Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Structurally-related receptors that are typically found on NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They are considered lectin-like proteins in that they share sequence homology with the carbohydrate binding domains of C-TYPE LECTINS. They differ from classical C-type lectins, however, in that they appear to lack CALCIUM-binding domains.
A group of lymphocyte surface antigens located on mouse LYMPHOCYTES. Specific Ly antigens are useful markers for distinguishing subpopulations of lymphocytes.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
An inhibitory subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that interacts with CLASS I MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS and prevents the activation of NK CELLS.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
Receptors that are specifically found on the surface of NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They play an important role in regulating the cellular component of INNATE IMMUNITY.
A subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that includes both inhibitory and stimulatory members.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and shares biological activities with IL-2. IL-15 also can induce proliferation and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Cytolytic lymphocytes with the unique capacity of killing natural killer (NK)-resistant fresh tumor cells. They are INTERLEUKIN-2-activated NK cells that have no MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX restriction or need for antigen stimulation. LAK cells are used for ADOPTIVE IMMUNOTHERAPY in cancer patients.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A family of receptors found on NK CELLS that have specificity for a variety of HLA ANTIGENS. KIR receptors contain up to three different extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains referred to as D0, D1, and D2 and play an important role in blocking NK cell activation against cells expressing the appropriate HLA antigens thus preventing cell lysis. Although they are often referred to as being inhibitory receptors, a subset of KIR receptors may also play an activating role in NK cells.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An activating NK cell lectin-like receptor subfamily that regulates immune responses to INFECTION and NEOPLASMS. Members of this subfamily generally occur as homodimers.
A subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that associates with members of NK CELL LECTIN-LIKE RECEPTOR SUBFAMILY D to form heterodimeric receptors for HLA-E antigen.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that associates with a variety of members of NK CELL LECTIN-LIKE RECEPTOR SUBFAMILY C to form heterodimeric receptors for HLA-E antigen.
The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.
Protein factors released from one species of YEAST that are selectively toxic to another species of yeast.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Mononuclear leukocytes that have been expanded in CELL CULTURE and activated with CYTOKINES such as INTERLEUKIN-2 to produce large numbers of highly cytotoxic cells.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
The species Orcinus orca, in the family Delphinidae, characterized by its black and white coloration, and huge triangular dorsal fin. It is the largest member of the DOLPHINS and derives its name from the fact that it is a fearsome predator.
Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).
A calcium-dependent pore-forming protein synthesized in cytolytic LYMPHOCYTES and sequestered in secretory granules. Upon immunological reaction between a cytolytic lymphocyte and a target cell, perforin is released at the plasma membrane and polymerizes into transmembrane tubules (forming pores) which lead to death of a target cell.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
A specialized subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES that exhibit features of INNATE IMMUNITY similar to that of NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They are reactive to glycolipids presented in the context of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like molecule, CD1D ANTIGEN.
A 46-kD stimulatory receptor found on resting and activated NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It has specificity for VIRAL HEMAGGLUTININS that are expressed on infected cells.
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
A component of the murine major histocompatibility complex class I family. It contains one Ig-like C1-type domain and functions in processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigens to the immune system.
A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-B ANTIGENS. It is an inhibitory receptor that contains D0, D1, and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A family of serine endopeptidases found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of LEUKOCYTES such as CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. When secreted into the intercellular space granzymes act to eliminate transformed and virus-infected host cells.
A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-C ANTIGEN. It is an inhibitory receptor that contains D1 and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail. It is similar in structure and function to the KIR2DL2 RECEPTORS and the KIR2DL3 RECEPTORS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).
A 30 kDa stimulatory receptor found on resting and activated NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-C ANTIGENS. It is an inhibitory receptor that contains D1 and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail. It is similar in structure and function to the KIR2DL2 RECEPTOR and the KIR2DL3 RECEPTORS.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Proteins secreted from an organism which form membrane-spanning pores in target cells to destroy them. This is in contrast to PORINS and MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that function within the synthesizing organism and COMPLEMENT immune proteins. These pore forming cytotoxic proteins are a form of primitive cellular defense which are also found in human LYMPHOCYTES.
A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-G antigen. It contains D0 and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
An abundant lysosomal-associated membrane protein that has been found to shuttle between LYSOSOMES; ENDOSOMES; and the PLASMA MEMBRANE. In PLATELETS and T-LYMPHOCYTES it may play a role in the cellular degranulation process.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-C ANTIGENS. It is an inhibitory receptor that contains D1 and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail. It is similar in structure and function to the KIR2DL1 RECEPTORS and the KIR2DL3 RECEPTORS.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, causing infection involving several organs in mice and rats. Murid herpesvirus is the type species.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
A cytokine which resembles IL-1 structurally and IL-12 functionally. It enhances the cytotoxic activity of NK CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES, and appears to play a role both as neuroimmunomodulator and in the induction of mucosal immunity.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
An activating KIR receptor that contains D0, D1, and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a short cytoplasmic tail.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A 44-kD stimulatory receptor found on activated NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It has specificity for VIRAL HEMAGGLUTININS that are expressed on infected cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
The process of losing secretory granules (SECRETORY VESICLES). This occurs, for example, in mast cells, basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils, and platelets when secretory products are released from the granules by EXOCYTOSIS.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The theory that T-cells monitor cell surfaces and detect structural changes in the plasma membrane and/or surface antigens of virally or neoplastically transformed cells.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-A3 ANTIGEN. It is an inhibitory receptor that contains D0, D1, and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail.
A subclass of lipid-linked proteins that contain a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE which holds them to the CELL MEMBRANE.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cerebrosides which contain as their polar head group a galactose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in beta-galactosidase, is the cause of galactosylceramide lipidosis or globoid cell leukodystrophy.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.
A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors representing malignant transformations of T-lymphocytes.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-15. They are widely-distributed heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-15 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2, 15 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Interferon inducer consisting of a synthetic, mismatched double-stranded RNA. The polymer is made of one strand each of polyinosinic acid and polycytidylic acid.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).
The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.
Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Monocytes made cytotoxic by IN VITRO incubation with CYTOKINES, especially INTERFERON-GAMMA. The cells are used for ADOPTIVE IMMUNOTHERAPY in cancer patients.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
The removal of LEUKOCYTES from BLOOD to reduce BLOOD TRANSFUSION reactions and lower the chance of transmitting VIRUSES. This may be performed by FILTRATION or by CYTAPHERESIS.
A low affinity interleukin-15 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-15.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
An interleukin receptor subunit that was originally discovered as a component of the INTERLEUKIN 2 RECEPTOR. It was subsequently found to be a component of several other receptors including the INTERLEUKIN 4 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN 7 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN-9 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN-15 RECEPTOR, and the INTERLEUKIN-21 RECEPTOR. Mutations in the gene for the interleukin receptor common gamma chain have been associated with X-LINKED COMBINED IMMUNODEFICIENCY DISEASES.
Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The interfaces between T-CELLS and ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS. Supramolecular organization of proteins takes place at these synapses involving various types of immune cells. Immunological synapses can have several functions including LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION; enhancing, balancing, or terminating signaling; or directing cytokine secretion.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by alleles on locus B of the HLA complex. The HLA-G antigens are considered non-classical class I antigens due to their distinct tissue distribution which differs from HLA-A; HLA-B; and HLA-C antigens. Note that several isoforms of HLA-G antigens result from alternative splicing of messenger RNAs produced from the HLA-G*01 allele.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
An inhibitory KIR receptor that contains D0 and D1 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A receptor subunit that is a shared component of the INTERLEUKIN 2 RECEPTOR and the INTERLEUKIN-15 RECEPTOR. High affinity receptor complexes are formed with each of these receptors when their respective alpha subunits are combined with this beta subunit and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
A lyophilized preparation of a low-virulence strain (SU) of Streptococcus pyogenes (S. hemolyticus), inactivated by heating with penicillin G. It has been proposed as a noncytotoxic antineoplastic agent because of its immune system-stimulating activity.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-12. They exist as dimers of beta 1 and beta 2 subunits. Signaling from interleukin-12 receptors occurs through their interaction with JANUS KINASES.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The ability of tumors to evade destruction by the IMMUNE SYSTEM. Theories concerning possible mechanisms by which this takes place involve both cellular immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and humoral immunity (ANTIBODY FORMATION), and also costimulatory pathways related to CD28 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD28) and CD80 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD80).
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Unstable isotopes of chromium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cr atoms with atomic weights of 46-49, 51, 55, and 56 are radioactive chromium isotopes.
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
Experimentally induced neoplasms of CONNECTIVE TISSUE in animals to provide a model for studying human SARCOMA.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Agents that promote the production and release of interferons. They include mitogens, lipopolysaccharides, and the synthetic polymers Poly A-U and Poly I-C. Viruses, bacteria, and protozoa have been also known to induce interferons.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
"Murine Natural Killer Cells and Hybrid Resistance to Hemopoietic Cells in Vivo". Natural Killer Cell Protocols. Vol. 121. ... BM graft by F1 generation is caused by NK cells as was said. The activity of these cells (NK cells) is inhibited, if there is ... This rejection is caused by natural killer (NK) cells of the recipient. The model which describes this event is called "The ... signaling of murine natural killer cells". Seminars in Immunology. 7 (2): 121-7. doi:10.1006/smim.1995.0016. PMID 7579194. Liu ...
... s (KARs) are receptors expressed on the plasmatic membrane of Natural Killer cells (NK cells). KARs ... Parham, Peter (March 2004). "Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor diversity: balancing signals in the natural killer cell ... Hibbs, ML; Classon, BJ; Walker, ID; McKenzie, IF; Hogarth, PM (1988). "The structure of the murine Fc receptor for IgG. ... This engagement activates the natural killer cell to attack the transformed or infected cells. This action can be done in ...
Croy, B. Anne; Kiso, Yasuo (1993-06-15). "Granulated metrial gland cells: A natural killer cell subset of the pregnant murine ... peripheral NK cells).[clarification needed] There are also integrin families present in the membrane of uterine natural killer ... resident natural killer cells and circulating natural killer cells are thought to contribute to the Uterine natural killer cell ... this section focuses on murine uterine natural killer cells. Uterine natural killer cells are large, granular, rounded or oval ...
MDSCs interact with immune cell types such as T cells, dendritic cells, macrophages and natural killer cells to regulate their ... The depletion of MDSCs from mice with liver cancer significantly increases natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity, NKG2D ... "Myeloid-derived suppressor cells in murine retrovirus-induced AIDS inhibit T- and B-cell responses in vitro that are used to ... in particular of CD8+ T-cell responses. The spectrum of action of MDSC activity also encompasses NK cells, dendritic cells and ...
Natural killer (NK) cells are a type of lymphocyte cell involved in the innate immune system's response to viral infection and ... This difference, which is also present in Ly49, the murine homolog to KIR, tips the balance towards self-tolerance. Activating ... Because natural killer cells target virally infected host cells and tumor cells, inhibitory KIR receptors are important in ... on the surface of NK cells are each expressed on a subset of NK cells in such a way that not all classes of inhibitory NK cell ...
"Activating and inhibitory receptors of natural killer cells". Immunology and Cell Biology. 89 (2): 216-24. doi:10.1038/icb. ... NKT cells, uterine NK cells (uNK) cells, macrophages or dendritic cells). Their primary role is to bind MHC-I molecules to ... for example Ly49H binds to murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) glycoprotein m157. Mouse strains without Ly49H are more susceptible to ... This educational process prevents generation of autoreactive NK cells and it was called "NK cell licensing" by Yokoyama and ...
In comparison to NK cells, mature B cells do not express NKG2D. CD94/NKG2 Natural killer cell NKG2 Immunoevasin GRCh38: Ensembl ... Upregulation of antiapoptic Mcl-1 protein by NKG2D also induces formation of memory T cells. In murine memory T cell precursors ... T cells, γδ T cells, activated CD8+ αβ T cells and activated macrophages. In humans, it is expressed by NK cells, γδ T cells ... As cancerous cells are "stressed", NKG2D ligands become upregulated, rendering the cell susceptible to NK cell-mediated lysis. ...
Ly-49-independent natural killer (NK) cell specificity revealed by NK cell clones derived from p53-deficient mice. The Journal ... while his lab was working on NK cells, they found an interesting similarity between natural helper (NH) cells and NK cells ... Molecular cloning of murine intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1). The EMBO Journal, 8(10), pp. 2889-2896. Takei, F., ... NK) cell functions. In the beginning, he was more interested in T cells than NK cells. When his lab first cloned Ly-49, they ...
... is an immune receptor present on some T cells and natural killer cells (NK). It is also identified as WUCAM and Vstm3. TIGIT ... "The interaction of TIGIT with PVR and PVRL2 inhibits human NK cell cytotoxicity". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 106 (42): 17858-63 ... Co-blockade of TIGIT and PD-1 pathways elicits tumor rejection in preclinical murine models. In humans, the CITYSCAPE clinical ... and also inhibit T cell activation in vivo. TIGIT's inhibition of NK cytotoxicity can be blocked by antibodies against its ...
The mechanism of LAK cells is distinctive from that of natural killer cells because they can lyse cells that NK cells cannot. ... "Successful immunotherapy of murine experimental hepatic metastases with lymphokine-activated killer cells and recombinant ... In cell biology, a lymphokine-activated killer cell (also known as a LAK cell) is a white blood cell that has been stimulated ... LAK cells are specific to tumor cells and do not display activity against normal cells. LAK cells, along with the ...
... classically activated macrophages arise in response to IFN-γ produced by Th1 lymphocytes or by natural killer cells (NK), and ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.11.018. PMC 4437213. PMID 25480296. Ginhoux F, Schultze JL, Murray PJ, Ochando J, Biswas SK (January ... which are shown to induce the M1 polarization of human and murine macrophages. Macrophages are polarized toward the M1 profile ... for example apoptotic cells, symbiont cells, gametes and cells of the embryo in the uterus). M2 macrophages hence govern ...
... is also known as Natural Killer Cell Receptor 2B4 This gene encodes a cell surface receptor expressed on natural killer cells ( ... Vaidya SV, Mathew PA (2006). "Of mice and men: different functions of the murine and human 2B4 (CD244) receptor on NK cells". ... natural killer cell receptor 2B4". Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM): 605554 "CD244 molecule, natural killer cell ... The interaction between NK-cell and target cells via this receptor is thought to modulate NK-cell cytolytic activity. ...
"A human natural killer cell subset provides an innate source of IL-22 for mucosal immunity". Nature. 457 (7230): 722-5. Bibcode ... They are involved in activation and cytotoxic activity of NK cells, including cells lysis and secretion of pro-inflammatory ... In the murine model, IL-22 was found to play a role in improving the course of inflammatory bowel disease and epithelial ... These receptors are commonly found on natural killer cells and some subpopulations of innate and adaptive cells. ...
... a novel killer cell lectinlike receptor, inhibits natural killer cell cytotoxicity". Blood. 104 (9): 2858-66. doi:10.1182/blood ... Murine MICL is expressed as dimer on granulocytes, monocytes but also on B lymphocytes and can be also found on NK cells ... Members of this family share a common protein fold and have diverse functions, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell signaling, ... This gene is closely linked to other CTL/CTLD superfamily members in the natural killer gene complex region on chromosome 12p13 ...
... and natural killer (NK) cells share the remarkable ability to recognize, bind, and lyse specific target cells. They are thought ... The protein described here is a T cell- and natural killer cell-specific serine protease that may function as a common ... Odake S, Kam CM, Narasimhan L, Poe M, Blake JT, Krahenbuhl O, Tschopp J, Powers JC (February 1991). "Human and murine cytotoxic ... "Cloning and chromosomal assignment of a human cDNA encoding a T cell- and natural killer cell-specific trypsin-like serine ...
... natural killer (NK) cells, NKT cells, and macrophages. Th1 polarization also activates the immune cells in response to IFN-γ. ... Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) is heavily expressed on T cells at the tumor site than on T cells present in the peripheral ... Oghumu et al clarified that CXCR3 deficient mice displayed increased IL-4 production and M2 polarization in a murine breast ... Immune cells, like Th1, CTLs, NK cells, and NKT cells, show anti-tumor effect against cancer cells through paracrine CXCL9/ ...
"Expression of cytoplasmic CD3 epsilon proteins in activated human adult natural killer (NK) cells and CD3 gamma, delta, epsilon ... "Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone encoding the murine homologue of the human 20K T3/T-cell receptor glycoprotein ... "CD3 delta and epsilon gene expression in CD3-CD16+ natural killer cell clones derived from thymic precursors". Human Immunology ... complexes in fetal NK cells. Implications for the relationship of NK and T lymphocytes". Journal of Immunology. 149 (6): 1876- ...
IFNγ signaling can initially originate from Natural Killer (NK) cells, but adaptive immune cells are required to sustain a ... Regulatory macrophages produce Interleukin 10, which can inhibit cytotoxic responses of other lymphocytes to cancer cell ... 2013). Generation and characterization of murine alternatively activated macrophages. Methods Mol. Biol. Methods in Molecular ... Interleukin 4, secreted by granulocytes after tissue damage or by adaptive immune cells within a Th2 response, causes ...
SLAMF9 SLAMFs are CD2-related surface receptors expressed by activated B and T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic ... SLAMFs are also involved in immune cell communication; SLAMFs are co-stimulatory molecules for both T-cells and NK cells. SLAMs ... Rosenbach T, Csatò M, Czarnetzki BM (January 1988). "Studies on the role of leukotrienes in murine allergic and irritant ... SAP is expressed in lymphocytes (specifically NK cells and T cells, but not usually B cells), eosinophils, and platelets. A ...
... is critical in promotion of antiviral response of natural killer (NK) cell by targeting of promotor regions of Runx1 and ... During the initial phase of viral infection in NK cells, STAT1 activation is replaced by the activation of STAT4. Monocytes, ... Human as well murine STAT4 genes lie next to STAT1 gene locus suggesting that the genes arose by gene duplication. STAT ... "Core-binding factor β and Runx transcription factors promote adaptive natural killer cell responses". Science Immunology. 2 (18 ...
... plays a significant role in early activation of natural killer (NK) cells following vaccination. In addition, CD16 ... Anti-CD19/CD16 diabodies have been shown to enhance the natural killer cell response to B-cell lymphomas. Furthermore, ... FcγRIV, a murine homologue of CD16A has been shown to be involved in antibody-mediated depletion of tumor-infiltrating ... While FcγRIIIa is expressed on mast cells, macrophages, and natural killer cells as a transmembrane receptor, FcγRIIIb is only ...
Fasbender, Frank; Widera, Agata; Hengstler, Jan G.; Watzl, Carsten (2016-01-29). "Natural Killer Cells and Liver Fibrosis". ... Senescent hepatic stellate cells have been demonstrated to limit liver fibrosis by activating interactions with NK cells. ... In murine (rats, mice) liver, reelin expressed by Ito cells has been shown to be a reliable marker in discerning them from ... Hepatic stellate cells (HSC), also known as perisinusoidal cells or Ito cells (earlier lipocytes or fat-storing cells), are ...
SeV activates natural killer cells (NK), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and dendritic cells (DC). The secretion of interleukin-6 ... increases the vulnerability of these cells to natural killer cells. Elevated levels of cell membrane sialylation are associated ... The increased concentration of ICAM-1 on the cells surface increases the vulnerability of these cells to natural killer cells. ... These molecules activate both CD8+ T cells as well as natural killer cells and attract them to the tumor. It has been shown ...
... resulting in lysis of both sperm and eggs by leukocytes known as natural killer, or NK cells. These cells target and kill other ... "Expression of glycans linked to natural killer cell inhibition on the human zona pellucida". Mol. Hum. Reprod. 3 (6): 501-5. ... 3-dioxygenase expression is restricted to fetal trophoblast giant cells during murine gestation and is maternal genome specific ... Ljunggren, H. G.; Karre, K. (1990). "In search of "missing self"? MHC class I molecules and NK cell recognition". Immunol. ...
Natural killer cells (NK cells) and macrophages play a major role in clearance of senescent cells. Natural killer cells ... and uterine natural killer cell maturation during normal murine pregnancy". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 192 (2): 259- ... NK cells are thought to be an important cell type in this process. These cells are known as "uterine NK cells" (uNK cells) and ... "Tissue-resident natural killer (NK) cells are cell lineages distinct from thymic and conventional splenic NK cells". eLife. 3: ...
"Invariant and noninvariant natural killer T cells exert opposite regulatory functions on the immune response during murine ... These cytokines influence the effector functions of other cells, in particular macrophages and NK cells. Antigen-naive T cells ... Cytotoxic T cells (TC cells, CTLs, T-killer cells, killer T cells) destroy virus-infected cells and tumor cells, and are also ... Natural killer T cells (NKT cells - not to be confused with natural killer cells of the innate immune system) bridge the ...
... resulting in recovered cytolytic activity and anti-tumor effects of natural killer (NK) cells and T cells, as well as reduced ... "Targeting a scavenger receptor on tumor-associated macrophages activates tumor cell killing by natural killer cells". ... "Structure and chromosomal localization of the human and murine genes for the macrophage MARCO receptor". Genomics. 58 (1): 82- ... MARCO-expressing TAMs blocked activation of cytotoxic T cells and NK cells, inhibiting their proliferation, cytokine production ...
NSG branded mice lack mature T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. NSG branded mice are also deficient in multiple ... J recombination and DNA repair defects associated with the murine scid mutation". Cell. 80 (5): 813-23. doi:10.1016/0092-8674( ... 2008). "T cell-specific siRNA delivery suppresses HIV-1 infection in humanized mice". Cell. 134 (4): 577-86. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... Notably, the absence of IL2Rγ blocks NK cell differentiation, and thereby removes a major obstacle preventing the efficient ...
... -7 is found on Natural Killer cells (NK cells). Siglec-7 leads to cellular inactivation once bound to its sialic acid- ... It is used in cell-cell contacts, binding to sialylated glycans on target cells leading to inhibition of NK cell-dependent ... "Properties and distribution of a lectin-like hemagglutinin differentially expressed by murine stromal tissue macrophages". The ... Mammalian cells contain high levels of sialic acid and so when NK cells bind so called "self-cells", they are not activated and ...
... viral replication resulting in a cascade of chemokines/cytokines causing natural killer (NK) cells to recognize and attack ... This cycle of infection, replication and cell death is believed to be repeated until all tumour cells carrying an activated Ras ... "Synergistic effects of oncolytic reovirus and cisplatin chemotherapy in murine malignant melanoma". Clinical Cancer Research. ... Reovirus replicates in and eventually kills Ras-activated tumour cells, and as cell death occurs, progeny virus particles are ...
... dendritic and endothelial cells maps close to the NK receptor genes in the human NK gene complex". European Journal of ... This gene is closely linked to other CTL/CTLD superfamily members on chromosome 12p13 in the natural killer gene complex region ... May 2005). "Regulated recruitment of DC-SIGN to cell-cell contact regions during zymosan-induced human dendritic cell ... "The human beta-glucan receptor is widely expressed and functionally equivalent to murine Dectin-1 on primary cells". European ...
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma Angiocentric lymphoma (extranodal natural killer cell lymphoma, nasal-type NK lymphoma, NK/T- ... The epidermis contains four cell types: keratinocytes, melanocytes, Langerhans cells, and Merkel cells. Of these, keratinocytes ... murine typhus) Epidemic typhus (epidemic louse-borne typhus) Erysipelas (ignis sacer, Saint Anthony's fire) Erysipeloid of ... Blastic NK-cell lymphoma CD30+ cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma) Cutaneous lymphoid ...
... the efficient clearance of apoptotic material and the dampening of TLR-dependent inflammatory responses and natural killer cell ... AXL is expressed on the tumor cells as well as adjacent immune cells including dendritic cells, macrophages, and NK cells. Axl ... "A murine cDNA encodes a pan-epithelial glycoprotein that is also expressed on plasma cells". Journal of Immunology. 148 (2): ... "Expression Analysis Highlights AXL as a Candidate Zika Virus Entry Receptor in Neural Stem Cells". Cell Stem Cell. 18 (5): 591- ...
"Redistribution, hyperproliferation, activation of natural killer cells and CD8 T cells and cytokine production during first-in- ... and elucidated its role in the development of NK and CD8-memory T cells and its inhibition of activation induced cell death. He ... He introduced different forms of IL-2R-directed therapy, including unmodified murine antibodies to IL-2R alpha (anti-Tac, the ... that stimulates T-cell proliferation and the induction of lymphokine-activated killer cells". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1994, 91( ...
The natural killer cells are low or low normal. Switched memory B cells (IgM, IgD, CD27+) may be present in the blood.[citation ... Phospholipase C-gamma 2 is a critical signaling mediator for murine NK cell activating receptors. J Immunol 175(2):749-754 ... It is however known that phospholipase C gamma is an important signalling mediation for natural killer cells. Two thirds of ...
... thereby contributing to the dampening adaptive immune responses in T helper 17 cells; stimulates natural killer T cell ... is expressed on inflammation-regulating NK cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, and Innate lymphoid cells as well as on ... form in inflamed tissues and in cultures of murine macrophages; the 14R,21-diHDHA and 14S,21-diHDHA isomers promoted wound ... gamma delta T cells, and Natural killer T cells. The cited cells then proceeded to neutralize invading organisms, limit tissue ...
B cells, T cells, or NK cells. Only some of these CD8+ murine cells expressed XCR1 receptors. NK cells release XCL1 along with ... Maghazachi AA (June 1999). "Intracellular signalling pathways induced by chemokines in natural killer cells". Cellular ... Cross-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) in the spleen develop into XCR1+ DCs in the small intestine, T cell zones of Peyer's ... In order to make a powerful secondary infection response, cytokine and chemokine signaling between XCR1+ DCs and NK cells must ...
Particularly, maintenance of a pool of natural killer (NK) cells with optimal immune function is crucial for host defense ... Opn was found highly expressed by a specific dendritic cell (DC) subset derived from murine mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and ... OPN blocks the activation-induced cell death of macrophages and T cells as well as fibroblasts and endothelial cells exposed to ... These integrin receptors are present on a number of immune cells such as mast cells, neutrophils, and T cells. It is also ...
Importantly, inflammasome-derived IL-18 is also involved in recruitment of natural killer (NK) cells, that play a crucial role ... Finally, NK cells also secrete IFN-γ in order to recruit other inflammatory cell types. In a study of UPEC infection of the ... While the murine caspase-11 is mainly expressed in macrophages, human caspase-4 is also expressed at high levels in intestinal ... Besides NK cells and mast cells, neutrophils are other important innate immune effector cells that infiltrate the infected ...
... is a cell adhesion molecule found on the surface of T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. It has also been called T-cell ... Diamond DJ, Clayton LK, Sayre PH, Reinherz EL (1988). "Exon-intron organization and sequence comparison of human and murine T11 ... CD2 also acts as a co-stimulatory molecule on T and NK cells. CD2 is a specific marker for T cells and NK cells, and can ... "The OX-44 molecule couples to signaling pathways and is associated with CD2 on rat T lymphocytes and a natural killer cell line ...
... and natural killer cells (NK cells). About the same time, CD38 was discovered to be not simply a marker of cell types, but an ... extensive structural homology with the genes for murine bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1 and aplysian ADP-ribosyl cyclase". ... followed by natural killer cells, followed by B cells and T cells, and then followed by a variety of cell types. CD38 can ... CD31 on endothelial cells binds to the CD38 receptor on natural killer cells for those cells to attach to the endothelium. CD38 ...
July 1998). "Natural killer cells from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are an important source of CC- ... T cells, NK cells, dendritic cells, neutrophils, fibroblasts, endothelial cells such as vascular smooth muscle cells, brain ... Zhao RY, Elder RT (March 2005). "Viral infections and cell cycle G2/M regulation". Cell Research. 15 (3): 143-149. doi:10.1038/ ... Post TW, Bozic CR, Rothenberg ME, Luster AD, Gerard N, Gerard C (December 1995). "Molecular characterization of two murine ...
... cells will upregulate NKG2D ligands so that they may be recognized and destroyed by Natural Killer (NK) and T cells. In many ... "Cell intrinsic immunity spreads to bystander cells via the intercellular transfer of cGAMP". Nature. 503 (7477): 530-4. Bibcode ... STING was identified in murine embryonic fibroblasts, and is required for the type 1 interferon response in both immune and non ... in tumor cells, so as to aid in NK-mediated tumor clearance. Moreover, activation of the STING pathway in bone marrow ...
Natural killer cells belong to the innate immune system, while they perform anti-tumor functions in a very similar mechanism to ... The primary types of cellular adoptive immunotherapies are T cell therapies. Other therapies include CAR-T therapy, CAR-NK ... These studies used TILs grown from different murine tumors and showed in vivo anti-tumor activity of these cells. Current ... Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) Anti-CD19 (CD19 is crucial for B cell lineage, which is overexpressed on leukemic B-cells) ...
"Mesenchymal stem cell-natural killer cell interactions: evidence that activated NK cells are capable of killing MSCs, whereas ... April 2011). "Human but not murine multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial effector function ... Proliferation and cytotoxic activity of NK cells is inhibited by PGE2 and IDO. MSCs also reduce the expression of NK cell ... MSCs have an effect on macrophages, neutrophils, NK cells, mast cells and dendritic cells in innate immunity. MSCs are able to ...
"Murine Natural Killer Cells and Hybrid Resistance to Hemopoietic Cells in Vivo". Natural Killer Cell Protocols. Vol. 121. ... BM graft by F1 generation is caused by NK cells as was said. The activity of these cells (NK cells) is inhibited, if there is ... This rejection is caused by natural killer (NK) cells of the recipient. The model which describes this event is called "The ... signaling of murine natural killer cells". Seminars in Immunology. 7 (2): 121-7. doi:10.1006/smim.1995.0016. PMID 7579194. Liu ...
Whether tumor cell death resulting from cytotoxicity, as mediated by T cells or natural killer (NK) lymphocytes, is actually ... In this study, we sought to evaluate the role of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in murine natural killer (NK) cell activation, function ... NETs wrap and coat tumor cells and shield them from cytotoxicity, as mediated by CD8+ T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, by ... Natural Killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes specialized in early defense against virus-infected and transformed cells. ...
... natural killer cell (NK) activity, antibody plaque forming cell (PFC) response, lymphocyte proliferation, and T-cell ... Additionally, there was a distinct decrease in splenic CD4+CD8- T-cells resulting in a concomitant decrease in the CD4+:CD8+ ... It has been reported, in murine studies, that TCE can both exacerbate autoimmune disease and suppress immune function. While ... NK cell activity and T- and B-cell proliferation were not altered. IgM antibody responses to sRBC challenge were suppressed in ...
Natural killer cell-killer immunoglobulinlike receptor mismatch. Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphoid cells that are part of ... mAbs were initially produced by fusing murine myeloma cells with B cells from mice immunized with specific antigens. Because ... Type I versus type II natural killer T cells. Natural killer T cells represent another class of cells in which a dichotomy is ... Humans generally have a lower frequency of natural killer T cells, but biologic differences between natural killer T cells in ...
It is expressed as a disulfide-linked homodimer on all NK cells as well as subsets of thymocytes and peripheral T lym ... a member of the NKR-P1 family of cell surface receptors, is a type II integral membrane glycoprotein with a C-type lectin ... Stimulation of murine natural killer (NK) cells by a monoclonal antibody specific for the NK1.1 antigen. IL-2-activated NK ... Splenic natural killer cell activity in two models of experimental neurodegenerative diseases. J Cell Mol Med. 2009;13:2693-703 ...
Overexpression of Hsp25 in K1735 murine melanoma cells enhances susceptibility to natural killer cytotoxicity ... on natural killer (NK) cytotoxicity. The melanoma lines K1735-Cl23 (low metastatic potential) and K1735-M2 (high metastatic ... overexpression of Hsp25 is associated with an increased susceptibility to lysis by DX-5 NK cells in the low-metastatic murine ... In contrast, there was no difference in susceptibility to lysis by purified IL-2-stimulated DX-5 NK cells between Hsp25- ...
... whereas natural killer (NK) cells were significantly decreased (Fig. 1G) and showed a functionally impaired phenotype ( ... Future studies will investigate the antigens triggering T-cell responses in the murine EGFR-driven lung cancer models. ... G, immune cell populations; T cell, B cell, NK cell, granulocytes (GR), alveolar macrophages (AM), and mixed populations (CD11b ... G, immune cell populations; T cell, B cell, NK cell, granulocytes (GR), alveolar macrophages (AM), and mixed populations (CD11b ...
... human NK-sensitive cells),YAC-1 (murine NK-sensitive cells), and PC-14 cells in vitro. We used human CD56+ NK cells and murine ... NK cells against K562 and PC-14 cells (Fig. 4). In addition,pretreatment of NK cells with the supernatant of PC-14neo13 cells ... Cytolysis of human dendritic cells by autologous lymphokine-activated killer cells: participation of both T cells and NK cells ... MCP-1 was reported to augment not only killer activity of NK cells but also migration of NK cells(4, 5, 6, 7). These findings ...
... by incorporating a natural killer (NK) cell response to the viral infection). The model runs in OpenCell to recreate the ... murine cytomegalovirus,/rdf:li, ,rdf:li,CD8+ T cell,/rdf:li, ,rdf:li,CTL,/rdf:li, ,rdf:li,NK cell,/rdf:li, ,/rdf:Bag, ,rdf:Seq ... early-infected cells (y0), late-infected cells (y1), and latently-infected cells (L). When susceptible host cells become ... Dynamics of killer T cell inflation in viral infections (Core Model) * Dynamics of killer T cell inflation in viral infections ...
... including squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx (OSCC). Although there have been promising results from ... including natural killer (NK) cells, cytotoxic T cells, and dendritic cells (DCs) [62]. Tumour cells can resist immune ... Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition blocks M2 macrophage differentiation and suppresses metastasis in murine breast cancer model. PLoS ... increase metastatic potential by impeding natural killer cell-mediated elimination of tumor cells. Blood 2005, 105, 178-185. [ ...
Influence of natural killer (NK)-cell depletion on AAV-PHP.eB transduction to the CNS in BALB/c mice. (A) Flow cytometry ... B-cell depletion in BALB/c mice. BALB/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with an anti-CD20 murine IgG2a monoclonal Ab, 5D2 ... Cell. 2017;169:58-71 42. Hammer Q, Rückert T, Romagnani C. Natural killer cell specificity for viral infections. Nat Immunol. ... NK cells: natural killer cells; PCR: polymerase chain reaction. ... Depletion of NK cells in BALB/c mice. NK cells were depleted in ...
1] Other studies have observed alterations in the functioning of natural killer (NK) cells and a decreased response of T cells ... metabolism and response to oxidative stress to include impaired natural killer cell function and/or T-cell function, elevated ... Xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus is not found in peripheral blood cells from treatment-naive human ... No evidence of murine-like gammaretroviruses in CFS patients previously identified as XMRV-infected. Science. 2011 Jul 1. 333( ...
Whereas a lot is known regarding differentiation and function of murine NK cells, current knowledge regarding human NK cells is ... Differentiation of human natural killer(NK) cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILC). ... NK cells have been shown to have high cytotoxic potential against various cancer cell types, and are currently used in the ... reveal the role of several transcription factors in the differentiation of human hematopoietic stem cells into mature NK cells ...
Development of reporter gene imaging techniques for long-term assessment of human circulating angiogenic cells ... cytotoxic T cells: CTLs [114] 1 0 e20% Natural killer: NK [114] 3 0 e40% Bone Marrow [114] 1 0 e20% murine myeloma cells [115] ... F-18-FDG Cell Labeling May Underestimate Transplanted Cell Homing: More Accurate, Efficient, and Stable Cell Labeling With ... Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells [106] N A Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells [107] N A Adipose-derived stem cells [108] N A T ...
Using an ILT2-transduced murine iNKT cell line and human iNKT cells, we demonstrate that iNKT cells are sensitive to HLA-G, ... Using an ILT2-transduced murine iNKT cell line and human iNKT cells, we demonstrate that iNKT cells are sensitive to HLA-G, ... Several human clinical trials on iNKT cell-based anti-cancer are ongoing, however results are not as striking as in murine ... Furthermore, human HLA-G+ dendritic cells, called DC-10, failed at inducing iNKT cell activation compared to their autologous ...
The immune endpoints assessed were natural killer (NK) cell activity and lymphocyte proliferation. PFOS significantly decreased ... Mitogen-induced T cell proliferation was significantly decreased in murine cells beginning at the 0.05 μg/mL treatment, but not ... It also did not alter lymphocyte proliferation in mice, but did augment NK cell activity beginning with the 0.05 μg/mL ... and perfluorooctane sulfonate on dolphin and murine immune cells. (. 2013-03-08. ) Wirth, Jena ; Fair, Patricia A ; Marine ...
Activation of natural killer (NK) cells by hematopoietic target cells is controlled by the SLAM family of receptors and by the ... Here we found that SLAM receptors also enhanced NK cell activation by nonhematopoietic target cells, which lack ligands for ... Thus, in addition to their role in NK cell activation by hematopoietic cells, the SLAM-SAP pathways influence responsiveness ... This function was mediated by SLAMF6, a homotypic SLAM receptor found on NK cells and other hematopoietic cells, and was ...
... natural killer (NK) cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are the major sources of IFN- and this cytokine might stimulate all effector ... activates neuronal cells to control tachyzoite multiplication [25]. The stimulation of murine microglial cells with IFN- and ... with a ratio of one cell for two tachyzoites. Control cells were uninfected and non-stimulated cells, and uninfected stimulated ... 3-07-2012). Human nerve cell cultures Human microglial cells (CMH5) (kindly provided by Pr. P. Vincendeau, Bordeaux, France) [ ...
Although NK cells reside in naive lymph nodes (L ... NK cells have been proposed to be an initial source of IFN-γ ... In vivo developmental stages in murine natural killer cell maturation. Nat. Immunol. ... Human dendritic cells activate resting natural killer (NK) cells and are recognized via the NKp30 receptor by activated NK ... and CXCR3 is known to be a key chemokine receptor for NK cell LN recruitment (24). Among mature NK cells, the CD27high NK cell ...
1] Other studies have observed alterations in the functioning of natural killer (NK) cells and a decreased response of T cells ... metabolism and response to oxidative stress to include impaired natural killer cell function and/or T-cell function, elevated ... Xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus is not found in peripheral blood cells from treatment-naive human ... No evidence of murine-like gammaretroviruses in CFS patients previously identified as XMRV-infected. Science. 2011 Jul 1. 333( ...
... and uterine natural killer (NK) cells, indicating elevated early immune activation [76]. The overall effect was that offspring ... IFN-γ is a type II produced primarily by T cells and NK cells during cell-mediated immune responses. Its main function is to ... Human interleukin (IL) 1 alpha, murine IL-1 alpha and murine IL-1 beta are transported from blood to brain in the mouse by a ... They have high numbers of plasma cells in the blood and spleen, an increased proportion of T helper type 2 (Th2) cells, and ...
NK) cells are heterogeneous in their specificity and expression of cell surface molecules. In the mouse, the Ly-49A molecule is ... derivation of cloned murine NK cells should permit dissection of NK cell specificity but, to date, it has not been possible to ... Ly-49-independent natural killer (NK) cell specificity revealed by NK cell clones derived from p53-deficient mice. F M ... F M Karlhofer, M M Orihuela, W M Yokoyama; Ly-49-independent natural killer (NK) cell specificity revealed by NK cell clones ...
NK) cell proliferation and function and regulates B cell survival and differentiation and the function of dendritic cells. In ... through mechanism involving the activation of NK and T or B cell responses. Moreover, IL-21’s antitumor activity can be ... as it may support cell proliferation or on the contrary induce growth arrest or apoptosis of the neoplastic lymphoid cells. ... addition, IL-21 exerts divergent effects on different lymphoid cell leukemia and lymphomas, ...
IFN-γ-inducing factor up-regulates Fas ligand-mediated cytotoxic activity of murine natural killer cell clones. J Immunol. 1996 ... Naive IL-18 KO or WT mice have similar percentages of CD4+, CD8+ T cells, B cells, and NK cells by flow cytometric analysis ( ... 8 IL-18 synergizes with IL-12 in the modulation of the development of Th1 and natural killer (NK) cells. 12 Synthesis of both ... Functional IL-18 can be produced by different subtypes of murine and human dendritic cells, 30 and dendritic cell-derived IL-18 ...
Here we demonstrate their importance in human non-small cell lung cancers. ... V-delta-1 gamma-delta T cells are a rare and understudied population of T cells. ... Functionally, Vd1 T cells resembled natural killer (NK) and CD8+ T cells, two prototypic cytotoxic immune cells consistently ... Girardi, M. et al. The Distinct Contributions of Murine T Cell Receptor (TCR)γδ+ and TCRαβ+ T Cells to Different Stages of ...
... expressed on natural killer (NK) cells. KIR is a ligand for MHC molecules. KIR molecules are scanning for the presence or ... The unit develops in vitro technologies for specific cell types or organs as an alternative for research with live animals. A ... Is Neuroprotective and Reduces Motor Impairment and Neuroinflammation in a Murine MPTP Model of Parkinsons Disease.. Nicoletti ... PD can be studied in common marmosets, based on MPTP-induced dopaminergic cell loss.. An array of computerized behavioral and ...
  • Innate immunity includes the role of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in improving antitumor and vaccine responses, muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine (MTP-PE) in osteosarcoma, and natural killer (NK) cell-killer immunoglobulinlike receptor (KIR) mismatch. (
  • The NKR-P1B gene product is an inhibitory receptor on SJL/J NK cells. (
  • Xie BS, Wang X, Pan YH, Jiang G, Feng JF, Lin Y. Apolipoprotein E, low-density lipoprotein receptor, and immune cells control blood-brain barrier penetration by AAV-PHP.eB in mice. (
  • Natural Killer T (NKT) cells are a subset of T cells expressing distinct αβ T cell receptor (αβTCR). (
  • This function was mediated by SLAMF6, a homotypic SLAM receptor found on NK cells and other hematopoietic cells, and was regulated by SAP adaptors, which uncoupled SLAM receptors from phosphatase SHP-1 and diminished the effect of SLAMF6 on NK cell responsiveness toward nonhematopoietic cells. (
  • In both humans and mice, subpopulations of NK cells show distinct in tissue distribution and expression of the lymph node (LN) homing receptor CD62L and chemokine receptors ( 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 ). (
  • Interleukin- (IL-) 21 was identified in 2000 as a CD4 + T cell-derived cytokine and the ligand of an IL-2R β -related orphan receptor [ 1 , 2 ], now defined as IL-21R. (
  • IL-21 exerts complex effects on human and mouse B cell proliferation and survival as it can mediate apoptosis of B cells activated via toll like receptor (TLR) signals [ 10 , 13 ]. (
  • On the contrary it induces B cell proliferation in the presence of appropriate cosignals delivered by B cell receptor (BCR) stimulation and CD40 ligand (L) expressed by T helper (Th) cells [ 10 , 14 ]. (
  • 9 10 11 Although IL-18 shares some biologic activities with IL-12, both cytokines have different receptor-binding activities and signal transduction pathways, 8 IL-18 synergizes with IL-12 in the modulation of the development of Th1 and natural killer (NK) cells. (
  • Entry, Replication, and Immune Response The spike or S protein of coronavirus binds to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor of host cell [4]. (
  • Immunotherapeutic approaches such as immune checkpoint modulation and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T-cell therapy have shown great potential for the treatment of various tumor entities [ 1 ]. (
  • Highly effective immunotherapies such as immune checkpoint inhibition, and T-cell engaging therapies like bispecific T-cell engaging (BiTE) single-chain antibody constructs and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have shown remarkable efficacy in clinical trials and some of these agents have already received regulatory approval. (
  • T cell-engaging immunotherapies include bispecific antibody constructs and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapies. (
  • In the area of adoptiveT cell transfer (ACT), which includes tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), CAR-T and T cell receptor therapy (TCR), clinical data has shown that T cell function is a strong predictive marker of immunotherapy response and patient health 2 . (
  • The immune cells most directly involved in destruction of cancer cells are CD8+ T cells, using their T cell receptor (TCR) to recognize mutated peptides presented on cancer cells in the context of class I Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules (pMHC). (
  • Molecular design of the ?dT cell receptor ectodomain encodes biologically fit ligand recognition in the absence of mechanosensing. (
  • Among the several receptor households included in this procedure, Ly49 receptors possess proven themselves to be important for MCMV recognition by murine NK cells particularly. (
  • During an infection, Ly49 receptor initiating network marketing leads to the initiation of a signaling cascade, the total result of which is either inhibition or activation of the NK cell. (
  • The end result of inhibitory receptor initiating is normally the dephosphorylation of ITAMs connected to triggering NK receptors and the avoidance of Ca2+ inflow, degranulation, cytokine creation, and NK cell growth. (
  • In competitors, triggering Ly49 receptor engagement induce the reorganization of the 68406-26-8 actin cytoskeleton to enable cell polarization and the discharge of cytolytic granules, as well as the. (
  • Monoclonal antibody treatment, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy, and immune checkpoint inhibitors are the key immunotherapies that are being used against many cancers [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • NK cells, for instance, can bind cancer cells, and several ACT approaches have been developed using this method, for example: Natural Killer Cell Therapy, other include Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocyte Therapy (TILT), Engineered T-Cell Receptor Therapy (ETCR), Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy (CARTCT). (
  • T cell receptor sequencing specifies psoriasis as a systemic and atopic dermatitis as a skin-focused, allergen-driven disease. (
  • Differentiated Tfh cells express IL-21, IL-21 receptor (R), inducible costimulator (ICOS), CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR) 5, and programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1). (
  • Third population of ILC is formed by cells with characteristics such as NK cells and LTi (ILC22) - which are named NK22 cells, natural cytotoxicity receptor 22 (NCR22) cells or NK receptor-positive (LTi NKR+) LTi cells. (
  • NK cells possess no specific receptor and recognize their targets without sensitization, and exert their effects via cytokine release and direct cytotoxicity mediated by granzyme A and perforin [ 5 ]. (
  • The genetic and functional diversity of this repertoire of receptors and the role of human leukocyte antigen class I histocompatibility molecules as a major group of NK receptor ligands endows NK cells with an innate alloreactive capacity. (
  • Natural Killer cell (NK) and Macrophage activation The receptor specificity of arabinogalactan is not well characterized. (
  • Therefore, P53 dependent metabolism and P53 coupled NK cell education may point to a required synchronicity, obtained through NK education, licensing KIR-HLA and other receptor-ligand combinations for a global NK symbiosis. (
  • These tumor-engrafted HIS models are now routinely used in preclinical evaluations of T cell-dependent cancer therapies, including checkpoint inhibitors, chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cells, and T cell-engaging multi-specific antibodies. (
  • Soluble N-cadherin triggered NK cell functional exhaustion by interacting with the killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily G member 1 (KLRG1) receptor and therefore protected tumor cells from NK cell killing in the circulation. (
  • Microarray analyses uncovered that IFN-I triggered the expression of selected inhibitory NK-cell-receptor ligands. (
  • Consequently, T cell immunity of IFN-I receptor (IFNAR)-deficient T cells could be restored by NK cell depletion or in NK-cell-deficient hosts (Nfil3(-/-)).The elimination of Ifnar1(-/-) T cells was dependent on NK-cell-mediated perforin expression. (
  • NL -201 is a computationally designed de novo protein that is a mimetic of natural cytokines IL-2 and IL-15 designed to expand cancer-fighting CD8 T cells and natural killer (NK) cells without a bias toward cells expressing the IL-2 receptor alpha subunit (CD25). (
  • New data demonstrated that NL -201 can activate the tumor microenvironment and increase T-cell receptor diversity in preclinical models. (
  • T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing 3 (Tim-3) is an inhibitory receptor that is expressed on exhausted T cells during infection with HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus. (
  • Antigen is taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis, digested, and presented to T cells in the context of class II MHC. (
  • Models and simulations of the dynamics of the development of T and B lymphocytes, the rearrangement of B cell and T cell antigen receptor genes, and subsequent selection, which is based on receptor-ligand interactions. (
  • Models for the development of the natural killer (NK) cell repertoire, from receptor gene expression to selection of functional, non-harmful cells. (
  • Remarkably, Clec4a4+ eosinophils were instructed by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a ligand-activated transcription factor that imprints many gut immune cells. (
  • Whereas PAG is constitutively phosphorylated in primary T cells and its phosphorylation decreases after T-cell receptor crosslinking (20) in mast cells PAG exhibits increased phosphorylation after FcεRI triggering (22,23). (
  • During their development, B lymphocytes undergo V(D)J recombination events and selection processes that, if successfully completed, produce mature B cells expressing a non-self-reactive B-cell receptor (BCR). (
  • 16 , 17 We revealed that IL-12 stimulation rendered T cells responsive to IL-18 by induction of IL-18 receptor. (
  • 17 We also showed that Th1 or Th2 cells exhibit differential IL-18 responsiveness and that only the former cells express IL-18 receptor. (
  • Interleukin 4 potently enhances murine macrophage mannose receptor activity: a marker of alternative immunologic macrophage activation. (
  • Increased expression of the NK cell receptor KLRG1 by virus-specific CD8 T cells during persistent antigen stimulation. (
  • 2021. CD8 coreceptor-mediated focusing can reorder the agonist hierarchy of peptide ligands recognized via the T cell receptor . (
  • Senescent T cells exhibit abnormal phenotypes, including downregulation of CD27, CD28, and upregulation of CD57, killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily G, Tim-3, Tight, and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4, which are tightly related to malignant tumors. (
  • Here, we show that increased expression of the EGF receptor in the MTLn3 rat mammary tumor cell-line is essential for efficient lung metastasis formation in the Rag mouse model. (
  • Thus, we have established an improved in vivo model using a Rag2(-/-) gammac(-/-) mouse strain together with MTLn3 cells that have increased levels of the EGF receptor, which enables us to study EGFR-dependent tumor cell autonomous mechanisms underlying lung metastasis formation. (
  • These antibodies bind to antigens on the surface of tumour cells, such as HER2 on breast cancer, therefore inhibiting receptor signalling and marking cancer cells to be destroyed by the innate immune system. (
  • 2018). "NKp46 Receptor-Mediated Interferon-gamma Production by Natural Killer Cells Increases Fibronectin 1 to Alter Tumor Architecture and Control Metastasis" Immunity 48(1): 107-119 e104. (
  • We demonstrated that signaling via the NK cell receptor NKp46 (human) and Ncr1 (mouse) induced interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) secretion from intratumoral NK cells. (
  • Another study suggests the high incidence of colon CA in type 2 diabetes patients due to decreased GLUT4 receptor expression on NK cells [13]. (
  • Most recently, cancer immunotherapy field is growing tremendously, such as utilization of cancer vaccinations, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy and immune checkpoint blockade therapy [ 10 , 11 ]. (
  • AKI involves early Toll-like receptor (TLR)-driven immunopathology, and resolution of inflammation is needed for rapid regeneration of injured tubule cells. (
  • Interstitial mononuclear cells, such as dendritic cells and macrophages, were the predominant source of IL-22 secretion, whereas IL-22 receptor was expressed by tubular epithelial cells exclusively. (
  • Glycoprotein gE of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) functions like a receptor for the Fc portion of immunoglobulin G (IgG) (FcR) and plays a role in disease spread from cell to cell (5, 6, 10C12, 16). (
  • The Nucleotide Receptor P2RX7 Mediates ATP-Induced CREB Activation in Human and Murine Monocytic Cells. (
  • Nucleotide Receptor Signaling in Murine Macrophages Is Linked to Reactive Oxygen Species Generation. (
  • Cell signaling via the P2X(7) nucleotide receptor: linkage to ROS production, gene transcription, and receptor trafficking. (
  • Antibody reliant cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) is among the major systems wherein NK cells eliminate goals via the Fc receptor III (Compact disc16) by knowing and binding towards the Fc part of Ab muscles destined to antigens on focus on cells [5,20,21]. (
  • Recent research have also proven that NK cells be capable of enhance their behavior predicated on prior cytokine and/or activating receptor-mediated excitement [29]. (
  • Memory T cell subtypes Central memory T cells (T CM cells) express CD45RO, C-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7), and L-selectin (CD62L). (
  • A recent Symposium was held in the summer of 2010 to discuss ethical and safety concerns and discuss potential clinical guidelines for use of an emerging immunotherapy technology, the Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cells (CART), which at that time had just been started to be used in clinical trials. (
  • All pluripotent stem cell lines were killed in a peptide-dependent manner by activated CTLs derived from T cell receptor transgenic OT-I mice after pulsing of the targets with the SIINFEKL peptide. (
  • Furthermore, human HLA-G + dendritic cells, called DC-10, failed at inducing iNKT cell activation compared to their autologous HLA-G ‒ DCs counterparts. (
  • IFN-γ and IL-4) and recruitment of dendritic cells (DC), NK cells, B cells, helper T cells, and cytotoxic T cells. (
  • In this study, we report that mature CD27 high NK cells are predominantly recruited into the draining LN following dendritic cell (DC) challenge. (
  • In addition to these effector activities, a series of studies in both humans and mice reveal that NK cells also influence adaptive immune responses by modulating dendritic cell (DC) 2 function ( 6 , 7 , 8 ). (
  • Indeed, it costimulates T and natural killer (NK) cell proliferation and function and regulates B cell survival and differentiation and the function of dendritic cells. (
  • Acting on monocytes and macrophages, it induces the activation of the inflammasome and the production of IL-1 β , while the exposure of conventional dendritic cells to low pH promotes the acquisition of a mature phenotype. (
  • There was a massive influx of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes and macrophages, but not of dendritic cells, in human mesothelioma biopsies. (
  • In a previous study, the present authors evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of tumour lysate-loaded antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) given before and/or after an i.p. tumour challenge with the mouse mesothelioma cell line AB1. (
  • We identified a significant pathology-associated increase in hepatic conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) and further defined their source as NASH-induced boost in cycling of cDC progenitors in the bone marrow. (
  • Fig. 2: NASH-induced increase in conventional dendritic cell subtypes. (
  • DC: dendritic cells. (
  • They are stochastically portrayed as disulfide-linked homodimers on the surface area of NK cells mainly, but on subsets of monocytes also, macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs), and Testosterone levels cells [9]. (
  • Another important subtype of leucocytes is the one of dendritic cells. (
  • Our results indicate that macrophages and dendritic cells produce the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG) upon antigen activation. (
  • In this work we show that this is also the case for CD69 expression on dendritic cells (DC). (
  • NK cells shape immune responses and induce the polarization of different subsets of the central nervous system (CNS) infiltrating dendritic cells. (
  • Possibility to control immune system by regulating the activity of Dendritic Cells (DC) with the help of vaccines or other immunobiological drugs opens great prospects for infectious, oncological and autoimmune control. (
  • Dendritic Cells (DCs) are the most potent specialized antigenpresenting cells in the body. (
  • Ad hTRP2 - mediated immunity against melanoma is enhanced by dendritic cells pulsed with peptide]. (
  • 2020. Human CLEC9A antibodies deliver Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) antigen to CD141+ dendritic cells to activate naïve and memory WT1‐specific CD8+ T cells . (
  • The role of immunosenescence in tumors is sophisticated: the many factors involved include cAMP, glucose competition, and oncogenic stress in the tumor microenvironment, which can induce the senescence of T cells, macrophages, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells. (
  • New understandings of how cancer evades innate immune defences - including macrophages, dendritic cells (DC) and Natural Killer (NK) cells - suggest a second, and perhaps even more significant, immunotherapy revolution may be at hand. (
  • NK cells can act as regulatory cells that interact with other types of immune cells, including T cells, endothelial cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. (
  • The investigators reported that greater infiltration with lymphoid cells (T cells, natural killer [NK] cells, B cells) and myeloid cells (macrophages, dendritic cells) occurred in tumors in which the factor V gene was highly expressed, with a negative correlation found between expression of the gene and tumor purity. (
  • 6 , 7 DAMPs activate a set of pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) or inflammasomes, on renal parenchymal cells as well as in interstitial dendritic cells. (
  • 10 , 11 To limit overshooting immunopathology in sterile tissue injuries and allow tissue recovery, 12 a number of counterregulatory mechanisms exists that mostly limits immune activation of intrarenal dendritic cells. (
  • 13 , 14 For example, pentraxin-3 release from the microvasculature and dendritic cells limits leukocyte recruitment. (
  • Entry of activated dendritic cells or marginal-zone B-cells to the white pulp can initiate an adaptive immune response through activation of T-cells, which then migrate to the edge of the B-cell follicles and provide help to B-cells. (
  • NK cells also induce the expression of major histocompatibility complex antigens on myocytes by releasing cytokines, which prepare the NK cells to interact with T lymphocytes. (
  • Areas covered This review describes the basics of mRNA biotechnology and provides insight into the recent advances in the use of mRNA for the local and systemic delivery of immunostimulatory antibodies, proinflammatory cytokines or for optimizing adoptive T-cell therapy. (
  • Other biotechnology strategies such as IL-12-engineered local adoptive cell therapy and pro-cytokines can also be used to improve results and broaden the therapeutic window. (
  • Numerous mechanisms and molecules have been implicated that lead to abnormalities in immune dysfunction, hormonal regulation, metabolism and response to oxidative stress to include impaired natural killer cell function and/or T-cell function, elevated cytokines, and autoantibodies (rheumatic factor, antithyroid antibodies, antigliadin, anti-smooth muscle antibodies, and cold agglutinins). (
  • After activation by alpha-GalactosylCeramide (αGC), an exogenic glycolipid antigen, iNKT cells can rapidly release cytokines to enhance specific anti-tumor activity. (
  • Stimulation of iNKT cells by the CD1d-αGC complex leads to a rapid production of Th1 and Th2 cytokines (e.g. (
  • In a previous paper, we reported the production of cytokines and 33286-22-5 chemokines by infected human nerve cells in the absence of IFN- [19]. (
  • Activated NK cells kill target cells or produce inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ and therefore represent a primary arm of the innate immune response ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • The observed high level of pro-inflammatory cytokines may explain some of the manifestations such as fatigue and flu-like symptoms and modify NK cells activity. (
  • This peptide could inhibit or decrease the inflammatory response, disrupting the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) pathway by regulating and decreasing the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines following in vitro tests with distinct cell lines [936]. (
  • When vaginal cells had been subjected to stimulation by T. vaginalis, SALF inhibited the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines for instance TNF-, IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 via the MAPK pathways and NF- [96]. (
  • Expression profiles of 80 cytokines were determined in the supernatant of mesothelioma cell lines and the original patient's pleural effusion. (
  • Mesothelioma is infiltrated by immune effector cells but also contains cytokines and regulatory T-cells that suppress an efficient immune response. (
  • The present study takes an unbiased approach, using a proteomics platform and determining the presence of an array of 80 cytokines and chemokines in mesothelioma cell lines and pleural fluids of the original patients from whom the cell lines were generated. (
  • B cells regulate immune responses by secreting antibodies and cytokines ( Srikakulapu and McNamara, 2017 ) and can be divided into B-1 and B-2 subtypes. (
  • B) During viral infections, multiple cells can become infected, resulting in the production of cytokines and chemokines involved in antiviral responses. (
  • The immune system is the collective army of a trillion white blood cells, the bone marrow, antibodies, cytokines and the thymus gland that help to identify and destroy the millions of microbes (bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi) that penetrate our bodies every day, and the thousands of our own cells that have become genetically abnormal or cancerous. (
  • Humanised immune system (HIS) mouse models that express human cytokines and support a broad range of human immune cell types have become integral tools to investigate and advance oncology drug discovery focused on cell-based therapies, which make up a growing proportion of cancer treatments. (
  • They also may express transgenic human cytokines to facilitate reconstitution and function of specific immune cell subsets needed to study cell therapy. (
  • Many studies have shown HIS and humanised transgenic models can support T cell functionality, with researchers using hIL2 transgenic models that express transgenic human IL2 (hIL2) cytokines to evaluate T cell therapies such as ACT/TIL,CAR-T, and TCR therapies. (
  • During the process of airway inflammation, complex interactions of innate and adaptive immune cells as well as structural cells and their cytokines have many important roles. (
  • T helper (Th) 2 cells, which recruit and accumulate in the lungs and produce a range of different effector cytokines. (
  • However, more recent studies have revealed the potential collaboration of other helper T cells and their cytokines in this process. (
  • The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about the possible roles of newly identified helper T cells derived cytokines (IL-9, 17, 22, 25 and IL-33) in asthma. (
  • In addition, they also facilitate upregulation of inhibitory cell surface molecules and the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines (Trojandt et al. (
  • On the one hands, NK cells secrete many cytokines, such as IFN-family. (
  • These interactions were further delineated in a 1999 Annual Review of Immunology treatise entitled "NK cells in antiviral defense: function and regulation by innate cytokines" (, which has been cited well over 1,500 times. (
  • 7 , 8 NK T (NKT) cells, a subset of T cells, act as a bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses, because they secrete enormous amounts of cytokines upon activation with specific lipid ligands. (
  • 13 , 14 α-Galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), a glycolipid extracted from the marine sponge Agelas mauritiana , can stimulate NKT cells to produce enormous amounts of both Th1 and Th2 cytokines in a CD1d-dependent way. (
  • NK cells secreted cytokines, and fluid shear stress facilitated N-cadherin release by promoting A disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) translation or converting the precursor ADAM10 to the mature form. (
  • these cells communicate with each other and other cells of the body by making chemical "messengers" called cytokines. (
  • In HLH, when the white blood cells act in a dysregulated manner, they often over-produce cytokines, and the abnormally functioning white blood cells and cytokines can damage organs including the liver, spleen, bone marrow and brain. (
  • The innate immune system is composed of macrophages, neutrophils and natural killer (NK) cells as well as nonpolymorphic proteins, such as complement and cytokines, which respond to generic antigens. (
  • CD4 T cells bind to class II MHC molecules, secrete cytokines to amplify inflammation, and provide help to induce cytotoxic T cells and antibody-producing B cells. (
  • In order to obtain a sufficient amount of DCs for research in this work, mononuclear cells of healthy volunteers were isolated from the bone marrow and their differentiation in DCs was induced in vitro using cytokines. (
  • 2 , 3 Macrophages are an essential immunological component of host defences and induce development of Th1 cells by production of IL-12, 2 , 4-9 but also have the potential to induce host injury by production of proinflammatory cytokines. (
  • In contrast to most other members of the STAT family, STAT4 expression is restricted to hematopoietic cells and responds to fewer cytokines, such as IL-12 and IL-2. (
  • The function and development of NK cells are regulated and enhanced by various inflammatory cytokines like common-γ chain family cytokines, transforming growth factor-β, interleukin (IL)-3, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-18. (
  • They influence the activity of other adaptive and innate immune cells via various cytokines, such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ), chemokines (CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, etc.), and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) [3]. (
  • The 1st postulates that cytokines produced by bone marrow stromal cells influence both thymic and B-cell TRPC6-IN-1 precursor growth and differentiation [12]. (
  • 2 - 9 The subsequent innate immune response involves the transcription of numerous proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which initiate the influx of various immune cell subsets into the kidney, that contribute to the early amplification of the inflammatory response and AKI by enhancing immune-mediated tubular cell death. (
  • Human IL-2 acts on murine and human T cells, and its receptors are shared by others cytokines. (
  • The indirect anticancer effects are mediated by promotion of mixed-lymphocyte responses, including enhancement of cytotoxic activity of monocyte-macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, and lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and increased secretion of cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). (
  • Furthermore, ADCC-mediated NK cell activation leads to the discharge of pro-inflammatory cytokines like interferon (IFN)- and tumor necrosis aspect (TNF)-, adding to a highly effective and sufficient anti-viral and Th1-response [22 hence,23]. (
  • For instance, pretreatment of NK cells with activating cytokines elicits memory-like properties that are thought as improved effector features after re-stimulation [30,31]. (
  • We present that newly isolated NK cells exert ADCC and secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines and TM4SF1 chemokines in the current presence of Ab1-10 mAb. (
  • The analysis of cytokines in peripheral blood lymphocytes showed a significantly increased percentage of IL-2+ cells (Th1) subset in all patients studied. (
  • The alloreactive NK clones produced cytokines with a suppressive effect on in vitro hematopoiesis, such as interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), when exposed to phytohemagglutinin blasts from specificity 1-susceptible, but not -resistant donors. (
  • However, the mechanism by which alloreactive NK cells inhibit colony formation is more consistent with a direct cytotoxic effect than with the production of inhibitory cytokines because antibodies (anti-IFN-gamma, alpha-TNF-alpha, and -lymphotoxin) that completely blocked the inhibition by polyclonal NK cells had only a minimal effect on the inhibition by the alloreactive clones. (
  • It is expressed as a disulfide-linked homodimer on all NK cells as well as subsets of thymocytes and peripheral T lymphocytes in selected strains of mice (e.g. (
  • Among IL-21 sensitive genes, Gzma and Gzmb encode for granzymes, involved in the activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells. (
  • On the other hand, by acting on T lymphocytes, low pH has been shown to suppress the cytotoxic response mediated by CD8+ T cells as well as the production of IFN- γ by TH1 cells. (
  • This theory has recently been challenged, as spontaneously arising tumours in mice remain immunogenic and, instead, escape immune recognition by inducing anergy in tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes 4 or by attracting regulatory T-cells (Treg) that suppress anti-tumoural responses. (
  • NK cells are one of the major effector lymphocytes and have the unique ability to identify infected cells. (
  • Although nobody yet knows the exact mechanism, it appears to be able to do this by increasing the body's production of natural cytokynes - substances such as interferons, interleukins and tumour necrosis factors, which not only help destroy rogue cells and viruses directly, but kick-start the immune system by increase the activity of the lymphocytes - B cells, T cells and especially NK (natural killer) cells. (
  • To this end, a cell-to-cell delivery module has been developed by investigating and re-engineering the granzyme-perforin pathway of cytotoxic lymphocytes. (
  • Using effector target dose response curves, a moderate increase in target cell death was observed in cells targeted by lymphocytes expressing granzyme toxin fusion proteins, as compared to wild type lymphocytes, but the biological significance of this effect is uncertain. (
  • Clinical and experimental data indicate that a subset of innate lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, plays a important role in the response against herpesviruses, especially cytomegaloviruses (CMV). (
  • CD8+ T lymphocytes kill target cells when they recognize antigen in associated with self MHC-I [5-8]. (
  • Expression kinetics of CD69 molecule by CD3 lymphocytes and T cells under three different activating modalities]. (
  • The histological features of interface hepatitis, i.e., the infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages, suggest the involvement of an aggressive cellular immune response in the pathogenesis of AIH (Vergani and Mieli-Vergani 2007 ). (
  • Immunobiology of natural killer lymphocytes in transplantation. (
  • Natural killer (NK) lymphocytes are powerful effector cells of the peripheral immune system. (
  • Various immune cells, such as natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, play a protective role in suppressing the development and progression of tumors. (
  • Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system and are classically associated with cytotoxic responses to both virally infected as well as neoplastic cells. (
  • There was no increase in NK cell activity in patients with high CD 4 + lymphocytes and only a marginal increase in patients with low CD 4 + lymphocytes (170 to 293/mm3) whereas a marked increase was observed in controls (252 to 490/mm3). (
  • Although one of the first comprehensive examinations of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression was performed in human CD8 T lymphocytes, little is known about their roles in CD8 T cells functions during the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (
  • Characterization of cells that suppress the cytotoxic activity of T lymphocytes. (
  • Additionally, a biopsy from dead 2019nCoV patient declared interstitial mononuclear inflammatory infiltrates in both lungs, dominated by lymphocytes and over activation of T cells accounted [12]. (
  • Macrophages and DCs, which can attract and activate cells of the adaptive immune system, including B- and T-lymphocytes, that, in turn, kill cancer cells. (
  • CD3ε is expressed on T lymphocytes, NK-T cells, and to varying degrees on developing thymocytes. (
  • Immunological activation of B-cells occurs in the marginal zone as a result of antigenic encounter.8 Many lymphocytes in the marginal zone migrate into respective T- and B areas. (
  • The PALS is a sheath of lymphocytes mostly CD4+ T-cells that envelope the central arterial vessels. (
  • Bordering the PALS and the follicles is the marginal zone, which has few lymphocytes but numerous macrophages and antigen presenting cells (APCs). (
  • Early evidence had suggested that adoptive transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, after depletion of circulating lymphocytes, could result in a clinical response in some tumor patients however developments showed autologous T-cells (obtained from same patient) could be engineered to express tumor-associated antigens (TAA) and replace the TILS in the clinical setting. (
  • All experiments performed on red cell lysed canine blood gated on lymphocytes in the presence of 10% canine serum. (
  • All experiments performed on red cell lysed canine blood gated on live single lymphocytes, in the presence of 10% canine serum. (
  • To test whether these stem cells can be rejected by the recipients, we have analyzed whether maGSCs and iPSCs can become targets for cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) or whether they are protected, as previously proposed for embryonic stem cells (ESCs). (
  • The activity of these cells (NK cells) is inhibited, if there is cell signaling through inhibitory receptors (Ly49 - mouse, KIR- human). (
  • These receptors recognized MHC I molecules on other cells and interact with them. (
  • Introduction Immune checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive T-cell therapy based on chimeric antigen receptors are the spearhead strategies to exploit the immune system to fight cancer. (
  • NK1.1, a member of the NKR-P1 family of cell surface receptors, is a type II integral membrane glycoprotein with a C-type lectin domain. (
  • HLA-G exerts its immunomodulatory functions through the interaction with immune inhibitory receptors such as ILT2, differentially expressed on immune cell subsets. (
  • Activation of natural killer (NK) cells by hematopoietic target cells is controlled by the SLAM family of receptors and by the associated SAP family of adaptors. (
  • Here we found that SLAM receptors also enhanced NK cell activation by nonhematopoietic target cells, which lack ligands for SLAM receptors. (
  • Figure 5: Roles of SLAM receptors in inhibitory effect of SAP on NK cell responsiveness. (
  • Human NK cell education by inhibitory receptors for MHC class I. Immunity 25 , 331-342 (2006). (
  • A subset of natural killer cells achieves self-tolerance without expressing inhibitory receptors specific for self-MHC molecules. (
  • Natural killer cells recognize self-MHC molecules and ligands on stressed, transformed, or infected cells, thereby integrating signals transduced by various inhibitory and activating receptors, respectively ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). (
  • The current therapeutic modalities yielding encouraging results in clinical trials include the blockade of immune checkpoint receptors to overcome the immune-evasion mechanism used by tumors and the incorporation of tumor-directed chimeric antigen receptors to enhance NK cell anti-tumor specificity and activity. (
  • Even before the investigation of the importance of such receptors in T cells ( 2 , 3 ), the foundation of NK cell immunology was established by determining the quintessential roles of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), the inhibitory receptors in human NK cells. (
  • Thus, immune checkpoint receptors are fundamental for determining NK cell functionality. (
  • Nonetheless, NK cells express multiple immune checkpoint receptors, including natural killer group 2A (NKG2A), CTLA-4, PD-1, T cell immunoglobulin mucin 3 (TIM-3), and T cell immunoreceptor with Ig and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM) domains (TIGIT), which have been explored as promising therapeutic targets to enhance the specificity and activity of NK cells against a broad range of cancers. (
  • Another promising cancer treatment modality that has raised considerable interest is the incorporation of tumor-directed chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) in immune effector cells. (
  • Interactions between MHC Class-I on target cells and the killer immunoglobulin-like receptors in NK cells primarily lead to self-recognition and, therefore, inhibition. (
  • Products of oxidized lipids are highly reactive and modify self-molecules, thereby generating structural neo-epitopes that are recognized by receptors of the immune system, including scavenger receptors on macrophages leading to foam cell formation. (
  • As a result, early MCMV an infection provides become an set up model to research NK cells and, even more particularly, their amazing capability to distinguish personal from non-self through their germ-line encoded receptors. (
  • NK cells discriminate between healthful and contaminated cells using an comprehensive -panel of cell surface area receptors, both inhibitory and activating. (
  • These polygenic and polymorphic receptors are clustered at the Organic Murderer Cell Composite (NKC) on mouse chromosome 6 [8]. (
  • With realization that T lymphocyte cell receptors recognize peptides bound to the antigenbinding cleft of major histocompatability complex molecules class I [4-7]. (
  • NK cell functions are controlled by the expression of a variety of cell surface receptors with either inhibitory or activating roles. (
  • This capacity arises because NK cells express stimulatory and inhibitory receptors that engage ligands on normal cells. (
  • The majority of inhibitory receptors belong to the Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and CD94/NKG2A families and are specific for MHC I molecules. (
  • When an NK cell encounters a normal cell, engagement of the inhibitory receptors conveys signals that counteract stimulatory signaling. (
  • Activation of NK cells to exhibit their cytotoxicity is dependent on signaling through a number of activating and inhibitory receptors. (
  • In humans, the killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) serve as the primary family of inhibitory receptors and are functional analogs of the Ly49s. (
  • NK cells that express inhibitory receptors that are specific for the MHC class I haplotype of the individual are termed "licensed" and have been shown to have increased functionality in terms of cytotoxicity and cytokine production. (
  • In contrast, NK cells that express inhibitory receptors that are unable to bind to the MHC class I haplotype of the individual are termed "unlicensed" and have been shown to be hyporesponsive. (
  • TLRs are trans-membrane proteins receptors that trigger the signal transduction cascades upon binding with specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) ligands, and earlier have been thought to be restricted to immune cells. (
  • B cells: B-cell receptors, generally a form of IgM antibody, bind to foreign proteins. (
  • T cells recognize MHC:peptide complexes through heterodimeric T-cell receptors (TCRs) expressed on their cell surface. (
  • Genetic engineering and editing of immune cells to express chimeric receptors (CAR-T and CCR-T cells). (
  • Expression of leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors and natural killer receptors on virus-specific CD8+ T cells during the evolution of Epstein-Barr virus-specific immune responses in vivo. (
  • 2020. A population of proinflammatory T cells coexpresses αβ and γδ T cell receptors in mice and humans . (
  • Harnessing soluble NK cell killer receptors for the generation of novel cancer immune therapy. (
  • The natural cytotoxic receptors (NCRs) are a unique set of activating proteins expressed mainly on the surface of natural killer (NK) cells. (
  • Even though the tumor ligands of the NCRs have not been identified yet, the selective manner by which these receptors target tumor cells may provide an excellent basis for the development of novel anti-tumor therapies. (
  • Monitoring of different homing receptors on circulating ASCs induced by different routes of immunization shows that ASCs from the IgA isotype assayed seven days after administration of dental antigen generally represent cells Rabbit polyclonal to Claspin of gut origins (12, 17). (
  • For example, antibodies targeting T-cell inhibitory receptors, such as CTLA-4 and PD-1, are able to activate the host's adaptive immune system to attack cancer cells. (
  • Besides this adjuvant effect, iNKT cells can also directly control tumor growth by cytotoxicity ( 8 ). (
  • Figure 1: Impact of SAP adaptors on mouse NK cell cytotoxicity toward nonhematopoietic cells. (
  • Figure 2: Effect of SAP adaptors on cytotoxicity by human NK cell line YT-S toward nonhematopoietic target cells. (
  • Normally cells in the body are protected from NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity via expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I). However, motor neurons in ALS lack MHC I expression in both human patients and mouse models (see, Song et al. (
  • Immunity to destroy viruses to be many ways like interferon, secretory Immunoglobulin A (s-Ig A) of epithelial surface, antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and NK-cells, and more difficult to be sure which one are important [8-13]. (
  • NK cell dysfunction in severe COVID-19: TGF-β-induced downregulation of integrin beta-2 restricts NK cell cytotoxicity. (
  • Cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells as well as cultures of preseparated peripheral non-adherent cells and monocytes showed enhancement of natural killer cytotoxicity against K562 tumor cells when pretreated with larch arabinogalactan for 48-72 h. (
  • Arabinogalactan-mediated enhancement of NK cytotoxicity was not initiated directly but was found to be governed by the cytokine network. (
  • Generally, larch arabinogalactan pretreatment induced an increased release of interferon gamma (IFN gamma), tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and IL-6 but only IFN gamma was involved in enhancement of NK cytotoxicity (1). (
  • Acidic arabinogalactan, a highly purified polysaccharide from plant cell cultures of Echinacea purpurea, with a molecular weight of 75,000, was effective in activating macrophages to cytotoxicity against tumor cells and microorganisms (Leishmania enriettii). (
  • The engrafted human NK cells retain key immunological features and can respond to monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against an engrafted tumor. (
  • CD8 T cells bind to class I MHC molecules and generally mediate cytotoxicity. (
  • Genome-wide CRISPR screens identify CD48 defining susceptibility to NK cytotoxicity in peripheral T-cell lymphomas. (
  • Spontaneous human lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity against tumor target cells. (
  • NKp46, NKp44 and NKp30, are critically involved in NK cytotoxicity against different targets, including a wide range of tumor cells derived from various origins. (
  • Engineering of anti-CD133 trispecific molecule capable of inducing NK expansion and driving antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. (
  • To assess cell fate in vivo, hexadecyl-4-[¹⁸F]fluorobenzoate (¹⁸F-HFB) cell labeling was evaluated for tracking human circulating progenitor cells (CPCs). (
  • In vivo inhibition by endothelial dysfunction has been demonstrated for protein angiogenesis but remains unclear for cell therapy. (
  • Background: To investigate the mechanisms involved in the potentiation of cell therapy by delivery matrices, we evaluated the retention and engraftment of transplanted human circulating progenitor cells (CPCs) injected in a collagen matrix by using in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, ex vivo biodistribution, and immunohistochemistry. (
  • iNKT-based anti-tumor strategies rely, so far, on harnessing iNKT cells to optimize anti-tumor vaccination through (i) intravenous injection of αGC ( 12 ) (ii) adoptive transfer of αGC pulsed APC ( 13 ) and (iii) adoptive transfer of ex vivo activated iNKT cells ( 14 , 15 ). (
  • Figure 4: Influence of SAP adaptors on NK cell-mediated cytokine production and in vivo tumor clearance in response to nonhematopoietic cells. (
  • Nonetheless, IL-17-producing gd T cells have been difficult to find in humans, and in the rare cases that have been described, only after extensive ex vivo manipulation 10,11,16-18 . (
  • Led by Drs. Rebecca Auer and John Bell (Ottawa Hospital Research Institute), the team used cancer cells infected ex-vivo with an oncolytic virus (Maraba expressing IL-12) delivered as a personalized cancer vaccine (MG1-IL12 infected cell vaccine). (
  • Assays conducted ex vivo verified that the same cell lines were targets of GD2-CAR-mediated killing. (
  • Remarkably, despite high cytolytic activity ex vivo , the GD2-CAR transduced T-cells failed to impact tumor growth in mice. (
  • Indeed, we found that blocking PD1 enhanced cytolytic activity of CAR-transduced T-cells when they were co-incubated with GD2-expressing tumor cell lines ex vivo . (
  • When these CD25+ regulatory T-cells were depleted in an in vivo mouse model, survival increased. (
  • Mast cells (MCs) are activated in vivo during DENV infection, and we show that this elevates systemic levels of their vasoactive products, including chymase, and promotes vascular leakage. (
  • In vivo models, particularly HIS models, allow preliminary investigation of cell-based therapeutic strategies-often in combination with other therapeutic modalities-to overcome the limitations and challenges of T cell-based immuno-oncology treatments and identify effective options for clinical investigation. (
  • Optimize ex vivo T cell activation and expansion in translational research, while preserving functionality and viability. (
  • Moreover, IL-21 can modulate the activity of CD8+ T cells and other immune and non-immune cells in vivo. (
  • This ex-vivo approach may resist re-education in vivo and activate against P53-decoupled-KIR-HLA affected cells. (
  • The objective is an NK subset that, in vivo will initiate and progress a limited innate immune response and disrupt near-neighbor targets that will contribute to a broader immune response. (
  • Often, several distinct HIS models are suitable for in vivo studies of human T cell-based cancer therapies, but this is not true for NK cell-based treatments. (
  • When fresh huPB-NK cells were compared to huPB-NK cells expanded for 6-8 weeks in hIL-15 NOG mice, the in vivo -expanded NK cells maintained key immunological surface antigens and transcription factors while demonstrating favorable levels of two key cytolytic molecules, granzyme A and perforin. (
  • The molecular mechanism of self-seeded tumor cells escaping from NK cell was demonstrated through in vitro experiments and verified in a CTC-mimicking in vivo model. (
  • In addition, we have previously described how regulatory T cells can regulate NK cell activity in vivo. (
  • Using the murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus model system, we show here that IFN-I signaling on T cells prevented their rapid elimination in vivo. (
  • TGF-β has been shown to contribute to T cell exclusion, and anti-TGF-β improves anti-PD-L1 efficacy in vivo. (
  • In a further description of the mechanism of T-cell depletion in purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency, Arpaia et al reported increased in vivo apoptosis of T cells and increased in vitro sensitivity to gamma irradiation in a murine model. (
  • found that circulating regulatory T cells were not preferentially infected with HIV compared to effector T cells in vivo (32). (
  • Theratechnologies Inc. ("Theratechnologies" or the "Company") (TSX: TH) (NASDAQ: THTX) today announced the publication of a preclinical study demonstrating the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of TH1902, an investigational sortilin (SORT1)-targeted peptide-drug conjugate, in inhibiting ovarian cancer and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) stem-like cells' (CSCs) tumor growth. (
  • 2020. CD57+ Memory T Cells Proliferate In Vivo . (
  • We demonstrate, using two different human prostate cancer cell lines, that treatment with NKp30-Ig, dramatically inhibits tumor growth in vivo. (
  • However, the mechanisms by which NK cells control tumors in vivo are unclear. (
  • Thus, we have defined a mechanism of NK cell-mediated control of metastases in vivo that may help develop NK cell-dependent cancer therapies. (
  • Selection of drug-resistant bone marrow cells in vivo after retroviral transfer of human MDR1. (
  • Recent in vivo studies have established that gE-mediated immune evasion contributes to virulence in the murine SB 242084 flank model (27). (
  • Compared with wild-type disease, both mutant viruses are impaired for spread in epithelial cells in vitro, show decreased transit from pores and skin to sensory ganglia in vivo, and cause less severe disease. (
  • Their CCR7 − counterparts were named effector memory (T EM) cells because of their rapid effector function ex vivo and their potential to home to peripheral lymphoid tissues 18 Central memory T cells (T CM) patrol lymph nodes, providing central immunosurveillance against known pathogens, but have not been described as conducting primary tissue immunosurveillance. (
  • Because the genetic specificity of these alloreactive NK cells in vitro appears analogous to that of in vivo NK cell-mediated murine hybrid resistance, i.e., the rejection of parental bone marrow in irradiated F1 animals, we tested the ability of human alloreactive NK clones to recognize allogeneic hematopoietic progenitor cells. (
  • BI 836909, a novel bispecific T cell engager for the treatment of multiple myeloma induces highly specific and efficacious lysis of multiple myeloma cells in vitro and shows anti-tumor activity in vivo. (
  • A four-stage model for murine natural killer cell development in vivo. (
  • During acute infection, natural killer (NK) cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are the major sources of IFN- and this cytokine might stimulate all effector cells to activate a protective immune response against infection [7]. (
  • Similar to the impact of cloned murine T cell lines on molecular description of T cell recognition, derivation of cloned murine NK cells should permit dissection of NK cell specificity but, to date, it has not been possible to produce such effector cells. (
  • Early studies showed that IL-21 costimulates the proliferation of B, T, and NK cells and mediates the differentiation of activated NK cells into more potent effector cells [ 2 ] (Figure 1 ), suggesting that IL-21 may represent a potentially useful agent for the development of tumor immunotherapies. (
  • Influx of immune effector cells was detected by immunohistochemistry. (
  • For the purpose of clearness, the part of effector cells such as for example T cells and NKT cells involved with antiviral immune reactions was not one of them figure. (
  • Our strengths are in biochemistry, structural biology, protein engineering and cellular assays that will reveal the fundamental principles behind how effector cells of the immune system regulate human disease. (
  • 3. Sentman CL, Hackett J Jr, Moore TA, Tutt MM, Bennett M, Kumar V. Pan natural killer cell monoclonal antibodies and their relationship to the NK1.1 antigen. (
  • Stimulation of murine natural killer (NK) cells by a monoclonal antibody specific for the NK1.1 antigen. (
  • Given that iNKT-based immunotherapies are dependent mainly on antigen-presenting cells (APC), a human tolerogenic molecule with no murine homolog, such as Human Leucocyte Antigen G (HLA-G), could contribute to this discrepancy. (
  • With the approval of Carvykti and other chimeric antigen T cell (CAR-T) therapies, there is an emergence of cell-based strategies using a more personalised treatment approach. (
  • Many of our projects focus on "unconventional" T cell recognition, involving ?d T cells, Natural Killer T cells and Muscosal-Associated Invariant T (MAIT) cells and antigen presentation by nonclassical or MHC-like proteins. (
  • We have a high level of expertise in studying molecular recognition of T cells, particularly unconventional T cells outside the canonical CD4+/CD8+ lineage and structure function of antigen-presenting molecules. (
  • Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) connect both systems and identify external antigens in the body [ 13 ]. (
  • B cells are involved in antigen presentation as well as antibody and cytokine production. (
  • In nature, arabinogalactans are found in several microbial systems, especially acid-fast Mycobacteria (2) where it is complexed between peptidoglycans and mycolic acids as a component of the cell wall and influences monocyte-macrophage immunoreactivity of Tubercular antigen (3). (
  • An important role of Natural Killer (NK) cells is to eliminate other cells that extinguish or diminish expression of self-MHC class I molecule s or Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA), which commonly occurs as a result of viral infection or cellular transformation. (
  • Class I antigens (HLA A, B and C) are present on all nucleated cells, while class II antigens (HLA DR, DQ and DP) are found on antigen presenting cells and can be upregulated on vascular endothelium after ischemia reperfusion injury. (
  • Cellular alloimmunity: Cell-mediated alloimmunity is initiated by antigen-specific T cells that, in concert with other cellular components, result in cytolytic and cytokine-induced damage of a transplanted organ. (
  • Initial antigen recognition predominantly occurs in secondary lymphoid organs, where recipient T cells interact with antigens derived from the donor. (
  • 2020. Slow progressors to type 1 diabetes lose islet autoantibodies over time, have few islet antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and exhibit a distinct CD95hi B cell phenotype . (
  • 2019. Primary EBV infection induces an acute wave of activated antigen-specific cytotoxic CD4+ T cells . (
  • During infections, individual B cell clones multiply and are transformed into plasma cells, which produce large amounts of antibodies against particular antigen on a foreign microbe. (
  • Humoral immunity can neutralize and eradicate outside microbes and toxins via antibodies produced by B cells [ 24 - 26 ], whereas cellular immunity responds more quickly to eradicate intracellular microbes through recognition of antigens, activation of antigen presenting cells (APCs), activation and proliferation of T cells. (
  • PM, parameningeal.23 Cells The 293T human embryonic kidney cells expressing the large SV40 antigen, HeLa, and HT29 cells were cultured in Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium with 10% (v/v) fetal calf serum. (
  • The specific subset of B-cells in this region, the marginal-zone B-cells, can be activated by these macrophages or can directly respond to blood-borne pathogens, after which they become antigen-presenting cells or IgM-producing plasma cells. (
  • Memory T cells are either CD4 + or the virus-specific CD8 + depending on the type of antigen encountered (MacLeod et al. (
  • The capacity of the FL-DCs, GM-DCs, or GMFL-DCs to generate Bacterial neuraminidase an antigen-specific T-cell PCI-32765 manufacturer stimulatory response was evaluated using isolated OT-1 and OT-II T cells. (
  • Targeting B cell maturation antigen (BCMA) in multiple myeloma: potential uses of BCMA-based immunotherapy. (
  • AFM26-Targeting B cell maturation antigen (BCMA) for NK cell-mediated immunotherapy of multiple myeloma. (
  • Consequently, long-term, tissue-resident mast cells will tend to be a significant and sustained regional way to obtain IFNs below epithelial areas along with tissue-resident macrophages. (
  • T helper cells signal to B cells to produce antibodies and increase the ability of macrophages (another subset of leucocytes) to phagocytose ("eat") pathogens. (
  • She demonstrated a link between ER stress and proinflammatory/autoimmune diseases in intestinal epithelial cells and in macrophages. (
  • Macrophages/microglial cells were detected using an anti-Mac-3 Ab (BD Biosciences) with biotinylated anti-mouse Ig (GE Healthcare) as secondary reagent. (
  • 7-9 IL-18, originally called interferon γ (IFN-γ) inducing factor, is a cytokine of 18 kDa synthesised by Kupffer cells and activated macrophages. (
  • Activated macrophages were shown to mediate an ADCC response against the NKp30-Ig coated prostate cell lines. (
  • Recent preclinical and early clinical studies demonstrate that targeting molecular mechanisms that many cancer cells use to block macrophages and other innate immune cells from attacking may be effective against a wide range of cancers. (
  • Research shows that macrophages and other cells of the innate immune system help fight cancer in two major ways - and both potentially broaden and strengthen the body's overall anti-cancer immune response. (
  • Macrophages and NK cells, which kill cells marked by antibodies produced by B-cells. (
  • The cells which play an important role in spleen functions are macrophages, monocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, and B- and T-cells. (
  • Between the sinuses are spongy cellular cords (cords of Billroth), made up of reticular fibers and reticular cells intermingled with several immune cells, such as macrophages, monocytes, granulocytes, B-cells, T-cells and plasma cells. (
  • Macrophages, which CD47 drugs act on, are relatively understudied versus T-cells, which have received more love from both scientists and investors. (
  • When this handshake is blocked by a CD47-SIRPα drug and combined with other drugs or an active 'eat me' signal, macrophages can eat cancer cells. (
  • 00:04:36.09 And it's a very, very strong response involving T cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, 00:04:42.07 and antibodies, even antibodies that aren't T cell dependent. (
  • Importantly, the recruitment of the CD27 high NK cell subset in the draining LN was dependent on host IFN-γ and the activation status of NK cells. (
  • Ly-49A is expressed on an NK cell subset, and it belongs to a family of highly related molecules that may similarly dictate major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-associated specificity of Ly-49A- NK cells. (
  • Likewise, almost all cancer immunotherapy trials to date have utilised the Vd2 subset of gd T cells as these cells are more easily obtained. (
  • A recent study highlights the presence of a unique memory-like natural killer (NK) cell subset, which accumulates with aging and appears to associate withdisease severity in COVID-19 patients. (
  • While the clinical relevance of memory in NK cells is being debated, the molecular identity of this subset in the form of a single-cell transcriptome is essential to define their origin, longevity, functions, and disease relevance. (
  • However, aging-realted changes in NK cells, the major innate lymphocyte subset, are not fully understood. (
  • Notably, the accumulation of the CD52 + NKG2C + CD94 + NK subset correlated with the severity of COVID-19 pathology. (
  • HCMV infections lead to the generation of NKG2C + CD94 + NK subset in humans [ 8 ]. (
  • B cell-mediated effects on atherosclerosis are subset-dependent with B-1 cells attenuating and B-2 cells aggravating atherosclerosis. (
  • Interestingly, a large proportion of these B cells belong to the B-1 subset with the B-1/B-2 ratio being 10-fold higher in PVAT relative to spleen and bone marrow. (
  • Interleukin (IL)-9-producing subset called Th9 cell, Th22 cells which primarily secrete IL-22, IL-13 and tumor necrosis factor- and Th25 cells via producing IL-25 are believed to be important for initiating allergic reactions and developing airway inflammation. (
  • NK cell co-culture with patient cells selected using precise P53 rankings for a distinct P53-coupled-NK cell education may realize a mature NK subset with P53-paired characteristics. (
  • This negative regulation by the unlicensed population is further supported by another experiment where mice were infected with MCMC following total NK or subset depletion and monitored for ten days throughout the course of the immune response to MCMV. (
  • T regulatory (Treg) cells are a critical subset that limits immune responses, but the relative importance of Stat5a/b versus Stat3 for Treg cell development has been contentious. (
  • We uncover that depletion of ARAF promotes anchorage-independent growth and metastasis through activation of AKT signaling in a subset of lung cancer cells. (
  • NK1.1 mediates cellular activation and differentiation, and is thought to have a particular role in generating Th2 cells. (
  • 2. Koo GC, Dumont FJ, Tutt M, Hackett J Jr, Kumar V. The NK-1.1(-) mouse: a model to study differentiation of murine NK cells. (
  • Differentiation of human natural killer(NK) cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILC). (
  • Whereas a lot is known regarding differentiation and function of murine NK cells, current knowledge regarding human NK cells is limited. (
  • Our aim is to reveal the role of several transcription factors in the differentiation of human hematopoietic stem cells into mature NK cells, and in the maintenance and function of mature NK cells. (
  • 2016). Tolerogenic DCs induce T cell apoptosis, T cell anergy or the differentiation of regulatory T cells (Iberg et al. (
  • 2017). A number of studies offers highlighted the entire need for non-coding brief RNAs around 19C24 nucleotides long, termed microRNAs (miRNAs) (Kobayashi and Tomari, 2016) for immune system cell differentiation and features (Forero et al. (
  • IL-21, the most recently discovered member of the type-I cytokine family, exerts various effects on the immune system, including B cell activation, plasma cell differentiation, and immunoglobulin production. (
  • This work overturned the paradigm in the field of cellular immunology that differentiated TH cells are deviated irrevocably in one way or another since T-bet single-handedly could control this critical checkpoint at all stages of differentiation with its attendant therapeutic implications that T cell fate can be directly manipulated. (
  • She also discovered XBP1, the first transcription factor shown to be required for plasma cell differentiation and the mammalian Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response. (
  • Most recently she discovered a key role for XBP1 in both tumor cells and in host immune responses, translating her basic discoveries in the control of immune cell differentiation into a new approach to cancer immunotherapy. (
  • Central to the CIEA study is interleukin-15 (IL-15), a cytokine that is indispensable for the differentiation, function, and survival of NK cells. (
  • Cell Death and Differentiation. (
  • Expansion and proliferation kinetics of cells isolated by explant method in the presence of either FBS or CBS were measured, with morphology and multi-differentiation potential of expanded cells characterized by flow cytometry, RT-PCR, and immunofluorescence. (
  • MSCs maintained morphology, immunophenotyping, multi-differentiation potential, and self-renewal ability, with better proliferation rates for cells cultured in CBS compared to FBS supplement media. (
  • We here present a simple, reliable and efficient method to isolate MSCs from umbilical cord tissues, where cells maintained proliferation, differentiation potential and immunophenotyping properties and could be efficiently expanded for clinical applications. (
  • CD4 T cells bind B cells, and via transmission of costimulatory signals (CD40 is an important example) induce B-cell differentiation into antibody-secreting plasma cells or into long-living memory B cells. (
  • As a B-cell growth factor, IL2 stimulates antibody synthesis and facilitates the proliferation and differentiation of NK cells to increase their cytolytic functions. (
  • By immunophenotypic examination decrease in monocyte/macrophage pool, cells with expression of CD34 immaturity marker, increase in expressing CD11c/CD86 costimulatory molecules and CD83 terminal differentiation molecules were observed. (
  • Grippol plus more actively induced differentiation of TLR2 and TLR8 expressing cells, whereas Vaxigripp-expression of TLR4 and TLR8 on DCs. (
  • 1 Their development depends on the mode of priming: interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-4 induce differentiation of naive T cells towards Th1 or Th2 cells, respectively. (
  • Regen BioPharma, Inc. (OTC PINK: RGBP) and (OTC PINK: RGBPP) announced today initiation of a series of phased experiments to begin the process of moving its CAR-T cell de-differentiation approach through pre-clinical validation. (
  • STAT4, which requires phosphorylation at tyrosine 693 for activation, plays a pivotal role in the differentiation and proliferation of Th1 and Th17 cells, both of which are crucial effectors of chronic autoimmune disorders. (
  • Despite the essential role of thymic epithelial cells (TEC) in T cell development, the signals regulating TEC differentiation and homeostasis remain incompletely understood. (
  • This is based on murine studies showing that limitin, an interferon-like cytokine produced by bone marrow stromal cell collection, preferentially inhibits precursor B-cell growth and differentiation [13]. (
  • Subsequently, the IL-2/IL-2R interaction activates the intracellular Ras/Raf/MAPK, JAK/STAT, and PI3K/AKT signal pathways, and ultimately stimulates the growth, differentiation, and survival of the Ag-selected cytotoxic T cells. (
  • This process is foremost characterized by the differentiation of endometrial stromal cells (EnSCs) into secretory decidual cells (Gellersen and Brosens, 2014). (
  • Continuous spermatogenesis depends on the self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). (
  • In vitro studies based on MCF-7 cell proliferation and induction of vitellogenin in primary culture of rainbow trout hepatocytes. (
  • In vitro coculture of NK cells with DC resulted in NK cell activation that was dependent on both soluble factors and cell-cell contact ( 9 , 10 , 11 ). (
  • Both animal models and in vitro studies have since implicated NK cells as contributors to the pathology of clinical transplantation. (
  • In their latest work, CIEA scientists report that human NK cells, freshly isolated from peripheral blood or expanded in vitro , are maintained long-term upon engraftment in hIL-15 NOG mice. (
  • Within in vitro assays, expanded huPB-NK cells displayed reduced cytotoxic activity compared to fresh-sourced huPB-NK cells. (
  • Instead of freshly-isolated cells, human NK cells were expanded in vitro prior to engraftment. (
  • Adapting a clinical cell therapy approach, human NK cells could be expanded as much as 4000-fold in vitro . (
  • Similar to freshly-isolated huPB-NK cells, in vitro expanded human NK (ivE-NK) cells were maintained in hIL-15 NOG mice, although multiple administrations were necessary to maintain cellularity. (
  • Here we first provide in vitro data providing evidence to support the hypothesis of NK-NK regulation based on licensing. (
  • In vitro killing assays using MCMV infected fibroblasts, or C1498 (murine acute myeloid leukemia) cells as targets and using different combinations of murine NK Ly49 subsets as effectors were used to assess this NK-NK regulation. (
  • Importantly, we found that TIM-3 antibodies were ineffective in increasing anti-HIV-1 T cell responses in vitro, whereas PD-L antibodies potently reverted the dysfunctional state of exhausted CD8 T cells. (
  • As NKG2D+CD4+ T cells, that produce interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-β, as well as Fas ligand, which inhibits bystander T cell proliferation in vitro, represent a type of regulatory cells, similar to regulatory T cells. (
  • The possibility of using in vitro model of DCs obtained from human bone marrow cells by cytokine stimulation for examination of the ability of influenza vaccines to induce DC maturation processes has been demonstrated. (
  • Systematic screening in vitro identified IL-22 as a candidate proregeneratory factor in primary tubular cell recovery, and IL-22 deficiency or IL-22 blockade impaired post-ischemic tubular recovery after AKI in mice. (
  • In vitro , necrotic tubular cells and oxidative stress induced IL-22 secretion selectively through TLR4. (
  • In vitro, gE is required for cell-cell fusion (9), and gE localizes to limited junctions at points of cell-cell contact by interacting with junctional parts (12). (
  • 2 As the current endpoint of existing in vitro erythroid culture systems, 4 3 interest in this cell type and the mechanisms and factors that may underlie and drive their maturation to erythrocytes has received renewed interest in recent years. (
  • Regulation of hematopoiesis in vitro by alloreactive natural killer cell clones. (
  • This finding might help to develop new strategies to increase the safety of future transplantations of in vitro differentiated cells by exploiting a selective immune response against contaminating undifferentiated cells. (
  • Deficient Growth of C57Bl Marrow Cells Transplanted in F1 Hybrid Mice. (
  • Currently studies are being conducted to verify the PFC response and T-cell immunophenotypes in the adult mice. (
  • Various murine studies have reported that both spontaneous and carcinogen-induced tumors occur more frequently in mice that lack various elements of innate and adaptive immunity. (
  • This product does not react with NK cells of BALB/c mice. (
  • Amelioration of fumonisin B1 hepatotoxicity in mice by depletion of T cells with anti-Thy-1.2. (
  • Recently, experimental data from mice infected with murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) showed different and unusual dynamics. (
  • Moreover, poor CNS transduction in BALB/c mice was dramatically increased by B-cell or natural killer-cell depletion. (
  • In mice, this capability of αGC-stimulated iNKT cells to boost cellular immune responses was strong enough to generate specific responses against tumor cells, such as the B16F10 melanoma cell line, leading to long-term tumor rejection ( 5 - 7 ). (
  • Ly-49-independent natural killer (NK) cell specificity revealed by NK cell clones derived from p53-deficient mice. (
  • In this study, we derived NK cell clones from mice that were homozygous for a mutation in the p53 tumor suppressor gene. (
  • They found that mice genetically deficient in gd T cells were more susceptible to cutaneous carcinogenesis and that their contribution to immunosurveillance was both independent of and synergistic with ab T cells 4,5 . (
  • Subsequently, others have also independently demonstrated that gd T cells restrain cancers in mice 6,7 and are associated with a good prognosis in clinical disease 8-12 . (
  • It is clear in mice that IFNg-producing gd T cells are cancer-restraining whilst IL-17-producing gd T cells are cancer-promoting. (
  • The virus infected the cancer cells and secreted the immune stimulating cytokine IL-12 (a potent stimulator of NK and T cell-mediated tumour cell killing) locally, resulting in migration of highly activated natural killer (NK) cells towards the vaccine and significant tumour regression in mice. (
  • The results of the present study were impressive: in a model of disseminated colon cancer peritoneal carcinomatosis, the infected cell vaccine could eradicate bulky disease and lead to complete cures in more than 90 per cent of mice. (
  • Comparison of the allospecific and viral-specific immune responses to irradiated versus formaldehyde-fixed allogeneic Moloney lymphoma cells in CBA mice. (
  • We also found that when we treated mice bearing human osteosarcoma with a combination of CAR T-cells and anti-PD-1 antibody we observed a trend toward enhanced function of the CD8 T-cells when compared to CAR T-cells left untreated as measured by production of a cytokine, interferon-gamma. (
  • These results led us to predict that treatment with anti-PD1 would increase the effectiveness of CAR T-cells against GD2+ tumors in mice. (
  • Previous studies in our lab using mouse sarcoma cell lines orthotopically injected into immune competent mice have shown that disruption of sarcoma-induced MDSC migration to the tumor resulted in significantly enhanced T-cell function after anti-PD1 administration. (
  • The formation of memory-like NK cells has been extensively investigated in both mice and humans [ 5 ]. (
  • Later studies confirmed the existence of memory-like NK cells in mice using antigens from viruses including influenza, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) [ 7 ]. (
  • ApoE −/− mice with B cell-specific knockout of the gene encoding the helix-loop-helix factor Id3, known to have attenuated diet-induced atherosclerosis, have increased numbers of B-1b cells and increased IgM secreting cells in PVAT relative to littermate controls. (
  • For this reason, we studied the regulation of Lungkine mRNA expression in normal or in various murine inflamed lung tissues, including lungs from OVA- and Aspergillus -challenged mice, which are recognized asthma models. (
  • They also found that mice deficient in mast cells did not show dengue-induced vascular leakage, and that wild-type animals treated with drugs that block the actions of proteins produced by these cells, showed less vascular leakage than controls. (
  • HIS mouse models are immunodeficient mice humanised through the engraftment of human immune cells. (
  • Increased NK cell levels can also be detected in the central nervous system (CNS) of ALS mice (see, Finkelstein, A. et al. (
  • 9 We have previously shown that type I NKT cells have an antitumor immune response, and their adoptive transfer reduces the incidence of B-cell lymphoma in type I NKT cell-deficient mice. (
  • 10 Invariant NKT (iNKT) cell-deficient mice showed susceptibility to methylcholanthrene-induced sarcomas and B16F10 melanoma tumors. (
  • In their latest work , Central Institute for Experimental Animals (CIEA) scientists describe the long-term maintenance of human NK cells in human IL-15 transgenic NOG (hIL-15 NOG) mice . (
  • This work establishes an initial framework for pre-clinical evaluation of NK cell-based cancer immunotherapies in hIL-15 NOG mice . (
  • Without human IL-15 (hIL15) present, human NK cells that were injected into NOG mice failed to thrive and disappeared within one week. (
  • Remarkably, similarly-engrafted human NK cells expanded over their initial five weeks in hIL-15 NOG mice, a NOG mouse with transgenic expression of hIL15 cytokine. (
  • Not all results were favorable for huPB-NK cells expanded in hIL-15 NOG mice. (
  • Importantly, ivE-NK cells displayed enhanced cytotoxic activity compared to freshly-isolated huPB-NK cells, following engraftment in hIL-15 NOG mice. (
  • Mice were injected with C1498 cells and then given hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). (
  • The mice were then depleted of all NK cells or either licensed or unlicensed subsets by antibody depletion once a week, and monitored for survival. (
  • Mice that were depleted of their unlicensed population displayed a significantly larger expansion of the licensed population of NK cells, without reciprocal greater expansion of the unlicensed population upon licensed NK cell depletion. (
  • Furthermore, NL -201 treated mice had an increase in bone marrow T-cells expressing granzyme B and a decrease in the T-cell exhaustion phenotype. (
  • Spleens from 3-5 mice were isolated, cut into small pieces and incubated in medium containing 1 WU/mL Liberase RI (Roche, Basel, Switzerland) and 50 μg/mL DNase I (Roche) at 37°C. After 45 min, EDTA was added to a final concentration of 10 mM, and the cell suspension was incubated for an additional 10 min at RT. (
  • OVA-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were isolated from lymphoid tissue of OT-I or OT-II mice, respectively. (
  • Mast cells derived from bone marrow of Lat -/- mice exhibited severe decrease in the phosphorylation of numerous proteins, degranulation, and cytokine production. (
  • Lat -/- mice have normal numbers of mature mast cells but are resistant to IgE-mediated passive systemic anaphylaxis (10). (
  • On the other hand, mice lacking both LAT and NTAL exhibited deeper inhibition of FcεRI signaling pathways than Lat -/- cells suggesting than NTAL plays also a positive regulatory role in mast cell activation. (
  • To determine whether CD4+ or CD8+ T cells were responsible for the epitope recognition, mice were immunized with TB10.4, BCG or M.tb infection as described above. (
  • Normal development and function of invariant natural killer T cells in mice with isoglobotrihexosylceramide (iGb3) deficiency. (
  • Using the highly metastatic EGFR-overexpressing MTLn3 cell-line, we report that only Rag2(-/-)gammac(-/-) mice, which lack NK cells, allow efficient lung metastasis from primary tumors in the mammary gland. (
  • In contrast, in nude and SCID mice, the remaining innate immune cells reduce MTLn3 lung metastasis formation. (
  • Injection of IFN-gamma into tumor-bearing mice or transgenic overexpression of Ncr1 in NK cells in mice resulted in decreased metastasis formation. (
  • Mice whose TEC were unable to respond to RA showed increased cTEC proliferation, an accumulation of stem cell Ag-1(hi) cTEC, and, in early life, a decrease in medullary TEC numbers. (
  • These alterations resulted in reduced thymic cellularity in early life, a reduction in CD4 single-positive and CD8 single-positive numbers in both young and adult mice, and enhanced peripheral CD8(+) T cell survival upon TCR stimulation. (
  • Depleting IL-22-producing cells during the healing phase impaired epithelial recovery, which could be rescued entirely by reconstituting mice with IL-22. (
  • Impairment of T-cell-dependent B-cell responses and B-1 cell development in CD19-deficient mice. (
  • In mice, vaccination with M2e creates protective Ab muscles that mediate security via NK cell-mediated ADCC [32]. (
  • Expression of Caspase-3 in Circulating Innate Lymphoid Cells Subtypes Is Altered by Treatment with Metformin and Fluvastatin in High-Fat Diet Fed C57BL/6 Mice. (
  • Endpoints assessed included splenic and thymic weights and cellularity, natural killer cell (NK) activity, antibody plaque forming cell (PFC) response, lymphocyte proliferation, and T-cell immunophenotypes. (
  • 1. Koo GC, Peppard JR. Establishment of monoclonal anti-Nk-1.1 antibody. (
  • Intracellular type I and II tachyzoite proliferation is inhibited by pre-treatment with IFN- of both human and murine astrocyte LASS4 antibody cells [15, 20]. (
  • Approved immunotherapeutic approaches are currently mainly based on immune checkpoint inhibitors, antibody-derived targeted therapies, or cell-based immunotherapies. (
  • Antibody-dependent mast cell activation constitutes a novel mechanism to explain enhanced vascular leakage during secondary DENV infection. (
  • Multiple other bispecific antibody and CAR T cell constructs that target a variety of antigens are currently in clinical development. (
  • Long-term human B cell lines dependent on interleukin-4 and antibody to CD40. (
  • This review describes current approaches and their advancement related to monoclonal antibody-related clinical trials, new cytokine therapy, a checkpoint inhibitor, adoptive T cell therapy, cancer vaccine, and oncolytic virus. (
  • Immunity to neoplasm or cancer as a whole are decided by Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte cells (CD8+, CTL, Tc), natural killer (NK) cells and specific antibody [4-10]. (
  • CEACAM1 induces B-cell survival and is essential for protective antiviral antibody production. (
  • 2022. SARS-CoV-2 host-shutoff impacts innate NK cell functions, but antibody-dependent NK activity is strongly activated through non-spike antibodies . (
  • This antibody is predicted to recognize mouse STAT4 phosphorylated at tyrosine 694 and rat STAT4 phosphorylated at tyrosine 693 due to complete sequence homology between the immunizing peptide and the respective murine STAT4 orthologs. (
  • These adverse effects might be bypassed by immunotherapy in the form of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) relying on the ability of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to target specific tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and to be used as carriers to specifically deliver cytotoxic warheads into corresponding tumor cells. (
  • The 145-2C11 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse CD3ε, a 20 kDa transmembrane cell-surface protein that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. (
  • Cold agglutinin disease usually results from the production of a specific IgM antibody directed against the I/i antigens (precursors of the ABH and Lewis blood group substances) on red blood cells (RBCs). (
  • Cold agglutinins commonly have variable heavy-chain regions encoded by VH, with a distinct idiotype identified by the 9G4 rat murine monoclonal antibody. (
  • Generally in most of the scholarly research, the intestine-derived mucosal immunoglobulin A (IgA) immune system replies against ETEC vaccine have already been assessed by calculating IgA antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) in peripheral bloodstream (10, 16, 18, 19, 23). (
  • Extremely potent, rapid and costimulation-independent cytotoxic T-cell response against lymphoma cells catalyzed by a single-chain bispecific antibody. (
  • Targeted therapy with the T-cell-engaging antibody blinatumomab of chemotherapy-refractory minimal residual disease in B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients results in high response rate and prolonged leukemia-free survival. (
  • Phase 2 study of the bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE) antibody blinatumomab in relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. (
  • EGFR/CD16A tetravalent bispecific antibody AFM24 to engage NK-cells to kill EGFR expressing tumor cells and safety results in cynomolgus monkey studies. (
  • 00:02:56.00 that I'll talk about later, but many antibody responses are dependent on T cells. (
  • Furthermore, gd T cells, like ab T cells, are composed of distinct subsets occupying different functional niches. (
  • Firstly, which subsets of gd T cells are found within human epithelial tissues and the carcinomas that arise from them? (
  • Finally, does the presence of gd T cells, or subsets thereof, predict clinical outcome? (
  • To overcome the well-recognised difficulty in characterising gd T cells in clinical tissue samples 20 , we combined flow cytometry and TCR-sequencing (TCRseq) to robustly identify and quantify gd T cell subsets within non-tumour lung tissues, paired NSCLCs, and peripheral blood. (
  • The cytokine is produced by activated natural killer (NK) T cells and multiple CD4+ T cell subsets, including effector memory and central memory CD4+ T cells and differentiated T helper cell subsets polarized towards Th17 and T follicular helper (Tfh) phenotypes (Liu et al. (
  • However, there are limited data examining the interaction and regulation between the different NK subsets based on differences in licensing. (
  • We hypothesized that different NK cell subsets, based on licensing, can regulate each other in the context of anti-tumor and anti-viral responses. (
  • We identified differentially methylated regions (DMRs) and differentially hydroxymethylated regions (DHMRs) between ILC and NK cell subsets and correlated them with transcriptional signatures. (
  • 2020. Two subsets of stem-like CD8+ memory T cell progenitors with distinct fate commitments in humans . (
  • 2020. Functionally specialized human CD4+ T-cell subsets express physicochemically distinct TCRs . (
  • Pearson correlation was calculated to determine correlation between MΦ subsets, T cells and soluble factors. (
  • Correlation between OA SF MΦ subsets and activated CD4 + T cell subsets suggests modulation of CD4 + T cell activation by MΦs. (
  • SF MΦ subsets are associated with knee OA PROMs and display an activated phenotype, which may lead to modulation of CD4 + T cell activation. (
  • odporność naturalna Summary Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) is a newly described family of immune cells that are part of the natural immunity which is important not only during infections caused by microorganisms, but also in the formation of lymphoid tissue, tissue remodeling after damage due to injury and homeostasis tissue stromal cells. (
  • Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells, and their presence within human tumors correlates with better prognosis. (
  • Stem Cell Therapy and Innate Lymphoid Cells . (
  • Harnessing Unconventional T Cells and Innate Lymphoid Cells to Prevent and Treat Hematological Malignancies: Prospects for New Immunotherapy. (
  • Dietary antigens suppress the proliferation of type 2 innate lymphoid cells by restraining homeostatic IL-25 production. (
  • In addition, IL-21 exerts divergent effects on different lymphoid cell leukemia and lymphomas, as it may support cell proliferation or on the contrary induce growth arrest or apoptosis of the neoplastic lymphoid cells. (
  • Please note that the population of cells having the lowest SSC (erythroid and lymphoid cells) show little expression of CD11b, while cells with moderate-to-high SSC (myeloid cells) are mostly CD11b positive (right panel). (
  • [ 21 ] It is found on cold agglutinin-producing malignant lymphoid cells in the bone marrow in persons with lymphoproliferative disorders, on a small proportion of normal lymphoid cells, and in the spleen of a 15-week-old fetus. (
  • While mostly focused upon murine experimental immunology, Christine ventured into human immunology through the extensive characterization of an NK cell deficient adolescent patient, who experienced successive waves of severe infections with herpes-group viruses. (
  • Research into and interest in the role of stromal cells in immunology has exploded over the past 15 years. (
  • Immunology and Cell Biology 98(9), pp. 770-781. (
  • 1] Other studies have observed alterations in the functioning of natural killer (NK) cells and a decreased response of T cells to certain specific antigens. (
  • CD1d is a MHC-class-I-like molecule that mediates the presentation of lipid or glycolipid antigens to T cells. (
  • Experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) is an organ-specific, T helper (Th)1 cell- mediated disease that targets the photoreceptor-associated antigens of the eye. (
  • According to the immune surveillance theory, large tumours escape immune recognition by downregulating major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I or by altering expression of tumour antigens, thus leading to an escape from cytotoxic killing by CD8 cells 3 . (
  • Identity of TSAs (tumor-specific antigens) in experimentally induced tumors and their existence on human tumors remained elusive until the molecular basis of T lymphocyte cell recognition was understood. (
  • The primed T cells then migrate back to the graft where they re-encounter antigens and mediate their effector functions. (
  • In the normal host, T cells are "trained" to recognize foreign peptides expressed in the context of self-MHC molecules and are tolerant to self antigens. (
  • First, innate immune cells recognise general patterns of abnormality and foreignness rather than highly-specific antigens. (
  • They engulf disease cells, digest them and display fragments of the digested invader which become 'antigens' that stimulate the appropriate B cell and T cell proliferation. (
  • T-cells present showed coexpression of all appropriate antigens tested. (
  • Natural killer (NK) cells lyse autologous and allogeneic target cells even in the absence of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigens on the target cells. (
  • Therefore, pluripotent cells might be rejected after transplantation by this mechanism if specific antigens are presented and if specific activated CTLs are present. (
  • NK cell activity and T- and B-cell proliferation were not altered. (
  • Natural killer cell proliferation induced by anti-NK1.1 and IL-2. (
  • Inflation occurs most readily if the NK cell response is more efficient than the CTL at reducing virus load during acute infection, but thereafter maintains a chronic virus load which is sufficient to induce CTL proliferation. (
  • MDSCs are well known to promote T-cell hyporesponsiveness and contribute to tumor evasion in both mouse and man, and, in fact, we discovered that host (mouse) MDSCs readily suppressed human T-cell proliferation. (
  • The immune system interacts with cancer cells in multiple intricate ways that can shield the host against hyper-proliferation but can also contribute to malignancy. (
  • Bat3 protects T helper type 1 (TH1) cells from galectin-9-mediated cell death and promotes both proliferation and proinflammatory cytokine production. (
  • The ED50 as determined by a cell proliferation assay using murine CTLL-2 cells is less than 0.1 ng/ml, corresponding to a specific activity of >1.0x10 7 IU/mg. (
  • Produced by T-cells in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation, this protein is required for T-cell proliferation and other activities crucial to regulation of the immune response. (
  • Des-regulated proliferation of cancer cells is generally associated with altered energy metabolism. (
  • Recombinant Human IL-2 induces the proliferation of mouse HT-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. (
  • The ED 50 = 0.05 - 0.3 ng/mL as determined by the dose-dependent stimulation of CTLL2 cell proliferation. (
  • The specific activity of recombinant human IL-2 is approximately 2.36 x 10 4 IU/μg when compared against the 2nd WHO International Standard for Human IL-2 (NIBSC code: 86/500) as determined by dose-dependent stimulation of HT-2 cell proliferation. (
  • Several red pulp specific functions occur in the spleen including blood filtration, antigenic stimulation and proliferation of B- and T-cells and production of antibodies of different specifications. (
  • In essence, these therapies induce or enhance the infiltration and function of tumor-reactive T cells within the tumors, ideally resulting in complete tumor eradication. (
  • Fig. 5: DCs in NASH induce more pro-inflammatory DC-T cell interaction signatures in liver lymph nodes. (
  • Virus-infected mast cells can recruit conventional natural killer (NK) cells and induce their activation through the production of CXCL8 and type I interferons (IFNs), respectively. (
  • However, we've shown that reovirus-infected mast cells induce a far more heterogeneous and robust IFN response in comparison to epithelial cells. (
  • activation of autologous or haploidentical NK cells which are then infused into patients to induce tumor regression [93,94,95,96]. (
  • The subfamily of the ELR-CXC chemokines is known to induce the migration of neutrophils and, in some cases, T cells, although the latter is controversial ( 12 , 13 ). (
  • 4 , 10 , 11 Although IL-18 cannot induce Th1 cell development, 12 , 13 this cytokine has a marked capacity to induce IFN-γ production by Th1 cells, especially in the presence of IL-12. (
  • IFN-γ licenses CD11b(+) cells to induce progression of systemic lupus erythematosus. (
  • In doing so, T-cell checkpoint inhibitors can induce long-term responses in some patients with difficult-to-treat cancers, including melanoma, bladder cancer and nonsmall cell lung cancer. (
  • Bryceson, Y.T. & Long, E.O. Line of attack: NK cell specificity and integration of signals. (
  • Natural killer (NK) cells are heterogeneous in their specificity and expression of cell surface molecules. (
  • In the mouse, the Ly-49A molecule is a primary determinant of NK cell specificity because of its ability to downregulate NK cell activation after physical interaction with target cell MHC class I molecules. (
  • It is not known, however, whether murine NK cell specificity may occur independently of the Ly-49 family and target cell MHC class I molecules. (
  • Although consistent with the possibility that NK cell specificity for MHC class I molecules is mediated by the Ly-49 family of molecules, the results indicate that NK cell specificity also is regulated by a mechanism independent of target cell MHC class I and the Ly-49 family. (
  • I. Cytotoxic cells with specificity for mouse Moloney leukemia cells. (
  • In situ Redirection of T cell Specificity and Imaging of Targeted CAR Expression. (
  • NK cells from two specificity 1 alloreactive NK clones, ES9 and ES10, significantly and often completely suppressed colony formation by purified peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitor cells from specificity 1-susceptible donors, but had no significant effect on the cells of specificity 1-resistant donors. (
  • Activated polyclonal NK cells were less efficient than the NK clones in inhibiting colony formation and had a similar effect on cells from both specificity 1-susceptible and -resistant donors. (
  • Moreover, the alloreactive clones were directly cytolytic in a 51Cr release assay against enriched preparations of peripheral blood progenitor cells from specificity 1-susceptible donors. (
  • The antiviral activity of NK cells depends on the several effector features activated pursuing their account activation. (
  • Type 2 diabetes patients show markedly less activity of NK cells than the people with prediabetes or glucose tolerance, which indicates association between glycemic regulation and NK cells [11]. (
  • The researchers concluded that the IL2RG-lentiviral vector gene therapy combined with low-exposure, targeted busulfan conditioning in infants with newly diagnosed SCID-X1 showed low-grade acute toxic effects, and resulted in engraftment of transduced cells, reconstitution of functional T cells and B cells, and normalization of NK-cell counts during a median follow-up of 16 months. (
  • Both these immunotherapeutic strategies have recently been carried forward into clinical application and have shown impressive therapeutic activity in several hematologic malignancies, such as acute lymphoblastic B cell leukemia (B-ALL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). (
  • MURPHY W J , KUMAR V , BENNETT M . Acute rejection of murine bone marrow allografts by natural killer cells and T cells. (
  • However, recent clinical studies have demonstrated the potential benefits of exploiting NK cell alloreactivity in mismatched hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for particular types of acute leukemia. (
  • In recent years, a growing number of studies have shown that stem cells can effectively treat acute liver failure. (
  • The aims of this article are to review the current knowledge regarding therapeutic mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells in acute liver failure, to discuss recent advancements in preclinical and clinical studies in the treatment of mesenchymal stem cells, and to summarize the methodological improvement of mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in treating liver failure. (
  • To determine whether placental cell therapy PLacental eXpanded (PLX)-PAD (Pluristem Therapeutics, Haifa, Israel) may be beneficial to treating critically ill patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome due to coronavirus disease 2019. (
  • Noncanonical beta-catenin interactions promote leukemia-initiating activity in early T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. (
  • Effect of the use and timing of bone marrow mononuclear cell delivery on left ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction: the TIME randomized trial. (
  • Immunotherapy with long-lived anti-CD123 × anti-CD3 bispecific antibodies stimulates potent T cell-mediated killing of human AML cell lines and of CD123+ cells in monkeys: a potential therapy for acute myelogenous leukemia. (
  • Targeting CD123 in acute myeloid leukemia using a T-cell-directed dual-affinity retargeting platform. (
  • iNKT cells play an important role in anti-tumor immunity by linking the innate and adaptive immune responses. (
  • NK cell-based therapies have demonstrated favorable clinical efficacies in several hematological malignancies but limited success in solid tumors, thus highlighting the need to develop new therapeutic strategies to restore and optimize anti-tumor activity while preventing tumor immune escape. (
  • In addition to directly killing transformed cells, indirect anti-tumor actions of OVs rely on the recruitment and activation of effector immune cells. (
  • The altered landscape of cancer is often characterized by a heterogeneous mix of immunosuppressive metabolites, glucose and amino acid deprivation, hypoxia and acidity, which, in concert, prevent effective anti-tumor immunity, here NK therapies herald great potential . (
  • The anti-tumor activity of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapies correlates with T cell infiltration in tumors. (
  • In particular, we wanted to identify genes that are altered during a productive anti-tumor immune response that may enhance T cell infiltration and efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade, with the ultimate goal of discovering novel therapeutic strategies to overcome resistance to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade. (
  • In summary, Lnc-Tim3 promotes T cell exhaustion, a phenotype which is correlated with compromised anti-tumor immunity, suggesting that Lnc-Tim3 and its associated signaling pathways may influence the outcome of cancer therapies aimed at modulating the acquired immune system. (
  • Goebeler ME, Bargou R. Blinatumomab: a CD19/CD3 bispecific T cell engager (BiTE) with unique anti-tumor efficacy. (
  • Merchant and colleagues also suggest that T-cell-depleting cancer therapies may eliminate beneficial immune responses and that immune reconstitution of patients with lymphopenic cancer could prevent metastatic recurrence of solid tumors. (
  • Many solid tumors have exploited this pathway by expressing PD-L1, PD-1's major ligand, in effort to turn off T-cell activity and escape immune recognition. (
  • The extent to which suppressive murine MDSC were expanded in our CAR model by human xenogeneic tumors was surprising. (
  • To our knowledge, this is a novel finding that needs to be taken into consideration when using xenograft models to determine the efficacy of adoptive T-cell therapy, especially for solid tumors. (
  • In fact, values of pH ranging from 5.7 to 7.0 are usually found in a number of solid tumors such as breast cancer, brain tumors, sarcomas, malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinomas, and adenocarcinomas. (
  • Observations made in solid tumors such as malignant melanomas, brain tumors, sarcomas, breast cancer, squamous cell carcinomas, and adenocarcinomas showed that tumor microenvironments reach pH values ranging from 5.8 to 7.4 [ 26 - 34 ]. (
  • Table 1 Mast cells in tumors. (
  • Although ACT has shown successful results in patients with hematologic malignancies [97,98], poor results have been observed in the targeting of solid tumors, mainly because of the poor trafficking and infiltration of NK cells into the tumor. (
  • Cancer immune reprogramming can be classified in three phases: (a) stimulation of adaptive and innate immune system to eradicate cancer cells (eradication phase), (b) survival of irregular malignant cells which can activate immune reprogramming (equipoise phase), (c) establishing immunosuppressive microenvironment and low-immunogenic tumors (escape phase) [ 7 , 8 ]. (
  • One study suggests that functional interactions between KIR and HLA modify risks of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and that KIR B haplotypes provide selective pressure for altered P53 in BCC tumors . (
  • Super-immunodeficient rodent models, like the CIEA NOG mouse® , support the engraftment of human tumors and functioning human immune cells through several distinct approaches. (
  • Background Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can survive in the circulation and return to primary tumors through a self-seeding process. (
  • Furthermore, expression of Bat3 is reduced in exhausted Tim-3+ T cells from mouse tumors and HIV-1-infected individuals. (
  • Enhancement of T-cell motility to tumors and metastasis. (
  • Despite many studies considering aging as a tumor-suppressor mechanism, most senescent cells behave abnormally, which may eventually lead to serious outcomes, such as the development of tumors. (
  • For example, T cells are the main effectors of acquired immunity, and their compartment is heavily affected during aging, cumulating defects [ 20 ] that can increase immune system damage, disease susceptibility, and the occurrence of malignant tumors in the elderly. (
  • While many of these therapies have offered substantial benefit for eradication of primary tumors, the incidence of disease relapse is still a commonly encountered problem that results from residual malignant cells and/or tumor metastases [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • Extracellular pH values in tumors can be as low as pH 6.0-6.5, in contrast to pH 7.4 present in normal cell environments. (
  • Targeting of survivin in RMS cells and their sensitization toward a T-cell attack can be translated into clinical practice using small molecules (eg, YM155),48, 49, 50 which suppress survivin and which are explored in phase 1 therapy of sound tumors and lymphomas. (
  • However, CD8+ cytotoxic T cell phenotype infiltration in MSI-H CRCs may explain why these tumors respond to immune checkpoint inhibitors. (
  • The cells that have the inherent property of innate and adaptive immunity within the body are present at different sites including the blood, lymphatic system (lymph, lymphoid nodules and lymphoid organs), epithelium, and connective tissues. (
  • Although NK cells reside in naive lymph nodes (LN) at a very low frequency, they can be recruited into LN draining sites of infection, inflammation, or immunization where they potentially influence adaptive immunity. (
  • A decrease in the clonotypic diversity of T and B cells, the two pillars of adaptive immunity, also demonstrates the diminishing memory formation complicating vaccination modalities for the aged population. (
  • In this aspect, NK cells and CD8 + T cells represent the innate and adaptive arms of immunity against pathogens, including viruses. (
  • Evidence for an Adult-Like Type 1-Immunity Phenotype of Vδ1, Vδ2 and Vδ3 T Cells in Ghanaian Children With Repeated Exposure to Malaria. (
  • natural immunity 3009 1 - 61 Adres autorki: prof. US, dr hab. (
  • The IRE1 endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor activates natural killer cell immunity in part by regulating c-Myc. (
  • Autophagy also defends the cell against invasion by microorganisms and has important roles in innate and adaptive immunity. (
  • Pursuing DNA disease or transfection disease of cells, cGAMP spreads through the maker cell to encircling bystander cells leading to prominent activation of STING and increasing antiviral immunity. (
  • The most potent antiviral defense mechanism is the innate production of type I interferon (IFN-I), which not only limits virus replication but also promotes antiviral T cell immunity through mechanisms, which remain insufficiently studied. (
  • Spatial distribution of LTi-like cells in intestinal mucosa regulates type 3 innate immunity. (
  • 7,8 Additive interactions with antimicrobial pharmaceutical agents have been reported (see later), but these probably are also indirect results from a general enhancement of cell-mediated immunity and antiviral activity by reishi compounds, rather than specific herb-drug interactions. (
  • Virus-specific CTL (za) divide on antigenic stimulation (ca) and kill virus-infected host cells through lysis (pa). (
  • Target lysis was unaffected by target cell MHC class I expression, and none of the clones expressed Ly-49A on the cell surface or transcripts for Ly-49 isoforms. (
  • Rabbit polyclonal to GRB14 NK cell activities prompt the lysis of viral-infected cells and the activation of cell-mediated immune responses. (
  • Lysis occurs when inhibition is lost because the target cell lacks one or more self-MHC molecules or when target cells express high levels of stimulatory ligands that counter inhibition. (
  • Result Self-seeded cells displayed resistance to NK cell-mediated lysis and a higher tumor seeding ability than their parental cells. (
  • Red blood cells were lysed with ACK lysis buffer. (
  • A novel tetravalent bispecific TandAb (CD30/CD16A) efficiently recruits NK cells for the lysis of CD30+ tumor cells. (
  • Figure 3: Activation responses in NK cells from SAP-deficient XLP patients. (
  • Figure 8: Molecular mechanism by which SAP suppresses NK cell responses. (
  • Several preclinical studies showed that IL-21 has antitumor activity in different tumor models, through mechanism involving the activation of NK and T or B cell responses. (
  • Normally, the PD-1 checkpoint serves an important role in dampening aberrant T-cell responses and is thus critical for preventing autoimmunity. (
  • SALF also suppressed IL-6, IL-8, IL-1, and MPC-1e mRNA levels and regulated vaginal epithelial cell IL-15 Proteins Purity & Documentation immune responses through MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinases) and NF- (nuclear element kappa B) pathways [93]. (
  • Since different stages of disease progression elicit different local and systemic immune responses, the ability to longitudinally interrogate the migration and expansion of immune cells, especially T cells, throughout the whole body might greatly facilitate disease characterization and understanding. (
  • This review provides an overview about a variety of immune-imaging tools available to characterize and study T-cell responses induced by anti-cancer immunotherapy. (
  • DCs pulsed with tumour lysate or exosomes were effective in inducing protective cytotoxic CD8 T-cell responses and increasing survival, even when given after tumour implantation 2 . (
  • Together, these data suggest that mast cells serve as sentinel cells in tissues exposed to the external environment and contribute to host antiviral responses, at least indirectly, by recruiting resting NK cells to sites of infection. (
  • Immunotherapies have become more popular due to their ability to trigger and train the patient's immune system to recognise and attack tumour cells, provide strong immune responses, and reduce the severity of adverse side effects generally associated with chemotherapies. (
  • In her Ph.D. work with Joseph Pagano, she examined cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cell responses against Epstein Barr virus (EBV), exploring the role of interferon in their activation and blastogenesis. (
  • These pioneering studies confirmed the proliferative capacity of NK cells, while elucidating cytokine regulation of NK cell antiviral and immunopathogenic responses. (
  • It can either aim to directly activate the immune system to fight against the cancer cells or may augment general immune responses. (
  • SEB-stimulated T-cell CD69 expression was significantly depressed for CD8 (+) T cells while CD4 (+) T-cell responses to SEB were generally within 1 SD of the mean for healthy volunteers. (
  • AIH is also associated with predominating Th1 responses and decreased function and number of regulatory T cells (Tregs) (Longhi et al. (
  • Moreover, preseparated peripheral non-adherent cells and monocytes of individual donors could exhibit various responses to arabinogalactan when cultures derived from bleedings after intervals of several months were assayed. (
  • 14 NKT cells have shown both direct and indirect antitumor immune responses upon activation with α-GalCer. (
  • Bat3 promotes T cell responses and autoimmunity by repressing Tim-3-mediated cell death and exhaustion. (
  • TIM-3 was found to negatively regulate murine T cell responses and galectin-9 was described as a binding partner that mediates T cell inhibitory effects of TIM-3. (
  • They initiate immune responses due to their ability to activate naive T-cells [1]. (
  • The conventional view that placed non-hematopoietic stromal cells as passive, structural, and supportive entities has now been replaced with an appreciation that these cells have active, dynamic roles during immune responses, and thus impact on the pathophysiology of multiple immune-mediated diseases. (
  • The concept for this book arose as a result of growing interest in the investigation of non-hematopoietic stromal cells and their impact on immune responses. (
  • Topics covered range from the interaction between leukocytes and lymph node stromal cells, inflammatory responses of mesenchymal stem cells and fibroblasts to the key roles of stromal cells in response to infection, the tumour microenvironment and the healthy and inflamed intestine. (
  • furthermore, increased levels of IL-8, amplified the epithelial cell responsiveness, resulting in altered immune inflammatory responses [15]. (
  • Via such reciprocal interactions, NK cells can exacerbate or limit the immune responses. (
  • IL-2 was discovered through its function as a T cell growth factor (TCGF), and plays a pivotal role in immune responses against pathogenic infection. (
  • CD226 Deficiency Alleviates Murine Allergic Rhinitis by Suppressing Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cell Responses. (
  • Natural killer (NK) cells, key antitumor effectors of the innate immune system, are endowed with the unique ability to spontaneously eliminate cells undergoing a neoplastic transformation. (
  • Cellular senescence is a hallmark of aging, and the immune system plays an essential role in both causing and eliminating dying cells. (
  • Open in a separate window Figure 1 Mast cells sentinels of the immune system. (
  • Biobran MGN-3 arabinoxylan compound can stimulate a weak immune system (see right) more powerfully and safely than any other agent, natural or synthetic. (
  • The adaptive immune system is a complex network of cells working towards a common goal: detection and elimination of foreign cells that can harm the host. (
  • In cancer, malignant cells acquire mutations which can appear foreign to the adaptive immune system. (
  • B cells produce antibodies that can bind to pathogens and thereby enable the immune system to detect and eliminate these pathogens. (
  • Understanding the protective roles of the immune system in its interaction with cancer cells can help device new and alternate therapeutic strategies. (
  • The adaptive immune system comprises CD8 + cytotoxic T cells (CTLs), CD4 + helper T cells, and B cells [ 11 ]. (
  • The innate immune system can regulate the adaptive immune system by secreting various signals to activate both T and B cells [ 12 ]. (
  • In fact, Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) is a promising approach that involves the intervention of the patient's immune system to fight against cancer/tumor cells. (
  • However, humanized immune system (HIS) models have largely failed to support the long-term engraftment and survival of human natural killer (NK) cells, an immune cell population that is essential to an increasing number of cancer therapies being developed. (
  • The host immune system is able to distinguish self from non-self by recognizing foreign HLA molecules (allorecognition) then mounting a highly specific immune response to donor cells in the transplanted organ. (
  • White blood cells (WBCs) serve as the principal actors of the immune system. (
  • Later it was also described in other cells of the immune system, including natural killer (NK) cells, platelets, megakaryocytes, immature B cells and mast cells. (
  • Moreover, immune system aging, also known as immunosenescence, is a natural process that occurs with age and leads to a decline in immune function, thus affecting various aspects of immune functional networks and increasing cancer risk. (
  • Second, innate immune cells can help the adaptive immune system better discover and destroy its specific targets in a variety of ways. (
  • They can take on and kill multiple disease cells simultaneously and also have a regulatory effect on the rest of the immune system. (
  • customizing immune system cells to suit the specific invader. (
  • It stimulates the growth of certain disease-fighting blood cells in the immune system. (
  • Belonging to the innate immune system, natural killer (NK) cells play crucial roles in various kinds of cancers and other pathologies. (
  • Through their function in the interplay between adaptive and innate immune system replies [17], organic killer (NK) cells play a significant function in eradicating pathogen contaminated cells [18,19]. (
  • Furthermore, NK cells secrete chemokines like MIP-1 also, MIP-1 and RANTES, which promote the recruitment of extra NK cells and various other immune system cells to the website of infections [24C27]. (
  • Our results show that the adaptive immune system has in principle the capacity to kill pluripotent and teratoma forming stem cells. (
  • Höglund, P. & Brodin, P. Current perspectives of natural killer cell education by MHC class I molecules. (
  • Licensing of natural killer cells by host major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. (
  • Only NK cells that are licensed by self-MHC class I molecules during development are fully functional. (
  • reveal that the vascular leakage that occurs in DHF is triggered by mast cells, which line blood vessels and regulate their permeability through the release of molecules such as histamines and leukotrienes. (
  • Alongside small molecules and biologics, cell-based therapies are emerging as a third class of medical therapy. (
  • MHC-I molecules are integral membrane proteins found on all nucleated cell and platelets. (
  • Thus, the expression kinetics of CD69 on both cell types is reminiscent of the one of costimulatory molecules. (
  • Furthermore, extensive studies on the interaction of galectin-9 with human and murine TIM-3 did not yield evidence for specific binding between these molecules. (
  • NTAL also termed LAT2 (for its domain similarity with LAT) or linker for activation of B cells (LAB) was identified as a 30 kD phosphorylated protein in myeloid cell lines (15) and simultaneously by search in human genome database for molecules with Grb2-binding motifs (YXN, where X stands for any amino acid), putative transmembrane domain with a stretch of hydrophobic residues and potential palmitoylation sites (16). (
  • In recent years, multiple targeted and immune-based therapeutic strategies have been investigated and led to innovative therapeutic approaches in melanoma targeting molecules within activated signaling pathways or the regulatory molecules expressed on the cell surface of activated T cells. (
  • The second wave of immunotherapies were T-cell checkpoint inhibitors that bind to molecules, such as PD-L1, and are responsible for creating an immunosuppressive microenvironment in tumours. (
  • 1 In turn, tubular cell necrosis is the predominant trigger for this associated inflammatory response, because dying cells release intracellular molecules, such as HMGB1, histones, uric acid, or ATP, that elicit immunostimulatory effects in the extracellular space, which are referred to as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). (
  • Tobacco smoke induces the formation of free radicals - highly reactive molecules that can bind to normal, healthy cells and destroy them. (
  • Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules were not detectable by flow cytometry on these stem cell lines, apart from low levels on one maGSC line (maGSC Stra8 SSC5). (
  • Pluripotent stem cells, including maGSCs, ESCs, and iPSCs can become targets for CTLs, even if the expression level of MHC class I molecules is below the detection limit of flow cytometry. (
  • NKT cells are now better characterized as CD1d-dependent T cells with potent cytokine production capacity ( 1 - 3 ). (
  • B-1 cell-derived IgM to oxidation specific epitopes (OSE) on low density lipoproteins (LDL) blocks oxidized LDL-induced inflammatory cytokine production and foam cell formation. (
  • Once NK cells have been recruited, their cytokine production and cytotoxic activities can be upregulated LTβR-IN-1 by mediators released from virus-infected or viral product-activated mast cells (Figure 1). (
  • In comparison to wild-type mast cells, Ntal -/- mast cells show enhanced degranulation, calcium mobilization, PLCγ and Erk phosphorylation as well as cytokine production. (
  • CD4 + T helper cells can be divided into Th1 and Th2 cells on the basis of their cytokine production profile. (
  • Hence, our study signifies that NK cells, in the current presence of anti-M2 Abs, may play a significant function in the security supplied by M2-structured vaccines through ADCC, chemokine and cytokine production, and features the potential function of Ab1-10 mAb in determining targets for enhancing influenza vaccines. (
  • Reciprocally, it has also been shown that activated NK cells kill immature DC or promote DC maturation ( 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 ). (
  • The endocannabinoid system modulates the maturation of immune cells in primary lymphatic tissues as well as their effector function like i.e. cytokine secretion. (
  • However, it has been reported that cellular metabolism regulates a cells sensitivity to NK cells depending on its P53 status and that P53 pathway is coupled to NK cell maturation leaving open the possibility that a relationship exists . (
  • Variation affects the KIR repertoire of NK cell clones, NK cell maturation, the capability to deliver signals, and consequently the NK cell response to human diseases. (
  • The process of maturation of reticulocytes into fully mature erythrocytes that occurs in the circulation is known to be characterized by a complex interplay between loss of cell surface area and volume, removal of remnant cell organelles and redundant proteins, and highly selective membrane and cytoskeletal remodeling. (
  • Reticulocytes are anucleate erythroid cells which undergo maturation to form the biconcave erythrocyte. (
  • 1 The mechanism leading to maturation is relatively undefined, but it is known to occur in the peripheral circulation within 1-2 days after cells have egressed from the bone marrow. (
  • Reticulocyte maturation involves extensive membrane and cytoskeletal remodeling, with loss of approximately 20% of cell surface area during this process 9 5 which allows the initially amorphous reticulocyte to acquire the characteristic erythrocyte biconcave morphology and accompanying increased resistance to shear stress. (
  • 7 Other notable hallmarks of maturation include a progressive loss of RNA content, an increase in cell deformability, and a decrease in both cytoplasmic and surface protein content through exocytosis, membrane shedding and autophagy-mediated pathways. (
  • Thus, there is an increasing interest in iNKT cell-based immunotherapy strategies to treat cancer. (
  • Given their broad reactivity against diverse types of cancer and close association with cancer prognosis, NK cells have gained considerable attention as a promising therapeutic target for cancer immunotherapy. (
  • Immunotherapy of mesothelioma might be more effective when combined with drugs that eliminate or control regulatory T-cells. (
  • Enlivex Therapeutics Ltd. (Nasdaq: ENLV, the "Company"), a clinical-stage macrophage reprogramming immunotherapy company, today announced new preclinical data in a murine mesothelioma model showing a substantial and statistically significant survival benefit when Allocetra™ is combined with the chemotherapeutic agent, cisplatin. (
  • Evidence suggests combining innate immune modulators with established adaptive immunotherapies, such as tumour-targeted antibodies and T-cell checkpoint inhibitors, enhances the activity and longevity of treatments and may expand the population of patients who respond to immunotherapy (Figure 1). (
  • Manipulation of NK cells has been shown to have several applications, such as promotion of antitumor immunotherapy, regulation of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, and improvement of solid organ and hematopoietic transplantation [1]. (
  • T cell immunotherapy enhanced by designer biomaterials. (
  • We found an unexpected reduction of central memory CD8 + T cells, which reportedly play an important role in antitumor activity in cancer immunotherapy 24, 25, harboring CCR4 expression accompanied. (
  • Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a chemokine with various biological activities, including augmentation of cytotoxic activity of monocytes and natural killer (NK) cells. (
  • However, in contrast, we also observed that, in CD34+ cells, unlike reported in monocytes (21), MCL-1 expression rapidly returned to approaching basal levels after initial binding events (Fig. we show that activation of ERKCMAPK signaling impacts on long-term latency and reactivation in hematopoietic cells. (
  • IL-2-activated NK cells possess additional specific stimulation pathways. (
  • NK cells (zi) can also divide upon antigenic stimulation (ci) and are able to kill virus-infected host cells (pi). (
  • The stimulation of murine microglial cells with IFN- and TNF inhibited the penetration of PLK tachyzoites (mouse non-virulent type II strain) [14]. (
  • of Dasatinib enzyme inhibitor mmu-miR-223-3p in DCs was adequate to prevent stimulation-associated acquisition of potent T cell stimulatory capacity. (
  • CD69 is a good marker for early T cell activation, it is detectable after 4 hrs and peaks at 18-48 hours after stimulation with anti-CD3 (in humans). (
  • Marginal zone B-cells show somatic hypermutation, clonal expansion and B-cell positive selection.9, 10 B-cell clonal expansion also occurs in the germinal center of the B-cell follicle following antigenic stimulation. (
  • Endogenous epidermal DC migration induced by hapten challenge also triggers NK cell recruitment to the draining LN in an IFN-γ-dependent mechanism. (
  • One mechanism that causes irreversible replicative arrest in cells is the constant loss of telomeric DNA due to the 5′-3′ directionality of DNA polymerase and the inability of the replication machinery to reach the end of chromosomes [ 1 ]. (
  • While mechanisms whereby B-2 cells aggravate atherosclerosis are less clear, production of immunoglobulin type M (IgM) antibodies is thought to be a major mechanism whereby B-1 cells limit atherosclerosis development. (
  • Autophagy, the major mechanism for degrading long-lived intracellular proteins and organelles, is essential for eukaryotic cell homeostasis. (
  • Conclusion Together, our findings illustrate an unknown mechanism by which CTCs evaded NK cell-mediated immune surveillance, and indicate that targeting N-cadherin is an effective strategy to prevent CTCs from homing to primary tumor. (
  • Elucidation of the molecular mechanism that mediates the effects of E2F on cell fate and intracellular signaling. (
  • The use of biomaterials and tracking the long-term fate of the transplanted cells is expected to help improve the clinical translation of cell therapies for cardiac regeneration. (
  • Lately, with the success of the newer T cell-engaging immunotherapeutic agents there has been a growing interest in CRS since it represents one of the most frequent serious adverse effects of these therapies. (
  • Recently, the first two CAR T cell therapies tisagenlecleucel and axicabtagene ciloleucel received FDA approval for refractory CD19-positive B-ALL [ 18 ] and relapsed or refractory large B-cell lymphoma [ 19 ]. (
  • To mitigate these risks, clinicians are turning to other immunomodulators, such as cell-based therapies, bispecific antibodies, and cytokine treatments. (
  • GentiBio, Inc., a biotherapeutics company developing engineered T regulatory (Treg) cells (EngTregs) therapies for autoimmunity, autoinflammation and allergic diseases, today announced an upcoming presentation of preclinical data relating to the company's platform technology. (
  • Over the past decade, insights into the molecular mechanisms that cancer cells use to evade T-cells, antibodies/B cells and other adaptive immune defences have revolutionised oncology therapies. (
  • Similarly to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), they could provide a source of cellular grafts for new transplantation therapies of a broad variety of diseases. (
  • It means activation of NK cell. (
  • A shed NKG2D ligand that promotes natural killer cell activation and tumor rejection. (
  • These observations, together with recent advances in the understanding of NK cell activation within the tumor microenvironment, will facilitate the optimal design of NK cell-based therapy against a broad range of cancers and, more desirably, refractory cancers. (
  • Surrounding stroma and/or infiltrating cells were the most likely source of hepatocyte growth factor, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1δ, MIP-3α, neutrophil-activating peptide-2, and pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine that can cause leukocyte infiltration and activation. (
  • Recognition of viral proteins such as m157 of MCMV by Ly49H or viral peptides, including UL40-derived VMAPRTLIL, presented by HLA-E recognized by NKG2C/CD94 complex results in the activation and generation of memory-like NK cells. (
  • An 11-base-pair DNA sequence motif apparently unique to the human interleukin 4 gene confers responsiveness to T-cell activation signals. (
  • Kinetics of Intratumoral Immune Cell Activation During Chemoradiation for Cervical Cancer. (
  • We identify miR-130/301, which are dramatically up-regulated following T-cell activation, as able to down-regulate CD69 expression via binding to a conserved site in the 3UTR of CD69 mRNA. (
  • CD69 activation kinetics differ by developmental stage, cell linage and activating conditions, and these differences have been attributed to the participation of complex gene regulatory networks. (
  • pone.0207619.g004.tif (2.21 MB) CD69 and Notch1 expression kinetics during CD8+ T cell activation. (
  • CD69 is rapidly upregulated on T cells upon activation. (
  • This early lag in T cell activation was associated with significantly reduced IL-2 production at a later timepoint in both the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell compartments in alcohol sepsis, as well as with a reduced accumulation of CD8dim activated effectors. (
  • 12 The activation of NKT-cell function using specific ligands holds a therapeutic role in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, as well as infectious and autoimmune diseases. (
  • Here we show that the activation of human T cells is not affected by the presence of galectin-9 or antibodies to TIM-3. (
  • Taken together, our results are not in support of an interaction between TIM-3 and galectin-9 and yield no evidence for a functional role of TIM-3 in human T cell activation. (
  • It mediates activation-induced cell death (AICD)and consistently activates T-regulatory (Treg) cells. (
  • One of the most extensively studied TRAPs is LAT that was initially characterized as a 36-38 kDa protein prominently tyrosine-phosphorylated upon T-cell activation (8). (
  • LAT plays a key role in FcεRI-induced mast cell activation. (
  • these data suggest that PAG serves as a negative regulator of mast cell activation (20). (
  • LAX is phosphorylated in mast cells in response to FcεRI activation and interacts with Grb2 and p85. (
  • Because of the positive correlation of NKG2D+CD3+CD8− cells with viral loads, our results suggest that the increased frequency of NKG2D+CD3+CD8− cells observed in HIV infection may impede T cell immune activation during disease progression, possibly resulting in distortions of T cell cytolytic function. (
  • Of late, the continued refinement of ADC therapeutic efficacy has given rise to photoimmunotherapy (PIT) (a light-sensitive compound conjugated to mAbs), which by virtue of requiring light activation only exerts its toxic effect on light-irradiated cells. (
  • BRAFV600E induces constitutive kinase activity (e.g., mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation known as MAPK) which drives the uncontrolled growth of melanoma cells and pro-tumorigenic angiogenesis leading to disease metastases [ 6 ] [ 7 ] . (
  • 2018). "NF-kappaB inducing kinase (NIK) is an essential post-transcriptional regulator of T-cell activation affecting F-actin dynamics and TCR signaling" J Autoimmun 94: 110-121. (
  • ERK Activation in CAR T Cells Is Amplified by CD28-Mediated Increase in CD3ζ Phosphorylation. (
  • First described in the peripheral blood of humans , T central memory cells (T CM) cells are similar to naïve T cells in that they express CD62L and CCR7 and make IL2 following re-activation. (
  • NAKAMURA H , GRESS R E . Graft rejection by cytolytic T cells. (
  • NK cells exhibit spontaneous cytolytic activity against stressed cells, including virus-infected and tumor cells. (
  • A bispecific nanobody approach to leverage the potent and widely applicable tumor cytolytic capacity of Vgamma9Vdelta2-T cells. (
  • If the inhibition is strong, it means there is signaling Ly49/KIR - MHC I, the inhibition of NK cell occurs. (
  • However, if there is no specific self MHC I (H2 alele in murine model) the inhibition of inhibition comes to pass. (
  • It means that there are NK cells in F1 generation, that recognize H2b/k aleles as a self MHC I and there has to be signaling through both of them to inhibition of NKs. (
  • I show that T cell infiltration of solid tumours correlates with improved outcomes, neoantigen load, but also markers of T cell inhibition, suggesting that these individuals would benefit from checkpoint blockade therapy. (
  • Genome-wide RNAi analysis reveals that simultaneous inhibition of specific mevalonate pathway genes potentiates tumor cell death. (
  • Similar to neratinib, the half-maximal inhibitory concentration of PF00299804 necessary for growth inhibition in NSCLC cell lines together with the T790M resistance mutation Cytisine is one hundred? (
  • Inhibition of nucleotide synthesis promotes replicative senescence of human mammary epithelial cells. (
  • Molecular and biological characterization of a murine ligand for CD40. (
  • The CD40 ligand, gp39, is defective in activated T cells from patients with X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome. (
  • Altered selection on a single self-ligand promotes susceptibility to organ-specific T cell infiltration. (
  • The primary response to the early phase of viral infection is the release of natural killer (NK) cells, which lyse infected myocytes. (
  • This CellML model represents the third model in the original paper (this builds on the first 'core' model which describes the basic dynamics of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) infection, and the second model which includes a description of the CTL response to the virus infection, by incorporating a natural killer (NK) cell response to the viral infection). (
  • To further study the role of IFN- in the control of infection in human nerve cells strains. (
  • Treatment and infection of 33286-22-5 human 33286-22-5 nerve cells Each type of cell culture was treated with IFN- (100?ng/mL) (Sigma-Aldrich) for 24?h. (
  • Indeed, a previous study reported that NK cells contribute to the maintenance of CD8 + DC in the spleen during CMV infection ( 13 ). (
  • This study also highlighted the importance of viral replication in therapeutic efficacy, and the team is currently investigating what aspects of viral infection of cancer cells makes them immunogenic to exploit this further. (
  • Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection is a primary model that helped to establish the phenomenon of memory-like NK cells [ 6 ]. (
  • Natural killer (NK) cells are immune cells that play a key role in combating cancer and infection (see, Vivier, E., et al. (
  • In addition, at afterwards situations post-infection, this model reveled the unexpected participation of NK cells in the adaptive resistant replies. (
  • HLA incompatibility, virus infection, elderly donor, uncontrolled primary disease, damage of bone marrow hematopoietic microenvironment, ABO blood group incompatibility, T cell depletion, reduced intensity conditioning, and low nucleated cell number are all risk factors for graft failure. (
  • In launching her own independent research program at UMass, Christine went on to show that blast NK cells were induced in response to interferons elicited during viral infection. (
  • Patients with haematological malignancies and haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients comprise the classical groups at risk of infection for non- Aspergillus moulds due to profound immunosuppression and the vast use of anti- Aspergillus prophylaxis. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) establishes a chronic infection that is characterized by persistent virus replication, a systemic decline in CD4+ T cell numbers, accumulating immunologic defects, and the eventual rise of AIDS-defining opportunistic infections and cancers[ 1 ]. (
  • More specifically, depletion of the unlicensed population resulted in an expansion of the Ly49H + NK cells which have previously been shown to be the primary effector population during MCMV infection. (
  • Purine nueoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency causes a form of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) characterized by profound T cell deficiency, failure to thrive (FTT), recurrent deep seeded infection, developmental delay, progressive neurological deterioration, and autoimmune complications. (
  • Resting memory CD4+ T cells are more susceptible to HIV infection than naïve cells (30). (
  • Overall, we conclude that NKR expression on T cells changes with HIV disease progression in a pattern that predicts exacerbated impairment of the immune response to HIV infection. (
  • with each of peptides P1-P9, and see more analyzed by flow cytometry, showed that P8 and P9 were both recognized by CD4+ T cells following BCG-immunization and M.tb infection (Fig. 2), whereas P1 and P2 were only recognized following M.tb infection and primarily by from CD8+ T cells (Fig. 2). (
  • The book is also a unique source of information on emerging concepts that place stromal cells from outside lymphoid organs as major contributors to the biology of diverse conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, chronic parasitic infection, inflammatory bowel disease, and cancer. (
  • B cells are a type of lymphocyte normally involved in the production of antibodies to combat infection. (
  • Natural killer (NK) cells primarily act against microbial infection and various kinds of cancers. (
  • IL-18 is constitutively expressed in the epithelial cells in iris, ciliary body, and retina. (
  • IL-18 is expressed in the epithelial cells in iris, ciliary body, and retina in the eyes, but its role in the eye remains undetermined. (
  • The SALF peptides' protective role involves an anti-inflammatory effect in response to LPS, as observed in cervical cancer epithelial cells (HELA cells). (
  • We describe a novel mouse CXC chemokine that is selectively expressed in lung epithelial cells and up-regulated in various lung inflammation models. (
  • Examples include epithelial cell-derived neutrophil activating protein-78 (ENA-78) ( 4 , 5 ), eotaxin ( 6 ), macrophage inflammatory protein-3α (MIP-3α) 3 ( 7 ), RANTES ( 8 ), IL-8, ( 9 ) and many others. (
  • Respiratory syncytial virus modulates TLR3 up-regulation, leads to priming the lung epithelial cells for successive exposures to extracellular double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). (
  • 2018). "Retinoic Acid Signaling in Thymic Epithelial Cells Regulates Thymopoiesis" J Immunol 201(2): 524-532. (
  • During main illness, HSV-1 spreads within SB 242084 epithelial cells and into sensory neurons located in ganglia, where it either establishes latency or replicates and then travels from neurons back to pores and skin or mucosa. (
  • However, gE does not look like involved in spread from SB 242084 neuron to epithelial cells (25). (
  • Because of this expansion of the cellular secretory machinery, many genes that are constitutively expressed in epithelial cells are induced in EnSCs upon decidualization. (
  • With the progress of medical technology, the development of new drugs and the improvement of the therapeutic effect of graft-versus host disease in the last two decades, the outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) have been greatly improved. (
  • In recent years, with the implementation of HLA haplo-identical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the role of donor-specific antibodies in graft failure has attracted attention increasingly. (
  • The cloned cells displayed the molecular, cell surface, and functional phenotype of NK cells. (
  • utilize multiparametric analysis of early-stage human NSCLC to characterize a population of Vδ1 T cells displaying a resident memory and effector memory phenotype, which were associated with ongoing remission. (
  • Four natural replicates of 3 pooled zebrafish per look-alike had been designed for each phenotype. (
  • T cell-output decline is an important feature of immunosenescence as well as the production of senescence-associated secretory phenotype, increased glycolysis, and reactive oxygen species. (
  • In addition, some studies have also shown that obesity is associated with impairment in phenotype and function of NK cells [12]. (
  • 15 , 16 Most importantly, switching the phenotype of intrarenal mononuclear phagocytes away from classically activated (proinflammatory) to alternatively activated (anti-inflammatory/proregeneratory) cells is necessary for recovery on AKI. (
  • In particular, do they show any evidence of the tumour-promoting T-helper-17 (Th17) skew observed in murine models? (
  • Recently, the number of follicular helper T (Tfh) cells expressing interleukin (IL)-21 was found to increase in peripheral blood of human and murine models of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). (
  • IL-21 and ICOS are indispensable for Tfh cell generation and the helper function of B cells. (
  • NK cells are producing mainly IFN-γ, whereas LTi cells as NKR+LTi like, IL-17 and/or IL-22, which suggests that the last two cells, can also represent the innate versions of helper T cell - TH17 and TH22. (
  • Charakterystyka naturalnych komórek limfoidalnych (ILC) nuocyte, innate type 2 helper cells (IH2) and multi-potent progenitor type 2 cells (MPPtype2). (
  • T cell immunoglobulin and mucin protein 3 (TIM-3) is a type I cell surface protein that was originally identified as a marker for murine T helper type 1 cells. (
  • 2020. CD4+ T follicular helper cells in human tonsils and blood are clonally convergent but divergent from Non-Tfh CD4+ cells . (
  • of T cells: helper, killer and suppressor. (
  • It was further demonstrated that human mesothelioma tissue contained significant amounts of Foxp3+CD4+CD25+ regulatory T-cells. (
  • MALT1 is an intrinsic regulator of regulatory T cells. (
  • In rodents, NK cell exhaustion and adoptive transfer possess lengthy been known to boost, respectively, level of resistance and susceptibility to mouse CMV (MCMV). (
  • METHODS:To study the effect of GCV prophylaxis on allograft inflammation, murine CMV (MCMV)-infected all. (
  • We have recently reported on the role of NK licensing on the immune response to viral infections such as MCMV. (
  • So they respond to, and attack, a wider range of cancer cells than adaptive immune cells and antibodies. (
  • However, HCMV binding and entry MK-4305 (Suvorexant) to the surface MK-4305 (Suvorexant) of the cell has profound effects around the cellular environment (7, 8), with some changes of no immediate apparent benefit to the computer virus, including a strong innate immune response characterized by the rapid induction of inflammatory cytokine and IFN-stimulated gene expression promoting a highly antiviral state (7C9). (
  • In several steps of operation cell are infected in presence of variable doses of a possibly antiviral drug substance. (
  • Lanier, L.L. NK cell recognition. (
  • ab T cells are by far more numerous and are capable of specific recognition of cancer neoantigens. (
  • Diversity in recognition and function of human ?d T cells. (
  • Also, the advent of microbiological molecular techniques has favoured a better recognition of these fungi, typically described in patients with immunosuppression, although there have been reports in immunocompetent patients after natural disasters or viral infections [ 5 ]. (
  • Recognition and binding of the foreign Ags by the TCRs stimulate both the secretion of IL-2 and the expression of IL-2Rs on the T cell surface. (
  • We hypothesized that blocking antibodies specific for PD-1 would disrupt this negative regulatory pathway and would result in enhanced CAR T-cell effector function. (
  • These weak interactions allow virus binding to antibodies without killing the virus, followed by attachment of immune complexes to cells, which promotes uptake of virus. (
  • Examples include NK cell-engaging multi-specific antibodies and genetically engineered NK cells with enhanced tumor-killing properties, like engineered CAR-T cell treatments. (
  • Antibodies blocking the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint pathway have been approved in the first-line setting for a range of cancer types including non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), urothelial cancer, triple negative breast cancer, colorectal cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), microsatellite instability-high cancer, and melanoma. (
  • It is composed of cellular and humoral components (T cells, B cells, antibodies). (
  • Are these memory-like NK cells the predominant contributors to the susceptibility of the elderly to seasonal or pandemic viral infections? (
  • NK cells play a key role in immune surveillance and defense against viral infections. (
  • Interferon refers to a family of glycoproteins derived from human cells which normally has a role in fighting viral infections by preventing multiplication in cells. (
  • In a case of hybrid resistance, the parental bone marrow (BM) graft is rejected by F1 generation in murine model. (
  • P. Vincendeau, Bordeaux, France) [16], human bone marrow endothelial cells (Hbmec) (obtained from the cell line established by Pr. (
  • This was used to transfect patient-derived bone-marrow stem cells. (
  • The vector was present in T cells, B cells, NK cells, myeloid cells, and bone marrow progenitors in these seven subjects. (
  • In the primary lymphatic organs (i.e. thymus, bone marrow) stem cells mature into leucocytes (white blood cells). (
  • Early studies of experimental bone marrow transplantation revealed an important role for NK cells in the rejection of allogeneic grafts and contributed significantly to our understanding of NK cell behavior. (
  • In contrast to the broad cellular tropism of HCMV for lytic contamination (reviewed in ref. 5), latent contamination appears to be restricted to a subpopulation of hematopoietic CD34+ bone marrow progenitor cells that give rise to the cells of the myeloid lineage within peripheral blood (6). (
  • Expression of CD11b on bone-marrow myeloid cells. (
  • Experimental results indicate that anti-myeloma activity is mediated by expansion of cytotoxic memory CD8 T cells and a decrease in T-regulatory CD4 cells in the bone marrow. (
  • Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplant as a Cure for Refractory T-Cell Large Granular Lymphocytic Leukemia in an Adolescent. (
  • From bone marrow cells of healthy volunteers, DCs were obtained using rGM-CSF and IL-4. (
  • Effect of transendocardial delivery of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells on functional capacity, left ventricular function, and perfusion in chronic heart failure: the FOCUS-CCTRN trial. (
  • 2013) Vascular endothelial growth factor-A signaling in bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells exposed to hypoxic stress. (
  • These data indicate that the alloreactive NK cells are likely the human counterpart of the cells mediating murine hybrid resistance and that these cells might play clinically important roles in rejection or in graft-versus-leukemia reactions after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. (
  • OT-I T cells (H-2Kb-restricted anti-OVA257-264) and OT-II T cells (I-Ab-restricted anti-OVA323-339) were purified from pooled lymph nodes (inguinal, axillary, brachial, cervical, and mesenteric) by Ab depletion of non-T cells (non-CD8 T cells for purification of OT-I T cells and non-CD4 T cells for purification of OT-II T cells). (
  • Tumor cells express proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates on their cell surface that are sometimes truly unique and often increased in number compared to that found on non-malignant cells. (
  • 2014). As uncovered by system natural approaches, many focus on mRNAs of confirmed miRNA encode proteins with related features (Cora et al. (
  • At the same time, HIV-1 proteins appear to disrupt autophagy in uninfected cells, thereby contributing to CD4+ cell death and HIV-1 pathogenesis. (
  • How eukaryotic cells distinguish properly folded from misfolded proteins, to prevent proteotoxic stress, and neurodegenerative diseases. (
  • Bcl-2 derives its name from B-cell lymphoma 2, as it is the second member of a range of proteins initially described in chromosomal translocations involving chromosomes 14 and 18 in follicular lymphomas. (
  • One target may be the matrix proteins 2 (M2), an ion route from the influenza A pathogen, portrayed at the top of contaminated cells [8] abundantly. (
  • Immune synapses formed by T and NK cells both show segregation of the integrin ICAM1 from other proteins such as CD2 (T cell) or KIR (NK cell). (
  • B) HIV-1 gp120 primary proteins and its own loop-deletion variants had been purified from supernatants of insect cell tradition, and resolved by gel-filtration chromatography utilizing a Superdex 200 column then. (
  • Sequencing of physically interacting cDC-T cell pairs from liver-draining lymph nodes revealed that cDCs in NASH promote inflammatory T cell reprogramming, previously associated with NASH worsening. (
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells that can be isolated from umbilical cords and are therapeutically used because of their ability to differentiate into various types of cells, in addition to their immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties. (
  • IL2 is also essential for the Treg cells' development and survival, which ensures Treg cells exert an important role in the control of the immune response and effectively participate in the pathogenesis of several pathological conditions, such as cancer and metabolic, infectious, autoimmune, and inflammatory diseases. (
  • BACKGROUND In murine models of inflammatory bowel disease, colonic inflammation is considered to be caused by an aberrant Th1-type immune response. (
  • The past decade has witnessed an outstanding scientific production focused towards the possible clinical applications of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. (
  • 2000/mm 3 ), these cells may provide information on the inflammatory state of the joint or the patient's state. (
  • AKI involves a sterile inflammatory response that contributes to the extent of tubular cell damage. (
  • This study describes the expansion of peripheral blood CD133(+) cells and compares their functional properties with those of other commonly us. (
  • gd T cells on the other hand comprise less than 10% of peripheral blood T cells and do not commonly recognise cancer neoantigens 3 . (
  • Expression of Tfh-related factors, such as Bcl-6 and IL-21, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with AIH was significantly higher than that in healthy volunteers. (
  • We aimed to compare the frequency of CD3 − CD16 + CD56 + NK, CD3 + CD56 + NKT, and CD5 + CD19 + B cells in the peripheral blood and serum Interleukin-10 (IL-10) in patients with MS and NMOSD. (
  • The lower proportion of CD3 − CD56 + CD16 + NK and CD3 + CD56 + cells in peripheral blood of IFN-treated RRMS compared to other groups suggests the importance of immunomodulation in patients with RRMS disorder. (
  • NK cells used in the initial hIL-15 NOG experiments were sourced fresh from human peripheral blood (huPB). (
  • In this cohort study, synovial fluid leukocytes (SFLs, N = 86) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells ( n = 53) from patients with knee OA were characterized. (
  • Peripheral blood smears may reveal clumps of red blood cells (RBCs). (
  • 00:03:28.26 Often, we use mobilized peripheral blood stem cells for a hematopoietic cell transplant. (
  • Trojan therapy using autologous or combined allogeneic NK cells may promote licensing, through a broad synchronization including at least KIR-HLA. (
  • 00:03:07.27 Now, in the second part of the slide, I mentioned allogeneic hematopoietic cells. (
  • Ganciclovir transiently attenuates murine cytomegalovirus-associated renal allograft inflammation. (
  • 2020. Stochastic expansions maintain the clonal stability of CD8+ T cell populations undergoing memory inflation driven by murine cytomegalovirus . (
  • We evaluated the culture of human circulating angiogenic cells (CAC) on collagen type I-based matrices, and compared this to traditional selective-adhesion. (
  • Several human clinical trials on iNKT cell-based anti-cancer are ongoing, however results are not as striking as in murine models. (
  • Using an ILT2-transduced murine iNKT cell line and human iNKT cells, we demonstrate that iNKT cells are sensitive to HLA-G, which inhibits their cytokine secretion. (
  • Figure 6: SLAMF6 regulates responsiveness toward nonhematopoietic cells in a human NK cell line. (
  • Tachyzoites of each strain were grown and purified in human fibroblastic cell cultures (MRC5) as previously described [19]. (
  • Human nerve cell cultures Human microglial cells (CMH5) (kindly provided by Pr. (
  • D. Paulin, University of Paris 7, France) [24] and human neuroblastoma cells (SH SY5Y) (kindly provided by Pr. (
  • A total of 106 human nerve cells (confluent cells) were then infected separately for 24?h by tachyzoites either from the RH strain (type I) or from the PRU strain (type II) with a ratio of one cell for two tachyzoites. (
  • 2 The pathologic appearance of murine EAU closely resembles the lesions of several human noninfectious uveitic diseases 3 4 and serves as an ideal animal model for the study of the mechanisms and therapeutic approaches of human posterior uveitis. (
  • Here we demonstrate their importance in human non-small cell lung cancers. (
  • Against this backdrop, we set out to answer several key questions regarding human gd T cells in cancer. (
  • The present paper resulted in a grant from the Ontario Institute of Cancer Research to undertake enabling studies on manufacturing this virus from human cancer cells with the view of translating these findings into patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis in the near future. (
  • In addition to the well known expression of GD2 on neuroblastoma, we generated data that demonstrated GD2 to be highly expressed on human osteosarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines and patient samples. (
  • Immunostaining of PVAT on human coronary arteries identified fat associated lymphoid clusters (FALCs) harboring high numbers of B cells, and flow cytometry demonstrated the presence of T cells and B cells including B-1 cells. (
  • Taken together, these results provide evidence that murine and human PVAT harbor B-1 cells and suggest that local IgM production may serve to provide atheroprotection. (
  • Moreover, levels of an enzyme called chymase, another mast cell product, are higher in human patients with DHF than in those with dengue fever. (
  • Rodent models engrafted with human immune cells are important tools for preclinical evaluation of immunotherapies. (
  • This is because standard immunodeficient rodent models lack essential human cytokine signals necessary for human NK-cell engraftment and survival. (
  • A HIS model capable of supporting the long-term maintenance of human NK cells would eliminate an important roadblock to the translation of NK cell-based cancer immunotherapies. (
  • In further analyses, CIEA scientists explored the utility of an alternative human NK-cell source. (
  • Analysis of publicly available tumor transcriptome profiles showed that the chemokine CCL5 was strongly associated with immune cell infiltration in various human cancers. (
  • Moreover, it was reported that like PD-1 the classical exhaustion marker, TIM-3 is up-regulated in exhausted murine and human T cells and TIM-3 blockade was described to restore the function of these T cells. (
  • Human complete NFAT1 deficiency causes a triad of joint contractures, osteochondromas, and B-cell malignancy. (
  • Important avenues for future research are addressed, as are the uses of advanced cell culture systems for the investigation of human tissue stromal cell function and stromal cell targeting for therapeutic benefit. (
  • Whole cell extracts (15 µg protein) from serum-starved NK-92 cells untreated (-) or treated (+) with 100 ng/mL of recombinant human IL-2 (Cat. (
  • Using human T cell leukemic sister clones CEM-C7-14 and CEM-C1-15, we have previously shown that the bZIP transcriptional repressor, E4BP4, is preferentially upregulated by GCs in CEM-C7-14 cells that are susceptible to GC-evoked apoptosis, but not in refractory CEM-C1-15 cells. (
  • Beach JA, Nary LJ, Hirakawa Y, Holland E, Hovanessian R, Medh RD. E4BP4 facilitates glucocorticoid-evoked apoptosis of human leukemic CEM cells via upregulation of Bim. (
  • Human IL-2, amino acids Ala21-Thr153 (Accession # NM_000586), was expressed in insect cells. (
  • It is important to note that decidualization of the stroma occurs in concert with profound changes in glandular gene expression and influx of immune cells, especially uterine natural killer (uNK) cells and, to Fig. 1 Immunohistochemistry for CD56 (brown) and hematoxylin in human endometrium from the midluteal phase. (
  • Recently, however, human allospecific NK cell clones have been generated that recognize at least five distinct specificities inherited recessively and controlled by genes linked to the MHC. (
  • We interrogate racially diverse human CRC samples and analyze multiple independent external cohorts for a total of 487,829 single cells enabling high-resolution depiction of the cellular diversity and heterogeneity within the tumor and microenvironmental cells. (
  • Evidence currently suggests that the mechanisms responsible for resistance to cytotoxic agents generally do not confer resistance to immune-mediated mechanisms of tumor-cell killing. (
  • Furthermore, we confirm this finding with the orthotopic transplantation of the 4T1 mouse mammary tumor cell-line. (
  • However, there is a lack of studies directly comparing the function of various stem/progenitor cell populations. (
  • The introduction of stem cells and/or progenitor cells into damaged myocardium has promising therapeutic potential in ischemic heart diseases and dilated cardiomyopathy. (
  • The transfected stem cells were infused back into eight infants with newly diagnosed SCID-X1after low-exposure, targeted busulfan conditioning . (
  • "Conditioning" , for example via a myelosuppressive chemotherapy like busulfan given prior to stem-cell transplantation, is designed to make room for transplanted blood stem cells to grow. (
  • The preclinical multiple myeloma data, demonstrate the ability of NL -201 to prevent relapse in murine myeloma models following autologous stem cell transplant. (
  • mesenchymal stem cells are most commonly used because they are easy to obtain and present no ethical problems. (
  • Cell Stem Cell. (
  • An intrinsic requirement was demonstrated by reduction of Stat5a/b in CD4-expressing cells and by stem cell transplantation using Stat5 −/− fetal liver cells. (
  • Foxc1 is a critical regulator of haematopoietic stem/progenitor cell niche formation. (
  • Intratracheal administration of mesenchymal stem cells modulates lung macrophage polarization and exerts anti-asthmatic effects. (
  • Multipotent adult germ-line stem cells (maGSCs) represent a new pluripotent cell type that can be derived without genetic manipulation from spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) present in adult testis. (
  • However, using a quantitative real time PCR analysis H2K and B2m transcripts were detected in all pluripotent stem cell lines. (
  • Pluripotent stem cells could provide the basis for restoring tissue functions by transplantation of cellular grafts in a broad variety of diseases. (
  • Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are the best characterized pluripotent stem cells. (
  • Improving immune recovery following alternative donor stem cell transplantation using donor graft manipulation. (
  • This review summarized the recent advances in generating Leydig-like cells from various stem cells and somatic cells, with an emphasis on comparing the effectiveness and safety of different protocols used and the cells generated. (
  • At 56-days of age, the most striking effect was noted with increased NK cell activity in both treatment groups. (
  • Whether KIR-HLA relationships are associated with p53 status of NK cells and of its target is unknown. (
  • From The origins of memory T cells Omilusik and Goldrath, 2017 Two proposed models for memory T cell formation: a. (
  • Thus, our results identify that CD27 high NK cells are the dominant population recruited to the draining LN and NK cell recruitment requires endogenous IFN-γ in coordinating with DC migration. (
  • CD8 + effector T cells contribute to macrophage recruitment and adipose tissue inflammation in obesity. (
  • The redundancy in chemokine production by resident and/or infiltrating cells in the lung may reflect the need for rapid cell recruitment in response to the large number of Ags that penetrate the lungs. (
  • Anti-PD-L1 induced the expression of several chemokines that are associated with the recruitment of cytotoxic T cells, with a further increase in expression after combination therapy. (
  • TLR4 is expressed on lung endothelial cells and is crucial for capillary concealment and neutrophil recruitment after systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) [17]. (
  • NK Cells stimulate recruitment of cDC1 into the tumor microenvironment promoting cancer immune control. (