Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.
The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.
Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the sis gene (GENES, SIS). c-sis proteins make up the B chain of PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR. Overexpression of c-sis causes tumorigenesis.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).
Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)
Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).
A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.
An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.
The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Exercises that stretch the muscle fibers with the aim to increase muscle-tendon FLEXIBILITY, improve RANGE OF MOTION or musculoskeletal function, and prevent injuries. There are various types of stretching techniques including active, passive (relaxed), static, dynamic (gentle), ballistic (forced), isometric, and others.
Myosin type II isoforms found in smooth muscle.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.
A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
Technique for limiting use, activity, or movement by immobilizing or restraining animal by suspending from hindlimbs or tails. This immobilization is used to simulate some effects of reduced gravity and study weightlessness physiology.
The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.

DDPH inhibited L-type calcium current and sodium current in single ventricular myocyte of guinea pig. (1/1087)

AIM: To investigate the effects of 1-(2, 6-dimethylphenoxy)-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl-ethylamino)propane hydrochloride (DDPH) on L-type calcium current (ICa) and sodium current (INa), and to compare its inhibitory potency with verapamil and mexiletine. METHODS: Whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to record ICa and INa in a single ventricular myocytes of guinea pig. RESULTS: (1) DDPH (3 - 300 micromol . L-1) decreased ICa at 0 mV in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 28.5 micromol . L-1 (95 % confidence limits: 14.3 - 42.7 micromol . L-1, n = 8 cells from 8 guinea pigs). Verapamil (0.3 - 30 micromol . L-1) reduced ICa with an IC50 value of 1.8 micromol . L-1 (95 % confidence limits: 1.3 - 2.3 micromol . L-1, n = 6 cells from 6 guinea pigs). Mexiletine 100 micromol . L-1 did not affect ICa (n = 5 cells from 5 guinea pigs, P > 0.05). The degree of use-dependent blocking effect of DDPH 30 micromol/L on ICa was 58 % +/- 13 % (n = 5 cells from 5 guinea pigs, P < 0.01) at 1 Hz and 76 % +/- 11 % (n = 5 cells from 5 guinea pigs, P < 0.01) at 3 Hz. (2) DDPH (20 - 320 micromol . L-1) could also block INa in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 89.0 micromol . L-1 (95 % confidence limits: 68.7 - 109.3 micromol . L-1, n = 9 cells from 9 guinea pigs). The IC50 value of mexiletine was 32.2 micromol . L-1 (95 % confidence limits: 11.7 - 52.7 micromol . L-1, n = 5 cells from 5 guinea pigs). Verapamil at the concentration of 10 micromol . L-1 did not affect INa (n = 5 cells from 5 guinea pigs, P > 0.05). The blocking effect of DDPH 80 micromol/L on INa was non use-dependent. CONCLUSION: DPH exhibited inhibitory effects on both ICa and INa, but its inhibitory effect on ICa was weaker than verapamil, and on INa was weaker than mexiletine.  (+info)

Ultrastructure of acetylcholine receptor aggregates parallels mechanisms of aggregation. (2/1087)

BACKGROUND: Acetylcholine receptors become aggregated at the developing neuromuscular synapse shortly after contact by a motorneuron in one of the earliest manifestations of synaptic development. While a major physiological signal for receptor aggregation (agrin) is known, the mechanism(s) by which muscle cells respond to this and other stimuli have yet to be worked out in detail. The question of mechanism is addressed in the present study via a quantitative examination of ultrastructural receptor arrangement within aggregates. RESULTS: In receptor rich cell membranes resulting from stimulation by agrin or laminin, or in control membrane showing spontaneous receptor aggregation, receptors were found to be closer to neighboring receptors than would be expected at random. This indicates that aggregation proceeds heterogeneously: nanoaggregates, too small for detection in the light microscope, underlie developing microaggregates of receptors in all three cases. In contrast, the structural arrangement of receptors within nanoaggregates was found to depend on the aggregation stimulus. In laminin induced nanoaggregates receptors were found to be arranged in an unstructured manner, in contrast to the hexagonal array of about 10 nm spacing found for agrin induced nanoaggregates. Spontaneous aggregates displayed an intermediate amount of order, and this was found to be due to two distinct population of nanoaggregates. CONCLUSIONS: The observations support earlier studies indicating that mechanisms by which agrin and laminin-1 induced receptor aggregates form are distinct and, for the first time, relate mechanisms underlying spontaneous aggregate formation to aggregate structure.  (+info)

Effects of ropivacaine on sodium, calcium, and potassium currents in guinea pig ventricular myocytes. (3/1087)

AIM: To study the effects of ropivacaine (Rop) on sodium current (INa), L-type calcium current (ICa-L), inward rectifier potassium current (IK1), and delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) in isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes. METHODS: Whole cell patch-clamp techniques were used in our experiment. RESULTS: At potential of -40 mV, Rop 10, 50, and 100 micromol/L decreased sodium current by 8.3 %, 33.3 %, and 62.5 %, respectively and prolonged the time constant of INa inactivation by 8.2 %, 24.7 %, and 64.4 %, respectively (n = 5 cells from 3 animals, P < 0.05). At potential of +10 mV, Rop 50 and 100 micromol/L decreased L-type calcium current by 7.6 % and 22.5 %, and prolonged the slow time constant of ICa-L inactivation by 15.5 % and 33.0 %, respectively (n = 5 cells from 4 animals, P < 0.05). Rop 50 and 100 micromol/L did not markedly change the peak current of delayed rectifier potassium current and inward rectifier potassium current (n = 5 cells from 3 animals, P > 0.05), respectively. CONCLUSION: Rop depressed INa and ICa-L, which may be related to its cardiotoxic effect  (+info)

Characterization of transient outward K+ current and ultra-rapid delayed rectifier K+ current in isolated human atrial myocytes from patients with congestive heart failure. (4/1087)

AIM: To study the properties of transient outward K+ current (Ito) and ultra-rapid delayed rectifier K+ current (IKur) in isolated human atrial myocytes from patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). METHODS: Single cells were isolated from CHF patients with collagenase and protease. Ito and IKur were recorded using whole cell patch-clamp technique. RESULTS: The activation and inactivation of I(to) were voltage-dependent and time-dependent. The half-activation and half-inactivation voltage were (15 +/- 12) mV and (-45 +/- 4) mV respectively. When membrane potential went up from -40 mV to +60 mV, the activation time constant means decreased from (6.9 +/- 2.3) ms to (1.40 +/- 0.20) ms, while the inactivation time constant means decreased from (69 +/- 17) ms to (21 +/- 14) ms. Otherwise, the mean reactivation time constants was (125 +/- 65) ms when the membrane potential was held at -80 mV, but the recovery was not complete during the interval observed. Ito showed less frequency-dependent reduction at test frequency between 0.2-2 Hz. Compared with Ito, the activation of IKur only showed voltage-dependence, without time-dependence. Its mean current densities was (3.4 +/- 0.7) pA/pF when test potential was +60 mV. The half activation voltage of IKur was (23 +/- 14) mV. No clear frequency-dependence was observed at the same frequency range of Ito either. CONCLUSION: I(to) and IKur are important outward potassium channel currents in isolated human atrial myocytes from CHF patients and they have different kinetic properties.  (+info)

Effect of agmatine on L-type calcium current in rat ventricular myocytes. (5/1087)

AIM: To study the effect of agmatine (Agm) on L-type calcium current (I(Ca-L)) in rat ventricular myocytes. METHODS: Whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique was used to record I(Ca-L) in single rat ventricular myocytes which were dissociated by enzymatic dissociation method. RESULTS: (1) Agm (0.5, 1, 2 mmol/L) reduced the voltage-dependently activated peak amplitude of I(Ca-L) (pA) from 1451+/-236 (control) to 937+/-105 (n=8, P <0.05), 585+/-74 (n=8, P <0.01), and to 301+/-156 (n=8, P <0.01) in a concentration-dependent manner. (2) Agm (1 mmol/L) blocked I(Ca-L) in a use-dependent manner. The degree of use-dependent blocking effect was 53 %+/-12 % (n=8, P <0.05) at 1 Hz, and 69 %+/-11 % (n=8, P <0.01) at 3 Hz. (3) Agm upshifted the current-voltage (I-V) curve, but the characteristics of I-V relationship were not significantly altered by Agm, the maximal activation voltage of I(Ca-L) was not different from that of control. Steady-state activation of I(Ca-L) was not affected markedly. The half activation potential (V(0.5)) and the slope factor (k) were not significantly different from those of the control. V(0.5) value was (-20.2+/-2.5) mV in the control and (-20.5+/-2.7) mV in the presence of Agm 1 mmol/L. The k value was (7.1+/-0.4) mV and (7.5+/-0.5) mV, respectively (n=8, P >0.05). (4) Agm 1 mmol/L markedly shifted the steady-state inactivation curve of I(Ca-L) to the left, and accelerated the voltage-dependent steady-state inactivation of calcium current. V(0.5) value was (-32+/-6) mV in the control and (-40+/-5) mV in the presence of Agm. The k value was (7.6+/-0.9) mV and (12.5+/-1.1) mV, respectively (n=8, P <0.05). (5) Agm 1 mmol/L markedly delayed half-recovery time of Ca2+ channel from inactivation (92+/-28) ms to (249+/-26) ms (n=8, P <0.01). CONCLUSION: Agm inhibited I(Ca-L) and mainly acted on the inactivated state of L-type calcium channel, manifested as acceleration of calcium channel inactivation and slowdown of recovery from inactivated state in rat ventricular myocytes.  (+info)

Responses of adipose and muscle lipoprotein lipase to chronic infection and subsequent acute lipopolysaccharide challenge. (6/1087)

Infection of male Swiss Webster mice with Toxoplasma gondii or Neospora caninum leads to long-term alterations in energy balance. Following an initial 20 to 30% weight loss in all T. gondii-infected mice, half of the animals regain most of the lost weight (gainers), whereas the others maintain their low body weight (nongainers). Infection with N. caninum does not elicit weight loss. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL), the enzyme responsible for plasma triglyceride (TG) clearance and partitioning among tissues, is under tissue-specific modulation associated with energy balance. It is also a major determinant of infection-induced hypertriglyceridemia. This study aimed to assess the long-term modulation of adipose and muscle LPL activity in mice infected with T. gondii or N. caninum, to evaluate the effects of subsequent acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration, and to relate LPL modulation in these conditions with infection-related changes in body weight gain. Twenty-eight days after infection, LPL activity in muscle of both gainer and nongainer T. gondii-infected mice was reduced by 40 to 50% compared with the levels in controls and N. caninum-infected mice, whereas LPL activity in adipose depots remained unchanged in all infected groups compared to the level in controls. LPS (from Escherichia coli, 100 ng/kg) injection induced a global reduction in adipose LPL in all groups, as assessed 90 min later. In both T. gondii-infected subgroups, muscle LPL was not further reduced by LPS treatment, whereas it was decreased by 40 to 50% in muscles of control and N. caninum-infected mice. Pre-LPS TG levels in plasma were similar in all groups. LPS greatly increased TG levels in plasma in both control and N. caninum-infected animals, whereas it did not alter those of T. gondii-infected gainer or nongainer animals. These results show that (i) independently of the extent of postinfection weight gain, long-term infection with T. gondii chronically reduces muscle LPL, which becomes unresponsive to acute endotoxemia; (ii) modulation of tissue LPL activity during chronic T. gondii infection favors TG partitioning towards adipose tissue; and (iii) skeletal muscle LPL is a key determinant of the acute response of triglyceridemia to LPS.  (+info)

Spatial characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release events triggered by L-type Ca2+ current and Na+ current in guinea-pig cardiac myocytes. (7/1087)

Ca2+ signals in cardiac muscle cells are composed of spatially limited elementary events termed Ca2+ sparks. Several studies have also indicated that Ca2+ signals smaller than Ca2+ sparks can be elicited. These signals have been termed Ca2+ quarks and were proposed to result from the opening of a single Ca2+ release channel of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. We used laser-scanning confocal microscopy to examine the subcellular properties of Na+ current (I(Na))- and L-type Ca2+ current (I(Ca,L))-induced Ca2+ transients in voltage-clamped ventricular myocytes isolated from guinea-pigs. Both currents, I(Na) and I(Ca,L), evoked substantial, global Ca2+ transients. To examine the spatiotemporal properties of such Ca2+ signals, we performed power spectral analysis of these Ca2+ transients and found that both lacked spatial frequency components characteristic for Ca2+ sparks. The application of 10 microM verapamil to partially block L-type Ca2+ current reduced the corresponding Ca2+ transients down to individual Ca2+ sparks. In contrast, I(Na)-induced Ca2+ responses were still spatially homogeneous and lacked Ca2+ sparks even for small current amplitudes. By using high resistance patch pipettes (> 4 MOmega) to exaggerate the loss of voltage control during I(Na), Ca2+ sparks appeared superimposed on a homogeneous Ca2+ release component and were exclusively triggered during the flow of I(Na). In the presence of 10 microM ryanodine both I(Ca,L) and I(Na) elicited small, residual Ca2+ transients that were spatially homogeneous but displayed distinctively different temporal profiles. We conclude that I(Na) is indeed able to cause Ca2+ release in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes. In contrast to I(Ca,L)-induced Ca2+ transients, which are built up from the recruitment of individual Ca2+ sparks, the I(Na)-evoked cellular responses were always homogeneous, indicating that their underlying elementary Ca2+ release event is distinct from the Ca2+ spark. Thus, I(Na)-induced Ca2+ transients are composed of smaller Ca2+ signals, most likely Ca2+ quarks.  (+info)

The pure anti-oestrogen ICI 182,780 (Faslodex) activates large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels in smooth muscle. (8/1087)

Oestrogen and tamoxifen activate large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channels in smooth muscle through a non-genomic mechanism that depends on the regulatory beta1 subunit and an extracellular binding site. It is unknown whether a "pure" anti-oestrogen such as ICI 182,780 (Faslodex), that has no known oestrogenic properties, would have any effect on BK(Ca) channels. Using single channel patch clamp techniques on canine colonic myocytes, the hypothesis that ICI 182,780 would activate BK(Ca) channels was tested. ICI 182,780 increased the open probability of BK(Ca) channels in inside-out patches with an EC(50) of 1 microM. These data suggest that molecules with the ability to bind nuclear oestrogen receptors, regardless of oestrogenic or anti-oestrogenic nature, activate BK(Ca) channels through this nongenomic, membrane-delimited mechanism. The identity and characteristics of this putative binding site remain unclear; however, it has pharmacological similarity to oestrogen receptors alpha and beta, as ICI 182,780 interacts with it.  (+info)

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CPAP is the most widely used treatment for sleep apnea. Now, research confirms that it is also the most effective for lowering blood pressure in this group.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of intermittent pressure imitating rolling manipulation on calcium ion homeostasis in human skeletal muscle cells. AU - Zhang, Hong. AU - Liu, Howe. AU - Lin, Qing. AU - Zhang, Guohui. AU - Mason, David C.. PY - 2016/8/26. Y1 - 2016/8/26. N2 - Background: Homeostasis imbalance of intracellular Ca2+ is one of the key pathophysiological factors in skeletal muscle injuries. Such imbalance can cause significant change in the metabolism of Ca2+-related biomarkers in skeletal muscle, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and creatine kinase (CK). Measurements of these biomarkers can be used to evaluate the degree of damage to human skeletal muscle cells (HSKMCs) injury. Rolling manipulation is the most popular myofascial release technique in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The mechanism of how this technique works in ameliorating muscle injury is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the possible Ca2+ mediated effects of intermittent pressure imitating ...
Aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of injection of autologous muscle-derived cells into the urinary sphincter for treatment of postprostatectomy urinary incontinence in men and to characterize the injected cells prior to transpla
AppliedStemCell eCommerce Platform Human Skeletal Muscle Cells cDNA (DMD) [ASD-9042] - Catalog Number ASD-9042 Quantity 20 reactions Product Information Description Applied StemCells cDNA is synthesized from a highly pure and intact total RN
Pooley , N J , Tacchi , L , Secombes , C J & Martin , S A M 2013 , Inflammatory responses in primary muscle cell cultures in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) BMC Genomics , vol 14 , 747 . DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-14- ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
(2016) Gu et al. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Myostatin (Mstn) is an inhibitor of myogenesis, regulating the number and size of skeletal myocytes. In addition to its myogenic regulatory function, Mstn plays important roles in the development of adipose tissues and in metab...
Part Two of the interview with Nicolas Rasmussen, author of On Speed: The Many Lives of Amphetamines and professor of history and philosophy at University of New South Wales in Australia. (Listen to Part 1 here) Then, Tristan Bock-Hughes tells the story of the Scopes Monkey Trial of 1925, and the ongoing battle over creationism in US public schools.. ...
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NESPS 2019 Abstracts: Quantifying Brain-death, Transplant Physiology and Immunosuppression on Porcine Muscle-Derived Stem Cell Expansion
CfeaETH *-3 Diss ETH No Inhibition of apoptosis: a new role for paired domain transcription factors in neoplastic human muscle cells a dissertation submitted to the SWISS FEDERAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Hi Hello newsgroup readers! Our research group is investigating the changes in the pattern of gene expression in human skeletal muscle cells upon different stimuli. Because of the limited amount of tissue we get from the muscle biopsies and the complexity of the genetic events that lead to muscle cell adaption, the DNA microarray would be the ideal tool to give us a good overview. We would like to obtain human microarrays at prices affordable for a university research group, since we do not have the funds to take advantage from the full service provided by Synteni. They refuse to sell just the microarrays to their customers, so we have to look for alternative sources. Is there anybody who can help us? Thanks for any reply Mat ...
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After excitation of skeletal muscle, the disturbed ion homeostasis is restored by Na+, K+ ATPase of the sarcolemma and Ca2+ ATPase of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Contrary to Na+, K+ ATPase, the concentration and isoenzyme distribution of SR Ca2+ ATPase in human skeletal muscle depend on fibre type and age. In cultured human muscle cells the concentration and activity of Na+, K+ ATPase and SR Ca2+ ATPase increase with maturation. In skeletal muscle and cultured muscle cells of patients suffering from myotonic dystrophy (MyD), the activity and the concentration of both Na+, K+ ATPase and SR Ca2+ ATPase are decreased by about 40%. In addition, we measured in cultured MyD muscle cells at rest an increased cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) caused by active voltage-operated Ca2+ channels, which are inactive in resting control cells. However, the restoration of a stimulus-induced Ca2+ transient is unaffected. A differentiation-related disturbance of membranes or a modulation defect of membrane
PubMed journal article: Myostatin genetic inactivation inhibits myogenesis by muscle-derived stem cells in vitro but not when implanted in the mdx mouse muscle. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Abstract We investigated the effects of PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α) overexpression on the oxidative capacity of human skeletal muscle cells ex vivo. PGC-1α overexpression increased the oxidation rate of palmitic acid and mRNA expression of genes regulating lipid metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis, and function in human myotubes. Basal and insulin-stimulated deoxyglucose uptake were decreased,…
Definition of skeletal muscle cell in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is skeletal muscle cell? Meaning of skeletal muscle cell as a legal term. What does skeletal muscle cell mean in law?
Skeletal Muscle Cell Diagram - See more about Skeletal Muscle Cell Diagram, skeletal muscle cell diagram, skeletal muscle cell picture
Abstract Numerous strategies are under development for the correction of deleterious effects of mutations in muscular dystrophies, and these strategies must be validated in compelling models. Cellular models seem straightforward to set up; however, the proliferative capacity of muscle cells isolated …
Human muscle cell line - human body diagram at muscles. Human Muscle Cell Line encouraged for you to our website, on this period I am going to teach you with regards to Human muscle cell line.. Now, this can be a very first image, human muscle cell line, human muscle cell line atcc, human smooth muscle cell line, human skeletal muscle cell line atcc, human cardiac muscle cell line, human heart muscle cell line, human vascular smooth muscle cell line, human airway smooth muscle cell line, human skeletal muscle myoblast cell line, immortalized human skeletal muscle cell line :. ...
Dabiri, G., K. Turnacioglu, J. Ayoob, J.M. Sanger and J.W. SANGER. Transfections of primary muscle cell cultures with plasmids coding for GFP/BFP linked to full length and truncated muscle proteins. In, Green Fluorescent Proteins, (Editors, K. F. Sullivan and S. A. Kay), Academic Press, New York. Methods in Cell Biology. 58:239-260, 1999 ...
Figure 195 from Chapter 5 (Endoplasmic Reticulum) of The Cell, 2nd Ed. by Don W. Fawcett M.D. Selective staining of tubular invaginations of the sa...
Refer to the Notice Inviting Bid or Addenda for Important Dates. ORIGINAL BID DOCUMENTS. NIB/Pre-Bid Walk Thru Directions. Proposal Package. Specification. Appendix A - Approved Materials List. Appendix B - Gas Detection System. Appendix C - Mechanical Equipment. Appendix D - Plumbing Fixtures. Appendix E - Lighting Fixtures. Appendix F - Asbestos and Heavy Metal Survey. Appendix G - As-Built Plans. Appendix H - Laydown Area and Limit of Work. Construction Drawings. SITE VISIT WALK THROUGH SIGN-IN SHEET. Pre-Bid Walk Thru Sign-In Sheet. ADDENDA/LETTER OF CLARIFICATION. Letter of Clarification. Addendum No. 1. Addendum No. 2. PROPOSAL RESULTS. Preliminary Bid Summary. Final Bid Summary. PROPOSAL PACKAGES. EFS West, Inc.. Reliable Monitoring Services, Inc. dba RMS Construction. Tovey/Shultz Construction, Inc. PROJECT INFO. Official Bid Publication Date posted on EMWD website: March 1, 2021. Bonding Estimate: $0.8M to $1.2M. Project Location: EMWD Facility Shop #1, 2270 Trumble Road, Perris, CA ...
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Skeletal muscle stem cells, called satellite cells and defined by the transcription factor PAX7, are responsible for postnatal muscle growth, homeostasis and regeneration. Attempts to utilize the regenerative potential of muscle stem cells for therapeutic purposes so far failed. We previously established the existence of human PAX7-positive cell colonies with high regenerative potential. We now identified PAX7-negative human muscle-derived cell colonies also positive for the myogenic markers desmin and MYF5. These include cells from a patient with a homozygous PAX7 c.86-1G , A mutation (PAX7null). Single cell and bulk transcriptome analysis show high intra- and inter-donor heterogeneity and reveal the endothelial cell marker CLEC14A to be highly expressed in PAX7null cells. All PAX7-negative cell populations, including PAX7null, form myofibers after transplantation into mice, and regenerate muscle after reinjury. Transplanted PAX7neg cells repopulate the satellite cell niche where they ...
The aims of this study were to investigate the mechanisms underlying (1) the ageing-related motor handicap at the whole muscle, cellular, contractile protein and myonuclear levels; and (2) ageing-related differences in muscle adaptability.. In vivo muscles function was studied in the knee extensors. Decreases were observed in isokinetic and isometric torque outputs in old age in the sedentary men and women and elite master sprinters. A 20-week long specific sprint and resistance training successfully improved the maximal isometric force and rate of force development in a subgroup of master sprinters.. In vitro measurements were performed in muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle. Immunocytochemical and contractile measurements in single membrane permeabilized muscle fibres demonstrated ageing- and gender-related changes at the myofibrillar level. In sedentary subjects, data showed a preferential decrease in the size of muscle fibres expressing type IIa MyHC in men, lower force ...
A muscle cell is also known as a myocyte when referring to either a cardiac muscle cell (cardiomyocyte), or a smooth muscle ... A skeletal muscle cell is long and threadlike with many nuclei and is called a muscle fiber. Muscle cells (including myocytes ... Skeletal muscle cells are the individual contractile cells within a muscle, and are more usually known as muscle fibers because ... Skeletal muscle cells and cardiac muscle cells both contain myofibrils and sarcomeres and form a striated muscle tissue. ...
... are vascular smooth muscle cell derived. Mural cell Bennett, M. R; Sinha, S; Owens, G. K (2016). "Vascular smooth muscle cells ... Vascular smooth muscle is the type of smooth muscle that makes up most of the walls of blood vessels. Vascular smooth muscle ... Harman, Jennifer L.; Jørgensen, Helle F. (October 2019). "The role of smooth muscle cells in plaque stability: Therapeutic ... Under NE binding alpha-1 receptors cause vasoconstriction ( contraction of the vascular smooth muscle cells decreasing the ...
Both smooth muscle cells and cardiac muscle cells have a single nucleus, and skeletal muscle cells have many nuclei. The main ... There are two types of striated muscle: Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) Skeletal muscle (muscle attached to the skeleton) ... Unlike skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle cells are unicellular. These cells are connected to each other by intercalated disks, ... Skeletal muscle is able to regenerate far better than cardiac muscle due to satellite cells, which are dormant in all healthy ...
However muscle cells cannot divide to produce new cells, and as a result there are fewer muscle cells in an adult than in a ... The muscle cells of skeletal muscles are much longer than in the other types of muscle tissue, and are often known as muscle ... Skeletal muscle cells are the individual contractile cells within a muscle, and are often termed as muscle fibers. A single ... A group of muscle stem cells known as myosatellite cells, also satellite cells are found between the basement membrane and the ...
That is hypertrophy results primarily from the growth of each muscle cell rather than an increase in the number of cells. ... Muscle hypertrophy or muscle building involves a hypertrophy or increase in size of skeletal muscle through a growth in size of ... "Akt/mTOR pathway is a crucial regulator of skeletal muscle hypertrophy and can prevent muscle atrophy in vivo". Nature Cell ... Skeletal muscle cells are however unique in the body in that they can contain multiple nuclei, and the number of nuclei can ...
A muscle fascicle is a bundle of skeletal muscle fibers surrounded by perimysium, a type of connective tissue. Muscle cells are ... Muscle fascicles typically only contain one type of muscle cell (either type I fibres or type II fibres), but can contain a ... In the heart specialized cardiac muscle cells transmit electrical impulses from the atrioventricular node (AV node) to the ... Muscle fascicle structure is a useful diagnostic tool for dermatomyositis. Myocytes towards the edges of the muscle fascicle ...
Unlike single-unit smooth muscle cells, multiunit smooth muscle cells are found in the muscle of the eye and in the base of ... Unlike skeletal muscle cells, smooth muscle cells lack troponin, even though they contain the thin filament protein tropomyosin ... Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle cells. In physiology, muscle contraction does ... Single-unit smooth muscle cells can be found in the gut and blood vessels. Because these cells are linked together by gap ...
"The Basement Membrane of Hair Follicle Stem Cells Is a Muscle Cell Niche". Cell. 144 (4): 577-589. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2011.01. ... The arrector pili muscles, also known as hair erector muscles, are small muscles attached to hair follicles in mammals. ... The muscle attaches to the follicular stem cell niche in the follicular bulge, splitting at their deep end to encircle the ... Pascalau, Raluca; Kuruvilla, Rejji (August 2020). "A Hairy End to a Chilling Event". Cell. 182 (3): 539-541. doi:10.1016/j.cell ...
... these substances give support and strength to the muscle cells, create elasticity in cardiac muscle, and keep the muscle cells ... Cardiac muscle cells also called cardiomyocytes are the contractile myocytes of the cardiac muscle. The cells are surrounded by ... of heart muscle cells per year, and about 69 percent of the heart muscle cells of a 50-year-old were generated after he or she ... cardiac muscle cells are roughly rectangular, measuring 100-150μm by 30-40μm. Individual cardiac muscle cells are joined at ...
... s can be generated in vitro (in a dish) from pluripotent stem cells through directed differentiation. ... Extrafusal muscle fibers are not to be confused with intrafusal muscle fibers, which are innervated by sensory nerve endings in ... Extrafusal muscle fibers are the standard skeletal muscle fibers that are innervated by alpha motor neurons and generate ... Smith RS, Ovalle WK (October 1973). "Varieties of fast and slow extrafusal muscle fibres in amphibian hind limb muscles". ...
Muscle memory is probably related to the cell nuclei residing inside the muscle fibers, as is described below. The muscle cells ... the muscle cells are one of the very few in the mammalian body that contain several cell nuclei. Such multinucleated cells are ... connective tissue and muscle stem cells called satellite cells. Since in vivo imaging has confirmed that cell nuclei are added ... During such fiber enlargement muscle stem cells in the muscle tissue multiply and fuse with pre-existing fibers as to support ...
... can also be caused by low levels of potassium and other electrolytes within muscle cells. It can be temporary ... Proximal muscle weakness affects muscles closest to the body's midline, while distal muscle weakness affects muscles further ... or within the muscle cells themselves. New research from scientists at Columbia University suggests that muscle fatigue is ... caused by calcium leaking out of the muscle cell. This causes there to be less calcium available for the muscle cell. In ...
... variations with muscle length, J Muscle Res Cell Motil 15, 299-304. Huijing, P.A. (1999). Muscle as a collagen fiber reinforced ... This shear force transmission pathway from one muscle cell to its neighbors is highly efficient and because it has low tensile ... The figure to the right is a model consisting of two parallel muscle cells with the endomysium sandwiched between them. ... Rowe, R.W.D. (1981). Morphology of perimysial and endomysial connective tissue in skeletal muscle, Tissue Cell, 13, 681-690. ...
... ". Muscle stem cell Lab. Retrieved 14 July 2020. "Dr. Jyotsna Dhawan". The University of Trans-Disciplinary ... She completed her postdoctoral training at Stanford University studying muscle stem cells and gene therapy in 1995. Dhawan ... Jayaraj, Nandita; Dogra, Aashima (27 February 2017). "Flexing muscle (stem cells) with Jyotsna". The Life of Science. Dhawan, ... for Cellular and Molecular Biology as faculty in 1996 and started her lab studying the biology of muscle stem cells and muscle ...
e. Goblet cells. f. Leucocytes in epithelium. f'. Leucocytes below epithelium. g. Blood vessels. h. Muscle cells cut across. ... Simple Columnar Epithelium is made up of Glandular Goblet cells which secrete mucins to form mucin. the rest of the cell is ... It is present in the lining of the fallopian tubes, where currents generated by the cilia propel the egg cell toward the uterus ... The shape of the simple columnar epithelium cells are tall and narrow giving a column like appearance. the apical surfaces of ...
e. Goblet cells. f. Leucocytes in epithelium. f'. Leucocytes below epbithelium. g. Blood vessels. h. Muscle cells cut across. ... Enterocytes, along with goblet cells, represent the principal cell types of the epithelium of the villi in the small intestine ... "Paneth cells (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)". Andreas Bernkop-Schnürch (2009). Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas (ed.). Oral ... Villi are specialized for absorption in the small intestine as they have a thin wall, one cell thick, which enables a shorter ...
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... being expressed in skeletal muscle near myotendinous junctions, and in vascular smooth muscle cells, as a downstream target of ... CARP has been localized to nuclei and Z-discs in animal and human muscle cells, and at intercalated discs in human cardiac ... transcription of the cell type-restricted ankyrin repeat protein CARP gene through CAGA motif in vascular smooth muscle cells ... Muscle Res. Cell. Motil. 26 (6-8): 401-8. doi:10.1007/s10974-005-9022-9. PMID 16450059. S2CID 22939053. Matsuura K, Uesugi N, ...
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... is a constituent of sarcomeric I-bands in human skeletal muscle". J. Muscle Res. Cell. Motil. 21 (6): 577-86. doi:10.1023/A: ... at cell-cell junctions of epithelial cells". Genes Cells. 7 (5): 475-85. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2443.2002.00533.x. PMID 12047349. ... at cell-cell junctions of epithelial cells". Genes Cells. 7 (5): 475-85. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2443.2002.00533.x. PMID 12047349. ... Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. S2CID 7827573. v t e (Genes on human chromosome 2, ...
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Gallagher PJ, Herring BP, Stull JT (1997). "Myosin light chain kinases". J. Muscle Res. Cell. Motil. 18 (1): 1-16. doi:10.1023/ ... The MYLK2 gene expresses skMLCK more prevalently in fast twitch muscle fibers as compared to slow twitch muscle fibers. ... Cell. 27 (2): 262-74. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2007.06.027. PMC 4498903. PMID 17643375. Junker JP, Rief M (2009). "Single-molecule ... This binding to skMLCK increases the affinity of Ca2+ and ultimately leads to a sustained muscle action. Mutations in the MYLK2 ...
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Muscle Res. Cell. Motil. 23 (3): 255-64. doi:10.1023/A:1020990825644. PMID 12500905. S2CID 42497614. Lim J, Hao T, Shaw C, ... Cell. 125 (4): 801-14. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.03.032. PMID 16713569. S2CID 13709685. Hoskins BE, Cramer CH, Silvius D, Zou D, ... Cell. Biol. 19 (10): 6815-24. doi:10.1128/mcb.19.10.6815. PMC 84678. PMID 10490620. Harris SE, Winchester CL, Johnson KJ (2000 ... "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". ...
Perry SV (2004). "What is the role of tropomyosin in the regulation of muscle contraction?". J. Muscle Res. Cell. Motil. 24 (8 ... MacLeod AR, Gooding C (1988). "Human hTM alpha gene: expression in muscle and nonmuscle tissue". Mol. Cell. Biol. 8 (1): 433-40 ... Perry SV (2002). "Vertebrate tropomyosin: distribution, properties and function". J. Muscle Res. Cell. Motil. 22 (1): 5-49. doi ... proteins involved in the contractile system of striated and smooth muscles and the cytoskeleton of non-muscle cells. Tm is a ...
Coagulative tumor cell necrosis is common in clinically malignant smooth muscle cell tumors. It consists of an abrupt ... transition between necrotic cells and preserved cells. Ghost nuclei from necrotic cells are often seen, but inflammatory cells ... Smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential, abbreviated STUMP, is an uncommon tumor of the uterine smooth muscle that ... It consists of a zone of hyalinized collagen between dead cells and preserved cells, commonly eosinophilic. If dead nuclei ...
J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 25 (4-5): 337-41. doi:10.1007/s10974-004-6060-7. PMID 15548862. S2CID 22355306. Rauscher, Anna Á.; ... Blebs have been seen in cultured cells in certain stages of the cell cycle. These blebs are used for cell locomotion in ... Migrating cells are able to polarize the formation of blebs so blebbing only occurs on the leading edge of the cell.A 2D moving ... In cell biology, a bleb is a bulge of the plasma membrane of a cell, characterized by a spherical, bulky morphology. It is ...
Contraction of heart muscle cells requires depolarization and repolarization of their cell membranes. Movement of ions across ... Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) cell signaling plays a key role in diverse aspects of cardiac differentiation and ... cell membranes causes these events. The cardiac conduction system (and AV node part of it) coordinates myocyte mechanical ...
Exposure to loud noises damages the hair cells in the inner ear that are essential for sending neural impulses to the brain in ... and very little muscle tissue, causing them to be one of the first body parts to become uncomfortably cold as temperatures drop ... Loss of these hair cells leads to hearing loss that may cause speech and sounds to be muffled or distorted. Tinnitus is often ...
Acute febrile mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome 446.5 Giant Cell arteritis(Temporal Arteritis) 447 Other disorders of arteries ... infarction not elsewhere classified other 429.8 Other ill-defined heart diseases 429.81 Other disorders of papillary muscle ... 429.4 Functional disturbances following cardiac surgery 429.5 Rupture of chordae tendineae 429.6 Rupture of papillary muscle ...
General lethargy, weakness, muscle aches, headaches, and low-grade fevers may occur. The disease is usually self-limiting, and ... FUT2 fucosyltransferase transfers a fucose sugar to the end of the ABO(H) precursor in gastrointestinal cells and saliva glands ... Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment to host receptors, which mediates endocytosis. Positive-stranded RNA virus ... Sometimes there is loss of taste, general lethargy, weakness, muscle aches, headache, cough, and/or low-grade fever. The ...
"Nfix Regulates Temporal Progression of Muscle Regeneration through Modulation of Myostatin Expression". Cell Reports. 14 (9): ... In embryonic cells, Nfix has been shown to regulate intermediate progenitor cell (IPC) generation by promoting the ... Intermediate progenitor cells can divide to produce neuroblasts. Neurons produced by Nfix null IPC's do not mature, usually die ... Cell. Biol. 20 (22): 8499-8512. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.22.8499-8512.2000. PMC 102156. PMID 11046146. Imagawa M, Sakaue R, Tanabe A ...
Cell. 140 (1): 88-98. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.12.024. PMC 2885139. PMID 20074522. v t e This article incorporates text from the ... Kir2.6 is primarily expressed in skeletal muscle and is transcriptionally regulated by thyroid hormone. Mutations in this gene ... maintain resting membrane potential in excitable cells and aid in repolarization of cells following depolarization. ...
... and c-Src are activated in human aortic smooth muscle cells by pressure stress". Mol. Cell. Biochem. 262 (1-2): 71-8. doi: ... 2006). "JSAP1/JIP3 cooperates with focal adhesion kinase to regulate c-Jun N-terminal kinase and cell migration". J. Biol. Chem ... 2001). "Kinesin-dependent axonal transport is mediated by the sunday driver (SYD) protein". Cell. 103 (4): 583-94. doi:10.1016/ ... 2004). "Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (33): 12130-5. ...
... as well as reduced heart muscle tissue (myocardium) and abnormally small heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes). One affected ... Most cilia are primary cilia, which are involved in cell signalling, sending and receiving signals to trigger cell migration, ... A few of those affected have had increased muscle tone. One individual had cortical heterotopia, which is a sign of impaired ... They also aid in cell migratory ability. They are made by the centrosome, which contains a pair of cylindrical centrioles at ...
Muscle biopsies from such patients are usually normal, but some have also shown nonspecific signs of inflammation such as dense ... The cause is unknown but it is theorized that antibodies are produced against endothelial cells in tiny arteries which leads to ... The latest thinking is that an antibody directed against endothelial cells is the pathogenic mechanism in this disease which ...
... such as skeletal muscle cell. Targeting of p21 promoter is responsible for inducing cell differentiation, which is promoted by ... Apoptosis is a cell self-destruct process that removes toxic and/or useless cells during mammalian development and other life ... The cell diversity is originated by cell differentiation, which has been attributed to the activation of specific transcription ... Despite this gene being present in every cell, this protein is only expressed in different tissues and cell variety such as ...
... and causes cell death in cultured cells". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (4): 2647-53. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.4.2647. PMID 10644725. Li PF, Li ... Koseki T, Inohara N, Chen S, Núñez G (Jun 1998). "ARC, an inhibitor of apoptosis expressed in skeletal muscle and heart that ... "Calcium binding of ARC mediates regulation of caspase 8 and cell death". Mol. Cell. Biol. 24 (22): 9763-70. doi:10.1128/MCB. ... Cell. 15 (6): 901-12. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2004.08.020. PMID 15383280. Jo DG, Jun JI, Chang JW, Hong YM, Song S, Cho DH, Shim ...
These cells, which are not myoepithelial cells, have been termed globoid cells. They have eosinophilic cytoplasm (i.e. pink or ... Studies do agree that IPC tumors have, by definition, one or more sites that have invaded nearby breast and/or muscle tissue, ... Epithelial cells lining the fronds' inner surfaces commonly form solid, cribriform (i.e. large nests of cells perforated by ... Mucin may also occur outside of cells in these lesions. The presence of signet ring-shaped cells bearing mucin-containing ...
... "alpha-Glucosidase isoenzymes in normal and acid maltase-deficient human skeletal muscles". Muscle & Nerve. 11 (4): 365-71. doi: ... Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 27 (2-3): 168-75. doi:10.1159/000131478. PMID 6995030. Hirschhorn R, Huie ML, Kasper JS (Oct ... expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 265 (18): 10373-82. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18) ... "Temporal expression of HIV-1 envelope proteins in baculovirus-infected insect cells: implications for glycosylation and CD4 ...
Mesenchymal stem cell therapy may delay the progression of neurological deficits in patients with MSA-cerebellar type. Ronald ... MSA is distinct from multisystem proteinopathy, a more common muscle-wasting syndrome. MSA is also different from multiple ... Multiple system atrophy can be explained as cell loss and gliosis or a proliferation of astrocytes in damaged areas of the ... Hass EW, Sorrentino ZA, Xia Y, Lloyd GM, Trojanowski JQ, Prokop S, Giasson BI (August 2021). "Disease-, region- and cell type ...
These proteins arise from blood vessels, nerve cells and muscle cells. These tumors, papillary tumors in this case, have no ... Vacuolated, or clear cells are common. Necrosis or cell death is normally observed to some extent in most of these tumors cells ... If the abnormal cells continue to grow, divide, and produce more abnormal cells, the mass of abnormal cells may eventually ... The papilla is meant to be surface cells. The ependymal cells line the inside of the ventricles of the brain. These cells have ...
... sarcoglycan in smooth muscle and its interaction with the smooth muscle sarcoglycan-sarcospan complex". The Journal of ... The Journal of Cell Biology. 148 (4): 801-10. doi:10.1083/jcb.148.4.801. PMC 2169361. PMID 10684260. Kawai H, Akaike M, Endo T ... The dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) comprises a group of proteins that are critical to the stability of muscle fiber ... Roberds SL, Anderson RD, Ibraghimov-Beskrovnaya O, Campbell KP (Nov 1993). "Primary structure and muscle-specific expression of ...
Electrolytes enter and leave cells through proteins in the cell membrane called ion channels. For example, muscle contraction ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.12.039. PMC 5329766. PMID 28187287. Cooper GM (2000). "The Molecular Composition of Cells". The Cell: A ... Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell ... Binding of the hormone to insulin receptors on cells then activates a cascade of protein kinases that cause the cells to take ...
... stem cells in allergic asthma and COPD Immunobiology of allergic asthma Control of airway and vascular smooth muscle structure ...
Cell. 176 (5): 952-965. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2019.01.043. PMID 30794780. Wood AJ, Oakey RJ (November 2006). "Genomic imprinting ... gene in sheep produces large buttocks consisting of muscle with very little fat. The large-buttocked phenotype only occurs when ... of the parents and are maintained through mitotic cell divisions in the somatic cells of an organism. Appropriate imprinting of ... In germline cells the imprint is erased and then re-established according to the sex of the individual, i.e. in the developing ...
... amniotic stem cells and umbilical cord blood stem cells. They are being studied as possible treatments of a number of ... Tears can involve the perineal skin or extend to the muscles and the anal sphincter and anus. Once common, they are now ... OCLC 748863692.[page needed] Dziadosz M, Basch RS, Young BK (March 2016). "Human amniotic fluid: a source of stem cells for ... During a contraction, uterine muscles contract causing shortening of the upper segment and drawing upwards of the lower segment ...
A muscle is made up of several muscle bundles, which in turn are made up of muscle fibers. Muscle fibers have myofibrils, which ... Bones are also used to store minerals, and are the site of red blood cell formation. The Appendicular system includes the limbs ... extensor muscle). Therefore, one muscle of the pair must be relaxed in order for the other muscle in the pair to contract and ... When a muscle contracts, it pulls a tendon, which acts on the horse's bones to move them. Muscles are commonly arranged in ...
Abby hires Kevin Beckman because she needs a muscle-strong person to carry heavy equipment. Unlike Erin and maybe Jillian, she ... Muncher eats through the bars of the cell housing the Ghostbusters equipment and flees. "Interview: Jean-Marc Lofficier". ...
2005). "Human urotensin II is a novel activator of NADPH oxidase in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells". Arterioscler. ... 2004). "Distinct subcellular localizations of Nox1 and Nox4 in vascular smooth muscle cells". Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol ... 2002). "An NAD(P)H oxidase regulates growth and transcription in melanoma cells". Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. 282 (6): C1212 ... "Nox4-dependent ROS modulation by amino endoperoxides to induce apoptosis in cancer cells". Cell Death Dis. 4 (3): e552. doi: ...
... ostensibly to relieve stress and muscle tension or to exercise the muscles of the hand. Patrick Hummel is widely understood to ... Some stress relievers are made from closed-cell polyurethane foam rubber. These are made by injecting the liquid components of ...
This etiology is called ectopic or paraneoplastic Cushing's disease and is seen in diseases such as small cell lung cancer. ... Rapid weight gain Moodiness, irritability, or depression Muscle and bone weakness Memory and attention dysfunction Osteoporosis ... a small-cell lung cancer. When Cushing's syndrome is caused by an increase of cortisol at the level of the adrenal glands (via ... weak muscles, weak bones, acne, and fragile skin that heals poorly. Women may have more hair and irregular menstruation. ...
A virus-infected cell releases viral particles that can infect nearby cells. However, the infected cell can protect neighboring ... The injection of IFNs in the muscle or under the skin is generally well tolerated. The most frequent adverse effects are flu- ... and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells. All interferons share several common effects: ... Type II interferons are also released by cytotoxic T cells and type-1 T helper cells. However, they block the proliferation of ...
Bacterial replication in host cells causes endothelial cell proliferation and inflammation, resulting in mononuclear cell ... Other symptoms may include muscle pains and vomiting. Long-term complications following recovery may include hearing loss or ... This species of Rickettsia uses an abundant cell surface protein called OmpB to attach to a host cell membrane protein called ... This causes the host cell membrane to protrude outward and invaginate the membrane of an adjacent cell. The bacteria are then ...
Its proventricle is long and wide, barrel-shaped, with thin muscle cell rows, counting with around 15 to 22. Mature males ... They usually count with a short proventricle, itself provided with large muscle cell rows, large posterior acicula (which is ...
... is shown to regulate neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation in mouse embryonic stem cells, and neuronal ... joints and muscles) VARS (Valyl-tRNA synthetase), WBP1L (WW domain binding protein 1-like), CACNA1C (Calcium channel, voltage- ... induces cell cycle G1 arrest and inhibits invasion in colorectal cancer cells". Int J Cancer. 128 (6): 1269-79. doi:10.1002/ijc ... oligodendroma-derived stem cells, as well as human glioblastoma multiforme-derived stem cells. In addition, miR-137 targets ...
"Muscle Car History". Classic Car History. Retrieved 18 October 2018. "The birth of the Pony Car - a historical look back". ... "Data on the Hippomobile and hydrogen/fuel cells". TÜV SÜD Industrie Service GmbH. Archived from the original on 6 October 2008 ... Performance engines became a focus of marketing by US automakers, exemplified by the era's muscle cars. In 1964, the Ford ... powered by non-rechargeable primary cells. In 1838, Scotsman Robert Davidson built an electric locomotive that attained a speed ...
Effects of purified recombinant neural and muscle agrin on skeletal muscle fibers in vivo. J. Cell Biol. 2001, 153, 1441-1452 ... and over the remainder of the muscle cell as well. Scale: 20 µm. Reproduced with permission from Anderson et al., Mol. Cell. ... and over the remainder of the muscle cell as well. Scale: 20 µm. Reproduced with permission from Anderson et al., Mol. Cell. ... Proteolytic disruption of laminin-integrin complexes on muscle cells during synapse formation. Mol. Cell. Biol. 1996, 16, 4972- ...
Structure of a receptor for calcium ion transport in muscle cells ... Muscle cells need calcium ions. Structural analysis for a ... RyR1 in muscle cells) which releases even more calcium stored inside the sarcoplasmic reticulum to the cytoplasm of the cell. ... An action potential generated by a motor neuron propagates on the muscle cell surface, activates voltage-gated calcium channels ... Calcium diffusing in the cytoplasm between myosin and actin filaments of the muscle fibrils causes the filaments to slide into ...
The myogenic determinant Pax7 is thought to have a critical role in adult muscle stem cells (satellite cells), but a formal ... Our finding of an age-dependent change in the genetic requirement for muscle stem cells cautions against inferring adult stem- ... report the unexpected finding that when Pax7 is inactivated in adult mice, mutant satellite cells are not compromised in muscle ... The discovery of an age-dependent change in the genetic requirement for muscle stem cells cautions against inferring adult stem ...
Muscle cells, Esophagus, Oesophagus and peristalsis, stomach, glands, A series of free Science Lessons for 7th Grade and 8th ... How the muscle cells in the oesophagus move the food from the mouth to the stomach.. The muscles move in pairs. Behind the food ... the circular muscles contract and the longitudinal muscles relax. In fron of the food muscles, the the circular muscles relax ... Muscle Cells. Related Topics:. More Science Lessons (KS3/Checkpoint 1) More Science Lessons (KS3/Checkpoint 2) ...
... the researchers first generated heart muscle cells and connective tissue cells from iPSCs. They then combined these cells in a ... Therefore, the fewer cells needed, the better.. The micro heart muscle addresses both of these concerns. Forcing the cells to ... However, cells made from iPSCs are relatively immature, resembling heart cells in an embryo more than cells in an adult. As ... Creating heart cells from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) that are derived from a patients skin cells enables ...
Adult heart muscle is comprised of cells called cardiomyocytes. M ... ... researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center have identified a cell that replenishes adult heart muscle by using a new cell ... Adult heart muscle is comprised of cells called cardiomyocytes. Most cardiomyocytes dont replenish themselves after a heart ... researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center have identified a cell that replenishes adult heart muscle by using a new cell ...
FC3 Changes in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage in primary vascular smooth muscle derived cells and tissue ... FC3 Changes in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage in primary vascular smooth muscle derived cells and tissue ... FC3 Changes in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage in primary vascular smooth muscle derived cells and tissue ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation pathways, according to their ...
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Filaments in cultured vascular smooth muscle cell. Peter Dartsch Affiliation. University of Tuebingen. Institute of Physiology ...
Can cell-based dairy muscle way into crowded dairy-alts market?. Andy Coyne examines the progress of the nascent cell-based ... The mammary gland cells interact with a special formula, or second medium, which causes the cells to lactate. The end product ... Cell-based breast milk firm Biomilq has a slightly different timescale. The business cultures mammary cells outside the body ... Rye describes cell-based dairy as the "next iteration of milk products" and says the potential end-product is attracting the ...
... elegans muscle aging is to deduce the age of the nemathode based on images of muscles. Images of C. elegans were taken ... ... The purpose of the dataset C. elegans muscle aging is to deduce the age of the nemathode based on images of muscles. Images of ... C. elegans muscle age is a data set of fluorescence 20X microscopy images of C. elegans nematodes stained with phalloidin to ... Nikita Orlov, Wendy Iser, Cathy Wolkow (2011) CIL:1142, Caenorhabditis elegans, muscle cell. CIL. Dataset. ...
Webinar Bone, Muscle & Beyond: Cancer Cell Dormancy. Webinar Bone, Muscle & Beyond: Cancer Cell Dormancy. 22 April 2021 ...
... elegans muscle aging is to deduce the age of the nemathode based on images of muscles. Images of C. elegans were taken ... ... The purpose of the dataset C. elegans muscle aging is to deduce the age of the nemathode based on images of muscles. Images of ... C. elegans muscle age is a data set of fluorescence 20X microscopy images of C. elegans nematodes stained with phalloidin to ... Nikita Orlov, Wendy Iser, Cathy Wolkow (2011) CIL:1142, Caenorhabditis elegans, muscle cell. CIL. Dataset. ...
The T cells in both groups of mice targeted and destroyed cancerous cells, but it was the oxygen-deprived T cells that really ... but T cells are usually less effective at penetrating the tumor cells. Training the T cells to function in low-oxygen ... The scientists grew a batch of T cells in an incubator set to low oxygen concentration-as low as 1%, in fact. The T cells, also ... Best Whey Proteins for Packing on Muscle, Shredding Down, Meal Replacement, and More. Best Pre-Workouts for Building Muscle, ...
Using a cultured human skeletal muscle cell model system, we found that expression of both PDK2 and PDK4 mRNA is upregulated in ... These results suggest that in human muscle, hormonal and nutritional conditions may control PDK2 and PDK4 mRNA expression via a ... The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex occupies a central and strategic position in muscle intermediary metabolism and is primarily ... which are likely to impart important metabolic mediation of fuel utilization by the muscle. ...
Rando and Quarta compared the gene expression profiles of freshly isolated mouse muscle stem cells with that of cells that had ... When the researchers applied muscle stem cells to the artificial collagen fibers, the cells quickly "homed" to places similar ... and Stem cells implicated in Duchenne muscular dystrophy Photo of muscle stem cell on artificial fiber courtesy of the Rando ... "Home away from home": Artificial muscle fibers keep lab-grown stem cells happy. Author Krista CongerPublished on May 31, 2016. ...
HASM cells were plated at 40,000 cells·well−1 in 6‐well plates and grown to confluence. Cells were then starved for 24 h in ... HASM cells were plated at 250,000 cells per 100-mm dish and grown to confluence. Cells were starved in serum-free medium for 24 ... Transcription factor activation and mitogenic synergism in airway smooth muscle cells. T.L. Ediger, N.A. Schulte, T.J. Murphy, ... Transcription factor activation and mitogenic synergism in airway smooth muscle cells. T.L. Ediger, N.A. Schulte, T.J. Murphy, ...
Cells derived from blood vessels, the respiratory tract or uterus, and our optimized medium. ... Everything you need for smooth muscle cell culture: ... Smooth Muscle Cell Culture. Primary human smooth muscle cells ... Smooth Muscle Cell Growth Medium 2. Low-serum cell culture medium for smooth muscle cells from blood vessels and hollow organs ... Human Bronchial Smooth Muscle Cells (HBSMC). Human Bronchial Smooth Muscle Cells isolated from the human bronchi from single ...
Cell therapy, designer nucleases, embryonic stem cells, gene therapy, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, muscle stem cells, ... Pluripotent Stem Cells for Gene Therapy of Degenerative Muscle Diseases. Current Gene Therapy , 15 (4) pp. 364-380. 10.2174/ ... Human pluripotent stem cells represent a unique source for cell-based therapies and regenerative medicine. The intrinsic ... cells in combination with the current development of gene modification methods could be used for autologous cell therapies of ...
... "satellite cells" located deep within the muscle fiber.. These satellite cells are located deep within muscle fibers, between ... Creatine Stimulates Muscle Growth by Triggering Satellite Cell Formation by AST Sports Science time to read: 2 min ... Creatine Stimulates Muscle Growth by Triggering Satellite Cell Formation. by AST Sports Science , Research ... However, this satellite cell pit-crew is responsible for triggering massive muscle growth! ...
The regeneration of muscle tissue has been achieved using multipotent mesenchymal stem cells in mouse models of injured ... The regeneration of muscle tissue has been achieved using multipotent mesenchymal stem cells in mouse models of injured ... At 1 week following transplantation all 3 patients showed improvement in the muscle force of the limbs, muscle size and daily ... China has shown that the transplantation of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stems cells has regenerated muscle tissue ...
Cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) containing retrovirally introduced genes are a potential vehicle for gene ... Long-term biological response of injured rat carotid artery seeded with smooth muscle cells expressing retrovirally introduced ... Long-term biological response of injured rat carotid artery seeded with smooth muscle cells expressing retrovirally introduced ... The majority of the seeded SMCs remained in the intima while a few of the cells appeared to migrate into the first layer of the ...
negative regulation of ureter smooth muscle cell differentiation negative regulation of vascular associated smooth muscle cell ... negative regulation of kidney smooth muscle cell differentiation (GO:2000357). Annotations: Rat: (1) Mouse: (1) Human: (1) ... negative regulation of kidney smooth muscle cell differentiation Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, ... Genes QTLs Strains Markers Genome Information Ontologies Cell Lines References Download Submit Data ...
... maintenance and repair will now be possible in Drosophila with the discovery of satellite cells equivalents in flight muscles. ... 2012) Tissue-specific stem cells: lessons from the skeletal muscle satellite cell Cell Stem Cell 10:504-514. ... GFP labeled Zfh1 lineage cell nuclei are positioned inside the muscle cell but remain near the muscle cell surface (Figure 10D ... Unfused muscle associated cells are present at the surface of adult flight muscles.. (A) Dorsal longitudinal muscles (DLMs) ...
Tissue cell typei The tissue cell type section describes the cell type specificity profile of each gene within a given tissue ... Tissue celli The tissue cell type section describes the cell type specificity profile of each gene within a given tissue based ... Single cell typei The Single Cell Type section describes RNA expression in single cell types based on scRNAseq from human ... Single celli The Single Cell Type section describes RNA expression in single cell types based on scRNAseq from human tissues. ...
... scientists at the Carnegie Institution for Science and NICHD who developed a technique to observe muscle stem/progenitor cells ... Ghosts are not your typical cell biology research subjects. But ... Left Behind by Injured Muscle Cells Guide Stem Cells Into ... Ghost Fibers Left Behind by Injured Muscle Cells Guide Stem Cells Into Position for Regeneration schedule 2 minutes ... The stem/progenitor cells spread along the ghost fibers where they could divide, fuse, and fully differentiate into new muscles ...
Sudden Death Secondary to an Undiagnosed B-Cell Lymphoma of the Hypopharynx and Infiltration of the Inferior Constrictor Muscle ...
... and the goal of this study was to determine if electrical stimulation in a pattern simulating slow muscle … ... synthesis are important components of the signaling system that controls muscle atrophy and hypertrophy, ... Specifically, chicken skeletal muscle cells and rat skeletal muscle cells that had been grown for 7 d in culture were subjected ... The basal levels of intracellular cyclic AMP in neither rat muscle cells nor chicken muscle cells were affected by electrical ...
Necrotizing Myositis in a Rectus Muscle Arising in the Setting of Long-Standing Langerhans Cell Histiocystosis and Recent ... Gamm, MD, PhD, D. Necrotizing Myositis in a Rectus Muscle Arising in the Setting of Long-Standing Langerhans Cell ... Necrotizing myositis in a rectus muscle arising in the setting of long-standing Langerhans cell histiocystosis and recent ... Necrotizing myositis in a rectus muscle arising in the setting of long-standing Langerhans cell histiocystosis and recent ...
  • The inner surface of the stomach is lined with a tissue of epithelial cells that secrete mucus. (
  • A unique dog bone-shaped dish helped the heart cells self-organize into muscle tissue. (
  • Scientists at the Gladstone Institutes have invented a new way to create three-dimensional human heart tissue from stem cells. (
  • Forcing the cells to organize and stretch into three-dimensional tissue helps spur development and coaxes them into resembling more mature cells that can better predict how a drug will affect adult heart cells. (
  • Also, the new method - published in the journal Scientific Reports- requires a thousand-fold fewer cells to grow the tissue than other tissue engineering techniques. (
  • Working in collaboration with Kevin Healy, PhD, at the University of California, Berkeley , the researchers first generated heart muscle cells and connective tissue cells from iPSCs. (
  • For example, when the researchers tested how the tissue responded to certain drugs that impair fetal heart cells but not adult heart cells, the micro heart muscle performed more like adult heart tissue. (
  • Furthermore, transplantation experiments indicated the muscle stem cells maintained their potency over several days and were able to quickly engraft and begin making new tissue in recipient animals. (
  • Now we can genetically engineer stem cells, transplant them back into the animal and see that they are effective in engrafting and making new tissue. (
  • A recent study from Shandong Cancer Hospital in Jinan, Shandong, China has shown that the transplantation of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stems cells has regenerated muscle tissue growth. (
  • The regeneration of muscle tissue has been achieved using multipotent mesenchymal stem cells in mouse models of injured skeletal muscle. (
  • In the present study, the utility of multipotent human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) in the treatment of Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), a genetic disease where muscle tissue fails to regenerate, was examined in members from a pedigree affected by BMD. (
  • A histological examination of muscle biopsies displayed no obvious tissue regeneration. (
  • When the researchers reoriented the ghost fibers, the regenerated muscle tissue was disorganized. (
  • Their direct observation of stem/progenitor cells in action showed ghost fibers playing an "architectural role" in regenerating muscle, says Webster, serving as templates proportioned for laying down new muscle tissue so as to match the same size and align to the same direction as the damaged portion. (
  • Due to the heterogeneity of its nuclei, a single muscle cell can act almost like a tissue, which consists of a variety of very different cell types,' explained co-lead study author and postdoctoral researcher Dr. Minchul Kim. (
  • The work revealed that in regenerating muscle tissue, there was an increased amount of activity from genes responsible for growth. (
  • Thus, the main role of bone marrow-derived cells in ectopic osteogenesis may not be to induce bone regeneration by differentiation into osteoblasts, but rather to contribute to microenvironment formation for bone formation by differentiating tissue stem cells into osteoblasts. (
  • The variation between cells means that, as a whole, the muscle tissue can detect a wider range of stimulation intensities and can respond with a corresponding wider range of control. (
  • If all cells responded identically, the whole muscle tissue could only perform on/off binary responses. (
  • Skeletal muscle is an example of a tissue that deploys a self-renewing stem cell, the satellite cell, to effect regeneration. (
  • Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are of great value and are needed in large quantities for tissue engineering, drug screening, disease modeling and cell-based therapies. (
  • We observe that while no overt tissue damage is observed following satellite cell depletion, muscle fibers atrophy accompanied by changes in the stem cell niche cellular composition. (
  • This is to imply that anabolic steroids are steroids that advertise tissue structure or cells development, and also in this instance it refers especially to muscle cells anabolism. (
  • Muscle tissue is composed primarily of contractile cells. (
  • Zakon, professor of biology and neuroscience in The University of Texas at Austin's College of Natural Sciences, identified some of the genes that, depending on how they are regulated, can turn simple muscle tissue into an electric organ. (
  • Also, based on findings on cell functions at the tissue level obtained by the analysis of the organ on a chip, cell delivery therapy was investigated. (
  • In order to recapitulate the ocular fundus functions, neural supporting cells such as retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells were cultured within a three-dimensional microfluidic device, and cell responses at the tissue level to changes in the microenvironment were analyzed. (
  • Also, the obtained results were applied to control the tissue functions of RPE cells cultured on the polymeric nanosheets, which was extended to a method to deliver an RPE sheet into the subretinal space. (
  • Journal Article] Three-dimensional co-culture of C2C12/PC12 cells improves skeletal muscle tissue formation and function. (
  • 11- 13 A causal role for aggregation in cell death in tissue culture models of OPMD is supported by complementary data from our lab and Rouleau's group. (
  • An over-proliferation of cells that have left their surrounding tissue leads to naevi, and in rare cases to congenital melanomas [ 6 - 8 ]. (
  • West Nile Virus transmission through tissue transplantation, for instance, skin, muscle, or connective tissues, has not been identified, and the risk for transmission by this route is not known. (
  • Eight weeks after the donor's death, skin samples that had been treated in cryopreservative solution containing an antibiotic and unprocessed fat, muscle, tendon, and bone samples, all of which had been stored frozen at -70° Celsius at a tissue bank, were transferred to CDC. (
  • The authors begin the paper by noting their desire to find a method for inducing somatic cells of patients to return to a pluripotent state, a state from which the cell can differentiate into any type of tissue but cannot form an entire organism. (
  • Mathias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann proposed the theory that the nervous system should theoretically be composed of cells like all other organic tissue. (
  • Likewise, the heart-on-a-chip was fabricated to measure the structure-function relationships between the replicated hierarchical tissue architectures of laminar cardiac muscle. (
  • The application of electrodes causes the contraction of myocytes (muscle cells) leading to the finding of a relationship between tissue stress and the radius of curvature produced in the muscular thin films during contraction. (
  • Dr. Carlos Lima in Lisbon, Portugal, has helped restore bladder and muscle control to people with paralysis using stem cells from their own nasal tissue. (
  • She then told King about the dangers associated with embryonic stem cells of which he might be unaware, such as tissue rejection and tumors. (
  • The roles of retinoids (vitamin A derivatives) in regulating cell and tissue function. (
  • This unique shape encouraged the cells to self-organize into elongated muscle fibers. (
  • Shortly after they're removed from their native environment (snuggled along the length of our muscle fibers), they begin to lose their potency and become increasingly less stem-like. (
  • Now neurologist Thomas Rando , MD, PhD and former postdoctoral scholar Marco Quarta , PhD, have found a way to soothe the homesick cells by crafting artificial muscle fibers and a custom-made broth that mimic the conditions of natural muscle. (
  • They then went one step further, collaborating with researchers in the laboratory of Sarah Heilshorn , PhD, in Stanford's Department of Material Science and Engineering , to generate artificial muscle fibers out of collagen -- a naturally occurring and biocompatible molecule that can mimic the elasticity of real fibers. (
  • When the researchers applied muscle stem cells to the artificial collagen fibers, the cells quickly "homed" to places similar to those in which they would be found in real muscle. (
  • When maintained in the specially concocted quiescence broth, the cells appeared snug and happy along the collagen fibers. (
  • These satellite cells are located deep within muscle fibers, between the basal lamina and sarcolemma. (
  • In response to mechanical loading (that's science talk for heavy weight-training), satellite cells spring into action and coordinate a series of mechanized events within the muscle that leads to the repair, recovery, and growth of muscle fibers. (
  • In this study, we show that lineal descendants of muscle stem cells are present in adult muscle of Drosophila as small, unfused cells observed at the surface and in close proximity to the mature muscle fibers. (
  • Muscle satellite cells are located between the sarcolemma and the basal lamina of muscle fibers. (
  • In adult muscle, these unfused cells are located in close proximity to mature muscle fibers and are surrounded by the basal lamina of the fibers. (
  • But scientists at the Carnegie Institution for Science and NICHD who developed a technique to observe muscle stem/progenitor cells migrating within injury sites in live mice, report that "ghost fibers," remnants of the old extracellular matrix left by dying muscle fibers, guide the cells into position for healing to begin. (
  • Using intravital two-photon imaging combined with second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy, the Carnegie's Micah Webster and Chen-Ming Fan and the NICHD's Uri Manor and Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz observed these cells riding to the rescue, using the long axis of these ghost fibers to spread out and orient themselves. (
  • Activated muscle stem/progenitor cells (white) moving within basal lamina remnants, "ghost fibers" (red) which remain when muscle cells degenerate from injury. (
  • Combining the two techniques, the researchers were able to image activated muscle stem/progenitor cells moving bi-directionally along the long axis of individual ghost fibers left behind by the lost muscle cells. (
  • The stem/progenitor cells spread along the ghost fibers where they could divide, fuse, and fully differentiate into new muscles. (
  • Researchers already knew that nuclei in muscle fibers that are closer to the site of neuronal innervation express different genes than nuclei that are further away from these sites. (
  • Upon activation, these cells proliferate and a subpopulation, myoblasts, differentiates and fuses with existing muscle fibers or other differentiating muscle cells [ 3 ], thus contributing to multinucleated muscle fibers. (
  • Satellite cells reside under the basal lamina of the muscle fibers and are thus exposed to the same environmental factors as the muscle fibers. (
  • Glucocorticoids have multiple roles on the muscle system composed of muscle fibers, satellite cells, fibro adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) and myeloid cells, including macrophages. (
  • Researchers performed additional experiments using single fibers of mouse skeletal muscle and also analyzed recordings of facial muscle activity routinely collected during surgeries on human patients. (
  • This analysis reveals complex interactions between satellite cells and both injured and uninjured fibers and provides in vivo evidence for the asymmetric division of satellite cells driving both self-renewal and regeneration via a clonally restricted progenitor pool. (
  • Degenerative myopathies typically display a decline in satellite cells coupled with a replacement of muscle fibers by fat and fibrosis. (
  • Excellent responders have more satellite cells that surround their muscle fibers, as well as a remarkable ability to expand their satellite cell pool via training. (
  • Erk regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase flux through PDK4 modulates cell proliferation. (
  • Regulation of human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cell proliferation is clinically relevant to the pathology of asthma because increases in airway smooth muscle mass are seen in asthma and contribute to enhanced airway narrowing 1 , 2 . (
  • Activator protein (AP)‐1, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element-binding protein (CREB), nuclear factor of activated T‐cells (NFAT), nuclear factor (NF)‐κB, the serum response element (SRE) complex and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) are all known to be involved in proliferation and/or inflammation and have been implicated in the inflammatory state causing asthma and related airway diseases 8 . (
  • Moreover, although normally quiescent, following muscle injury they undergo Notch signaling-dependent proliferation to generate fusion-competent lineal descendants. (
  • Publications] Yasushi Saito,Nobuhiro Morisaki,Noriyuki Koyama: 'Autocrine system for smooth muscle cell miyration and proliferation in the arterial wall' Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci.578. (
  • Genome-wide gene expression analysis shows VSMCs made in the hydrogel (i.e. 3D-VSMCs) have higher expression of genes related to vasculature development and glycolysis compared to VSMCs made in the conventional 2D cultures (i.e. 2D-VSMCs), while 2D-VSMCs have higher expression of genes related to cell proliferation. (
  • Stage IIB is characterized by the proliferation of the cancerous cells beyond the serosa but these cells have not impregnated the nearby organs of the individual. (
  • Stage IIC marks the proliferation of cancerous cells to the nearby organs of an individual as they move beyond the serosa. (
  • The stage IIIA of colorectal cancer can also signify the proliferation of cancerous cells beyond the inner most layer (instead of the outermost layer) of the colon or the rectum. (
  • Stage IIIB is characterized by the proliferation of cancerous cells in 7 or more lymph nodes near the colon. (
  • Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable cancer in which uncontrolled plasma cell proliferation disrupts the bone marrow environment and impairs immune function. (
  • It inhibits endothelial cell proliferation and migration [5]. (
  • Cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) containing retrovirally introduced genes are a potential vehicle for gene replacement therapy. (
  • Acute oxygen sensing by vascular smooth muscle cells. (
  • Foam cells and extracellular lipid droplets form the central core of the atheroma, which is covered by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and a collagen-rich matrix. (
  • BTC exhibits mitogenic activity for retinal pigment epithelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. (
  • Although there are existing techniques to make three-dimensional tissues from heart cells, the new method dramatically reduces the number of cells needed, making it an easier, cheaper, and more efficient system. (
  • We have bioengineered micro-scale heart tissues with a method that can easily be reproduced, which will enable scientists in stem cell biology and the drug industry to study heart cells in their proper context,' said first author Nathaniel Huebsch, PhD, a postdoctoral fellow in the Conklin lab at Gladstone . (
  • Within a couple of days, the micro tissues resembled heart muscle both structurally and functionally. (
  • Our research shows that you can create these complex tissues with a simple template that exploits the inherent properties of these cells to self-organize. (
  • One day researchers would like to be able to remove a patient's own muscle stem cells, correct any genetic deficiencies if necessary, and then transplant the cells back into the patient to regenerate healthy muscle tissues. (
  • Multipotential ability of bone marrow-derived cells has been clarified, and their involvement in repair and maintenance of various tissues has been reported. (
  • In people with autoimmune diseases, the immune cells attack the body's own healthy tissues by mistake, instead of viruses or bacteria. (
  • HVD is produced in most systemic arteries , in particular in the skeletal muscle , coronary, and cerebral circulations , to increase blood supply to poorly oxygenated tissues . (
  • In recent times many companies have developed therapeutic strategies able to delivery engineered genetic products within the human tissues, and if the present study will confirm that MEF2A is associated with atherosclerosis, a targeted delivery of a modified version of the MEF2A gene within the arterial cells might represent a future therapeutic option able to revert atherosclerosis in subject with occluded arteries, or at least to prevent future cardiovascular events. (
  • It brings about building cell tissues especially in muscles. (
  • During aging, enzymes naturally present in the meat break down muscle proteins and connective tissues, while moisture evaporating from meat concentrates flavor. (
  • This stage also marks the formation of cancer cells in the tissues surrounding the lymph nodes. (
  • We use gene manipulation in the mouse, cell culture models, and biochemical reconstitution to investigate the relevant molecular events underlying these processes, and to genetically mark and manipulate cells and tissues. (
  • Right now," she said, "incredible therapies" are happening "with their own stem cells, whether dental pulp or nasal tissues, or bone-marrow tissues. (
  • Chicken essence products claim to contain various nutrients such as protein and amino acids, which help build muscles, repair cells and tissues and reduce muscle fatigue. (
  • It was originally isolated from the MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cell line and it is expressed in most tissues including kidney, uterus, liver and pancreas. (
  • In the human body, iron is present in all cells and has several vital functions -- as a carrier of oxygen to the tissues from the lungs in the form of hemoglobin (Hb), as a facilitator of oxygen use and storage in the muscles as myoglobin, as a transport medium for electrons within the cells in the form of cytochromes, and as an integral part of enzyme reactions in various tissues. (
  • Dual adult inactivation of Pax3 and Pax7 also results in normal muscle regeneration. (
  • Additionally, engraftment and functional contribution to muscle regeneration in pre-clinical models need to be carefully assessed before clinical translation. (
  • Strikingly, however, satellite cells, the adult muscle stem cells that are essential for the regeneration of damaged muscles in vertebrates, have not been reported in invertebrates. (
  • Indeed, due to the apparent absence of satellite cells in adult fly muscles, it is unclear if muscle regeneration in response to injury can take place in Drosophila . (
  • This is the first direct visualization of skeletal muscle stem/progenitor cell-mediated regeneration in live mice, says Webster. (
  • Human skeletal muscle stem cells are important for muscle regeneration. (
  • We define a zebrafish muscle stem cell population analogous to the mammalian satellite cell and image the entire process of muscle regeneration from injury to fiber replacement in vivo. (
  • These findings demonstrate that in addition to controlling fiber size, the AcvR2B pathway acts to regulate the muscle stem cell niche providing a more favorable environment for muscle regeneration. (
  • We believe this knowledge will contribute to our understanding of congenital and adult heart disease and be instrumental for stem cell-based heart regeneration. (
  • Muscle contraction is known to be regulated by calcium. (
  • Calcium diffusing in the cytoplasm between myosin and actin filaments of the muscle fibrils causes the filaments to slide into each other, triggering the contraction of the entire muscle fiber. (
  • Expression of the beta-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) and its coupling to cyclic AMP (cAMP) synthesis are important components of the signaling system that controls muscle atrophy and hypertrophy, and the goal of this study was to determine if electrical stimulation in a pattern simulating slow muscle contraction would alter the betaAR response in primary cultures of avian and mammalian skeletal muscle cells. (
  • Each cell in a muscle receives the same nerve signal to contract or relax, but one cell might respond with a strong contraction while its neighbor responds with a weak contraction. (
  • Muscle contraction and cellular homeostasis gene sets were also affected, and independently of AChR trafficking. (
  • Although vasomotor responses to hypoxia are modulated by endothelial factors and autonomic innervation , it is well established that arterial smooth muscle cells contain an acute O2 sensing system capable of detecting changes in O2 tension and to signal membrane ion channels , which in turn regulate cytosolic Ca2+ levels and myocyte contraction. (
  • Simple contraction of a muscle will release a small amount of current. (
  • G-proteins then initiate other activities within the cell, such as smooth muscle contraction, gland excretion, etc. (
  • This enables the cell to fulfill its numerous tasks, like communicating with neurons or producing certain muscle proteins. (
  • In mammalian cell based models of both polyglutamine and polyalanine diseases, the mutant proteins are much more prone to aggregate formation than their wild-type counterparts and cause significantly more cell death. (
  • Muscle cells in an inoculated animal assemble these two proteins to produce virus-like particles (VLPs) studded with numerous copies of Env on their surface. (
  • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors - like nicotinic receptors - are proteins that extend through the cell membrane from the outside to the inside. (
  • Instead, when acetylcholine attaches to the external part of the muscarinic receptor, the internal portion of the receptor releases large guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G-Proteins) (See note below), inside the cell. (
  • This breakdown releases muscle cell contents (proteins and electrolytes) into the blood. (
  • Because people with SMAs don't make enough SMN proteins, some of their muscles (like the ones that help us move, breathe, and swallow), don't work correctly. (
  • Some muscular dystrophies are caused by mutations in genes that make important muscle proteins. (
  • C. elegans muscle age is a data set of fluorescence 20X microscopy images of C. elegans nematodes stained with phalloidin to visualize actin in muscles at different ages (1,2,4, and 8). (
  • Cells were then analyzed by detecting the expression of epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin), collagen I, alpha smooth muscle cell actin (α-SMA), and activated Smads using Western blot. (
  • Lo WK, Shaw AP, Paulsen DF , Mills A. Spatiotemporal distribution of zonulae adherens and associated actin bundles in both epithelium and fiber cells during chicken lens development. (
  • Our finding of an age-dependent change in the genetic requirement for muscle stem cells cautions against inferring adult stem-cell biology from embryonic studies, and has direct implications for the use of stem cells from hosts of different ages in transplantation-based therapy. (
  • Given the numerous fundamental aspects of muscle stem cell biology and myogenesis that are similar in flies and vertebrates, it is surprising that muscle satellite cells have not been reported in Drosophila . (
  • Ghosts are not your typical cell biology research subjects. (
  • We wanted to find out whether a difference in gene activity could be observed between the resting and the growing muscle,' explained study leader Professor Carmen Birchmeier, head of the research group on Developmental Biology / Signal Transduction at the Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association (MDC). (
  • By learning how nature does this, we may be able to manipulate the process with muscle in other organisms, and in the near future, perhaps use the tools of synthetic biology to create electrocytes for generating electrical power in bionic devices within the human body or for uses we have not thought of yet. (
  • This method is applicable to other vertebrate embryos and is an important tool with which to address cell and developmental biology questions. (
  • Our laboratory seeks to understand the fundamental biology and regenerative potential of multi-potent cardiac progenitor cells - building blocks used to form the heart during fetal development - by deciphering the molecular and cellular mechanisms that control their induction, maintenance, and differentiation. (
  • We have also discussed the main issues that need to be addressed for successful clinical translation of genetically corrected patient-specific pluripotent stem cells in autologous transplantation trials for skeletal muscle disorders. (
  • At 1 week following transplantation all 3 patients showed improvement in the muscle force of the limbs, muscle size and daily activity. (
  • This article will review myogenic cell transplantation for congenital and acquired diseases of skeletal muscle. (
  • There are also recent reviews on cell transplantation for inflammatory myopathies, volumetric muscle loss (VML) (this usually with biomaterials), sarcopenia and sphincter incontinence, mainly urinary but also fecal. (
  • This in turn may help to understand which common or disease-specific problems have so far limited clinical success of cell transplantation in this area, especially when compared to other fields, such as epithelial cell transplantation. (
  • Study Group 2021, ' Myogenic Cell Transplantation in Genetic and Acquired Diseases of Skeletal Muscle ', Frontiers in Genetics , vol. 12, 702547. (
  • Takabatake K, Tsujigiwa H, Song Y, Matsuda H, Kawai H, Fujii M, Hamada M, Nakano K, Kawakami T, Nagatsuka H. The Role of Bone Marrow-Derived Cells during Ectopic Bone Formation of Mouse Femoral Muscle in GFP Mouse Bone Marrow Transplantation Model. (
  • In the present study, bone marrow-derived cells during ectopic bone formation of mouse femoral muscle were traced using a GFP bone marrow transplantation model. (
  • After transplantation, insoluble bone matrix (IBM) was implanted into mouse muscle. (
  • Bone marrow transplantation successfully replaced hematopoietic cells with GFP-positive donor cells. (
  • Nagatsuka, H. The Role of Bone Marrow-Derived Cells during Ectopic Bone Formation of Mouse Femoral Muscle in GFP Mouse Bone Marrow Transplantation Model. (
  • We identified West Nile Virus RNA in spleen/lymph node homogenate, skin, fat, muscle, tendon, and bone marrow samples obtained postmortem from a donor associated with transmission of West Nile Virus through solid organ transplantation. (
  • In contrast to skeletal muscle and neurons, smooth muscle and the cardiac conduction system normally exhibit intrinsic electrical and mechanical rhythmic activity. (
  • The little grey cells that make up your mind are primarily neurons. (
  • Brain cells, or neurons, are the building blocks of the nervous system. (
  • The cell body has branching dendrites coming off of it in order to receive signals from other neurons. (
  • This article reports H5N1 infection in a were in cerebral neurons (Figure 1C), heart (myocardial cat during the early H5N1 outbreaks in Thailand and char- cells) (Figure 1D), pneumocytes, renal tubular epithelial acterizes the genome of H5N1 virus isolated from the cells, hepatic cells, and white pulp of the spleen infected domestic cat. (
  • There's another gene-based therapy for children under age 2 that uses a safe virus to deliver a new copy of the SMN gene into specific neurons to improve muscle movement. (
  • Once they identified genes specifically expressed in fresh stem cells, they worked to concoct a broth of nutrients that kept the cells potent. (
  • Long-term biological response of injured rat carotid artery seeded with smooth muscle cells expressing retrovirally introduced human genes. (
  • These mechanistic similarities of myogenesis are reflected at the molecular genetic level, in that many of the key genes involved in Drosophila muscle development have served as a basis for the identification of comparable genes in vertebrate muscle development (e.g. (
  • The scientific rationale is based on the results of different studies demonstrating that a group of genes, collected under the MEF2 gene family, are able to regulate the health of human arteries, with modulating the activities of the endothelial cells, that are the cells coating the internal surface of the arteries. (
  • MEF2 genes exert several effects also on muscle cell also localized within human arteries. (
  • The activation of the MEF2A genes in the cells are know to modulate different molecular pathways that exert a protective effect on vascular cells. (
  • Scientists were initially interested in somatic-cell nuclear transfer as a means of determining whether genes remain functional even after most of them have been switched off as the cells in a developing organism assume their specialized functions as blood cells, muscle cells, and so forth. (
  • The fact that the DNA of a fully differentiated (adult) cell could be stimulated to revert to a condition comparable to that of a newly fertilized egg and to repeat the process of embryonic development demonstrates that all the genes in differentiated cells retain their functional capacity, although only a few are active. (
  • Approximately 5% of the world's population carries trait genes for haemoglobin disorders, mainly, sickle-cell disease and thalassaemia. (
  • One promising approach uses an injection of small, harmless viruses to deliver therapeutic dystrophin-producing genes directly into cells in the muscle. (
  • NIH-supported researchers have been studying ways to deliver dystrophin genes to affected muscles with fewer side effects. (
  • To prove the effectiveness and feasibility of a paclitaxel hirudin complex and to provide experimental data on the prevention of restenosis, we investigated the effects of paclitaxel hirudin complexes on the growth of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMCs) and endothelial cells (HCAECs) in vitro. (
  • For many years, researchers have been focused on other cell types, like endothelial cells and macrophages, but more recent studies have highlighted a role of smooth muscle cells in plaque formation. (
  • The membranes can, therefore, form an interface for the cellular cross talk of endothelial and epithelial cell layers. (
  • Human alveolar epithelial cells and pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells are cultured on either side of the porous membrane. (
  • Primary Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells isolated from the human aorta. (
  • 1. Conditioned media from cultured rabbit and rat aortic smooth muscle cells showed high migration activity for smooth muscle cells. (
  • Publications] Noriguki Koyama,Tomiko Koshikawa,Nobuhiro Morisaki,Yasushi Saito,Sho Yoshida: 'Bifunctional effects of trarsforming growth factorーβ on migration of culfured rat aortic smooth muscle cells' Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun.169. (
  • Here, we show that muscle stem cell lineal descendants are present in the adult as unfused cells which have all the anatomical features of muscle satellite cells. (
  • The study will be posted online by the journal Cell Stem Cell on Thursday, December 10 ahead of publication in the February 4 issue. (
  • Finally, induced pluripotent stem cell derivatives, that have entered clinical experimentation for other diseases, may in the future offer a bank of immune-privileged cells, available for all patients and after a genetic correction for muscular dystrophies and other myopathies. (
  • We have developed several novel approaches to deconstruct the mechanisms, including the use of animal models and pluripotent stem cell systems. (
  • We expect this knowledge will help us better understand heart disease and will be instrumental for stem-cell-based disease modeling and interventions for of heart repair. (
  • nationalreviewonline) Members of the liberal media elite have become rather choosy when it comes to advocating stem-cell cures for degenerative medical conditions. (
  • For stem-cell therapy to really count, it has to come from embryos. (
  • And since liberal elites dominate public discourse in the stem-cell debate, the American people remain generally unaware of these astonishing scientific advances. (
  • It thus came as no surprise that King cared nothing about adult-stem-cell research breakthroughs when the noted artist, evangelist, and disability-rights activist Joni Eareckson Tada raised the issue in an August interview. (
  • In recent years, she has become an outspoken opponent of human cloning and of federally funded embryonic-stem-cell research. (
  • Tada: That may very well happen using incredible therapies…using adult-stem-cell research. (
  • Instead, almost reflexively, he promoted embryonic-stem-cell research, stating, "Everyone says it will be faster if embryonic is also used. (
  • Tada told King patiently that she opposes embryonic-stem-cell research, in part because she advocates channeling scarce resources "into [adult] therapies which have the most promise, which are the most effective. (
  • Instead, he demanded to know who is harmed by embryonic-stem-cell research and asked whether she would agree to debate Christopher Reeve. (
  • Clearly, for King, stem-cell medical advances only count if they come from embryonic sources. (
  • King is not alone in this incredibly myopic approach to the stem-cell debate. (
  • Human Coronary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells isolated from the human coronary arteries. (
  • Multiple time points of gene inactivation reveal that Pax7 is only required up to the juvenile period when progenitor cells make the transition into quiescence. (
  • Furthermore, we demonstrate a cell-intrinsic difference between neonatal progenitor and adult satellite cells in their Pax7 -dependency. (
  • Pax3 and Pax7 have distinct and overlapping functions in adult muscle progenitor cells. (
  • Cardiovascular progenitor cells hold tremendous therapeutic potential due to their unique ability to expand and differentiate into various heart cell types. (
  • We are also interested in elucidating the maturation event of heart muscle cells, an essential process to generate adult cardiomyocytes, which occurs after terminal differentiation of the progenitor cells. (
  • Specifically, infection and atherosclerosis are available with this theory proposed that a mutation or a viral agent some studies showing an association between HCV may represent events able to transform a single smooth seropositivity and carotid artery plaque and carotid muscle cell into the progenitor of a proliferative clone ( 7 ). (
  • In rat uterine smooth muscle cells, wild type RGS16 abolished Gi-mediated alpha 2-adrenoreceptor signaling, whereas RGS16E89K was without effect. (
  • Some hurdles, including possible genetic instability and their efficient differentiation into muscle progenitors through vector/transgene-free methods have still to be overcome or need further optimization. (
  • This review offers a summary of the advanced methods recently developed to derive muscle progenitors from pluripotent stem cells, as well as gene therapy by gene addition and gene editing methods using ZFNs, TALENs or CRISPR/Cas9. (
  • In conditional glucocorticoid receptor (GR) knockout mouse models you will characterize the molecular consequences of loss of GR during the muscle healing response, the effects on fibro adipogenic progenitors and macrophages and responses of satellite cells during a muscle healing response. (
  • In this chapter, we describe the procedure for isolating the skeletal muscle interstitial cells termed Fibro-Adipogenic Progenitors (FAPs ) and their gene expression profiling at the single cell level. (
  • abstract = "Release of muscle stem cells from quiescence involves the coordinated effort of transcription, mRNA stability, and translation. (
  • It's harder to do with meat when you have to differentiate a lot of cells and put them back together. (
  • In both cases, muscle stem cells generated during embryogenesis give rise to a large pool of muscle precursor cells called myoblasts that subsequently fuse and differentiate to produce the multinucleated syncytial cells of the mature muscle. (
  • Although normally quiescent, satellite cells respond to muscle damage by proliferating and producing myoblasts, which differentiate and fuse with the injured muscle cells. (
  • These results indicate that bone marrow-derived cells might not differentiate into osteoblasts. (
  • Medical Xpress ) - Regenerative medicine researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center have identified a cell that replenishes adult heart muscle by using a new cell lineage-tracing technique they devised. (
  • Human pluripotent stem cells represent a unique source for cell-based therapies and regenerative medicine. (
  • In vertebrates, mature skeletal muscle cells can manifest regenerative responses to insults due to injury or degenerative disease. (
  • During this pathological remodeling, satellite cells are present at lower numbers and do not display a proper regenerative function. (
  • In order to dissect these processes, we used a genetic model to reduce the satellite cell population by ~70-80% which leads to a nearly complete loss of regenerative potential. (
  • Treatment of these mice with an Activin receptor type-2B (AcvR2B) pathway blocker reverses muscle fiber atrophy as expected, but also restores regenerative potential of the remaining satellite cells. (
  • Rando and Quarta compared the gene expression profiles of freshly isolated mouse muscle stem cells with that of cells that had been maintained in the lab for a period of time. (
  • In this work, the researchers assessed gene expression in several thousand muscle fiber nuclei from both healthy mice and those recovering after an injury. (
  • You will use cutting edge technologies involving single cell RNASeq, ChIP-Seq, flow cytometry, elegant co-culture models, determine gene expression and metabolic profiles. (
  • Although robots might be designed to respond identically in unison, each cell in a natural system contains all manner of idiosyncrasies, such as unique patterns of gene expression. (
  • Single cell gene expression profiling is a fundamental tool for studying the heterogeneity of a cell population by addressing the phenotypic and functional characteristics of each cell. (
  • Moreover, we accompany our bench protocol with bioinformatics analysis designed to process raw data as well as to visualize single cell gene expression data. (
  • Single cell gene expression profiling is therefore a useful tool in the investigation of FAPs heterogeneity and their contribution to muscle homeostasis. (
  • To reach their conclusions, the researchers assembled the complete genome of the most potent electric fish, the electric eel, and the genetic sequences involved in constructing electric organs and skeletal muscles from three fish lineages that have independently evolved electric organs. (
  • Stage III C of bowel cancer represents the spread of cancerous cells to the nearby organs, or the formation of cancerous cells near the lymph nodes. (
  • Stage IV: Stage IV of colorectal cancer signifies the spread of cancer cells to nearby lymph nodes or organs. (
  • With an advancement of this stage, cancerous cells might start forming in one or more organs that are not near the colon, for instance, the lungs, liver, or the ovary. (
  • The disrupted blood flow can also cause damage to bones, muscles and organs. (
  • Creatine monohydrate seems to cause this anabolic effect by increasing the activity of muscle "precursor" cells called "satellite cells" located deep within the muscle fiber. (
  • Normally quiescent, following muscle fiber injury, we show that these cells express Zfh1 and engage in Notch-Delta-dependent proliferative activity and generate lineal descendant populations, which fuse with the injured muscle fiber. (
  • What really astonished us, however, was the fact that, in both muscle fiber types, we found a huge variety of different types of nuclei, each with different patterns of gene activity,' noted Birchmeier. (
  • Because of a mutation in the gene for dystrophin, DMD patients lack functioning copies of the huge protein that serves as a shock absorber inside muscle fiber cells. (
  • Furthermore, the possibility to derive patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in combination with the current development of gene modification methods could be used for autologous cell therapies of some genetic diseases. (
  • A great deal of insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of muscle development has been obtained in two powerful genetic model systems, the mouse and Drosophila . (
  • if it implants and the pregnancy goes to term, the resulting individual will carry the same nuclear genetic material as the donor of the adult somatic cell. (
  • However, an animal created through this technique would not be a precise genetic copy of the source of its nuclear DNA because each clone derives a small amount of its DNA from the mitochondria of the egg (which lie outside the nucleus) rather than from the donor of cell nucleus. (
  • Sickle cell disease (SCD), or sickle cell anaemia, is a major genetic disease that affects most countries in the African Region. (
  • It treats a group of rare genetic disorders called spinal muscular atrophies (SMAs) that cause loss of nerve cells that control skeletal muscles (muscles that allow us to move) leading to weakness. (
  • Skeletal Muscle Cell Growth Alters the Lipid Composition of Extracell" by Taylor R. Valentino, Blake D. Rule et al. (
  • We sought to characterize the lipid profile of skeletal muscle cell-derived Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) to determine if a hypertrophic stimulus would affect the lipid composition of C2C12 myotube-derived EVs. (
  • Primary human smooth muscle cells derived from blood vessels, the respiratory tract or uterus of individual donors. (
  • What is referred to as "blood splash," which is an escape of red blood cells from blood vessels into the surrounding muscle. (
  • Round red blood cells can move easily through the blood vessels but sickled shaped cells interconnect and can result in blood clots. (
  • The misshapen cells lack plasticity and can block small blood vessels, impairing blood flow. (
  • hUC-MSCs are, therefore, a potential cell therapy-based treatment option for patients with muscular dystrophies. (
  • Muscular dystrophies are a group of inherited diseases that cause muscle wasting and weakness. (
  • This is 3-D micro heart muscle created from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) beat in sync. (
  • Creating heart cells from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) that are derived from a patient's skin cells enables scientists to study and test drugs on that patient's specific disease. (
  • Here, we report a method for the scalable manufacturing of VSMCs from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). (
  • Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells without Myc from Mouse and Human Fibroblasts' (2007), by Masato Nakagawa et al. (
  • In November 2007, Masato Nakagawa, along with a number of other researchers including Kazutoshi Takahashi, Keisuke Okita, and Shinya Yamanaka, published "Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells without Myc from Mouse and Human Fibroblasts" (abbreviated "Generation") in Nature. (
  • In "Generation," the authors point to dedifferentiation of somatic cells as an avenue for generating pluripotent stem cells useful for treating specific patients and diseases. (
  • Bottom line here, this study shows that creatine monohydrate is one dietary supplement that accelerates the muscle hypertrophy (growth) process by stimulating the formation of muscle satellite cells. (
  • They trained, hyperintensely, for 40 weeks, and all the muscles in his trunk were hypertrophy, anabolic steroids muscle wasting disease. (
  • 33] Another study that examined 100 powerlifters (85+kg) found that they could be categorized as: 1) 'hypertrophy' (the muscle mass gained per area), 2) 'general' hypertrophy (the muscle volume gained per muscle), and 3) 'general' general hypertrophy (the muscle mass divided by whole body mass). (
  • You will be involved in the project funded by DFG and ANR: Corticosat: Glucocorticoid-coordinated regulation of satellite cells and their microenvironment in skeletal muscle. (
  • Together, the hydrogel creates a cell-friendly microenvironment, leading to high culture efficiency. (
  • The formation of compartments inside the microfluidic device increases control of the microenvironment by confining cells. (
  • They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS . (
  • One key proliferative signalling mediator is the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a member of the mitogen-activation protein kinase (MAPK) family, and both LPA and EGF signal through ERK in many cell types 6 , 7 . (
  • We conclude that AChR antibodies induce an active response in human skeletal muscle cells which affects key intra- and extracellular pathways. (
  • Myoblasts generated by satellite cells are also involved in the growth of adult vertebrate muscle. (
  • We observed genome-wide changes in DNA methylation and expression patterns during differentiation of primary human muscle stem cells (myoblasts). (
  • However, it is possible that novel myogenic factors that regulate differentiation of human myoblasts into myotubes, and consequently muscle cell function, can be discovered. (
  • Recent in vitro studies have highlighted a role for asymmetric divisions in renewing rare "immortal" stem cells and generating a clonal population of differentiation-competent myoblasts. (
  • Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of kidney smooth muscle cell differentiation. (
  • Our study identifies IL-32 as a novel myogenic regulator, provides a comprehensive map of the dynamic epigenome during differentiation of human muscle stem cells and reveals abnormal epigenetic changes in obesity. (
  • Importantly, compared to the previously reported structures of RyR1 which were extracted from the cells, current structures are determined in native membranes of sarcoplasmic reticulum making them more physiologically relevant. (
  • In this case, it's a protein called "dystrophin" that keeps muscle membranes stable and strong. (
  • Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. (
  • The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex occupies a central and strategic position in muscle intermediary metabolism and is primarily regulated by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. (
  • Additionally, obesity is associated with low relative muscle mass and diminished metabolism. (
  • The basal levels of intracellular cyclic AMP in neither rat muscle cells nor chicken muscle cells were affected by electrical stimulation. (
  • Do not affect skeletal muscles, but do influence the activity of smooth muscle, exocrine glands, and the cardiac conduction system. (
  • Simultaneous treatment of human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells with lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) leads to strikingly synergistic stimulation of mitogenesis. (
  • Increased airway smooth muscle mass is one component of airway remodelling, an important process in the pathology not only of asthma, but also of fibrotic diseases such as chronic bronchitis. (
  • We think that the micro heart muscle will provide a superior resource for conducting research and developing therapies for heart disease. (
  • Keeping muscle stem cells happy in the lab is an important step toward potential therapies for conditions like muscular dystrophy and toward regenerating missing muscle after an injury. (
  • Beike Biotechnology treatment protocol recommends a higher quantity of umbilical cord derived stem cells, local injections, and extensive supportive therapies such as physical and occupational rehabilitation. (
  • There's no cure for DMD, but there are treatments that can help with the symptoms, including gene-based therapies that help the muscles make more dystrophin. (
  • Understanding the signalling pathways involved in the synergistic mitogenesis, seen when cells are treated with multiple stimuli, is an important aspect of understanding how cells respond in vivo , where cells must integrate the signalling pathways activated by multiple stimuli. (
  • We are trying to identify new pathways that cause atherosclerotic plaque buildup, in particular pathways that involve a certain cell type, called smooth muscle cells," says Dianna Milewicz, MD, PhD, lead author of the study and a professor and President George Bush Chair in Cardiovascular Medicine at McGovern Medical School at UTHealth Houston. (
  • For example, the pathways that transmit electrical pulses in the vertebrate heart, including our own heart, derive from muscles. (
  • 10, 11 In such models, aggregate formation and cell death can be reduced by overexpressing yeast and bacteria derived chaperones that do not appear to protect against some other cell death pathways. (
  • We focus this review on post-transcriptional regulation of muscle stem cells and highlight the impact of deregulated mRNA homeostasis on muscle aging and muscle disease pathogenesis. (
  • In sickle cell disease, the normal round shape of red blood cells become like crescent moons. (
  • People with sickle cell disease often feel weak, tired and look pale. (
  • Haemoglobin disorders fall into two main categories: sickle-cell disease and thalassaemias. (
  • Sickle-cell disease is characterized by a modification in the shape of the red blood cell from a smooth, donut-shape into a crescent or half moon shape. (
  • HASM cells grown in vitro proliferate in response to a variety of stimuli, including G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists as well as peptide growth factors acting via receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) 1 , 2 . (
  • As Jack Bobo, the CEO of Futurity, a Washington DC-based "food foresight company that helps brands get ahead of trends" and a former special adviser on food policy at the US Department of State , puts it: "It's definitely a lower cost of entry to produce protein from dairy cells than meat or fish. (
  • A new study shows targeting a protein in smooth muscle cells can block and decrease buildup of atherosclerotic plaque in mouse models, according to researchers with UTHealth Houston. (
  • We found that if we block a specific protein in smooth muscle cells, we can effectively block the majority of plaque formation from occurring in an animal model. (
  • Interestingly, this protein is activated in smooth muscle cells by too much cholesterol in the cells," Milewicz says. (
  • 1 Nevertheless, strategies that target protein misfolding frequently reduce aggregate formation and cell death in parallel. (
  • 11, 14 Rouleau and colleagues found that oligomerisation of PABP2 is mediated by two potential oligomerisation domains (ODs)-deletions in either of these domains inactivated oligomerisation of mutant PABP2 and also reduced the cell death caused by this protein. (
  • SMN1 helps the body make an important protein that keeps the nerves that control muscle movement healthy. (
  • It helps muscles and nerves work properly by changing the SMN2 gene product to make more of the SMN protein than it usually would. (
  • Our optimized smooth muscle cell medium provides optimal growth support over numerous passages. (
  • With our vascular cells and suitable medium, we offer everything you need for your smooth muscle cell culture application. (
  • We named this factor smooth muscle cell derived growth factor (SDGF). (
  • There are a lot of drugs on the market that block the smooth muscle cell pathway," says Abhijnan Chattopadhyay, PhD, first author on the study and a research fellow in the Division of Medical Genetics at McGovern Medical School. (
  • Novel molecular mechanisms involved in hormonal regulation of lactate production in Sertoli cells. (
  • The aim of the study was to analyze molecular mechanisms involved in FSH and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) regulation of lactate production in rat Sertoli cells, and showed that bFGF increases phosphorylated PDC levels and that FSH-stimulated lactateProduction is partially inhibited in the presence of a PDK inhibitor. (
  • This developmental program requires a delicate level of regulation to ensure that the correct number of cells reaches their final destination [ 3 - 5 ]. (
  • This is not possible if the stem cells lose their ability to regenerate new muscle. (
  • West Nile Virus RNA was detected in samples from the spleen/lymph node, skin, and fat associated with the tibia bone, as well as 1 of 2 muscle specimens, 1 of 4 tendon specimens, and 1 of 2 bone marrow specimens. (
  • A better understanding of these nuclei may help us treat muscle disorders like Duchenne muscular dystrophy. (
  • These results suggested that SDMF was a new factor different from known migration factors for smooth muscle cells. (
  • Publications] Noriyuki Koyama,Tomoko Koshikawa,Nobuhiro Morisaki,Yasushi Saito,Sho Yoshida: 'Secretion of a potert new migration factor for smooth muscle cells (SMC) by cultured SMC' Atherosclerosis. (
  • However, the role of bone marrow-derived cells in osteogenesis remains unknown. (
  • Bone marrow cells from C57BL/6-Tg (CAG-EGFP) mice were transplanted into C57BL/6 J wild type mice. (
  • Results of IHC staining of skin, fat, muscle, and bone marrow samples were negative for West Nile Virus antigens. (
  • Had he followed up, even skeptically, by demanding that Tada give examples of these incredible breakthroughs, she could have told him about human heart patients who have already benefited from treatment with their own bone marrow or blood stem cells. (
  • The researchers also repeated the experiment using human muscle stem cells maintained under similar conditions and then transplanted into laboratory mice. (
  • These similarities are most clearly evident when the mechanisms of myogenesis of the large multifibrillar indirect flight muscles of Drosophila are compared to vertebrate skeletal muscles. (
  • Functional studies demonstrated IL-32 as a novel target that regulates human myogenesis, insulin sensitivity and ATP levels in muscle cells. (
  • Therefore, we hypothesized that obesity-dependent epigenetic modifications are established in human satellite cells and potentially affect myogenesis in obese individuals. (