Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.
The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.
Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the sis gene (GENES, SIS). c-sis proteins make up the B chain of PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR. Overexpression of c-sis causes tumorigenesis.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).
Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)
Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).
A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.
An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.
The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Exercises that stretch the muscle fibers with the aim to increase muscle-tendon FLEXIBILITY, improve RANGE OF MOTION or musculoskeletal function, and prevent injuries. There are various types of stretching techniques including active, passive (relaxed), static, dynamic (gentle), ballistic (forced), isometric, and others.
Myosin type II isoforms found in smooth muscle.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.
A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
Technique for limiting use, activity, or movement by immobilizing or restraining animal by suspending from hindlimbs or tails. This immobilization is used to simulate some effects of reduced gravity and study weightlessness physiology.
The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.

DDPH inhibited L-type calcium current and sodium current in single ventricular myocyte of guinea pig. (1/1087)

AIM: To investigate the effects of 1-(2, 6-dimethylphenoxy)-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl-ethylamino)propane hydrochloride (DDPH) on L-type calcium current (ICa) and sodium current (INa), and to compare its inhibitory potency with verapamil and mexiletine. METHODS: Whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to record ICa and INa in a single ventricular myocytes of guinea pig. RESULTS: (1) DDPH (3 - 300 micromol . L-1) decreased ICa at 0 mV in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 28.5 micromol . L-1 (95 % confidence limits: 14.3 - 42.7 micromol . L-1, n = 8 cells from 8 guinea pigs). Verapamil (0.3 - 30 micromol . L-1) reduced ICa with an IC50 value of 1.8 micromol . L-1 (95 % confidence limits: 1.3 - 2.3 micromol . L-1, n = 6 cells from 6 guinea pigs). Mexiletine 100 micromol . L-1 did not affect ICa (n = 5 cells from 5 guinea pigs, P > 0.05). The degree of use-dependent blocking effect of DDPH 30 micromol/L on ICa was 58 % +/- 13 % (n = 5 cells from 5 guinea pigs, P < 0.01) at 1 Hz and 76 % +/- 11 % (n = 5 cells from 5 guinea pigs, P < 0.01) at 3 Hz. (2) DDPH (20 - 320 micromol . L-1) could also block INa in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 89.0 micromol . L-1 (95 % confidence limits: 68.7 - 109.3 micromol . L-1, n = 9 cells from 9 guinea pigs). The IC50 value of mexiletine was 32.2 micromol . L-1 (95 % confidence limits: 11.7 - 52.7 micromol . L-1, n = 5 cells from 5 guinea pigs). Verapamil at the concentration of 10 micromol . L-1 did not affect INa (n = 5 cells from 5 guinea pigs, P > 0.05). The blocking effect of DDPH 80 micromol/L on INa was non use-dependent. CONCLUSION: DPH exhibited inhibitory effects on both ICa and INa, but its inhibitory effect on ICa was weaker than verapamil, and on INa was weaker than mexiletine.  (+info)

Ultrastructure of acetylcholine receptor aggregates parallels mechanisms of aggregation. (2/1087)

BACKGROUND: Acetylcholine receptors become aggregated at the developing neuromuscular synapse shortly after contact by a motorneuron in one of the earliest manifestations of synaptic development. While a major physiological signal for receptor aggregation (agrin) is known, the mechanism(s) by which muscle cells respond to this and other stimuli have yet to be worked out in detail. The question of mechanism is addressed in the present study via a quantitative examination of ultrastructural receptor arrangement within aggregates. RESULTS: In receptor rich cell membranes resulting from stimulation by agrin or laminin, or in control membrane showing spontaneous receptor aggregation, receptors were found to be closer to neighboring receptors than would be expected at random. This indicates that aggregation proceeds heterogeneously: nanoaggregates, too small for detection in the light microscope, underlie developing microaggregates of receptors in all three cases. In contrast, the structural arrangement of receptors within nanoaggregates was found to depend on the aggregation stimulus. In laminin induced nanoaggregates receptors were found to be arranged in an unstructured manner, in contrast to the hexagonal array of about 10 nm spacing found for agrin induced nanoaggregates. Spontaneous aggregates displayed an intermediate amount of order, and this was found to be due to two distinct population of nanoaggregates. CONCLUSIONS: The observations support earlier studies indicating that mechanisms by which agrin and laminin-1 induced receptor aggregates form are distinct and, for the first time, relate mechanisms underlying spontaneous aggregate formation to aggregate structure.  (+info)

Effects of ropivacaine on sodium, calcium, and potassium currents in guinea pig ventricular myocytes. (3/1087)

AIM: To study the effects of ropivacaine (Rop) on sodium current (INa), L-type calcium current (ICa-L), inward rectifier potassium current (IK1), and delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) in isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes. METHODS: Whole cell patch-clamp techniques were used in our experiment. RESULTS: At potential of -40 mV, Rop 10, 50, and 100 micromol/L decreased sodium current by 8.3 %, 33.3 %, and 62.5 %, respectively and prolonged the time constant of INa inactivation by 8.2 %, 24.7 %, and 64.4 %, respectively (n = 5 cells from 3 animals, P < 0.05). At potential of +10 mV, Rop 50 and 100 micromol/L decreased L-type calcium current by 7.6 % and 22.5 %, and prolonged the slow time constant of ICa-L inactivation by 15.5 % and 33.0 %, respectively (n = 5 cells from 4 animals, P < 0.05). Rop 50 and 100 micromol/L did not markedly change the peak current of delayed rectifier potassium current and inward rectifier potassium current (n = 5 cells from 3 animals, P > 0.05), respectively. CONCLUSION: Rop depressed INa and ICa-L, which may be related to its cardiotoxic effect  (+info)

Characterization of transient outward K+ current and ultra-rapid delayed rectifier K+ current in isolated human atrial myocytes from patients with congestive heart failure. (4/1087)

AIM: To study the properties of transient outward K+ current (Ito) and ultra-rapid delayed rectifier K+ current (IKur) in isolated human atrial myocytes from patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). METHODS: Single cells were isolated from CHF patients with collagenase and protease. Ito and IKur were recorded using whole cell patch-clamp technique. RESULTS: The activation and inactivation of I(to) were voltage-dependent and time-dependent. The half-activation and half-inactivation voltage were (15 +/- 12) mV and (-45 +/- 4) mV respectively. When membrane potential went up from -40 mV to +60 mV, the activation time constant means decreased from (6.9 +/- 2.3) ms to (1.40 +/- 0.20) ms, while the inactivation time constant means decreased from (69 +/- 17) ms to (21 +/- 14) ms. Otherwise, the mean reactivation time constants was (125 +/- 65) ms when the membrane potential was held at -80 mV, but the recovery was not complete during the interval observed. Ito showed less frequency-dependent reduction at test frequency between 0.2-2 Hz. Compared with Ito, the activation of IKur only showed voltage-dependence, without time-dependence. Its mean current densities was (3.4 +/- 0.7) pA/pF when test potential was +60 mV. The half activation voltage of IKur was (23 +/- 14) mV. No clear frequency-dependence was observed at the same frequency range of Ito either. CONCLUSION: I(to) and IKur are important outward potassium channel currents in isolated human atrial myocytes from CHF patients and they have different kinetic properties.  (+info)

Effect of agmatine on L-type calcium current in rat ventricular myocytes. (5/1087)

AIM: To study the effect of agmatine (Agm) on L-type calcium current (I(Ca-L)) in rat ventricular myocytes. METHODS: Whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique was used to record I(Ca-L) in single rat ventricular myocytes which were dissociated by enzymatic dissociation method. RESULTS: (1) Agm (0.5, 1, 2 mmol/L) reduced the voltage-dependently activated peak amplitude of I(Ca-L) (pA) from 1451+/-236 (control) to 937+/-105 (n=8, P <0.05), 585+/-74 (n=8, P <0.01), and to 301+/-156 (n=8, P <0.01) in a concentration-dependent manner. (2) Agm (1 mmol/L) blocked I(Ca-L) in a use-dependent manner. The degree of use-dependent blocking effect was 53 %+/-12 % (n=8, P <0.05) at 1 Hz, and 69 %+/-11 % (n=8, P <0.01) at 3 Hz. (3) Agm upshifted the current-voltage (I-V) curve, but the characteristics of I-V relationship were not significantly altered by Agm, the maximal activation voltage of I(Ca-L) was not different from that of control. Steady-state activation of I(Ca-L) was not affected markedly. The half activation potential (V(0.5)) and the slope factor (k) were not significantly different from those of the control. V(0.5) value was (-20.2+/-2.5) mV in the control and (-20.5+/-2.7) mV in the presence of Agm 1 mmol/L. The k value was (7.1+/-0.4) mV and (7.5+/-0.5) mV, respectively (n=8, P >0.05). (4) Agm 1 mmol/L markedly shifted the steady-state inactivation curve of I(Ca-L) to the left, and accelerated the voltage-dependent steady-state inactivation of calcium current. V(0.5) value was (-32+/-6) mV in the control and (-40+/-5) mV in the presence of Agm. The k value was (7.6+/-0.9) mV and (12.5+/-1.1) mV, respectively (n=8, P <0.05). (5) Agm 1 mmol/L markedly delayed half-recovery time of Ca2+ channel from inactivation (92+/-28) ms to (249+/-26) ms (n=8, P <0.01). CONCLUSION: Agm inhibited I(Ca-L) and mainly acted on the inactivated state of L-type calcium channel, manifested as acceleration of calcium channel inactivation and slowdown of recovery from inactivated state in rat ventricular myocytes.  (+info)

Responses of adipose and muscle lipoprotein lipase to chronic infection and subsequent acute lipopolysaccharide challenge. (6/1087)

Infection of male Swiss Webster mice with Toxoplasma gondii or Neospora caninum leads to long-term alterations in energy balance. Following an initial 20 to 30% weight loss in all T. gondii-infected mice, half of the animals regain most of the lost weight (gainers), whereas the others maintain their low body weight (nongainers). Infection with N. caninum does not elicit weight loss. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL), the enzyme responsible for plasma triglyceride (TG) clearance and partitioning among tissues, is under tissue-specific modulation associated with energy balance. It is also a major determinant of infection-induced hypertriglyceridemia. This study aimed to assess the long-term modulation of adipose and muscle LPL activity in mice infected with T. gondii or N. caninum, to evaluate the effects of subsequent acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration, and to relate LPL modulation in these conditions with infection-related changes in body weight gain. Twenty-eight days after infection, LPL activity in muscle of both gainer and nongainer T. gondii-infected mice was reduced by 40 to 50% compared with the levels in controls and N. caninum-infected mice, whereas LPL activity in adipose depots remained unchanged in all infected groups compared to the level in controls. LPS (from Escherichia coli, 100 ng/kg) injection induced a global reduction in adipose LPL in all groups, as assessed 90 min later. In both T. gondii-infected subgroups, muscle LPL was not further reduced by LPS treatment, whereas it was decreased by 40 to 50% in muscles of control and N. caninum-infected mice. Pre-LPS TG levels in plasma were similar in all groups. LPS greatly increased TG levels in plasma in both control and N. caninum-infected animals, whereas it did not alter those of T. gondii-infected gainer or nongainer animals. These results show that (i) independently of the extent of postinfection weight gain, long-term infection with T. gondii chronically reduces muscle LPL, which becomes unresponsive to acute endotoxemia; (ii) modulation of tissue LPL activity during chronic T. gondii infection favors TG partitioning towards adipose tissue; and (iii) skeletal muscle LPL is a key determinant of the acute response of triglyceridemia to LPS.  (+info)

Spatial characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release events triggered by L-type Ca2+ current and Na+ current in guinea-pig cardiac myocytes. (7/1087)

Ca2+ signals in cardiac muscle cells are composed of spatially limited elementary events termed Ca2+ sparks. Several studies have also indicated that Ca2+ signals smaller than Ca2+ sparks can be elicited. These signals have been termed Ca2+ quarks and were proposed to result from the opening of a single Ca2+ release channel of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. We used laser-scanning confocal microscopy to examine the subcellular properties of Na+ current (I(Na))- and L-type Ca2+ current (I(Ca,L))-induced Ca2+ transients in voltage-clamped ventricular myocytes isolated from guinea-pigs. Both currents, I(Na) and I(Ca,L), evoked substantial, global Ca2+ transients. To examine the spatiotemporal properties of such Ca2+ signals, we performed power spectral analysis of these Ca2+ transients and found that both lacked spatial frequency components characteristic for Ca2+ sparks. The application of 10 microM verapamil to partially block L-type Ca2+ current reduced the corresponding Ca2+ transients down to individual Ca2+ sparks. In contrast, I(Na)-induced Ca2+ responses were still spatially homogeneous and lacked Ca2+ sparks even for small current amplitudes. By using high resistance patch pipettes (> 4 MOmega) to exaggerate the loss of voltage control during I(Na), Ca2+ sparks appeared superimposed on a homogeneous Ca2+ release component and were exclusively triggered during the flow of I(Na). In the presence of 10 microM ryanodine both I(Ca,L) and I(Na) elicited small, residual Ca2+ transients that were spatially homogeneous but displayed distinctively different temporal profiles. We conclude that I(Na) is indeed able to cause Ca2+ release in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes. In contrast to I(Ca,L)-induced Ca2+ transients, which are built up from the recruitment of individual Ca2+ sparks, the I(Na)-evoked cellular responses were always homogeneous, indicating that their underlying elementary Ca2+ release event is distinct from the Ca2+ spark. Thus, I(Na)-induced Ca2+ transients are composed of smaller Ca2+ signals, most likely Ca2+ quarks.  (+info)

The pure anti-oestrogen ICI 182,780 (Faslodex) activates large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels in smooth muscle. (8/1087)

Oestrogen and tamoxifen activate large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channels in smooth muscle through a non-genomic mechanism that depends on the regulatory beta1 subunit and an extracellular binding site. It is unknown whether a "pure" anti-oestrogen such as ICI 182,780 (Faslodex), that has no known oestrogenic properties, would have any effect on BK(Ca) channels. Using single channel patch clamp techniques on canine colonic myocytes, the hypothesis that ICI 182,780 would activate BK(Ca) channels was tested. ICI 182,780 increased the open probability of BK(Ca) channels in inside-out patches with an EC(50) of 1 microM. These data suggest that molecules with the ability to bind nuclear oestrogen receptors, regardless of oestrogenic or anti-oestrogenic nature, activate BK(Ca) channels through this nongenomic, membrane-delimited mechanism. The identity and characteristics of this putative binding site remain unclear; however, it has pharmacological similarity to oestrogen receptors alpha and beta, as ICI 182,780 interacts with it.  (+info)

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CPAP is the most widely used treatment for sleep apnea. Now, research confirms that it is also the most effective for lowering blood pressure in this group.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of intermittent pressure imitating rolling manipulation on calcium ion homeostasis in human skeletal muscle cells. AU - Zhang, Hong. AU - Liu, Howe. AU - Lin, Qing. AU - Zhang, Guohui. AU - Mason, David C.. PY - 2016/8/26. Y1 - 2016/8/26. N2 - Background: Homeostasis imbalance of intracellular Ca2+ is one of the key pathophysiological factors in skeletal muscle injuries. Such imbalance can cause significant change in the metabolism of Ca2+-related biomarkers in skeletal muscle, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and creatine kinase (CK). Measurements of these biomarkers can be used to evaluate the degree of damage to human skeletal muscle cells (HSKMCs) injury. Rolling manipulation is the most popular myofascial release technique in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The mechanism of how this technique works in ameliorating muscle injury is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the possible Ca2+ mediated effects of intermittent pressure imitating ...
Aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of injection of autologous muscle-derived cells into the urinary sphincter for treatment of postprostatectomy urinary incontinence in men and to characterize the injected cells prior to transpla
AppliedStemCell eCommerce Platform Human Skeletal Muscle Cells cDNA (DMD) [ASD-9042] - Catalog Number ASD-9042 Quantity 20 reactions Product Information Description Applied StemCells cDNA is synthesized from a highly pure and intact total RN
Pooley , N J , Tacchi , L , Secombes , C J & Martin , S A M 2013 , Inflammatory responses in primary muscle cell cultures in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) BMC Genomics , vol 14 , 747 . DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-14- ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
(2016) Gu et al. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Myostatin (Mstn) is an inhibitor of myogenesis, regulating the number and size of skeletal myocytes. In addition to its myogenic regulatory function, Mstn plays important roles in the development of adipose tissues and in metab...
Part Two of the interview with Nicolas Rasmussen, author of On Speed: The Many Lives of Amphetamines and professor of history and philosophy at University of New South Wales in Australia. (Listen to Part 1 here) Then, Tristan Bock-Hughes tells the story of the Scopes Monkey Trial of 1925, and the ongoing battle over creationism in US public schools.. ...
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NESPS 2019 Abstracts: Quantifying Brain-death, Transplant Physiology and Immunosuppression on Porcine Muscle-Derived Stem Cell Expansion
CfeaETH *-3 Diss ETH No Inhibition of apoptosis: a new role for paired domain transcription factors in neoplastic human muscle cells a dissertation submitted to the SWISS FEDERAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Hi Hello newsgroup readers! Our research group is investigating the changes in the pattern of gene expression in human skeletal muscle cells upon different stimuli. Because of the limited amount of tissue we get from the muscle biopsies and the complexity of the genetic events that lead to muscle cell adaption, the DNA microarray would be the ideal tool to give us a good overview. We would like to obtain human microarrays at prices affordable for a university research group, since we do not have the funds to take advantage from the full service provided by Synteni. They refuse to sell just the microarrays to their customers, so we have to look for alternative sources. Is there anybody who can help us? Thanks for any reply Mat ...
Buy our Recombinant Human MUSTN1 protein. Ab183251 is a full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in SDS-PAGE, MS. Abcam provides…
After excitation of skeletal muscle, the disturbed ion homeostasis is restored by Na+, K+ ATPase of the sarcolemma and Ca2+ ATPase of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Contrary to Na+, K+ ATPase, the concentration and isoenzyme distribution of SR Ca2+ ATPase in human skeletal muscle depend on fibre type and age. In cultured human muscle cells the concentration and activity of Na+, K+ ATPase and SR Ca2+ ATPase increase with maturation. In skeletal muscle and cultured muscle cells of patients suffering from myotonic dystrophy (MyD), the activity and the concentration of both Na+, K+ ATPase and SR Ca2+ ATPase are decreased by about 40%. In addition, we measured in cultured MyD muscle cells at rest an increased cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) caused by active voltage-operated Ca2+ channels, which are inactive in resting control cells. However, the restoration of a stimulus-induced Ca2+ transient is unaffected. A differentiation-related disturbance of membranes or a modulation defect of membrane
PubMed journal article: Myostatin genetic inactivation inhibits myogenesis by muscle-derived stem cells in vitro but not when implanted in the mdx mouse muscle. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Abstract We investigated the effects of PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α) overexpression on the oxidative capacity of human skeletal muscle cells ex vivo. PGC-1α overexpression increased the oxidation rate of palmitic acid and mRNA expression of genes regulating lipid metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis, and function in human myotubes. Basal and insulin-stimulated deoxyglucose uptake were decreased,…
Definition of skeletal muscle cell in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is skeletal muscle cell? Meaning of skeletal muscle cell as a legal term. What does skeletal muscle cell mean in law?
Skeletal Muscle Cell Diagram - See more about Skeletal Muscle Cell Diagram, skeletal muscle cell diagram, skeletal muscle cell picture
Abstract Numerous strategies are under development for the correction of deleterious effects of mutations in muscular dystrophies, and these strategies must be validated in compelling models. Cellular models seem straightforward to set up; however, the proliferative capacity of muscle cells isolated …
Human muscle cell line - human body diagram at muscles. Human Muscle Cell Line encouraged for you to our website, on this period I am going to teach you with regards to Human muscle cell line.. Now, this can be a very first image, human muscle cell line, human muscle cell line atcc, human smooth muscle cell line, human skeletal muscle cell line atcc, human cardiac muscle cell line, human heart muscle cell line, human vascular smooth muscle cell line, human airway smooth muscle cell line, human skeletal muscle myoblast cell line, immortalized human skeletal muscle cell line :. ...
Dabiri, G., K. Turnacioglu, J. Ayoob, J.M. Sanger and J.W. SANGER. Transfections of primary muscle cell cultures with plasmids coding for GFP/BFP linked to full length and truncated muscle proteins. In, Green Fluorescent Proteins, (Editors, K. F. Sullivan and S. A. Kay), Academic Press, New York. Methods in Cell Biology. 58:239-260, 1999 ...
Figure 195 from Chapter 5 (Endoplasmic Reticulum) of The Cell, 2nd Ed. by Don W. Fawcett M.D. Selective staining of tubular invaginations of the sa...
Looking for Cardiac myocyte? Find out information about Cardiac myocyte. The principal tissue of the vertebrate heart; composed of a syncytium of striated muscle fibers Explanation of Cardiac myocyte
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Skeletal muscle stem cells, called satellite cells and defined by the transcription factor PAX7, are responsible for postnatal muscle growth, homeostasis and regeneration. Attempts to utilize the regenerative potential of muscle stem cells for therapeutic purposes so far failed. We previously established the existence of human PAX7-positive cell colonies with high regenerative potential. We now identified PAX7-negative human muscle-derived cell colonies also positive for the myogenic markers desmin and MYF5. These include cells from a patient with a homozygous PAX7 c.86-1G , A mutation (PAX7null). Single cell and bulk transcriptome analysis show high intra- and inter-donor heterogeneity and reveal the endothelial cell marker CLEC14A to be highly expressed in PAX7null cells. All PAX7-negative cell populations, including PAX7null, form myofibers after transplantation into mice, and regenerate muscle after reinjury. Transplanted PAX7neg cells repopulate the satellite cell niche where they ...
The aims of this study were to investigate the mechanisms underlying (1) the ageing-related motor handicap at the whole muscle, cellular, contractile protein and myonuclear levels; and (2) ageing-related differences in muscle adaptability.. In vivo muscles function was studied in the knee extensors. Decreases were observed in isokinetic and isometric torque outputs in old age in the sedentary men and women and elite master sprinters. A 20-week long specific sprint and resistance training successfully improved the maximal isometric force and rate of force development in a subgroup of master sprinters.. In vitro measurements were performed in muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle. Immunocytochemical and contractile measurements in single membrane permeabilized muscle fibres demonstrated ageing- and gender-related changes at the myofibrillar level. In sedentary subjects, data showed a preferential decrease in the size of muscle fibres expressing type IIa MyHC in men, lower force ...
"Flexing muscle (stem cells) with Jyotsna". The Life of Science. Dhawan, Jyotsna; Gokhale, Rajesh S.; Verma, Inder M. (December ... Jyotsna Dhawan". Muscle stem cell Lab. Retrieved 14 July 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Dr. Jyotsna Dhawan". ... She completed her postdoctoral training at Stanford University studying muscle stem cells and gene therapy in 1995. Dhawan ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.11.018. PMID 16325565 - via Cheedipudi, Sirisha; Puri, Deepika; Saleh, Amena; Gala, ...
e. Goblet cells. f. Leucocytes in epithelium. f'. Leucocytes below epithelium. g. Blood vessels. h. Muscle cells cut across. ... Simple Columnar Epithelium is made up of Glandular Goblet cells which secrete mucins to form mucin. the rest of the cell is ... Ciliated Epithelium is a layer of columnar or cuboidal cells which have large number of fine hair like cilia over their free ... the shape of the simple columnar epithelium cells are tall and narrow giving a column like appearance. the apical surfaces of ...
e. Goblet cells. f. Leucocytes in epithelium. f'. Leucocytes below epbithelium. g. Blood vessels. h. Muscle cells cut across. ... Enterocytes, along with goblet cells, represent the principal cell types of the epithelium of the villi in the small intestine ... Villi are specialized for absorption in the small intestine as they have a thin wall, one cell thick, which enables a shorter ...
... being expressed in skeletal muscle near myotendinous junctions, and in vascular smooth muscle cells, as a downstream target of ... transcription of the cell type-restricted ankyrin repeat protein CARP gene through CAGA motif in vascular smooth muscle cells ... Muscle Res. Cell. Motil. 26 (6-8): 401-8. doi:10.1007/s10974-005-9022-9. PMID 16450059. S2CID 22939053. Matsuura K, Uesugi N, ... Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility. 26 (6-8): 401-8. doi:10.1007/s10974-005-9022-9. PMID 16450059. S2CID 22939053. ...
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... purification from bovine muscle, binding to titin and the characterization of a full-length human cDNA". J. Cell Sci. 102 (4): ... are both necessary and sufficient for the intracellular crosslinking of sarcomeric myosin in transfected non-muscle cells". J. ... Cell. Motil. 26 (2-3): 143-8. doi:10.1007/s10974-005-3089-1. PMID 16003462. S2CID 12278011. Mehrle A, Rosenfelder H, Schupp I, ... Weber FE, Vaughan KT, Reinach FC, Fischman DA (Oct 1993). "Complete sequence of human fast-type and slow-type muscle myosin- ...
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Perry SV (2004). "What is the role of tropomyosin in the regulation of muscle contraction?". J. Muscle Res. Cell. Motil. 24 (8 ... MacLeod AR, Gooding C (1988). "Human hTM alpha gene: expression in muscle and nonmuscle tissue". Mol. Cell. Biol. 8 (1): 433-40 ... Perry SV (2002). "Vertebrate tropomyosin: distribution, properties and function". J. Muscle Res. Cell. Motil. 22 (1): 5-49. doi ... proteins involved in the contractile system of striated and smooth muscles and the cytoskeleton of non-muscle cells. Tm is a ...
The costamere is a structural-functional component of striated muscle cells which connects the sarcomere of the muscle to the ... They physically couple force-generating sarcomeres with the sarcolemma in striated muscle cells and are thus considered one of ... The lateral transmission of force by costameres helps maintain uniform sarcomere lengths in adjacent muscle cells that are ... J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 31 (5-6): 323-336. doi:10.1007/s10974-011-9238-9. PMC 4326082. PMID 21312057. Ervasti, James M. (2003- ...
J Muscle Res Cell Motility. 1986; 7:446-454. 94. Lind SE, Smith DB, Janmey PA, Stossel TP. The role of plasma gelsolin and the ... Dev Cell, 2003, 4: 444-445. 77. Stossel, TP, Fenteany G, Hartwig, JH. Cell surface actin remodeling at a glance. J Cell Sci, ... Are all cells muscle in disguise? The Sciences. 1978; 18:14-17. 35. Stossel TP, Bretscher MS, Cecarelli B, Dales S, Helenius A ... The machinery of cell crawling. Sci Am. 1994; 271: 54-63. 69. Stossel, TP. The machinery of cell movements. The 1993 E. Donnall ...
Consequently, heart muscle cells are damaged; some die or become scar tissue. Scar tissue has no ability to contract; therefore ... Progressive loss of heart muscle cells leads to eventual heart failure. Symptoms usually include one or more of the following: ... In essence, the heart muscle cannot contract forcefully enough to pump adequate amounts of blood for the needs of the body's ...
... cell signaling, and the generation of action potentials in excitable cells such as endocrine, nerve and muscle cells. The ... Examples of these processes include signal transduction from the cell membrane to sites within the cell, such as the cell ... without damaging the other cell membranes, only about one quarter of cell protein was released. These cells were also able to ... Wang SQ, Wei C, Zhao G (April 2004). "Imaging microdomain Ca2+ in muscle cells". Circ. Res. 94 (8): 1011-22. doi:10.1161/01.RES ...
"Short-term calorie restriction enhances skeletal muscle stem cell function". Cell Stem Cell. 10 (5): 515-9. doi:10.1016/j.stem. ... Calorie restriction preserves muscle tissue in nonhuman primates and rodents. Mechanisms include reduced muscle cell apoptosis ... and preserved muscle stem cell function. Muscle tissue grows when stimulated, so it has been suggested that the calorie- ... Martins I, Galluzzi L, Kroemer G (September 2011). "Hormesis, cell death and aging". Aging. 3 (9): 821-8. doi:10.18632/aging. ...
Berridge, Michael J. (2008). "Smooth muscle cell calcium activation mechanisms". The Journal of Physiology. 586 (21): 5047-5061 ... During ejaculation, the smooth muscle in the walls of the vas deferens contracts reflexively, thus propelling the sperm forward ... Adrenergic synapses are found in the smooth muscle layers. Cholinergic synapses and vasoactive intestinal peptide synapses are ... surrounded by smooth muscle). Its epithelium is pseudostratified columnar epithelium lined by stereocilia. They are part of the ...
In cells lacking T-tubules such as smooth muscle cells, diseased cardiomyocytes, or muscle cells in which T-tubules have been ... They are found in ventricular muscle cells in most species, and in atrial muscle cells from large mammals. In cardiac muscle ... causing the muscle cell to contract. In skeletal muscle cells, however, the L-type calcium channel is directly attached to the ... When contraction of a muscle is needed, stimulation from a nerve or an adjacent muscle cell causes a characteristic flow of ...
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility. 11 (4): 323-330. doi:10.1007/BF01766670. ISSN 0142-4319. PMID 2174905. S2CID ... Journal of Muscle Research & Cell Motility. 7 (5): 446-454. doi:10.1007/BF01753587. ISSN 1573-2657. PMID 3025252. S2CID 2644111 ... Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility. 11 (4): 323-330. doi:10.1007/BF01766670. ISSN 0142-4319. PMID 2174905. S2CID ... Additionally a 27 AA N-terminal signal peptide is cleaved prior to pGSN's secretion from the cell. Both forms of the protein ...
... in cardiac muscle cells alpha-II spectrin also shows a close association with myofibrils". Journal of Muscle Research and Cell ... intercellular communication and cell cycle regulation. Though a role in cardiac muscle is not well understood, it is likely ... "AlphaII-spectrin is critical for cell adhesion and cell cycle" (PDF). The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284 (4): 2409-18. ... Alpha II-spectrin is expressed in a variety of tissues, and is highly expressed in cardiac muscle at Z-disc structures, ...
X-protein and H-protein in rabbit muscle". Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility. 7 (6): 550-67. doi:10.1007/bf01753571 ... The cMyBP-C isoform expressed in cardiac muscle differs from those expressed in slow and fast skeletal muscle (MYBPC1 and ... Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility. 33 (1): 75-80. doi:10.1007/s10974-011-9268-3. PMID 22057632. S2CID 10978237. van ... Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility. 33 (1): 17-30. doi:10.1007/s10974-012-9292-y. PMC 3368277. PMID 22527638. ...
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility. 19 (6): 575-602. doi:10.1023/a:1005397501968. PMID 9742444. S2CID 1882224. Jin JP ... the truncated ssTnT is incapable of incorporation into the myofilaments and completely degraded in muscle cells. Tnnt1 gene ... Slow skeletal muscle troponin T (sTnT) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TNNT1 gene. The TNNT1 gene is located at ... Wei B, Lu Y, Jin JP (Mar 2014). "Deficiency of slow skeletal muscle troponin T causes atrophy of type I slow fibres and ...
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility. 25 (7): 559-79. doi:10.1007/s10974-004-5879-2. PMID 15711886. S2CID 8973787. PDB ... cTnI is exclusively expressed in adult cardiac muscle. cTnI has diverged from the skeletal muscle isoforms of TnI (slow TnI and ... Troponin I, cardiac muscle is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TNNI3 gene. It is a tissue-specific subtype of ... Cell Physiology. 292 (4): C1370-8. doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00422.2006. PMID 17135297. Jin JP, Yang FW, Yu ZB, Ruse CI, Bond M, Chen ...
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility. 41 (1): 3-9. doi:10.1007/s10974-019-09515-z. ISSN 1573-2657. PMC 7109165. PMID ... In order to get myosin to analyze, Banga extracted it from rabbit muscles - she minced rabbit muscles and extracted myosin from ... One time she ran out of time to do the extraction and left the minced muscle sitting in saline overnight and when she came back ... motivated by the findings of Engelhardt and Ljubimova that the muscle protein myosin wasn't merely a structural protein - it ...
... is a component of the Z-line of skeletal muscle". The Journal of Cell Biology. 105 (1): 371-9. doi:10.1083/jcb.105.1.371. PMC ... Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (January 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. ... Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility. 20 (2): 187-97. doi:10.1023/A:1005489319058. PMID 10412090. S2CID 25681698. Hart ... Cell. 125 (3): 535-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.02.045. PMID 16678097. S2CID 18651810. Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P ...
2003). "Searching for the exercise factor: is IL-6 a candidate?". Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility. 24 (2-3): 113-9 ... Pedersen BK, Febbraio MA (October 2008). "Muscle as an endocrine organ: focus on muscle-derived interleukin-6". Physiological ... In 1998, skeletal muscle was identified as an endocrine organ due to its now well-established role in the secretion of myokines ... The use of the term myokine to describe cytokines and other peptides produced by muscle as signalling molecules was proposed in ...
... which is the inability of cells to respond adequately to normal levels of insulin, occurs primarily within the muscles, liver, ... a type 2 diabetic will have lost about half of their beta cells.[52] Fatty acids in the beta cells activate FOXO1, resulting in ... Type 2 diabetes is due to insufficient insulin production from beta cells in the setting of insulin resistance.[13] Insulin ... In the early stages of insulin resistance, the mass of beta cells expands, increasing the output of insulin to compensate for ...
D. Qian et al.: Extra small virus-like particles (XSV) and nodavirus associated with whitish muscle disease in the giant ... Santeuil and Le Blanc viruses primarily infect intestinal cells in Caenorhabditis nematodes, in: Virology, Volume 448, 5. ...
muscle organ development. · regulation of cell migration. · establishment or maintenance of microtubule cytoskeleton polarity. ... M phase of mitotic cell cycle. · mitotic prophase. · mitotic anaphase. · mitotic cell cycle. · apoptotic process. · cellular ... Halaschek-Wiener J, Brooks-Wilson A. Progeria of stem cells: stem cell exhaustion in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. J. ... J. Cell. Sci. October 2000, 113 (19): 3473-84. PMID 10984438.. *^ Dreuillet C, Tillit J, Kress M, Ernoult-Lange M. In vivo and ...
The nerve cells responsible for reflexes are not always in the brain, but often in the spinal cord. This way, reflexes are ... then the path from the CNS to the appropriate muscle. ... Nerve cells in the brain still get feedback that the reflex ...
... "satellite cells" which help to regenerate skeletal muscle fibers, and a decrease in sensitivity to or the availability of ... Muscle atrophy is defined as a decrease in the mass of the muscle; it can be a partial or complete wasting away of muscle, and ... Moreover, starvation eventually leads to muscle atrophy. Disuse of the muscles, such as when muscle tissue is immobilized for ... Muscle atrophy can be opposed by the signaling pathways which induce muscle hypertrophy, or an increase in muscle size. ...
skeletal muscle tissue development. •respiratory gaseous exchange. •blood circulation. •cell proliferation. •organ ... Bax DV, Rodgers UR, Bilek MM, Weiss AS (2009). «Cell adhesion to tropoelastin is mediated via the C-terminal GRKRK motif and ... Bertram C, Hass R (2009). «Cellular senescence of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) is associated with an altered MMP-7/HB- ...
One of the main advantages of using PET is that it can also provide muscle activation data about deeper lying muscles such as ... This tracer is a glucose analog that is taken up by glucose-using cells and phosphorylated by hexokinase (whose mitochondrial ... This means that FDG is trapped in any cell that takes it up until it decays, since phosphorylated sugars, due to their ionic ... Musculoskeletal imaging: PET has been shown to be a feasible technique for studying skeletal muscles during exercises like ...
... excess secretion from the acidophil cells) caused acromegaly, then an excess of basophil cells must be involved in another ... muscle atrophy, osteoporosis, and kidney stones.[7] ... In a patient with Cushing's disease, the tumor cells will be ... Given this conviction, and his knowledge of the three anterior pituitary cell types, Cushing hypothesized that if acidophil ...
cell junction. • plasma membrane. • GABA-ergic synapse. • integral component of postsynaptic specialization membrane. • ...
... cells in destroying these B cells. When an NK cell latched onto the cap, it had an 80% success rate at killing the cell. In ... Muscle & Nerve. 56 (2): 185-196. doi:10.1002/mus.25597. ISSN 1097-4598. PMID 28164324.. ... The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ... It induces apoptosis of CD20+ cells.. The combined effect results in the elimination of B cells (including the cancerous ones) ...
Similar to the ER is the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) found only in muscle cells. The SR stores and pumps calcium ions. The SR ... The endoplasmic reticulum is in cells that have a nucleus: in eukaryote cells but not in prokaryote cells. It takes these forms ... which it releases when the muscle cell is stimulated.[1] Another type of cytoplasmic network is the plate-like Golgi apparatus. ... Porter K.R; Claude A. & Fullam E.F. (1945). "A study of tissue culture cells by electron microscopy". J Exp Med. 81 (3): 233- ...
Such barnacles feed by extending thread-like rhizomes of living cells into their hosts' bodies from their points of attachment. ... with blood being pumped through it by a series of muscles. The blood vascular system is minimal. Similarly, they have no gills ... degrading to the condition of nothing more than sperm-producing cells.[15] ...
... has been known to stimulate cell growth in normal and cancer cell line cultures,[37] and it was shown that ... muscle, and joints. It is proposed that this release is involved in neurogenic inflammation, which is a local inflammatory ... on cells (including cancer cells) bestowing upon them mobility.[40] and metastasis.[41] It has been suggested that cancer ... stem cells, white blood cells) in many tissues and organs. SP amplifies or excites most cellular processes.[15][16] ...
... and muscle, and these cells had been suggested to have the abilities of regenerating injured tissue in these organs. However, ... who have lost their stem cells after birth. Other conditions[13] treated with stem cell transplants include sickle-cell disease ... Peripheral blood stem cells[26] are now the most common source of stem cells for HSCT. They are collected from the blood ... Sources and storage of cells[edit]. To limit the risks of transplanted stem cell rejection or of severe graft-versus-host ...
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2021.06.02: Convalescent serum (i.e. antibodies in blood from people previously infected) of people who had ... If you have to muscle the steering wheel around when the motor is not running, but it moves easily when the motor is running, ...
... some of the muscle cells that control the suckers in most species have been replaced with photophores which are believed to ... The skin consists of a thin outer epidermis with mucous cells and sensory cells, and a connective tissue dermis consisting ... Other colour-changing cells are reflective iridophores and white leucophores.[93] This colour-changing ability is also used to ... The lens is suspended behind the pupil and photoreceptive retinal cells cover the back of the eye. The pupil can be adjusted in ...
mainly in liver, kidneys, brain and muscles. Elimination half-life. ca. 7 days (in hyperthyroidism 3-4 days, in hypothyroidism ... T4 and T3 bind to thyroid receptor proteins in the cell nucleus and cause metabolic effects through the control of DNA ...
... ligament and muscle tissue. ... List of human cell types derived from the germ layers. ... Osteochondroprogenitor cells are progenitor cells that arise from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in the bone marrow. They have ... Sox9 blocked osteochondroprogenitor cells were found to express osteoblast marker genes, reprogramming the cells into the ... McBride, SH; Falls T; Knothe Tate ML (2008). "Modulation of stem cell shape and fate B: mechanical modulation of cell shape and ...
Sports medicine deals with the treatment and prevention and rehabilitation of sports/exercise injuries such as muscle spasms, ... discovered by Paul Ehrlich in 1908 after he observed that bacteria took up toxic dyes that human cells did not. The first major ... muscle tears, injuries to ligaments (ligament tears or ruptures) and their repair in athletes, amateur and professional. ...
Ulcers occur on exposed parts of the body, primarily on anterolateral aspect of the lower limbs and may erode muscles and ... Squamous cell carcinoma may occasionally develop, usually in chronic cases, and at the edge of ulcer.[citation needed] Tetanus ...
negative regulation of cardiac muscle cell apoptotic process. • ventricular septum development. Sources:Amigo / QuickGO. ... regulation of metanephric nephron tubule epithelial cell differentiation. • cell differentiation. • mesonephric tubule ... positive regulation of metanephric DCT cell differentiation. • negative regulation of mesenchymal cell apoptotic process ... pancreatic islet cells and lymphoid cells.[8] PAX8 and other transcription factors play a role in binding to DNA and regulating ...
I then moved onto other systems to study problems in cell biology, but now work in a hospital). I am a guy. And the 649 is a ... Quadriceps muscle. *Bob Woolmer. *China Airlines Flight 120. *TAM Linhas Aéreas Flight 3054 ...
It has received regulatory approval for use as a treatment for non-small cell lung cancer,[6][4][7][8] although there is ... Muscle spasms. *Kidney impairment and/or failure. Uncommon (0.1-1% frequency). *Keratitis ... Afatinib, sold under the brand name Gilotrif among others, is a medication used to treat non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). ... May 2012). "Afatinib versus placebo for patients with advanced, metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer after failure of ...
The spirochetes may also induce host cells to secrete quinolinic acid, which stimulates the NMDA receptor on nerve cells, which ... People who have nonspecific, subjective symptoms such as fatigue, joint and muscle aches, or cognitive difficulties for more ... However, PCR tests are susceptible to false positive results, e.g. by detection of debris of dead Borrelia cells or specimen ... 2010). "Chapter 6, Structure, Function and Biogenesis of the Borrelia Cell Envelope". Borrelia: Molecular Biology, Host ...
Talk:Beta cell. *Talk:Biceps. *Talk:Biceps femoris muscle. *Talk:Bicornuate uterus ...
cadherin binding involved in cell-cell adhesion. • actin binding. • muscle alpha-actinin binding. ... cell-cell adhesion. • positive regulation of nucleic acid-templated transcription. • heart development. • actin cytoskeleton ... Pitx2 pathway mediating cell-type-specific proliferation during development.". Cell. 111 (5): 673-85. PMID 12464179. doi: ... Vallenius T، Mäkelä TP (2003). "Clik1: a novel kinase targeted to actin stress fibers by the CLP-36 PDZ-LIM protein.". J. Cell ...
Males typically have more skeletal muscle mass than females. Androgens promote the enlargement of skeletal muscle cells and ... "Androgen receptor in human skeletal muscle and cultured muscle satellite cells: up-regulation by androgen treatment". The ... probably act in a coordinated manner to function by acting on several cell types in skeletal muscle tissue.[8] One cell type ... The mesoderm-derived epithelial cells of the sex cords in developing testes become the Sertoli cells, which will function to ...
The removal of cells for biopsy, using a needle Clinical features[edit]. Clinical features can be found in the subhyoid portion ... removal of one-eighth inch diameter core of tongue muscle superior to the hyoid at a 45 degree angle up to the foramen cecum to ... Thyroglossal cysts can be defined as an irregular neck mass or a lump which develops from cells and tissues left over after the ...
The ability of cells to produce electrical discharge is critical for body functions such as neurotransmission, muscle ... Potassium is the major cation (positive ion) inside animal cells,[223] while sodium is the major cation outside animal cells.[ ... The balance between potassium and sodium is maintained by ion transporter proteins in the cell membrane.[231] The cell membrane ... Unit cell ball-and-stick model of lithium nitride.[118] On the basis of size a tetrahedral structure would be expected, but ...
158 Cells of the immune system, such as macrophages, mast cells, plasma cells and eosinophils are found scattered in loose ... Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and ... The cells of connective tissue include fibroblasts, adipocytes, macrophages, mast cells and leucocytes. ... Cells are spread through an extracellular fluid.. *Ground substance - A clear, colorless, and viscous fluid containing ...
Skeletal muscle has a remarkable regenerative capacity, which can largely be attributed to resident muscle stem cells (MuSCs). ... mainly due to its resident muscle stem cells (MuSCs). In this review, we introduce recently developed technologies and the ... The presented conceptual advances in the MuSC field impact on our general understanding of stem cells and their therapeutic use ... muscle disorders and aging. Finally, we discuss MuSC metabolism and its role, as well as the multifaceted regulation of MuSCs ...
In mammals, the contractile fiber resembles those of skeletal muscle but are only one third as large in diameter, are richer in ... Cardiac muscle cells are striated muscle cells that are responsible for heart contraction. ... Cardiac muscle cells are striated muscle cells that are responsible for heart contraction. In mammals, the contractile fiber ... Insects hearts additionally contain ostial cells, also transversely striated muscle cells, but which do not participate in ...
The breakthrough could lead to better genetic or cell-based therapies, as well as furthering investigations into the causes and ... which signaled the cells to start turning into muscle.. The cells then grew into functioning skeletal muscle. According to ... In the new study, skin cells were reprogrammed in the lab to revert to what are called pluripotent stem cells -- cells that can ... the newly formed muscle cells contracted and reacted to external stimuli much like regular muscle tissue. ...
... Johann Jarzombek Presse- und Öffentlichkeitsarbeit. Max-Planck-Institut für molekulare Physiologie ... Cryo-ET capability of imaging structures directly in frozen muscle cells could translate into future medical treatments for ... "Soon we will be able to investigate muscle diseases at molecular and even atomic level". Mouse muscles are very similar to ... The molecular basis for sarcomere organization in vertebrate skeletal muscle. Cell. ...
Scientists have for the firsttime succeeded in taking skin cells from patients with heartfailure and transforming them into ... They found that the resulting hiPSCs were able to differentiate to become heart muscle cells, or cardiomyocytes, just as ... There are two main forms of stem cells - embryonic stem cells, which are harvested from embryos, and reprogrammed "human ... Experts in stem cell and cardiac medicine who were not involved in Gepsteins work praised it but also said there was a lot to ...
Muscle Cell Structure and Physiology. The functional characteristics of a skeletal muscle cell: The cell membrane is called the ... As the myofibrils contract the muscle cell contracts. And as the cells contract the entire muscle contracts. The arrangement of ... Each muscle cell is stimulated by a motor neuron axon. The point where the axon terminus contacts the sarcolemma is at a ... When a muscle contracts the light I bands disappear and the dark A bands move closer together. This is due to the sliding of ...
... treated using muscle-derived stem cell injections to strengthen their sphincter muscles experience long-term improvements in ... Muscle, Running, Sneezing, Stem Cells, Stress, Stress Related, Surgery, T-Cell, Tissue Engineering, Urethra, Urinary ... treated using muscle-derived stem cell injections to strengthen their sphincter muscles experience long-term improvements in ... The 8-mm needle was not able to deliver the muscle stem cells deep enough into the tissue to reach the sphincter. ...
... discovering that injecting stem cells into injured muscles makes them bigger and more powerful than they were originally. ... Muscle stem cells are found between muscle fibres and surrounding connective tissue and are responsible for the repair and ... essentially taking over the production of muscle cells. But the team found that when transplanted stem cells and associated ... Stem cells bulk up muscle and stop them ageing. What does not kill you, really could make you stronger, claim scientists after ...
Stimulating neurons with light can restore movement to paralysed mouse muscles - a step towards using optogenetic approaches ... Muscles in action. The group inserted an algal gene that codes for a light-responsive protein into mouse embryonic stem cells. ... They then added signalling molecules to make the stem cells develop into motor neurons, the cells that carry signals to and ... Instead the team is working with induced pluripotent stem cells, cells that have been reprogrammed to behave like embryonic ...
Ottawa scientists have discovered a way to boost the bodys ability to repair muscle tissue, a finding that could lead to new ... And therefore its important because it brings us a step closer, in the long run, to using muscle stem cells in cell ... found animals that did not have the Wnt7a protein also did not have enough muscle stem cells to repair injured muscle. But when ... the researchers saw an increase in stem cells in those muscles, enhanced regeneration and an 18 per cent increase in muscle ...
Were kicking off our exploration of muscles with a look at the complex and important relationship between actin and myosin. ... Smooth, Cardiac, and Skeletal Muscles Create Movement 1:18. Sliding Filament Model 4:52. Skeletal Muscles Are Made of Bundles ... Your skeletal muscles are constructed like a rope made of bundles of protein fibers, and that the smallest strands are your ... Muscles, Part 2 - Organismal Level: Crash Course A&P #22 - Duration: 10:41. CrashCourse 1,327,975 views ...
... muscle cell. There is real hope that we may be able to control this unique phenomenon to produce many heart cells to create a ... new heart muscle based on cells harvested from the patient himself. ... Transdifferentiation means converting one sort of cell, e.g. fibroblast, into another, e.g. ... Bone marrow derived stem cells can give rise to heart muscle cells. This plasticity concept - the ability of bone marrow cell ...
A researcher at Melbourne University cuts up meat from a cow biopsy to help release stem cells ...
As the skeletal muscle cell is an efficient force transducer, it has been incorporated in bio-microdevices using electrical ... Optically controlled contraction of photosensitive skeletal muscle cells.. Asano T1, Ishizua T, Yawo H. ... To improve both the spatial and temporal resolutions, we made photosensitive skeletal muscle cells from murine C2C12 myoblasts ... This technique would have many applications in the bioengineering field, such as wireless drive of muscle-powered actuators/ ...
Skeletal muscle cells of young and old humans and CBA/Ca mice were examined electronmicroscopically. The mitochondria in old ... Age-related changes in the skeletal muscle cells.. Beregi E1, Regius O, Hüttl T, Göbl Z. ... it can be stated that mitochondrial changes occur more frequently in the skeletal muscle cells than in the lymphocytes. ...
The cells are important in the formation of skeletal muscle in the embryo and fetus. The origin of early embryonic muscle cells ... the committed stem cells of adult skeletal muscle. Greater understanding of the origin of muscle cells may help in developing ... where progenitor cells in the muscle mass continuously form new cells in the fetus. Relaix et al. identify cells in mice that ... derive from the same dermomyotome cell population. We conclude that embryonic muscle progenitors and satellite cells share a ...
... Ph.D. Anne Zimmermann Kommunikation & Marketing. Universität Basel The protein complex ... The muscle function of the mice returned to normal. Rapamycin is a substance that inhibits mTORC1, thereby promoting cell self- ... Similarly to parts in a machine, individual components of a cell wear out with time. For a cell to remain healthy, ... Muscle weakness due to overactive growth regulator. Until recently, it was assumed that the protein complex mTORC1 in the ...
... ; find Sigma-Aldrich-F15005 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical ... 1st passage, ,500,000 cells in Feline Skeletal Muscle Cell Basal Medium containing 10% FBS & 10% DMSO ... Feline Skeletal Muscle Cells (FSkMC) provide a useful system to study many aspects of muscular function and disease and can ... Skeletal Muscle Cells also play an instrumental role in the glucose metabolism and diabetes. ...
Muscle Cramps Symptom Evaluation. Muscle cramps occur commonly and result in temporary pain in the muscles. They are often due ... Muscle Atrophy. Muscle atrophy is caused either by disuse, age, starvation, nerve injury, or disease. Muscle pain, weakness, ... "By resetting muscle stem cells to a more youthful state, we were able to rejuvenate them so that they could more effectively ... "We identified a protein in muscle stem cells that appears to be responsible for their age-related dysfunction, and then ...
The number of muscle cells stays the same, contrary to popular belief that you grow more muscle fibers, this is not true. ... The individual muscle fibers become thicker with more myofibrils inside them. ... Are cardiac muscle cells larger than skeletal muscle cell?. Skeletal muscle cells are much bigger than cardiac muscle cells. ... cell specialization is when stem cells (cells with no specific job) become cells that have a specific job, like muscle cells. ...
The strategy is expected to improve cell viability and increase the likelihood of muscle regeneration, contributing to improved ... to restore the function of the sphincter muscle. Scientists will attach ASMDC to implantable microcarriers to improve cell ... consortium of experts who are proposing a novel regenerative intervention using autologous skeletal muscle derived cells (ASMDC ...
... mature and transplant skeletal muscle cells created from human pluripotent stem cells, which can produce all cell types of the ... The findings are a major step towards developing a stem cell replacement therapy for muscle diseases including Duchenne ... mature and transplant skeletal muscle cells created from human pluripotent stem cells, which can produce all cell types of the ... The muscle fibers they created were uniformily muscle cells, but the fibers were still smaller than those found in real human ...
Unlike the satellite cell, another type of muscle stem cell, these blood vessel stem cells can be expanded in large numbers in ... They also demonstrate greater potential to give rise to muscle tissue than other kinds of muscle stem cell. Together, these ... and used these stem cells to regenerate muscles in a mouse model of muscular dystrophy. The blood vessel-derived stem cells ... Human muscle stem cells from blood vessels. EuroStemCell researcher Giulio Cossu and his team from the San Raffaele Scientific ...
Smooth and cardiac muscle cells possess a single nucleus per cell, and skeletal muscle cells are multinucleated. There are ... Skeletal muscle cells drive movement and shape our physique.. *Cardiac muscle cells create the rhythmic and persistent ... A single muscle cell from a latissimus dorsi will have about 100,000 sarcomeres oriented in sequence (2). Skeletal muscle ... The most obvious differences between cell types relate to shape and size. Smooth muscle cells are basically fusiform (spindle- ...
Scientists have found that infusion of hearts own stem cells can repair the damage caused to the organ following an attack, a ... The study, published in The Lancet, showed that the cells help the organ re-grow healthy muscle after a heart attack, ... Patients who had the stem cell infusion saw their scar size drop from 24 per cent to 12 per cent of the heart on average, while ... Scientists have found that infusion of hearts own stem cells can repair the damage caused to the organ following an attack, a ...
The Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility has as its main aim the publication of original research which bears on either ... The Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility has as its main aim the publication of original research which bears on either ... Cardiotoxin-induced skeletal muscle injury elicits profound changes in anabolic and stress signaling, and muscle fiber type ... Calsequestrin, a key protein in striated muscle health and disease Authors (first, second and last of 6). *Daniela Rossi ...
Planarian cell renewal is achieved as a result of proliferation and differentiation of totipotent undifferentiated cells called ... These data favour an intercalary model for muscle cell renewal within the pharynx. According to this model, neoblasts at the ... Planarian cell renewal is achieved as a result of proliferation and differentiation of totipotent undifferentiated cells called ... move to the subepithelial musculature and intercalate between the old muscle cells. The possible application of this ...
Treating heart failure using muscle stem cells taken from the patient may be a viable option. A new study demonstrates its ... own muscle stem cells, the researchers successfully patched up damaged hearts, yielding encouraging results.. Stem cells may ... Published this week in the Journal of the American Heart Association, the study investigates the use of muscle stem cells in ... This phase I trial involved making patches of cells from the patients own thigh muscles (the vastus medialis, specifically). ...
Physician and scientist Chuck Murry shares his groundbreaking research into using stem cells to grow new heart cells -- an ... What if we could help heart muscle regenerate after injury? ... step towards realizing the awesome promise of stem cells as ...
Stem cells taken from human fat can be transformed into smooth muscle cells offering a way to treat diseases of the heart gut ... Smooth muscle cells have been produced from stem cells found in the brain and bone marrow, but acquiring stem cells from fat is ... the researchers say the transformed cells contracted and relaxed just like smooth muscle cells.. These cells help the heart ... Stem cells taken from human fat can be transformed into smooth muscle cells, offering a way to treat diseases of the heart, gut ...
  • But with this technique, we can just take a small sample of non-muscle tissue -- like skin or blood -- revert the obtained cells to a pluripotent state, and eventually grow an endless amount of functioning muscle fibers to test," Bursac said. (
  • The lab-grown muscle fibers were also implanted into mice and appeared to integrate into the rodents' natural muscle tissue, the investigators said. (
  • Your skeletal muscles are constructed like a rope made of bundles of protein fibers, and that the smallest strands are your actin and myosin myofilaments. (
  • Mauro, A. Satellite cell of skeletal muscle fibers. (
  • Muscle fibers in mice with hyperactive mTORC1 (Red: accumulated waste). (
  • The individual muscle fibers become thicker with more myofibrils inside them. (
  • The number of muscle cells stays the same, contrary to popular belief that you grow more muscle fibers, this is not true. (
  • What happens to muscle cells or fibers when the body is inactive? (
  • Using the natural human development process as a guide, the researchers developed ways to mature muscle cells in the laboratory to create muscle fibers that restore dystrophin, the protein that is missing in the muscles of boys with Duchenne. (
  • For years, scientists have been trying different methods that direct human pluripotent stem cells to generate skeletal muscle stem cells that can function appropriately in living muscle and regenerate dystrophin-producing muscle fibers. (
  • Once they were able to isolate skeletal muscle cells using the newly identified surface markers, the research team matured those cells in the lab to create dystrophin-producing muscle fibers. (
  • The muscle fibers they created were uniformily muscle cells, but the fibers were still smaller than those found in real human muscle. (
  • Hicks discovered that a specific cell signaling pathway called TGF Beta needs to be turned off to enable generation of skeletal muscle fibers that contain the proteins that help muscles contract. (
  • Skeletal muscle fibers are made up of a bundle of myofibrils. (
  • Muscle cells including myocytes and muscle fibers develop from myoblasts to form muscles in a process known as myogenesis. (
  • Skeletal muscle fibers help support and move the body and are called syncytia - multinucleated structures formed by fusion of individual myoblasts during embryonic development. (
  • In skeletal muscle, at the end of each muscle fiber, the outer layer of the sarcolemma combines with tendon fibers. (
  • The cell membrane is anchored to the cell's cytoskeleton by anchor fibers that are approximately 10 nm wide. (
  • Potential mechanisms involved in the reduction of skeletal muscle mass during sarcopenia converge on the failure of satellite cells in replacing and repairing damaged muscle fibers [ 6 , 7 ]. (
  • This tissue has the ability to regenerate after minor injuries, a process facilitated by resident muscle stem cells that help to build new muscle fibers. (
  • The researchers showed that a transient and local rise in an inflammatory signal, the cytokine known as interleukin-6 (IL-6), is essential for the growth of muscle fibers. (
  • As muscles are made to work harder, they adapt by bulking up each of those individual fibers, the researchers explained, but the mechanisms responsible have largely remained elusive. (
  • Like the muscle fibers in, say, your bicep, the tissues could contract and generate forces in response to things like electrical pulses and shots of chemicals. (
  • To verify that the fibers could function not just in culture but in live tissue, Bursac's team transplanted their three-dimensional muscle bundles into adult mice. (
  • The lab-grown fibers also developed a special reservoir of cells that muscles can draw on to regenerate after exercise or injury. (
  • Bursac's homespun muscle fibers appear less mature than ones they've produced from the biopsy technique, and generate less force than the real thing. (
  • They are positive for sarcomeric myosin and negative for smooth muscle specific α-actin.New skeletal muscle cells originate from quiescent satellite cells, which are located in the muscle fibers between the basal lamina and the sarcolemma. (
  • After activation, the cells, now called myoblasts, start to proliferate and fuse with damaged muscle fibers or with one another forming new myotubes.SkMC are optimal for in vitro muscle studies. (
  • Your muscle cells, also known as muscle fibers, have one principal function -- generating movement. (
  • Muscle fibers primarily use the sugar glucose along with other chemicals in the cell to generate the energy needed to power each contraction. (
  • Fast-twitch muscle fibers are adapted for rapid movements and activities that require maximum effort, such as jumping and lifting. (
  • But they are much smaller than skeletal muscle fibers, like smooth muscle cells. (
  • Then, they determined that although MSCs don't directly contribute to building new muscle fibers, they release growth factors that spur other cells in muscle to fuse and generate new muscle, providing the cellular basis for enhanced muscle health following exercise. (
  • These cells must be able to shorten and lengthen their fibers and the fibers must be flexible enough to stretch. (
  • Also known as cardiac muscle cells, and its function is to shorten and lengthen the muscle fibers in order for the heart muscles to stay intact while the heart is beating. (
  • There are two broad types of voluntary muscle fibers: slow twitch and fast twitch. (
  • The combination of fibers in those crucial muscles says a lot about how fit you are now and what you'll have to worry about down the road. (
  • Until recently, scientists thought there were three types of muscle fibers: type I (slow twitch), type IIa (fast twitch), and type IIx (super fast twitch). (
  • With new innovations-faster separation techniques and more powerful microscopes-we've learned that muscle fibers are actually a continuum of six types, ranging from slow to fast. (
  • Myosin is the component of muscle fibers that initiates a contraction. (
  • These cells divide upon damage to muscle, fuse to one another and with existing myofibers, and create new muscle fibers. (
  • Recently, we demonstrated that freshly isolated myogenic progenitors contained within the adult skeletal muscle side population (SP) can engraft into dystrophic fibers of nonirradiated mdx(5cv) mice after intravenous transplantation. (
  • Based on the expression of microdystrophin or green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenes in host muscle, sections of the recipient muscles exhibited 5%-8% of skeletal muscle fibers expressing donor-derived transgenes. (
  • Skeletal muscle is a highly complex system formed by thousands of contractile units called muscle fibers. (
  • The main goal was to retard the atrophy and replace diseased muscle with new healthy and functional muscle fibers by using myogenic stem cells ( Brunelli and Rovere-Querini, 2008 ). (
  • Large populations (up to 600/cell) of spherical, electron-opaque granules ∼0.3 to 0.4 µ in diameter are characteristically found in muscle fibers of mammalian atria. (
  • They are absent in muscle fibers of the ventricles. (
  • Representing 30-40% of our body mass, skeletal muscle is a highly organized tissue made up of a large number of syncytial cells, known as myofibers, which are formed by the fusion of myogenic progenitor cells. (
  • The researchers then load those progenitor cells onto a cylindrical scaffold of gel made of fibrin, the same stuff that helps your blood clot. (
  • This response relies on the muscle's ability to activate myogenic progenitor cells (MPCs) resulting in myogenesis. (
  • Mammalian skeletal muscle can remodel, repair, and regenerate itself by mobilizing satellite cells, a resident population of myogenic progenitor cells. (
  • Muscle injury and subsequent activation of myogenic progenitor cells is associated with oxidative stress. (
  • In this study, we demonstrate that cytoglobin is up-regulated in activated myogenic progenitor cells, where it localizes to the nucleus and contributes to cell viability. (
  • Myogenic progenitor cells isolated from these mice were severely deficient in their ability to form myotubes as compared with myogenic progenitor cells from wild-type littermates. (
  • Exhaustion of muscle progenitor cells (MPCs) is thought to be an important factor contributing to the progressive weakness and atrophy of peripheral skeletal muscle that occurs with various skeletal myopathies and during normal aging ( 1 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 9 ). (
  • The researchers, led by Dr. Huard and Mitra Lavasani, Ph.D ., first author and assistant professor of orthopaedic surgery, Pitt School of Medicine, cultured human muscle-derived stem/progenitor cells in a growth medium suitable for nerve cells. (
  • In mouse studies, the researchers injected human muscle-derived stem/progenitor cells into a quarter-inch defect they surgically created in the right sciatic nerve, which controls right leg movement. (
  • Drs. Huard and Lavasani and the team are now trying to understand how the human muscle-derived stem/progenitor cells triggered injury repair, as well as developing delivery systems, such as gels, that could hold the cells in place at larger injury sites. (
  • They found that the lack of one transcription factor, a type of gene that controls cell fate (by regulating other genes), allows the precursors that normally generate blood stem and progenitor cells in blood-forming tissues to become something very unexpected - beating cardiomyocytes, or heart muscle cells. (
  • The team used microarray technology to determine which genes were "playing" in embryonic endothelium to generate blood stem and progenitor cells and found that in the absence of Scl, the genes required for making cardiomyocytes were activated instead, said study co-first author Ben Van Handel, a post-doctoral fellow. (
  • We now have a better understanding of how cardiac progenitor cells can be made and regulated, and this may one day lead us to a way to treat heart attacks by creating new heart muscle cells to replace those that were damaged. (
  • Going forward, Mikkola and her team plan to investigate the developmental and regenerative potential of the endothelium-derived cardiac progenitor cells, and define the mechanisms by which Scl can at the same time activate one fate while suppressing another. (
  • Given that femoral artery catheterization is a common, safe clinical procedure and that the transplantation of cultured adult muscle progenitor cells has proven to be safe in mice, our data may represent a step toward the improvement of cell-based therapies for DMD and other myogenic disorders. (
  • In addition, myogenic progenitor cells are also activated in skeletal muscle wasting disorders. (
  • Skeletal muscle has remarkable regeneration capabilities, mainly due to its resident muscle stem cells (MuSCs). (
  • Additionally, we present recent studies that link MuSC function with cellular heterogeneity, highlighting the complex regulation of self-renewal in regeneration, muscle disorders and aging. (
  • Moreover, recent studies show that MuSCs are a heterogeneous stem cell population, with different abilities to support tissue regeneration. (
  • The team identified a protein that increases production of adult stem cells in muscle, which in turn fuels tissue regeneration and leads to bigger, stronger muscles. (
  • But when scientists engineered mice to overproduce the Wnt7a protein in leg muscles, the researchers saw an increase in stem cells in those muscles, enhanced regeneration and an 18 per cent increase in muscle mass. (
  • Skeletal myogenic progenitors originating from embryonic dorsal aorta coexpress endothelial and myogenic markers and contribute to postnatal muscle growth and regeneration. (
  • Muscle regeneration by bone marrow-derived myogenic progenitors. (
  • The strategy is expected to improve cell viability and increase the likelihood of muscle regeneration, contributing to improved continence. (
  • Scientists have found that infusion of heart's own stem cells can repair the damage caused to the organ following an attack, a discovery they say could lead to new treatment strategy for cardiac regeneration. (
  • Moreover, the perinuclear and cytoplasmic expression of BMP-2 assessed by in situ molecular characterization of satellite cells syncytia suggest a very strict correlation between BMP-2 expression and muscle regeneration capability. (
  • Cardiac muscle restitution, or true regeneration, is an unmet need in the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI), prompting a decade of study with stem cells of many kinds. (
  • Because muscle stem cells can repair damaged tissue, the investigation of stem-cell-based therapies for muscle regeneration is an area of active research. (
  • A major bottleneck in the muscle regeneration field is the lack of an effective method to generate and proliferate muscle stem cells," said senior author Song Li, Ph.D., a professor in the departments of bioengineering and medicine at UCLA. (
  • In all of their models, the implanted stem cells facilitated muscle repair and tissue regeneration. (
  • Compared with mice injected with empty nanoparticles, mice injected with the drug-loaded nanoparticles had markedly improved muscle regeneration and function. (
  • This work represents a promising step forward in the field of tissue regeneration, and could potentially lead to a more efficient method of repairing damaged muscle," said David Rampulla, Ph.D., director of the division of Discovery Science & Technology at NIBIB. (
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (green) accumulate in skeletal muscle following exercise and release growth factors to spur regeneration. (
  • Since exercise can induce some injury as part of the remodeling process following mechanical strain, we wondered if MSC accumulation was a natural response to exercise and whether these cells contributed to the beneficial regeneration and growth process that occurs post-exercise," said Boppart, who also is affiliated with the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology at the U. of I. (
  • Collectively, our data demonstrate that cytoglobin serves an important role in muscle regeneration. (
  • Consistent with this finding, the capacity for muscle regeneration was severely impaired in mice deficient for skeletal-muscle cytoglobin. (
  • Collectively, these data demonstrate that cytoglobin serves an important role in muscle repair and regeneration. (
  • A better understanding of the processes and proteins involved in myogenesis and muscle regeneration may enable the design of innovative therapies to improve the care of victims of severe muscle trauma, patients with skeletal myopathies, and the elderly. (
  • It further shows that mdx mice, which have a disease similar to Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, exhibit a deficiency of S1P, and that boosting their S1P levels improves muscle regeneration in these mice. (
  • This treatment increased the number of satellite cells in the muscles and improved the efficiency of muscle regeneration after injury. (
  • If these findings are also found to be true in humans with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, it may be possible to use similar approaches to boost S1P levels in order to improve satellite cell function and muscle regeneration in patients with the disease. (
  • The stem cells were able to make non-neuronal support cells to promote regeneration of the damaged nerve fiber. (
  • Muscle is known to be a regenerative tissue, and this regeneration is accomplished via a heterogeneous population of cells called satellite cells or myoblasts. (
  • Muscular dystrophies (MDs) are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders, in which progressive muscle wasting and weakness is often associated with exhaustion of muscle regeneration potential. (
  • Muscle regeneration was attempted by means transplantation of myogenic cells (from myoblast to embryonic stem cells) and also by interfering with the malignant processes that originate in pathological tissues, such as uncontrolled fibrosis and inflammation. (
  • actively contribute to development of pathogenesis in several myophaties but only macrophages and sometimes eosinophils play a role in muscle regeneration ( Tidball and Villalta, 2010 ). (
  • For potential stem cell-based cardiac regeneration therapies for heart disease, however, it is critical to develop multi-cellular tissue like constructs that beat as a single unit," says Herron. (
  • Researchers from the group of Jeroen Bakkers at the Hubrecht Institute (KNAW) have found that the muscle cells in the heart of zebrafish change their metabolism, the way in which they generate energy, during heart regeneration. (
  • A new study by researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden shows how an unexpectedly high number of mutations in the stem cells of muscles impair cell regeneration. (
  • The remarkable regeneration capability of skeletal muscle depends on the coordinated proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells (SCs). (
  • The self-renewal of SCs is critical for long-term maintenance of muscle regeneration potential. (
  • Identifying factors that will prime these cells for specific regeneration will go a long way in regenerative medicine. (
  • The search for knowledge on cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in skeletal muscle mass homeostasis and regeneration is an exciting scientific area and extremely important to develop therapeutic strategies for neuromuscular disorders and conditions related to muscle wasting. (
  • The mechanisms involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass and regeneration consist of molecular signaling pathways modulating protein synthesis and degradation, bioenergetics alterations and preserved function of muscle stem cells. (
  • In a new study, European scientists have found that, when a muscle is injured, white blood cells called macrophages play a crucial role in its regeneration. (
  • This should help patients recover more rapidly," said Brack, an associate professor of orthopaedic surgery and member of the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCSF who was the study's senior author. (
  • Scientists at the Ottawa Hospital Research Institute (OHRI) and the University of Ottawa have discovered a powerful new way to stimulate muscle regeneration, paving the way for new treatments for debilitating conditions such as muscular dystrophy. (
  • Dr. Rudnicki's team found that the Wnt7a protein, when introduced into mouse muscle tissue, significantly increased the population of these satellite stem cells and fueled the regeneration process, creating bigger and stronger muscles. (
  • Satellite cells are predominantly responsible for muscle regeneration, during normal day-to-day activities, as well as during severe muscle diseases like muscular dystrophy. (
  • There are two main forms of stem cells - embryonic stem cells, which are harvested from embryos, and reprogrammed "human induced pluripotent stem cells" (hiPSCs), often originally from skin or blood. (
  • The group inserted an algal gene that codes for a light-responsive protein into mouse embryonic stem cells. (
  • They are also trying to develop an alternative to using embryonic stem cells, as these would require the recipient to take drugs to stop their immune system attacking the transplanted neurons. (
  • Instead the team is working with induced pluripotent stem cells, cells that have been reprogrammed to behave like embryonic stem cells, but can be made from a small sample of the intended recipient's own skin. (
  • Opponents of human embryonic stem cell research see the plasticity of adult cells as a means of avoiding the use of human blastocysts (embryos a few days old) that is required to obtain pluripotent embryonic stem cells. (
  • We conclude that embryonic muscle progenitors and satellite cells share a common origin that can be traced back to the dermomyotome. (
  • Figure 3: Dermomyotome-derived cells contribute to embryonic muscle growth. (
  • For the research, the scientists used embryonic stem cells (or similar cells derived from a patient's skin sample), which have the potential to form any cell type in the body, known as human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). (
  • Vascular smooth muscle cells originate from different tissues in the early embryo, and the scientists were able to reproduce three distinct types of embryonic tissue in the culture dish. (
  • They can produce a variety of cell and tissue types, but are not as flexible as embryonic stem cells. (
  • Among key obstacles to effective cardiac cell grafting are the cost of autologous stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes, the ethical implications of using embryonic stem cell (ESC) products, immunological barriers to allogeneic cells, functional maturation beyond just the correct lineage decision, and the lack of durable engraftment. (
  • During embryonic development, myogenic precursor cells derived from the somites express Pax3 and Pax3/Pax7 and are capable of proliferation and self-renewal [ 4 , 5 ]. (
  • Muscle (from Latin musculus , diminutive of mus "mouse") is the contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. (
  • The stem cells used in the experiments were derived from the bone marrow of adult mice or taken from human volunteers and have shown the first unequivocal results that adult stem cells (rather than embryonic stem cells) are capable of repairing cardiac tissue. (
  • On the potential of adult stem cells Dr Anversa said 'our results indicate the great potential of adult stem cells to differentiate into other cell types and repair a damaged organ, a property commonly attributed to embryonic stem cells. (
  • UCLA stem-cell researchers have found for the first time a surprising and unexpected plasticity in the embryonic endothelium, the place where blood stem cells are made in early development. (
  • The microenvironment in the embryonic vasculature that normally gives rise to blood cells can generate cardiac cells when only one factor, Scl, is removed, essentially converting a hematopoietic organ into a cardiogenic organ. (
  • A team of Memorial Sloan Kettering investigators has reported for the first time a novel strategy to coax human embryonic stem cells (HESCs) to develop into cells that could potentially be used to repair the musculoskeletal system, including bone, cartilage, and muscle. (
  • We custom-tailored embryonic stem cells so that motor neurons derived from them can function as part of the muscle pacemaker device. (
  • Researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine have mapped out the sets of biological and chemical signals necessary to quickly and efficiently direct human embryonic stem cells to become pure populations of any of 12 cell types, including bone, heart muscle and cartilage. (
  • Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent, meaning they can become any type of cell in the body. (
  • The ability to generate pure populations of these cell types is very important for any kind of clinically important regenerative medicine," said Loh, "as well as to develop a basic road map of human embryonic development. (
  • To do so, they started with a human embryonic stem cell line, which they chemically nudged to become cells that form what's known as the primitive streak on the hollow ball of cells of the early embryo. (
  • WEDNESDAY, April 30, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Scientists who used human embryonic stem cells to regenerate damaged heart muscle in monkeys say this technique could be ready for human clinical trials within four years. (
  • Murry and his colleagues triggered heart attacks in anesthetized macaque monkeys and two weeks later injected 1 billion heart muscle cells derived from human embryonic stem cells into the damaged areas of the heart. (
  • MuSCs typically exist in a quiescent state but may enter the cell cycle following injury in order to regenerate the skeletal muscle tissue and replenish the stem cell pool for future needs. (
  • The Milan-based scientists have isolated a stem cell population from adult human blood vessels, and used these stem cells to regenerate muscles in a mouse model of muscular dystrophy. (
  • However, stem cells can also help to regenerate tissue in a second way - using the paracrine effect. (
  • Chuck Murry: Can we regenerate heart muscle with stem cells? (
  • Fat tissue may prove a reliable source of smooth muscle cells that we can use to regenerate and repair damaged organs," says Dr Larissa Rodriguez, an assistant professor in the urology department at the University of California Los Angeles medical school. (
  • In April, Cytori Therapeutics said it was starting a clinical trial to test whether stem cells derived from fat can be used to regenerate breast tissue. (
  • In these cases, patients can experience mobility issues and have a reduced quality of life, underscoring the need for novel methods to help regenerate skeletal muscle. (
  • Satellite cells adopt a quiescent state, and upon environmental cues, such as mechanical stress, injury or in pathological environment of degenerative muscle diseases, they are activated to proliferate and terminally differentiate to regenerate muscle [ 3 ]. (
  • The ability of muscles to regenerate themselves is attributed to the presence of a form of adult stem cells called "satellite cells" that are essential for muscle repair. (
  • This caused some of the cardiac muscle and oxygen-supplying blood vessels to regenerate. (
  • These approaches have identified a population of muscle cells that seem to function as stem cells due to their capacity to regenerate muscle and in some cases other tissues, in vitro and/or in vivo ( 6 , 9 - 11 ). (
  • We have already demonstrated the existence of SP cells, in murine skeletal muscle, that have the capacity to regenerate not only muscle but also hematopoietic cells in vivo ( 9 ). (
  • Switching what the powerhouses of heart cells consume for energy could help the heart regenerate when cells die, a new study led by UT Southwestern researchers suggests. (
  • A key takeaway here is that all pluripotent stem cells do not have the same capacity to regenerate," Subramaniam said. (
  • This shift from clearing debris to promoting building is known as macrophage polarization and is essential for muscles to regenerate properly. (
  • The dynamic changes in MuSC behavior are regulated by the microenvironment and by distinct tissue resident cells of the niche that provide molecular cues to regulate MuSC fate. (
  • According to Bursac's team, the lab-grown cells were not as strong as those found in normal muscle tissue. (
  • However, after up to four weeks in the special lab culture, the newly formed muscle cells contracted and reacted to external stimuli much like regular muscle tissue. (
  • So far, traditional experimental approaches to investigate the structure and function of muscle tissue were performed on reconstructed protein complexes or suffered from low resolution. (
  • Mouse muscles are very similar to those of humans, yet scientists plan to investigate muscle tissue from biopsies or derived from pluripotent stem cells. (
  • LONDON, May 23 (Reuters) - Scientists have for the first time succeeded in taking skin cells from patients with heart failure and transforming them into healthy, beating heart tissue that could one day be used to treat the condition. (
  • The team was then able to make the cardiomyocytes develop into heart muscle tissue, which they grew in a laboratory dish together with existing cardiac tissue. (
  • In a final step of the study, the new tissue was transplanted into healthy rat hearts and the researchers found it began to establish connections with cells in the host tissue. (
  • In the study, Dr. Carr and colleagues took biopsies of skeletal muscle tissue from eight female patients and isolated and expanded the stem cells from the tissue in culture. (
  • The 8-mm needle was not able to deliver the muscle stem cells deep enough into the tissue to reach the sphincter. (
  • Muscle stem cells are found between muscle fibres and surrounding connective tissue and are responsible for the repair and maintenance, said Prof Olwin. (
  • Ottawa scientists have discovered a way to boost the body's ability to repair muscle tissue, a finding that could lead to new treatments for debilitating muscular diseases. (
  • We've discovered a new pathway that controls the overall number of stem cells in tissue,' said Rudnicki, who is also director of the Sprott Centre for Stem Cell Research at the Ottawa Hospital Research Institute. (
  • By stimulating that pathway, we can increase the number of those stem cells and enhance and accelerate repair in that tissue. (
  • These plasticity concepts have challenged the traditional dogma of tissue specific stem cell differentiation in adults and have raised hot debate. (
  • Despite the plasticity controversy and our limited understanding of stem cell plasticity, we hope that if we can control this process we may be able to use adult cells to produce new heart tissue for transplant and heart repair. (
  • What happens in your muscle tissue and cells when the demand of oxygen is not met? (
  • If the demand for oxygen is not met for a long period of time, the cells within the muscle tissue will die. (
  • this enabled the reserchers to precisely isolate muscle cells from human tissue and separate them from various cell types created using human pluripotent stem cells. (
  • By this delivery mechanism they were able to reach a large proportion of affected muscle tissue and generate healthy muscle cells to replace damaged fibres. (
  • They also demonstrate greater potential to give rise to muscle tissue than other kinds of muscle stem cell. (
  • Of these, eight were received standard care while 17 received infusions of cardiosphere-derived stem cells (CDCs) that were created using the patient's own heart tissue. (
  • this tissue was then used to create the supply of cardiac stem cells. (
  • These patches of so-called autologous somatic tissue-derived cells were then surgically glued onto the surface of the heart's left ventricle. (
  • Newswise - Skeletal muscle - the type of muscle that attaches to bones and enables movement - is the most abundant tissue in the human body. (
  • However, acute muscle loss (which can happen in severe accidents), progressive muscle loss, or genetic diseases, such as muscular dystrophy, may compromise this tissue repair process. (
  • The researchers found that the muscle stem cells could heal damaged tissue in three different mouse models: adult mice, aged mice (which have a reduced ability to heal), and a mouse model of muscular dystrophy (which displays severe muscle wasting). (
  • Instead of culturing stem cells in a dish and then implanting them into a patient, Li and colleagues envision an off-the-shelf treatment for muscle repair through direct injection of their drug cocktail into damaged tissue. (
  • But to produce the tissue, the researchers had to isolate their starting materials from pea-sized globs of muscle, which they sliced from human test subjects. (
  • These stimuli tell heart cells to keep acting like heart cells, so mimicking them in the lab is an important first step toward engineering tissue to repair the damage caused by heart attacks or congenital heart defects. (
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in skeletal muscle have been known to be important for muscle repair in response to non-physiological injury, predominantly in response to chemical injections that significantly damage muscle tissue and induce inflammation. (
  • FAT AS A FIXER Adipose tissue, a collection of fat-storing cells (red) surrounded by connective tissue (yellow), has its own supply of blood and immune cells. (
  • With no blood flow, the heart muscle cells die, causing whole portions of cardiac tissue to die. (
  • Current research indicates, however, that it may be possible to repair damaged cardiac tissue with stem cells. (
  • All these glorious functions are related to four rather cool characteristics of muscle tissue: excitability, contractility, extensibility, and elasticity. (
  • Mammalian skeletal muscle is a dynamic and plastic tissue, capable of responding to physiological demands and pathophysiological stresses. (
  • Biotechnologists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have developed a system to accurately measure muscle weakness caused by structural changes in muscle tissue. (
  • On a Saturday morning in a research lab at Cal State Fullerton, Andy Galpin, Ph.D., C.S.C.S.*D., approaches my left quadriceps with a hollow-point needle designed to extract a chunk of muscle tissue. (
  • PITTSBURGH, March 18, 2014 - Stem cells derived from human muscle tissue were able to repair nerve damage and restore function in an animal model of sciatic nerve injury, according to researchers at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine . (
  • They hope that the new heart muscle cells can likely be used to repair heart tissue damaged during a heart attack. (
  • Cells derived from primate lymphoid tissue may fall under the regulations of 29 CFR 1910.1030 Bloodborne Pathogens. (
  • The team used the yolk sac - rhe first tissue where blood cells are made - from embryos that lacked Scl and within four hours of plating on the culture dish, the tissue had generated beating cardiomyocytes. (
  • This heterogeneity may be due to different methods of isolation, but it may also reflect tissue origin, which may contribute to the observed differences in cell surface characteristics. (
  • The technology initiates regenerative myogenic cells (cardiac muscle), as well as striated muscle cells (skeletal muscle) growth in damaged tissue sites such as the myocardium (cardiac muscle) following an myocardial infarction (heart attack), limb pressure ulcers, and degenerative muscular diseases. (
  • Although physiological properties of skeletal muscle tissue are now well known, no treatments are effective for these diseases. (
  • But, senior author Stephen Badylak told reporters at a press conference, "when you lose so much muscle that the gap is too large for the normal restorative process to occur, the end result is typically filling that gap with scar tissue. (
  • Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSCs) could feasibly be used to create new muscle tissue, and generate or repair skeletal muscle for patients with skeletal muscle diseases. (
  • In the last years, different kinds of stem cells has been reported to be localized into skeletal muscle (satellite cells, mesoangioblasts, progenitor interstitial cells and others) or migrate from non-muscle sites, such as bone marrow, to muscle tissue in response to injury. (
  • Heart attack survivors may find some relief from the efforts of University of Bonn researchers who have exhibited a procedure to repair cardiac tissue after a heart attack using replacement muscle cells containing magnetic nanoparticles. (
  • A combination of cells and magnetic nanoparticles are injected into the damaged area of the heart after myocardial infarction that are held in place with tailored magnets which help the nanoparticle containing cells to engraft better to existing tissue, in a procedure which may lead to significant improvement in heart function. (
  • As the name suggests cardiac tissue is a specialized muscle and the tissue is only located in the heart which immediately starts to beat as soon as formed. (
  • This is presents a challenge, as after a heart attack some cells in the tissue are damaged due to formation of clots that deprive them of oxygen and other nutrients in the blood. (
  • Repairing the damage is tricky as any replacement muscles are pushed out of the intended channel due to continuous pumping actions of the heart, with only a few cells attached to the cardiac tissue the amount of repair is limited. (
  • The transplanted cells did not die immediately, rather they were able to graft into cardiac tissue and multiply, which is suggested to possibly be due to more intensive cell-cell interaction between the transplanted cells and the tissues that translated into better cardiac function in the magnet group. (
  • If macrophages don't make this switch, then the muscle won't repair itself [and] you just end up with scar, instead of new tissue. (
  • Regenerative medicine relies on the ability to turn pluripotent human stem cells into specialized tissue stem cells that can engraft and function in patients," said Irving Weissman , MD, the director of Stanford's Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine , and also of its Ludwig Cancer Center . (
  • Here we used our knowledge of the developmental biology of many other animal models to provide the positive and negative signaling factors to guide the developmental choices of these tissue and organ stem cells. (
  • The research, to be published in the June 5 issue of Cell Stem Cell, shows for the first time that a protein called Wnt7a increases the number of stem cells in muscle tissue, leading to accelerated growth and repair of skeletal muscle. (
  • This discovery shows us that by targeting stem cells to boost their numbers, we can improve the body's ability to repair muscle tissue," said senior author Dr. Michael Rudnicki. (
  • Stem cells give rise to every tissue and organ in the body. (
  • Satellite stem cells are specialized muscle stem cells that live in adult skeletal muscle tissue and have the ability to both replicate and differentiate into various types of muscle cells. (
  • Muscle tissue mass was increased by nearly 20 per cent in the study. (
  • Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in the body and is composed of several different types of cells, including satellite cells. (
  • Cardiac muscle cells are striated muscle cells that are responsible for heart contraction. (
  • This class encompasses the muscle cells responsible for heart* contraction in both vertebrates and arthropods. (
  • According to these refs, the cells participating in heart contraction in all cases are transversely striated. (
  • Insects hearts additionally contain ostial cells, also transversely striated muscle cells, but which do not participate in heart contraction. (
  • Inside the sarcomeres, filaments of the proteins myosin and actin interact to generate muscle contraction and relaxation. (
  • Optically controlled contraction of photosensitive skeletal muscle cells. (
  • Involved in muscle contraction in larger organisms? (
  • The chemical interactions of the thick and thin filaments within the context of the related structural protein framework directly create muscle contraction. (
  • The Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility has as its main aim the publication of original research which bears on either the excitation and contraction of muscle, the analysis of any one of the processes involved therein, or the processes underlying contractility and motility of animal and plant cells. (
  • Together, these myofilaments work to produce a muscle contraction. (
  • The sarcoplasmic reticulum serves as reservoir for calcium ions, so when an action potential spreads over the T tubule, it signals the sarcoplasmic reticulum to release calcium ions from the gated membrane channels to stimulate a muscle contraction. (
  • A special electrical signaling system in your heart stimulates the coordinated contraction of the muscle cells. (
  • Most body heat is produced through the contraction of muscles. (
  • Cardiac and smooth muscle contraction occurs without conscious thought and is necessary for survival. (
  • Voluntary contraction of the skeletal muscles is used to move the body and can be finely controlled. (
  • Cardiac Muscle resembles skeletal muscle in its structure and in regulation of actin-myosin interactions and muscle contraction. (
  • They found that red blood cells actively regulate their shape, thanks to myosin IIA-which is related to the protein that drives muscle contraction in other parts of the body. (
  • You need active contraction on the cell membrane, similar to how muscles contract," says Fowler. (
  • According to the researchers, it might also be possible to fix genetic defects in pluripotent stem cells from a patient and then grow small patches of healthy muscle that could be used with other genetic treatments to heal or replace specific areas of diseased muscle. (
  • Researchers have been studying stem cells from various sources for more than a decade, hoping to capitalise on their ability to transform into a wide variety of other kinds of cell to treat a range of health conditions. (
  • Women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) treated using muscle-derived stem cell injections to strengthen their sphincter muscles experience long-term improvements in their condition, according to a study led by researchers at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre in Toronto. (
  • A multi-center study in Canada and a study in the United States are currently underway and will allow researchers to determine the optimal dose of muscle stem cells needed to effectively treat SUI. (
  • Researchers have discovered that transplanting specially treated repair stem cells into damaged muscle makes them twice as big and strong - and also stops them from ageing. (
  • The researchers transplanted between 10 and 50 stem cells from a donor mice into the host mice. (
  • In the latest study, researchers at King's College London and University College London altered mouse stem cells in the lab before transplanting them into nerves in the leg - this means they would be easier to remove if something went wrong. (
  • In aged mice, a promising new drug that proven to significantly increase muscle size, strength and metabolic state discovered by researchers from The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. (
  • Following seven days of drug treatment, researchers found that the aged mice that received the drug had more functional muscle stem cells that were actively repairing the injured muscle. (
  • By analyzing human development, the researchers found a fetal skeletal muscle cell that is extraordinarily regenerative. (
  • This discovery challenges the conventional wisdom that, once established, cardiac scarring is permanent and that, once lost, healthy heart muscle cannot be restored," said the researchers. (
  • Using the patients' own muscle stem cells, the researchers successfully patched up damaged hearts, yielding encouraging results. (
  • Stem cells taken from human fat can be transformed into smooth muscle cells, offering a way to treat diseases of the heart, gut and bladder, US researchers report. (
  • While the experiment does not quite offer a way to turn a pot belly into a flat stomach, the researchers say the transformed cells contracted and relaxed just like smooth muscle cells. (
  • These cells help the heart beat and blood flow, push food through the digestive system and make bladders fill and empty, the researchers report. (
  • The researchers say scientists have been looking for sources of smooth muscle for organ repair and treating heart disease, gastrointestinal diseases and bladder dysfunction. (
  • Other researchers have been trying to get stem cells from liposuction specimens. (
  • In a second study published in the same journal, UK researchers say they found one important protein that keeps stem cells in a quiescent and non-dividing stage. (
  • The finding may not only offer important information to stem cell researchers, but may also offer insights into cancer, Watt's team says. (
  • Recently, NIBIB-funded researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) identified a drug cocktail that can effectively activate and expand a population of muscle stem cells, which are either resident in the muscle, or are isolated from other tissues, such as the skin. (
  • Using skin cells isolated from mice, which contain various cell types, the researchers used their cocktail to selectively expand a population of chemically induced muscle stem cells. (
  • Four weeks after implantation, the researchers evaluated how well the injured muscles had healed. (
  • The researchers' approach of proliferating the stem cells that already exist in muscles has several advantages. (
  • These findings could lead to treatments for reversing or improving the muscle loss that occurs in diseases such as cancer and AIDS as well as in the normal aging process, according to the researchers. (
  • The researchers further found that IL-6 was produced both within myofibers and in their associated satellite cells, leading to muscle growth. (
  • The researchers also showed that IL-6 exerts its effects by inducing the proliferation of satellite cells. (
  • In the latest issue of Nature Communications , researchers describe for the first time how to transform skin cells into functional human skeletal muscle. (
  • Their method will make it easier than ever for researchers to study muscle and muscle-based therapies-and could one day form a basis for stem cell and transplantation therapies. (
  • Through small, glass windows implanted in the mice's backs, the researchers were able to watch their home-spun tissues not just survive but integrate with the rodent's natural muscles. (
  • This makes them a useful tool for studying and stimulating cardiac cells, says Rebecca Taylor, one of the Stanford researchers working on the project. (
  • University of Illinois researchers determined that an adult stem cell present in muscle is responsive to exercise, a discovery that may provide a link between exercise and muscle health. (
  • The researchers found that MSCs in muscle are very responsive to mechanical strain. (
  • In addition to examining the cells in vivo, the researchers studied the cells' response to strain on different substrates. (
  • The researchers at UMC Utrecht used a simple method to isolate the stem cells from this material and reproduce them in the laboratory, which they then allowed to develop. (
  • Researchers say that stem cells in menstrual blood could help in transplants. (
  • The researchers found that red blood cell myosin IIA molecules assemble into barbell-shaped structures called filaments. (
  • Going forward, the researchers hope to learn more about what regulates myosin IIA's activity in red blood cells and even other cell types, like neurons. (
  • The researchers, led by Lorenz Studer of the Developmental Biology Program in the Sloan Kettering Institute , achieved these results by exposing the HESCs - which have the potential to develop into every kind of cell in the body - to conditions that mimic the normal development of muscle cells in embryos. (
  • Of the new studies, perhaps the most tantalizing, conducted principally by researchers affiliated with the Lund University Diabetes Centre in Sweden and published last month in PLoS One , began by recruiting several dozen sedentary but generally healthy adult Swedish men and sucking out some of their fat cells. (
  • Using recently developed molecular techniques, the researchers mapped the existing methylation patterns on the DNA within those cells. (
  • In what is surely the best use of pig bladders since the invention of the football, researchers have used a scaffold derived from pig bladder extracellular matrix to mobilize muscle stem cells and regrow large amounts of muscles that had been lost in wounds. (
  • The U-M team of researchers is using stem cells in hopes of helping the 2.5 million people with an arrhythmia, an irregularity in the heart's electrical impulses that can impair the heart's ability to pump blood. (
  • Their objective, working with researchers at the University of Oxford, Imperial College and University of Wisconsin, included developing a bioengineering approach, using stem cells generated from skin biopsies, which can be used to create large numbers of cardiac muscle cells that can transmit uniform electrical impulses and function as a unit. (
  • Researchers at Osaka University used electron cryomicroscopy (CryoEM) to image essential cardiac muscle components, known as thin filaments, with unprecedented resolution. (
  • A study led by researchers at the University of California (UC) San Diego Jacobs School of Engineering has offered up new insights into the mechanisms of stem cell differentiation that could one day help scientists develop regenerative therapies for muscle disease, injury and atrophy. (
  • By studying how easily different pluripotent stem cell lines differentiated into muscle cells, and comparing time-dependent changes in the cells' transcriptomic profiles, the researchers discovered epigenetic mechanisms that can be triggered to accelerate muscle cell growth at different stages of stem cell differentiation. (
  • To try and identify mechanisms that prompt fast, robust differentiation of hIPSCs into muscle cells, the UCSD researchers studied how time-related changes in the transcriptome profiles of three different hIPSC cell lines that can differentiate into myocytes. (
  • One of the cell lines grew into muscle much faster than the other two, so the researchers looked at what factors made this line different from the rest, and then induced these factors in the other lines to see if they could accelerate muscle growth. (
  • Effects of the magnetic field were immediate as the researchers observed cells under the magnetic field remaining at the target site 10 minutes after the procedure, and continued to do so on succeeding days until they were able to attach themselves to existing cardiac tissues. (
  • The ability to make pure populations of these cells within days rather than the weeks or months previously required is a key step toward clinically useful regenerative medicine - potentially allowing researchers to generate new beating heart cells to repair damage after a heart attack or to create cartilage or bone to reinvigorate creaky joints or heal from trauma. (
  • As a result, researchers would end up with a hodgepodge of cell types. (
  • Now UC San Francisco researchers have discovered a new type of stem cell in mouse muscles that is resistant to radiation and other forms of cellular stress. (
  • Researchers are using three-dimensional technology to find stem cells that could help offer hope to patients with muscular dystrophy. (
  • The University Imaging Centers were instrumental in the development of the imaging techniques as well as the analysis of the data which enabled researchers to view the satellite cells and blood vessels in new and groundbreaking ways. (
  • That amount of cells was 10 times greater than what the researchers had previously been able to create. (
  • Myofibrils are contractile units within the cell which consist of a regular array of protein myofilaments . (
  • Rudnicki said the Wnt7a protein and its associated pathway appears to be a 'universal mechanism' and may be an important control for stem cell production in other organs and tissues. (
  • The study, which was done using genetically altered mice, found animals that did not have the Wnt7a protein also did not have enough muscle stem cells to repair injured muscle. (
  • The protein complex mTORC1 promotes muscle growth. (
  • Until recently, it was assumed that the protein complex mTORC1 in the skeletal muscle plays a key role in growth regulation but not in the process of autophagy. (
  • We identified a protein in muscle stem cells that appears to be responsible for their age-related dysfunction, and then developed a small molecule drug that limits the effects of this protein," said senior author Stanley Watowich, UTMB associate professor in the department of biochemistry and molecular biology. (
  • Dr Fiona Watt of Cancer Research UK and colleagues studied stem cells from human skin and found a protein known as Lrig1 kept the skin cells from proliferating. (
  • CD44 is a transmembrane protein that plays a role in cell-cell interactions and motility in a number of cell types such as for myoblast differentiation and fusion. (
  • Bursac's team used pluripotent stem cells derived from human skin cells, which they genetically programmed to express large quantities of a protein called Pax-7. (
  • The cells express a protein that flashes whenever calcium signalling is active in the cell,' Bursac says. (
  • What is the oxygen carrying protein of muscle cells? (
  • The oxygen-carrying protein in muscle cells is myoglobin, which is very similar to the oxygen-carrying protein for the entire human body, hemoglobin. (
  • Myoglobin is a protein found mostly in muscle cells comprised of eight alpha-helices. (
  • This allows myoglobin to effectively transport the oxygen atom throughout the muscles without fear of it falling off and attaching itself to another protein or atom. (
  • Previously, we reported that the macrolide antibiotic rapamycin, but not the related compound FK506, inhibits both human and rat aortic SMC proliferation in vitro by inhibiting cell cycle-dependent kinases and delaying phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (Marx, S.O., T. Jayaraman, L.O. Go, and A.R. Marks. (
  • We conclude that corticosterone induces rapid mineralocorticoid receptor signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells that involves mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent pathways. (
  • In a new study, Velia Fowler , PhD, and her lab at The Scripps Research Institute report that a protein called myosin IIA contracts to give red blood cells their distinctive shape. (
  • Specialized regions at both ends of the myosin IIA filaments can pull on a membrane-associated structural protein called actin to control the stiffness of the cell membrane. (
  • To confirm that the muscle cells would be viable long term, the investigators labeled them with a fluorescent protein and transplanted them into mouse models of muscle injury. (
  • Engraftment rates, however, have not been therapeutically significant, achieving at most 1% of skeletal muscle myofibers expressing protein from donor-derived nuclei. (
  • The analysis of orientation angle, shape index, and contractile protein marker expression indicates that the cultured HASMCs reveal the in vivo-like cell phenotype. (
  • Peripheral blood lymphocytes will be collected and Programmed cell death protein 1(PDCD1) gene will be knocked out by CRISPR Cas9 in the laboratory (PD-1 Knockout T cells). (
  • TUESDAY, Jan. 9, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- In a potential advance for medical research, scientists say they've created the first functioning human muscle from skin cells. (
  • Scientists have produced the first high-resolution 3D image of the sarcomere, the basic contractile unit of skeletal and heart muscle cells, by using electron cryo-tomography (cryo-ET). (
  • The scientists used a sample with myosin strongly bound to actin, representing a stage of the contracting muscle that is called the rigor state. (
  • What does not kill you, really could make you stronger, claim scientists after discovering that injecting stem cells into injured muscles makes them bigger and more powerful than they were originally. (
  • The results have stunned scientists who still have no real clue as to why the muscles are so miraculously transformed but hope that discovering the mechanism could provide a treatment for muscle wasting in the elderly. (
  • Scientists working with Markus Rüegg, Professor at the Biozentrum, University of Basel, describe the exact mechanism involved in the current issue of the scientific journal "Cell Metabolism. (
  • The scientists suspect that an overactive mTORC1 complex may also contribute to the development of the age-related muscle weakness seen in man. (
  • Scientists will attach ASMDC to implantable microcarriers to improve cell delivery and engraftment in patients with FI. (
  • UCLA scientists have developed a new strategy to efficiently isolate, mature and transplant skeletal muscle cells created from human pluripotent stem cells, which can produce all cell types of the body. (
  • Cambridge scientists have for the first time created different types of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) - the cells which make up the walls of blood vessels - using cells from patients' skin. (
  • But studies have shown that stem cells taken from a diseased organ are also damaged and do not work well when scientists try to grow them in the lab for a transplant. (
  • Because muscle sells can stretch themselves many times their own length, scientists have been looking for a platform with which to study them under motion. (
  • Newswise - May 14, 2012 - Oakland, Calif. - A study conducted by Children's Hospital & Research Center Oakland scientists identifies how skeletal muscle stem cells respond to muscle injury and may be stimulated to improve muscle repair in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, a severe inherited disease of muscle that causes weakness, disability and, ultimately, heart and respiratory failure. (
  • Other scientists had shown previously that S1P can activate satellite cells, but they did not know how this occurred. (
  • Two teams of scientists have made independent breakthroughs using stem cells to repair cardiac muscles damaged by heart attacks. (
  • Thanks to new technology, scientists are gaining deeper insight into muscle plasticity, with the potential to change the way you think about fitness, health, and perhaps life itself. (
  • In a major breakthrough in stem cell research, Dutch scientists have successfully harvested stem cells from adult human heart and converted them into new heart muscle cells. (
  • Scientists have long wondered how healthy red blood cells maintain their dimpled shape, and whether it is a passive or active process. (
  • A new way to artificially control muscles using light, with the potential to restore function to muscles paralyzed by conditions such as motor neuron disease and spinal cord injury, has been developed by scientists at UCL and King's College London. (
  • These motor neurons are designed to react to pulses of blue light, allowing scientists to fine-tune muscle control by adjusting the intensity, duration and frequency of the light pulses. (
  • To reach that conclusion, scientists from the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm and other institutions took muscle biopsies from a group of sedentary men and women and mapped their muscle cells' methylation patterns. (
  • Scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, have discovered that the same kind of fat cells that help newborn babies regulate their body temperature could be a target for weight-loss drugs in adults. (
  • However, different hIPSC cell lines show different levels of ability to differentiate into myocytes, and so scientists need to better understand the mechanisms of myogenesis in hIPSCs. (
  • The Stem Cell Network, established in 2001, brings together more than 80 leading scientists, clinicians, engineers, and ethicists from universities and hospitals across Canada with a mandate to investigate the immense therapeutic potential of stem cells for the treatment of diseases currently incurable by conventional approaches. (
  • Rodriguez and colleagues incubated adipose-derived stem cells in a nourishing mixture of growth factors, human proteins that encouraged the cells to become smooth muscle cells. (
  • Sarcopenia is due to an important imbalance between synthesis and deterioration of muscle proteins and cells, with a resulting poor muscular quality. (
  • Each muscle cell contains many long, stringlike proteins called myofilaments. (
  • When these proteins connect and slide past one another in a complex interaction, the muscle fiber contracts and generates movement. (
  • At the onset of differentiation, histone acetyltransferases such as p300 and PCAF are recruited to muscle specific genes by myogenic bHLH, Mef2, and SRF proteins and exert their enzymatic activity on regulatory chromatin regions and on transcription factors such as MyoD [ 7 , 8 ]. (
  • In response to exogenous stimuli or to biological factors such as age or nutrition, the muscle increases its size, the amount of contractile proteins and consequently force production. (
  • The regulation of muscle cell size is a tightly regulated phenomena, and it is a balance between muscle proliferation and degradation of pre-existing proteins. (
  • The heart's ability to beat normally over a lifetime is predicated on the synchronized work of proteins embedded in the cells of the heart muscle. (
  • Fluorescent dyes have been used to highlight tissues, cellular structures and proteins: actin (green), cell nuclei (blue), microvasculature (red). (
  • Actin is one of the main contractile muscle proteins. (
  • The breakthrough could lead to better genetic or cell-based therapies, as well as furthering investigations into the causes and treatment of muscular disorders, the Duke University team said. (
  • Together, these factors make the new stem cells a good prospect for future cell-based therapies for muscular dystrophy. (
  • While Muñoz-Cánoves said that the findings are "just the beginning" of a new line of investigation into how adult muscle grows, she added that they might ultimately provide a new avenue for muscle-building therapies. (
  • Having a mature muscle culture system like this could make it a lot easier to study muscles and study therapies,' says University of Washington geneticist Jeffrey Chamberlain , who is working to develop gene and cell therapies to correct and treat muscular dystrophies and was unaffiliated with the study. (
  • In the past, efforts to develop cell-based therapies for muscle disorders, including injuries and various types of muscular dystrophy in children, have been hampered by the lack of suitable cells that could be transplanted or grafted into the body to repair muscle affected by disease or injury. (
  • Pathological conditions modify the microenvironment of stem cells (the so-called niche) preventing the activation of resident stem cells and reducing the success of exogenous cell therapies. (
  • The new method can be readily applied in most cardiac research laboratories and opens the door for the use of cardiac stem cell patches in disease research, testing of new drug treatments and therapies to repair damaged heart muscle. (
  • A new Junior Research Group at the Institute for Cardiovascular Prevention will focus on metabolic adaption of heart muscle cells to find new therapies for combating heart disease. (
  • Research conducted at Berlin-Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies and Charite University of Medicine offers promising stem cell treatment for the muscle injury market. (
  • DAX: PJT), the Berlin-Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies (BCRT) and the Charite - University of Medicine in Berlin today announced the results of a pre-clinical study demonstrating that the local administration of PLX cells following muscle injury resulted in significant improvement in the recovery of muscle function when compared with the control group. (
  • Using hPSCs, they discovered a method for creating high purity vascular smooth muscle. (
  • Although blood and cardiac cells from hPSCs have been created before, this is the first time that all the major types of vascular smooth muscle cells have been developed and done so in a system which would be easy to scale up for clinical-grade production. (
  • Additionally, there are many patients who have a genetic disorder, such as Marfans Syndrome, that affects their vascular smooth muscle cells and leads to premature death and disability. (
  • Smooth muscle cells, the type found in vascular walls, intestine walls, and the uterus, act slowly create movement along tubular tracts. (
  • I am planning to set up a co-culture system for human endothelial cells and human VASCULAR smooth muscle cells. (
  • I would be really interested to find out about methods of extraction and primary culture of human vascular smooth muscle cells, if anyone can help and advise, please mail me! (
  • Smoothelin in vascular smooth muscle cells. (
  • Vascular-specific smoothelin-B is the first smooth muscle cell marker that disappears when vascular tissues are compromised, for example, in atherosclerosis or restenosis. (
  • Rapamycin inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell migration. (
  • Abnormal vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and migration contribute to the development of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and accelerated arteriopathy after cardiac transplantation. (
  • Corticosterone initiated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation in rat vascular smooth muscle cells at ≥10 −11 mol/L doses. (
  • Aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (vascular smooth muscle cells [VSMCs]) were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats as described previously. (
  • A complete solution to propagate Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells in low serum conditions. (
  • Obtain one bottle of Vascular Cell Basal Medium (475 mL) from cold storage. (
  • Impairment of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is recognized as a predisposition factor for atherosclerosis development. (
  • Akoum, S. , Cloutier, I. and Tanguay, J. (2013) Adipocytes modulate vascular smooth muscle cells migration potential through their secretions. (
  • Na+, K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase regulation in hypertrophied vascular smooth muscle cells. (
  • Vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy is a normal compensatory state that may play a pathogenic role in hypertension. (
  • Angiotensin II stimulates a hypertrophic response in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. (
  • These results demonstrated the creation of an in vivo-like 3D smooth muscle cell layer in the circular microfluidic channel which can provide a bioassay platforms for in-depth study of HASMC biology and vascular function. (
  • Curcumin inhibits ox-LDL stimulated vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation associated with arteriosclerosis. (
  • Honokiol inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, indicating it may have a role in arteriosclerosis treatment. (
  • Cryo-ET capability of imaging structures directly in frozen muscle cells could translate into future medical treatments for muscle diseases and a better understanding of the aging process. (
  • With further research we may one day be able to greatly resist the loss of muscle mass, size and strength in humans that accompanies ageing, as well as chronic degenerative diseases like muscular dystrophy. (
  • Michael Rudnicki, the study's lead author and scientific director of Canada's Stem Cell Network, said the discovery is an important step toward harnessing the power of stem cells to treat diseases such as muscular dystrophy and other muscle-wasting conditions. (
  • And therefore it's important because it brings us a step closer, in the long run, to using muscle stem cells in cell replacement therapy for muscular diseases such as muscular dystrophy. (
  • However, the capacity for self-renewal decreases with age and participates in a wide range of age-related diseases such as cancer, heart disease and muscle weakness. (
  • Feline Skeletal Muscle Cells (FSkMC) provide a useful system to study many aspects of muscular function and disease and can serve as an intermediate model of human diseases. (
  • The findings are a major step towards developing a stem cell replacement therapy for muscle diseases including Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, which affects approximately 1 in 5,000 boys in the U.S. and is the most common fatal childhood genetic disease. (
  • Age-related bone diseases, such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis, are strongly associated with sarcopenia and muscle fiber atrophy. (
  • In a lot of people with rare, congenital diseases, their muscles are already damaged, so you don't want to biopsy on top of that and cause further damage,' Bursac says. (
  • citation needed] The cardiomyopathies are a group of diseases characterized by disruptions to cardiac muscle cell growth and / or organization. (
  • Muscles can be injured by trauma, inactivity, aging and a variety of inherited muscle diseases. (
  • These findings are important especially for certain muscle diseases or "myopathies" that can affect children," states Dr. Saba. (
  • There is a strong need for medication that treats age-related degenerative muscle and tendon diseases. (
  • The findings, published online today in the Journal of Clinical Investigation , suggest that cell therapy of certain nerve diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, might one day be feasible. (
  • Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a recessive X-linked disorder and the most common of a class of progressive muscle-wasting diseases, is characterized by the lack of dystrophin at the muscle cell membrane ( 1 ). (
  • The recent discoveries of adult stem cells in most tissues has led to the anticipation of extraordinary advances in cell-based therapy approaches for genetic diseases (for review, see ref. 8 ). (
  • Red blood cells that can't keep their shape are associated with diseases like sickle cell anemia. (
  • The findings, published this week in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , could shed light on sickle cell diseases and other disorders where red blood cells are deformed. (
  • In severe forms of sickle cell diseases, genetic disorders most common among people of African descent, the cells are shaped like crescent moons or sickles. (
  • Understanding the architecture of the membrane is an important step toward finding the causes of diseases where red blood cells are deformed. (
  • Here, the team was able to generate virtually unlimited numbers of the cells to be used for future research, including studies of the basic biology of human muscle cells and using them to treat mouse models affected by muscle diseases that closely mimic the types of diseases seen in humans. (
  • Following the new procedure, we saw previously paralyzed leg muscles start to function," says Professor Linda Greensmith of the MRC Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases at UCL's Institute of Neurology, who co-led the study. (
  • Taking into account the advances in the isolation of new subpopulation of stem cells and in the creation of artificial stem cell niches, we discuss how these emerging technologies offer great promises for therapeutic approaches to muscle diseases and muscle wasting associated with aging. (
  • The complex hierarchy of events that triggers muscle remodeling is often unbalanced in muscular diseases. (
  • For those suffering from common, but deadly, heart diseases, stem cell biology represents a new medical frontier. (
  • The most frequent diseases associated with mutations in the LMNA gene are characterized by skeletal and cardiac muscle involvement. (
  • Understanding the mechanisms of myogenesis in human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) is a prerequisite to achieving patient-specific therapy for diseases of skeletal muscle. (
  • Our findings point the way to the development of new therapeutic treatment for muscular diseases such as muscular dystrophy, sarcopenia and muscle wasting conditions resulting from extended hospital stays and surgeries," said Dr. Rudnicki. (
  • The new emphasis on looking for stem cells in skeletal muscle provides opportunities for treating severe muscle diseases such as muscular dystrophy, for which there is currently no cure. (
  • At the onset of the experiments the research team thought the increase in muscle mass of the transplanted mice with injured legs would dissipate within a few months. (
  • Instead, the cells underwent a 50 per cent increase in mass and a 170 per cent increase in size and remained elevated through the lifetime of the mice - roughly two years, said Prof Olwin. (
  • After waiting five weeks for the implanted neurons to integrate with the muscle, the group anaesthetised the mice, cut open their skin and shone pulses of blue light on the nerve. (
  • In the current study, they investigated the cellular processes in skeletal muscle of mice, in which mTORC1 was permanently activated. (
  • The muscle function of the mice returned to normal. (
  • In the study, aged mice with a muscle injury were treated with either the drug or a placebo. (
  • Using the ERBB3 and NGFR surface markers, the skeletal muscle cells were isolated and then injected into mice at the same time a TGF Beta inhibitor was administered. (
  • The blood vessel-derived stem cells were injected into the bloodstream of dystrophic mice. (
  • Bruusgaard JC, Liestøl K, Ekmark M, Kollstad K and Gundersen K. Number and spatial distribution of nuclei in the muscle fibres of normal mice studied in vivo. (
  • Engraftment of expanded muscle stem cells (in red) into injured muscle (in green) in adult mice after four weeks. (
  • These muscle stem cells were then implanted into the muscles of pre-injured mice. (
  • While IL-6 was virtually undetectable in the muscles of control mice, animals whose muscles were made to work harder showed an increase in IL-6 after one day. (
  • In contrast, the muscles of mice lacking IL-6 did not show any significant increase in size after several weeks of overloading. (
  • They witnessed MSC accumulation in muscle of mice after vigorous exercise. (
  • A key element to the Illinois team's method was in exercising the mice before isolating the cells to trigger secretion of beneficial growth factors. (
  • Then, they dyed the cells with a fluorescent marker and injected them into other mice to see how MSCs coordinated with other muscle-building cells. (
  • Mice in which cytoglobin was knocked out specifically in skeletal muscle were generated to examine the role of cytoglobin in vivo. (
  • They have shown in experiments on mice that heart muscle can repair after injections of stem cells. (
  • A team led by Donald Orlic of the US National Human Genome Research Institute and Piero Anversa of New York Medical College transplanted adult stem cells taken from mice. (
  • Six weeks later, the nerve had fully regenerated in stem-cell treated mice, while the untreated group had limited nerve regrowth and functionality. (
  • Treated and untreated mice experienced muscle atrophy, or loss, after nerve injury, but only the stem cell-treated animals had regained normal muscle mass by 72 weeks post-surgery. (
  • Cell-based therapy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients and mdx mice has proven to be a safe but ineffective form of treatment. (
  • To understand the potential of skeletal muscle SP cells to serve as precursors for muscle, SP cells from the two mice strains mdx 5cv and C57BL/6N were isolated, transduced, and transplanted. (
  • Transduced SP cells were transplanted via the tail vein and were shown to successfully deliver enhanced GFP and human microdystrophin to the skeletal muscle of nonirradiated mdx 5cv mice, thus demonstrating their ability to travel through the capillaries and enter into damaged muscle. (
  • Replacement of absent dystrophin in mdx mice by transgenic expression leads to complete restoration of normal muscle cell membrane function ( 2 ). (
  • One approach to therapy for DMD was the intramuscular injection of normal myoblasts into the skeletal muscle of DMD patients or mdx mice, which lack full-length functional dystrophin. (
  • Moreover, based on the location of donor cells after i.v. injection into irradiated mice, we proposed that muscle SP cells could differentiate into satellite cells ( 9 ). (
  • They determined that the human cells survived in the mice up to six months after transplantation, and that the mice did not form tumors from the transplanted cells. (
  • In the study, published this week in Science, the team demonstrated the method in mice in which the nerves that supply muscles in the hind legs were injured. (
  • Aortic VSMC were extracted from 10 weeks old C57BL6 mice and incubated for 24 hr in adipocytes conditioned cell culture medium. (
  • Cultured, lentivirus-transduced skeletal muscle SP cells, derived from mdx(5cv) mice, were transplanted into the femoral artery of noninjured mdx(5cv) mice. (
  • In vivo studies were conducted on mice to determine efficacy of the procedure, in which mice that had previously suffered heart attacks were grafted with replacement muscles that were outfitted with magnetic nanoparticles. (
  • Though the study was conducted in mice, future studies will determine whether the number of these reserve cells can be boosted therapeutically to improve muscles' ability to withstand radiation exposure in the clinic or in the depths of space. (
  • By resetting muscle stem cells to a more youthful state, we were able to rejuvenate them so that they could more effectively repair muscle tissues. (
  • Stem cells are sometimes used to entirely replace the body's failing tissues. (
  • In conclusion, our results suggest that the control of physiological BMP-2 balance between bone and muscle tissues may be considered as a potential pharmacological target in bone-muscle related pathology. (
  • Cytoglobin is a hemoprotein expressed in response to oxidative stress in a variety of tissues, including striated muscle. (
  • Importantly however, skeletal muscle is one of the few tissues of the human body that has the potential to fully repair itself after injury. (
  • They also looked for genetic signatures that would suggest that these endothelial precursors could potentially also make other closely related tissues such as skeletal muscle, bone or kidney, but found no evidence of such plasticity. (
  • The so-called side population (SP) cell ( 13 ) has been purified from a number of adult tissues including muscle ( 9 , 14 - 19 ). (
  • The University of College London has also shown that nanomagnets could be used to deliver stem cells to injury sites improving the capacity of cells in repairing damaged tissues. (
  • A new study shows that combining positive and negative signals can quickly and efficiently steer stem cells down complex developmental pathways to become specialized tissues that could be used in the clinic. (
  • And indeed, they could visualise for the first time in the native cell how two heads of the same myosin bind to an actin filament. (
  • The arrangement of the thick myosin filaments across the myofibrils and the cell causes them to refract light and produce a dark band known as the A Band . (
  • We're kicking off our exploration of muscles with a look at the complex and important relationship between actin and myosin. (
  • Specifically in skeletal muscle and to a lesser extent in cardiac muscle, the actin and myosin filaments are arranged in a linear manner that gives the muscle a striated or striped appearance. (
  • Myosin will not bind thin filaments in muscle unless Ca 2+ is present. (
  • Actin and myosin are much less organized in smooth muscle when compared to skeletal muscle. (
  • Unlike in skeletal muscle, it is initiated by the phosphorylation of one of the two myosin light chains. (
  • The team used advanced microscopes at Scripps Research to capture 3D images showing myosin IIA under the cell membrane. (
  • The team then treated red blood cells with a compound called blebbistatin, which stops myosin from working properly. (
  • This further confirmed that myosin IIA is important for maintain red blood cell shape. (
  • Fowler says there might be a chance someday to inhibit myosin IIA in red blood cells and restore some of elasticity they lose in sickle cell anemia, letting them bend and fit through capillaries. (
  • The study suggests that cells use a process called phosphorylation to make the myosin IIA filaments on the cell membrane more stable-but how this process is controlled remains a mystery. (
  • The study, " Myosin IIA interacts with the spectrin-actin membrane skeleton to control red blood cell membrane curvature and deformability ," included authors from the Rochester Institute of Technology, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and the Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra-Northwell. (
  • There are no treatments currently available to delay, arrest or reverse age-related muscle degeneration," said senior author Harshini Neelakantan, a UTMB research scientist in the department of biochemistry and molecular biology. (
  • In the sense of biology, cell specialization is when stem cells (cells with no specific job) become cells that have a specific job, like muscle cells. (
  • The study was published in the journal Nature Cell Biology by senior author April Pyle, associate professor of microbiology, immunology and molecular genetics and member of the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA. (
  • This work was published online this week in Nature Cell Biology. (
  • According to Biology section, there are three different types of muscle cells, and each has a different structure related to its function. (
  • The finding may provide new understanding of how to make cardiac stem cells for use in regenerative medicine, said study senior author Dr. Hanna Mikkola, an associate professor of molecular, cell and developmental biology in Life Sciences and a researcher with the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA. (
  • The goal of this research topic is to highlight the available knowledge regarding skeletal muscle and stem cell biology in the context of both physiological and pathological conditions. (
  • But, the irregular heartbeats disappeared within two to three weeks as the stem cells matured, said Murry, who is also the director of the UW Center for Cardiovascular Biology. (
  • In the embryo and in the adult, skeletal muscle growth is dependent on the proliferation and the differentiation of muscle progenitors present within muscle masses. (
  • Planarian cell renewal is achieved as a result of proliferation and differentiation of totipotent undifferentiated cells called neoblasts. (
  • According to this model, neoblasts at the base of the pharynx would enter the pharynx, where they would start differentiation to myocytes, move to the subepithelial musculature and intercalate between the old muscle cells. (
  • However, an important cause for reduced satellite cell function may be a result of altered systemic factors that influence and/or regulate satellite cell activity and differentiation [ 8 ]. (
  • Also included in the cocktail is a small molecule called RepSox, which mediates stem cell differentiation. (
  • While both of these compounds have been used in stem cell research, their combined effect on muscle stem cell proliferation and differentiation was a novel finding in this study, said Li. (
  • Is the Subject Area "Muscle differentiation" applicable to this article? (
  • Fusion to myotubes with typical multinucleated syncytia can be induced by using the PromoCell Skeletal Muscle Cell Differentiation Medium. (
  • Primary human skeletal muscle cells and culture medium optimized for the in vitro cultivation and differentiation of primary human skeletal muscle cells. (
  • They are increasingly used to monitor the smooth muscle cell differentiation process to a contractile or synthetic phenotype. (
  • Application of next-generation sequencing technology in the skeletal muscle differentiation field is rapidly extending our knowledge on how chromatin modifications, transcription factors and chromatin regulators orchestrate gene expression pathways guiding myogenesis. (
  • Here, we review recent biological insights gained by the application of next-generation sequencing techniques to decode the epigenetic profile and gene regulatory networks underlying skeletal muscle differentiation. (
  • Importantly, transcription factors and chromatin modifiers are also able to alter the cellular expression program to maintain cell identity even upon removal of the initiating differentiation stimuli [ 1 ]. (
  • Differentiation processes are achieved by sculpting cell-specific epigenomes, which establish and maintain cellular diversity [ 2 ]. (
  • Myogenic lineage commitment and execution of the terminal differentiation program relies on the activity of the paired-box transcription factors Pax3 and Pax7 and of the muscle regulatory factors (MRFs) MyoD, Myf5, MRF4, and myogenin [ 3 ]. (
  • In response to extrinsic signals, Pax3+ cells are committed to myoblasts and undergo terminal myogenic differentiation through the transcriptional network activated by MRFs. (
  • Satellite cells encompass a population of cells that maintains the uncommitted state and another group of cells that are committed to the myogenic lineage and will undergo myogenic differentiation. (
  • More specifically, muscle growth in these cell lines was increased by inhibiting a gene called ZIC3 at the outset of differentiation-"… we show that targeted knockdown of ZIC3 at the outset of differentiation leads to improved myogenic specification in blunted hiPSC lines"- followed by then adding beta-catenin transcriptional cofactors later on in the growth process. (
  • The team plans to explore therapeutic intervention, such as drugs, that can stimulate and accelerate muscle growth at different stages of differentiation in hIPSC. (
  • As with all stem cells, how the choice between self-renewal or differentiation is controlled is central to understanding their function. (
  • Constitutive retroviral-driven expression of wild-type or stabilised beta-catenin results in more satellite cells expressing Pax7 without any MyoD -- therefore, adopting the self-renewal pathway, with fewer cells undergoing myogenic differentiation. (
  • Consistent with these observations, downregulation of beta-catenin using small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced the proportion of satellite cells that express Pax7 and augmented myogenic differentiation after mitogen withdrawal. (
  • In mammals, the contractile fiber resembles those of skeletal muscle but are only one third as large in diameter, are richer in sarcoplasm, and contain centrally located instead of peripheral nuclei. (
  • Each myofilament runs longitudinally with respect to the muscle fiber. (
  • In the treated group, muscle fiber size doubled, and muscle strength increased by 70 percent, compared with the placebo group. (
  • Skeletal muscle cells are approximately fusiform, long and fiber-like. (
  • A cardiac muscle cell is often described as a cardiac muscle fiber since it is also striated like skeletal muscle. (
  • A skeletal muscle cell is long and threadlike with many nuclei and is called a muscle fiber. (
  • The sarcoplasmic reticulum, a specialized type of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, forms a network around each myofibril of the muscle fiber. (
  • The sarcolemma was historically synonymous with the cell membrane of a striated muscle fiber or muscle cell. (
  • embryologically, this multinuclear condition results from multiple myoblasts fusing to produce each muscle fiber, where each myoblast contributes one nucleus. (
  • Each muscle fiber contains myofibrils, which are very long chains of sarcomeres, the contractile units of the cell. (
  • To make an individual muscle fiber, you need a lot of them. (
  • It gives the cells a surface on which to align and complete their transformation into unified bundles of muscle fiber. (
  • Mammalian skeletal muscle is composed of a heterogeneous set of multinucleate muscle fiber types, each with a distinct set of contractile and metabolic properties. (
  • Normally, satellite cells lie quietly at the periphery of the muscle fiber and do not grow, move or become activated. (
  • However, after muscle injury, these stem cells "wake up" through unclear mechanisms and fuse with the injured muscle, stimulating a complicated process that results in the rebuilding of a healthy muscle fiber. (
  • This research represents an important step in being able to generate the right kind of smooth muscle cells to help construct these new blood vessels. (
  • Lead author of the research, Dr Sanjay Sinha, Wellcome Trust Intermediate Clinical Fellow at the University of Cambridge said: "This research represents an important step in being able to generate the right kind of smooth muscle cells to help construct these new blood vessels. (
  • With this research, and using hPSCs generated from patient skin samples, we will be able to generate smooth muscle cells with the genetic abnormality in a culture dish. (
  • The ideal scenario is to take a skin, blood, or urine sample, use that to generate stem cells, and use that to generate functional muscles. (
  • Within five to nine days we can generate virtually all the pure cell populations that we need. (
  • Sarcomeres are small repeating subunits of myofibrils, the long cylinders that bundle together to make the muscle fibres. (
  • But the team found that when transplanted stem cells and associated fibres were injected to healthy mouse limb muscles, there was no discernible evidence for muscle mass growth. (
  • Using the optogenetic approach, however, allows the muscle fibres to be stimulated more gently, because the light level can be increased with each pulse. (
  • Skeletal muscle fibres are up to 100 micrometers in diameter and several centimeters long while cardiac myocytes are about 15 micrometers in diameter and about 100 micrometers long. (
  • In the new study, skin cells were reprogrammed in the lab to revert to what are called pluripotent stem cells -- cells that can grow into any type of cell. (
  • For a stem cell therapy for Duchenne to move forward, we must have a better understanding of the cells we are generating from human pluripotent stem cells compared to the muscle stem cells found naturally in the human body and during the development process. (
  • First, the Duchenne patient cells were reprogrammed to become pluripotent stem cells. (
  • To date, the majority of studies using induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac muscle cells have focused on single cell functional analysis," says senior author Todd J. Herron, Ph.D., an assistant research professor in the Departments of Internal Medicine and Molecular & Integrative Physiology at the U-M. (
  • Subramaniam and colleagues report their findings in a paper titled, " Temporal mechanisms of myogenic specification in human induced pluripotent stem cells . (
  • They found that triggering several epigenetic mechanisms at different time points sped up muscle growth in the slower of the pluripotent stem cell lines. (
  • In smooth muscle, the filaments are distributed as a mesh throughout the cell, and the ends of the filaments are attached to dense bodies associated with the cell membrane. (
  • In striations of muscle bands, these are the dark filaments that make up the A band. (
  • Muscle cells contain contractile filaments that move past each other and change the size of the cell. (
  • Smooth muscle cells also affect the diameter of the blood vessels. (
  • Smooth muscle cells are also found inside blood vessels and around the pupil of the eye. (
  • Multiple problems can result in obstruction of coronary arteries, but it is most commonly caused by coronary artery disease, in which the walls of these blood vessels become coated with atherosclerotic plaques made of white blood cells, fat, and other debris. (
  • These misshapen cells are rigid and sticky, causing them to become stuck in blood vessels, which prevent the blood from carrying oxygen throughout the body, causing anemia. (
  • Answering these questions could also help explain what goes wrong when red blood cells are too rigid to deform easily as they flow through blood vessels. (
  • Smooth muscle is not under conscious control, and is found in places such as blood vessels, the respiratory and digestive tracts, and the bladder. (
  • Verma and Asakura studied the stem cells and blood vessels in large volumes in three dimensions using methods developed in the lab. (
  • This showed them that a subset of these stem cells were located close to the blood vessels and were likely to be the more potent stem cell population in the muscles that are maintained in the long run. (
  • In cancer, cells ignore the normal signals from the body and proliferate uncontrollably. (
  • It was a significant accomplishment, but also kind of a letdown: Biopsied cells don't proliferate well in the lab, so producing a large, consistent supply is difficult. (
  • They proliferate very well in the mitogen-rich PromoCell Skeletal Muscle Cell Growth Medium. (
  • The study, led by Julie D. Saba, MD, PhD, senior scientist at Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute (CHORI), shows that a lipid signaling molecule called sphingosine-1-phosphate or "S1P" can trigger an inflammatory response that stimulates the muscle stem cells to proliferate and assist in muscle repair. (
  • S1P, acting through S1P receptor 2, leads to activation of STAT3, resulting in changes in gene expression that cause the satellite cell to leave its "sleeping" state and start to proliferate and assist in muscle repair. (
  • Bone marrow derived stem cells can give rise to heart muscle cells. (
  • This plasticity concept - the ability of bone marrow cell to transdifferentiate into heart muscle cell - is supported by experimental and clinical data. (
  • Furthermore, recently, the debate regarding bone marrow and other adult stem cell plasticity has moved into the political and public zone. (
  • Smooth muscle cells have been produced from stem cells found in the brain and bone marrow, but acquiring stem cells from fat is much easier, she adds. (
  • Summing up, the higher BMP-2 expression in osteoarthritic patients could explain the increased bone mineral density as well as decreased muscle atrophy in osteoarthrosic patients. (
  • Skeletal muscle is capable of interfering with bone activity, although cellular and molecular muscle-bone cross talk are not well understood yet [ 5 ]. (
  • We know that IGF-1, myostatin, TGF-b, and BMPs are factors released from muscle that have a role in bone metabolism and vice versa . (
  • Animation and slides providing graphic explanation of Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT)/Stem Cell Transplantation that is done for leukemia and other blood-related disorders. (
  • In this stem cell from bone marrow are injected into a recipient after treating them with growth factor. (
  • These sources of stem cells are less well understood than those derived from bone marrow and neural stem cells, says Atsushi Asakura, associate professor in the Department of Neurology at the University of Minnesota Medical School. (
  • To improve both the spatial and temporal resolutions, we made photosensitive skeletal muscle cells from murine C2C12 myoblasts, which express channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), one of archaea-type rhodopsins derived from green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (
  • siRNA-mediated depletion of cytoglobin from C2C12 myoblasts increased levels of reactive oxygen species and apoptotic cell death both at baseline and in response to stress stimuli. (
  • Muscle biopsies can be dissociated and cells grown as myoblasts in culture in the presence of fetal calf serum-containing medium. (
  • Myoblasts grow as single mononucleated cells which fuse to multinucleated myotubes upon replacement of fetal calf serum by horse serum in the culture medium. (
  • Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. (
  • Cardiac muscle cells or cardiomyocytes (also known as myocardiocytes or cardiac myocytes) are the muscle cells (myocytes) that make up the cardiac muscle (heart muscle). (
  • The presented conceptual advances in the MuSC field impact on our general understanding of stem cells and their therapeutic use in regenerative medicine. (
  • Therefore, a closer examination of the mTORC1 regulation system in the context of aging may provide new therapeutic approaches for the counteracting of the muscle weakness. (
  • The promising results in the safety and functional recovery seen in this study warrant further clinical follow-up and larger studies to confirm the therapeutic efficacy of autologous skeletal stem-cell sheets for severe congestive heart failure. (
  • Using our drug cocktail, we can efficiently expand this cell population, harnessing their potential as a therapeutic agent for muscle repair. (
  • So it'll advance the field by improving basic testing, but there's also potential to use this in the future, for therapeutic stem cell transplantation. (
  • The findings could lead to new therapeutic techniques using these cells to rehabilitate injured muscle and prevent or restore muscle loss with age. (
  • Thus, an enhanced understanding of cytoglobin's role in myogenesis may enable the development of therapeutic approaches for treating patients with muscle injuries and other neuromuscular disorders. (
  • The next step in this work will involve testing the therapeutic effect of these cells in various animal models of muscle disease. (
  • The findings open up new therapeutic possibilities for patients who have lost such large amounts of muscle that the body's natural repair capacities cannot replace them, a condition known as volumetric muscle loss. (
  • They found that the resulting hiPSCs were able to differentiate to become heart muscle cells, or cardiomyocytes, just as effectively as hiPSCs that had been developed from healthy, young volunteers who acted as controls for the study. (
  • They found that, with prompting from specific nerve-growth factors, the stem cells could differentiate into neurons and glial support cells, including Schwann cells that form the myelin sheath around the axons of neurons to improve conduction of nerve impulses. (
  • The expression of these muscle-specific markers indicates that progenitors within the side population can differentiate along the myogenic lineage after intraarterial transplantation and extravasation into host muscle. (
  • In this study, we analyzed muscle biopsies in order to demonstrate that, in osteoarthritis patients, both osteophytes formation and regenerative properties of muscle stem cells are related to the same factors. (
  • Because of these two distinct features, satellite cells are defined as bona fide adult stem cells. (
  • However, our modest understanding of adult stem cells and their plasticity leaves many questions unanswered. (
  • We're working hard to understand how we can best utilize these cells effectively to preserve muscle mass in the face of atrophy. (
  • The cell membrane is called the sarcolemma . (
  • and the cell membrane is termed the sarcolemma in muscle cells. (
  • The cell membrane of the sarcolemma receives and conducts stimuli. (
  • The cell membrane of a myocyte has several specialized regions, which may include the intercalated disk and the transverse tubular system. (
  • The cell membrane is covered by a lamina coat which is approximately 50 nm wide. (
  • This is the direct result of a membrane which allows sodium ions to slowly enter the cell until the threshold is reached for depolarization. (
  • What is the cell membrane made of? (
  • Or is something mechanical in the cell membrane-the outer skin of the cell-actively contracting and relaxing to maintain the shape? (
  • Dystrophin expression in the mdx mouse restored by stem cell transplantation. (
  • Skeletal muscle cells isolated using the ERBB3 and NGFR surface markers (right) restore human dystrophin (green) after transplantation significantly greater than previous methods (left). (
  • This phase I study found cell-sheet transplantation as a sole therapy to be a feasible treatment for cardiomyopathy. (
  • Preferred Term is Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (
  • This finding led to efforts to improve methods of cell isolation for transplantation. (
  • Transplantation of human brain cells corrected involuntary muscle spasms in rats with ischemic spinal cord injury, according to new research. (
  • Transplantation of human brain cells corrected involuntary muscle spasms in rats with ischemic spinal cord injury, according to research published online October 12 and in print October 19, 2004 in the European Journal of Neurosciences by investigators at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) School of Medicine. (
  • These findings provide conclusive evidence that transplantation of well defined human neuronal cells into a specific region of the spinal cord can be an effective treatment for spasticity in cases of ischemic spinal cord injury," said the study's lead author, Martin Marsala, M.D., UCSD associate professor of anesthesiology. (
  • Studies at the University of Minnesota Medical School are using 3-D technology to identify optimal stem cells for transplantation, looking for specific types of stem cells that can be derived from muscle. (
  • Rong, J.X., Shapiro, M., Trogan, E. and Fisher, E.A. (2003) Transdifferentiation of mouse aortic smooth muscle cells to a macrophage-like state after cholesterol loading. (
  • The circumferential alignment of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) in an orthogonally micropatterned circular microfluidic channel is reported to form an in vivo-like smooth muscle cell layer. (
  • A biological engineer at Duke, Bursac came close in 2015, when his lab became the first to grow functional human skeletal muscle in culture. (
  • Primary Human Skeletal Muscle Cells (SkMC) are isolated from different skeletal muscles (e.g. (
  • Rigid quality control tests are performed for each lot of Human Skeletal Muscle Cells. (
  • We have found that just because a skeletal muscle cell produced in the lab expresses muscle markers, doesn't mean it is fully functional," said Pyle. (
  • Architectural analysis and predicted functional capability of the human latissimus dorsi muscle. (
  • The specialized structure of the 3 types of muscle cells in the human body enables their functional purposes. (
  • Heart, or cardiac, muscle cells have structural and functional characteristics of both skeletal and smooth muscle cells. (
  • When a child's muscles are already withering away from something like Duchenne muscular dystrophy , it would not be ethical to take muscle samples from them and do further damage," he explained. (
  • they produce immature cells that are not appropriate for modeling Duchenne in the laboratory or creating a cell replacement therapy for the disease. (
  • Our long term goal is to develop a personalized cell replacement therapy using a patient's own cells to treat boys with Duchenne," said Hicks. (
  • Although patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy start out life with enough satellite cells to repair the patients' degenerating muscles, over time the satellite cells fail to keep up with the rate of muscle degeneration. (
  • Cell-based therapy continues to be a promising avenue for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), an X-linked skeletal muscle-wasting disease. (
  • This relies on resident muscle stem cells (MuSCs), also called "satellite cells" because of their unique anatomical position at the periphery of the myofibers. (
  • Furthermore, long-term lineage analyses indicate that satellite cells, which are known progenitors of adult skeletal muscles 4 , derive from the same dermomyotome cell population. (
  • Figure 4: Satellite cells are derived from the dermomyotome. (
  • Morgan, J. E. & Partridge, T. A. Muscle satellite cells. (
  • Feldman, J. L. & Stockdale, F. E. Temporal appearance of satellite cells during myogenesis. (
  • Whether satellite cells number decreases or not, their function is generally reduced in aging. (
  • A report in the January issue of Cell Metabolism, a publication of Cell Press, provides new evidence explaining how stem cells known as satellite cells contribute to building muscles up in response to exercise. (
  • Because mature myofibers are incapable of cell division, new nuclei must be supplied by satellite cells (muscle stem cells). (
  • Once activated, satellite cells follow an ordered set of events, including proliferation, migration, and incorporation into the myofiber, leading to its growth. (
  • Quiescent satellite cells are activated by stimuli such as muscle damage. (
  • During postnatal life, muscle growth relies on satellite cells, which are a subpopulation of somite-derived cells that reside between myofibers and the basal lamina [ 5 ]. (
  • Under coculture conditions with myogenic cells, some cells within the SP cell population can give rise to early Pax7-positive satellite cells and other later stage myogenic cells. (
  • These cells are different from satellite cells, a subpopulation of muscle-derived cells that may have stem cell-like characteristics ( 22 , 23 ). (
  • Satellite cells are the resident stem cells of adult skeletal muscle. (
  • Here, we have explored the role of beta-catenin in determining the fate of myogenic satellite cells. (
  • Satellite cells express beta-catenin, and expression is maintained as they activate and undergo proliferation. (
  • Thus, beta-catenin signalling in proliferating satellite cells directs these cells towards the self-renewal pathway and, so, contributes to the maintenance of this stem-cell pool in adult skeletal muscle. (
  • AU - Perez-Ruiz,Ana, AU - Ono,Yusuke, AU - Gnocchi,Viola F, AU - Zammit,Peter S, Y1 - 2008/04/08/ PY - 2008/4/10/pubmed PY - 2008/8/23/medline PY - 2008/4/10/entrez SP - 1373 EP - 82 JF - Journal of cell science JO - J Cell Sci VL - 121 IS - Pt 9 N2 - Satellite cells are the resident stem cells of adult skeletal muscle. (
  • The EU-funded AMELIE project comprises a highly interdisciplinary consortium of experts who are proposing a novel regenerative intervention using autologous skeletal muscle derived cells (ASMDC) to restore the function of the sphincter muscle. (
  • This is a clinical trial is to study the safety and effectiveness of autologous muscle-derived cells (AMDC) for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). (
  • This is a dose-escalation study of ex-vivo knocked-out, expanded, and selected PD-1 knockout-T cells from autologous origin. (
  • An image of the electrically stimulated cardiac cells is displayed on the cover of the current issue of Circulation Research , a publication of the American Heart Association. (
  • Authors of the study note that the velocity of the engineered cardiac cells, while faster than previous reports, it is still slower than the velocity observed in the beating adult heart. (
  • Biophysicists from MIPT have studied the structure of a nanofibrous scaffold, as well as its interaction with rat cardiac cells. (
  • The sarcoplasm of the cell is filled with contractile myofibrils and this results in the nuclei and other organelles being relegated to the edge of the cell. (
  • As the myofibrils contract the muscle cell contracts. (
  • The myofibrils of smooth muscle cells are not arranged into sarcomeres. (
  • Each cardiac muscle cell contains myofibrils, which are specialized organelles consisting of long chains of sarcomeres, the fundamental contractile units of muscle cells. (
  • As the skeletal muscle cell is an efficient force transducer, it has been incorporated in bio-microdevices using electrical field stimulation for generating contractile patterns. (
  • Smoothelin-A and -B have only been found in fully differentiated contractile smooth muscle cells. (
  • Recently obtained data show that smoothelin deficiency results in a considerable loss of contractile potential and hence in impaired smooth muscle function and suggest that smoothelins are part of the contractile apparatus. (
  • Another difference is in the cell nuclei: Smooth and cardiac muscle cells possess a single nucleus per cell, and skeletal muscle cells are multinucleated. (
  • There are about five nuclei per 100 microns of cell length in skeletal muscle (1). (
  • Cell nuclei are stained in blue. (
  • Skeletal muscles are made up of individual myofibers, each with many nuclei containing genetic material. (
  • A muscle cell also known as a myocyte when referring to a cardiac muscle cell (cardiomyocyte), or a smooth muscle cell as these are both small muscle cells. (
  • Human smooth muscle cell culture. (
  • What are smooth muscle cell organelles? (
  • Here, we investigated the interactions between these different factors in aortic aneurysm development and identified a key role for smooth muscle cell (SMC) reprogramming into a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like state. (
  • I need to culture bovine aortic smooth muscle cell. (
  • To construct a biomimetic smooth muscle cell layer which is aligned perpendicular to the axis of blood vessel, a half-circular polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel is first fabricated by soft lithography using a convex PDMS mold. (
  • Smooth muscle cell. (
  • A polyphenol in oat may prevent atherosclerosis by inhibiting smooth muscle cell proliferation and enhancing nitric oxide production. (
  • These results call for future studies to examine the prospect of harnessing the latent cardiogenic potential in the vasculature for use in regenerative medicine, and to investigate whether similar development plasticity exists in other major cell fate decisions in the developing embryo," the study states. (
  • There is real hope that we may be able to control this unique phenomenon to produce many heart cells to create a new heart muscle based on cells harvested from the patient himself. (
  • What happens if the heart muscle cells aren't working? (
  • The study, published in The Lancet, showed that the cells help the organ re-grow healthy muscle after a heart attack, challenging the belief that cardiac scarring is permanent and that once lost, healthy heart muscle cannot be restored. (
  • In this issue of the JCI , Didié and colleagues show that cardiomyocytes made from parthenogenetic stem cells (PSCs) and deployed as engineered heart muscle (EHM) may overcome all of these formidable barriers. (
  • Your heart muscle cells are highly coordinated to contract together with each heartbeat. (
  • Like skeletal muscle cells, heart muscle cells have a highly organized internal structure. (
  • Because of these junctions and bridges the heart muscle is able to act as a single coordinated unit. (
  • Humans are born with a set number of heart muscle cells, or cardiomyocytes, which increase in size as heart grows larger during childhood development. (
  • The growth of individual cardiomyocytes not only occurs during normal heart development, it also occurs in response to extensive exercise (athletic heart syndrome), heart disease, or heart muscle injury such as after a myocardial infarction. (
  • Myocardial infarction, commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when the arteries supplying blood to the heart muscle become blocked (obstructed). (
  • The study showed that cells grew into fully developed heart muscle cells that contract rhythmically, respond to electrical activity, and react to adrenaline. (
  • We're able to make heart muscle cells in unprecedented quantities, and on top of it they're all the same. (
  • Doevendans would be conducting further studies with the help of cultured heart muscle cells to examine conditions like cardiac arrhythmia (abnormal heart rhythms). (
  • The finding is important because it suggests that the endothelium can serve as a source of heart muscle cells. (
  • And sometimes during the course of its unrelenting contractions and relaxations, the heart muscle can no longer bear the strain. (
  • Within a few weeks, the new heart muscle cells matured and began to beat in time with the monkeys' heart cells. (
  • On average, the transplanted cells regenerated 40 percent of the damaged heart muscle, according to the study published online April 30 in the journal Nature . (
  • The results show we can now produce the number of cells needed for human therapy and get formation of new heart muscle on a scale that is relevant to improving the function of the human heart," study co-author Dr. Michael Laflamme, also from the University of Washington, said in the news release. (
  • The sarcoplasm is also composed of glycogen, a polysaccharide of glucose monomers, which provides energy to the cell during heightened exercise, and myoglobin, the red pigment that stores oxygen until needed for muscular activity. (
  • The muscular system is one of my favorites because a number of small details (integrating the concepts of active transport, facilitated diffusion, exocytosis, oxygen and energy usage, and so on, into a coherent whole) suddenly make sense when you apply them to the big picture, which is when and how muscles contract. (
  • This project was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Muscular Dystrophy Association, the National Institutes of Health, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Canada's Stem Cell Network and the Canada Research Chairs Program. (
  • This could be very important for learning more about the role of these stem cells in aging and muscular dystrophy, and treatments in the future," Asakura says. (
  • HIF2A stabilization in SCs cultured under normoxia augments their engraftment potential in regenerative muscle. (
  • Dystonia is a neurological condition in which the patient experiences involuntary muscle contractions. (
  • which is energy stored in muscle cells, is used during intense muscle contractions. (
  • Cardiac muscle cells create the rhythmic and persistent contractions of the heart to circulate blood. (
  • Smooth muscle cells control involuntary movements such as the peristalsis contractions in the esophagus and stomach. (
  • The main function of muscle cells is to produce contractions of the muscle. (
  • The heart's muscle cells receive regular electrical stimulation that causes them to beat. (
  • A cutting-edge method developed at the University of Michigan Center for Arrhythmia Research successfully uses stem cells to create heart cells capable of mimicking the heart's crucial squeezing action. (
  • The team plans to find ways to reduce the risk of heart rhythm problems and will try to prove that the stem cells strengthen the heart's pumping power. (