The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
The removal or interruption of some part of the autonomic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The removal or interruption of some part of the sympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.
A syndrome of ORTHOSTATIC INTOLERANCE combined with excessive upright TACHYCARDIA, and usually without associated ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION. All variants have in common an excessively reduced venous return to the heart (central HYPOVOLEMIA) while upright.
Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a HEART RATE above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia.
A guanidine analog with specific affinity for tissues of the sympathetic nervous system and related tumors. The radiolabeled forms are used as antineoplastic agents and radioactive imaging agents. (Merck Index, 12th ed) MIBG serves as a neuron-blocking agent which has a strong affinity for, and retention in, the adrenal medulla and also inhibits ADP-ribosyltransferase.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A standard and widely accepted diagnostic test used to identify patients who have a vasodepressive and/or cardioinhibitory response as a cause of syncope. (From Braunwald, Heart Disease, 7th ed)
A significant drop in BLOOD PRESSURE after assuming a standing position. Orthostatic hypotension is a finding, and defined as a 20-mm Hg decrease in systolic pressure or a 10-mm Hg decrease in diastolic pressure 3 minutes after the person has risen from supine to standing. Symptoms generally include DIZZINESS, blurred vision, and SYNCOPE.
Symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion or autonomic overaction which develop while the subject is standing, but are relieved on recumbency. Types of this include NEUROCARDIOGENIC SYNCOPE; POSTURAL ORTHOSTATIC TACHYCARDIA SYNDROME; and neurogenic ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION. (From Noseworthy, JH., Neurological Therapeutics Principles and Practice, 2007, p2575-2576)
Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A spontaneous diminution or abatement of a disease over time, without formal treatment.
Surgical reinnervation of a denervated peripheral target using a healthy donor nerve and/or its proximal stump. The direct connection is usually made to a healthy postlesional distal portion of a non-functioning nerve or implanted directly into denervated muscle or insensitive skin. Nerve sprouts will grow from the transferred nerve into the denervated elements and establish contact between them and the neurons that formerly controlled another area.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.
A slowly progressive condition of unknown etiology, characterized by deposition of fibrous tissue in the retroperitoneal space compressing the ureters, great vessels, bile duct, and other structures. When associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm, it may be called chronic periaortitis or inflammatory perianeurysmal fibrosis.
Appliances that close a cleft or fissure of the palate.
A pelvic hernia through the obturator foramen, a large aperture in the hip bone normally covered by a membrane. Obturator hernia can lead to intestinal incarceration and INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION.
The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to the lower extremity. The obturator nerve provides motor innervation to the adductor muscles of the thigh and cutaneous sensory innervation of the inner thigh.
The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.
Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Difficult or labored breathing.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
Analogs or derivatives of scopolamine.
The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Radiography of the bronchial tree after injection of a contrast medium.

The effect of denervation and dystrophy on the adaptation of sarcomere number to the functional length of the muscle in young and adult mice. (1/810)

In young animals the elongation of the limb bones increases the functional lengths of the muscles. In adult animals the functional length of a muscle can be increased by immobilizing it in the lengthened position. In both cases the muscle adapts by adding on more sarcomeres in series. The role of the nerve supply in this adaptation has been investigated using denervated muscles and muscles from dystrophic animals where there is thought to be an abnormality of the nerve supply. Postnatal sarcomere addition in denervated muscles falls short of that of controls. Although this might mean that the nerve supply is necessary for normal addition of sarcomeres, it is just as likely that there is a change in gait resulting from denervation, which affects the sarcomere number. Sarcomere number in fully grown mice is not affected by denervation, nor is the ability of the muscle to adapt to immobilization in the lengthened position. This is true for fast-twitch as well as slow-twitch muscles. In dystrophic muscles postnatal sarcomere addition is normal, although the presence of a few short fibres in the muscle may mean that some muscle fibres cannot adapt to an increase in the functional length of the muscle accompanying bone growth. Adult dystrophic muscle is capable of adapting to immobilization in the lengthened position. However, although the total number of additional sarcomeres is the same as in normal immobilized muscle, they are added on at a slower rate. The experiments show that although denervated and dystrophic muscle fibres are in a state of atrophy they are still capable of adding on sarcomeres in series when the functional length of the muscle is increased. It would appear that the mechanism which enables the muscle to respond in this way to an increased functional length does not involve the nerve supply. This work was supported by a grant from the National Fund for Research into Crippling Diseases.  (+info)

Specific and innervation-regulated expression of the intermediate filament protein nestin at neuromuscular and myotendinous junctions in skeletal muscle. (2/810)

The intermediate filament proteins nestin, vimentin, and desmin show a specific temporal expression pattern during the development of myofibers from myogenic precursor cells. Nestin and vimentin are actively expressed during early developmental stages to be later down-regulated, vimentin completely and nestin to minimal levels, whereas desmin expression begins later and is maintained in mature myofibers, in which desmin participates in maintaining structural integrity. In this study we have analyzed the expression levels and distribution pattern of nestin in intact and denervated muscle in rat and in human. Nestin immunoreactivity was specifically and focally localized in the sarcoplasm underneath neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and in the vicinity of the myotendinous junctions (MTJs), ie, in regions associated with acetylcholine receptors (AChRs). This association prompted us to analyze nestin in neurogenically and myogenically denervated muscle. Immunoblot analysis disclosed a marked overall increase of accumulated nestin protein. Similar to the extrajunctional redistribution of AChRs in denervated myofibers, nestin immunoreactivity extended widely beyond the NMJ region. Re-innervation caused complete reversion of these changes. Our study demonstrates that the expression levels and distribution pattern of nestin are regulated by innervation, ie, signal transduction into myofibers.  (+info)

M2 receptors in genito-urinary smooth muscle pathology. (3/810)

In vitro bladder contractions in response to cumulative carbachol doses were measured in the presence of selective muscarinic antagonists from rats which had their major pelvic ganglion bilaterally removed (denervation, DEN) or from rats in which the spinal cord was injured (SCI) via compression. DEN induced both hypertrophy (505+/-51 mg bladder weight) and a supersensitivity of the bladders to carbachol (EC50=0.7+/-0.1 uM). Some of the SCI rats regained the ability to void spontaneously (SPV). The bladders of these animals weighed 184+/-17 mg, significantly less than the bladders of non voiding rats (NV, 644+/-92 mg). The potency of carbachol was greater in bladder strips from NV SCI animals (EC50=0.54+/-0.1 uM) than either bladder strips from SPV SCI (EC50=0.93+/-0.3 microM), DEN or control (EC50=1.2+/-0.1 microM) animals. Antagonist affinities in control bladders for antagonism of carbachol induced contractions were consistent with M3 mediated contractions. Antagonist affinities in DEN bladders for 4-diphenlacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (4-DAMP, 8.5) and para fluoro hexahydrosilodifenidol (p-F-HHSiD, 6.6); were consistent with M2 mediated contractions, although the methoctramine affinity (6.5) was consistent with M3 mediated contractions. p-F-HHSiD inhibited carbachol induced contraction with an affinity consistent with M2 receptors in bladders from NV SCI (pKb=6.4) animals and M3 receptors in bladders from SPV SCI animals (pKb=7.9). Subtype selective immunoprecipitation of muscarinic receptors revealed an increase in total and an increase in M2 receptor density with no change in M3 receptor density in bladders from DEN and NV SCI animals compared to normal or sham operated controls. M3 receptor density was lower in bladders from SPV SCI animals while the M2 receptor density was not different from control. This increase in M2 receptor density is consistent with the change in affinity of the antagonists for inhibition of carbachol induced contractions and may indicate that M2 receptors or a combination of M2 and M3 receptors directly mediate smooth muscle contraction in bladders from DEN and NV SCI rats.  (+info)

The observation of transplanted embryonic motoneurons in the denervated muscles of adult rats. (4/810)

OBJECTIVE: To observe the survival of embryonic motoneurons after they were transplanted into the denervated skeletal muscles and to find a new method to retard the atrophy of denervated muscles. METHODS: Dissociated embryonic motoneurons prelabled with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (Brdur) on the embryonic days 12 were injected into the denervated gastrocnemius muscles of adult rats. Then gastrocnemius muscles were processed with Nissl staining, acetylcholinesterase staining and Brdur immunocytochemical staining to show the implanted motoneurons at 9 and 22 weeks post-transplantation. Myofibrillar ATPase staining was used to show the morphology of muscle fibers. The rats in experimental group were implanted with embryonic motoneurons in the predenervation muscles, while the rats in control group were injected with just culture medium without motoneurons. RESULTS: Embryonic motoneurons survived, developed and extended long axons to form neuromuscular junctions with the denervated muscles. The differentiation of muscle fibers and fiber type grouping occurred among bigger fibers in experimental group. The transverse area was smaller and there was no apparent fiber type grouping in control group. CONCLUSIONS: Embryonic motoneurons can survive, develop and reinnervate denervated muscles after being transplanted into denervated muscles. It is worth further investigating on ameliorating the atrophy of denervated muscle.  (+info)

Cytosolic citrate and malonyl-CoA regulation in rat muscle in vivo. (5/810)

In liver, insulin and glucose acutely increase the concentration of malonyl-CoA by dephosphorylating and activating acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). In contrast, in incubated rat skeletal muscle, they appear to act by increasing the cytosolic concentration of citrate, an allosteric activator of ACC, as reflected by increases in the whole cell concentrations of citrate and malate [Saha, A. K., D. Vavvas, T. G. Kurowski, A. Apazidis, L. A. Witters, E. Shafrir, and N. B. Ruderman. Am. J. Physiol. 272 (Endocrinol. Metab. 35): E641-E648, 1997]. We report here that sustained increases in plasma insulin and glucose may also increase the concentration of malonyl-CoA in rat skeletal muscle in vivo by this mechanism. Thus 70 and 125% increases in malonyl-CoA induced in skeletal muscle by infusions of glucose for 1 and 4 days, respectively, and a twofold increase in its concentration during a 90-min euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp were all associated with significant increases in the sum of whole cell concentrations of citrate and/or malate. Similar correlations were observed in muscle of the hyperinsulinemic fa/fa rat, in denervated muscle, and in muscle of rats infused with insulin for 5 h. In muscle of 48-h-starved rats 3 and 24 h after refeeding, increases in malonyl-CoA were not accompanied by consistent increases in the concentrations of malate or citrate. However, they were associated with a decrease in the whole cell concentration of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA (LCFA-CoA), an allosteric inhibitor of ACC. The results suggest that increases in the concentration of malonyl-CoA, caused in rat muscle in vivo by sustained increases in plasma insulin and glucose or denervation, may be due to increases in the cytosolic concentration of citrate. In contrast, during refeeding after starvation, the increase in malonyl-CoA in muscle is probably due to another mechanism.  (+info)

Adaptive changes in motor activity associated with functional recovery following muscle denervation in walking cats. (6/810)

In this investigation we examined the changes in the pattern of activity in the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle in walking cats following transection of the nerves innervating synergist muscles (lateral gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris). Immediately following the nerve transections, there was a large increase in ankle flexion during early stance (from approximately 10 to approximately 30 degrees ) and a marked increase in the magnitude of the MG bursts during stance. We attribute this increase in the magnitude of the MG bursts to an increase in afferent feedback from the abnormally stretched MG muscle. During the week after the nerve transections, there was a progressive decrease in ankle yield. This improvement in ankle function was correlated with an increase in magnitude of two components of the MG bursts; the initial component starting during late swing and ending approximately 40 ms after ground contact, and a late component associated with stance. The time courses of the increases in the initial and late components of the MG bursts were different. Large and significant increases in the late component occurred the day after the nerve transections, whereas increases in the initial component occurred more gradually. This difference in time course was reflected in the kinematics of ankle movement. Over the first few days after the nerve transections, improvement in ankle movement occurred primarily late in the stance phase, and there was little change in ankle yield during early stance. At 1 wk, however, there was a significant reduction in ankle yield during early stance. This decreased yield was most likely due to an increase in stiffness of the MG muscle at the time of ground contact resulting from the increase in magnitude of the initial component of the MG bursts. The increases in the magnitude of the initial and late components of the MG bursts, as well as the improvement in ankle function, depended on use of the leg. All these changes were delayed by immobilizing the leg for 6 days in an extended position. We discuss possible mechanisms underlying the increase in the magnitude of the MG bursts and propose that proprioceptive signals from the stretched MG muscles provide an error signal for rescaling the magnitude of the centrally generated initial component. Our data support the concept that proprioceptive feedback functions to scale the magnitude of feed-forward motor commands to ensure they are appropriate for the biomechanical properties of the musculoskeletal system.  (+info)

Loss of distal axons and sensory Merkel cells and features indicative of muscle denervation in hindlimbs of P0-deficient mice. (7/810)

Mice lacking the major Schwann cell myelin component P0 show a severe dysmyelination with pathological features reminiscent of the Dejerine-Sottas syndrome in humans. Previous morphological and electrophysiological studies on these mice did not only demonstrate a compromised myelination and myelin maintenance, but were suggestive of an impairment of axons as well. Here, we studied the axonal pathology in P0-deficient mice by quantitative electron microscopy. In addition, we investigated epidermal receptor end organs by immunocytochemistry and muscle pathology by histochemistry. In proximal sections of facial and femoral nerves, axon calibers were significantly reduced, whereas the number of myelin-competent axons was not diminished in 5- and 17-month-old P0-deficient mice. However, in distal branches of the femoral and sciatic nerve (digital nerves innervating the skin of the first toe) the numbers of myelin-competent axons were reduced by 70% in 6-month-old P0-deficient mice. Immunolabeling of foot pads revealed a corresponding loss of Merkel cells by 75%, suggesting that survival of these cells is dependent on the presence or maintenance of their innervating myelinated axons. In addition, quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles showed pathological features indicative of denervation and axonal sprouting. These findings demonstrate that loss of an important myelin component can initiate degenerative mechanisms not only in the Schwann cell but also in the distal portions of myelinated axons, leading to the degeneration of specialized receptor end organs and impairment of muscle innervation.  (+info)

Anatomical study of the neural ganglionated plexus in the canine right atrium: implications for selective denervation and electrophysiology of the sinoatrial node in dog. (8/810)

The aim of the present study was to elucidate the topography and architecture of the intrinsic neural plexus (INP) in the canine right atrium because of its importance for selective denervation of the sinoatrial node (SAN). The morphology of the intrinsic INP was revealed by a histochemical method for acetylcholinesterase in whole hearts of 36 mongrel dogs and examined by stereoscopic, contact, and electron microscopes. At the hilum of the heart, nerves forming a right atrial INP were detected in five sites adjacent to the right superior pulmonary veins and superior vena cava (SVC). Nerves entered the epicardium and formed a INP, the ganglia of which, as a wide ganglionated field, were continuously distributed on the sides of the root of the SVC (RSVC). The epicardiac ganglia located on the RSVC were differentially involved in the innervation of the sinoatrial node, as revealed by epicardiac nerves emanating from its lower ganglia that proceed also into the atrial walls and right auricle. The INP on the RSVC (INP-RSVC) varied from animal to animal and in relation to the age of the animal. The INP-RSVC of juvenile dogs contained more small ganglia than that of adult animals. Generally, the canine INP-RSVC included 434+/-29 small, 17+/-4 medium-sized, and 3+/-1 large epicardiac ganglia that contained an estimated 44,700, 6,400, and 2,800 neurons, respectively. Therefore, the canine right atrium, including the SAN, may be innervated by more than 54,000 intracardiac neurons residing mostly in the INP-RSVC. In conclusion, the present study indicates that epicardiac ganglia that project to the SA-node are distributed more widely and are more abundant than was previously thought. Therefore, both selective and total denervation of the canine SAN should involve the whole region of the RSVC containing the INP-RSVC.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Number of contractions to maintain mass and force of a denervated rat muscle. AU - Dow, Douglas E.. AU - Cederna, Paul S.. AU - Hassett, Cheryl A.. AU - Kostrominova, Tatiana. AU - Faulkner, John A.. AU - Dennis, Robert G.. PY - 2004/7. Y1 - 2004/7. N2 - Within 5 weeks, denervated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of rats lose 66% of mass, 91% of force, and 76% of fiber cross-sectional area (CSA). We previously determined the parameters of electrical stimulation for denervated rat EDL muscles to generate tetanic contractions sufficient to maintain mass and force close to control values. Using these parameters, we tested the hypothesis that a range exists for number of contractions per day, below and above which values for mass, maximum force, and fiber CSA are lower than values for innervated control muscles. For 5 weeks, denervated EDL muscles were stimulated to generate between 25 and 5000 contractions daily with contractions separated by constant intervals of rest, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A comparison of the effects of some metal ions on innervated and denervated mouse diaphragm preparations. AU - Fu, W. M.. AU - Chou, D. S.. PY - 1991/1/1. Y1 - 1991/1/1. N2 - A greater degree of contracture was produced in denervated as opposed to innervated mouse diaphragm preparations in response to acetylcholine, high K+ and caffeine. However, N-ethylmaleimide elicited a greater contracture in innervated than in denervated muscle. In innervated muscles metal ions (Cd2+, 0.5 μM; Zn2+, 0.5 μM and Cu2+, 0.1 mM) induced contractures and a decrease of ATP content. These effects were less marked in denervated muscle. In a comparative study, the mitochondrial uncoupler dinitrophenol (0.01 mM) decreased ATP content and also induced a contracture of the innervated mouse diaphragm but had only a feeble effect on the denervated muscle. In 0.25 mM Ca2+ Krebs solution, low concentration of Cd2+ and Zn2+ (both 0.1 mM) increased both the amplitude and duration of contractions to direct ...
Based on reports that S1P-receptor signaling is involved in neuronal plasticity (e.g., [34, 40, 41]), regulation of neurite remodeling (e.g., [40, 42]), and neuroprotection (e.g., [33, 43, 44]) and also because of the relevance of FTY720 in the treatment of MS, we wondered whether FTY720 could have an influence on denervation-induced dendritic changes. Indeed, FTY720 prevented the denervation-induced reduction in TDL. Furthermore, dynamic imaging revealed that FTY720 stabilizes denervated dendrites and thus prevents the denervation-induced change in the balance of dendritic retraction and elongation. This neuro-stabilization seems to be a direct effect of FTY720 on neural tissue, since the peripheral immune system, which is regarded as the main target of FTY720, is missing in organotypic slice culture preparations. To control for off-target effects of FTY720 (and its agonist-antagonist properties; [16-18]), we repeated these experiments with the S1PR1/3-inhibitor VPC23019 and obtained very ...
The properties of denervated muscle fibers are respecified by the activity level of the reinnervating motoneuron, and the force generated by a motor unit gradually becomes proportional to the size of its motoneuron. Only 50-75% of muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs are reinnervated, many of these respond abnormally to stretch, and the monosynaptic stretch reflex does not recover. The motor system can compensate for nerve transfer in higher primates and humans, but is unable to compensate for the disordered reinnervation that follows nerve repair even in young humans. Cutaneous sensory receptors are reinnervated in reduced numbers and have altered receptive field properties. Sensory cortex in area 3b and both the cuneate nucleus and VP nucleus of the thalamus undergo rapid changes in response to denervation in non-human primates. Initial cortical territories are restored after nerve crush, but digital projections remain highly disordered after nerve transection and repair. ...
Molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase in the rat extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles regenerating from notexin-induced necrosis ...
We measured glucose metabolism in five dogs before and 3 weeks after cardiac denervation; after this time myocardial norepinephrine is depleted. The discharge by the myocardium, of 14CO2 from infused 14C-D-glucose (U), decreased following denervation (P = 0.05). The ratio of 14CO2 to total CO2 production, which measured the proportion of glucose to total substrate oxidized, also decreased following denervation (P = 0.05). The inhibition of glucose oxidation by denervation was not due to an increase in arterial lactate concentration. There was an associated increase in myocardial content of fructose-6-phosphate in an additional seven dogs (P , 0.01). We postulate that myocardial tissue norepinephrine is one of the controllers of the activity of phosphofructokinase. ...
Neurobiologist from the Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research proved that excitability protects motoneurons from degeneration in amyotropic lateral sclerosis, a rare neurodegenerative disease. By modulating excitability they could influence the rate of motor dysfunction and muscle denervation, and slow the progression rate of the disease. This is important because it points to a possible way to delay the progression of this so far incurable disease. Their results are published online in Neuron. Neurodegenerative diseases start silently. For years, the disease causes damage, while the nervous system compensates and adapts, keeping up a semblance of normalcy. By the time the symptoms appear and the patient seeks the advice of a physician, it is no longer clear what changes in the nervous system were caused by the disease, what by compensation. This has hampered progress in understanding of neurodegenerative disorders for decades. Only recently scientists have obtained the scientific ...
2011), and fractured bones (Abdelmagid et al. 2010). In vitro studies have shown that Gpnmb induces osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation (Selim et al. 2003; Selim et al. 2007; Abdelmagid et al. 2008; Sheng et al. 2008). In Selleckchem SB715992 denervated mouse skeletal muscles, Gpnmb upregulates MMP-3 and MMP-9 in infiltrating fibroblasts (Ogawa et al. 2005). Gpnmb also functions as an inhibitor of T lymphocytes (Chung et al. 2007) and macrophages (Ripoll et al. 2007). These findings demonstrated the multiple roles of Gpnmb in normal tissues. However, with regard to. the nervous system, Gpnmb expression has been exclusively investigated in glioblastomas. Its expression in the normal brain is still unclear. Some studies steadily detected Gpnmb mRNA (Safadi et al. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 2002; Onaga et al. 2003; Owen et al. 2003), but others not (Loging, et al. 2000; Shikano et al. 2001; Kuan et al. 2006). Moreover, little is known about the regional distribution and cellular ...
Expression of the growth factor osteoactivin (OA) increases during tissue degeneration and regeneration, fracture repair and after denervation-induced disuse atrophy, concomitant with increased matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). However, OAs expression with repetitive overuse injuries is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate: 1) OA expression in an operant rat model of repetitive overuse; 2) expression of MMPs; 3) inflammatory cytokines indicative of injury or inflammation; and 4) the inducible form of heat shock protein 70 (HSPA1A/HSP72) as the latter is known to increase during metabolic stress and to be involved in cellular repair. Young adult female rats performed a high repetition negligible force (HRNF) food retrieval task for up to 6 weeks and were compared to control rats.. Flexor digitorum muscles and tendons were collected from 22 young adult female rats performing a HRNF reaching task for 3 to 6 weeks, and 12 food restricted control (FRC) rats. OA mRNA levels were assessed by ...
Shyng, S., Xu, R. and Salpeter, M. (1991). Cyclic AMP stabilizes the degradation of original junctional acetylcholine receptors in denervated muscle. Neuron, 6(3), pp.469-475 ...
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Author: Borroni, E. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 1985-08; Title: The localization and rate of disappearance of a synaptic vesicle antigen following denervation.
Development of the muscular saphenous artery and the effect of surgical denervation on normal development was investigated in young rats at 3 and 6 weeks of age. During this interval, the weight and blood pressures (systolic, diastolic, and mean) of the animals increased significantly. The tunica media of the artery and the lumen increased significantly with age, but the proportion of smooth muscle cell to paracellular matrix did not alter. Computer-assisted three-dimensional reconstructions were used to investigate the smooth muscle cells. They increased significantly in length, volume, and angle of orientation within the vessel wall with age but maintained an approximate surface area-to-volume ratio. The cells in any one vessel tended to be oriented in either a clockwise or counterclockwise direction. The size of the nucleus also increased significantly in length and volume with age, but an approximate surface area-to-volume ratio and a constant nucleocytoplasmic ratio were maintained. The ...
1. DFP and TEPP produce readily reversible (by time) decreases in (a) the tension developed by directly stimulated, denervated skeletal muscle; (b) the amplitude of the spike potential of nerve; (c) the tension developed by skeletal muscle stimulated by slow (30/minute) excitation of its motor nerve; and (d) spinal and respiratory reflexes.. 2. Within the duration of our experiments (10 hours), DFP and TEPP produce irreversible decreases in (a) cholinesterase in the motor end-plate on skeletal muscle; (b) cholinesterase in the spinal cord; and (c) the ability of skeletal muscle to maintain a plateau of tension during excitation of its motor nerve at 50/second.. 3. Animals which had died after administration of DFP had complete or nearly complete removal of cholinesterase activity from the motor end-plates of skeletal muscle and from the spinal cord; TEPP can produce death despite the presence of considerable quantities of cholinesterase in the spinal cord and in the respiratory and other ...
The presence of muscle fasciculations can be categorized as benign, or secondary to disease. The generation of benign fasciculations is caused by the spread of activation (in some cases secondary to irritation of muscle due to multiple etiologies, as mentioned below) of adjacent muscle fibers (via ephaptic transmission). By contrast, disruption of the motounit and resulting muscle denervation is thought to be the underlying cause of fasciculations in disease states. Many different factors can give rise to such acute denervation. From an infectious perspective, poliomyositis can cause motor neuron death and denervation, giving rise to fasciculations (although in this setting there is elevated CK and noticeable development of muscle weakness). In general, any etiology that disrupts the motounit integrity can give rise to fasciculations occurring in disease states (eg, numerous types of neuropathies including motor neuron disease ...
Clone REA501 recognizes the mouse embigin antigen, a single-pass type I membrane protein, which is also known as teratocarcinoma glycoprotein Gp-70. Embigin is a developmentally expressed protein that is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily class of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). It is strongly expressed in mouse embryos between five and nine days of gestation but only weakly in adult organs. Embigin plays a role in the outgrowth of motoneurons and in the formation of neuromuscular junctions. Following muscle denervation, embigin promotes nerve terminal sprouting and the formation of additional acetylcholine receptor clusters at synaptic sites without affecting the terminal Schwann cell number or their morphology.Additional information: Clone REA501 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Deutschland
Regular aerobic exercise with sufficient intensity can improve overall health, however daily energy expenditure is low in those with SCI, especially in those with high level lesions. We have developed Functional Electrical Stimulation Row Training (FESRT) that couples volitional arm and electrically controlled leg exercise, increasing the active muscle and resulting in benefits of large muscle mass exercise. Despite the potential for enhancing aerobic capacity, those with high level lesions (C4 to T2) have a remaining obstacle to attaining higher work capacities they have the greatest pulmonary muscle denervation and our preliminary work suggests this limits the aerobic capacity that can be achieved with FESRT. External ventilatory support could improve the ability to exercise train and hence enhance the adaptations to chronic exercise in high level SCI. Non invasive ventilation (NIV) during exercise training has been shown to improve gains in exercise capacity in those with similarly ...
A major hallmark of brain diseases is neuroinflammation. We are interested in how immune mediators affect synaptic plasticity. Particularly, our work focuses on better understanding how these factors influence intracellular calcium stores, i.e. the spine apparatus organelle, and how these changes alter the ability of neurons to express associative and homeostatic synaptic plasticity. We study the role of coagulation factors in this context and test whether these changes can be modified by rTMS.. Ben Shimon M*, Lenz M*, Ikenberg B, Becker D, Shavit Stein E, Chapmann J, Tanne D, Pick CG, Blatt I, Neufeld M, Vlachos A*, Maggio N*° (2015) Thrombin regulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity: implications for health and disease. Front Cel Neurosci. 9: 151.. Becker D, Deller T, Vlachos A° (2015) Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor 1 and 2 mediate homeostatic synaptic plasticity of denervated mouse dentate granule cells. Sci Rep. 5: 12726.. Strehl A, Lenz M, Itsekson-Hayosh Z, Becker D, ...
The lumbrical muscles of the hand are four small, fleshy muscles that are associated with tendons between the four fingers of the hand. Each lumbrical muscle flexes the corresponding digital joint to extend the finger in question.. ...
I can understand your worry, i have every symptom i read on this board in just a short time of 5 months. Maybe my story will ease your mind or make you want to sort out better medical far i have been seen by 3 different neurologist, a team of neurologist whilst in hosptial for my symptoms and i have had every blood test most drs will order, a mri of spine which showed abnormalities, a mri of the brain which showed abnormalities, and a emg which showed chronic denervation in all my muslces tested, yet my neurologists rule out ALS even with my emg findings because of my clinical exam being fine each time they check me. Twithcing is definitely not something they will diagnose ALS off from my experience, you have to have some clear weakness and a very conclusive als type dirty emg reading before they will go near a diagnoses. So keep your spirits high and be happy that it was twitches you woke up with and not weakness or paralized limbs or severe bulbar issues because that to my ...
3. Compare and contrast these action potentials, in terms of ionic changes, the various ion channels and the effect of autonomic innervation on electrical changes ...
Would you like to know more about the performance of your product? Does your product meet the required specifications, or does it fail in practice and do you want to know why?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Amelioration of denervation-induced atrophy by clenbuterol is associated with increased PKC-alpha activity. AU - Sneddon, Alan Arthur. AU - Delday, Margaret Inkster. AU - Maltin, Charlotte. PY - 2000/7. Y1 - 2000/7. N2 - Rat soleus muscle was denervated for 3 or 7 days, and total membrane protein kinase C (PKC) activity and translocation and immunocytochemical localization of PKC isoforms were examined. Dietary administration of clenbuterol concomitant with denervation ameliorated the atrophic response and was associated with increased membrane PKC activity at both 3 (140%) and 7 (190%) days. Of the five PKC isoforms (alpha, epsilon, theta, zeta, and mu) detected in soleus muscle by Western immunoblotting, clenbuterol treatment affected only the PKC-alpha and PKC-theta forms. PKC-alpha was translocated to the membrane fraction upon denervation, and the presence of clenbuterol increased membrane-bound PKC-alpha and active PKC-alpha as assayed by Ser(657) phosphorylation. PKC-theta ...
1. The incorporation into protein, and the accumulation into the free amino acid pools, of radioactive l-leucine and glycine was studied in rat extensor digitorum longus muscle. 2. The tissue was incubated first with 14C-labelled and then with 3H-labelled amino acid. 3. The experimental results were consistent with a model based on the premise that the amino acids in protein were incorporated directly from the extracellular pool.. ...
Skeletal muscle atrophy is thought to result from hyperactivation of intracellular protein degradation pathways including autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. actin (HSA) MLN2238 promoter (KO mice) and subjected them to denervation. The plantaris muscles a fast-twitch glycolytic skeletal muscle from both KO and control (KO mice showed resistance to denervation at 7 d after denervation (Fig.?1B-D; Fig. S2A). However the soleus muscles from KO mice and control mice exhibited comparable muscle mass and myofiber size at 14 d after denervation. Notably dead myofibers were frequently observed in the KO soleus muscles at 14 d (Fig.?1C). The enhanced cell death at 14 d most likely contributes to the shrinking of the soleus muscle of KO mice. The phenotypes of soleus muscles of KO mice at 14 d after denervation are coincident with the previous study.4 However the phenotypes at a period earlier than 14 d after denervation were not investigated in that study. Thus our finding seemed to reflect ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Use of Postexercise Ultrasonography to Identify a Symptomatic Extensor Digitorum Longus Muscle Hernia Associated with Running. AU - Henning, Phillip Troy. AU - Dahm, Diane L.. AU - Smith, Jay. PY - 2009/12/1. Y1 - 2009/12/1. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1016/j.pmrj.2009.10.011. DO - 10.1016/j.pmrj.2009.10.011. M3 - Article. C2 - 20006319. AN - SCOPUS:72149131484. VL - 1. SP - 1109. EP - 1111. JO - PM and R. JF - PM and R. SN - 1934-1482. IS - 12. ER - ...
[Introduction - While it is several decades ago that electrophysiological studies in the early stages after an ischaemic stroke revealed spontaneous activity in the affected muscles, today few data are available on the peripheral changes in later stages after a cerebrovascular event. The aim of this study was to detect electrophysiological signs that could indicate changes at the motor unit level occurring within a longer post-stroke period. Patients and methods - Forty-four patients who had developed hemiparesis after an ischaemic stroke in the area of the middle cerebral artery were involved in the study. Motor and sensory nerve conduction studies and electromyography were carried out on each side on six nerves and in five muscles respectively. Values between the affected and unaffected side were compared by statistical methods. Results - In patients with hemiparesis present for less then nine months, low M wave amplitudes, fibrillation potentials and an increased number of complex motor unit
Mittal et al. compared how mice expressing different amounts of TWEAK responded when the nerve innervating their hind legs was severed. Mice producing excess TWEAK lost their muscle more quickly than wild-type animals, whereas mice lacking this cytokine were largely protected from muscle breakdown. TWEAK levels also correlated with the amount of fibrosis, another common symptom of muscle disuse. Inhibiting TWEAK with a neutralizing antibody was sufficient to block muscle loss following denervation, suggesting that the pathway could be a viable therapeutic target. TWEAK signaling activated the transcription factor NF-kB to up-regulate the ubiquitin ligase MuRF-1, which targets components of the muscle thick filament for destruction.. ...
METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to either a trained (TR, N.=8) or a control (CO, N.=8) group. The trained group underwent a 5-wk anaerobic training program (5 d∙wk-1; 25 sessions) using a water-jump exercise model. The CO group was not exposed to any training stimuli throughout the study. After the 5-wk experiment period, animals were euthanized and the diaphragm muscle was collected to morphometrical (diameter measurement) and ultrastructural (structural features) analysis of the NMJ ...
Object: The gold standard for reconstructing large nerve defects, the nerve autograft, results in donor-site morbidity. This detrimental consequence drives the search for alternatives. We used a vein filled with a small piece of fresh muscle to prevent the vein from collapsing and with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) to enhance regeneration. Methods: In 60 rats, a 15-mm sciatic nerve defect was bridged with a nerve autograft, a vein filled with muscle or a vein filled with muscle and BMSCs. Toe spread and pinprick were used to evaluate motor and sensory function. Compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) and the gastrocnemius muscle index (GMI) were recorded to assess conduction properties and denervation atrophy. Extensive histology was performed to confirm presence of BMSCs and to evaluate regeneration by staining neural tissue for Schwann cells and neural growth factor. Results: After 12 weeks, all animals responded with toe spread and pinprick reaction; significant differences were found ...
Definition of sternomastoid muscle. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Includes medical terms and definitions.
Skeletal muscle mass is regulated by a complex array of signaling pathways. TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is an important signaling protein, which regulates context-dependent activation of multiple intracellular pathways. However, the role of TAK1 in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass remains unknown. Here, we report that inducible inactivation of TAK1 causes severe muscle wasting, leading to kyphosis, in both young and adult mice.. Inactivation of TAK1 inhibits protein synthesis and induces proteolysis, potentially through upregulating the activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy. Phosphorylation and enzymatic activity of AMPK are increased, whereas levels of phosphorylated mTOR and p38 MAPK are diminished upon inducible inactivation of TAK1 in skeletal muscle. In addition, targeted inactivation of TAK1 leads to the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria and oxidative stress in skeletal muscle of adult mice. Inhibition of TAK1 does not attenuate denervation-induced ...
The primary novel finding of the present study is that sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone of the lower limb (i.e., leg) is augmented in old compared with young women. Specifically, young women exhibit no detectable sympathetic vasoconstriction in their leg vasculature at rest. Conversely, there appears to be robust vasoconstriction in the resting lower limbs of older women. Collectively, these findings suggest that with advanced age there is an emergence of a sympathetic neural influence on leg vascular tone in women. These conclusions are based on the observation that acute sympathetic inhibition via carotid artery baroreceptor loading increased femoral artery vascular conductance (FVC; Fig. 1) ~21% in old women, whereas FVC was unchanged in the younger women with the same intervention.. It is well established that muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) is augmented with age in women (Ng et al. 1993; Matsukawa et al. 1998; Moreau et al. 2003; Narkiewicz et al. 2005; Hart et al. 2011; Barnes ...
The MR changes that accompany cranial and peripheral motor denervation are well described and include asymmetrical decrease in affected muscle volume, fatty infiltration of the involved muscle group, and variable signal intensity changes, including both T2 prolongation and postcontrast enhancement (2, 3, 5, 7-9). While CT is able to demonstrate only the chronic changes of atrophy and fatty replacement (1), the superior soft tissue contrast of MR facilitates the depiction of the progressive evolution from an acute phase to a subacute and then to a chronic phase that denervated muscle may undergo. In some patients with peripheral neuropathy and either spontaneous resolution of paralysis or surgical nerve grafting, acute or subacute changes have been shown to be reversible on MR imaging, corroborating clinical evidence of reinnervation (7, 9). To our knowledge, this reversibility has not been demonstrated in the setting of cranial neuropathy, presumably because the processes that lead to MR ...
Citation: Hausman, G.J., Barb, C.R., Lents, C.A. 2012. Leptin and reproductive function. Biochimie. 94:2075-2081. Interpretive Summary: Leptin is an important metabolic signal made and secreted by fat cells. Leptin monitors the amount of body fat, nutritional status and shifts in the regulators of the reproductive system. A new neural regulator called kisspeptin is a key part of the central pathway by which leptin affects secretion of ket regulators of reproduction. Infertility observed in animals with alterations in circulating levels of leptin or alterations in brain sensitivity to leptin can partially be explained by suppression of kisspeptin. Continued examination for new neural regulators will ultimately result in the capability to control reproduction through the leptin system. Technical Abstract: Adipose tissue plays a dynamic role in whole-body homeostasis by acting as an endocrine organ. Collective evidence indicates a strong link between neural influences and adipocyte expression and ...
Defecation is actually a synchronized sequence of events associated with neural influences. There are several reflexes that are related to the physiology of defecation.
A new study about crucial risk management issues relating to Arctic operations is released by DNV and the Fridtjof Nansen Institute (FNI).
DNV GL led a pilot project with Aker BP to remotely perform inspections on three of their offshore cranes on the Norwegian Continental Shelf.
Following denervation skeletal muscles change their functional and structural properties. Some changes resemble conditions in developing muscles and may be important for reinnervation. Due to inactivity following denervation most skeletal muscles loose muscle mass and become atrophic. The hemidiaphragm muscle, however, undergoes a phase of transient hypertrophy following denervation, gaining weight during the first 6-10 days followed by a decrease in weight. In this thesis the expression (mRNA, protein and protein phosphorylations) of potential factors involved in the regulation of muscle mass were examined in denervated hind-limb and hemidiaphragm muscles.. NIFK is a protein that associates with Ki67, a protein expressed predominantly in proliferating cells. The mRNA expression of NIFK was upregulated in denervated atrophic muscles but unaltered in denervated hypertrophic muscles, suggesting a potential role in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass (Paper I). p38 MAPK has previously been ...
2016 Annual Meeting: Growth Hormone Ameliorates the Effects of Chronic Denervation Injury on Peripheral Nerve Regeneration and Improves Upper Extremity Murine Function
Paralysis of the tongue can be a symptom of a heterogeneous spectrum of pathologies, and imaging of the potentially affected regions in the central and peripheral nervous system is an essential element of the diagnostic work-up. In case of a suspected lesion of the hypoglossal nerve, radiologic standards have been established. The medullary, cisternal, and skull base segments of the hypoglossal nerve course are examined with CT and MR imaging according to the strengths of these imaging modalities in imaging soft-tissue or bony structures. For the neck segment of the hypoglossal nerve, CT and MR imaging have also been advocated as the primary imaging modalities.19⇓-21 Here, the hypoglossal nerve is assessed indirectly by delineating the muscles innervated by the nerve and by detecting potential pathologies that are in the vicinity of the expected course of the nerve. Muscle atrophy or muscle denervation changes can indirectly indicate pathology of the hypoglossal nerve, but they are not direct ...
Renal denervation with ultrasound after performed after prior denervation with radiofrequency seems to be safe. After an initial decrease of blood pressure after one month, we observed an increase in blood pressure in this small number of patients, a finding which has not been seen in other denervation studies, said Sievert.. RETREAT is a physician-initiated prospective, multicentre study with no industry funding in which 30 patients will be enrolled. Its purpose is to evaluate the effect of renal denervation using ultrasound energy (with Recors Paradise system) after failed denervation with radiofrequency (with Medtronics Symplicity system).. Sievert said: Enrolment in the RETREAT study coincided with the publication of the SYMPLICITY HTN-3 study results following which the reimbursement for renal denervation was stopped in Germany. There was a decline in referrals for renal denervation and new treatment modalities for hypertension began to be explored. This resulted in enrolment becoming ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The membrane potential of rat diaphragm muscle fibres and the effect of denerevation. AU - Bray, JJ. AU - Hawken, Michael. AU - Hubbard, JI. AU - Pockett, S. AU - Wilson, L. PY - 1976. Y1 - 1976. M3 - Article. VL - 255. SP - 651. EP - 667. JO - Journal of Physiology. JF - Journal of Physiology. SN - 0022-3751. ER - ...
The permeability characteristics of D- and L-xylose and D- and L-arabinose have been compared in isolated intact rat diaphragm muscle preparations, in the absence and presence of exogenous insulin. In the absence of added insulin, these pentoses distribute in less than a third of the total cell water. In the presence of added insulin, intracellular distribution of all these pentoses is increased. L-Xylose and D-arabinose distribute in 50 per cent of the intracellular water, whereas D-xylose and L-arabinose distribute in 80 per cent of the cell water. A significant lag period was observed before the insulin effect upon the penetration of L-xylose and D-arabinose was evident whereas the effect upon D-xylose and L-arabinose was rapid. The lag period with L-xylose could be abolished by pretreating the tissues with insulin for 1 hour, but such pretreatment had little effect on D-xylose. These results indicate that insulin has a biphasic effect upon the monosaccharide exclusion system in diaphragm ...
See related article, pp 1211-1217. The renal nerves play a dominant role in blood pressure (BP) regulation. The intricate interplay between afferent sensory nerves, efferent sympathetic nerves, and modulatory influences mediated by mechano- and chemoreceptors render the renal nerves an attractive therapeutic target.1 Indeed, elegant experimental studies in a range of animal models1 and application of radiotracer dilution to assess spillover of noradrenaline released from sympathetic nerves to plasma2 have provided unequivocal evidence for a strong neurogenic component of the BP rise in patients with hypertension. In animal experiments, surgical denervation of the kidneys was used primarily to gain a better understanding of their role in regulation of renal function and BP control. However, the idea of targeting sympathetic nerves therapeutically including those innervating the kidneys was soon introduced clinically to treat patients with nephritis3 and severe hypertension,4 most commonly by ...
Covidien [1] plc has announced it will exit its OneShot Renal Denervation program. This voluntary action is primarily in response to slower than expected development of the renal denervation market.. The OneShot system is an over-the-wire balloon-based irrigated catheter technology for the treatment of hypertension. The system received CE Mark in February 2012 and is not approved for sale in the United States.. This decision resulted from Covidiens regular review of strategic programs and growth potential for various aspects of its product portfolio.. As a result of this decision the company will not proceed with its RAPID II randomized study. Additionally, Covidien expects to record after-tax charges in the range of $20 to $25 million as a result of exiting the OneShot program.. Over the next several weeks, the company will collaborate with physicians and the renal denervation community to ensure existing OneShot patients are informed and the currently enrolling clinical trials are ...
Disc denervation is used to treat chronic disc-related or discogenic pain using radiofrequency ablation to destroy affected nerves causing pain.
Peter A. Brady, M.B., Ch.B., M.D., and Rajiv Gulati, M.D., Ph.D., discuss renal denervation following the SYMPLICITY HTN-3 trial.
Facet Denervation is available in Charlottesville VA. Facet Joints are the joints between the vertebrae in your spine that allow flexibility in the back.
A. Jouvenceau, J.M. Billard, R. Wiley, Y. Lamour, P. Dutar. Cholinergic denervation of the rat hippocampus by 192-lgG-saporin. NeuroReport, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 1994, 5 (14), pp.1781-1784. ⟨10.1097/00001756-199409080-00024⟩. ⟨hal-02325730⟩ ...
This site is meant for educational purposes only no medical advice is given or implied. Renal denervation is still an experimental treatment in many parts of the world, including the United States.. If you are already registered,please enter your email here.. ...
Researchers at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago are reporting in the latest JAMA about the success of a surgical technique for people using prosthet
For patients with flaccid paralysis, the timing of intervention is critical because reinnervation options require the presence of viable muscle. Once denervated, muscle will begin to atrophy and fibrose after 12-18 months, and axons regrow at ~1 mm per day; therefore, even after a nerve repair is performed, it can still take months for the axons to reach the target motor endplates.
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... a novel neurite-outgrowth factor secreted by muscle after denervation". NeuroReport. 8 (16): 3649-3654. doi:10.1097/00001756- ... A novel neurite outgrowth factor from chick denervated skeletal muscle has been cloned and characterised. The protein, termed ...
Garcia A, Fulton JE (1996). "Cosmetic denervation of the muscles of facial expression with botulinum toxin. A dose-response ... A comparable process takes place in muscles, in which the myosin heads must first hydrolyze ATP in order to adapt the necessary ... These toxins prevent proper vesicle recycling and result in poor muscle control, spasms, paralysis, and even death. Botulinum ... Wheeler AH (1998). "Botulinum toxin A, adjunctive therapy for refractory headaches associated with pericranial muscle tension ...
Denervation increases a neurite-promoting activity in extracts of skeletal muscle. Nature. 1983 Apr 14;302(5909):609-11. Betz H ... A full mechanistic model of the nicotinic receptor from striated muscle (or electric organ) was to be provided much later, when ... Klarsfeld A., Laufer R., Fontaine B., Devillers-Thiéry A., Dubreuil C., Changeux J.-P. (1989). Regulation of muscle AChR alpha- ... From the mid-1980s, the group studied the compartimentalisation of the muscle cell upon development, as a model of ...
4) Denervation supersensitivity. Like any denervated muscle, the iris becomes supersensitive to its normal neurotransmitter (in ... These neurons supply the pupillary sphincter muscle, which constricts the pupil, and the ciliary muscle which contracts to make ... These neurons project axons through the short ciliary nerves to innervate the ciliary muscle and pupillary sphincter muscle. ... The ciliary muscle is also more massive than the constrictor pupillae, again by a factor of twenty. Based on these observations ...
May 2009). "Age-related fatigue resistance in the knee extensor muscles is specific to contraction mode". Muscle Nerve. 39 (5 ... Some spindles show changes consistent with denervation associated with grouped denervation atrophy. Age-related changes are ... For instance, the number of motor units may decrease, the size of the motor units, i.e. the number of muscle fibers they ... They propagate in the spinal cord, the motor neurons and the set of muscle fibers they innervate. This results in a twitch ...
Muscle excitability decreased early after denervation. Chronaxie from 0.1-0.2 ms in innervated muscle changed to 0.5-1 ms ... "long-term denervation stage" of the rat model, i.e., denervation time longer than six months). In 3 out of 36 leg muscles, ... Several studies have suggested that the function of denervation-induced myoD may be to prevent the muscle atrophy induced by ... Chronaxie varies across different types of tissue: fast-twitch muscles have a lower chronaxie, slow-twitch muscles have a ...
Surgery, such as the denervation of selected muscles, may also provide some relief; however, the destruction of nerves in the ... There is a risk of temporary paralysis of the muscles being injected or the leaking of the toxin into adjacent muscle groups, ... When called upon to perform an intentional activity, the muscles fatigue very quickly and some portions of the muscle groups do ... Many sufferers have continuous pain, cramping, and relentless muscle spasms due to involuntary muscle movements. Other motor ...
Stöhr M (1977). "Benign fibrillation potentials in normal muscle and their correlation with endplate and denervation potentials ... Fibrillation also occurs with individual skeletal muscle fibers. This happens when muscle fibers lose contact with their ... the proteins that make up each muscle fiber (muscle cell). Reddy, Vivek; Taha, Wael; Kundumadam, Shanker; Khan, Mazhar (2017-07 ... In other cases they are a major symptom in acute and severe peripheral nerve disorders, in myopathies in which muscle fibers ...
Lieber RL, Steinman S, Barash IA, Chambers H (May 2004). "Structural and functional changes in spastic skeletal muscle". Muscle ... To avoid denervation caused by lack of stimulus, surgery should be done as soon as possible; however, it is often difficult to ... These grafts are taken from the masseter muscle, which controls mouth movement, or the hypoglossal nerve which controls the ... Such stem cells include bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSC), adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMCs), muscle ...
Muscles show fiber type grouping, a similarly nonspecific finding that indicates a cycle of denervation/reinnervation. Normally ... PT typically focuses on muscle-strength training, muscle stretching, and aerobic exercise, while OT can provide education on ... Wasting of muscle tissue of the lower parts of the legs may give rise to a "stork leg" or "inverted champagne bottle" ... To see signs of muscle weakness, the neurologist may ask patients to walk on their heels or to move part of their leg against ...
"Transient expression of collagen type XIV during muscle development and its reappearance after denervation and degeneration". J ...
In Horner's syndrome, the sympathetic innervation to the pupillary dilator muscle is lost. The affected pupil is thus miotic ... Koc F, Kansu T, Kavuncu S, Firat E (2006). "Topical apraclonidine testing discloses pupillary sympathetic denervation in ... When applied to the denervated (and thus hyper-sensitive) pupillary dilator muscle, a super-normal dilatory response is ... generated in which the pupil dilates to a degree greater than that which would be seen in a non-denervated muscle. This causes ...
After a denervation time of approximately more than 2 years, atrophy of the mimetic muscles is permanent. In these cases a free ... A free muscle transfer is also used, due to the atrophic muscle. Based on the preference of the surgeon, the gracilis muscle, ... A free muscle transfer is always used on the paralysed side, as the muscle is a congenital atrophic muscle. Complete bilateral ... Analogue to the gracilis muscle, this muscle can be trimmed to the correct size and volume. The latissimus dorsi muscle is also ...
If the median nerve is damaged, the ability to abduct and oppose the thumb may be lost due to paralysis of the thenar muscles. ... In uncooperative patients, the skin wrinkle test offers a pain-free way to identify denervation of the fingers. After ... The median nerve controls the majority of the muscles in the forearm. It controls abduction of the thumb, flexion of hand at ... Lack of ability to abduct and oppose the thumb due to paralysis of the thenar muscles. This is called "ape-hand deformity". ...
Denervation. When the afferent and efferent nerves are both destroyed, as they may be by tumors of the cauda equina or filum ... The smooth muscle of the bladder, known as the detrusor, is innervated by sympathetic nervous system fibers from the lumbar ... After urination, the female urethra empties partially by gravity, with assistance from muscles.[clarification needed] Urine ... Smooth muscle bundles pass on either side of the urethra, and these fibers are sometimes called the internal urethral sphincter ...
p-29 (1973) Changes in some of the properties of muscle membrane produced by chronic denervation in rat diaphragm. 11th Ann. ... Relative vapour pressure lowering in the skeletal muscles of different animals and in the denervated and tenotomised muscles of ... Free amino acids in blood, liver and muscle of Uromastix hardwickii. Pak. J. Biochem. 1 (1-2): 1-4 (1968). Synthesis of some ... 1(1): 16-32 (1979). Effect of temperature on the duration of active state in normal and denervated skeletal muscle. Nat. Sci. 1 ...
The smooth muscle of the blood vessels reacts to the stretching of the muscle by opening ion channels, which cause the muscle ... which could not be prevented by denervation or various blocking agents. Bayliss effect or Bayliss myogenic response is a ... Stretch of the muscle membrane opens a stretch-activated ion channel. The cells then become depolarized and this results in a ... The contracted state of the smooth muscle depends on the grade of stretch and plays an important part in the regulation of ...
Occasionally, biopsy of skin, nerve, or muscle may be performed, which can show signs of denervation and amyloid deposition ... Muscle & Nerve. 40 (3): 363-370. doi:10.1002/mus.21332. PMC 2735590. PMID 19618439. Shin, Susan C.; Robinson-Papp, Jessica ( ... slowed the progression of FAP over a 36-month period and importantly reversed the weight loss and muscle wasting associated ... may show evidence of chronic denervation and reinnervation. Autonomic testing, including quantitative sweat testing, can reveal ...
Changes in muscle strength are determined in specific muscle groups using various muscle scales that quantify] strength, such ... What disturbs the denervation-reinnervation equilibrium and causes peripheral denervation, though, is still unclear. With age, ... The overuse and underuse of muscles also may contribute to muscle weakness. Another theory is that people who have recovered ... Muscle strength and endurance training are more important in managing the symptoms of PPS than the ability to perform enduring ...
Although MRI may show denervation atrophy of the affected muscles, its role in the evaluation of pronator teres syndrome is ... It innervates most of the flexor muscles in the forearm and hand. Its sensory component supplies the skin of the palm, thumb, ... Compression of the proximal median nerve results in weakness of these three muscles, and can cause aching pain in the wrist on ... Pinching with the wrist flexed magnifies the expression of this weakness, by reducing resting tension on the muscles of pinch ...
By doing so, it induces a transient flaccid paralysis and chemical denervation localized to the striated muscle that it has ... It allows the motor neuron to transmit a signal to the muscle fiber, causing muscle contraction. Muscles require innervation to ... The binding of ACh to the receptor can depolarize the muscle fiber, causing a cascade that eventually results in muscle ... The endplate potential is thus responsible for setting up an action potential in the muscle fiber which triggers muscle ...
Muscle wasting, fasciculations and fibrillations are typically signs of end-stage muscle denervation and are seen over a longer ... Disuse atrophy of the muscle occurs i.e., shrinkage of muscle fibre finally replaced by fibrous tissue (fibrous muscle) Other ... Muscle paresis or paralysis Fibrillations Fasciculations - caused by increased receptor concentration on muscles to compensate ... Muscle paresis/paralysis, hypotonia/atonia, and hyporeflexia/areflexia are usually seen immediately following an insult. ...
ARPP has also exhibited elevated expression following skeletal muscle denervation, persisting for four weeks following the ... In mice lacking all three muscle ankyrin repeat proteins (MARPs), ARPP, CARP, and DARP), skeletal muscles tended towards a more ... is preferentially expressed in type 1 skeletal muscle fibers and is markedly induced by denervation". Lab. Invest. 82 (5): 645- ... is preferentially expressed in type 1 skeletal muscle fibers and is markedly induced by denervation". Laboratory Investigation ...
Denervation of skeletal muscle tissue secondary to poliovirus infection can lead to paralysis. ... Weaker muscles can be used at a higher than usual intensity relative to the muscle's maximal capacity, little-used muscles can ... enlargement of muscle fibers through exercise and activity - and transformation of type II muscle fibers to type I muscle ... Once the muscles in the limb become flaccid, they may interfere with the function of other muscles. A typical manifestation of ...
... may be the guide for local anesthetic applications in order to achieve pectoral muscle denervation. "Routine botulinum toxin ... would paralyze the muscles and reduce the postoperative pain caused by muscle spasm." The lateral pectoral nerve can be damaged ... Decreasing the pectoral muscle tone intraoperatively by neuromuscular relaxation (paralytic agents) or by a nerve block (local ... It is safe and relies on ultrasound imaging to localize the pectoralis major and minor muscles, the presumed course of the ...
... of degeneration is a medical condition caused by a change in the electrical response of the muscles due to muscle denervation. ... Lack of muscle response. The muscle is not able to irritation by AC, but irritated by DC. The muscle contractility from anode ...
... have been implicated as possible components of fast-fatigable muscle fiber denervation in ALS. Plexin A4 has ~1890 amino acids ...
Neural Activity within Central Circuitries of Emotion-New Insights from Botulinum Toxin-Induced Denervation of Frown Muscles". ... Thus, while motor efference commands to the facial muscles remain intact, sensory afference from extrafusal muscle fibers, and ... to temporarily paralyze facial muscles. Botox selectively blocks muscle feedback by blocking presynaptic acetylcholine ... It has been suggested that the treatment of nasal muscles would reduce the ability of the person to form a disgust response ...
... to study and observe changes induced by denervation on skeletal muscle. Ever since, she has worked with skeletal and cardiac ... She also demonstrated that in muscles that are able to engage in high activity rates, a limiting factor is the density of the ... I knew who Clara was from her extraordinary reputation as the world's premier expert in muscle histology and ultra-structure. ... R. J. Podolsky and earned a master of research degree in muscle physiology. From 1964 - 1966, Franzini-Armstrong worked as a ...
Rottweiler distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy is characterized by distal muscle denervation, but the cause is unknown. It ... Distal symmetric polyneuropathy symptoms include atrophy of the distal leg muscles and the muscles of the head, and rear limb ... "Peripheral Nerve and Muscle Disorders: Small Animals". The Merck Veterinary Manual. 2006. Retrieved 2007-02-11. "A case study ... Symptoms include decreased or absent reflexes and muscle tone, weakness, or paralysis. It often occurs in the rear legs and is ...
Denervation supersensitivityEdit. When the innervation to substance P nerve terminals is lost, post-synaptic cells compensate ... muscle, and joints. It is proposed that this release is involved in neurogenic inflammation, which is a local inflammatory ... This, ultimately, leads to a condition known as denervation supersensitivity as the post-synaptic nerves will become ... muscle, and joints. It is proposed that this release is involved in neurogenic inflammation, which is a local inflammatory ...
Denervation. When the afferent and efferent nerves are both destroyed, as they may be by tumors of the cauda equina or filum ... The smooth muscle of the bladder, known as the detrusor, is innervated by sympathetic nervous system fibers from the lumbar ... After urination, the female urethra empties partially by gravity, with assistance from muscles.[clarification needed] Urine ... Smooth muscle bundles pass on either side of the urethra, and these fibers are sometimes called the internal urethral sphincter ...
... or muscle may be performed, which can show signs of denervation and amyloid deposition with response to anti-TTR antibodies.[8] ... slowed the progression of FAP over a 36-month period and importantly reversed the weight loss and muscle wasting associated ... may show evidence of chronic denervation and reinnervation. Autonomic testing, including quantitative sweat testing, can reveal ... "Muscle & Nerve. 40 (3): 363-370. doi:10.1002/mus.21332. PMC 2735590. PMID 19618439.. ...
COPD often leads to reduction in physical activity, in part due to shortness of breath.[33] In later stages of COPD muscle ... A procedure known as targeted lung denervation, which involves decreasing the parasympathetic nervous system supply of the ... People with COPD who are underweight can improve their breathing muscle strength by increasing their calorie intake.[5] When ... muscle wasting, osteoporosis, lung cancer, anxiety disorder, sexual dysfunction, and depression.[2][39] In those with severe ...
... and therefore degeneration of motor neurons and subsequent denervation of muscles lead to loss of muscle control and muscle ... ALS is characterized by stiff muscles, muscle twitching, and progressive muscle weakness from muscle wasting. The parts of the ... General symptoms include overall muscle weakness and poor muscle tone including extremities and respiratory muscles leading to ... In general, proximal muscle are always affected more than distal muscle. Genetic cause[edit]. Spinal muscular atrophy is linked ...
Some patients have experienced cardiac sympathetic denervation, which can result in a 10% decrease in heart rate both at rest ...
... which results in functional denervation of muscle. ... For example, the biceps brachii muscle, a muscle of the arm, is ... denervated muscles are prone to atrophy. A secondary cause of muscle atrophy is that denervated muscles are no longer supplied ... For example, the muscles of a single finger have more α-MNs per fiber, and more α-MNs in total, than the muscles of the ... Muscle weakness and atrophy are inevitable consequences of α-MN lesions as well. Because muscle size and strength are related ...
Muscle & Nerve. Supplement. 8: S209-21. PMID 16921635.. *^ Cho SC, Ferrante MA, Levin KH, Harmon RL, So YT (August 2010). " ... Needle EMG is the more sensitive portion of the test, and may reveal active denervation in the distribution of the involved ... or difficulty controlling specific muscles.[1] Pinched nerves arise when surrounding bone or tissue, such as cartilage, muscles ... On nerve conduction studies, the pattern of diminished Compound muscle action potential and normal sensory nerve action ...
Changes in muscle strength are determined in specific muscle groups using various muscle scales which quantify strength, such ... what disturbs the denervation-reinnervation equilibrium and causes peripheral denervation is still unclear. With age, most ... The overuse and underuse of muscles also may contribute to muscle weakness.[8] ... This causes muscle weakness and paralysis. Restoration of nerve function may occur in some fibers a second time, but eventually ...
2014). "A Controlled Trial of Renal Denervation for Resistant Hypertension (SYMPLICITY HTN-3 Trial)". N Engl J Med. 370: 1393- ... are that it does not directly stimulate nerves or heart muscle and therefore can often be used without the need for general ... Therefore, the introduction of non-surgical means of renal denervation with radiofrequency ablation catheter was ... the most recent phase 3 studying looking at catheter-based renal denervation for the treatment of resistant hypertension failed ...
Muscle atrophy is the result of various causes, including aging, disuse, denervation, muscular dystrophy, cachexia and ... 2007). Muscles within muscles: Coordination of 19 muscle segments within three shoulder muscles during isometric motor tasks. J ... The deltoid muscle is the muscle forming the rounded contour of the human shoulder. It is also known as the common shoulder ... The Anatomy of the Shoulder Muscles: "The Deltoid is a three-headed muscle that caps the shoulder. The three heads of the ...
Muscles show fiber type grouping, a similarly nonspecific finding that indicates a cycle of denervation/reinnervation. Normally ... PT typically focuses on muscle-strength training, muscle stretching, and aerobic exercise, while OT can provide education on ... Wasting of muscle tissue of the lower parts of the legs may give rise to a "stork leg" or "inverted champagne bottle" ... The foot of a person with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: The lack of muscle, a high arch, and claw toes are signs of this genetic ...
Ramirez C, Donnellan N. (2017). "Pelvic denervation procedures for dysmenorrhea". Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 29 (4): 225-230. ... The underlying mechanism of primary dysmenorrhea is the contractions of the muscles of the uterus which induce a local ischemia ... Compared with other women, women with primary dysmenorrhea have increased activity of the uterine muscle with increased ... When the uterine muscles contract, they constrict the blood supply to the tissue of the endometrium, which, in turn, breaks ...
Constriction of body muscle can lead to infection prevention. In certain species, such as Limnodrilus, autolysis can be seen ... "Regenerative response of amputated forelimbs of Xenopus laevis froglets to partial denervation". Journal of Morphology. 191: ... Spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus pictured here) can regenerate skin, cartilage, nerves and muscle. ... because heart muscle cells are nearly all terminally differentiated. MRL mice show the same amount of cardiac injury and scar ...
... and not cardiac muscle or smooth muscle. Myoblasts in skeletal muscle that do not form muscle fibers dedifferentiate back into ... In this example, the size of the type II fibers is considerably less than the type I fibers due to denervation atrophy. ... The striated cells of cardiac and skeletal muscles are referred to as muscle fibers.[3] Cardiomyocytes are the muscle fibres ... A myocyte (also known as a muscle cell)[1] is the type of cell found in muscle tissue. Myocytes are long, tubular cells that ...
... and not cardiac muscle or smooth muscle. Myoblasts in skeletal muscle that do not form muscle fibers dedifferentiate back into ... In this example, the size of the type II fibers is considerably less than the type I fibers due to denervation atrophy. ... The striated cells of cardiac and skeletal muscles are referred to as muscle fibers.[3] Cardiomyocytes are the muscle fibres ... Muscle fiber growth[edit]. Muscle fibers grow when exercised and shrink when not in use. This is due to the fact that exercise ...
The onset of denervation supersensitivity. Langer SZ, Trendelenburg U. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1966 Jan;151(1):73-86 ... Noradrenaline release from isolated muscles of the nictitating membrane of the cat S. Z. Langer, Marthe Vogt J. Physiol. 1971 ... His research was on the mechanisms involving denervation supersensitivity. with Ullrich Trendelenburg with whom he became ... course of the development of supersensitivity to various amines in the nictitating membrane of the pithed cat after denervation ...
Neuromuscular transmission may be abnormal in these muscles because of rapid denervation and immature reinnervation. Paralysis ... FLD produces rapidly progressive weakness of tongue, face and pharyngeal muscles in a clinical pattern similar to myasthenia. ... Progression to involve other cranial nerve muscles occurs over a period of months or years. In the Gomez review facial nerve ... very rare inherited motor neuron disease of children and young adults and is characterized by progressive paralysis of muscles ...
Muscles that depend on these motor neurons for neural input now have decreased innervation (also called denervation), and ... Proximal muscles, arm and leg muscles that are closer to the torso and respiratory muscles are affected first. Other body ... Consequently, denervated muscles undergo progressive atrophy (waste away).[citation needed]. Muscles of lower extremities are ... Muscle restorationEdit. This approach aims to counter the effect of SMA by targeting the muscle tissue instead of neurons. ...
... performed the first robotic-assisted microsurgery procedure denervation of the spermatic cord for chronic testicular pain.[58] ...
The smooth muscle of the blood vessels reacts to the stretching of the muscle by opening ion channels, which cause the muscle ... which could not be prevented by denervation or various blocking agents.[1] ... Stretch of the muscle membrane opens a stretch-activated ion channel. The cells then become depolarized and this results in a ... The contracted state of the smooth muscle depends on the grade of stretch and plays an important part in the regulation of ...
Denervated muscles have shown the ability to survive after periods of denervation or in the case of a damaged nerve. The size ... Denervation affects the muscle activation process that is brought on by the development and propagation of an action potential ... This magnified image of type 2 muscle fibers shows denervation atrophy occurring at the white spaces at the top left and bottom ... Denervation is any loss of nerve supply regardless of the cause. If the nerves lost to denervation are part of the neuronal ...
... can cause denervation of one or more of the associated muscles. Muscle atrophy and other secondary complications can occur. ... The C6 nerve root shares a common branch from C5, and has a role in innervating many muscles of the rotator cuff and distal arm ...
Weight loss and muscle weakness, as well as the presence of other diseases, should also be taken into account. A chest X-ray ... A procedure known as target lung denervation, which involves decreasing the parasympathetic nervous system supply of the lungs ... General muscle wasting that often occurs in COPD may be partly due to inflammatory mediators released by the lungs into the ... People with COPD who are underweight can improve their breathing muscle strength by increasing their calorie intake. When ...
... pilocarpine may constrict the tonic pupil due to cholinergic denervation supersensitivity.[1] A normal pupil will not constrict ... Extraocular muscles. Binocular vision. Accommodation. Paralytic strabismus. *Ophthalmoparesis. *Chronic progressive external ... "Asymptomatic Severe Vagal and Sympathetic Cardiac Denervation in Holmes-Adie's Syndrome". Case Reports in Neurological ...
... and not cardiac muscle or smooth muscle. Myoblasts in skeletal muscle that do not form muscle fibers dedifferentiate back into ... In this example, the size of the type II fibers is considerably less than the type I fibers due to denervation atrophy. ... and smooth muscle cells. On the other hand, skeletal muscles are formed by morphological units referred to as muscle fibers.[3] ... A myocyte (also known as a muscle cell)[1] is the type of cell found in some types of muscle tissue. Myocytes develop from ...
response to denervation involved in regulation of muscle adaptation. • regulation of skeletal muscle fiber development. • ... regulation of cardiac muscle contraction by calcium ion signaling. • negative regulation of glycolytic process. • response to ... cardiac muscle hypertrophy in response to stress. • positive regulation of cell proliferation. • negative regulation of myotube ... positive regulation of smooth muscle cell migration. • B cell activation. • histone H4 deacetylation. • cellular response to ...
2005). "Muscle-specific RING finger 1 is a bona fide ubiquitin ligase that degrades cardiac troponin I." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... MuRF1 has been shown to be upregulated during denervation, administration of glucocorticoids, immobilization, and casting (when ... 2002). "Muscle-specific RING finger-1 interacts with titin to regulate sarcomeric M-line and thick filament structure and may ... This gene encodes a member of the RING zinc finger protein family found in striated muscle and iris. The product of this gene ...
Upper airway muscle inflammation and denervation changes in obstructive sleep apnea.. Boyd JH1, Petrof BJ, Hamid Q, Fraser R, ... as well as direct evidence of denervation based on positive immunostaining of the muscle fiber sarcolemmal membrane for the ... These data suggest that inflammatory cell infiltration and denervation changes affect not only the mucosa, but also the UA ... We hypothesized that inflammatory and denervation changes also involve the muscular layer of the pharynx in OSA. Morphometric ...
Sustained mTORC1 activation impairs muscle response to denervation. a Mass variation for TA and soleus muscles in control (Ctrl ... in innervated muscle and after 2 weeks of denervation. Scale bar, 50 µm. f, g Quantification of AChR turnover (f, EDL muscle) ... muscles after 14 and 21 days of denervation (De). c, n = 8 (In) and 4 (De) Ctrl, 6 (In) and 3 (De) TSCmKO muscles; d, n = 4 ( ... muscles and after 3 and 28 days of denervation. n = 3 Ctrl; 4 and 3 RAmKO (3 and 28d) mice. h Mass variation for TA muscle from ...
Small-fiber neuropathy with cardiac denervation in postural tachycardia syndrome. Authors. *. Carl-Albrecht Haensch MD,. ...
MRI appearance of muscle denervation. Skeletal Radiol 2008;37:397-404.doi:10.1007/s00256-007-0409-0. ... Following experimental denervation, reversible high T2 signal on muscle MRI is evident from 48 hours after injury,26 associated ... Magnetic resonance imaging of skeletal muscle. Prolongation of T1 and T2 subsequent to denervation. Invest Radiol 1988;23:365-9 ... Conclusions Whole-body muscle MRI offers a new approach to objective assessment of denervation over short timescales in MND and ...
Acute denervation was characterized by abnormal muscle enhancement, T2 prolongation, an increase in muscle volume, and no fatty ... enhancement consistent with denervation changes in the muscles of facial expression was present. T2 prolongation in the muscles ... Summary: Denervation changes in muscle following damage to cranial and peripheral nerves can be observed on both CT and MR ... The effects of denervation on muscles can be assessed directly with cross-sectional imaging. CT demonstrates well the changes ...
... but denervation did not alter smooth muscle cell size. In the 3-week-old animals, denervation resulted in smooth muscle cells ... Arterial wall and smooth muscle cell development in young Wistar rats and the effects of surgical denervation.. M E Todd, B ... Arterial wall and smooth muscle cell development in young Wistar rats and the effects of surgical denervation. ... Arterial wall and smooth muscle cell development in young Wistar rats and the effects of surgical denervation. ...
Periodical changes of muscle cells and peripheral sensory nerve endings after denervation.. Research Project ... denervated muscle / sensory terminal / vascularized nerve graft / vascularized muscle transfter. Research Abstract. 1. ... Publications] Koshima Isao: A double muscle transfer using a divided rectus femoris muscle for facial paralysis reconstruction ... A double muscle transfer using a divided rectus femoris muscle for facial paralysis reconstruction. J.Reconstr. Microsurg.(in ...
Human muscle, Conus-Cauda Equina syndrome, Spinal cord injury, Permanent muscle denervation, Severe atrophy and nuclear ... We have demonstrated that human denervated muscle fibers survive years of denervation and can be rescued from severe atrophy by ... Despite the ravages of long term denervation there is structural and ultrastructural evidence for survival of muscle fibers in ... to be re-expressed and to spread from the end-plate to the sarcolemma of muscle fibers in early phases of muscle denervation, ...
... acute and chronic neurogenic denervation in both legs. Ask a Doctor about when and why MRI is advised, Ask an Orthopaedic ... Muscle pain and loss of senses in left leg, ... Causes of chronic muscle pain. *Chronic muscle pain and ... Muscle pain and loss of senses in left leg,acute and chronic neurogenic denervation in both legs. ... 2. Widespread acute and chronic neurogenic denervation in both legs and lumbar paraspinal muscles I am just asked now to take ...
... at 210 days post-denervation the denervated muscles weighed only a quarter of the control muscles. Muscle length was not ... the muscle. The known e f f e c t s of denervation on fast and slow-twitch muscle are summarized. Then the r e s u l t s of ... Denervated SOL muscle data 32 I I . Denervated EDL muscle data 33 I I I . Tension c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of SOL muscle i ... This may be achieved by means of denervation. Denervation Denervation results in widespread changes in the morphological, ...
In response to denervation, muscles atrophied in all hindlimb muscles ranging from approximately 29% (in the EDL) to ... Mouse Strain Dependent Differences in Muscle Fiber Type, Fiber Area, and Blood Perfusion in Response to Denervation Atrophy. ... Skeletal muscle atrophy caused by denervation is a serious consequence of neuropathic disease, especially diabetes. However, ... Consistent with loss of mass and fiber size, tibialis anterior muscles also lost protein content after denervation, which did ...
... muscle How to Cite: Panis T, Goethals L, De Geeter F. Increased 18F-FDG Uptake in the Obturator Muscles Due to Denervation- ... Increased 18F-FDG Uptake in the Obturator Muscles Due to Denervation-Driven Atrophy. Authors: Thomas Panis , UZBBE X close ... Increased 18F-FDG Uptake in the Obturator Muscles Due to Denervation-Driven Atrophy. Journal of the Belgian Society of ... "Increased 18f-fdg Uptake in the Obturator Muscles Due to Denervation-driven Atrophy". Journal of the Belgian Society of ...
Muscle fibers innervated by axons in the two nerves intermingle throughout the muscle. Partial denervation of the soleus muscle ... 1980) The effects of partial denervation at birth on the development of muscle fibres and motor units in rat lumbrical muscle. ... Conduction failure does not account for muscle tension deficits 3 d after partial denervation on P14. This intracellular muscle ... Motor units and muscle fibers were counted in eight muscles partially denervated on P14 and in four normal soleus muscles taken ...
Denervated muscles have shown the ability to survive after periods of denervation or in the case of a damaged nerve. The size ... Denervation affects the muscle activation process that is brought on by the development and propagation of an action potential ... This magnified image of type 2 muscle fibers shows denervation atrophy occurring at the white spaces at the top left and bottom ... Denervation is any loss of nerve supply regardless of the cause. If the nerves lost to denervation are part of the neuronal ...
Physiological effects of diaphragm muscle denervation and disuse. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Muscle ... Physiological effects of diaphragm muscle denervation and disuse. / Sieck, G. C.. In: Clinics in Chest Medicine, Vol. 15, No. 4 ... Sieck, G. C. (1994). Physiological effects of diaphragm muscle denervation and disuse. Clinics in Chest Medicine, 15(4), 641- ... Sieck, GC 1994, Physiological effects of diaphragm muscle denervation and disuse, Clinics in Chest Medicine, vol. 15, no. 4, ...
Chronique Dystrophine Enervation Muscle Protéine Système nerveux pathologie Keyword (en). Chronic Dystrophin Denervation Muscle ... Disturbed trafficking of dystrophin and associated proteins in targetoid phenomena after chronic muscle denervation. Author. ... "Disturbed trafficking of dystrophin and associated proteins in targetoid phenomena after chronic muscle denervation;s:9:\ ... "Disturbed trafficking of dystrophin and associated proteins in targetoid phenomena after chronic muscle denervation;s:8:\ ...
We then looked at the mTOR signaling pathway in TA muscle protein lysates. As previously demonstrated, muscle denervation led ... 2009). Denervation-induced oxidative stress and autophagy signaling in muscle. Autophagy. 5, 230-231. ... We found that, compared with sham-operated controls, denervation resulted in a 50.2% loss of TA muscle mass that was not ... 2003). Myostatin expression in age and denervation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy. J. Musculoskelet. Neuronal Interact. 3, 8- ...
Targeted ablation of p38α MAPK suppresses denervation-induced muscle atrophy. Scientific reports. 2018 Dec 1;8(1). 9037. https ... Targeted ablation of p38α MAPK suppresses denervation-induced muscle atrophy. In: Scientific reports. 2018 ; Vol. 8, No. 1. ... Targeted ablation of p38α MAPK suppresses denervation-induced muscle atrophy. Kazuki Yuasa, Kazumasa Okubo, Masaki Yoda, Kinya ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Targeted ablation of p38α MAPK suppresses denervation-induced muscle atrophy. ...
In muscles of ALS patients, Nogo-A-a protein known to inhibit axon regeneration-is ectopically expressed at levels that ... is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor neuron loss and muscle wasting. ... We now show that the genetic ablation of Nogo-A extends survival and reduces muscle denervation in a mouse model of ALS. In ... In muscles of ALS patients, Nogo-A-a protein known to inhibit axon regeneration-is ectopically expressed at levels that ...
Denervation alterations in surface membrane glycoprotein glycosyltransferases of mammalian skeletal muscle. Peter L. Jeffrey, ... Denervation alterations in surface membrane glycoprotein glycosyltransferases of mammalian skeletal muscle. / Jeffrey, Peter L. ... Denervation alterations in surface membrane glycoprotein glycosyltransferases of mammalian skeletal muscle. Experimental ... title = "Denervation alterations in surface membrane glycoprotein glycosyltransferases of mammalian skeletal muscle", ...
Denervation promoted an induction in autophagy and lysosomal protein expression in wild-type (WT) animals, which was partially ... To investigate the role of the co-activator in autophagy and mitophagy during skeletal muscle remodeling, PGC-1α knockout (KO) ... In particular, mitochondrial turnover is essential for tissue homeostasis during muscle adaptations to chronic use and disuse. ... and PGC-1α in muscle, supporting their coordinated regulation. Our investigation has uncovered a regulatory role for PGC-1α in ...
title = "Modulation of IGF mRNA abundance during muscle denervation atrophy",. abstract = "Changes in skeletal muscle activity ... Changes in skeletal muscle activity cause dramatic alterations in muscle mass. Increased load on a muscle (synergistic overload ... N2 - Changes in skeletal muscle activity cause dramatic alterations in muscle mass. Increased load on a muscle (synergistic ... AB - Changes in skeletal muscle activity cause dramatic alterations in muscle mass. Increased load on a muscle (synergistic ...
Muscle Apoptotic Response to Denervation, Disuse, and Aging. SIU, PARCO M. SIU, PARCO M. Less ... Protease Supplementation Improves Muscle Function after Eccentric Exercise. BUFORD, THOMAS W.; COOKE, MATTHEW B.; REDD, LIZ L ... Regulation of Muscle Atrophy: Wasting Away from the Outside In: An Introduction. URSO, MARIA L. ... Insight into Muscle Activity during Deep Water Running. MASUMOTO, KENJI; DELION, DAVID; MERCER, JOHN A. ...
Association Between Carotid Hypersensitivity and Denervation of Sternocleidomastoid Muscles. Chronic denervation of the ... Denervation of the Sternocleidomastoid Muscles. In a previous report, we found that 23% of the control patients had chronic ... As indicated in Tables 3⇑ and 4⇑, moderate or definite signs of chronic denervation of the right sternocleidomastoid muscle ... Chronic denervation of the sternocleidomastoid muscles is common in this population and probably induces the abnormal response ...
This suggests that denervation-induced insulin resistance in muscle may be because of muscle inactivity rather than denervation ... Plantaris muscle 1 day after denervation.. Basal 2-deoxy-d-glucose uptake by the sham plantaris muscle did not differ from that ... Soleus muscle 3 days after denervation.. At this time point, the denervated soleus muscle exhibited a 60% (P , 0.03) lower ... Soleus muscle 1 day after denervation.. In agreement with previous studies (11, 16), the denervated soleus muscle exhibited a ...
... examined SMA muscles in cross-section for the presence of atrophied muscle fibers typically seen during denervation of muscle. ... Limited denervation of SMA NMJs. A , Intramuscular axons examined by light microscopy and EM in the paraspinal muscle of P13 ... with proximal muscles more affected than distal muscles and with intercostal and paraspinal muscles more affected than the ... Modest denervation of SMA NMJs is limited to particular muscle groups. In many diseases of peripheral nerve and motor neurons, ...
Innervation of the Temporalis Muscle for Selective Electrical Denervation. Hwang, Kun; Cho, Hyun Jong; Chung, In Hyuk ...
... transgenic SOD1G93A/ERp57WT animals presented delayed deterioration of electrophysiological activity and maintained muscle ... Rozas, P., Pinto, C., Martínez Traub, F. et al. Protein disulfide isomerase ERp57 protects early muscle denervation in ... Protein disulfide isomerase ERp57 protects early muscle denervation in experimental ALS. *Pablo Rozas1,2,3, ... Lumbrical muscle innervation analysis. The hindlimb lumbrical muscles were dissected as described [28]. Briefly, the hindlimb ...
Denervation of the extensor digitorum longus and tibialis anterior muscles caused a 40-50% increase in cytosolic androgen ... Denervation of the extensor digitorum longus and tibialis anterior muscles caused a 40-50{\%} increase in cytosolic androgen ... Denervation of the extensor digitorum longus and tibialis anterior muscles caused a 40-50% increase in cytosolic androgen ... Denervation of the extensor digitorum longus and tibialis anterior muscles caused a 40-50% increase in cytosolic androgen ...
We observed that SOD1(G93A);crt(+/-) mice display increased and earlier muscle weakness and muscle denervation compared to SOD1 ... Here, we asked to which extent the decrease in CRT levels was causative to muscle denervation and/or motoneuron degeneration. ...
  • mTORC1 and PKB/Akt control the muscle response to denervation by regulating autophagy and HDAC4. (
  • Although several effectors have been identified, the pathways controlling the integrated muscle response to denervation remain largely unknown. (
  • In response to denervation, muscles atrophied in all hindlimb muscles ranging from approximately 29% (in the EDL) to approximately 46% (in the gastrocnemius) depending on muscle. (
  • One proposed mechanism is the immunohistochemically proven increase of certain cellular membrane proteins (glucose transporter type 1, acetylcholine receptors) in response to denervation. (
  • a-Actinin-3 deficiency alters muscle adaptation in response to denervation and immobilization. (
  • Persistent muscle fiber regeneration in long term denervation. (
  • Despite the ravages of long term denervation there is structural and ultrastructural evidence for survival of muscle fibers in mammals, with some fibers surviving at least ten months in rodents and 3-6 years in humans. (
  • In contrast, IGF-II mRNA levels increase with long-term denervation as well as with increased muscle activity. (
  • To address whether osteoactivin-mediated increase in MMPs in skeletal muscle is useful for regeneration of denervated skeletal muscle, we subjected osteoactivin-transgenic mice to long-term denervation for 70 or 90 days. (
  • Long-term denervation caused severe degeneration of myofibers and fibrosis in skeletal muscle of wild-type mice. (
  • Infiltration of fibroblast-like cells and collagen deposition were sustained at low levels after long-term denervation in skeletal muscle of osteoactivin-transgenic mice. (
  • abstract = "The loss of skeletal muscle mass is a major cause of falls and fractures in the elderly, leading to compromised independence and a decrease in the quality of life. (
  • 1. Experimentally, it was observed that regeneration following degeneration of the gastrocunemius muscle cells after rat's sciatic nerve transection. (
  • Because blocking myostatin in an adult wild-type mouse induces profound muscle hypertrophy, we applied a soluble ActRIIB receptor to models of disuse (limb immobilization) and denervation (sciatic nerve resection) atrophy. (
  • Basal and insulin-stimulated activity of Akt1 kinase and uptake of 2-deoxy- d -glucose (2-DG) were measured in soleus (slow-twitch) and plantaris (fast-twitch) muscles of rats at 1 and 3 days after sectioning the sciatic nerve in one hindlimb of the animals. (
  • We have previously demonstrated that both slow-twitch and fast-twitch muscles exhibit a progressive lowering of insulin-induced glucose uptake in vivo during the first 24 h after sectioning the sciatic nerve but that the two kinds of muscles differ in the manifestations of insulin resistance at 3-17 days after denervation ( 16 ). (
  • Disuse, produced by subperineural injection of tetrodotoxin into the tibial and common peroneal branches of the sciatic nerve, mimicked the effect of denervation on androgen receptor binding, suggesting that neuromuscular activity is important in regulation of receptor concentration. (
  • The proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α were largely induced in TA muscles after sciatic nerve transection. (
  • Moreover, PQQ could significantly attenuate the signal activation of Jak2/STAT3, TGF-β1/Smad3, JNK/p38 MAPK, and NF-κB in skeletal muscles after sciatic nerve transection. (
  • These changes occur as early as 24 (TIRM sequence) and 48 (T2-weighted sequence) hours, respectively, after complete transection of the sciatic nerve in rats and precede muscle atrophy. (
  • Additionally, it can be a useful surgical technique to alleviate major negative symptoms, such as in renal denervation . (
  • In renal denervation, the procedure involves using radio frequency or ultrasound to remove sympathetic nerve supply to the wall of the kidney with the intention of reducing blood pressure and treating chronic hypertension . (
  • [6] However, renal denervation is used less frequently in recent years due to new evidence suggesting that blood pressure is not significantly reduced after the procedure and there are even recommendations against using the procedure since there has been little proof to show that renal denervation leads to reduced blood pressure. (
  • Renal denervation led to reductions in BP, and muscle and renal sympathetic activity. (
  • Renal denervation (RDN) reduces renal efferent and afferent sympathetic activity thereby lowering blood pressure in resistant hypertension. (
  • Catheter-based Renal Denervation as a Treatment for Pulmonary Hypertension: Hope or Hype? (
  • We hypothesized that renal denervation decreases renin-angiotensin-aldosterone activity and inhibits the progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension. (
  • The dogs' pulmonary dynamics were measured before and 8 weeks after injection of 0.1 mL/kg dimethylformamide (control dogs) or 2 mg/kg dehydromonocrotaline (pulmonary arterial hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension + renal denervation dogs). (
  • Renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) reduces PAH partly through the inhibition of RAAS. (
  • d - g mRNA levels of Akt1 , Akt2 and Akt3 ( d , e ) and Mtor , Rptor and Rps6 ( f , g ) in TA innervated muscle and after 3 ( d , f ) and 7 ( e , g ) days of denervation, in TSCmKO and control mice. (
  • This study, conducted on approximately 100 mice of the C57 BL/6J+/+ species investigated the differential effects of denervation on the isometric contractile properties of a fast-twitch (extensor digitorum longus) and a slow-twitoh (soleus) muscle. (
  • Fortunately, as a clue to novel treatment targets, there is evidence for a genetic component that predisposes mice to have a resistance to skeletal muscle atrophy during ischemia. (
  • In summary, despite our previous reports of a strain-dependent difference in ischemia-related atrophy and despite the differences in tissue perfusion during denervation, muscle of the BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice atrophy to the same extend during denervation atrophy However, a strain-dependent response to blood perfusion was found, as C57BL/6 mice had greater perfusion. (
  • We found that treatment of immobilized mice with ActRIIB prevented the loss of muscle mass observed in placebo-treated mice. (
  • Compared with the control mice, these mutant mice are significantly resistant to denervation-induced muscle atrophy, suggesting that p38α MAPK positively regulates muscle atrophy. (
  • Calreticulin levels determine onset of early muscle denervation by fast motoneurons of ALS model mice. (
  • Mice modelling CMT2D display early and selective neuromuscular junction (NMJ) pathology, epitomised by disturbed maturation and neurotransmission, leading to denervation. (
  • We therefore analysed NMJ development and degeneration across five different wholemount muscles to identify key synaptic features contributing to the distinct pattern of neurodegeneration in CMT2D mice. (
  • In this study, we asked whether 5- and 12/15-lipoxygenase (LO) lipid metabolic pathways downstream of cPLA2 mediate denervation-induced muscle atrophy in mice. (
  • Injection of irisin in mice induces significant hypertrophy and enhances grip strength of uninjured muscle. (
  • EVP helped recover cell viability in C2C12 myoblasts exposed to microgravity for 24 h and delayed muscle atrophy in sciatic denervated mice. (
  • We have previously shown that osteoactivin, a type I membrane glycoprotein expressed in myofibers, upregulated expression of matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-3 and MMP-9 in fibroblasts infiltrated denervated skeletal muscle in mice. (
  • Denervation significantly upregulated the expression of anti-fibrotic genes, such as glypican-1 and decorin-1, in the gastrocnemius muscle of osteoactivin-transgenic mice, compared with wild-type mice. (
  • After denervation, mice were injected intraperitoneally with saline plus PQQ (5 mg/kg/d) or saline only for 14 days. (
  • We demonstrate that male mice containing a targeted Ar allele with 113 CAG repeats (AR113Q mice) exhibit hormone- and glutamine length-dependent missplicing of Clcn1 RNA in skeletal muscle. (
  • Comparison of whole body SOD1 knockout with muscle specific SOD1 knockout mice reveals a role for nerve redox signaling in regulation of degenerative pathways in skeletal muscle. (
  • Recording of action potentials revealed that denervated muscle in mice lacking nNOS was more excitable than control denervated muscle. (
  • however, because ventilatory behaviors of the diaphragm most likely require the recruitment of only type S motor units (type I muscle fibers) that appear to be less adaptive, the functional decrements following disuse may involve only nonventilatory behaviors that require the recruitment of fast-twitch (type II muscle fibers) motor units. (
  • Therefore, type II muscle fibers in humans may also be particularly vulnerable to adaptive changes associated with diaphragm disuse. (
  • Thus, our studies show that denervation atrophy is not only independent from Akt, SGK and mTOR activation but also has a different underlying pathophysiological mechanism than disuse atrophy. (
  • We investigated the effects of denervation and disuse on cytosolic androgen receptor binding by rat striated muscle. (
  • These results suggested that EVP can be expected to have a positive effect on muscle atrophy by disuse and microgravity. (
  • Skeletal muscle atrophy can be induced by muscle disuse stemming from chronic inactivity (e.g., immobilization, bed rest, mechanical unloading, and spaceflight). (
  • ROS play an important regulatory role in skeletal muscle atrophy: during periods of muscle disuse ROS expression is increased by redox system disturbance [ 3 ]. (
  • Proteolysis involving the redox system evidently contributes to degradation of skeletal muscle protein during periods of disuse [ 4 ]. (
  • The effects of denervation on muscles can be assessed directly with cross-sectional imaging. (
  • The effect of denervation on the contractile properties of skeletal muscle Webster, Deirdre M. S. (
  • B ) Effect of denervation surgery and clenbuterol treatment on FSR of CK-M, mean ± SD, n = 3-4/group. (
  • D - F ) Effect of denervation surgery and clenbuterol treatment on the FSRs of myofibril, glycolytic, and mitochondrial proteins. (
  • Sherman, SJ , Lawrence, JC & Catterall, WA 1982, ' The effect of denervation on the development of the high affinity saxitoxin receptor in the skeletal muscle ', Federation Proceedings , vol. 41, no. 5, pp. (
  • As ascertained by immunoreactivity for the panneuronal marker PGP9.5, there was a dramatic (5.7-fold) increase in intramuscular nerve fibers in OSA patients compared with control subjects, as well as direct evidence of denervation based on positive immunostaining of the muscle fiber sarcolemmal membrane for the neural cell adhesion molecule in patients with OSA. (
  • Here, we demonstrate that PKB/Akt and mTORC1 play important roles in regulating muscle homeostasis and maintaining neuromuscular endplates after nerve injury. (
  • Hence, our study unveils yet-unknown functions of PKB/Akt-mTORC1 signaling in the muscle response to nerve injury, with important implications for neuromuscular integrity in various pathological conditions. (
  • Damage to a lower motor nerve has profound effects on the muscle(s) it innervates, typically leading to flaccid paresis or paralysis and atrophy. (
  • We present two patients with neoplastic invasion of the facial nerve who developed changes on MR consistent with subacute denervation of the muscles of facial expression. (
  • Periodical changes of muscle cells and peripheral sensory nerve endings after denervation. (
  • 3. Based on the experimental and cadeveric results, free vascularized long nerve grafts and vascularized muscle transfer with a long motor nerve have been clinically developed for repair of untreatable established nerve paralysis. (
  • Further, in rodents there is evidence that muscle fibers may regenerate even after repeated damage in the absence of the nerve, and that this potential is maintained for several months after denervation. (
  • The previous pelvic irradiation suggests that post-irradiation scarring led to injury of the nerves innervating the obturator muscles (i.e., the lumbar plexus or the obturator nerve). (
  • The white space represents a disruption of the nerve fibers, resulting in a loss of nerve supply to the muscle fibers. (
  • Denervation is any loss of nerve supply regardless of the cause. (
  • Denervation may be the result of nerve injury. (
  • In addition to peripheral nerve injury , denervation is used as a medical procedure for various benefits resulting from eliminating nerve supply to a specific area of the body. (
  • [9] In a rhizotomy , nerve fibers in the spinal cord are removed in the hopes of eliminating chronic muscle pain . (
  • This suggests that the expression of Nogo-A occurring early in ALS skeletal muscle could cause repulsion and destabilization of the motor nerve terminals, and subsequent dying back of the axons and motor neurons. (
  • Interruption of nerve supply to skeletal muscle results in the development of insulin resistance characterized by a decreased ability or inability of insulin to stimulate the transport of sugars ( 4 , 6 , 16 ), glycogen synthesis ( 4 ), or amino acid transport ( 16 ) in the affected muscles. (
  • The signs of insulin resistance in the denervated rat muscles in vivo can be observed as early as 3 h after sectioning the nerve (the earliest time tested) ( 16 ). (
  • Nerve crush instead of cut permitted reinnervation after 2 weeks and demonstrated the reversibility of the muscle changes within a week after reinnervation. (
  • Ultrasonography is advantageous with the evaluation of peripheral nerve resolutions while Magnetic Resonance Imaging is more sensitive in regard to signal intensity changes of the muscle. (
  • Denervation refers to loss of nerve supply. (
  • Objective To observe the effects of nerve impulses on the expression of carbonic anhydrase Ⅲ ( CAⅢ ) and its phosphatase activity, and to explore whether or not the cause of CAⅢ expressive decreased in skeletal muscles of myasthenia gravis ( MG) is resulted from the obstruction of nerve impulse . (
  • Aim Muscle atrophy is a common symptom after nerve denervation. (
  • Main methods In a rat botulinum toxin-induced nerve denervation muscle atrophy model, we evaluated the effects of wild-type (MSPP) and mutant-type (MSPPD75A) of myostatin propeptide gene delivery, and observed changes in gene activation associated with the neuromuscular junction, muscle and nerve. (
  • Significance Our data concluded that myostatin propeptide gene therapy may be a promising treatment for nerve denervation induced muscle atrophy. (
  • MR changes in denervated muscles have been reported to occur within days up to several weeks after peripheral nerve damage. (
  • Forty-eight hours after nerve transection, the denervated soleus and peroneal muscles revealed prolonged T2 TR and marked increased signal intensities on T2-weighted and TIRM images when compared with the contralateral side, which further increased at or less than 2 months after denervation. (
  • The sensitivity to early signal intensity changes in denervated muscles may support the use of MR imaging in the diagnosis of peripheral nerve lesions. (
  • Denervation of skeletal muscles may be caused by lesions of the peripheral nerve, the plexus, or the nerve root. (
  • Our findings confirmed a new pathway in denervation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and it may be a novel therapeutic target for patients with muscle atrophy after peripheral nerve injury. (
  • [7] Occasionally, biopsy of skin, nerve, or muscle may be performed, which can show signs of denervation and amyloid deposition with response to anti-TTR antibodies. (
  • The muscle is innervated by the posterior branch of axillary nerve where it forms a pseudoganglion. (
  • Selective atrophy of the teres minor muscle has been seen and pulled together directly with compression of the corresponding axillary nerve branch or posterior humeral circumflex artery. (
  • Additional electromyography is helpful to reveal any decelerated nerve conduction velocity, and thus denervation of the concerned muscle. (
  • She performs advanced evaluations of peripheral nerve conditions by integrating nerve and muscle ultrasound and neurophysiologic testing (EMG/NCS) at the bedside. (
  • Background Carotid sinus syndrome has been reported recently to be associated with chronic denervation of the sternocleidomastoid muscles. (
  • Conclusions Carotid sinus hypersensitivity and chronic denervation is a common finding in individuals older than 50 years of age. (
  • Electromyography (EMG) may show evidence of chronic denervation and reinnervation. (
  • Those with post polio syndrome are undergoing a constant process of denervation and reinnervation . (
  • The motor unit areas soon increase to a point where reinnervation is no longer possible causing an uncompensated denervation of motor units which leads to muscle atrophy and loss of muscular strength. (
  • This process of denervation is however different from post-polio syndrome in that it only involves upper and lower motor neuron degeneration and does not experience a process of constant reinnervation and denervation. (
  • Areas devoid of oxidative enzyme activity are seen both in core myopathies and in muscle fiber reinnervation. (
  • Evidence obtained from human and rodent studies demonstrates that skeletal muscle denervation/reinnervation cycles occur with aging, and that progressive failure of myofiber reinnervation is a major cause of the accelerating phase of sarcopenia in advanced age. (
  • As will be discussed in detail below, skeletal muscle fibers undergo progressive cycles of denervation and reinnervation with aging. (
  • In this scenario, muscle atrophy is thought to accelerate when the rate of denervation outpaces the rate of reinnervation. (
  • Mature motoneurons respond to partial denervation of their target muscle by sprouting to reinnervate denervated fibers, thus maintaining muscle strength in the face of motoneuronal loss caused by injury or disease. (
  • Neonatal motoneurons, however, do not expand to innervate more muscle fibers. (
  • We ruled out this explanation by showing that after partial denervation on postnatal day 14 (P14), when motor units have decreased to their adult size, motoneurons still did not sprout to reinnervate as many fibers as in adulthood. (
  • Moreover, partial denervation on P14 severely weakened the remaining, uninjured synapses, suggesting that neonatal motoneurons may withdraw terminals after the denervation of nearby fibers. (
  • After partial denervation of adult muscle, the remaining motoneurons extend sprouts, some of which reinnervate denervated fibers ( Hoffman, 1950 ). (
  • After partial denervation of adult muscle, most (∼70%) of the terminal sprouts that innervate denervated fibers grow along processes extended by Schwann cells present at denervated endplates ( Son and Thompson, 1995b ). (
  • This magnified image of type 2 muscle fibers shows denervation atrophy occurring at the white spaces at the top left and bottom center of the image. (
  • The latter is encountered in the setting of denervation, in which instances the central cores may demonstrate areas of enhanced oxidative activity at the periphery, giving rise to the appearance of target fibers. (
  • These adaptations to altered use appear to be most pronounced among fast-twitch motor units composed of type II muscle fibers. (
  • This adaptation could be accomplished by altering the metabolic enzyme activities of type II muscle fibers, by affecting the expression of contractile proteins, or both. (
  • Therefore, although disease-related adaptations of type II muscle fibers may improve fatigue resistance and maintain ventilatory performance, they would also involve reductions in contractile strength of the diaphragm that could impair important nonventilatory behaviors of the diaphragm such as coughing, sneezing, and defecation. (
  • Denervation of rat soleus muscle and simultaneous administration of high doses of corticosteroids for 7 days caused marked muscle fiber atrophy and selective loss of thick myofilaments from many muscle fibers by light and electron microscopy. (
  • This is consistent with our observation that the muscle fibers retain a relatively good reactivity to antibodies against myosin heavy chain 1 week after denervation and corticosteroid administration. (
  • muscle biopsy shows lysosomal (acid phosphatase-positive), glycogen-laden (PAS-positive) vacuoles, foci of acid phosphatase reactivity in nonvacuolated fibers, and glycogen accumulation by electron microscopy. (
  • The smooth muscle of the bladder, known as the detrusor , is innervated by sympathetic nervous system fibers from the lumbar spinal cord and parasympathetic fibers from the sacral spinal cord. (
  • Smooth muscle bundles pass on either side of the urethra, and these fibers are sometimes called the internal urethral sphincter , although they do not encircle the urethra. (
  • Consistent with loss of mass and fiber size, tibialis anterior muscles also lost protein content after denervation, which did not significantly differ between strains. (
  • In muscles of ALS patients, Nogo-A-a protein known to inhibit axon regeneration-is ectopically expressed at levels that correlate with the severity of the clinical symptoms. (
  • Over-expression of PGC-1α results in enhanced lysosomal protein expression induced by denervation. (
  • Here, we have described and validated a strategy for monitoring skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates in rodents and humans over days or weeks from blood samples. (
  • Protein synthesis rates across the muscle proteome generally changed in a coordinate manner in response to a sprint interval exercise training regimen in humans and to denervation or clenbuterol treatment in rodents. (
  • A ) Heatmap of FSRs (% day -1 ) of 75 proteins in rat muscle measured in n = 3 rats per group after denervation and clenbuterol treatment, with each horizontal line representing z-scaled FSR of an individual protein. (
  • The activation of the 12/15-LO pathway (but not 5-LO) during muscle atrophy increased NADPH oxidase activity, protein ubiquitination, and ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated proteolytic degradation. (
  • glucose transporters 1 and 4 , mRNA and protein expression , insulin resistance , and skeletal muscle . (
  • In addition, irisin injection rescues loss of skeletal muscle mass following denervation by enhancing satellite cell activation and reducing protein degradation. (
  • Skeletal muscle is one of the largest and most vital organs in the body, and a plastic organ maintained by multiple pathways regulating cell and protein turnover, and also a secretory organ secreting a variety of compounds including myokines, metabolites, microRNAs, and exosomes so on ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Our studies demonstrate the occurrence of hormone-dependent alterations in RNA splicing in Kennedy disease models, and they indicate that these changes are mediated by both the cell-autonomous effects of the expanded glutamine AR protein and by alterations in skeletal muscle that are secondary to denervation. (
  • We demonstrate altered splicing of Clcn1 and muscleblind-like protein 1 ( Mbnl1 ) RNAs in AR113Q skeletal muscle, which is similar to the defects in DM. (
  • Many mechanisms explaining NMJ degeneration have been proposed such as the disruption of anterograde/retrograde axonal transport, irregular cellular metabolism, and changes in muscle gene and protein expression. (
  • Twenty-two kDa protein specifically decreased in slow soleus muscle atrophy after 2-week hindlimb suspension (HS) of rats. (
  • This protein is abundant in soleus muscle but less in fast plantaris muscle. (
  • muscle biopsy in motor neuron disease shows denervation atrophy. (
  • Arterial wall and smooth muscle cell development in young Wistar rats and the effects of surgical denervation. (
  • Development of the muscular saphenous artery and the effect of surgical denervation on normal development was investigated in young rats at 3 and 6 weeks of age. (
  • Loss of innervation of skeletal muscle is a determinant event in several muscle diseases. (
  • From our studies, it is clear that diaphragm muscle neuromotor control is responsive to alterations in innervation and activation. (
  • Double transgenic SOD1 G93A /ERp57 WT animals presented delayed deterioration of electrophysiological activity and maintained muscle innervation compared to single transgenic SOD1 G93A littermates at early-symptomatic stage, along with improved motor performance without affecting survival. (
  • Skeletal muscle atrophy is a debilitating outcome of a number of chronic diseases and conditions associated with loss of muscle innervation by motor neurons, such as aging and neurodegenerative diseases. (
  • In conclusion, this study reveals a novel pathway for neurogenic muscle atrophy and suggests that 12/15-LO may be a potential therapeutic target in diseases associated with loss of innervation and muscle atrophy. (
  • Cultured muscle cells lack innervation, which is required for proper muscle development and to prevent muscle atrophy in vivo ( Szewczyk and Jacobson, 2005 ). (
  • Denervation induces cytosolic phospholipase A2-mediated fatty acid hydroperoxide generation by muscle mitochondria. (
  • Following skeletal muscle injury, irisin injection improves regeneration and induces hypertrophy. (
  • Background Parasympathetic pulmonary nerves release acetylcholine that induces smooth muscle constriction. (
  • Exposure to microgravity induces muscle atrophy through several biological effects, including associations with reactive oxygen species (ROS). (
  • Sternocleidomastoid electromyography activity was recorded from the right and left sides, and the results were classified as normal, moderate denervation, and severe denervation. (
  • Together these results indicate that impaired synaptic vesicle release at NMJs in severe SMA is likely to contribute to failed postnatal maturation of motor units and muscle weakness. (
  • If muscle spasms and contractions are frequent and severe enough, the individual may also experience stiffness and pain. (
  • 3 We identified an infant with severe SMA who fulfilled two exclusion criteria and also showed inexcitability of all nerves as well as muscles. (
  • Plasma membrane fractions isolated from rat skeletal muscle demonstrate an increased carbohydrate composition after 7 days of denervation. (
  • Denervation of the extensor digitorum longus and tibialis anterior muscles caused a 40-50% increase in cytosolic androgen receptor concentration with no change in apparent binding affinity. (
  • In both the denervated soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) the time-to-peak twitch tension and the half relaxation were prolonged by 28 days post-denervation and this trend continued to the oldest age groups studied. (
  • Methods and apparatus are provided for selective denervation of conduction pathways in the heart for the treatment of dysrhythmias, including one or more ablation or electroporation catheters having electrodes for stimulating, targeting, and ablating fat pad tissue and other cardiac tissue to selectively. (
  • We previously reported that denervation-induced loss of muscle mass is associated with activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), the rate-limiting step for the release of arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids, which then acts as a substrate for metabolic pathways that generate bioactive lipid mediators. (
  • These results suggested that PQQ could attenuate denervation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy, mitophagy and fiber type transition through suppressing the Jak2/STAT3, TGF-β1/Smad3, JNK/p38 MAPK, and NF-κB signaling pathways. (
  • Higher T2 signal was associated with greater overall disability (coefficient −0.009, 95% CI −0.017 to -0.001, p=0.023) and with clinical weakness and lower MUNIX in multiple individual muscles. (
  • Following an acute polio infection diagnosis symptoms such as fatiguability , general weakness and pain are believed to be correlated to muscle denervation. (
  • The motor neuron disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) causes profound muscle weakness that most often leads to early death. (
  • These studies have suggested that distal axonal degeneration may be an early contributor to muscle weakness in motor neuron diseases. (
  • These findings may provide the basis of the muscle weakness in SMA. (
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and fatal late-onset neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of motoneurons leading to muscle weakness, paralysis and death [ 1 ]. (
  • Dominantly inherited, missense mutations in the widely expressed housekeeping gene, GARS1 , cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2D (CMT2D), a peripheral neuropathy characterised by muscle weakness and wasting in limb extremities. (
  • Denervation was found to occur along a distal-to-proximal gradient, providing a cellular explanation for the greater weakness observed in mutant Gars hindlimbs compared with forelimbs. (
  • Patients present with muscle weakness, the disease owes its name to the histological finding of vacuoles and filamentous inclusions. (
  • Proteome dynamics in rat gastrocnemius muscle. (
  • This cytoprotective effect of osteoactivin was supported by the expression of regeneration/degeneration-associated genes in the gastrocnemius muscle during denervation. (
  • Denervation atrophy in gastrocnemius and sartorius muscles of the frog (Rana cyanophlictis Schn. (
  • Skeletal muscle membranes were prepared from gastrocnemius muscles, and purification and biochemical analyses carried out. (
  • At 1 day after surgery, the insulin-stimulated activity of Akt1 kinase in denervated soleus and plantaris muscles remained unchanged, but the insulin-stimulated 2-DG uptake by these muscles was reduced by 71 and 61%, respectively, compared with the corresponding muscles of the contralateral sham (control) hindlimb. (
  • A single hindlimb denervation in the rat is a useful and highly reproducible model of insulin resistance. (
  • In this model, muscles of the denervated hindlimb develop insulin resistance, whereas muscles of the contralateral sham hindlimb respond to insulin in a normal fashion and serve as an internal control ( 16 ). (
  • Hindlimb suspension and sciatic denervation are done with research animal models which can imitate a variety of conditions that induce human skeletal muscle atrophy [ 1 ], but it is still hard to simulate the space environment. (
  • [6] The muscles controlling micturition are controlled by the autonomic and somatic nervous systems. (
  • Importantly, PKB/Akt inhibition, conferred by sustained mTORC1 activation, abrogates denervation-induced synaptic remodeling and causes neuromuscular endplate degeneration. (
  • The purpose of our study was to compare two acquired muscle atrophies and the use of myostatin inhibition for their treatment. (
  • We also identified CAMK2B as a potential downstream target of p38α MAPK and found that the pharmacological inhibition of CAMK2B activity suppresses denervation-induced muscle atrophy. (
  • Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of 12/15-LO (but not 5-LO) significantly protected against denervation-induced muscle atrophy, suggesting a selective role for the 12/15-LO pathway in neurogenic muscle atrophy. (
  • PQQ ameliorates skeletal muscle atrophy, mitophagy and fiber type transition induced by denervation via inhibition of. (
  • Selective peripheral denervation (SPD) is a widely accepted surgery for medically refractory cervical dystonia (CD), but when SPD has failed, the available approaches are limited. (
  • We hypothesized that inflammatory and denervation changes also involve the muscular layer of the pharynx in OSA. (
  • Following denervation, muscular atrophy and degeneration occurs within affected skeletal muscle tissue. (
  • Muscle atrophy, a reduction of muscle mass, strength, and volume, results from reduced muscle use and plays a key role in various muscular diseases. (
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor neuron loss and muscle wasting. (
  • Although involvement of anterior horn cells in the spinal cord and motor neurons in the brainstem are the major sites of pathology responsible for neuromuscular signs, inflammation also may involve skeletal or cardiac muscle (myositis, myocarditis), motor axons (polyradiculitis), and peripheral nerves [Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), brachial plexopathy]. (
  • Cardiac, neuronal, and muscle electrical signaling is controlled and modulated by changes in voltage-gated ion channel activity that occur through physiological and pathological processes such as development, epilepsy, and cardiomyopathy. (
  • Neurons, skeletal muscle, and cardiac muscle communicate through production and conduction of orchestrated electrical signals called action potentials (AP). (
  • Summary: Denervation changes in muscle following damage to cranial and peripheral nerves can be observed on both CT and MR imaging studies. (
  • If the nerves lost to denervation are part of the neuronal communication to a specific function in the body then altered or a loss of physiological functioning can occur. (
  • Aims To evaluate 'targeted lung denervation' (TLD), a novel bronchoscopic therapy based on ablation of parasympathetic pulmonary nerves surrounding the main bronchi, as a potential therapy for COPD. (
  • Average fiber size of the TA and soleus decreased after denervation, but no difference was found between strains. (
  • At this time in development, motoneurons have an expanded terminal arbor, and multiple motoneurons innervate each muscle fiber. (
  • Within the skeletal tissue is observable progressive loss of weight of denervated muscles as well as reduction in muscle fiber size and quantity. (
  • Improvement of muscle fiber fatigue resistance is usually at the expense of fiber size, contractile strength, or both. (
  • The mitophagy was observed through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, and muscle fiber type transition was analyzed through fast myosin skeletal heavy chain antibody staining. (
  • Furthermore, PQQ alleviated skeletal muscle atrophy, mitigated mitophagy and inhibited slow-to-fast muscle fiber type transition. (
  • These alterations in composition and transferase activities may help explain the renewed capacity for cell-cell interactions associated with denervation. (
  • Jeffrey, PL & Appel, SH 1978, ' Denervation alterations in surface membrane glycoprotein glycosyltransferases of mammalian skeletal muscle ', Experimental Neurology , vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 432-441. (
  • Changes in skeletal muscle activity cause dramatic alterations in muscle mass. (
  • The tunica media of the artery and the lumen increased significantly with age, but the proportion of smooth muscle cell to paracellular matrix did not alter. (
  • In turn, overexpression of Nogo-A in wild-type muscle fibres leads to shrinkage of the postsynapse and retraction of the presynaptic motor ending. (
  • Inserial sections these segments frequently showed positivestaining also for acid phosphatase.It is concluded that exogenously applied horseradishperoxidase is taken up into the lysosomal system, whichafter denervation becomes organized into characteristicspindle-shaped segments in the muscle fibres. (
  • The endocyticactivity of muscle fibres increases early after denervation.This is followed by a more gradual increase in activity oflysosomal enzymes and finally by an organization of thelysosomal system into characteristic spindle-shaped segments.The results are compatible with the working hypothesisthat increased endocytosis may initiate lysosomal activationin denervated skeletal muscle. (
  • Give some differences between red and white muscle fibres. (
  • Sometimes a group of muscle fibres from teres minor may be fused with infraspinatus. (
  • Nonetheless, muscles from similar locations and innervated by axons of equivalent length showed significant differences in neuropathology, suggestive of additional factors impacting on site-specific neuromuscular degeneration. (
  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is an inherited peripheral neuropathy typified by degeneration of motor and sensory neurons, which triggers progressive muscle wasting and sensory deficits mainly in the feet and hands 1 . (
  • Patterns of disease spread were modelled using mixed-effects multivariable regression, assessing associations between muscle relative T2 signal and anatomical adjacency to site of clinical onset. (
  • Skeletal muscle atrophy caused by denervation is a serious consequence of neuropathic disease, especially diabetes. (
  • This study used 3D-clinostat to investigate muscle atrophy caused by oxidative stress in vitro , and sciatic denervation was used to investigate muscle atrophy in vivo . (
  • The CT findings of denervation atrophy due to CN VII dysfunction have been reported. (
  • These findings have implications for the interpretation of previous studies on synapse elimination and offer insight into the failure of young motor units to expand after partial denervation. (
  • Altogether, our findings identify p38α MAPK as a novel regulator of muscle atrophy and suggest that the suppression of intracellular signaling mediated by p38α MAPK serves as a potential target for the treatment of muscle atrophy. (
  • 6 The present study was undertaken to determine (1) the prevalence of asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity in patients admitted in a cardiology department, (2) the prevalence of sternocleidomastoid muscle denervation in the same population, and most importantly, (3) the concordance between these two findings. (
  • In these studies, the earliest positive MR imaging findings have been reported to occur 14 to 21 days after denervation ( 3 , 4 ). (
  • Although the findings are non-specific, it is worth considering this diagnosis in a older patient with abnormalities of the above mentioned muscles. (
  • In this study, we therefore employed space flown C. elegans to confirm and extend the findings made with cultured embryonic avian muscle cells. (
  • In addition to the clinical examination, the diagnosis of denervated muscles is commonly based on electromyography (EMG) showing absence or reduction of motor unit recruitment during voluntary movement and fibrillation potentials at rest. (
  • Electromyography demonstrates denervation features. (
  • Patterns of 18 F-FDG uptake in adipose tissue and muscle: A potential source of false-positives for PET. (
  • Denervation can have many harmful side effects such as increased risk of infection and tissue dysfunction. (
  • Pathological investigations of human disease tissue obtained at autopsy have revealed loss of anterior horn cells (AHCs) in the spinal cord, reduced numbers of large diameter axons in ventral roots, and atrophy of myofibers in muscle ( Crawford and Pardo, 1996 ), but these studies at end-stage disease provide little insight into the earliest structural and functional abnormalities of the motor unit. (
  • Heavy water labeling combined with sensitive tandem mass spectrometric analysis allowed integrated synthesis rates of proteins in muscle tissue across the proteome to be measured over several weeks. (
  • Fractional synthesis rate (FSR) of plasma creatine kinase M-type (CK-M) and carbonic anhydrase 3 (CA-3) in the blood, more than 90% of which is derived from skeletal muscle, correlated closely with FSR of CK-M, CA-3, and other proteins of various ontologies in skeletal muscle tissue in both rodents and humans. (
  • FSR of plasma CK-M and CA-3 revealed changes and interindividual differences in muscle tissue proteome dynamics. (
  • Nervous stimuli and/or contractile activity may modulate the expression of GLUT-i and GLUT4 in skeletal muscle tissue . (
  • Contraction of the dorsal muscles, m. syringealis dorsalis (dS) and m. tracheobronchialis dorsalis, constricts the syringeal lumen and thus reduces airflow by adducting connective tissue masses, the medial (ML) and lateral (LL) labia. (
  • Like the human larynx, however, the syrinx consists of specialised cartilaginous structures, connective tissue masses, membranes and a number of muscles. (
  • To clarify the role of IGFs in regulating muscle mass, this study examined whether IGF-I and -II mRNA levels were altered during decreased muscle activity (denervation). (
  • The MR appearance of trigeminal, vagal, spinal accessory, and hypoglossal motor denervation has been well described (2-6) . (
  • Through this process, muscle strength can be maintained even after substantial loss of motoneurons due to injury or disease. (
  • Surgical denervation at 10 days of age resulted in abnormalities of growth in vessel dimensions, thinner tunica media at 3 weeks (denervated 11 days previously), and smaller lumen at 6 weeks (denervated 32 days previously). (
  • Notably, CUGBP1 expression is similarly increased by surgical denervation of wild-type muscle, however this is not sufficient to lead to changes in Clcn1 RNA splicing. (
  • The COX-2 pathway is essential during early stages of skeletal muscle regeneration. (
  • Our results suggest that an osteoactivin-mediated increase in MMPs in skeletal muscle might be useful for protecting injured muscle from fibrosis, leading to full regeneration after denervation. (
  • Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) is a classical modulator of skeletal muscle and regulates several processes, such as myogenesis, regeneration and muscle function in skeletal muscle diseases. (
  • A 40% increase in cytosolic androgen receptor concentration was also noted 24 hr after denervation of the hormone-sensitive levator ani muscle. (
  • However, IGF-II mRNA abundance was 2.5-fold greater than controls by 10 d of denervation, 3-fold by 12 d, and 6.8-fold by 17 d. (
  • On the other hand, IGF-I mRNA levels were not affected by denervation. (
  • In conclusion, although increased muscle activity results in a change of IGF-I mRNA expression, decreased muscle activity has no effect on IGF-I mRNA expression. (
  • Bechtel, Peter J. / Modulation of IGF mRNA abundance during muscle denervation atrophy . (
  • To allow dynamic changes in autophagy, mTORC1 activation must be tightly balanced following denervation. (
  • Acutely activating or inhibiting mTORC1 impairs autophagy regulation and alters homeostasis in denervated muscle. (
  • Exogenous TGF-β1 was administrated and high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), autophagy were blocked by siRNA and chloroquine (CQ) respectively to explore the mechanism of the atrophic effect of TGF-β1 in denervated muscle. (
  • We found that TGF-β1 was induced in denervated muscle and it could promote atrophy of skeletal muscle both in vivo and in vitro, up-regulated HMGB1 and increased autophagy activity were also detected in denervated muscle and were further promoted by exogenous TGF-β1. (
  • Thus, our data revealed that TGF-β1 is a vital regulatory factor in denervated skeletal muscle in which HMGB1/ autophagy pathway mediates the atrophic effect of TGF-β1. (
  • While the regulatory networks governing UPS have been extensively characterized [ 22 , 24 , 25 ], those regulating autophagy are still incompletely defined in the context of denervation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy. (
  • Objective To assess clinical, electrophysiological and whole-body muscle MRI measurements of progression in patients with motor neuron disease (MND), as tools for future clinical trials, and to probe pathophysiological mechanisms in vivo. (
  • Conclusions Whole-body muscle MRI offers a new approach to objective assessment of denervation over short timescales in MND and enables investigation of patterns of disease spread in vivo. (
  • During the storage phase, the internal urethral sphincter remains tense and the detrusor muscle relaxed by sympathetic stimulation. (
  • 2. Widespread acute and chronic neurogenic denervation in both legs and lumbar paraspinal muscles I am just asked now to take vitamin C and E. Please help to let me know what is my problem and recommend the path forward. (
  • MR imaging helps to consolidate the diagnosis of neurogenic muscle atrophy. (
  • Inflammatory myopathy is a term that defines a group of muscle diseases involving inflammation of skeletal muscle and often the adjacent fascia, with elevated CPK. (
  • During the acute phase of critical illness myopathy (CIM) there is inexcitability of skeletal muscle. (
  • We establish that PKB/Akt activation promotes the nuclear import of HDAC4 and is thereby required for epigenetic changes and synaptic gene up-regulation upon denervation. (
  • The literature has provided ample evidence that neural influence is responsible for the regulation and maintenance of muscle properties. (
  • Our results demonstrate that myostatin propeptide gene delivery, especially the mutant-type of MSPPD75A, attenuates muscle atrophy through myogenic regulatory factors and acetylcholine receptor regulation. (
  • Therefore, the demand to further understand the pathology of muscle atrophy and establish a treatment modality for patients with muscle atrophy is significant. (
  • Upper airway muscle inflammation and denervation changes in obstructive sleep apnea. (
  • Analogically, we hypothesized that pulmonary artery denervation (PADN) could reverse PAH and PAH-induced right ventricular (RV) dysfunction by downregulating the local RAAS activity. (
  • Pulmonary artery denervation (PADN) is one of the newest potential therapies of PAH. (
  • During the latter period, the slow-twitch muscles become completely unresponsive to stimulation with insulin, whereas the fast-twitch muscles show a normal glucose uptake when stimulated by insulin. (
  • One of the most promising approaches to improving hand function is functional electrical stimulation, which uses bursts of short electrical pulses to generate muscle contractions. (
  • During micturition, parasympathetic stimulation causes the detrusor muscle to contract and the internal urethral sphincter to relax. (
  • The biceps brachii and rectus femoris muscles were electrically inexcitable by direct needle stimulation. (
  • 4 ) reported that aberrant fatty acid metabolism was implicated in diminished glucose uptake and diabetes, and later studies collectively concluded that reduced capacity for fatty acid oxidation within skeletal muscle was implicated in excess IMTG accumulation ( 5 , 6 ), insulin resistance ( 7 ), and type 2 diabetes ( 8 ). (
  • We now show that the genetic ablation of Nogo-A extends survival and reduces muscle denervation in a mouse model of ALS. (
  • Together, our results indicate that this approach provides a virtual biopsy, sensitively revealing individualized changes in proteome-wide synthesis rates in skeletal muscle without a muscle biopsy. (
  • Generally speaking, not all muscles are involved, so MR can help locate the best area for biopsy. (
  • And enhancement of the gene expression of the muscle regulatory factors, neurite outgrowth factors (IGF-1, GAP43) and acetylcholine receptors was observed. (