle fibers; and on 2) metabolic enzymes, neurotransmitter amino acids, and neurotransmitter associated enzymes in ... of this experiment was to measure certain messenger RNA levels in various skeletal muscles and intestinal smooth muscle as an ... Skeletal Muscle Atrophy: The objective of this experiment was to determine the morphological and biochemical responses of ...
... and the specialized fibers that make up the muscle spindle are called intrafusal muscle fibers. The regular muscle fibers ... Muscle spindles are found within the belly of a skeletal muscle. Muscle spindles are fusiform (spindle-shaped), ... Muscle spindles are composed of 5-14 muscle fibers, of which there are three types: dynamic nuclear bag fibers (bag1 fibers), ... When a muscle is stretched, primary type Ia sensory fibers of the muscle spindle respond to both changes in muscle length and ...
The trabecular dentine contains patches of fibers suggesting attachments to the epaxial musculature. The way these muscles ... Meanwhile, the first associated skeletal remains found in the Mississippian of Montana and the Devonian and Mississippian of ...
"Normalization of current kinetics by interaction between the alpha 1 and beta subunits of the skeletal muscle dihydropyridine- ... Liu WS, Soldatov NM, Gustavsson I, Chowdhary BP (1999). "Fiber-FISH analysis of the 3'-terminal region of the human L-type Ca2+ ... It depolarizes at -30mV and helps define the shape of the action potential in cardiac and smooth muscle. The protein encoded by ... Cav1.2 is widely expressed in the smooth muscle, pancreatic cells, fibroblasts, and neurons. However, it is particularly ...
Physiological scaling in muscles affects the number of muscle fibers and their intrinsic speed to determine the maximum power ... The skeletal structure becomes much stronger and more robust relative to the size of the body as the body size increases. ... The muscle characteristics of animals are similar in a wide range of animal sizes, though muscle sizes and shapes can and often ... The speed of muscle recruitment varies roughly in inverse proportion to the cube root of the animal's weight (compare the ...
Concordantly, mice with selective Pikfyve gene disruption in skeletal muscle, the tissue mainly responsible for the decrease of ... and hyperinsulinemia but not muscle fiber-type switching". American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. 305 (1 ... Ikonomov, O. C.; Sbrissa, D.; Delvecchio, K.; Feng, H. Z.; Cartee, G. D.; Jin, J. P.; Shisheva, A. (2013). "Muscle-specific ...
A patient with a mutation G12315A was found with encephalomyopathy with ragged-red muscle fibers. A patient with a mutation of ... including skeletal muscles, the heart, the brain, or the liver. Common clinical manifestations include myopathy, hypotonia, and ... "A new mtDNA mutation showing accumulation with time and restriction to skeletal muscle". American Journal of Human Genetics. 60 ... mtDNA point mutation in a sporadic patient with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy segregates rapidly in skeletal muscle and ...
... or skeletal muscle tissues. (The tumor's spindle-shaped cells may infiltrate between individual skeletal muscle fibers to ... Spindle-shaped cell infiltrations between individual skeletal muscle fibers that form a checkerboard pattern and the presence ... also known α-smooth muscle actin) and desmin (i.e. an intermediate filament protein found in all muscle forms including smooth ... Eighty-two percent of their LGMS tumors were located in soft tissues (28.2% in mucous membranes, 21.8% in muscle, 19.2% in skin ...
Retaining a constant volume enables the fibers to stabilize the muscle's structure that would otherwise require skeletal ... Unipennate muscles are those where the muscle fibers are oriented at one fiber angle to the force-generating axis and are all ... The parallel muscle architecture is found in muscles where the fibers are parallel to the force-generating axis. These muscles ... Muscles with short fibers will have higher PCSA per unit muscle mass, thus greater force production, while muscle with long ...
... the number of muscle fibers in men and women are alike. Instead of muscle fiber composition as the main reason for men's ... The following further generalizations have been made regarding male-female skeletal differences: Males in general have denser, ... Men's individual muscle fibers are larger than women's, which results in their more muscular appearance. Their larger muscle ... Miller, A.E.; MacDougall, J.D.; Tarnopolsky, M.A.; Sale, D.G. (1993). "Gender differences in strength and muscle fiber ...
... including skeletal muscles, the heart, the brain, or the liver. Common clinical manifestations include myopathy, hypotonia, and ... Myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF) is a disorder that affects many parts of the body, particularly the muscles ... Mutations in the MT-TI gene have been associated with myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF). ... "Myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers". Genetics Home Reference. U.S. National Library of Medicine. This article ...
For example, a benign tumor of smooth muscle cells is called a leiomyoma (the common name of this frequently occurring benign ... Bolland MJ, Grey A, Gamble GD, Reid IR (April 2014). "The effect of vitamin D supplementation on skeletal, vascular, or cancer ... A prominent example of this is prolonged exposure to asbestos, naturally occurring mineral fibers that are a major cause of ... Some cancers can cause a systemic inflammatory state that leads to ongoing muscle loss and weakness, known as cachexia. Some ...
Collection of computational implementations and examples for the numerical construction of skeletal muscle fiber maps based on ... Collection of computational implementations and examples for the numerical construction of skeletal muscle fiber maps based on ... This project aims at the development of a computational framework to reconstruct skeletal fiber maps based on a Laplacian ... Implementations in Python to perform the calculations of the Laplacian fiber field and example muscle models. ...
Management of adenine nucleotide catabolism differs among skeletal muscle fiber types. This study evaluated whether there are ... corresponding differences in the rates of de novo synthesis of adenine nucleotide among fiber type sections of skeletal muscle ... relatively high in slow-twitch red muscle (47.0 +/- 3.1; soleus), and low in fast-twitch white muscle (26.1 +/- 2.0 and 21.6 ... lowest in low oxidative muscle (0.30-0.35%/h), and intermediate in mixed muscle (0.44-0.55%/h). Our results demonstrate that ...
Bovine serum albumin potentiates caffeine- or ATP-induced tension in human skinned skeletal muscle fibers ... Experiments were performed at 19 ± 1oC on single skinned fibers prepared from biopsies of human skeletal muscles (quadriceps ... 4. Wood DS, Zollman J, Reuben JP & Brandt PW (1975). Human skeletal muscle: Properties of the "chemically skinned" fiber. ... Bovine serum albumin potentiates caffeine- or ATP-induced tension in human skinned skeletal muscle fibers ...
Three-dimensional finite element modeling of skeletal muscle using a two-domain approach: Linked fiber-matrix mesh model (2). ... Three-dimensional finite element modeling of skeletal muscle using a two-domain approach: Linked fiber-matrix mesh model (2). ... Three-dimensional finite element modeling of skeletal muscle using a two-domain approach: Linked fiber-matrix mesh model (2). ... Three-dimensional finite element modeling of skeletal muscle using a two-domain approach: Linked fiber-matrix mesh model (2). ...
Muscle biopsies can show severe myopathic changes with increased fibrosis, variation in fiber size, and small atrophic fibers. ...
Xin, an actin binding protein, is expressed within muscle satellite cells and newly regenerated skeletal muscle fibers Academic ...
The microanatomy of muscle fiber is particularly fascinating in that the function of a muscle cell is clearly manifest in its ... muscle, skeletal muscle, smooth muscle. Overview - Muscle. Plate 7-1. The Skeletal Muscle Fiber Plate 7-2. Skeletal Muscle: The ... Skeletal Muscle. Plate 7-2. Plate 7-2, Figure A. Longitudinal section through human Skeletal Muscle. N, Nucleus of muscle Fiber ... the Skeletal Muscle Fiber, is responsible for voluntary movements. Taken together, all of the Skeletal Musclefibers constitute ...
Muscle Fibers, Skeletal / pathology* * Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch * Muscle, Smooth / pathology* * Respiration* ... to which normal muscle fibers are impermeable. Muscle fiber membrane damage was identified on tissue sections by using ... Diaphragm muscle fiber injury after inspiratory resistive breathing Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997 Mar;155(3):1110-6. doi: ... or used in respiratory muscle training programs induces muscle membrane and sarcomere injury. ...
Higuchi H, Ishiwata S. Disassembly kinetics of thick filaments in rabbit skeletal muscle fibers. Effects of ionic strength, Ca ... Dive into the research topics of Disassembly kinetics of thick filaments in rabbit skeletal muscle fibers. Effects of ionic ... Disassembly kinetics of thick filaments in rabbit skeletal muscle fibers. Effects of ionic strength, Ca2+ concentration, pH, ... Higuchi, H., & Ishiwata, S. (1985). Disassembly kinetics of thick filaments in rabbit skeletal muscle fibers. Effects of ionic ...
LSD1 defines the fiber type-selective responsiveness to environmental stress in skeletal muscle ... differentially controls responses to glucocorticoid and exercise in postnatal skeletal muscle. Using skeletal muscle-specific ... Skeletal muscle exhibits remarkable plasticity in response to environmental cues, with stress-dependent effects on the fast- ... Thus, LSD1 serves as an epigenetic barrier that optimizes fiber type-specific responses and muscle mass under the stress ...
... rate or extent of skeletal muscle fiber development. Muscle fibers are formed by the maturation of myotubes. They can be ... negative regulation of skeletal muscle fiber development negative regulation of skeletal muscle fiber development [GO_0048744] ... Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of skeletal muscle fiber development. Muscle fibers ... rate or extent of skeletal muscle fiber development. Muscle fibers are formed by the maturation of myotubes. They can be ...
Muscle Contraction1. *Muscle Fibers, Skeletal1. *Muscles1. *Teaching1. Genre *Articles6 ... The Institute for Muscle Research, 1947-1972 ✖ Remove constraint Story Section: The Institute for Muscle Research, 1947-1972 ... 3. Muscle Research Creator: Szent-Gyorgyi, Albert, 1893-1986 Date: 26 September 1958 Publisher: American Association for the ... 6. Macromolecular Arrangement within Muscle Creator: Morgan, Councilman. Szent-Gyorgyi, Albert, 1893-1986. Rozsa, George. ...
... including skeletal muscle. So far, hundreds of single nu ... CSA of fast-twitch muscle fibers), fat-free mass and muscle ... Larger fast-twitch fibers lead to a larger whole muscle and a greater muscle volume. Top-level sprinters, for example, have a ... Horwath O et al (2020) Fiber type-specific hypertrophy and increased capillarization in skeletal muscle following testosterone ... Muscle biopsy and determination of the CSA of fast-twitch muscle fibers. Vastus lateralis samples of 148 physically active ...
In this study, nanocomposite aligned fiber scaffolds as support materials were developed for volumetric skeletal muscle ... Keywords: Silver nanowire, Rotational wet spinning, Nanocomposite fiber, Electrical stimulation, Skeletal muscle tissue ... Silver nanowire loaded poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocomposite fibers as electroactive scaffolds for skeletal muscle ... Al-though skeletal muscle has a natural repair mechanism, it cannot provide self-healing above a critical level of VML. ...
... robustly to regimented exercise and measures of muscle hypertrophy and isometric strength appear independent of muscle fiber ... Muscle Fibers, Skeletal / physiology* * Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch / physiology* * Muscle Strength / physiology* ... It has been proposed that superior muscle hypertrophy may be obtained by training muscles predominant in type I fibers with ... a predominantly slow-twitch muscle) and gastrocnemius (muscle with a similar composition of slow and fast-twitch fibers) when ...
Muscular dystrophies are a group of genetic conditions characterized by progressive muscle weakness and wasting (atrophy). ... This protein is located primarily in skeletal. and cardiac muscle, where it helps stabilize and protect muscle fibers. ... The damaged fibers weaken and die over time, leading to the muscle weakness and heart problems characteristic of Duchenne and ... People with X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy typically do not have any skeletal muscle weakness or wasting, although they may ...
Also lesions of skeletal and myocardial muscle fibers (L.B. Dias). Inclusion Bodies. Intranuclear. ...
involved_in skeletal muscle fiber differentiation ISS Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity. more info ... involved_in skeletal muscle tissue development ISS Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity. more info ...
Induction of GLUT-1 protein in adult human skeletal muscle fibers. Gaster, M., Franch, J., Staehr, P., Beck-Nielsen, H., Smith ... Four weeks one-leg training and high fat diet does not alter PPARα protein or mRNA expression in human skeletal muscle. Helge, ... Effects of intensified endurance training on the concentration of Na, K‐ATPase and Ca‐ATPase in human skeletal muscle. MADSEN, ... Acyl-CoA binding protein expression is fiber type-specific and elevated in muscles from the obese insulin-resistant Zucker rat ...
Paucicellular birefringent material (amyloid) in between skeletal muscle fibers of the tongue in AL amyloidosis.(Courtesy ... Formation of gelsolin amyloid fibrils in the rough endoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle in the gelsolin mouse model of ... Normally, IAPP modulates insulin activity in skeletal muscle, influencing energy homeostasis, satiety, blood glucose levels, ...
Paucicellular birefringent material (amyloid) in between skeletal muscle fibers of the tongue in AL amyloidosis.(Courtesy ... Formation of gelsolin amyloid fibrils in the rough endoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle in the gelsolin mouse model of ... Normally, IAPP modulates insulin activity in skeletal muscle, influencing energy homeostasis, satiety, blood glucose levels, ...
... has been identified as playing a central role in synapse formation at all vertebrate skeletal neuromuscular synapses. While ... The vertebrate skeletal neuromuscular junction (NMJ) has long served as a model system for studying synapse structure, function ... Effects of purified recombinant neural and muscle agrin on skeletal muscle fibers in vivo. J. Cell Biol. 2001, 153, 1441-1452 ... Ogata, T. Structure of motor endplates in the different fiber types of vertebrate skeletal muscles. Arch. Histol. Cytol. 1988, ...
... up to 10 times higher than the ratio of nerve axons to muscle fibers in skeletal muscle. This high ratio may enable accurate ... Like skeletal muscle, EOM is voluntary striated muscle. However, EOM differs from typical skeletal muscle developmentally, ... Structure of the Extraocular Muscles. The important functional characteristics of muscle fibers are contraction speed and ... The red fibers are the most fatigue resistant; the white fibers, the least. The orbital singly innervated fibers are considered ...
As an endocrine organ, skeletal muscle synthesizes and secretes a wide range of myokines which contribute to different ... One such myokine is the recently discovered protein Irisin, which is secreted into circulation from skeletal muscle during ... As an endocrine organ, skeletal muscle synthesizes and secretes a wide range of myokines which contribute to different ... One such myokine is the recently discovered protein Irisin, which is secreted into circulation from skeletal muscle during ...
3 types of Skeletal muscle fibers. 1) Fast Fibers = White Fibers = Fast Twitch. 2) Slow Fibers = Red Fibers = Slow Twitch. 3) ... Increasing force of contraction of muscle fibers within muscles. 2) Recruitment - Increasing number of muscle fibers ... Lack of muscle activity. - Reduces muscle size, tone and power. - Fibers smaller and weaker: proteins broken down and replaced ... Muscle growth from heavy training. - Increases diameter of muscle fibers. - Increases number of myofibrils. - Increases ...
decreased skeletal muscle fiber diameter IMP. 12880034. RGD. decreased tibialis anterior weight IMP. 12880034. RGD. ...
... and smooth muscles.. Skeletal muscle, also known as striated muscle, is the type that constitutes most of the muscle mass ... Muscle Fibers: Fast and Slow Twitch. Muscles are the instruments that power all movements made by the human body. Muscles are ... Muscle fibers are bound into bundles, called fascicles, to form a working unit. The ultimate control over every muscle fiber is ... all muscles possess both fast-twitch and slow-twitch fibers.. Fast-twitch fibers and slow-twitch fibers possess the same ...
The skeletal muscle fibers in the treated limb are atrophied. The muscle fibers in the denervated ligament vary more in size ... The skeletal muscle fibers in the treated limb are atrophied. The muscle fibers in the denervated ligament vary more in size ... The skeletal muscle fibers in the treated limb are atrophied. The muscle fibers in the denervated ligament vary more in size ... The skeletal muscle fibers in the treated limb are atrophied. The muscle fibers in the denervated ligament vary more in size ...
  • The Actin and Myosin filaments, called myofilaments, are carefully arranged so they can slide over one another during the process of muscle contraction. (
  • The important functional characteristics of muscle fibers are contraction speed and fatigue resistance. (
  • Myokines are a group of cytokines and other small proteins that are synthesized and secreted by skeletal muscle cells upon muscular contraction. (
  • How is strength of muscle contraction increased? (
  • Muscles are defined as being contractile tissues that are capable of extension and contraction to generate movement. (
  • Just beneath this cell membrane, the muscle fiber contains many threadlike myofibrils that lie alongside each other and play a fundamental role in the process of muscle contraction. (
  • How Does Tropomyosin Control Muscle Contraction? (
  • Tropomyosin blocks myosin restrictive sites on actin molecules preventing cross-bridge shape which prevents contraction in a muscle without nervous input. (
  • What is tropomyosin role in muscle contraction? (
  • Calcium is required by two proteins troponin and tropomyosin that methodize muscle contraction by blocking the restrictive of myosin to filamentous actin. (
  • How muscle contraction is controlled? (
  • Vertebrate striated muscle contraction is controlled (regulated) by the separation of the proteins troponin and tropomyosin on the actin filaments. (
  • How does troponin control muscle contraction? (
  • The molecular rule of striated muscle contraction couples the restrictive and dissociation of Ca2+ on troponin to the motion of tropomyosin on actin filaments. (
  • In nightly this train exposes or blocks myosin restrictive sites on actin thereby controlling myosin crossbridge dynamics and accordingly muscle contraction. (
  • Tropomyosins are contractile proteins which collectively immediately the fuse proteins actin and myosin office to methodize contraction in twain muscle and non-muscle cells and are ubiquitous in animal cells. (
  • Regulatory Proteins See also what is the facing of solar Tropomyosin blocks myosin restrictive sites on actin molecules preventing cross-bridge shape and preventing contraction in a muscle without nervous input. (
  • Tropomyosin (Tpm) is a superiority ingredient of the slim filament in skeletal muscles and plays an significant role in controlling muscle contraction and relaxation. (
  • Troponin (Tn) is the sarcomeric Ca2+ regulator for striated (skeletal and cardiac) muscle contraction. (
  • On restrictive Ca2+ Tn transmits instruction via structural changes throughout the actin-tropomyosin filaments activating myosin ATPase agility and muscle contraction. (
  • How does calcium affect the process of muscle contraction? (
  • How is contraction of a skeletal muscle fiber brought about? (
  • Abnormal CIC-1 channels cause inappropriate hyperexcitability of skeletal muscle fibers resulting in prolonged muscle contraction (myotonia). (
  • Muscle contraction with negligible change in the force of contraction but shortening of the distance between the origin and insertion. (
  • The inotropic and bathmotropic effects of beta stimulation: a study comparing dobutamine and dopamine on the guinea-pig papillary muscle in isotonic contraction]. (
  • The electrical activity of the quadriceps was recorded during muscle contraction as an objective index of fatigue. (
  • The binding of the myosin head to the actin filaments, together with the concomitant hydrolysis of ATP for energy, results in the contraction of the sarcomeres that in turn causes contraction of the entire muscle, resulting in movement (or the development of isometric tension that permits us to hold objects or resist being pulled). (
  • The connective tissue of the muscle plays an important role in the transmission of the forces generated by contraction of the sarcomeres to produce movement or isometric tension. (
  • It works by blocking the effects of a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine, which is responsible for causing contraction of muscles, increase in body secretions, and decrease in heart rate. (
  • It effectively restores cardiac activity and body function by blocking the effects of a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine in the body which is responsible for various physiological functions (such as contraction of skeletal or smooth muscles, increase in body secretions or bowel movements, and decrease in heart rate). (
  • In the absence of ribose supplementation, purine salvage rates are relatively low, especially compared with the AdN pool size in skeletal muscle, consistent with tissue 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate being rate limiting for Purine salvage. (
  • Cardiac muscle constitutes the bulk of the tissue of the heart and provides the contractile force that permits that organ to pump great volumes of blood with high speed and efficiency. (
  • Muscle fiber membrane damage was identified on tissue sections by using fluorescent microscopy showing the presence of the tracer in the cytoplasm. (
  • The 3 types of muscle tissue are cardiac, smooth, and skeletal. (
  • Cardiac muscle is the specialized tissue found only in the heart. (
  • Smooth muscle is the tissue that lines the hollow organs of the body and it is also the subject of involuntary control, the autonomic nervous system. (
  • The muscle fibers in the denervated ligament vary more in size than do the muscle fibers in the nonenervated ligament, and the denervated ligament contains more connective tissue and fat. (
  • Sheaths of tough connective tissue hold the fibers together. (
  • Muscles are all made of the same material, a type of elastic tissue (sort of like the material in a rubber band). (
  • Tendons are cords made of tough tissue, and they work as special connector pieces between bone and muscle. (
  • This paper will focus on the tissues liver and skeletal muscle exploring tissue-specific effects of PPAR activation and stress the differences of human- and mouse-based studies. (
  • Skeletal muscle tissue is made up of hundreds of thousands of fibers which contract on command. (
  • For example, Rspo3 may be used directly as a treatment, or used to differentiate muscle cells taken from a patient before the tissue is replanted. (
  • When the researchers reoriented the ghost fibers, the regenerated muscle tissue was disorganized. (
  • Their direct observation of stem/progenitor cells in action showed ghost fibers playing an "architectural role" in regenerating muscle, says Webster, serving as templates proportioned for laying down new muscle tissue so as to match the same size and align to the same direction as the damaged portion. (
  • Quick-frozen deep-etched preparation of skeletal muscle tissue shows the muscle fiber and associated extracellular components. (
  • The muscle cells of skeletal muscles are much longer than in the other types of muscle tissue, and are often known as muscle fibers. (
  • The muscle tissue of a skeletal muscle is striated - having a striped appearance due to the arrangement of the sarcomeres. (
  • These physicians should use this article as the foundation for comparing normal muscle to what is found in the setting of disease and to learn about appropriate care and handling of skeletal muscle biopsy tissue. (
  • A layer of dense connective tissue, which is known as epimysium, surrounds each muscle (see the image below). (
  • A muscle is composed of numerous bundles of muscle fibers, termed fascicles, which are separated from each other by a connective tissue layer termed perimysium. (
  • Endomysium is the connective tissue that separates individual muscle fibers from each other. (
  • The matrix contains long, slender rods and connective tissue fiber in a substance similar to soft-set gelatin. (
  • This fiber helps connective tissue to do its job, to directly or indirectly connect body parts together. (
  • Large numbers of collagenous fibers in parallel bundles makes this tissue very dense. (
  • This is to imply that anabolic steroids are steroids that advertise tissue structure or cells development, and also in this instance it refers especially to muscle cells anabolism. (
  • This photomicrograph revealed histopathologic changes found in a skeletal muscle tissue harvested from the gastrocnemius muscle, of a patient with a fatal case of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), also known as pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy. (
  • Valine: is important for muscle metabolism, tissue health, and the maintenance of nitrogen balance in the body and is used as an energy source. (
  • This means that when rice proteins in powder are consumed after a muscle activity, they'll be used faster to rebuild and repair muscle tissue, significantly improving recovery time. (
  • Journal Article] Three-dimensional co-culture of C2C12/PC12 cells improves skeletal muscle tissue formation and function. (
  • Circulating testosterone levels are a heritable trait with anabolic properties in various tissues, including skeletal muscle. (
  • Your neck muscles are part of a complex musculoskeletal system (soft tissues and bones) that connect the base of your skull to your torso. (
  • It is expressed at elevated levels in tissues with high metabolic rates, such as the liver, heart, skeletal muscle, kidney, and also in the intestine [ 12 , 16 ]. (
  • Abu Bakar MH, Shariff KA, Tan JS, Lee LK (2020) Celastrol attenuates inflammatory responses in adipose tissues and improves skeletal muscle mitochondrial functions in high fat diet-induced obese rats via upregulation of AMPK/SIRT1 signaling pathways. (
  • This characteristic decrease of AdNs suggests that increased nucleotide degradation contributes to the general pathophysiology of skeletal muscle atrophy. (
  • Previous reports have shown that peripheral muscle strength is reduced in COPD, 1- 4 an observation that has been attributed to muscle atrophy. (
  • Type 2 diabetes and lack of exercise are two of many reasons why slow muscle fibers may atrophy. (
  • The girl did not describe symptoms of myalgia, and physical examination did not show signs of erythema, hepatosplenomegaly, neurologic abnormalities, muscle weakness, or muscle atrophy. (
  • To quote Dr. Sweeney, "So we were able to conclude that IGF-1 could prevent all of the hallmarks of age-related atrophy and loss of skeletal muscle function in mammalian aging, at least based on the rodent model, and now we're hoping to pursue this in larger animal models. (
  • Routine histopathology is not part of the evaluation of MG. Routine light microscopy reveal mild, nonspecific abnormalities on muscle biopsy, including type 1 fiber predominance, mild fiber type grouping, or type 2 fiber atrophy. (
  • To evaluate longitudinal changes in muscle strength and hypertrophy of the soleus (a predominantly slow-twitch muscle) and gastrocnemius (muscle with a similar composition of slow and fast-twitch fibers) when subjected to light (20-30 repetition maximum) and heavy (6-10 repetition maximum) load plantarflexion exercise. (
  • Fast-twitch fibers and slow-twitch fibers possess the same capacity to generate muscular power. (
  • Fast-twitch fibers are activated by their neurons at a rate ten times faster than the rate of activation for slow-twitch fibers. (
  • Fast-twitch fibers are further subdivided into two sub-categories, fast twitch (IIa) and an intermediate speed twitch fiber (IIb). (
  • Fast-twitch fibers are relied on by the body to propel it in short, intense bursts (such as those required in sprinting, weightlifting, or other short duration, explosive movements). (
  • Physiological studies confirm that extensive endurance training will create an adaptation by the body, in that the intermediate fast-twitch fibers (IIa) may be converted to slow-twitch fibers over time. (
  • The training that will assist in the development of fast-twitch fibers involves the repeated activation of the appropriate muscles. (
  • These programs that usually emphasize intense jumping and interval sprint training-which often are used by sprinters, hurdlers, basketball players, and other athletes that seek to become more explosive in their movements-are the best-known techniques to develop fast-twitch fibers in the leg muscles. (
  • We are composed of all sorts of magical slow + fast twitch fibers just waiting to be used, recruited and fine-tuned. (
  • Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein sweetened with S. rebaudiana on physical performance and mitochondrial biogenesis markers in the skeletal muscle of resistance-trained rats. (
  • Although the muscle pad of the biceps brachii was not altered, we observed a significant increase in PGC-1α expression, which was followed by a similar pattern in TFAM protein expression, two important mitochondrial biogenesis markers. (
  • 2012) Similar Skeletal muscle angiogenic and mitochondrial signaling following 8-weeks of endurance exercise in mice. (
  • Abid H, Ryan ZC, Delmotte P, Sieck GC, Lanza IR (2020) Extramyocellular interleukin-6 influences skeletal muscle mitochondrial physiology through canonical JAK/STAT signaling pathways. (
  • Here, it is apparent that a whole muscle - a bicep, in this case - contains bundles of individual muscle fibers. (
  • Nanocomposite fiber bundles with lengths of 50 cm were fabricated via this computer-aided RWS system. (
  • Muscle fibers are bound into bundles, called fascicles, to form a working unit. (
  • Muscles are composed of long bundles of myocytes or muscle fibers. (
  • They are bundles of fibers containing 3 collagen fibers each. (
  • Lo WK, Shaw AP, Paulsen DF , Mills A. Spatiotemporal distribution of zonulae adherens and associated actin bundles in both epithelium and fiber cells during chicken lens development. (
  • Such effects are thought to be mediated (at least in part) by myokines, a collection of cytokines and other small proteins released from skeletal muscles. (
  • 1. FIBROBLASTS: secrete proteins of extracellular fibers, like collagen. (
  • Using Naturveg® Sport, the muscles are nourished just as well if not better than when using standard whey proteins, comparable blends or other proteins of animal origin. (
  • d, e Western blot analysis and quantification of the indicated proteins in muscle extracts from these mice. (
  • Aortic atherosclerosis was assessed, and samples of liver and skeletal muscle analysed. (
  • The vertebrate skeletal neuromuscular junction (NMJ) has long served as a model system for studying synapse structure, function, and development. (
  • Over the last several decades, a neuron-specific isoform of agrin, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, has been identified as playing a central role in synapse formation at all vertebrate skeletal neuromuscular synapses. (
  • Myotonia Congenita (MC) is a genetic neuromuscular channelopathy affecting skeletal muscle fibers (muscles used for movement). (
  • The intended audience is any physician who deals with patients with primary neuromuscular disease or neuromuscular complications of systemic disease and who considers obtaining or performing a muscle biopsy for diagnosis. (
  • This article should be useful to those beginning their training in interpretation of muscle biopsies and can serve as a resource for medical students who are learning about muscle structure and function and are being introduced to neuromuscular disorders. (
  • For a detailed discussion of muscle biopsy procedure and an overview of the clinical and laboratory features of neuromuscular disease, see Muscle Biopsy and Clinical and Laboratory Features of Neuromuscular Disease. (
  • 1] For details on the pathological findings in muscle biopsy in several major categories of neuromuscular disease, see Skeletal Muscle Pathology. (
  • Based on previously reported changes in muscle metabolism that could increase susceptibility to fatigue, we speculated that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have reduced quadriceps endurance and that this will be correlated with the proportion of type I muscle fibres and with the activity of oxidative enzymes. (
  • Needle biopsies of the quadriceps were performed in 16 subjects in both groups to evaluate possible relationships between T f and markers of muscle oxidative metabolism (type I fibre proportion and citrate synthase activity). (
  • A study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that reduced quadriceps endurance in COPD is related to the proportion of type I muscle fibres and to the activity of oxidative enzymes rather than to mid thigh muscle cross sectional area. (
  • Skeletal muscle function and oxidative fibers were increased by cysteamine. (
  • Influence of ribose on adenine salvage after intense muscle contractions. (
  • Data indicate that adenine salvage rates were essentially unaltered during recovery from intense contractions, and ribose supplementation did not affect subsequent muscle force production after 60 min of recovery. (
  • Phosphate uptake in rat skeletal muscle is reduced during isometric contractions. (
  • The data imply that P( i) uptake in skeletal muscle is acutely modulated during contractions and that decreases in P(i) uptake rates, in combination with expected increases in P (i) efflux, exacerbate the net loss of phosphate from the cell. (
  • An EEG-based study of discrete isometric and isotonic human lower limb muscle contractions. (
  • Injury to skeletal muscle fibers during contractions: conditions of occurrence and prevention. (
  • Smooth Muscle , innervated by the autonomic nervous system, provides the motive force for involuntary movements of organs such as the stomach, intestines, and blood vessels. (
  • Smooth muscle fibers are located in walls of hollow visceral organs (such as the liver, pancreas, and intestines), except the heart, appear spindle-shaped, and are also under involuntary control. (
  • As an endocrine organ, skeletal muscle synthesizes and secretes a wide range of myokines which contribute to different functions in different organs, including the brain. (
  • Other types of muscles in the body - cardiac (in the heart) and smooth (in hollow organs like your stomach) - are involuntary, which means they work without you having to think about it. (
  • Skeletal muscles (commonly referred to as muscles) are organs of the vertebrate muscular system that are mostly attached by tendons to bones of the skeleton. (
  • This fluid is flushed out out of the muscles/organs and into circulation to be eliminated from the body. (
  • In which of the following cranial nerves do the parasympathetic preganglionic nerve fibers that innervate organs of the thorax and upper abdomen occur? (
  • In which of the following segments do the parasympathetic preganglionic nerve fibers that send signals to organs within the pelvic cavity originate? (
  • Parasympathetic fibers that innervate organs in the abdominopelvic cavity are conveyed in the _______________ nerve or arise from spinal nerves in the ______________ region. (
  • Muscle thickness was estimated via B-mode ultrasound and maximal strength was determined by isometric dynamometry. (
  • The triceps surae muscles respond robustly to regimented exercise and measures of muscle hypertrophy and isometric strength appear independent of muscle fiber type composition. (
  • Techniques include isometric training, in which the muscle is held in a resistance-generating position for set periods. (
  • A goal of isometric exercise is to ensure that the targeted muscle is contracted and extended in a disciplined fashion, which encourages an optimal relationship between each neuron and the muscle fiber group. (
  • Angiotensin-I converting enzyme genotype-dependent benefit from hormone replacement therapy in isometric muscle strength and bone mineral density. (
  • One hundred and forty-eight physically active individuals (47 females, 101 males) were assessed for cross-sectional area (CSA) of fast-twitch muscle fibers. (
  • 0.05) with CSA of fast-twitch muscle fibers, fat-free mass and handgrip strength. (
  • Singly innervated fibers are fast-twitch generating and resistant to fatigue. (
  • The speed with which the neurons communicate with their related fibers dictates the characterization of the fiber as either a 'fast twitch' or a 'slow twitch. (
  • all muscles possess both fast-twitch and slow-twitch fibers. (
  • The distribution of fast- versus slow-twitch fibers in the muscles is primarily an inherited characteristic, determined by the genetic coding of each person. (
  • While it is common for a person to have muscles with a relatively even distribution of fast-and slow-twitch fibers, some persons inherit a tendency to a significantly greater number of one type of fiber over the other. (
  • Slow-twitch fibers are the units employed by the body to provide the power for endurance activities. (
  • Slow-twitch fibers possess a greater quantity of mitochondria, the portion of the human cell that acts as a powerhouse within each cell in the production of energy. (
  • Slow-twitch fiber cells can process greater amounts of oxygen to assist in the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the body's fuel for the production of energy. (
  • For this reason, slow-twitch fibers are relied on when the muscle must extend and contract repetitively, as in distance running or cycling events. (
  • Weight training, particularly the lifting of significant amounts with short rest intervals in each set, also stimulates fast-twitch fiber development. (
  • The best known of the explosive training techniques aimed solely at the development of fast-twitch fiber is plyometrics. (
  • Slow Twitch fiber % increased in both. (
  • The I allele of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene is associated with an increased percentage of slow-twitch type I fibers in human skeletal muscle. (
  • These rats did not lose any fast twitch muscle fibers - the fibers responsible for power and speed - and had the same speed and power output that they had when they were six months of age. (
  • Taurine also helps your fast-twitch muscles produce their peak force by supporting the contractile properties and countering fatigue. (
  • Soccer is a sport where it engages both your slow-twitch and fast-twitch muscle fibers, which is great for developing an overall strong body and muscle tone. (
  • The muscles in your neck are skeletal muscles, meaning they're attached to bones by tendons. (
  • These muscles help to make up the musculoskeletal (say: mus-kyuh-low-SKEL-uh-tul) system - the combination of your muscles and your skeleton, or bones. (
  • Together, the skeletal muscles work with your bones to give your body power and strength. (
  • Skeletal muscles are held to the bones with the help of tendons (say: TEN-dunz). (
  • Muscles and bones seem much easier to recognize. (
  • Tendons transmit forces from muscles to bones and experience much higher stress during locomotion than any other components in the musculoskeletal system [ 2 ]. (
  • By the end of the lesson, you'll be able to identify the major bones and muscle groups that shape the horses' anatomy. (
  • Phosphate uptake and PiT-1 protein expression in rat skeletal muscle. (
  • In skeletal muscle, testosterone and its metabolite, dihydrotestosterone, have a well-defined anabolic property, mainly through an increase in protein synthesis via the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway together with the androgen receptor (AR) signaling (Basualto-Alarcon et al. (
  • Quantification of autophagy flux in isolated mouse skeletal muscle fibers with overexpression of fluorescent protein mCherry-EGFP-LC3. (
  • One such myokine is the recently discovered protein Irisin, which is secreted into circulation from skeletal muscle during exercise from its membrane bound precursor Fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5). (
  • A combination of resistance training and whey protein supplementation is a common practice among athletes and recreational exercisers to enhance muscle growth and strength. (
  • Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University have discovered that a protein excreted by type I (slow) muscle fibers, key to muscle endurance, can cause surrounding myoblasts to differentiate into type I fibers. (
  • A team of researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University led by Professor Nobuharu Fujii have now discovered that a protein excreted by type I muscle known as R-spondin3 (Rspo3) may hold the key to the development of new type I fibers. (
  • When myoblasts, precursors to muscle cells , were treated with Rspo3, they began to produce significantly higher amounts of Myosin Heavy Chain I (MyHC I), a protein produced by type I muscle . (
  • It is composed of collagenous fibers embedded in chondroitin sulfate (a protein-carbohydrate). (
  • Leucine: stimulates muscle protein synthesis, ideally when other essential amino acids are available. (
  • Naturveg® Sport represents the top of vegan protein supplements dedicated to those who train intensely and target muscle building, recovery, resistance, and well-being, both in endurance and anaerobic strength sports. (
  • Can a plant source provide a complete and qualitative protein, enough to maintain and build muscle? (
  • Fibers - Rice protein also contains fibers, excellent for digestion and digestive well-being. (
  • Cardiac muscle is activated involuntarily through the function of various impulses, including those directed through the autonomic nervous system controlled by the hypothalamus, the regulatory region of the brain. (
  • Nerve fibers of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system originate in which of the following segments of the central nervous system? (
  • Nerve fibers of the _______________ division of the autonomic nervous system arise from the brainstem and the sacral region of the spinal cord. (
  • Like all other skeletal muscles in the body, neck muscles contain lots of tiny, elastic fibers that allow the muscles to contract. (
  • The aim of the present study was to test the association of 822 testosterone-increasing SNPs with muscle-related traits (muscle fiber size, fat-free mass and handgrip strength) and to validate the identified SNPs in independent cohorts of strength and power athletes. (
  • Testosterone-related SNPs are associated with muscle fiber size, fat-free mass and strength, which combined can partially contribute to a greater predisposition to strength/power sports. (
  • Testosterone administration has been shown to increase muscle mass and strength in a dose-dependent manner in young and older men (Bhasin et al. (
  • 2020 ). Given that muscle hypertrophy (and the increase in muscle function it brings) has a performance-enhancing effect in sports that depend on strength and power, higher levels of testosterone create an advantage (Wood and Stanton 2012 ). (
  • 1- 3 Evaluation of peripheral muscle strength and endurance is now frequently performed in pulmonary rehabilitation settings and exercise physiology laboratories. (
  • Sarcopenia ("loss of flesh", from Greek) is the loss of muscle strength, mass and muscle quality due to normal aging (Doherty, 2003). (
  • This density gives it the great strength needed for tendons (to attach muscle to the bone) and ligaments (to attach bone together at joints). (
  • However, tendons can adapt to mechanical usage as evidenced by increases in stiffness and the Young's modulus after strength training or a combination of resistance and stretch training that were commensurate with muscle strength and size gains in humans [ 3 , 12 ] and in animals [ 10 ]. (
  • Playing soccer increases the strength of the skeletal frame, which will then help strengthen your bone density. (
  • The skeletal system gives the horse's body form and strength. (
  • J Strength Cond Res 34(7): 1851-1859, 2020-Free weights offer a more unstable training environment, which enhances muscle recruitment, whereas some machines have the advantage of using a "cam" pulley system that better matches strength curves. (
  • We compared the effect of training with free weights vs. machines on muscle mass, strength, free testosterone, and free cortisol concentrations. (
  • Muscle thickness and strength were measured at 0 and 8 weeks. (
  • however, training with free weights or machines resulted in similar increases in muscle mass and strength. (
  • One of the controversies when prescribing resistance training programs is whether the use of free weights or machines is better for building muscle mass and strength. (
  • that is, the constant resistance throughout the range of motion offered by free weights does not always match the strength of a muscle, which varies throughout the range of motion. (
  • Muscle strength grading smaller joints [ 6 ]. (
  • This 2020 Women Knitted Flat Shoes Ladies Slip On technology uses high-strength fibers to create lightweight uppers with targeted areas of support , stretch , and breathability . (
  • These transmissions emanate from the brain through the spinal cord, and ultimately through nerve pathways to neurons located within every muscle. (
  • Then, we enzymatically digest FDB muscle to yield individual fibers for live cell imaging. (
  • one neuron may control as many as 2,000 individual fibers. (
  • But scientists at the Carnegie Institution for Science and NICHD who developed a technique to observe muscle stem/progenitor cells migrating within injury sites in live mice, report that "ghost fibers," remnants of the old extracellular matrix left by dying muscle fibers, guide the cells into position for healing to begin. (
  • the white fibers, the least. (
  • Experiments were performed at 19 ± 1 o C on single skinned fibers prepared from biopsies of human skeletal muscles (quadriceps and vastus lateralis), obtained during programmed surgery at the Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (
  • Muscle biopsies can show severe myopathic changes with increased fibrosis, variation in fiber size, and small atrophic fibers. (
  • Many of the images show the normal microscopic appearance of muscle biopsy specimens, with some of the histological stains that are routinely used in the evaluation of muscle biopsies. (
  • This article can assist physicians who read muscle biopsy reports written by others to comprehend the significance of pathological findings described in muscle biopsies by seeing how pathological findings differ from normal skeletal muscle. (
  • The most significant feature of a muscle cell, usually called a muscle Fiber , is that it can change its shape rapidly, repeatedly, and predictably unlike most other cells in the body. (
  • What places muscle in a class by itself is that muscle cells have developed a tremendous Hypertrophy of a macromolecular motile mechanism that is present, albeit on a smaller scale, in the majority of other somatic cells. (
  • Each muscle Fiber is a Syncytium - one cell derived from many cells that came to be enveloped by a common Plasma membrane. (
  • Cardiac muscle cells are located in the walls of the heart, appear striped (striated), and are under involuntary control. (
  • What is the function of tropomyosin in muscle cells Group of answer choices? (
  • MC is caused by mutations in the CLCN1 gene, which codes for voltage-gated chloride (CIC-1) channels within the cell membrane of skeletal muscle fiber cells. (
  • This means that type I fibers actively induce the formation of more type I fibers in their vicinity, excreting Rspo3 and acting on the differentiation of nearby cells. (
  • Using intravital two-photon imaging combined with second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy, the Carnegie's Micah Webster and Chen-Ming Fan and the NICHD's Uri Manor and Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz observed these cells riding to the rescue, using the long axis of these ghost fibers to spread out and orient themselves. (
  • Activated muscle stem/progenitor cells (white) moving within basal lamina remnants, "ghost fibers" (red) which remain when muscle cells degenerate from injury. (
  • Combining the two techniques, the researchers were able to image activated muscle stem/progenitor cells moving bi-directionally along the long axis of individual ghost fibers left behind by the lost muscle cells. (
  • The stem/progenitor cells spread along the ghost fibers where they could divide, fuse, and fully differentiate into new muscles. (
  • Mature muscle cells are termed muscle fibers or myofibers and they are often simply referred to as fibers. (
  • Each myofiber is a multinucleate syncytium formed by fusion of precursor skeletal muscle cells termed myoblasts. (
  • A smooth muscle is composed of elongated spindle-shaped cells, each with a single nucleus. (
  • So you don't want to have anything to do with the use of anabolic steroids for bodybuilding, right, do muscle cells undergo mitotic cell division with anabolic steroids? (
  • And so, what we can actually have is you just mix it with your usual diet and you will see a great improvement in some of your other areas, that's just the way it worked with me, steroids anabolic cells muscle. (
  • You can just buy them but if you don't have the money to do that you'll have to get some steroids legally, anabolic steroids muscle cells. (
  • Excellent responders have more satellite cells that surround their muscle fibers, as well as a remarkable ability to expand their satellite cell pool via training. (
  • IGF-1 LR3 greatly boosts muscle mass by inducing a state of muscle hyperplasia (increase in number of new muscle cells) in the MUSCLE WHERE ITS INJECTED! (
  • This cross section of the muscle, shows extensive replacement of muscle fibers, by adipose, or fat cells. (
  • These novel properties of eye muscles lead to differential responses to local anesthetics and pharmaceuticals such as botulinum toxin and calcium channel blockers, as well as to disease processes such as myasthenia gravis and muscular dystrophy. (
  • You may not think of it as a muscular body part, but your face has plenty of muscles. (
  • In this lesson we'll look at the muscular skeletal system, which is the system within the horse that allows it to move and perform its various athletic functions. (
  • Results showed that changes in muscle thickness were similar for the soleus and the gastrocnemius regardless of the magnitude of load used in training. (
  • Furthermore, each of the calf muscles demonstrated robust hypertrophy, with the lateral gastrocnemius showing greater gains compared to the medial gastrocnemius and soleus. (
  • This enhanced physical performance was accompanied by an increase in the weight of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscle pads. (
  • Force-velocity-power and force-pCa relationships of human soleus fibers after 17 days of bed rest. (
  • It has been proposed that superior muscle hypertrophy may be obtained by training muscles predominant in type I fibers with lighter loads and those predominant in type II fibers with heavier loads. (
  • Moreover, the study provides further evidence that low-load training is a viable strategy to increase hypertrophy in different human muscles, with hypertrophic increases similar to that observed using heavy loads. (
  • They trained, hyperintensely, for 40 weeks, and all the muscles in his trunk were hypertrophy, anabolic steroids muscle wasting disease. (
  • 33] Another study that examined 100 powerlifters (85+kg) found that they could be categorized as: 1) 'hypertrophy' (the muscle mass gained per area), 2) 'general' hypertrophy (the muscle volume gained per muscle), and 3) 'general' general hypertrophy (the muscle mass divided by whole body mass). (
  • Each individual muscle Fiber is subdivided into many longitudinally oriented units called myofibrils. (
  • Like Skeletal Muscle , cardiac muscle is made up of fibers composed of many parallel myofibrils. (
  • Are myofibrils present in smooth muscle? (
  • The dark structures are the mitochondria found inside a skeletal muscle fiber. (
  • no fluorescence of the fibers occurred when heterologous antibody to collagen was applied. (
  • In the EOMs, the ratio of nerve fibers to muscle fibers is very high (1:3-1:5)-up to 10 times higher than the ratio of nerve axons to muscle fibers in skeletal muscle. (
  • Adrian , E. D. & Bronk , D. W. ( 1929 ) The discharge of impulses in motor nerve fibers. (
  • Each drug fulfilled a different purpose, including tamping down inflammation, inhibiting the production of collagen which would lead to scarring, and encouraging the new growth of nerve fibers, blood vessels, and muscle. (
  • Which of the following indicates the correct path sympathetic nerve fibers take when leaving the spinal cord before returning to a spinal nerve on their way to stimulate arrector pili muscles and sweat glands in the skin? (
  • Which of the following is true about the nerve fibers of sympathetic motor neurons? (
  • Conclusions: Inhibiting the lysosomal oxidation of LDL in atherosclerotic lesions by antioxidants targeted at lysosomes causes the regression of atherosclerosis and improves liver and muscle characteristics in mice and might be a promising novel therapy for atherosclerosis in patients. (
  • The coordination of all of the moving body parts, working together to execute at the same time, greatly improves your muscle tone and coordination. (
  • This study evaluated whether there are corresponding differences in the rates of de novo synthesis of adenine nucleotide among fiber type sections of skeletal muscle using an isolated perfused rat hindquarter preparation. (
  • 1.0 µM) potentiated the caffeine-induced tension in Ca2+-loaded fibers, this effect being more intense in slow-type fibers. (
  • Of all muscle fiber types, this type is the most affected by denervation from damage to the motor nerves or the end plates, as occurs after botulinum toxin injection. (
  • Skeletal muscle, also known as striated muscle, is the type that constitutes most of the muscle mass within the body. (
  • You can't control this type of muscle. (
  • Contractile properties of rat, rhesus monkey, and human type I muscle fibers. (
  • Rspo3 is excreted from "slow" type I fibers (not from "fast" fibers), which promotes the accumulation of beta-catenin inside myoblasts. (
  • This leads to the increased production of MyHC I and the eventual differentiation of the myoblast into a type I fiber. (
  • There are "slow" type I muscle fibers, important for endurance exercise, and "fast" type II fibers, which can respond much more quickly but for shorter periods of time. (
  • Type I fibers might be likened to marathon runners, while type II fibers might be called sprinters. (
  • For a long time, the prevailing wisdom has been that the ratio of type I to type II fibers in our muscles is largely determined at birth. (
  • The finding sheds new light on the role of muscles in our bodies and upturns conventional wisdom which says that the ratio of type I to type II fibers can't be changed. (
  • The team's findings suggest that it is actually possible to specifically encourage the development of type I fibers through therapeutic means. (
  • Age-dependent stress response DNA demethylation and gene upregulation accompany nuclear and skeletal muscle remodeling following acute resistance-type exercise in rats. (
  • Movement stimulates the immune system (our body's internal immune system) by promoting the flow of lymph, which is comprised of muscle metabolites, lactic acid and lymphocytes (a special type of WBC). (
  • It's likely a combination of better energy production and the ability of taurine to maintain homeostasis in the body that play a role in increasing force in type 2 muscle fibers [4]. (
  • H. Lee Sweeney, Ph.D., Professor and Chairman of Physiology at the University of Pennsylvania and a recognized expert on the subject of the genetic enhancement of skeletal muscle, spoke to the World Anti-Doping Association with regard to the muscle building and regenerating properties of IGF-1. (
  • We describe a case of rhabdomyolysis, the rapid breakdown of striated muscle, in a 7-year-old girl in Japan who had antimicrobial drug-resistant M. pneumoniae infection, and we discuss the possible pathomechanisms for rhabdomyolysis. (
  • People with more severe a sheath, rich in rhabdomyolysis (skeletal muscle breakdown) body, followed by a clear picture of the. (
  • Increasing the rate of muscle growth while reducing the processes of catabolism and breakdown of muscle fibers. (
  • The skeletal muscle fibers in the treated limb are atrophied. (
  • Although earlier studies yielded conflicting results, 6, 7 it is becoming generally accepted that lower limb muscle endurance is reduced and susceptibility to fatigue is greater in patients with COPD than in healthy subjects of similar age. (
  • 14 ] also studied the effects of 18 months of treadmill training on rat limb muscle tendons and found that exercise had no effect on the biomechanical properties of the tibialis anterior tendon. (
  • The regrown limb moved and responded to stimuli such as a touch from a stiff fiber, and the frogs were able to make use of it for swimming through water, moving much like a normal frog would. (
  • Limb development and skeletal patterning. (
  • Smooth muscles - sometimes also called involuntary muscles - are usually in sheets, or layers, with one layer of muscle behind the other. (
  • Whiplash usually involves muscles, ligaments and tendons. (
  • The tendons are attached so well that when you contract one of your muscles, the tendon and bone move along with it. (
  • After the last exposure, tendons from the tibialis anterior muscle were isolated, stored at -80°C, and then tested using a micro-mechanical testing machine. (
  • First, cardiac muscle fibers are much smaller than Skeletal Muscle fibers and contain only 1 or 2 nuclei (as opposed to 100 to 1000 nuclei in a Skeletal Muscle Fiber ). (
  • C-Replacement of muscle with fat and clusters of nuclei. (
  • Affected fibers are often vacuolated and fragmented with pyknotic nuclei (Figure 1). (
  • 10 Interestingly, endurance of the quadriceps does not seem to be associated with muscle mass in COPD. (
  • 7 A more likely hypothesis is that quadriceps endurance in COPD should be linked to the aerobic capacity of the muscle rather than to its mass. (
  • As a result, ATROPINE SULPHATE stimulates skeletal muscles, increases heart rate and reduces body secretions (such saliva, sweat, bronchial and intestinal secretion) and bowel movements. (
  • All types of skeletal muscle are constructed from densely knit fibers, which are provided the nutrients necessary for their function by capillaries, tiny blood vessels extending from the arteries of the cardiovascular system. (
  • The three major histologic categories of muscle in the human body are Skeletal Muscle , cardiac muscle, and Smooth Muscle . (
  • Whereas skeletal and cardiac muscle are somewhat similar in ultrastructure, Smooth Muscle is in a class by itself. (
  • Cardiac muscle fibers, however, are significantly different from Skeletal Muscle fibers in several important ways. (
  • Second, cardiac muscle fibers are branched. (
  • The branches of one cardiac muscle Fiber attach to the branches of neighboring cardiac muscle fibers by highly specialized intercellular junctions called intercalated disks. (
  • The muscle that makes up the heart is called cardiac muscle. (
  • Just like smooth muscle, cardiac muscle works all by itself with no help from you. (
  • unlike ant: rough or cardiac muscle. (
  • The body uses three different types of muscles for various purposes: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscles. (
  • You can't use your smooth muscles to make a muscle in your arm or jump into the air. (
  • But smooth muscles are at work all over your body. (
  • Your smooth muscles come in handy if you're sick and you need to throw up. (
  • Smooth muscles are also found in your bladder. (
  • You'll find smooth muscles at work behind the scenes in your eyes, too. (
  • Skeletal Muscle , also called striated muscle, is innervated by motor nerves and is responsible for voluntary bodily movements. (
  • Like skeletal muscle, EOM is voluntary striated muscle. (
  • They're voluntary muscles, so you control how they move and work. (
  • Skeletal muscles are voluntary muscles, which means you can control what they do. (
  • Significantly enhanced cell proliferation was observed on PCL-Ag NW nanocomposite fibers compared to neat PCL fibers with electrical stimulations of 1.5 V, 3 V and without electrical stimulation. (
  • This upends prevailing wisdom which says our fast/slow fiber ratio can't be significantly changed. (
  • These studies have shown that the amount of muscle fibers and the ability of muscle to utilize oxygen are significantly more preserved in rats that have been calorie-restricted in young adulthood or continuously throughout life. (
  • In addition, calorie-restricted rats also appear to experience significantly less muscle cell death. (
  • One study showed that intense exercise significantly lowered muscle taurine levels, but that administering taurine during the exercise session countered the loss of taurine and helped improve work capacity. (
  • It is indicated that high-intensity intermittent exercise causes a decrease in resting levels of skeletal muscle adenine nucleotide without a concomitant indication of muscle damage. (
  • We also discuss how exercise can positively influence brain function and mental health via the "skeletal muscle-brain axis. (
  • Peripheral muscle dysfunction contributes to exercise intolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (
  • 8, 9 Poor peripheral muscle endurance is clinically relevant because it is associated with poor functional status 7 and exercise intolerance in patients with COPD. (
  • Amino acids (the main component of the product) are directly metabolized within the skeletal muscle to strengthen and restore muscle, produce energy, and reduce muscle fatigue after intense exercise. (
  • Maintaining muscle mass, especially for the elderly, even with no exercise. (
  • Live and heat-killed Lactobacillus paracasei PS23 - a probiotic strain isolated from the feces of healthy humans - may improve physical performance and recovery following exercise-induced muscle damage, suggests a new study. (
  • Skeletal muscle fibers occur in muscles which are attached to the skeleton. (
  • For old rats, a muted transcriptional profile (13 and 2 differentially expressed genes at 6 and 120 h, respectively) coincided with deficiencies in demethylation, muscle remodeling, and torque recovery. (
  • In another study the muscle fibers of 27-month old rats - old age for rats - that were given IGF-1 during middle age, exhibited no deterioration of muscle fibers that indicate the classic and inevitable signs of aging. (
  • Muscle-specific effects of hindlimb suspension and clenbuterol in mature male rats. (
  • Distribution and muscle-sparing effects of clenbuterol in hindlimb-suspended rats. (
  • In this study, nanocomposite aligned fiber scaffolds as support materials were developed for volumetric skeletal muscle regeneration. (
  • This is the first direct visualization of skeletal muscle stem/progenitor cell-mediated regeneration in live mice, says Webster. (
  • Using a mouse model in which mtDNA mutations lead to impaired muscle regeneration, the scientists also showed that selectively mutated mtDNA can be removed by stimulating the activity of the autophagy mechanism with rapamycin. (
  • Management of adenine nucleotide catabolism differs among skeletal muscle fiber types. (
  • The anatomy of body building includes knowing what muscles are located where and how they are grown most effectively. (
  • In a nutshell, knowing where each of the main muscle are and how you can grow them most effectively is all you need to know about the anatomy of bodybuilding. (
  • We need to know the horse's basic skeletal anatomy to understand how the normal horse's body moves and functions. (
  • The Actin filaments attached to the Z-bands at the opposite ends of the Sarcomere draw the Z-bands close to one another, thus shortening the length of the Sarcomere and of the muscle Fiber itself. (
  • We conclude that resistive breathing of a magnitude similar to that seen in some respiratory diseases, or used in respiratory muscle training programs induces muscle membrane and sarcomere injury. (
  • genuine the sarcomere shortens and the muscle contracts. (
  • A sarcomere is the basic contractile aggregation of muscle fiber. (
  • Skeletal muscle fiber types differ in their contents of total phosphate, which includes inorganic phosphate (P(i)) and high-energy organic pools of ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr) and fractional turnover of the cellular P(i) pool varies among fiber types, indicating differential management of intracellular P( i), likely due to differences in resistance to P(o) efflux from the fiber. (
  • Hence, good nutrition and proper management of the foal will be the key to future development, which is not affected by the skeletal structure and resistance to effort. (
  • Sarcolemma is the specialized form of cell membrane that lies on the outside of every muscle cell. (
  • The eye muscles participate in motor acts that are among the fastest (saccadic eye movements) in the human body and among the most sustained (gaze fixation and vergence movements). (
  • Muscles are the instruments that power all movements made by the human body. (
  • Muscles contain fibers that contract (get smaller), allowing you to perform lots of different movements. (
  • Two muscles that control head movements from the base of your skull. (
  • This helps in restoring cardiac activity during fatal conditions like cardiac arrest or poisoning, reduces salivary secretion during surgical procedures and stimulates muscle movements by counteracting the effects of muscle relaxants. (
  • The ultimate control over every muscle fiber is exerted by the brain, through the transmissions that it directs to the body through the central nervous system. (
  • Did you know you have more than 600 muscles in your body? (
  • Your brain and body tell these muscles what to do without you even thinking about it. (
  • The thick muscles of the heart contract to pump blood out and then relax to let blood back in after it has circulated through the body. (
  • Facial muscles don't all attach directly to bone like they do in the rest of the body. (
  • But even the basics may be a little confusing, so as you read this articles, find a mirror and locate the muscles on your own body. (
  • Gaining muscle and losing fat is all done by hormones, bodybuilders should have a basic understanding of the endocrine system (hormonal system) of the human body. (
  • The Amino EAA product from Laperva Company is one of the world's most distinguished nutritional supplements for building the body and muscles with a comprehensive formula of essential amino acids in addition to glutamine and special absorption stimulants (AstraGin) to ensure efficient absorption and bioavailability in the blood plasma, and thus the efficiency of the vital processes associated with the product. (
  • It is a non-essential amino acid (it is manufactured inside the body, especially in the skeletal muscles, so it is not essential in the diet, but it is a conditional amino acid, that is, it must be taken in the diet in special cases, such as after strenuous exercises and in cases of fatigue and exhaustion. (
  • As a result, it leads to stimulation of muscles, increase in heart rate, and decrease in body secretions. (
  • For example, studies in primates and humans have shown distinct superior and inferior zones within the horizontal rectus muscles. (
  • Decreased resting levels of adenine nucleotides in human skeletal muscle after high-intensity training. (
  • These results suggest that BSA modulates the response of the human skeletal muscle SR Ca2+-release channel to activators such as caffeine and ATP. (
  • In the present study we used human skinned muscle fibers to explore the functional interaction of BSA with the Ca 2+ -release channel. (
  • 1990. Seasonal concentrations of cesium-137 in rumen content, skeletal muscles and feces of caribou from the porcupine herd: lichen ingestion rates and implications for human consumption. (
  • Skeletal muscle vector illustration diagram, anatomical scheme with human hand. (
  • This article describes the structure, histologic features, and ultrastructural features of normal adult human skeletal muscle and addresses the results of improper specimen handling during muscle biopsy. (
  • abstract = "The kinetics of dissociation from both ends of thick filaments in a muscle fiber was investigated by an optical diffraction method. (
  • Evaluation of autophagy flux could be challenging for muscle fibers due to the baseline expression of mCherry-EGFP-LC3 along the Z-line. (
  • Photomicrographs of cross sections of muscle fibers of a collagenase-injected, denervated equine SL showing the histologic changes in the atrophied muscle fibers. (
  • Four muscles that move your hyoid bone (a bone at the top of your neck, just below your jawline) when you swallow and speak. (
  • Four muscles below your hyoid bone that move your larynx (voice box) up and down. (
  • Four muscles just below the occipital bone at the base of your skull. (
  • In most cases, a skeletal muscle is attached to one end of a bone. (
  • IGF-1 is mainly responsible for long bone growth in children and it also affects muscle growth and repair of adults. (