Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Receptors, NK Cell Lectin-Like: Structurally-related receptors that are typically found on NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They are considered lectin-like proteins in that they share sequence homology with the carbohydrate binding domains of C-TYPE LECTINS. They differ from classical C-type lectins, however, in that they appear to lack CALCIUM-binding domains.Antigens, Ly: A group of lymphocyte surface antigens located on mouse LYMPHOCYTES. Specific Ly antigens are useful markers for distinguishing subpopulations of lymphocytes.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily A: An inhibitory subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that interacts with CLASS I MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS and prevents the activation of NK CELLS.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Receptors, Natural Killer Cell: Receptors that are specifically found on the surface of NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They play an important role in regulating the cellular component of INNATE IMMUNITY.Mice, Inbred C57BLNK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily B: A subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that includes both inhibitory and stimulatory members.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Interleukin-15: Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and shares biological activities with IL-2. IL-15 also can induce proliferation and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Killer Cells, Lymphokine-Activated: Cytolytic lymphocytes with the unique capacity of killing natural killer (NK)-resistant fresh tumor cells. They are INTERLEUKIN-2-activated NK cells that have no MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX restriction or need for antigen stimulation. LAK cells are used for ADOPTIVE IMMUNOTHERAPY in cancer patients.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Receptors, KIR: A family of receptors found on NK CELLS that have specificity for a variety of HLA ANTIGENS. KIR receptors contain up to three different extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains referred to as D0, D1, and D2 and play an important role in blocking NK cell activation against cells expressing the appropriate HLA antigens thus preventing cell lysis. Although they are often referred to as being inhibitory receptors, a subset of KIR receptors may also play an activating role in NK cells.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily K: An activating NK cell lectin-like receptor subfamily that regulates immune responses to INFECTION and NEOPLASMS. Members of this subfamily generally occur as homodimers.Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily D: A subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that associates with a variety of members of NK CELL LECTIN-LIKE RECEPTOR SUBFAMILY C to form heterodimeric receptors for HLA-E antigen.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Killer Factors, Yeast: Protein factors released from one species of YEAST that are selectively toxic to another species of yeast.Mice, Inbred BALB CHistocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells: Mononuclear leukocytes that have been expanded in CELL CULTURE and activated with CYTOKINES such as INTERLEUKIN-2 to produce large numbers of highly cytotoxic cells.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Whale, Killer: The species Orcinus orca, in the family Delphinidae, characterized by its black and white coloration, and huge triangular dorsal fin. It is the largest member of the DOLPHINS and derives its name from the fact that it is a fearsome predator.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Perforin: A calcium-dependent pore-forming protein synthesized in cytolytic LYMPHOCYTES and sequestered in secretory granules. Upon immunological reaction between a cytolytic lymphocyte and a target cell, perforin is released at the plasma membrane and polymerizes into transmembrane tubules (forming pores) which lead to death of a target cell.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Natural Killer T-Cells: A specialized subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES that exhibit features of INNATE IMMUNITY similar to that of NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They are reactive to glycolipids presented in the context of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like molecule, CD1D ANTIGEN.Natural Cytotoxicity Triggering Receptor 1: A 46-kD stimulatory receptor found on resting and activated NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It has specificity for VIRAL HEMAGGLUTININS that are expressed on infected cells.Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Histocompatibility Antigen H-2D: A component of the murine major histocompatibility complex class I family. It contains one Ig-like C1-type domain and functions in processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigens to the immune system.Receptors, KIR3DL1: A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-B ANTIGENS. It is an inhibitory receptor that contains D0, D1, and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Granzymes: A family of serine endopeptidases found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of LEUKOCYTES such as CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. When secreted into the intercellular space granzymes act to eliminate transformed and virus-infected host cells.Receptors, KIR2DL3: A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-C ANTIGEN. It is an inhibitory receptor that contains D1 and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail. It is similar in structure and function to the KIR2DL2 RECEPTORS and the KIR2DL3 RECEPTORS.HLA-C Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).Natural Cytotoxicity Triggering Receptor 3: A 30 kDa stimulatory receptor found on resting and activated NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Receptors, KIR2DL1: A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-C ANTIGENS. It is an inhibitory receptor that contains D1 and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail. It is similar in structure and function to the KIR2DL2 RECEPTOR and the KIR2DL3 RECEPTORS.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Pore Forming Cytotoxic Proteins: Proteins secreted from an organism which form membrane-spanning pores in target cells to destroy them. This is in contrast to PORINS and MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that function within the synthesizing organism and COMPLEMENT immune proteins. These pore forming cytotoxic proteins are a form of primitive cellular defense which are also found in human LYMPHOCYTES.Receptors, KIR2DL4: A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-G antigen. It contains D0 and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein 1: An abundant lysosomal-associated membrane protein that has been found to shuttle between LYSOSOMES; ENDOSOMES; and the PLASMA MEMBRANE. In PLATELETS and T-LYMPHOCYTES it may play a role in the cellular degranulation process.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Receptors, KIR2DL2: A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-C ANTIGENS. It is an inhibitory receptor that contains D1 and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail. It is similar in structure and function to the KIR2DL1 RECEPTORS and the KIR2DL3 RECEPTORS.Muromegalovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, causing infection involving several organs in mice and rats. Murid herpesvirus is the type species.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Interleukin-18: A cytokine which resembles IL-1 structurally and IL-12 functionally. It enhances the cytotoxic activity of NK CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES, and appears to play a role both as neuroimmunomodulator and in the induction of mucosal immunity.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Leukemia Virus, Murine: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.Cell SeparationT-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Receptors, KIR3DS1: An activating KIR receptor that contains D0, D1, and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a short cytoplasmic tail.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Natural Cytotoxicity Triggering Receptor 2: A 44-kD stimulatory receptor found on activated NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It has specificity for VIRAL HEMAGGLUTININS that are expressed on infected cells.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Immunotherapy, Adoptive: Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.K562 Cells: An ERYTHROLEUKEMIA cell line derived from a CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA patient in BLAST CRISIS.Cell Degranulation: The process of losing secretory granules (SECRETORY VESICLES). This occurs, for example, in mast cells, basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils, and platelets when secretory products are released from the granules by EXOCYTOSIS.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Immunologic Surveillance: The theory that T-cells monitor cell surfaces and detect structural changes in the plasma membrane and/or surface antigens of virally or neoplastically transformed cells.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Receptors, KIR3DL2: A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-A3 ANTIGEN. It is an inhibitory receptor that contains D0, D1, and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail.GPI-Linked Proteins: A subclass of lipid-linked proteins that contain a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE which holds them to the CELL MEMBRANE.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Hospitals, Rural: Hospitals located in a rural area.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Galactosylceramides: Cerebrosides which contain as their polar head group a galactose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in beta-galactosidase, is the cause of galactosylceramide lipidosis or globoid cell leukodystrophy.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.G(M1) Ganglioside: A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.Mice, Inbred C3HCD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Interferons: Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Lymphocyte Depletion: Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Lymphoma, T-Cell: A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors representing malignant transformations of T-lymphocytes.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Receptors, Interleukin-15: Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-15. They are widely-distributed heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-15 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2, 15 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Poly I-C: Interferon inducer consisting of a synthetic, mismatched double-stranded RNA. The polymer is made of one strand each of polyinosinic acid and polycytidylic acid.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Antigens, CD1d: A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Moloney murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Interferon Type I: Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).Decidua: The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.Melanoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Monocytes, Activated Killer: Monocytes made cytotoxic by IN VITRO incubation with CYTOKINES, especially INTERFERON-GAMMA. The cells are used for ADOPTIVE IMMUNOTHERAPY in cancer patients.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Herpesviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.Mice, Inbred CBABone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Mycotoxins: Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Mice, Inbred DBAGene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Leukocyte Reduction Procedures: The removal of LEUKOCYTES from BLOOD to reduce BLOOD TRANSFUSION reactions and lower the chance of transmitting VIRUSES. This may be performed by FILTRATION or by CYTAPHERESIS.Interleukin-15 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-15 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-15.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Interleukin Receptor Common gamma Subunit: An interleukin receptor subunit that was originally discovered as a component of the INTERLEUKIN 2 RECEPTOR. It was subsequently found to be a component of several other receptors including the INTERLEUKIN 4 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN 7 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN-9 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN-15 RECEPTOR, and the INTERLEUKIN-21 RECEPTOR. Mutations in the gene for the interleukin receptor common gamma chain have been associated with X-LINKED COMBINED IMMUNODEFICIENCY DISEASES.Leukemia, Experimental: Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Immunological Synapses: The interfaces between T-CELLS and ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS. Supramolecular organization of proteins takes place at these synapses involving various types of immune cells. Immunological synapses can have several functions including LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION; enhancing, balancing, or terminating signaling; or directing cytokine secretion.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.HLA-G Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by alleles on locus B of the HLA complex. The HLA-G antigens are considered non-classical class I antigens due to their distinct tissue distribution which differs from HLA-A; HLA-B; and HLA-C antigens. Note that several isoforms of HLA-G antigens result from alternative splicing of messenger RNAs produced from the HLA-G*01 allele.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Adaptive Immunity: Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Receptors, KIR2DL5: An inhibitory KIR receptor that contains D0 and D1 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Interleukin-2 Receptor beta Subunit: A receptor subunit that is a shared component of the INTERLEUKIN 2 RECEPTOR and the INTERLEUKIN-15 RECEPTOR. High affinity receptor complexes are formed with each of these receptors when their respective alpha subunits are combined with this beta subunit and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Picibanil: A lyophilized preparation of a low-virulence strain (SU) of Streptococcus pyogenes (S. hemolyticus), inactivated by heating with penicillin G. It has been proposed as a noncytotoxic antineoplastic agent because of its immune system-stimulating activity.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Receptors, Interleukin-12: Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-12. They exist as dimers of beta 1 and beta 2 subunits. Signaling from interleukin-12 receptors occurs through their interaction with JANUS KINASES.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Tumor Escape: The ability of tumors to evade destruction by the IMMUNE SYSTEM. Theories concerning possible mechanisms by which this takes place involve both cellular immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and humoral immunity (ANTIBODY FORMATION), and also costimulatory pathways related to CD28 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD28) and CD80 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD80).Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1: An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Chromium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of chromium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cr atoms with atomic weights of 46-49, 51, 55, and 56 are radioactive chromium isotopes.Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes: Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.Sarcoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced neoplasms of CONNECTIVE TISSUE in animals to provide a model for studying human SARCOMA.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Sarcoma Viruses, Murine: A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Interferon Inducers: Agents that promote the production and release of interferons. They include mitogens, lipopolysaccharides, and the synthetic polymers Poly A-U and Poly I-C. Viruses, bacteria, and protozoa have been also known to induce interferons.
This rejection is caused by natural killer (NK) cells of the recipient. The model which describes this event is called "The ... the inhibition of NK cell occurs. However, if there is no specific self MHC I (H2 alele in murine model) the inhibition of ... BM graft by F1 generation is caused by NK cells as was said. The activity of these cells (NK cells) is ihnibited, if there is ... signaling of murine natural killer cells. Seminars in Immunology. April 1995, roč. 7, čís. 2, s. 121-127. PMID 7579194 Liu, ...
Not to be confused with Natural killer T cell.. Natural killer cells, or NK cells, are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical ... and uterine natural killer cell maturation during normal murine pregnancy". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 192 (2): 259- ... NK cells are thought to be an important cell type in this process.[17] These cells are known as "uterine NK cells" (uNK cells) ... "Tissue-resident natural killer (NK) cells are cell lineages distinct from thymic and conventional splenic NK cells". eLife. 3: ...
... are receptors expressed on the plasmatic membrane of Natural Killer cells (NK cells). KARs work with inhibitory Killer-cell ... Hibbs, ML; Classon, BJ; Walker, ID; McKenzie, IF; Hogarth, PM (1988). "The structure of the murine Fc receptor for IgG. ... This engagement activates the natural killer cell to attack the transformed or infected cells. This action can be done in ... Foster, CE; Colonna, M; Sun, PD (2003). "Crystal structure of the human natural killer (NK) cell activating receptor NKp46 ...
Natural killer (NK) cells are a type of lymphocyte cell involved in the innate immune system's response to viral infection and ... This difference, which is also present in Ly49, the murine homolog to KIR, tips the balance towards self-tolerance. Activating ... Because natural killer cells target virally infected host cells and tumor cells, inhibitory KIR receptors are important in ... on the surface of NK cells are each expressed on a subset of NK cells in such a way that not all classes of inhibitory NK cell ...
... is also known as Natural Killer Cell Receptor 2B4 This gene encodes a cell surface receptor expressed on natural killer cells ( ... different functions of the murine and human 2B4 (CD244) receptor on NK cells". Immunol. Lett. 105 (2): 180-4. doi:10.1016/j. ... natural killer cell receptor 2B4". Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) 605554 "CD244 molecule, natural killer cell ... The interaction between NK-cell and target cells via this receptor is thought to modulate NK-cell cytolytic activity. ...
The mechanism of LAK cells is distinctive from that of natural killer cells because they can lyse cells that NK cells cannot. ... "Successful immunotherapy of murine experimental hepatic metastases with lymphokine-activated killer cells and recombinant ... In cell biology, a lymphokine-activated killer cell (also known as a LAK cell) is a white blood cell that has been stimulated ... LAK cells are specific to tumor cells and do not display activity against normal cells. LAK cells, along with the ...
... is an immune receptor present on some T cells and Natural Killer Cells(NK). It is also identified as WUCAM and Vstm3. TIGIT ... Co-blockade of TIGIT and PD-1 pathways elicits tumor rejection in preclinical murine models. T cell receptor Antigen Yu X, ... "The interaction of TIGIT with PVR and PVRL2 inhibits human NK cell cytotoxicity". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 106 (42): 17858-63 ... and also inhibit T cell activation in vivo. TIGIT's inhibition of NK cytotoxicity can be blocked by antibodies against its ...
"Invariant and noninvariant natural killer T cells exert opposite regulatory functions on the immune response during murine ... B or NK cells.[2] These CLP cells then migrate via the blood to the thymus, where they engraft. The earliest cells which ... Innate-like T cellsEdit. Natural killer T cellEdit. Natural killer T cells (NKT cells - not to be confused with natural killer ... Cytotoxic T cells (TC cells, CTLs, T-killer cells, killer T cells) destroy virus-infected cells and tumor cells, and are also ...
MDSCs interact with other immune cell types including T cells, dendritic cells, macrophages and natural killer cells to ... in particular of CD8+ T-cell responses. the spectrum of action of MDSC activity also encompasses NK cells, dendritic cells and ... The absence of the human equivalent to the murine GR1 marker makes it difficult to compare murine and human MDSCs. Although ... These MDSCs infiltrate inflammation sites and tumors, where they stop immune responses by inhibiting T cells and NK cells, for ...
This leads to NK cell activation and IFN-γ production, which stimulates cells of innate immunity. Natural killer cell NKG2D ... Diefenbach A, Jamieson AM, Liu SD, Shastri N, Raulet DH (2000), Ligands for the murine NKG2D receptor: expression by tumor ... natural killer cell activation and inhibition. Nat Immunol. 9(5):495-502 Lanier LL (2008), Up on the tightrope: natural killer ... 3(4):304-16 Lanier LL (2005), NK cell recognition. Annu Rev Immunol. 23:225-74 Lanier LL (2005), NK cell recognition. Annu Rev ...
"Expression of cytoplasmic CD3 epsilon proteins in activated human adult natural killer (NK) cells and CD3 gamma, delta, epsilon ... "Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone encoding the murine homologue of the human 20K T3/T-cell receptor glycoprotein ... "CD3 delta and epsilon gene expression in CD3-CD16+ natural killer cell clones derived from thymic precursors". Human Immunology ... complexes in fetal NK cells. Implications for the relationship of NK and T lymphocytes". Journal of Immunology. 149 (6): 1876- ...
Fasbender, Frank; Widera, Agata; Hengstler, Jan G.; Watzl, Carsten (2016-01-29). "Natural Killer Cells and Liver Fibrosis". ... Senescent hepatic stellate cells have been demonstrated to limit liver fibrosis by activating interactions with NK cells. The ... In murine liver, Reelin expressed by Ito cells has been shown to be a reliable marker in discerning them from other ... Hepatic stellate cells (here HSC), also known as perisinusoidal cells or Ito cells (earlier lipocytes or fat-storing cells), ...
... -7 is found on Natural Killer cells (NK cells). Siglec-7 leads to cellular inactivation once bound to its sialic acid- ... It is used in cell-cell contacts, binding to sialylated glycans on target cells leading to inhibition of NK cell-dependent ... "Properties and distribution of a lectin-like hemagglutinin differentially expressed by murine stromal tissue macrophages". The ... Mammalian cells contain high levels of sialic acid and so when NK cells bind so called "self-cells", they are not activated and ...
IFNγ signaling can initially originate from Natural Killer (NK) cells, but adaptive immune cells are required to sustain a ... Regulatory macrophages produce Interleukin 10, which can inhibit cytotoxic responses of other lymphocytes to cancer cell ... 2013). "Generation and characterization of murine alternatively activated macrophages". Methods Mol. Biol. 946: 225-39. doi: ... Interleukin 4, secreted by granulocytes after tissue damage or by adaptive immune cells within a Th2 response, causes ...
Natural killer T cells should not be confused with natural killer cells. The term "NK T cells" was first used in mice to define ... NKT cell Journal Screening Nature glossary on murine NKT cells Nature Reviews Web Focus on regulatory lymphocytes. ... Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a heterogeneous group of T cells that share properties of both T cells and natural killer ... cells. Natural killer T cells can share other features with NK cells, as well, such as CD16 and CD56 expression and granzyme ...
... resulting in lysis of both sperm and eggs by leukocytes known as natural killer, or NK cells. These cells target and kill other ... "Expression of glycans linked to natural killer cell inhibition on the human zona pellucida". Mol. Hum. Reprod. 3 (6): 501-5. ... 3-dioxygenase expression is restricted to fetal trophoblast giant cells during murine gestation and is maternal genome specific ... Ljunggren, H. G.; Karre, K. (1990). "In search of "missing self"? MHC class I molecules and NK cell recognition". Immunol. ...
NSG branded mice lack mature T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. NSG branded mice are also deficient in multiple ... J recombination and DNA repair defects associated with the murine scid mutation". Cell. 80 (5): 813-23. doi:10.1016/0092-8674( ... 2008). "T cell-specific siRNA delivery suppresses HIV-1 infection in humanized mice". Cell. 134 (4): 577-86. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... Notably, the absence of IL2Rγ blocks NK cell differentiation, and thereby removes a major obstacle preventing the efficient ...
1992). "Ontogeny of human natural killer (NK) cells: fetal NK cells mediate cytolytic function and express cytoplasmic CD3 ... 1986). "Exon/intron organization of the genes coding for the delta chains of the human and murine T-cell receptor/T3 complex". ... "Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone encoding the murine homologue of the human 20K T3/T-cell receptor glycoprotein ... T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 delta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD3D gene. CD3D has been shown to ...
... viral replication resulting in a cascade of chemokines/cytokines causing natural killer (NK) cells to recognize and attack ... This cycle of infection, replication and cell death is believed to be repeated until all tumour cells carrying an activated Ras ... "Synergistic effects of oncolytic reovirus and cisplatin chemotherapy in murine malignant melanoma". Clinical Cancer Research. ... Reovirus replicates in and eventually kills Ras-activated tumour cells, and as cell death occurs, progeny virus particles are ...
... is expressed by numerous cells of the immune system such as B lymphocytes, monocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, ... In murine trials, TLR9-deficient mice had less myofibroblast proliferation, meaning cardiac muscle recovery is connected to ... TLR9 is cleaved at this stage to avoid whole protein expression on cell surface, which could lead to autoimmunity. CpG sites ... TLR9 is an important receptor expressed in immune system cells including dendritic cells, macrophages, natural killer cells, ...
Lash, G, Robson, S, Bulmer, J. (2010). "Review: Functional role of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells in human early pregnancy ... a ligand for an NK cell inhibitory receptor, which protects the villi against NK cell-mediated death. The syncytiotrophoblast ... Section through embryonic area of Vespertilio murinus to show the formation of the amniotic cavity. Cytotrophoblast ... However the syncytium acts as a giant cell so there are no gaps for immune cells to migrate through[citation needed]. One way ...
... the efficient clearance of apoptotic material and the dampening of TLR-dependent inflammatory responses and natural killer cell ... AXL is expressed on the tumor cells as well as adjacent immune cells including dendritic cells, macrophages, and NK cells. Axl ... "A murine cDNA encodes a pan-epithelial glycoprotein that is also expressed on plasma cells". Journal of Immunology. 148 (2): ... "Expression Analysis Highlights AXL as a Candidate Zika Virus Entry Receptor in Neural Stem Cells". Cell Stem Cell. 18 (5): 591- ...
IFNγ is produced predominantly by natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cells as part of the innate immune response, ... and uterine natural killer cell maturation during normal murine pregnancy". J. Exp. Med. 192 (2): 259-70. doi:10.1084/jem.192.2 ... Th1 cells), cytotoxic T cells (TC cells), macrophages, mucosal epithelial cells and NK cells. IFNγ is the only Type II ... Uterine Natural Killer cells (NK) secrete high levels of chemoattractants, such as IFNγ. IFNγ dilates and thins the walls of ...
SLP-76 might serve as an integration point for signals by activating NK cell receptors. In NK cells, SLP-76 can be ... "Complementary Phosphorylation Sites in the Adaptor Protein SLP-76 Promote Synergistic Activation of Natural Killer Cells". ... The human and murine cDNAs both encode 533 amino acid proteins that are 72% identical and composed of three modular domains. ... "SLP-76 is a direct substrate of SHP-1 recruited to killer cell inhibitory receptors". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (42): 27518-23. doi: ...
... is a cell adhesion molecule found on the surface of T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. It has also been called T-cell ... Diamond DJ, Clayton LK, Sayre PH, Reinherz EL (1988). "Exon-intron organization and sequence comparison of human and murine T11 ... CD2 also acts as a co-stimulatory molecule on T and NK cells. CD2 is a specific marker for T cells and NK cells, and can ... "The OX-44 molecule couples to signaling pathways and is associated with CD2 on rat T lymphocytes and a natural killer cell line ...
"The OX-44 molecule couples to signaling pathways and is associated with CD2 on rat T lymphocytes and a natural killer cell line ... 1997). "CD2 induced apoptosis of peripheral T cells.". Transplant. Proc. 29 (5): 2377-8. PMID 9270771. doi:10.1016/S0041-1345( ... O CD2 é un marcador específico para as células T e NK, e, xa que logo, pode utilizarse en inmunohistoquímica para identificar a ... "Exon-intron organization and sequence comparison of human and murine T11 (CD2) genes.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85 (5): ...
These findings provide novel insights into the delicate interaction between extravillous cytotrophoblast cells and NK cells in ... The formation of these complexes on the cell surface might represent a novel mechanism developed specifically by the HLA-G ... This inhibition of maternal NK cells is partially mediated via the nonclassical MHC class I molecule HLA-G. Recently, we ... We also show that endogenous HLA-G complexes are expressed on the cell surface. ...
OCIL inhibits NK cell function via binding to the receptor NKRP1D. Murine OCIL in addition to inhibiting NK cell function ... NK) cells. Activating NKRs stimulate cytolysis by NK cells of virally infected or transformed cells; inhibitory NKRs block ... Natural killer cell receptor-like, C-type lectin-like domain (IPR033992). Short name: NKR-like_CTLD ... This entry represents a C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD) of the type found in natural killer cell receptors (NKRs), including ...
Ly-49-independent natural killer (NK) cell specificity revealed by NK cell clones derived from p53-deficient mice. J. Exp. Med. ... Murine Nkg2d and Cd94 are clustered within the natural killer complex and are expressed independently in natural killer cells. ... which is linked to the natural killer cell gene complex, is mediated by natural killer cells. J. Immunol. 149: 581. ... T cells as well as B cells do not express gp49.. Despite that gp49 is not found on naive NK cells, it is induced on NK cells ...
In vivo developmental stages in murine natural killer cell maturation. Nat. Immunol. 3:523-528. ... These cell types include NK T and NK cells in the blood, liver, spleen, and bone marrow (1, 2). NK cells are required for ... NK T and NK Cells Activate Cytokine Transcription during Development.. Because peripheral NK T and NK cells are spontaneously ... Analysis of spontaneous cytokine mRNAs and chromatin modifications in wild-type NK T and NK cells. (a) NK T and NK cells (see ...
Interestingly, a ligand for murine CD9, murine pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (PSG) 17, was recently identified (37). This ... Human Decidual Natural Killer Cells Are a Unique NK Cell Subset with Immunomodulatory Potential. Louise A. Koopman, Hernan D. ... Human Decidual Natural Killer Cells Are a Unique NK Cell Subset with Immunomodulatory Potential ... Expression of killer cell inhibitory receptors on human uterine natural killer cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 27:979-983. ...
The level of lipid peroxidation and the concentration of its products are inversely related to the rate of cell proliferation ... 6985934 - Analysis and enrichment of murine natural killer cells with the fluorescence-activated .... 23996264 - Detection of ... K562 Cells / drug effects, immunology. Killer Cells, Lymphokine-Activated. Killer Cells, Natural / drug effects, immunology*. ... 1533204 - Human renal-cell carcinoma cells are able to activate natural killer cells.. 1588434 - Sensitivity of human glioma ...
Murine IL-18 activates natural killer (NK) cells; induces gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production by T cells stimulated with ... Since NK cells constitutively express the IL-18 receptor (4) and IL-18 is a potent enhancer of NK cell activity and synergizes ... murine peritoneal exudate cells against Cryptococcus neoformans through production of gamma interferon by natural killer cells ... As a potent IFN-γ-inducing factor, IL-18 can induce production of IFN-γ by T cells and enhance NK cell cytolytic activity and ...
Assessment of natural killer (NK) and NKT cells in murine spleens and liversMichael R. Shey and Zuhair K. Ballas19. Polyclonal ... Cell culture approaches to studying ethanol exposure9. Human monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells - alcohol treatment ... Isolation of Kupffer cells from rats fed chronic ethanolMegan R. McMullen, Michele T. Pritchard and Laura E. Nagy 16. Dendritic ... B Cell studies and chronic ethanol miceShilpi Verma, Carla-Maria A. Alexander, Michael J. Carlson, Lorraine T. Tygrett and ...
"Здесь мы опишем метод эффективно расширить и очистить большое количество человеческих NK клеток и оценить их... ... Tumor-primed human natural killer cells lyse NK-resistant tumor targets: evidence of a two-stage process in resting NK cell ... A Novel Feeder-free System for Mass Production of Murine Natural Killer Cells In Vitro… ... Preparation and Use of HIV-1 Infected Primary CD4+ T-Cells as Target Cells in Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxic Assays… ...
Not to be confused with Natural killer T cell.. Natural killer cells, or NK cells, are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical ... and uterine natural killer cell maturation during normal murine pregnancy". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 192 (2): 259- ... NK cells are thought to be an important cell type in this process.[17] These cells are known as "uterine NK cells" (uNK cells) ... "Tissue-resident natural killer (NK) cells are cell lineages distinct from thymic and conventional splenic NK cells". eLife. 3: ...
NK,. natural killer (cells);. TAP,. transporter associated protein;. TRAP,. telomeric repeat amplification protocol. ... murine monoclonal antibody Q5/13 (IgG2a) against HLA-DR, and the engineered antibody γ1RGD3 that blocks NK cell function. ... 51Cr-labeled LnCap cells (5 × 104 cells/ml) were mixed with T2 cells (open symbols) or T2 cells pulsed with p540 (●) or p865 ... Tumor Cell Lines.. T2 cells were a gift of Peter Creswell (Yale University, New Haven, CT). Melanoma cell lines 624 and 1351 ...
NK cells are found and potentially develop in diverse locations in vivo and it remains to be addressed if a common NK cell ... Here we will summarise some recent findings in NK cell commitment and discuss how a NK cell transcriptional network might be ... Here we will summarise some recent findings in NK cell commitment and discuss how a NK cell transcriptional network might be ... NK cells are found and potentially develop in diverse locations in vivo and it remains to be addressed if a common NK cell ...
This unit describes the isolation of natural killer (NK) cells from mouse spleen ... Heterogeneity of natural killer cell subsets in NK‐1.1+ and NK‐1.1− inbred mouse strains and their progeny. Cell. Immunol. 141: ... Stimulation of murine natural killer (NK) cells by a monoclonal antibody specific for the NK1.1 antigen. IL‐2‐activated NK ... Influence of NK cell magnetic bead isolation methods on phenotype and function of murine NK cells. J. Immunol. Methods 378:1‐10 ...
This study will determine the maximum tolerated dose of genetically modified natural killer (NK) cells in research participants ... No known allergy to murine products or HAMA testing results within normal limits. ... NK cell cytotoxicity is most powerful against acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells, whereas their capacity to lyse ALL cells is ... Biological: NK Cell Infusion Infusing genetically modified NK cells into research participants who have chemotherapy refractory ...
This rejection is caused by natural killer (NK) cells of the recipient. The model which describes this event is called "The ... the inhibition of NK cell occurs. However, if there is no specific self MHC I (H2 alele in murine model) the inhibition of ... BM graft by F1 generation is caused by NK cells as was said. The activity of these cells (NK cells) is ihnibited, if there is ... signaling of murine natural killer cells. Seminars in Immunology. April 1995, roč. 7, čís. 2, s. 121-127. PMID 7579194 Liu, ...
Impaired natural killer (NK) cell activity in leptin receptor deficient mice: leptin as a critical regulator in NK cell ... The cell line was created using bone marrow cells from leptin receptor-deficient mice. Bone marrow cells were differentiated ... Macrophage cell lines use CD81 in cell growth regulation. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 45:213-225CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... The macrophage cell line is diploid and grows at a linear rate for 4-5 days before reaching the growth plateau. The cells are ...
... induction of killer cell (lymphokine-activated (LAK) and natural (NK)) activity; and d) induction of interferon-gamma ... 3 In vivo experiments in murine tumor models have shown inhibition of tumor growth.4 The exact mechanism by which Proleukin ... cleared from the circulation and presented to the kidney is metabolized to amino acids in the cells lining the proximal ... Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer Two hundred fifty-five patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (metastatic RCC) were treated ...
Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells Are Targets for Natural Killer Cell-Mediated Killing American Transplant Congress Phillips, L. K ... In this study, we show that natural killer (NK) cells recognize the lack of self-MHC antigens on NPCs and pose a barrier to NPC ... Murine Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Pyramidal Neurons Integrate into the Cerebral Cortex and Appropriately Project Axons to ... Natural Killer Cell-Activating Receptor NKG2D Mediates Innate Immune Targeting of Allogeneic Neural Progenitor Cell Grafts STEM ...
Efficient Killing of Murine Pluripotent Stem Cells by Natural Killer (NK) Cells Requires Activation by Cytokines and Partly ... Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2018 May 1;8:125. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2018.00125. eCollection 2018. ... The Tumorigenicity of Multipotent Adult Germline Stem Cells Transplanted into the Heart Is Affected by Natural Killer Cells and ... Immunological Properties of Murine Parthenogenetic Stem Cells and Their Differentiation Products.. Johannsen H, Muppala V, ...
My studies focused on using natural killer (NK) cells to improve the outcome of allogeneic HCT as well as to develop therapies ... We currently focus on how to improve T and NK cell based immune therapy. Our ultimate goal is to develop clinical studies of ... In 2003, when I commenced my post-doctoral studies at the National Institutes of Health I developed murine models of cancer. ... Study the role of natural killer cells in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma Andreas E. Lundqvist, PhD Karolinska Institute Stockholm ...
Background: selected populations of murine natural killer (NK) cells possess memory features to haptens, cytokines, and viruses ... Background: selected populations of murine natural killer (NK) cells possess memory features to haptens, cytokines, and viruses ... NK cells. These cells might traffic from the blood and then differentiate into hepatic-specific CD49a+ and CXCR6+ NK cells. The ... NK cells. These cells might traffic from the blood and then differentiate into hepatic-specific CD49a+ and CXCR6+ NK cells. The ...
Friend murine leukemia virus;. NK cell,. natural killer cell. References. *↵ *Michael N L, ... Binding of the Ly-49A receptor on NK cells to H-2Dd molecules can induce global down-regulation of NK cell-mediated killing (71 ... and therapy with a combination of IFNγ and lactoferrin increases natural killer (NK) cell activity and enhances survival (62). ... T cells are critical for protection. Surprisingly, CD8+ T cell epitopes are not necessary in the vaccine even when CD8+ T cells ...
... suppressing natural killer (NK) cells (22), and increasing angiogenesis (23). Clinical studies have documented these cells in ... several human cancers (24) including head and neck (25), renal cell (26), and hepatocellular (22) cancers. Both murine and ... Myeloid derived suppressor cells inhibit natural killer cells in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma via the NKp30 receptor ... Mononuclear myeloid-derived "suppressor" cells express RAE-1 and activate natural killer cells. Blood 2008;112:4080-9. ...
... pDC depletion reduced early IFN-I production and augmented viral burden facilitating the expansion of natural killer (NK) cells ... In murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection, ... Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism*. *Killer Cells, Natural/ ... A) Frequencies of NK cells (NK1.1+CD3−) in spleens.. (B) Expression of CD69 on splenic NK cells.. (C) Cytotoxic capacity of ... D) Frequencies of IFN-γ+ NK cells in spleens of MCMV-infected mice.. (E) Frequencies of Ly49H+ and IFN-γ+-producing NK cells on ...
... and natural killer (NK) cells. Granzyme B is required for the induction of target cell lysis, which occurs as part of cell- ... Recombinant Murine Granzyme B is a glycosylated 227 amino acid protein, comprising the mature active portion of the murine ... Gambogic acid induced tumor cell apoptosis by T lymphocyte activation in H22 transplanted mice.. International ... mediated immune responses, and can activate apoptosis in target cells by both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent ...
  • This inhibition of maternal NK cells is partially mediated via the nonclassical MHC class I molecule HLA-G. Recently, we demonstrated that HLA-G forms disulfide-linked high molecular complexes on the surface of transfected cells. (
  • The formation of these complexes on the cell surface might represent a novel mechanism developed specifically by the HLA-G protein aimed to control the efficiency of the CD85J/LIR-1-mediated inhibition. (
  • Natural killer cells from mice and humans utilize parallel inhibitory receptor systems to regulate their function. (
  • NK cells are required for effective host defense against herpes viruses in mice and humans ( 3 - 5 ). (
  • Naive CD4 T cells from both mice, designated 4get (IL-4 GFP-enhanced transcript) and Yeti (YFP-enhanced transcript for IFN-γ), are initially nonfluorescent and faithfully activate eGFP or eYFP under Th2 or Th1 conditions, respectively. (
  • Further study in wild-type mice confirmed that NK and NK T cells, in contrast to naive T cells, contain constitutive cytokine transcripts that correlate with chromatin modifications at the respective cytokine loci and have the capacity for rapid cytokine production. (
  • Mice lacking telomerase RNA show that telomerase activation is a key event in malignant cell transformation ( 8 , 12 , 13 ). (
  • These transformed cells form tumors in nude mice. (
  • In contrast to NKT cells, NK cells do not express T-cell antigen receptors (TCR) or pan T marker CD3 or surface immunoglobulins (Ig) B cell receptors , but they usually express the surface markers CD16 (FcγRIII) and CD56 in humans, NK1.1 or NK1.2 in C57BL/6 mice . (
  • The NKp46 cell surface marker constitutes, at the moment, another NK cell marker of preference being expressed in both humans, several strains of mice (including BALB/c mice ) and in three common monkey species. (
  • In mice, even mild maternal illness during early pregnancy can alter stem cell activity in the developing fetal brain. (
  • The cell line was created using bone marrow cells from leptin receptor-deficient mice. (
  • The cells are MAC-2 and F4/80 positive and have phagocytic activity similar to primary macrophages from wild-type and leptin receptor-deficient mice. (
  • Beharka AA, Armstrong JW, Chapes SK (1998) Macrophage cell lines derived from major histocompatibility complex II-negative mice. (
  • C) Cytotoxic capacity of splenic NK cells from control and pDC-depleted mice with RMA-S target cells in standard 4 hr 51 Cr release assays. (
  • D) Frequencies of IFN-γ + NK cells in spleens of MCMV-infected mice. (
  • When adult mice of susceptible strains are infected with FV, their spleens rapidly enlarge because of virus-induced polyclonal proliferation of erythroid precursor cells ( 19 - 21 ). (
  • Gambogic acid induced tumor cell apoptosis by T lymphocyte activation in H22 transplanted mice. (
  • Gene-targeted and lymphocyte subset-depleted mice were used to establish the relative importance of natural killer (NK) and NK1.1 + T (NKT) cells in protection from tumor initiation and metastasis. (
  • In particular, T cell receptor Jα281 gene-targeted mice confirmed a critical function for NKT cells in protection from spontaneous tumors initiated by the chemical carcinogen, methylcholanthrene. (
  • However, only a few studies have reported a prominent role for NK cells on the growth of primary tumors in mice without using biological response modifiers to magnify the response 2 3 . (
  • When administered to mice, ALT-803 is capable of inducing natural killer (NK) and CD8 + T cell proliferation and activation, and effectively promoting potent anti-tumor responses. (
  • Transgenic and gene targeted mice have contributed greatly to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying B-cell development. (
  • Two groups generated E2A mutant mice and have shown that a severe block occurs at an early stage of B-cell differentiation before Ig gene rearrangements. (
  • Two other factors, HEB and E2-2, are also involved in B-cell development, because mice deficient for these factors demonstrate perturbations of B-cell development as well. (
  • Sun 14 has demonstrated that constitutive expression of the Id1 gene under control of the B-cell-specific mb-1 promotor impairs mouse B-cell development, and the cells exhibit a similar phenotype to the one described for the E2A-deficient mice. (
  • Methodology/Principal Findings: In this study, we show that cells expressing MHC class I to levels well below half of the host level are tolerated in an in vivo assay in mice. (
  • Both in the human and in the murine system 2 main categories of DCs have been defined, myeloid and lymphoid DCs, which have been proposed to be identifiable in mice by their differential CD8α expression, this molecule being only present on lymphoid DCs, 8 as discussed below. (
  • Subsets of these cells were then isolated by multi-parametric flow cytometry and assessed for short-and long-term repopulating activity in sublethally irradiated immunodeficient mice. (
  • 1 In mice, phenotypically distinct cells with different repopulating activities in vivo have been described. (
  • Evidence of human STRC has also been obtained from transplantation experiments using highly immunodeficient mouse strains such as non-obese diabetic- scid/scid (NOD/SCID) mice that have been manipulated either genetically or immunologically to further reduce their residual natural killer (NK) cell activity, thereby allowing superior human cell engraftment. (
  • Accordingly, this second type of human STRC has been called a STRC-ML. Both types of human STRC engraft non-obese diabetic- scid/scid- β 2microglobulin − / − (NOD/SCID-β2m −/− ) mice or NOD/SCID mice treated with anti-NK-cell antibodies much more efficiently than NOD/SCID mice. (
  • CT-011 was studied in experimental murine tumor models of melanoma, lung cancer, fibrosarcoma, leukemia/lymphoma and colorectal carcinoma and was shown to inhibit tumor growth and extend the survival of tumor-bearing nude mice, and to generate tumor-specific protection against tumor re-challenge. (
  • In marked contrast, the number of apoptotic cells within the lymphoid organs was highly increased in TRAIL −/− mice 20 hours after induction of CASP. (
  • D-F show immunohistochemically stained frozen sections from day 2 MCMV-infected C57BL/6-SCID mice, localizing viral antigen expression relative to NK cells, monocyte/macrophages, or IFN-γ protein. (
  • In contrast to control uninfected livers (Fig. 1 A), day 2 MCMV-infected livers from normal C57BL/6 mice had four to six infiltrate clusters per lobular region, each with ⩾6 nucleated cells, localized between portal areas and central veins (Fig. 1 B). MCMV-induced intranuclear inclusions, termed cytomegalic inclusion bodies, were occasionally seen associated with inflammatory foci. (
  • To evaluate contributions of T and/or B cells to early inflammatory foci development, responses in T and B cell-deficient C57BL/6-SCID, T and B cell-deficient C57BL/6-RAG-1−/−, and T cell-deficient C57BL/6-nude mice were examined (Fig. 1 and Table 1). (
  • NSPC IL-10 suppressed antigen-specific proliferation and proinflammatory cytokine production of lymph node cells obtained from MOG35-55 peptide immunized mice. (
  • In mice and in non-human primates, calorie restriction conserves T cell function and repertoire and promotes production and/or maintenance of naïve T cells. (
  • In particular, age-associated dysfunction of natural killer (NK) cells has been reported in mice and humans. (
  • NK cells in aged mice appear functionally impaired. (
  • Calorie restriction seems to mimic the effects of aging on murine NK cells, with 40% calorie restriction leading to reduced numbers of peripheral NK cells and decreased proportions of the most differentiated NK cell subset in 6-month-old C57BL/6 mice. (
  • One study also suggested that CR mice are more susceptible to infection, with lower NK cell activity, again mimicking the effects of aging, although the causal relationship between NK cell function and outcome of infection remains to be tested. (
  • Despite evidence that calorie-restriction appears to mimic the effects of aging in murine NK cells, calorie restriction enhances healthy life span in C57BL/6 mice suggesting that age-related changes in murine NK cells may have evolved to preserve innate immune function, and thus resilience in the face of infection, in adult life and thus that there is an underlying unappreciated interaction between age and calorie intake. (
  • In an attempt to reveal this interaction, we have - for the first time - analyzed the effects of calorie restriction on NK cell and T cell phenotype and function throughout the life course in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice. (
  • Our data suggest that calorie restriction attenuates age-associated effects in T cells but, conversely, accelerates the effects of aging in NK cells, and that the effect of calorie restriction is much more marked in C57BL/6 mice than in DBA/2 mice. (
  • To determine the cellular targets of IFN-gamma-mediated responses, we used adoptive transfer studies and bone marrow chimerism to generate mice in which either hematopoietic or somatic cells lacked the ability to express IFN-gamma receptor. (
  • Due to the species-specific nature of human CMV (HCMV) replication, infection of mice with murine CMV (MCMV) has proven to be an invaluable model for studying aspects of the biology underlying CMV infection. (
  • Casp8-/-Ripk3-/- mice mount higher NK response levels than Casp8+/-Ripk3-/- littermate controls or WT C57BL/6 J mice, indicating that RIPK3 deficiency alone does not contribute to NK response patterns. (
  • MCMV m157-responsive Ly49H+ NK cells support increased expansion of both Ly49H- NK cells and CD8 T cells in Casp8-/-Ripk3-/- mice. (
  • Prior to surgery, pulmonary metastases were established by intravenous challenge of CT26LacZ colon cancer cells in BALB/c mice. (
  • Furthermore, natural killer (NK) cell function, as assessed by YAC-1 tumour cell lysis, was significantly attenuated in surgically stressed mice subjected to intraoperative sepsis. (
  • Results 8-week-old Nemo Δhepa /CREMα Tg mice presented significantly decreased transaminase levels, concomitant with reduced numbers of CD11b + dendritic cells and CD8 + T cells. (
  • Moreover, simultaneous adoptive transfer of BMDCs and T cells from CREMα Tg into Nemo Δhepa mice ameliorated markers of liver injury and hepatitis. (
  • Mice overexpressing cyclic AMP-responsive element modulator α (CREMα) in T cells are characterised by enhanced production of interleukin 17 (IL-17), IL-21 and IL-22 as well as retinoid receptor-related orphan receptor gamma-t (RORγT), and have increased inflammatory response. (
  • Currently studies are being conducted to verify the PFC response and T-cell immunophenotypes in the adult mice. (
  • A new study saw positive results investigating the cells in mice, and scientists show that human cells share the same promising physiological responses. (
  • Mice whose NK cells did not have TRAIL were better equipped to fight the virus than mice whose TRAIL was fully intact. (
  • In CBA/NJ mice, splenic natural killer (NK) cell activity varies with stages of estrous. (
  • Balb/c normal mice were used to study the effects of gold sodium thiomalate (GST) on intact, nonadherent, and adherent mononuclear spleen cells. (
  • Most of the available information on NKT cells comes from research conducted on mice. (
  • Natural killer cells determine development of allergen-induced eosinophilic airway inflammation in mice. (
  • Moreover, systemic allergen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG2a levels and the number of IL-4 and interferon gamma-producing splenic cells were diminished in mice depleted of NK1.1(+) cells before the priming regime. (
  • CD1d1 mutant mice, deficient in NKT cells but with normal NK cells, developed lung tissue eosinophilia and allergen-specific IgE levels not different from those observed in wild-type mice. (
  • Mice deficient in gamma/delta T cells showed a mild attenuation of lung tissue eosinophilia in this model. (
  • Corresponding mice depleted of NK1.1+ cells exhibited a few scattered eosinophilic infiltrates only (b), or a complete absence of pulmonary inflammation (not shown). (
  • In contrast, corresponding mice depleted of NK1.1+ cells (groups 8 and 10) showed a clearly inhibited eosinophilia in lung tissue (Fig. 1, a and b). (
  • Experiment Overall Design: Spleen cells from RAG-/- mice have been isolated and stained with anti-NK1.1, anti CD27 and anti CD11b antibodies. (
  • The DX5 antibody is particularly useful for identifying NK cells in mice lacking the NK1.1 antigen. (
  • Patient-derived GBM cells were primarily cultured from surgical samples of GBM patients and were inoculated into the brains of immune deficient BALB/c-nude or NOD-SCID IL2Rgamma null (NSG) mice. (
  • Patient-derived GBM cells in the brains of NSG mice unexpectedly induced spontaneous lung metastasis although no metastasis was detected in BALB/c-nude mice. (
  • Based on the difference of the innate immunity between two mouse strains, NK cell activities of orthotopic GBM xenograft models based on BALB/c-nude mice were inhibited. (
  • The role of NK cells in both the innate and adaptive immune responses is becoming increasingly important in research using NK cell activity as a potential cancer therapy. (
  • The critical role of NK cells and NK-DC crosstalk is part of the broad-based immunologic profile associated with Advaxis Lm vectors and their favorable alteration of the microenvironment for immunotherapy of solid tumors. (
  • Taken together, these findings suggest a critical role of NK cells, but not of NKT cells, for the development of allergen-induced airway inflammation, and that this effect of NK cells is exerted during the immunization. (
  • In pregnancy, hemiallogeneic fetal cells invade the maternal decidua but remain spared from attack by the maternal immune system, posing a great unsolved paradox of immunology ( 1 ). (
  • We show that low input proteomics is precise, and the data generated accurately reflects many aspects of known immunology, while expanding the list of cell-type specific proteins across the cell types profiled. (
  • 2 Laboratory of Immunology and Biotherapy, University of Messina and Cell Therapy Program Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Policlinico G. Martino, Messina, Italy. (
  • Developments in both basic immunology and tumor biology have increased our knowledge of the interactions between the tumor cells and the immune system. (
  • Here, we show that these cells maintain distinct patterns of constitutive cytokine mRNAs. (
  • Unlike conventional T cells, NK T cells activate interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-γ transcription during thymic development and populate the periphery with both cytokine loci previously modified by histone acetylation. (
  • Although the precise evolutionary niche subserved by NK T cells is not completely clear, the capacity of NK T cells to activate rapid cytokine expression has been exploited to manipulate the outcomes of autoimmunity and cancer ( 6 ). (
  • Although other studies elegantly demonstrate how these cells become activated ( 6 , 9 ), the mechanisms underlying their rapid cytokine production or their distinct cytokine patterns, IFN-γ in the case of NK cells and both IL-4 and IFN-γ in the case of NK T cells, remain unknown. (
  • Elucidation of such mechanisms may have important implications for understanding polarized cytokine production by T cells in adaptive immune responses. (
  • We demonstrated that these two signals can be divided into discrete "priming" and "triggering" events, with the priming signal being provided either by activating cytokine, such as IL-2, or by conjugation to a tumor cell expressing an appropriate intensity and combination of ligands for priming receptors ( 2 ). (
  • In this study, we demonstrate that TLR9 recognizes MCMV in IPC and DC and that TLR9/MyD88 mediates a coordinate cytokine secretion by IPC, DC, and possibly other cell types, which is essential for rapid and efficient activation of antiviral-specific NK cell responses," Colonna explains. (
  • Reference: Krug A, French AR, Barchet W, Fischer JAA, Dzionek A, Pingel JT, Orihuela MM, Akira S, Yokoyama WM, and Colonna M. TLR9-Dependent Recognition of MCMV by IPC and DC Generates Coordinated Cytokine Responses that Activate Antiviral NK Cell Function. (
  • 12 Accordingly, Novotny et al 12 have shown that murine colon ascendens stent peritonitis (CASP) caused by 16G stent represents a model of high-grade sepsis that causes a systemic cytokine rise until 12 hours after sepsis onset. (
  • In inflammatory CNS disease, cytokine transduced neural stem cells may be used as vehicles to specifically reduce inflammation and promote cell replacement. (
  • In this study, we used NSPCs overexpressing IL-10, an immunomodulatory cytokine, in an animal model for CNS inflammation and multiple sclerosis (MS). Intravenous injection of IL-10 transduced neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPC IL-10 ) suppressed myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein aa 35-55 (MOG35-55)- induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and, following intravenous injection, NSPC IL-10 migrated to peripheral lymphoid organs and into the CNS. (
  • NSPC IL-10 inhibit T-cell activation, proliferation and cytokine production. (
  • CXCL10 is also named 10kDa interferon γ-induced protein (IP-10), as its secretion by CD4+, CD8+, NK and NK-T cells is dependent on IFN-γ , which is itself mediated by the IL-12 cytokine family. (
  • however, it was not able to normalise IL-10 levels or the capacity of NK cells to produce the antiviral cytokine IFN-γ. (
  • In conclusion, NK cells may be driven to a state of partial functional tolerance by the immunosuppressive cytokine environment in CHB. (
  • CD56 dim pNK cells express high levels of CD16 and both CD94-associated lectinlike NKG2 receptors and KIRs, are granular, and known to be cytotoxic. (
  • In contrast, CD56 bright pNK cells are mostly devoid of granules, CD16, and KIRs, but express higher amounts of other markers ( 12 - 15 ), such as CD94 ( 16 ) and L-selectin ( 17 ). (
  • Expanded hepatic CD16- NK cells were particularly immature with reduced CD57 and increased CD161 compared with the blood. (
  • Interpretation: we have shown that the liver contains an expanded population of immature CD16- NK cells. (
  • Here, we demonstrate that P. vivax-infected patients display significant increase in circulating monocytes, which were defined as CD14(+)CD16- (classical), CD14(+)CD16(+) (inflammatory), and CD14loCD16(+) (patrolling) cells. (
  • NK priming via CD2 induced CD16 shedding, releasing CD3ζ to the CD2, leading to its phosphorylation and the subsequent phosphorylation of linker for activation of T cells and STAT-5 and synthesis of IFN-γ. (
  • B and T lymphoid commitment is better understood than that of NK cells and a set of key genetic regulators of B and T cells fate have been identified and their expression consigns progeny to that lineage ( Warren and Rothenberg, 2003 ). (
  • Although Nlrp3 was expressed in MDSCs, the absence of Nlrp3 did not alter either their functional capacity to inhibit T cells or their presence in peripheral lymphoid tissues. (
  • For example, the Ikaros factor is essential for differentiation of lymphoid cells, including B cells. (
  • The present study shows that mouse lymphoid-committed CD4 low precursors, with the capacity to generate T cells, B cells, CD8 + lymphoid DCs, and natural killer cells, 2 6 also generate epidermal LCs on intravenous transfer, supporting the view that LCs belong to the lymphoid lineage. (
  • These results prompted us to investigate whether murine LCs derive from lymphoid-committed precursors with DC reconstitution potential. (
  • These multipotent lymphoid precursors, described originally in the adult mouse thymus by Shortman and colleagues, 10 who termed them CD4 low precursors, have been found to generate lymphoid DCs expressing CD8, along with T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. (
  • Quantification of HSC is achieved by coupling the end-points of donor-derived lymphoid and myeloid cell output to long term limiting dilution transplantation assays. (
  • This cell type has therefore been referred to as a myeloid-restricted STRC (STRC-M). The second is CD34 + CD38 − and produces large numbers of B-lymphoid as well as myeloid progeny after an initial 3 to 4 week delay, but only for the first 2-4 months post-transplant. (
  • Additionally, the number of apoptotic cells within the lymphoid organs was determined. (
  • Our knowledge and understanding of the tumor microenvironment (TME) have been recently expanded with the recognition of the important role of innate lymphoid cells (ILC). (
  • Recently, innate lymphoid cells (ILC) have been added to the list of immune cells that may contribute to the TME [ 3 ]. (
  • All innate lymphoid cells (ILC) constitutively express and require the small helix-loop-helix protein ID2 but the functions of ID2 are not well understood in these cells. (
  • They were first named in an article in 1976 and later categorized as part of the innate immune system due to their morphology, origin (bone marrow), and lack of antigen-specific receptors (such as those on T and B-cells' surfaces) and their respective genes. (
  • The earliest contact between antigen and the innate immune system is thought to direct the subsequent antigen-specific T cell response. (
  • Cardiac recovery was rapid, complete (left ventricular ejection fraction rose to 55% from 10%), and was accompanied by the disappearance of the inflammatory infiltrates including giant cells in the control endomyocardial biopsy. (
  • Conclusions Our results demonstrate that overexpression of CREMα in T cells changes the inflammatory milieu, attenuating initiation and progression of CLD. (
  • Although great progress has been made in therapeutic management, current therapies for autoimmune disease do not selectively target autoreactive cells but are directed against general inflammatory processes. (
  • Recruitment of immune cells to inflammatory sites is dependent on dynamic cell shape changes to allow cell mobility from the blood stream, through the vascular endothelium into the underlying tissue. (
  • At 56-days of age, the most striking effect was noted with increased NK cell activity in both treatment groups. (
  • These observations are also compatible with a pathogenic role for the increased NK cell activity observed in human asthma. (
  • Despite these similarities to human KIR, mouse gp49 expression is not restricted to NK cells, and in fact, gp49 was first thought to be mast cell specific. (
  • Among the ∼10,000 genes studied, 278 genes showed at least a threefold change with P ≤ 0.001 when comparing the dNK and peripheral NK cell subsets, most displaying increased expression in dNK cells. (
  • It has been reported that HNE inhibits DNA synthesis, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and c-myc expression in different leukemic cells lines. (
  • However, the expression of hTRT in combination with two oncogenes (SV40 T antigen and Ras ) promotes tumor transformation in normal human epithelial and fibroblast cell lines ( 15 ). (
  • B) Expression of CD69 on splenic NK cells. (
  • MDSCs are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells that are most readily identified in the mouse by their expression of Gr-1 and CD11b ( 18 ). (
  • Ectopic expression of Pax4 in pancreatic δ cells results in β-like cell neogenesis. (
  • The TREM were discovered through screens for proteins capable of facilitating the cell surface expression of DAP12. (
  • We speculate that the reason for this is to maintain a safety margin for otherwise normal, autologous cells over a range of MHC class I expression levels, in order to ensure robustness in NK cell tolerance. (
  • Design and Methods ALDEFLUOR-stained human cord blood cells displaying different levels of ALDH activity were first analyzed for co-expression of various surface markers. (
  • The immediate-early (IE) protein ICP0 is required to prevent IFN-α/β from silencing HSV-1 IE gene expression ( 22 , 38 ), and ICP34.5 is necessary to prevent the cellular double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) from inhibiting protein translation in virus-infected cells ( 8 , 31 ). (
  • MCMV antigen expression is detected by staining of infected cells with brown precipitate and tissues are counterstained with methyl green in all three panels. (
  • Costimulation ( 1 ) is therefore a pathway of intercellular communication that depends on the expression of complementary glycoproteins on the surface of interacting cells. (
  • The cyclic AMP-responsive element modulator-α (CREMα) is a central mediator of T-cell pathogenesis, which contributes to increased IL-17 expression in patients with autoimmune disorders. (
  • This effect was associated with the increased expression of DNAM-1, whereas TIG IT and CD96 were absent on these cells. (
  • The expression of NK-markers is not necessarily needed to identify a cell as an NKT cell. (
  • Previous reports have defined three subsets of mouse NK cells on the basis of the expression of CD27 and CD11b. (
  • To address this issue, we evaluated the overall proximity between mouse NK cell subsets defined by CD27 and CD11b expression using pangenomic gene expression profiling. (
  • We surprisingly find that, upon adoptive transfer, B220- NK cells did not acquire B220 expression, even in the presence of potent activating stimuli. (
  • In addition, Gal‑9 treatment increased the levels of caspase‑cleaved keratin 18 and the expression of cytochrome c in pancreatic cancer cell lines. (
  • HUMAN PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS TO STUDY AND TREAT NEUROLOGICAL DISEASE: Using information gained from studying neural stem cells in development, it has been possible to recreate the conditions of human fetal neurogenesis in the Petri dish. (
  • We are now able to use pluripotent stem cells to generate many types of human neurons, including those most affected in autism, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. (
  • With pluripotent stem cells derived from individuals with autism or schizophrenia, we are studying how genetic risk factors act to alter brain development. (
  • ONSL and OSKM cocktails act synergistically in reprogramming human somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells. (
  • Wu Z, Subramanian N, Jacobsen E-M, Laib Sampaio K, van der Merwe J, Hönig M, Mertens T. NK Cells from RAG- or DCLRE1C-Deficient Patients Inhibit HCMV. (
  • The capacity of IFN-β and IFN-γ to synergistically inhibit HSV-1 replication is not virus strain specific and has been observed in three different cell types. (
  • NK cell inactivation induced spontaneous lung metastasis of GBM cells, which indicated that NK cells inhibit the systemic metastasis. (
  • We have previously demonstrated an increase in activated CD56 bright NK cells in the livers of patients undergoing flares of eAg-negative CHB. (
  • While a few important transcription factors have been identified for NK genesis the mechanisms of how this is achieved is far from resolved. (
  • However, the mechanisms by which heme is sensed by innate immune cells contributing to these diseases are not fully characterized. (
  • CD2 ligation is known to be one of the mechanisms by which resting NK (rNK) cells are primed to activate ( 1 ). (
  • A promising method for a comprehensive therapy of MS integrating various possible therapeutic mechanisms might be the treatment with neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs). (
  • Therefore, unmet medical need new therapeutic modalities with novel treatment mechanisms targeting GBM cells that evade and/or withstand currently available therapies. (
  • The underlying mechanisms of the limited systemic metastatic potential of GBM cells are not only interesting from a scientific perspective, but could also provide clues leading to novel therapeutic modalities and unique treatment mechanisms. (
  • Additionally, there was a distinct decrease in splenic CD4+CD8- T-cells resulting in a concomitant decrease in the CD4+:CD8+ ratio. (
  • During cell-cycle progression, D-cyclins activate cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) 4/6 to inactivate Rb, permitting E2F1-mediated S-phase gene transcription. (
  • Conversely, reduction of IL-1β diminished metastases to the lung ( 11 ) and eliminating IL-1β prevented progression in a murine melanoma model ( 12 ). (
  • Additionally, two secreted proteins, galectin-1 and progestagen-associated protein 14, known to have immunomodulatory functions, were selectively expressed in dNK cells. (