One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.
A subclass of muscarinic receptor that mediates cholinergic-induced contraction in a variety of SMOOTH MUSCLES.
Drugs that bind to and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, MUSCARINIC). Muscarinic agonists are most commonly used when it is desirable to increase smooth muscle tone, especially in the GI tract, urinary bladder and the eye. They may also be used to reduce heart rate.
A specific subtype of muscarinic receptor that has a high affinity for the drug PIRENZEPINE. It is found in the peripheral GANGLIA where it signals a variety of physiological functions such as GASTRIC ACID secretion and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION. This subtype of muscarinic receptor is also found in neuronal tissues including the CEREBRAL CORTEX and HIPPOCAMPUS where it mediates the process of MEMORY and LEARNING.
Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A specific subtype of muscarinic receptor found in the CORPUS STRIATUM and the LUNG. It has similar receptor binding specificities to MUSCARINIC RECEPTOR M1 and MUSCARINIC RECEPTOR M2.
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
A muscarinic antagonist used to study binding characteristics of muscarinic cholinergic receptors.
Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
Drugs that mimic the effects of parasympathetic nervous system activity. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors and drugs that potentiate cholinergic activity, usually by slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine (CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS). Drugs that stimulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons (GANGLIONIC STIMULANTS) are not included here.
A toxic alkaloid found in Amanita muscaria (fly fungus) and other fungi of the Inocybe species. It is the first parasympathomimetic substance ever studied and causes profound parasympathetic activation that may end in convulsions and death. The specific antidote is atropine.
A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.
Analogs or derivatives of scopolamine.
Drugs that bind to and activate cholinergic receptors.
Organic chemicals which have two amino groups in an aliphatic chain.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
A synthetic nondepolarizing blocking drug. The actions of gallamine triethiodide are similar to those of TUBOCURARINE, but this agent blocks the cardiac vagus and may cause sinus tachycardia and, occasionally, hypertension and increased cardiac output. It should be used cautiously in patients at risk from increased heart rate but may be preferred for patients with bradycardia. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p198)
Analogs and derivatives of atropine.
An alkaloid from SOLANACEAE, especially DATURA and SCOPOLIA. Scopolamine and its quaternary derivatives act as antimuscarinics like ATROPINE, but may have more central nervous system effects. Among the many uses are as an anesthetic premedication, in URINARY INCONTINENCE, in MOTION SICKNESS, as an antispasmodic, and as a mydriatic and cycloplegic.
A slowly hydrolyzing muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Bethanechol is generally used to increase smooth muscle tone, as in the GI tract following abdominal surgery or in urinary retention in the absence of obstruction. It may cause hypotension, HEART RATE changes, and BRONCHIAL SPASM.
A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.
Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage.
Antimuscarinic quaternary ammonium derivative of scopolamine used to treat cramps in gastrointestinal, urinary, uterine, and biliary tracts, and to facilitate radiologic visualization of the gastrointestinal tract.
An analog of benzilylcholine mustard. It is an alkylating nitrogen mustard analog that binds specifically and irreversibly to cholinergic muscarinic receptors and is used as an affinity label to isolate and study the receptors.
A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.
An alkaloid obtained from the betel nut (Areca catechu), fruit of a palm tree. It is an agonist at both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It is used in the form of various salts as a ganglionic stimulant, a parasympathomimetic, and a vermifuge, especially in veterinary practice. It has been used as a euphoriant in the Pacific Islands.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A cholinesterase inhibitor with a slightly longer duration of action than NEOSTIGMINE. It is used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the actions of muscle relaxants.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).
A family of hexahydropyridines.
A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic and in urinary incontinence. It has little effect on glandular secretion or the cardiovascular system. It does have some local anesthetic properties and is used in gastrointestinal, biliary, and urinary tract spasms.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of ACETYLCHOLINE or cholinergic agonists.
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in some disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and to reduce salivation with some anesthetics.
A muscarinic antagonist that has been used to treat neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism. Benzetimide is the (-)-enantimorph of dexetimide.
Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
A cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.
A chemical reagent that reacts with and modifies chemically the tryptophan portion of protein molecules. Used for 'active site' enzyme studies and other protein studies. Sometimes referred to as Koshland's reagent.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A non-depolarizing skeletal muscle relaxant similar to TUBOCURARINE. It is used as an anesthesia adjuvant.
N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
One of the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS with pharmacologic action similar to ATROPINE and used mainly as an ophthalmic parasympatholytic or mydriatic.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.
Quaternary salts derived from tetrazoles. They are used in tests to distinguish between reducing sugars and simple aldehydes, for detection of dehydrogenase in tissues, cells, and bacteria, for determination of corticosteroids, and in color photography. (From Mall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed, p455)
A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES dependent signaling pathways. The Gq-G11 part of the name is also spelled Gq/G11.
One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
The application of smoke, vapor, or gas for the purpose of disinfecting or destroying pests or microorganisms.
The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.
Drugs that bind to nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC) and block the actions of acetylcholine or cholinergic agonists. Nicotinic antagonists block synaptic transmission at autonomic ganglia, the skeletal neuromuscular junction, and at central nervous system nicotinic synapses.
One of the centrally acting MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS used for treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and drug-induced extrapyramidal movement disorders and as an antispasmodic.
The discharge of saliva from the SALIVARY GLANDS that keeps the mouth tissues moist and aids in digestion.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes including hypertension but, like the other ganglionic blockers, it has been replaced by more specific drugs for most purposes, although it is widely used a research tool.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A nicotinic antagonist that is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier. Mecamylamine has been used as a ganglionic blocker in treating hypertension, but, like most ganglionic blockers, is more often used now as a research tool.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A synthetic polymer which agglutinates red blood cells. It is used as a heparin antagonist.
A cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the effects of muscle relaxants such as gallamine and tubocurarine. Neostigmine, unlike PHYSOSTIGMINE, does not cross the blood-brain barrier.
A family of inwardly-rectifying potassium channels that are activated by PERTUSSIS TOXIN sensitive G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. GIRK potassium channels are primarily activated by the complex of GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS and GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS.
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that were originally identified by their ability to inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Members of this family can couple to beta and gamma G-protein subunits that activate POTASSIUM CHANNELS. The Gi-Go part of the name is also spelled Gi/Go.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.
A quaternary ammonium anticholinergic agent with peripheral side effects similar to those of ATROPINE. It is used as an adjunct in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcer, and to relieve visceral spasms. The drug has also been used in the form of eye drops for mydriatic effect.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.
The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A sympathomimetic that acts mainly by causing release of NOREPINEPHRINE but also has direct agonist activity at some adrenergic receptors. It is most commonly used as a nasal vasoconstrictor and an appetite depressant.
Symptom of overactive detrusor muscle of the URINARY BLADDER that contracts with abnormally high frequency and urgency. Overactive bladder is characterized by the frequent feeling of needing to urinate during the day, during the night, or both. URINARY INCONTINENCE may or may not be present.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
An organophosphorus compound that inhibits cholinesterase. It causes seizures and has been used as a chemical warfare agent.
A selective nicotinic cholinergic agonist used as a research tool. DMPP activates nicotinic receptors in autonomic ganglia but has little effect at the neuromuscular junction.
A piperazinyl androstane derivative which is a non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS). It is used as a muscle relaxant during ANESTHESIA and surgical procedures.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
A site on an enzyme which upon binding of a modulator, causes the enzyme to undergo a conformational change that may alter its catalytic or binding properties.
3,6-Diamino-10-methylacridinium chloride mixt. with 3,6-acridinediamine. Fluorescent dye used as a local antiseptic and also as a biological stain. It intercalates into nucleic acids thereby inhibiting bacterial and viral replication.
A radiation-protective agent that can inhibit DNA damage by binding to the DNA. It also increases the susceptibility of blood cells to complement-mediated lysis.
Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.
A bis-quaternary steroid that is a competitive nicotinic antagonist. As a neuromuscular blocking agent it is more potent than CURARE but has less effect on the circulatory system and on histamine release.
Unstable isotopes of bromine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Br atoms with atomic weights 74-78, 80, and 82-90 are radioactive bromine isotopes.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.
A cholinesterase inhibitor that crosses the blood-brain barrier. Tacrine has been used to counter the effects of muscle relaxants, as a respiratory stimulant, and in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other central nervous system disorders.
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.
The imide of phthalic acids.
Analogs or derivatives of mandelic acid (alpha-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid).
Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
A neuromuscular blocker and active ingredient in CURARE; plant based alkaloid of Menispermaceae.
Cholinesterase reactivator occurring in two interchangeable isomeric forms, syn and anti.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Monoquaternary homolog of PANCURONIUM. A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with shorter duration of action than pancuronium. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination as well as its short duration of action and easy reversibility provide advantages over, or alternatives to, other established neuromuscular blocking agents.
A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
An organophosphorus ester compound that produces potent and irreversible inhibition of cholinesterase. It is toxic to the nervous system and is a chemical warfare agent.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Transmitter receptors on or near presynaptic terminals (or varicosities) which are sensitive to the transmitter(s) released by the terminal itself. Receptors for the hormones released by hormone-releasing cells are also included.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A large family of evolutionarily conserved proteins that function as negative regulators of HETEROTRIMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. RGS PROTEINS act by increasing the GTPase activity of the G alpha subunit of a heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein, causing it to revert to its inactive (GDP-bound) form.
A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is closely related to KCNQ2 POTASSIUM CHANNEL. It is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.
A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.
GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that contain three non-identical subunits. They are found associated with members of the seven transmembrane domain superfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. Upon activation the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT of the complex dissociates leaving a dimer of a GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNIT bound to a GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNIT.
A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.
A tricylic dibenzodiazepine, classified as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It binds several types of central nervous system receptors, and displays a unique pharmacological profile. Clozapine is a serotonin antagonist, with strong binding to 5-HT 2A/2C receptor subtype. It also displays strong affinity to several dopaminergic receptors, but shows only weak antagonism at the dopamine D2 receptor, a receptor commonly thought to modulate neuroleptic activity. Agranulocytosis is a major adverse effect associated with administration of this agent.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
... with umeclidinium bromide: Anoro Ellipta. Umeclidinium bromide is a long-acting muscarinic antagonist. This combination was ... INN: umeclidinium bromide/vilanterol" (PDF). European Medicines Agency. Retrieved 25 March 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged ... parameter (link) "State Register of Nedicines: Anoro Ellipta (vilanterol + umeclidinium bromide)". Russian State Register of ...
... (INN; also known as methylhomatropine bromide) is a quaternary ammonium salt of methylhomatropine. It ... is a peripherally acting anticholinergic medication that inhibits muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and thus the ...
Methylation of JB-336 gives the quat salt, Mepenzolate bromide. N-ethyl-3-piperidyl benzilate 3-Quinuclidinyl benzilate Ditran ... Radiolabelled versions of this drug are used in scientific research to map the distribution of muscarinic acetylcholine ... "Synthesis and autoradiographic localization of muscarinic cholinergic antagonist (+)N-[11C]methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate as a ...
... atropine and Ipratropium bromide (all of which act as receptor antagonists of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors) are effective ...
"Buscopan- n-butylscopolammonium bromide injection". DailyMed. 8 June 2020. Retrieved 16 October 2020. Tytgat, Guido N (2007). " ... As an antimuscarinic, hyoscine butylbromide binds to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, blocking their effect. It is a ... "Butylscopolamine bromide". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Medicine portal. ... The attachment of the butyl-bromide moiety effectively prevents the movement of this drug across the blood-brain barrier, ...
... with muscarinic antagonist umeclidinium bromide-umeclidinium bromide/vilanterol (trade name Anoro Ellipta) with inhaled ... corticosteroid fluticasone furoate and muscarinic antagonist umeclidinium bromide-fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium bromide/ ...
... s such as ipratropium bromide can also be effective in treating asthma, since acetylcholine is known to ... A muscarinic receptor antagonist (MRA) is a type of anticholinergic agent that blocks the activity of the muscarinic ... Muscarinic antagonist effects and muscarinic agonist effects counterbalance each other for homeostasis. Certain substances are ... Effects of Muscarinic Antagonist Atropine (Muscarinic Receptor Antagonist), Cardiovascular Pharmacology Concepts, Richard E. ...
... (INN) is an anticholinergic (specifically a muscarinic antagonist) drug. It may help symptoms of cramping and ... "Clidinium bromide". Drugs.com. Retrieved August 24, 2013. "Clidinium Bromide Monograph". Drugs.com. Retrieved August 24, 2013. ... Clidinium inhibits muscarinic acetylcholine receptors on smooth muscles, secretory glands, and in the central nervous system to ...
... (trade name Incruse Ellipta) is a long-acting muscarinic antagonist approved for the maintenance treatment ... as umeclidinium bromide/vilanterol) and also as a triple-therapy combination as fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium bromide/ ... Feldman GJ, Edin A (December 2013). "The combination of umeclidinium bromide and vilanterol in the management of chronic ...
... is an antimuscarinic. It binds to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors as an antagonist therefore preventing ...
... to muscarinic receptors present in various smooth muscular tissues, in places such as the gut, bladder and eye. Normally, the ... Propantheline bromide (INN) is an antimuscarinic agent used for the treatment of excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis), cramps or ...
It is also an antagonist of M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors and is the most potent neuromuscular blocking agent of the ... www.drugs.com/international/pipecuronium-bromide.html v t e v t e. ... Pancuronium bromide https://www.whocc.no/atc_ddd_index/?code=M03AC06 https://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB01338 https://www.drugbank ...
Its mechanism of action involves blocking the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. It was patented in 1902 and approved for ... Methylscopolamine or methscopolamine, usually provided as the bromide or nitrate salt, is an oral medication used along with ... is a muscarinic antagonist structurally similar to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. ...
... is a medication of the muscarinic anticholinergic group. It does not cross the blood-brain barrier and ... Glycopyrronium competitively blocks muscarinic receptors, thus inhibiting cholinergic transmission. Glycopyrronium bromide ... "Glycopyrronium bromide". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. "Glycopyrronium". Drug Information Portal ... Bajaj V, Langtry JA (July 2007). "Use of oral glycopyrronium bromide in hyperhidrosis". Br. J. Dermatol. 157 (1): 118-21. doi: ...
Otilinium binds to both muscarinic receptors and tachykinin NK2 receptors. It has been shown to inhibit L-type and T-type ... Otilonium bromide is an antimuscarinic and calcium channel blocker used to relieve spasmodic pain of the gut, especially in ... Martin MT, Hove-Madsen L, Jimenez M (April 2004). "Otilonium bromide inhibits muscle contractions via L-type calcium channels ... Clavé P, Tack J (March 2017). "Efficacy of otilonium bromide in irritable bowel syndrome: a pooled analysis". Therapeutic ...
... a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist used in the treatment of dry mouth and urinary retention Bisoprolol - a beta ... a dietary supplement Glycopyrronium bromide - an anticholinergic Hyoscine butylbromide - an anticholinergic Itopride - a D2 ... a choline ester and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist Methylhomatropine - an anticholinergic Methylnaltrexone - a μ- ... a non-sedating antihistamine Timepidium bromide - an anticholinergic Trimetaphan camsilate - a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ...
Pyridostigmine bromide was used by the US military in the first Gulf War as a pretreatment for soman as it increased the median ... It acts as an antagonist to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, blocking the effects of excess acetylcholine. Some synthetic ... more effectively on nicotinic receptors while blocking acetylcholine receptors with atropine is more effective on muscarinic ...
... atropine hyoscyamine aclidinium bromide 4-DAMP (1,1-Dimethyl-4-diphenylacetoxypiperidinium iodide, CAS# 1952-15-4) darifenacin ... or the muscarinic 3, is a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor encoded by the human gene CHRM3. The M3 muscarinic receptors are ... Like the M1 muscarinic receptor, M3 receptors are coupled to G proteins of class Gq, which upregulate phospholipase C and, ... Muscarinic M3 receptors are expressed in regions of the brain that regulate insulin homeostasis, such as the hypothalamus and ...
... (INN) is a long-acting, inhaled muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) approved in the United States on July 24, 2012 ... 2009). "Characterization of aclidinium bromide, a novel inhaled muscarinic antagonist, with long duration of action and a ... The salt, aclidinium bromide, is a crystalline powder that is hardly soluble in water or ethanol. It is marketed under the ... Skin reactions such as rash, as well as side effects that are typical of muscarinic antagonists (fast heart rate, palpitations ...
Ipratropium is a muscarinic antagonist, a type of anticholinergic, which works by causing smooth muscles to relax. Ipratropium ... Ipratropium bromide, sold under the trade name Atrovent among others, is a medication which opens up the medium and large ... Chemically, ipratropium bromide is a quaternary ammonium compound (which is indicated by the -ium per the BAN and the USAN) ... "Ipratropium Bromide 0.5 mg/Albuterol Sulfate 3.0 mg" (PDF). FDA. 2004. Retrieved 4 January 2021. "Atrovent Nasal Spray". Drugs. ...
Raplon (rapacuronium bromide) for Injection" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 March 2010. Cite journal requires , ... Jooste E, Klafter F, Hirshman CA, Emala CW (Apr 2003). "A mechanism for rapacuronium-induced bronchospasm: M2 muscarinic ... Kounis NG (Apr 1974). "Letter: Bronchospasm induced by althesin and pancuronium bromide". British Journal of Anaesthesiology. ...
Horita N, Goto A, Shibata Y, Ota E, Nakashima K, Nagai K, Kaneko T (February 2017). "Long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) ... The LAMA umeclidinium bromide is another anticholinergic alternative. When compared to tiotropium, the LAMAs aclidinium, ... Which type of long-acting agent, long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) such as tiotropium or a long-acting beta agonist ( ... Ni H, Htet A, Moe S (June 2017). "Umeclidinium bromide versus placebo for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( ...
Muscarinic agonists activate muscarinic receptors while nicotinic agonists activate nicotine receptors. Both are direct-acting ... Treatment of the crude aldehyde with allyl bromide and zinc powder in water with NH4Cl as catalyst resulted in an anti:syn ... Cardiac ventricles contain muscarinic receptors that mediate a decrease in the force of contractions leading to a lower blood ... Muscarinic antagonists dilate the pupil and relax the ciliary muscle, are used in treatment of inflammatory uveitis and is ...
... s are classified according to the receptors that are affected: Antimuscarinic agents operate on the muscarinic ... Glycopyrrolate Glycopyrronium Hyoscyamine Ipratropium Orphenadrine Oxitropium Oxybutynin Promethazine Propantheline bromide ... is typically used to refer to antimuscarinics which competitively inhibit the binding of ACh to muscarinic acetylcholine ...
While clozapine is a muscarinic antagonist at the M1, M2, M3, and M5 receptors, clozapine is a full agonist at the M4 subset. ... anticholinergic medications like diphenhydramine and topical anticholinergic medications like ipratropium bromide. Mild ...
Anisotropine, atropine, clidinium bromide are also the most commonly used modern antispasmodics.[citation needed] ... Muscarinic antagonist Parasympatholytic Phloroglucinol Spasticity "Antispasmodic". thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved February 1 ...
Tiotropium is a muscarinic receptor antagonist, often referred to as an antimuscarinic or anticholinergic agent. Although it ... Tiotropium bromide, sold under the brandname Spiriva among others, is a long-acting bronchodilator used in the management of ... "Tiotropium Bromide Monograph for Professionals". Drugs.com. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved 31 January ... Kato M, Komamura K, Kitakaze M (December 2006). "Tiotropium, a novel muscarinic M3 receptor antagonist, improved symptoms of ...
Ni H, Soe Z, Moe S (September 2014). "Aclidinium bromide for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease". The Cochrane ... long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) such as tiotropium or a long-acting beta agonist (LABA) is better is unclear, and ... Jones P (April 2013). "Aclidinium bromide twice daily for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a review". ... Cazzola M, Page CP, Matera MG (June 2013). "Aclidinium bromide for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease". ...
... Combination of. Ipratropium bromide. Muscarinic antagonist. Salbutamol. Short-acting β2- ... "DailyMed - ipratropium bromide and albuterol sulfate inhalant". dailymed.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 18 April 2019.. ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ipratropium_bromide/salbutamol&oldid=902367065" ...
... has the advantage of allowing more flexible dosage than other muscarinic antagonists.[5] Its tolerability and side ... Ambutonium bromide. *Anisodamine. *Anisodine. *Antihistamines (first-generation) (e.g., brompheniramine, buclizine, captodiame ... effects are similar to other muscarinic antagonists and as a new drug seems unlikely to make great changes in practices of ...
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Acetylcholine metabolism/transport ...
Ambutonium bromide. *Anisodamine. *Anisodine. *Antihistamines (first-generation) (e.g., brompheniramine, buclizine, captodiame ... Muscarinic toxin 7. *N-Ethyl-3-piperidyl benzilate. *N-Methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate ...
... muscarinic, GABA, histaminergic H1, serotonin 5-HT2, and N-methyl-D-aspartate). Inhibitory effects on 5-HT, norepinephrine, and ... Temazepam; Others: Bromide (potassium bromide, sodium bromide). *Imepitoin. *Paraldehyde. *Stiripentol. GABA-T inhibitors. * ...
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ... Octamethylene-bis(5-dimethylcarbamoxyisoquinolinium bromide). *T-1123. *TL-599. *TL-1238. *Tacrine ...
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Acetylcholine metabolism/transport ... Bromide compounds (e.g., lithium bromide, potassium bromide, sodium bromide). *Carbamazepine. *Chloralose ...
muscarinic antagonist. *Aclidinium bromide. *Glycopyrronium bromide. *Ipratropium bromide#. *Oxitropium bromide. *Tiotropium ...
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Acetylcholine metabolism/transport ... Ambutonium bromide. *Anisodamine. *Anisodine. *Antihistamines (first-generation) (e.g., brompheniramine, buclizine, captodiame ...
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Acetylcholine metabolism/transport ...
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Acetylcholine metabolism/transport ...
Anisotropine, atropine, clidinium bromide are also the most commonly used modern antispasmodics.[citation needed] ...
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ... Octamethylene-bis(5-dimethylcarbamoxyisoquinolinium bromide). *T-1123. *Tacrine. *Zanapezil. *Irreversible: Organophosphates: ...
Radiolabelled versions of this drug have been used in scientific research to map the distribution of muscarinic acetylcholine ... Ambutonium bromide. *Anisodamine. *Anisodine. *Antihistamines (first-generation) (e.g., brompheniramine, buclizine, captodiame ... propyl-3-piperidyl benzilate for muscarinic cholinergic receptors: a PET study with microdialysis in comparison with (+)N-[11C] ...
It has central antiadrenergic, antidopaminergic, antiserotonergic and weak muscarinic anticholinergic effects. Serious side ... Ambutonium bromide. *Anisodamine. *Anisodine. *Antihistamines (first-generation) (e.g., brompheniramine, buclizine, captodiame ...
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ... Bromide compounds (e.g., lithium bromide, potassium bromide, sodium bromide). *Carbamazepine. *Chloralose ...
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ... Octamethylene-bis(5-dimethylcarbamoxyisoquinolinium bromide). *T-1123. *Tacrine. *Zanapezil. *Irreversible: Organophosphates: ...
... is a parasympathomimetic that stimulates both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors.[2] In topical ocular and ... Ambutonium bromide. *Anisodamine. *Anisodine. *Antihistamines (first-generation) (e.g., brompheniramine, buclizine, captodiame ... Use of carbachol, as well as all other muscarinic receptor agonists, is contraindicated in patients with asthma, coronary ... Carbachol elicits this REM sleep-like state via activation of postsynaptic muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChRs).[2] ...
muscarinic antagonist. *Aclidinium bromide. *Glycopyrronium bromide. *Ipratropium bromide#. *Oxitropium bromide. *Tiotropium ...
This muscarinic blocking effect is related to the acetylcholine moiety on the A ring on pancuronium. Making the N atom on the A ... Few,[9] may cause prolonged paralysis[9] and promote muscarinic block widely[9] non-refrigerated ... If the distance is 0.44 nm, the compound shows muscarinic properties-and if the distance is 0.59 nm, nicotinic properties ... Spivak CE, Waters JA, Aronstam RS (1 July 1989). "Binding of semirigid nicotinic agonists to nicotinic and muscarinic receptors ...
muscarinic antagonist. *Aclidinium bromide. *Glycopyrronium bromide. *Ipratropium bromide#. *Oxitropium bromide. *Tiotropium ... Only available as an inhalant, ipratropium bromide is used in the treatment of asthma and COPD. As a short-acting ... Some examples of anticholinergics are tiotropium (Spiriva) and ipratropium bromide. Tiotropium is a long-acting, 24-hour, ...
It binds to the M1 muscarinic receptor and possibly the dopamine receptor.[which?] Trihexyphenidyl is rapidly absorbed from the ... In the second step the 2-(1-piperidino)propiophenone is reacted with cyclohexylmagnesium bromide in a Grignard reaction. ... "Binding and functional profiles of the selective M1 muscarinic receptor antagonists trihexyphenidyl and dicyclomine". British ...
"Neostigmine Bromide". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. ... By interfering with the breakdown of acetylcholine, neostigmine indirectly stimulates both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. ... "Neostigmine bromide". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Medicine portal. ... Porst H, Kny L (May 1985). "[The structure of degradation products of neostigmine bromide]". Die Pharmazie (in German). 40 (5 ...
... Guy Joos (UGent) , ... "Bronchodilatory Effects of Aclidinium Bromide, a Long-acting Muscarinic Antagonist, in COPD Patients." Respiratory Medicine 104 ... "Bronchodilatory Effects of Aclidinium Bromide, a Long-acting Muscarinic Antagonist, in COPD Patients." RESPIRATORY MEDICINE ... 2010). Bronchodilatory effects of aclidinium bromide, a long-acting muscarinic antagonist, in COPD patients. RESPIRATORY ...
Ipratropium bromide/salbutamol. Combination of. Ipratropium bromide. Muscarinic antagonist. Salbutamol. Short-acting β2- ... "DailyMed - ipratropium bromide and albuterol sulfate inhalant". dailymed.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 18 April 2019.. ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ipratropium_bromide/salbutamol&oldid=902367065" ...
... with umeclidinium bromide: Anoro Ellipta. Umeclidinium bromide is a long-acting muscarinic antagonist. This combination was ... INN: umeclidinium bromide/vilanterol" (PDF). European Medicines Agency. Retrieved 25 March 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged ... parameter (link) "State Register of Nedicines: Anoro Ellipta (vilanterol + umeclidinium bromide)". Russian State Register of ...
Glycopyrronium bromide is a medication of the muscarinic anticholinergic group. It does not cross the blood-brain barrier and ... Glycopyrronium competitively blocks muscarinic receptors, thus inhibiting cholinergic transmission. Glycopyrronium bromide ... "Glycopyrronium bromide". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. "Glycopyrronium". Drug Information Portal ... Bajaj V, Langtry JA (July 2007). "Use of oral glycopyrronium bromide in hyperhidrosis". Br. J. Dermatol. 157 (1): 118-21. doi: ...
Bromides. Muscarinic Antagonists. Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Bronchodilator Agents. Autonomic Agents. Peripheral Nervous System ... Experimental: Umeclidinium bromide 62.5 + Fluticasone propionate/Salmeterol Long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), 62.5mcg ... Active Comparator: Umeclidinium bromide 125 + Fluticasone propionate/Salmeterol Long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), ... Drug: Umeclidinium bromide 62.5mcg Drug: Umeclidinium bromide 125mcg Drug: Fluticasone propionate 250mcg/Salmeterol 50mcg Drug ...
Experimental: Aclidinium Bromide Two-week washout/run-in period [for patients on a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA)] ... Bromides. Muscarinic Antagonists. Anticonvulsants. Cholinergic Antagonists. Cholinergic Agents. Neurotransmitter Agents. ... to assess the overall safety of Aclidinium bromide and to assess whether Aclidinium bromide reduces moderate or severe COPD ... Drug: Aclidinium Bromide 400 μg, twice per day, oral administration via a multi-dose dry-powder inhaler (DPI) ...
Expression of Muscarinic Receptors and the Effect of Tiotropium Bromide in Aged Mouse Model of Chronic Asthma / 결핵및호흡기질환 ... Expression of Muscarinic Receptors and the Effect of Tiotropium Bromide in Aged Mouse Mode ... Efficacy and safety of tiotropium bromide, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, in treatment of asthma have been reported. However ... Tiotropium bromide had anti-inflammatory and anti-remodeling effects in an aged mouse model of chronic asthma. Its effects ...
Clinicopharmacological Profile of the Fixed-dose Combination of Aclidinium Bromide and Formoterol Fumarate in the Management of ... Long-acting muscarinic antagonist use in adults with asthma: real-life prescribing and outcomes of add-on therapy with ... Long-acting muscarinic antagonist use in adults with asthma: real-life prescribing and outcomes of add-on therapy with ... Comparative efficacy of long-acting muscarinic antagonist monotherapies in COPD: a systematic review and network meta-analysis ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Aclidinium Bromide is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Aclidinium Bromide is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Muscarinic receptor antagonist (anticholinergic, parasympatholytic agent). Treatment of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary ... Brimica Genuair (Aclidinium Bromide and Formoterol fumarate dihydrate). Berlin-Chemie, Germany. *Duaklir (Aclidinium Bromide ...
Bromides. Anticonvulsants. Adjuvants, Anesthesia. Muscarinic Antagonists. Cholinergic Antagonists. Cholinergic Agents. ... Drug: Glycopyrronium bromide Glycopyrronium bromide 50µg was supplied as inhalation capsules for use via a Single Dose Dry ... Experimental: Glycopyrronium bromide Glycopyrronium bromide 50µg delivered once daily via Single Dose Dry Powder Inhaler (SDDPI ...
an anticholinergic agent or muscarinic antagonist (e.g. Ipratropium bromide, Oxitropium bromide, Tiotropium bromide); * *a mast ... Acid addition salts are e.g. a chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, carbonate, sulfate, methylsulfate, phosphate, acetate, ...
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown ... DB00462, Methscopolamine bromide. DB00340, Metixene. DB01336, Metocurine. DB01226, Mivacurium. DB00622, Nicardipine. ... Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2Add BLAST. 466. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ... "RACK1 associates with muscarinic receptors and regulates M(2) receptor trafficking.". Reiner C.L., McCullar J.S., Kow R.L., Le ...
Ipratropium Bromide (Atrovent): MOA Muscarinic ACh-R antagonist -> inhibits parasympathetic stimulation in bronchial smooth ... First three doses of albuterol should be given concurrently with ipratropium bromide. May worsen cardiac asthma (pulmonary ... First three doses of levalbuterol should be given concurrently with ipratropium bromide. Caution in patients with cardia ...
Muscarinic M1-M5 acetylcholine receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that regulate many vital functions of the central and ... Tiotropium Bromide / pharmacology Substances * 3-amino-5-chloro-6-methoxy-4-methyl-thieno(2,3-b)pyridine-2-carboxylic acid ... Crystal structures of the M1 and M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):335-40. doi: 10.1038/ ... Muscarinic M1-M5 acetylcholine receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that regulate many vital functions of the central and ...
pyridostigmine bromide. AFDX-116. 11-[[[2-diethylamino-O-methyl]-1-piperidinyl]acetyl]-5,11-dihydrol-6H-pyridol[2,3-b][1,4] ... Involvement of Muscarinic Receptors. Máriton D. Santos, Edna F. R. Pereira, Yasco Aracava, Newton G. Castro, William P. Fawcett ... This study was designed to investigate the effects of the cholinesterase inhibitors soman and pyridostigmine bromide (PB) on ... Involvement of Muscarinic Receptors. Máriton D. Santos, Edna F. R. Pereira, Yasco Aracava, Newton G. Castro, William P. Fawcett ...
Umeclidinium Bromide reference guide for safe and effective use from the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (AHFS DI ... Nonselective competitive antagonist at muscarinic (M1-M5) receptors.1 2 6 7 8 ... Umeclidinium Bromide. Class: Antimuscarinics/Antispasmodics. VA Class: RE105. Chemical Name: 4-(Hydroxydiphenylmethyl)-1-[2-( ... Available as umeclidinium bromide; dosage expressed in terms of umeclidinium.1. Each foil-wrapped blister in the Incruse ...
... aclidinium bromide inhalation powder): For the maintenance treatment of bronchospasm associated with chronic obstructive ... Aclidinium bromide is an anticholinergic with specificity for muscarinic receptors. It has similar affinity to the subtypes of ... Aclidinium bromide is an anticholinergic with specificity for muscarinic receptors.. Tudorza Pressair is specifically indicated ... Tudorza Pressair (aclidinium bromide inhalation powder) consists of a dry powder formulation of aclidinium bromide for oral ...
ipotropium bromide Muscarinic receptors in lung: M1, M2, M3, M4; M3 receptor is most important in mediating smooth muscle ...
A More Sustainable Process for Preparation of the Muscarinic Acetylcholine Antagonist Umeclidinium Bromide ...
A More Sustainable Process for Preparation of the Muscarinic Acetylcholine Antagonist Umeclidinium Bromide ...
Anti-cholinergic/anti-muscarinic agents (oxybutynin, tolterodine , hyoscyamine sulfate, propantheline bromide; trospium ...
Aclidinium bromide, a novel, inhaled long-acting muscarinic antagonist compound with low systemic activity, has been developed ... Aclidinium bromide, a new, long-acting, inhaled muscarinic antagonist: in vitro plasma inactivation and pharmacological ... Efficacy and safety of twice-daily aclidinium bromide in COPD patients: the ATTAIN study. Paul W. Jones, Dave Singh, Eric D. ... Efficacy and safety of a 12-week treatment with twice-daily aclidinium bromide in COPD patients (ACCORD COPD I). COPD 2012; 9: ...
Paralysis was achieved with pancuronium bromide (0.2 mg/kg). The thorax was opened by midline thoracotomy with the positive end ... Atropine is a non-selective muscarinic antagonist with very similar potency on all muscarinic receptor subtypes.14 It was ... 1982) Muscarinic receptor subtypes: M1 and M2. Biochemical and functional characterization. Life Sci 31:2991-2998, . ... Few M1 subtype muscarinic receptors have been identified in rat lung using binding studies,5 6 and only M2 and M3 receptors ...
Tiotropium Bromide) may treat, side effects, dosage, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related ... The drug substance, tiotropium bromide monohydrate, is an anticholinergic with specificity for muscarinic receptors. It is ... nonane bromide monohydrate. It is a synthetic, non-chiral, quaternary ammonium compound. Tiotropium bromide is a white or ... Tiotropium bromide (monohydrate) has a molecular mass of 490.4 and a molecular formula of C19H22NO4S2Br • H2O. ...
Glycopyrronium bromide is a muscarinic receptor antagonist. It blocks muscarinic receptors in muscle cells in the airways. ... The three active substances in Zimbus Breezhaler, indacaterol, glycopyrronium bromide and mometasone, have been in use in ...
Cholinergic Receptor Muscarinic 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - ... Homatropine Bromide. Muscarinic AChR antagonist. 51-56-9. Homatropine Methylbromide. Muscarinic AChR antagonist. 80-49-9. ... Muscarinic receptor agonist. 107233-08-9. Cevimeline hydrochloride hemihydrate. Agonist of muscarinic receptor (M1/M3). 153504- ... Muscarinic receptors influence many effects of acetylcholine in the central and peripheral nervous system. The muscarinic ...
Tiotropium is a muscarinic receptor antagonist, often referred to as an antimuscarinic or anticholinergic agent. Although it ... Tiotropium bromide, sold under the brandname Spiriva among others, is a long-acting bronchodilator used in the management of ... "Tiotropium Bromide Monograph for Professionals". Drugs.com. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved 31 January ... Kato M, Komamura K, Kitakaze M (December 2006). "Tiotropium, a novel muscarinic M3 receptor antagonist, improved symptoms of ...
Once-daily glycopyrronium bromide, a long-acting muscarinic antagonist, for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic ...
3-[(cyclopentylhydroxyphenylacetyl oxy]-1,1-dimethyl-pyrrolidinium bromide. M2. muscarinic type 2. M3. muscarinic type 3.. ... 1995) Tiotropium bromide (Ba 679 BR), a novel long-acting muscarinic antagonist for the treatment of obstructive airways ... NVA237 had greater equilibrium binding and kinetic selectivity for muscarinic type 3 (M3) versus muscarinic type 2 (M2) ... 1-dimethyl-pyrrolidinium bromide (NVA237) is a novel once-daily dry powder formulation of the LAMA glycopyrronium bromide, ...
  • Glycopyrronium competitively blocks muscarinic receptors, thus inhibiting cholinergic transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of tiotropium and expression of muscarinic receptors as its related mechanism in an aged mouse model of chronic asthma with airway remodeling. (bvsalud.org)
  • Its effects seemed to be partly mediated by modulating expression M3 and M2 muscarinic receptors. (bvsalud.org)
  • Muscarinic M1-M5 acetylcholine receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that regulate many vital functions of the central and peripheral nervous systems. (nih.gov)
  • Here we report the crystal structures of the M1 and M4 muscarinic receptors bound to the inverse agonist, tiotropium. (nih.gov)
  • Aclidinium bromide is an anticholinergic with specificity for muscarinic receptors. (centerwatch.com)
  • It has similar affinity to the subtypes of muscarinic receptors M1 to M5. (centerwatch.com)
  • It is a chemical analogue of acetylcholine and induces smooth muscle contraction by stimulating muscarinic cholinergic receptors located on the smooth muscle. (bmj.com)
  • Muscarinic cholinergic receptors exist in at least four major subtypes that can be demonstrated pharmacologically. (bmj.com)
  • 5 6 A species difference in distribution of muscarinic receptors of the lung has been established. (bmj.com)
  • The drug substance, tiotropium bromide monohydrate, is an anticholinergic with specificity for muscarinic receptors. (rxlist.com)
  • It blocks muscarinic receptors in muscle cells in the airways. (europa.eu)
  • The muscarinic cholinergic receptors belong to a larger family of G protein-coupled receptors. (genecards.org)
  • Muscarinic receptors influence many effects of acetylcholine in the central and peripheral nervous system. (genecards.org)
  • Muscarinic receptors are widely distributed throughout the body and control distinct functions according to location and subtype (M1 - M5).They are predominantly expressed in the parasympathetic nervous system where they exert both inhibitory and excitatory effects. (genecards.org)
  • Although it does not display selectivity for specific muscarinic receptors, when topically applied it acts mainly on M 3 muscarinic receptors [13] located on smooth muscle cells and submucosal glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • NVA237 had greater equilibrium binding and kinetic selectivity for muscarinic type 3 (M 3 ) versus muscarinic type 2 (M 2 ) receptors, with a faster off rate from M 2 versus M 3 receptors than tiotropium, potentially affording it a more favorable therapeutic index. (aspetjournals.org)
  • It blocks acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors. (nps.org.au)
  • It works by blocking receptors called muscarinic receptors that are found on the muscle surrounding the airways. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • A muscarinic antagonist used to study binding characteristics of muscarinic cholinergic receptors. (drugbank.ca)
  • By activating muscarinic receptors (M receptors), ACh exerts its profound modulatory effect on postsynaptic neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • When sprayed into the nose, ipratropium works by blocking receptors called muscarinic (or cholinergic) receptors, that are found in the nose. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Its active ingredient ipratropium bromide works by blocking these muscarinic receptors and prohibiting the action of acetylcholine on them. (euroclinix.net)
  • Although it does not display selectivity for specific muscarinic receptors, on topical application it acts mainly on M3 muscarinic receptors located in the airways to produce smooth muscle relaxation, thus producing a bronchodilatory effect. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • It blocks the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the smooth muscles of the bronchi in the lungs, opening the bronchi. (hmdb.ca)
  • INTRATHECAL administration of cholinergic receptor agonists or cholinesterase inhibitors have an antinociceptive effect in a dose-dependent manner, which is mediated by spinal muscarinic receptors in animals, and this analgesic effect has been confirmed in human studies. (asahq.org)
  • [1-7] The mechanisms of this spinal action are not clear, but autoradiographic studies have shown the existence of muscarinic receptors, both M 1 and M 2 , in laminae II and III of the spinal cord. (asahq.org)
  • The parasympathetic nervous system, through the liberation of acetylcholine, acts upon the muscarinic M3 receptors and produces an abundant secretion of aqueous saliva. (medsci.org)
  • it also inhibits M2/3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). (lktlabs.com)
  • Neuromuscular relaxants as antagonists for M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors. (lktlabs.com)
  • Systemic application of M1 antagonist, pirenzipine abolished NMCs (n=2), although normal voiding responses remained, indicating the contribution of urothelial muscarinic receptors in NMC generation. (physoc.org)
  • Methylhomatropine is a peripherally acting anticholinergic medication that inhibits muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and thus the parasympathetic nervous system. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Here, we described the presence of a neurotoxin with phospholipase A 2 activity isolated from Micrurus lemniscatus venom (Mlx-8) with affinity for muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). (scielo.br)
  • The results of the present work show, for the first time, that muscarinic receptors are also affected by the Mlx-8 toxin, a muscarinic ligand with phospholipase A 2 characteristics, obtained from the venom of the Elapidae snake Micrurus lemniscatus , since this toxin was able to compete with muscarinic ligand [ 3 H]QNB in hippocampus of rats. (scielo.br)
  • A popular seller, atropine sulfate, is a competitive antagonist of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors which dilates the pupils, reduces salivation and increases heart rate. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • Efficacy and safety of tiotropium bromide, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, in treatment of asthma have been reported. (bvsalud.org)
  • Tiotropium bromide was administered during the challenge period. (bvsalud.org)
  • Total cell with eosinophils, increased in the OVA groups by age, was decreased significantly after treatment with tiotropium bromide, particularly in the age group of 15 months. (bvsalud.org)
  • Tiotropium bromide had anti-inflammatory and anti-remodeling effects in an aged mouse model of chronic asthma. (bvsalud.org)
  • Spiriva HandiHaler (tiotropium bromide) Inhalation Powder is an anticholinergic drug used to prevent bronchospasm (narrowing of the airways in the lungs ) in people with bronchitis , emphysema , or COPD ( chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ). (rxlist.com)
  • Each light green, hard gelatin SPIRIVA capsule contains a dry powder consisting of 18 mcg tiotropium (equivalent to 22.5 mcg tiotropium bromide monohydrate) blended with lactose monohydrate (which may contain milk proteins). (rxlist.com)
  • Tiotropium bromide is a white or yellowish white powder. (rxlist.com)
  • SPIRIVA HANDIHALER ( tiotropium bromide inhalation powder) is indicated for the long-term, once-daily, maintenance treatment of bronchospasm associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ), including chronic bronchitis and emphysema . (rxlist.com)
  • Tiotropium bromide , sold under the brandname Spiriva among others, is a long-acting bronchodilator used in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma . (wikipedia.org)
  • Two agents, tiotropium bromide and aclidinium, are already licensed for COPD. (asthmaallergieschildren.com)
  • This is the first US real-world study to examine the comparative effectiveness of SYMBICORT ® 160/4.5 (budesonide/formoterol fumarate dihydrate) Inhalation Aerosol, an inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting beta2-agonist combination therapy, and tiotropium bromide 18 mcg, a long-acting muscarinic antagonist, in patients with COPD. (astrazeneca-us.com)
  • Patients were followed for 12 months after an initial prescription fill for either SYMBICORT or tiotropium bromide. (astrazeneca-us.com)
  • The study, titled "Comparative Effectiveness of Budesonide/Formoterol Combination and Tiotropium Bromide Among COPD Patients New to These Controller Treatments," was published online in the September issue of the International Journal of COPD. (astrazeneca-us.com)
  • A resolution passed by the government of the Brazilian state of São Paulo established a protocol for requesting free COPD medications, including tiotropium bromide, creating regional authorization centers to evaluate and approve such requests, given the high cost of those medications. (scielo.br)
  • This product was approved by the FDA in May 2013 as once-daily inhaled therapy for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with umeclidinium bromide: Anoro Ellipta. (wikipedia.org)
  • Umeclidinium bromide is a long-acting muscarinic antagonist. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of this 12 week study is to evaluate the effects of the addition of umeclidinium bromide (62.5mcg) once-daily to fluticanse propionate/salmeterol (250/50mcg) twice-daily, umeclidinium bromide (125mcg) once-daily to fluticanse propionate/salmeterol (250/50mcg) twice-daily versus placebo to fluticanse propionate/salmeterol (250/50mcg) twice-daily on lung function, COPD-related health status assessments and safety in COPD subjects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Each foil-wrapped blister in the Incruse Ellipta inhaler device contains 74.2 mcg of umeclidinium bromide (equivalent to 62.5 mcg of umeclidinium). (drugs.com)
  • RELVAR™ ELLIPTA™/BREO™ ELLIPTA™ (fluticasone furoate (FF)/vilanterol (VI)), ANORO™ ELLIPTA™ (umeclidinium bromide (UMEC)/VI) and VI monotherapy have been developed under the LABA collaboration with GSK. (businesswire.com)
  • How does umeclidinium bromide compare with placebo for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)? (bmj.com)
  • Theravance's key programs include: Relvar(TM) or Breo(TM) (FF/VI), umeclidinium bromide/vilanterol (UMEC/VI) and MABA (Bifunctional Muscarinic Antagonist-Beta2 Agonist), each partnered with GlaxoSmithKline plc, and its oral Peripheral Mu Opioid Receptor Antagonist program. (biospace.com)
  • Umeclidinium bromide (UMEC) is an inhaled long-acting muscarinic antagonist in development for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (springer.com)
  • Are inhalers containing umeclidinium bromide effective and safe for people with COPD? (cochrane.org)
  • To assess the efficacy and safety of umeclidinium bromide versus placebo for people with stable COPD. (cochrane.org)
  • We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of parallel design comparing umeclidinium bromide versus placebo in people with COPD, for at least 12 weeks. (cochrane.org)
  • Umeclidinium bromide(GSK573719A) is a muscarinic receptor antagonist which is useful in treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (adooq.com)
  • Glycopyrronium bromide is a medication of the muscarinic anticholinergic group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycopyrronium bromide affects the gastrointestinal tracts, liver and kidney but has a very limited effect on the brain and the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycopyrronium bromide 50µg delivered once daily via Single Dose Dry Powder Inhaler (SDDPI). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Zimbus Breezhaler contains the active substances indacaterol, glycopyrronium bromide and mometasone. (europa.eu)
  • The three active substances in Zimbus Breezhaler, indacaterol, glycopyrronium bromide and mometasone, have been in use in several inhaled medicines for treating patients with breathing disorders. (europa.eu)
  • Glycopyrronium bromide is a muscarinic receptor antagonist. (europa.eu)
  • Our aim was to determine how clinically relevant dissociation rates under more physiological conditions influence the differences in onset of action between tiotropium and 3-[(cyclopentylhydroxyphenylacetyl oxy]-1,1-dimethyl-pyrrolidinium bromide (NVA237), a once-daily dry-powder formulation of the LAMA glycopyrronium bromide in development for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 3-[(cyclopentylhydroxyphenylacetyl oxy]-1,1-dimethyl-pyrrolidinium bromide (NVA237) is a novel once-daily dry powder formulation of the LAMA glycopyrronium bromide, which is in development for the treatment of COPD. (aspetjournals.org)
  • One option is a long-acting anticholinergic drug and prescribers can now choose between tiotropium and glycopyrronium bromide. (nps.org.au)
  • Each capsule contains 63 micrograms of glycopyrronium bromide equivalent to 50 micrograms of glycopyrronium. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Each delivered dose (the dose that leaves the mouthpiece of the inhaler) contains 55 micrograms of glycopyrronium bromide equivalent to 44 micrograms of glycopyrronium. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Glycopyrronium bromide is a type of medicine known as an antimuscarinic or anticholinergic bronchodilator. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Glycopyrronium (as the bromide salt glycopyrrolate) is a synthetic anticholinergic agent with a quaternary ammonium structure. (drugbank.ca)
  • Glycopyrronium bromide is a quarternary ammonium antimuscarinic. (mims.com)
  • Disclaimer: This information is independently developed by MIMS based on Glycopyrronium bromide from various references and is provided for your reference only. (mims.com)
  • Each 1ml of solution contains Glycopyrronium Bromide (Glycopyrrolate) 0.5mg and Neostigmine Metilsulfate 2.5mg. (medicines.org.uk)
  • 1-2ml intravenously over a period of 10 to 30 seconds (equivalent to Glycopyrronium Bromide 0.5mg with Neostigmine Metilsulfate 2.5mg to Glycopyrronium Bromide 1mg with Neostigmine Metilsulfate 5mg). (medicines.org.uk)
  • Hypersensitivity to the Glycopyrronium Bromide or Neostigmine Metilsulfate or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Glycopyrronium Bromide and Neostigmine Metilsulfate Injection should not be given to patients with known hypersensitivity to either of the two active ingredients or given to patients with mechanical obstruction of the gastrointestinal or urinary tracts. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Although Glycopyrronium Bromide and Neostigmine Metilsulfate Injection has been shown to have less impact on the cardiovascular system than Atropine with Neostigmine Metilsulfate, use with caution in patients with coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, cardiac dysrhythmias, hypertension or thyrotoxicosis. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Inhaled long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs), considered first-line bronchodilators, are widely used for the treatment of COPD. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Preclinical evaluation of long-acting muscarinic antagonists: comparison of tiotropium and investigational drugs. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Long-acting beta-2 agonists (LABAs) and long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) are preferred over short-acting bronchodilators, except for patients with only occasional dyspnea. (bmj.com)
  • Long-acting bronchodilators are the mainstay of treatment for symptomatic improvement, and umeclidinium is one of the new long-acting muscarinic antagonists approved for treatment of patients with stable COPD. (cochrane.org)
  • For patients with asthma, long-acting muscarinic antagonists should be prescribed only in addition to an inhaled corticosteroid. (asthmahandbook.org.au)
  • Evaluate the Effect of Aclidinium Bromide on Long-term Cardiovascular Safety and Exacerbations in Moderate to Very Severe COPD Patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The Objectives of this study are to assess the safety of Aclidinium bromide on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), to assess the overall safety of Aclidinium bromide and to assess whether Aclidinium bromide reduces moderate or severe COPD exacerbations. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study is a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, parallel-group study to evaluate the effect of Aclidinium bromide on the cardiovascular safety and COPD exacerbations in patients with moderate to very severe COPD, as defined by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Singh D, Magnussen H, Kirsten A, Mindt S, Caracta C, Seoane B, Jarreta D, Garcia Gil E A randomised, placebo- and active-controlled dose-finding study of aclidinium bromide administered twice a day in COPD patients. (centerwatch.com)
  • Jones PW, Singh D, Bateman ED, Agusti A, Lamarca R, de Miquel G, Segarra R, Caracta C, Garcia Gil E Efficacy and safety of twice-daily aclidinium bromide in COPD patients: The ATTAIN study. (centerwatch.com)
  • The efficacy and safety of two doses of aclidinium bromide were evaluated in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (ersjournals.com)
  • Aclidinium bromide, a novel, inhaled long-acting muscarinic antagonist compound with low systemic activity, has been developed for the treatment of COPD. (ersjournals.com)
  • WASHINGTON -- The FDA has approved aclidinium bromide (Tudorza Pressair) for long-term treatment of bronchospasm associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the agency announced Monday. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Long-Term Evaluation of the Effects of Aclidinium Bromide on Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events and COPD Exacerbations in Patients with Moderate to Very Severe COPD: Rationale and Design of the ASCENT COPD Study. (nih.gov)
  • GLY is a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) indicated as maintenance bronchodilator to relieve symptoms in adults with COPD. (ersjournals.com)
  • An increased cholinergic tone mediates different pathophysiological features of COPD, such as bronchoconstriction and mucus hypersecretion, mostly through activation of the human muscarinic M(3) receptor (hM(3)) subtype. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Aclidinium bromide is a long-acting anticholinergic (or long-acting muscarinic-receptor antagonist [LAMA] 1 ) now PBS listed for maintenance treatment of COPD. (nps.org.au)
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a fixed-dose combination of aclidinium bromide 400 μg and formoterol fumarate 12 μg ( Duaklir , Circassia Pharmaceuticals) for the maintenance treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (physiciansweekly.com)
  • AstraZeneca today announced that Duaklir® Genuair® (aclidinium bromide/formoterol fumarate 340/12 mcg) has been granted Marketing Authorisation by the European Commission (EC) to be used as a maintenance bronchodilator treatment to relieve symptoms in adult patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (astrazeneca.se)
  • Both aclidinium bromide (Eklira®) and formoterol fumarate are separately approved for the maintenance treatment of COPD in the United States and Europe. (astrazeneca.se)
  • Circassia will promote Duaklir® in the United States via its dedicated COPD sales force, alongside its established COPD treatment Tudorza® (aclidinium bromide). (proactiveinvestors.co.uk)
  • Ipratropium Bromide is a short-acting (lasting for 6-8 h) anticholinergic bronchodilator used in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (omicsonline.org)
  • Tiotropium is a new anticholinergic therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that differs from ipratropium by its functional relative selectivity for muscarinic receptor subtypes and which allows once-per-day dosing. (essentialevidenceplus.com)
  • Tiotropium and ipratropium bromide are both recognised treatments in the management of people with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (essentialevidenceplus.com)
  • Under the terms of the agreement, AstraZeneca will acquire the developmental and commercial rights in the US and Canada to Tudorza Pressair (aclidinium bromide inhalation powder), which is a twice-a-day, long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) for chronic pulmonary disease (COPD), and Daliresp (roflumikast), the only once-daily oral PDE4 inhibitor for COPD. (pharmtech.com)
  • Short-acting beta-2 agonists (SABAs) and short-acting muscarinic antagonists (SAMAs) improve lung function and breathlessness and quality of life. (bmj.com)
  • Muscarinic antagonists are also called anticholinergic bronchodilators. (asthmahandbook.org.au)
  • Ipratropium bromide is an anticholinergic bronchodilator chemically described as 8-azoniabicyclo[3.2.1] octane, 3-(3-hydroxy-1-oxo-2-phenylpropoxy)-8-methyl8-(1-methylethyl)-, bromide monohydrate, (3-endo, 8-syn)-: a synthetic quaternary ammonium compound chemically related to atropine . (rxlist.com)
  • Atropine and similar compounds block the effects of excess acetylcholine more effectively at muscarinic sites than at nicotinic sites. (fas.org)
  • Animals were premedicated by subcutaneous injection of a tranquilizer (acepromazine, 1 mg/kg), a muscarinic antagonist (methyl atropine bromide, 0.2 mg/kg) to reduce bronchial secretion, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate (0.5 mg/kg) to reduce inflammation. (jneurosci.org)
  • is a muscarinic antagonist, bronchodilator, N-Isopropyl salt of atropine. (masterplumbers.com)
  • 2. Long acting anti-muscarinic bronchodilators (LAMAs). (asthmaallergieschildren.com)
  • Ipratropium Bromide Inhalation Solution administered either alone or with other bronchodilators, especially beta adrenergics, is indicated as a bronchodilator for maintenance treatment of bronchospasm associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, including chronic bronchitis and emphysema. (nih.gov)
  • Duaklir Genuair (aclidinium bromide/formoterol fumarate 340/12 mcg) is a fixed dose combination of two approved long-acting bronchodilators with different mechanisms of action and similar pharmocodynamic profiles. (astrazeneca.se)
  • Atrovent inhaler and Atrovent UDVs both contain the active ingredient ipratropium bromide, which is a type of medicine called an antimuscarinic bronchodilator. (euroclinix.net)
  • The Atrovent inhaler, containing 20mcg of Ipratropium Bromide, is designed to be taken as a regular medication, every day, to keep the airways open all the time and the breathing difficulties at bay. (mypharmacy.co.uk)
  • Have you been prescribed atrovent (Ipratropium Bromide) in the last 12 months? (mypharmacy.co.uk)
  • Atrovent Asthma contains a medicine called ipratropium bromide. (mypharmacy.co.uk)
  • Ipratropium bromide (trade names Atrovent, Apovent, and Aerovent) is an anticholinergic drug used for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute asthma. (hmdb.ca)
  • Additional controlled 12-week studies were conducted to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of Ipratropium Bromide Inhalation Solution administered concomitantly with the beta adrenergic bronchodilator solutions metaproterenol and albuterol compared with the administration of each of the beta agonists alone. (nih.gov)
  • Duolin Inhaler is a combination of the beta2-adrenergic bronchodilator, Levosalbutamol Sulphate, and the anticholinergic bronchodilator, Ipratropium Bromide. (reliablerxpharmacy.com)
  • Tudorza Pressair (aclidinium bromide inhalation powder) consists of a dry powder formulation of aclidinium bromide for oral inhalation only. (centerwatch.com)
  • COMBIVENT Inhalation Aerosol is a combination of ipratropium bromide (as the monohydrate) and albuterol sulfate. (rxlist.com)
  • Combivent® (ipratropium bromide and albuterol sulfate) Inhalation Aerosol contains a microcrystalline suspension of ipratropium bromide and albuterol sulfate in a pressurized metered-dose aerosol unit for oral inhalation administration. (rxlist.com)
  • Also, safety and efficacy of extra doses of ipratropium or albuterol in addition to the recommended doses of Combivent® (ipratropium bromide and albuterol sulfate) Inhalation Aerosol have not been studied. (rxlist.com)
  • The active ingredient in Ipratropium Bromide Inhalation Solution is ipratropium bromide monohydrate. (nih.gov)
  • Ipratropium Bromide Inhalation Solution is administered by oral inhalation with the aid of a nebulizer. (nih.gov)
  • Ipratropium Bromide Inhalation Solution is an anticholinergic (parasympatholytic) agent that, based on animal studies, appears to inhibit vagally-mediated reflexes by antagonizing the action of acetylcholine, the transmitter agent released from the vagus nerve. (nih.gov)
  • The bronchodilation following inhalation of Ipratropium Bromide Inhalation Solution is primarily a local, site-specific effect, not a systemic one. (nih.gov)
  • Ipratropium Bromide Inhalation Solution has not been studied in patients with hepatic or renal insufficiency. (nih.gov)
  • Two-week washout/run-in period [for patients on a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA)] followed by a maximum of 36-month double-blind treatment period. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Studies under nonphysiological conditions suggest that long receptor residency time is responsible for the 24-h duration of action of the long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) tiotropium. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Aclidinium bromide is a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) that acts primarily on the M 3 receptor to relieve bronchospasm. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Duaklir is a fixed-dose combination of already-approved Eklira® (aclidinium bromide), a long-acting muscarinic-antagonist (LAMA), with the long-acting beta-agonist (LABA) formoterol. (astrazeneca.se)
  • Aclidinium bromide is an anticholinergic or long acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) that produces bronchodilation by inhibiting the muscarinic M3 receptor in the airway smooth muscle. (astrazeneca.se)
  • Tudorza Pressair is a breath-actuated multi-dose dry powder inhaler metering 400 mcg of aclidinium bromide per actuation. (centerwatch.com)
  • Aclidinium bromide, distributed by Forest Laboratories subsidiary Forest Pharmaceuticals, is a dry powder inhaler used twice daily. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Levosalbutamol and Ipratropium Bromide is the main active pharmaceutical ingredient present in Duolin 200 mdi Inhaler. (reliablerxpharmacy.com)
  • In addition, we have investigated kinetic selectivity at each of the muscarinic receptor subtypes to determine whether the improved cardiovascular therapeutic index obtained with NVA237 in animal models is attributable to differences in kinetic rate constants. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These agents bind to muscarinic receptor subtypes M 1 and M 3 localised in airway smooth muscle and block the bronchoconstrictor response to cholinergic nerve stimulation [ 2 , 3 ], thereby improving airflow obstruction. (springer.com)
  • This study was designed to investigate the effects of the cholinesterase inhibitors soman and pyridostigmine bromide (PB) on synaptic transmission in the CA1 field of rat hippocampal slices. (aspetjournals.org)
  • MESTINON (pyridostigmine bromide) Oral Solution, USP is an orally active cholinesterase inhibitor. (nih.gov)
  • Chemically, pyridostigmine bromide is 3-hydroxy-1-methylpyridinium bromide dimethylcarbamate. (nih.gov)
  • Oral Solution containing 60 mg pyridostigmine bromide per teaspoonful in a vehicle containing 5% alcohol, glycerin, lactic acid, sodium benzoate, sorbitol, sucrose, FD & C Red No. 40, FD & C Blue No. 1, flavors and water. (nih.gov)
  • and (4) potential effect of pyridostigmine bromide in oxidative stress, addressing as subtitle the influence of pyridostigmine bromide on the superoxide-hydrogen peroxide imbalance model. (intechopen.com)
  • however, this discussion needs to be better elucidated and may be more discussed as there is interaction between the pyridostigmine bromide and an endogenous oxidative imbalance caused by it or even by the possible interaction of this with genetic variations present in the antioxidant metabolism. (intechopen.com)
  • Pyridostigmine bromide (PB) is a reversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor and the first line of choice for the treatment of symptoms associated with myasthenia gravis (MG) and other neuromuscular junction disorder prophylactic treatment in the Persian Gulf War, for prevention of post-traumatic stress and heat and pesticide exposure. (intechopen.com)
  • It is chemically described as (1α, 2β, 4β, 5α, 7β)-7-[(Hydroxydi-2-thienylacetyl)oxy]-9,9-dimethyl-3-oxa-9-azoniatricyclo[3.3.1.0 2,4 ]nonane bromide monohydrate. (rxlist.com)
  • However, there was no significant difference between ipratropium bromide and placebo in the percentage of symptom-free nights or days. (cochrane.org)
  • Cimetropium bromide does not improve polyp and adenoma detection during colonoscope withdrawal: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. (bioportfolio.com)
  • It consists of aclidinium bromide , a long-acting muscarinic antagonist , and formoterol , a long-acting β 2 agonist . (rug.nl)
  • A muscarinic M1 receptor ectopic activator, such as a muscarinic M1 receptor allosteric potentiator or a muscarinic M1 receptor ectopic agonist is useful, alone or in combination with other antipsychotic agents, for treating or preventing psychosis, such as a schizophrenic disorder or psychosis in Alzheimer's disease or bipolar disorder, for enhancing cognition and for neuropathic pain. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 9. The method of claim 1 wherein the muscarinic M1 receptor ectopic activator is a muscarinic M1 receptor ectopic agonist. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In addition, Mlx-8 also blocked the accumulation of total [ 3 H]inositol phosphate induced by muscarinic agonist carbachol. (scielo.br)
  • The pK i values were determined for Mlx-8 toxin and the M 1 selective muscarinic antagonist pirenzepine in hippocampus membranes via [ 3 H]QNB competition binding assays. (scielo.br)
  • Rinatec nasal spray contains the active ingredient ipratropium bromide, which is a type of medicine known as an antimuscarinic (sometimes called an anticholinergic). (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Ipratropium bromide versus short acting beta-2 agonists for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (bmj.com)
  • The long-acting muscarinic antagonist tiotropium received an indication for the treatment of asthma from the FDA in 2015. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 2. Critical evaluation of the efficacy of drotaverine hydrochloride with valethamate bromide. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • A muscarinic competitive antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in some disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and to reduce salivation with some anesthetics. (drugbank.ca)
  • Anticholinergics prevent the increases in intracellular concentration of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP) which are caused by interaction of acetylcholine with the muscarinic receptor on bronchial smooth muscle. (nih.gov)
  • First three doses of albuterol should be given concurrently with ipratropium bromide. (brainscape.com)
  • Seter K, Dilzer S, Jansat JM, Garcia Gil E, Caracta CF, Ortiz S Safety and pharmacokinetics of multiple doses of aclidinium bromide administered twice daily in healthy volunteers. (centerwatch.com)
  • It antagonises muscarinic symptoms such as bronchorrhoea, bronchospasm, bradycardia and intestinal hypermotility induced by anticholinesterases. (mims.com)