Mumps Vaccine: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.Mumps: An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Mumps virus: The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Cheek: The part of the face that is below the eye and to the side of the nose and mouth.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Rubella Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)Rubella: An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Rubella virus: The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.Actinidia: A plant species of the family ACTINIDIACEAE, order Theales.Measles: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.RussiaPubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.United StatesVaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.

Mumps and mumps vaccine: a global review. (1/146)

Mumps is an acute infectious disease caused by a paramyxovirus. Although the disease is usually mild, up to 10% of patients can develop aseptic meningitis; a less common but more serious complication is encephalitis, which can result in death or disability. Permanent deafness, orchitis, and pancreatitis are other untoward effects of mumps. Based on data reported to WHO up to April 1998, mumps vaccine is routinely used by national immunization programmes in 82 countries/areas: 23 (92%) of 25 developed countries, 19 (86%) of 22 countries with economies in transition (mainly the Newly Independent States of the former Soviet Union), and 40 (24%) of 168 developing countries. Countries that have achieved high coverage have shown a rapid decline in mumps morbidity. Furthermore, in many of these countries, mumps-associated encephalitis and deafness have nearly vanished. This review considers the disease burden due to mumps; summarizes studies on the immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety of different strains of mumps vaccine; and highlights lessons learned about implementing mumps immunization in different countries. Countries already using mumps vaccine should monitor immunization coverage and establish routine mumps surveillance with investigation of outbreaks. Where mumps is targeted for elimination, countries need to add a second dose of mumps vaccine for children, keeping in mind that the disease may still occur in susceptible adults.  (+info)

Evidence of avian leukosis virus subgroup E and endogenous avian virus in measles and mumps vaccines derived from chicken cells: investigation of transmission to vaccine recipients. (2/146)

Reverse transcriptase (RT) activity has been detected recently in all chicken cell-derived measles and mumps vaccines. A study of a vaccine manufactured in Europe indicated that the RT is associated with particles containing endogenous avian retrovirus (EAV-0) RNA and originates from the chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF) used as a substrate for propagation of the vaccine. We investigated the origin of RT in measles and mumps vaccines from a U.S. manufacturer and confirm the presence of RT and EAV RNA. Additionally, we provide new evidence for the presence of avian leukosis virus (ALV) in both CEF supernatants and vaccines. ALV pol sequences were first identified in particle-associated RNA by amplification with degenerate retroviral pol primers. ALV RNA sequences from both the gag and env regions were also detected. Analysis of hypervariable region 2 of env revealed a subgroup E sequence, an endogenous-type ALV. Both CEF- and vaccine-derived RT activity could be blocked by antibodies to ALV RT. Release of ALV-like virus particles from uninoculated CEF was also documented by electron microscopy. Nonetheless, infectivity studies on susceptible 15B1 chicken cells gave no evidence of infectious ALV, which is consistent with the phenotypes of the ev loci identified in the CEF. PCR analysis of ALV and EAV proviral sequences in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 33 children after measles and mumps vaccination yielded negative results. Our data indicate that the sources of RT activity in all RT-positive measles and mumps vaccines may not be similar and depend on the particular endogenous retroviral loci present in the chicken cell substrate used. The present data do not support transmission of either ALV or EAV to recipients of the U.S.-made vaccine and provide reassurance for current immunization policies.  (+info)

The mumps virus neurovirulence safety test in Rhesus monkeys: a comparison of mumps virus strains. (3/146)

Wild type mumps viruses are highly neurotropic and a frequent cause of aseptic meningitis in unvaccinated humans. To test whether attenuated mumps viruses used in the manufacture of mumps vaccines have neurovirulent properties, a monkey neurovirulence safety test (MNVT) is performed. However, results with several mumps virus MNVTs have raised questions as to whether the test can reliably discriminate neurovirulent from nonneurovirulent mumps virus strains. Here, various mumps virus strains representing a wide range of neuropathogenicity were tested in a standardized MNVT. A trend of higher neurovirulence scores was observed in monkeys inoculated with wild type mumps virus versus vaccine strains, although differences were not statistically significant. Results indicated the need for further examination and refinement of the MNVT or for development of alternative MNVTs.  (+info)

Infant vaccinations and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in the USA. (4/146)

Previous studies have suggested that infant vaccinations may reduce the risk of subsequent childhood leukaemia. Vaccination histories were compared in 439 children (ages 0-14) diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in nine Midwestern and Mid-Atlantic states (USA) between 1 January 1989 and 30 June 1993 and 439 controls selected by random-digit dialing and individually matched to cases on age, race and telephone exchange. Among matched pairs, similar proportions of cases and controls had received at least one dose of oral poliovirus (98%), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (97%), and measles-mumps-rubella (90%) vaccines. Only 47% of cases and 53% of controls had received any Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine (relative risk (RR) = 0.73; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-1.06). Although similar proportions of cases (12%) and controls (11%) received the polysaccharide Hib vaccine (RR = 1.13; 95% CI 0.64-1.98), more controls (41%) than cases (35%) received the conjugate Hib vaccine (RR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.36-0.89). Although we found no relationship between most infant vaccinations and subsequent risk of childhood ALL, our findings suggest that infants receiving the conjugate Hib vaccine may be at reduced risk of subsequent childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Further studies are needed to confirm this association and, if confirmed, to elucidate the underlying mechanism.  (+info)

Opportunistic immunisation in hospital. (5/146)

AIM: To assess the potential for administering catch up and scheduled immunisations during hospital admission. METHODS: Immunisation status according to the child's principal carer was checked against official records for 1000 consecutively admitted preschool age children. Junior doctors were instructed to offer appropriate vaccination before discharge, and consultants were asked to reinforce this proactive policy on ward rounds. RESULTS: Excluding those children who were not fully immunised against pertussis through parental choice, 142 children (14.2%) had missed an age appropriate immunisation and 41 were due a scheduled immunisation. None had a valid contraindication. Only 43 children were offered vaccination on the ward but uptake was 65% in this group. CONCLUSIONS: Admission to hospital provides opportunities for catch up and routine immunisations and can contribute to the health care of an often disadvantaged group of children. These opportunities are frequently missed. Junior doctors must be encouraged to see opportunistic immunisation as an important part of their routine work.  (+info)

Decay of passively acquired maternal antibodies against measles, mumps, and rubella viruses. (6/146)

The decay of maternally derived antibodies to measles, mumps, and rubella viruses in Swiss infants was studied in order to determine the optimal time for vaccination. A total of 500 serum or plasma samples from infants up to 2 years of age were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and fluorescent-antibody testing. The decline of antibody prevalence was slowest against the measles virus. By 9 to 12 months of age, only 5 of 58 (8.6%; 95% CI, 2.9 to 19.0) infants were antibody positive for the measles virus, and only 2 had levels above 200 mIU/ml. Mumps and rubella virus antibody seropositivity was lowest at 9 to 12 months of age with 3 of 58 (5. 2%; 95% CI, 1.1 to 14.4) infants and at 12 to 15 months with 1 of 48 (2.1%; 95% CI, 0.1 to 11.1) infants, respectively. Concentrations of passively acquired antibodies decreased rapidly within the first 6 months of life. We observed no significant differences in antibody prevalence or concentration according to gender in any age group. In conclusion, MMR vaccination at 12 instead of 15 months of age could reduce the pool of susceptible subjects in infancy and support the efforts to eliminate these infections, particularly in combination with a second vaccine dose before school entry.  (+info)

Kawasaki disease: a maturational defect in immune responsiveness. (7/146)

Kawasaki disease (KD), an acute febrile disease in children of unknown etiology, is characterized by a vasculitis that may result in coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs). In new patients with KD, a selective and prolonged T cell unresponsiveness to activation via the T cell antigen receptor CD3 was observed, whereas proliferation to other stimuli was intact. This "split T cell anergy" delineated KD from other pediatric infections and autoimmune diseases and correlated with CAA formation (P<.001). A transient immune dysfunction was also suggested by an incomplete responsiveness to measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination in patients with KD versus controls (P<.0001; odds ratio, 15.6; 95% confidence interval, 4.8-51.1), which was overcome by revaccination(s). The reduced responsiveness to MMR in patients with KD suggests a subtle and predetermining immune dysfunction. An inherent immaturity to clear certain antigens may be an important cause that precipitates KD and the immune dysregulation during acute disease.  (+info)

Infection with wild-type mumps virus in army recruits temporally associated with MMR vaccine. (8/146)

Four cases of mumps were reported among 180 army recruits who had received MMR vaccine 16 days earlier. Mumps serology, salivary mumps IgM and PCR tests for the SH gene were performed on the 4 cases and on 5 control recruits who remained well. PCR products were sequenced and the sequences compared to those of wild type and vaccine strains of mumps. Further salivary mumps IgM tests were performed on the remaining 171 recruits. Mumps infection was confirmed in the 4 cases but not in the 5 controls. The controls had serological evidence of prior immunity. The SH gene sequence found in the 4 cases was wild type. Saliva tests identified 2 additional recruits with mumps IgM, one of whom had presented with suspected mumps 2 days before the MMR vaccine was given. Thus 6 (5 symptomatic and 1 asymptomatic) cases of mumps in army recruits recently receiving MMR vaccine were not due to the vaccine but to coincidental infection with wild-type mumps virus. The probable index case was revealed by salivary mumps IgM tests. This study highlights the importance of appropriate investigation of illness associated with MMR vaccination.  (+info)

  • Although ongoing mumps outbreaks involving thousands of at-risk adolescents and young adults completely dwarf the number of measles cases, no one is covering the mumps story-because it will expose the fact that Merck has been in court for over eight years due to scientists blowing the whistle on Merck's fabrication and falsification of the effectiveness of the mumps component of its MMR vaccine. (
  • Instead of punishing Merck for its chicanery, legislatures are rewarding the company by making it impossible to refuse Merck's profitable vaccine, subjecting a generation of American children to the risk of serious complications from mumps infection at an age that nature never intended. (
  • In 1971, Merck introduced its first combination MMR vaccine, followed by the MMR-II vaccine in 1978 (which repurposed the rubella component) and the MMR-plus-varicella (MMRV) ProQuad vaccine in 2005 . (
  • Since the initial 1967 vaccine, Merck has enjoyed a unique monopoly position in the U.S. market for mumps and MMR vaccines, with combined sales of MMR-II and ProQuad bringing in over $720 million in 2014 alone. (
  • Merck has willfully and illegally maintained its monopoly through ongoing manipulation and by representing to the public and government agencies a falsely inflated efficacy rate for its Mumps Vaccine. (
  • In order to score the lucrative MMR monopoly, Merck needed to satisfy the FDA that all three components of the combination vaccine could achieve 95% efficacy, but the mumps portion was bedeviling. (
  • In fact, as alleged in a lawsuit filed by two senior Merck scientists in 2010 under the False Claims Act , the company has known since the late 1990s that the mumps component of the MMR is "far less" than 95% effective. (
  • The two whistleblowers assert in the lawsuit-which is reportedly headed to trial sometime this year-that Merck has "willfully and illegally maintained its monopoly" through "ongoing manipulation" and by "representing to the public and government agencies a falsely inflated efficacy rate for its Mumps Vaccine. (
  • Merck stands accused of falsifying data to artificially inflate the efficacy rating of their mumps vaccine. (
  • When mumps strikes adolescents or adults, on the other hand, the infection can cause far more serious adverse effects , including inflammation of various organs (brain, pancreas, ovaries and testicles)-as well as damage to male fertility. (
  • Although several vaccinated patients were positive for mumps virus IgG at the time of first sampling, only nominal levels of neutralising antibody were detected, and these were effective in neutralising the vaccine strain, but not genotype C and H mumps virus strains. (
  • The results also support the hypothesis that sera of low neutralising antibody titre have a limited ability to neutralise heterologous mumps virus strains, suggesting that antigenic differences between circulating and mumps vaccine virus strains may play a role in cases of breakthrough infection. (
  • Sera were tested for IgM and IgG, IgG avidity, and the ability to neutralise a panel of mumps viruses, including the Leningrad-3 mumps vaccine virus. (
  • Prior to the introduction of mumps immunization, the highest incidence of new cases of mumps was reported in the late winter to early spring. (
  • Reuters) - Some 63 cases of mumps have been reported in Ohio in an outbreak that started at Ohio State University in Columbus but has spread to people without ties to the school - a "disturbing development," say public health officials. (
  • Routine cases of mumps last approximately seven to 10 days. (
  • The aims of this study were to estimate the importance of vaccine failure (VF) in cases of mumps during 2002-2004 in the city of Novosibirsk, Western Siberia, Russia, and to genotype the responsible virus strain. (
  • Mumps virus-specific RT-PCR testing of saliva was performed for 18 cases of mumps. (
  • These results suggest that the majority of cases of mumps in vaccinees are caused by primary VF, defined as either a lack of seroconversion or a lack of IgG maturity, as based on avidity testing. (
  • But from Jan. 1, 2016, through Feb. 25 of this year, Oregon reported 47 cases of mumps (36 of those in either Marion County or Washington County), an increase in the prevalence of the disease that mirrors national trends. (
  • Cases of mumps have been increasing across Canada over recent years," says Councillor Diane Deans, Chair of the Community and Protective Services Committee. (
  • With nearly universal immunization in childhood, there are fewer than 1,000 cases of mumps in the U.S. in a typical year. (
  • In 2006, there were over 6,500 cases of mumps, which spread rapidly throughout eight states in the Midwest. (
  • In England from January 2004 through March 2005, 312 cases of mumps were reported in children eligible to have received 2 doses of MMR vaccine. (
  • Currently, there are less than 5 cases of mumps in Hamilton, but more cases could be expected with the outbreak in Toronto and neighbouring communities. (
  • There are several different methods for determining vaccine efficacy, but when we have cases of mumps, the first question to ask is, is this person not vaccinated, have they had one dose of vaccine or do they have two doses of vaccine? (
  • Children 12 months through 12 (often associated with fever), ear infections, years of age might receive MMR vaccine together diarrhea, and pneumonia. (
  • MUMPS (M) can cause fever, headache, muscle aches, tiredness, loss of appetite, and swollen and tender salivary glands under the ears. (
  • Fever or swelling of the glands in the cheeks or created to compensate people who may have been neck sometimes occur after MMR vaccine. (
  • MUMPS (M) can cause fever, headache, muscle provider can give you more information. (
  • occasionally, mumps may begin with a slight fever, headache , and malaise before the swelling appears. (
  • The initial symptoms of mumps infection are nonspecific (low-grade fever , malaise, headache , muscle aches, and loss of appetite ). (
  • Fever or swelling of the glands in the cheeks or neck sometimes occur after MMR vaccine. (
  • A spokeswoman for the California company said adverse responses were rare, but occurred in higher numbers than with similar vaccines, and included fever, allergic reactions, and the swelling of glands. (
  • Mumps virus causes fever, headache, muscle aches, tiredness, loss of appetite, and swollen and tender salivary glands under the ears on one or both sides. (
  • however, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends that all vaccines can be administered to individuals with minor illnesses with or without low-grade fever. (
  • Mumps is spread through saliva or mucus through the mouth, nose or throat and causes headache, fever, loss of appetite, muscle pain and inflammation of the salivary glands that leads to swelling of the cheeks and jaws. (
  • The mumps virus causes a fever, headache and salivary gland swelling in the cheeks and jaw (parotitis). (
  • Mumps is caused by a contagious virus that causes salivary glands to swell, as well as fever, headache and tiredness. (
  • Children who have received this vaccine have developed a fever and in some cases a fever with seizures. (
  • The treatment of mumps requires over-the-counter pain relievers for swelling and fever. (
  • A small percentage of children (1 in 5) will get a mild rash or fever about 1 to 2 weeks after the vaccine. (
  • In the case of a more severe illness with a fever or any type of infection, wait until the child gets better before receiving this vaccine. (
  • Mumps virus causes fever, headache, and swollen glands, but more serious symptoms include hearing loss, and painful swelling of the testicles or ovaries. (
  • Mumps is a contagious disease that causes symptoms like fever, headache and swollen salivary glands. (
  • Mumps causes fever, headache, and swollen, painful glands under the jaw (salivary glands) and usually lasts several days. (
  • Prelicensure clinical trials of Priorix-Tetra indicated that it had a similar safety profile to co-administration of the separate vaccines, except for a higher incidence of fever. (
  • The yellow fever vaccine also contains egg protein. (
  • Reuters) - Two former Merck & Co Inc scientists accusing the drugmaker of falsifying tests of its exclusive mumps vaccine said in a court filing on Monday that Merck is refusing to respond to questions about the efficacy of the vaccine. (
  • Attorneys at Constantine Cannon, who represent the scientists, asked U.S. Magistrate Judge Lynne Sitarski of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania to compel Merck to respond to their discovery request, which asks the company to give the efficacy of the vaccine as a percentage. (
  • Merck should not be permitted to raise as one of its principal defenses that its vaccine has a high efficacy, which is accurately represented on the product's label, but then refuse to answer what it claims that efficacy actually is," the letter said. (
  • PHILADELPHIA (CN) - Merck has known for a decade that its mumps vaccine is "far less effective" than it tells the government, and it falsified test results and sold millions of doses of "questionable efficacy," flooding and monopolizing the market, a primary caregiver claims in a federal antitrust class action. (
  • The safety and efficacy of mumps vaccine have not been established in children under 1 year of age. (
  • Who would have thought that Merck would try to stonewall an investigation into the real efficacy of their mumps vaccine? (
  • Merck needs to keep its efficacy at 95% so it will continue to be the exclusive supplier selected by the U.S. government to produce $1 billion worth of the vaccine annually, according to MedCity News. (
  • I find the article helpful in arguing the efficacy of the MMR vaccine but the sources posted are second hand. (
  • Two lawsuits claiming Merck ($MRK) lied about the efficacy of its mumps vaccine won't be going away anytime soon. (
  • Merck has been the sole manufacturer with an FDA license to produce mumps vaccine since 1967, the news service points out, and the company has long touted a 95% efficacy rate for the shot. (
  • And if Merck 'fraudulently misled the government and omitted, concealed, and adulterated material information regarding the efficacy of its mumps vaccine' in violation of the False Claims Act, as they allege, it may have discouraged competition. (
  • doesn't decreased efficacy basically speak indirectly to the safety of the vaccine? (
  • Even so, the CDC's estimates of efficacy seem to be rather generous, given that 77 percent of those currently infected with the mumps on the East Coast have been vaccinated. (
  • Merck knowingly falsified its mumps vaccine test results to fabricate a "95% efficacy rate" say former Merck virologists Stephen Krahling and Joan Wlochowski in their shocking False Claims Act document . (
  • Stephen Krahling and Joan Wlochowski are simply telling us what we already suspected: that Merck falsifies the efficacy of their vaccines in order to make them appear to be working when they actually aren't. (
  • however, individuals with a history of anaphylaxis to topical or systemic neomycin should not receive this vaccine. (
  • In addition, because of additional ingredients of the MMR vaccine, people with severe allergies to gelatin or neomycin (an antibiotic) should not get the vaccine. (
  • 8 Once the Morupar ® vaccine does not have gelatin in its formulation, the present study aimed to describe the cases and causes of anaphylaxis associated with this vaccine. (
  • Chiron faced another problem in 2004, when it failed to deliver nearly 50 million doses of influenza vaccine to the U.S. market after British regulators found contamination at a Chiron plant in England. (
  • Per the CDC: Persons with a history of egg allergy who have experienced only hives after exposure to egg should receive influenza vaccine. (
  • Any licensed and recommended influenza vaccine (i.e., any age-appropriate IIV or RIV3) that is otherwise appropriate for the recipient's age and health status may be used. (
  • or who required epinephrine or another emergency medical intervention, may similarly receive any licensed and recommended influenza vaccine (i.e., any age-appropriate IIV or RIV3) that is otherwise appropriate for the recipient's age and health status. (
  • Before the vaccine , mumps was the most common cause of both meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord) and acquired deafness in the U.S. In men, mumps can infect the testicles, which can lead to infertility . (
  • Mumps can lead to deafness, swelling of the brain and/or spinal cord covering (encephalitis or meningitis), painful swelling of the testicles or ovaries, and, very rarely, death. (
  • About one out of every 4 teenage or adult males with mumps will have a painful swelling of the testicles for several days. (