Mumps: An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Mumps virus: The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.Mumps Vaccine: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.Parotitis: INFLAMMATION of the PAROTID GLAND.Programmed Instruction as Topic: Instruction in which learners progress at their own rate using workbooks, textbooks, or electromechanical devices that provide information in discrete steps, test learning at each step, and provide immediate feedback about achievement. (ERIC, Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1996).Rubella: An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Wolves: Any of several large carnivorous mammals of the family CANIDAE that usually hunt in packs.Pleasure: Sensation of enjoyment or gratification.Viscum album: A plant species of the family VISCACEAE, order Santalales, subclass Rosidae. This is the traditional mistletoe of literature and Christmas. Members contain viscotoxin (5 kDa basic polypeptides related to thionins), beta-galactoside- and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-specific lectin II (60 kDa), and polysaccharides. Mistletoe lectin I is a type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein. Commercial extracts include Plenosol, Eurixor, Helixor Isorel, Iscador, and NSC 635089 (ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, PHYTOGENIC).Chenopodium album: A plant species in the CHENOPODIUM genus known for edible greens.CaliforniaPinnipedia: The suborder of aquatic CARNIVORA comprising the WALRUSES; FUR SEALS; SEA LIONS; and EARLESS SEALS. They have fusiform bodies with very short tails and are found on all sea coasts. The offspring are born on land.Sea Lions: A group comprised of several species of aquatic carnivores in different genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to FUR SEALS, they have shorter, less dense hair.Gentian Violet: A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Orchitis: Inflammation of a TESTIS. It has many features of EPIDIDYMITIS, such as swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS and then the TESTIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.Epididymitis: Inflammation of the EPIDIDYMIS. Its clinical features include enlarged epididymis, a swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.Vasectomy: Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.OhioDisease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.KansasWaiting Lists: Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.Seminal Plasma Proteins: Proteins found in SEMEN. Major seminal plasma proteins are secretory proteins from the male sex accessory glands, such as the SEMINAL VESICLES and the PROSTATE. They include the seminal vesicle-specific antigen, an ejaculate clotting protein; and the PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, a protease and an esterase.Book SelectionLanguage Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Ships: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.Midwestern United States: The geographic area of the midwestern region of the United States in general or when the specific state or states are not indicated. The states usually included in this region are Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wisconsin.Bombyx: A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Paternity: Establishing the father relationship of a man and a child.Liability, Legal: Accountability and responsibility to another, enforceable by civil or criminal sanctions.Malpractice: Failure of a professional person, a physician or lawyer, to render proper services through reprehensible ignorance or negligence or through criminal intent, especially when injury or loss follows. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)New York CityCopyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Rubella Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Mumps and mumps vaccine: a global review. (1/298)

Mumps is an acute infectious disease caused by a paramyxovirus. Although the disease is usually mild, up to 10% of patients can develop aseptic meningitis; a less common but more serious complication is encephalitis, which can result in death or disability. Permanent deafness, orchitis, and pancreatitis are other untoward effects of mumps. Based on data reported to WHO up to April 1998, mumps vaccine is routinely used by national immunization programmes in 82 countries/areas: 23 (92%) of 25 developed countries, 19 (86%) of 22 countries with economies in transition (mainly the Newly Independent States of the former Soviet Union), and 40 (24%) of 168 developing countries. Countries that have achieved high coverage have shown a rapid decline in mumps morbidity. Furthermore, in many of these countries, mumps-associated encephalitis and deafness have nearly vanished. This review considers the disease burden due to mumps; summarizes studies on the immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety of different strains of mumps vaccine; and highlights lessons learned about implementing mumps immunization in different countries. Countries already using mumps vaccine should monitor immunization coverage and establish routine mumps surveillance with investigation of outbreaks. Where mumps is targeted for elimination, countries need to add a second dose of mumps vaccine for children, keeping in mind that the disease may still occur in susceptible adults.  (+info)

The mumps virus neurovirulence safety test in Rhesus monkeys: a comparison of mumps virus strains. (2/298)

Wild type mumps viruses are highly neurotropic and a frequent cause of aseptic meningitis in unvaccinated humans. To test whether attenuated mumps viruses used in the manufacture of mumps vaccines have neurovirulent properties, a monkey neurovirulence safety test (MNVT) is performed. However, results with several mumps virus MNVTs have raised questions as to whether the test can reliably discriminate neurovirulent from nonneurovirulent mumps virus strains. Here, various mumps virus strains representing a wide range of neuropathogenicity were tested in a standardized MNVT. A trend of higher neurovirulence scores was observed in monkeys inoculated with wild type mumps virus versus vaccine strains, although differences were not statistically significant. Results indicated the need for further examination and refinement of the MNVT or for development of alternative MNVTs.  (+info)

Acute dysautonomia following mumps. (3/298)

Pure acute or subacute dysautonomia is a rare entity. Its etiology is as yet unknown. However, majority of these cases have a preceding viral infection such as herpes simplex, infectious mononucleosis, rubella or coxsackie B. A unique patient in whom acute dysautonomia followed mumps is reported.  (+info)

Genetic heterogeneity of mumps virus in the United Kingdom: identification of two new genotypes. (4/298)

A reverse transcriptase nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to detect the small hydrophobic (SH) gene of mumps virus (MuV). Phylogenetic analysis was performed on the entire SH gene sequence (318 nucleotides) and the putative SH protein (57 amino acids). At least 4 MuV genotypes were identified in the United Kingdom between 1995 and 1998 by direct sequencing of 26 PCR amplicons from a variety of specimens. Comparison of these and GenBank sequences identified 2 new genotypes in the United Kingdom. The results suggest that, after the introduction of universal mumps vaccination in the United Kingdom in 1988, there appears to have been a switch from a predominant genotype to a heterogeneous group of strains.  (+info)

Decay of passively acquired maternal antibodies against measles, mumps, and rubella viruses. (5/298)

The decay of maternally derived antibodies to measles, mumps, and rubella viruses in Swiss infants was studied in order to determine the optimal time for vaccination. A total of 500 serum or plasma samples from infants up to 2 years of age were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and fluorescent-antibody testing. The decline of antibody prevalence was slowest against the measles virus. By 9 to 12 months of age, only 5 of 58 (8.6%; 95% CI, 2.9 to 19.0) infants were antibody positive for the measles virus, and only 2 had levels above 200 mIU/ml. Mumps and rubella virus antibody seropositivity was lowest at 9 to 12 months of age with 3 of 58 (5. 2%; 95% CI, 1.1 to 14.4) infants and at 12 to 15 months with 1 of 48 (2.1%; 95% CI, 0.1 to 11.1) infants, respectively. Concentrations of passively acquired antibodies decreased rapidly within the first 6 months of life. We observed no significant differences in antibody prevalence or concentration according to gender in any age group. In conclusion, MMR vaccination at 12 instead of 15 months of age could reduce the pool of susceptible subjects in infancy and support the efforts to eliminate these infections, particularly in combination with a second vaccine dose before school entry.  (+info)

Infection with wild-type mumps virus in army recruits temporally associated with MMR vaccine. (6/298)

Four cases of mumps were reported among 180 army recruits who had received MMR vaccine 16 days earlier. Mumps serology, salivary mumps IgM and PCR tests for the SH gene were performed on the 4 cases and on 5 control recruits who remained well. PCR products were sequenced and the sequences compared to those of wild type and vaccine strains of mumps. Further salivary mumps IgM tests were performed on the remaining 171 recruits. Mumps infection was confirmed in the 4 cases but not in the 5 controls. The controls had serological evidence of prior immunity. The SH gene sequence found in the 4 cases was wild type. Saliva tests identified 2 additional recruits with mumps IgM, one of whom had presented with suspected mumps 2 days before the MMR vaccine was given. Thus 6 (5 symptomatic and 1 asymptomatic) cases of mumps in army recruits recently receiving MMR vaccine were not due to the vaccine but to coincidental infection with wild-type mumps virus. The probable index case was revealed by salivary mumps IgM tests. This study highlights the importance of appropriate investigation of illness associated with MMR vaccination.  (+info)

Nested PCR for rapid detection of mumps virus in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with neurological diseases. (7/298)

In this study, we have developed a reverse transcription (RT)-nested polymerase chain reaction (n-PCR) for the detection of mumps virus RNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with neurological infections. A specific 112-bp fragment was amplified by this method with primers from the nucleoprotein of the mumps virus genome. The mumps virus RT-n-PCR was capable of detecting 0.001 PFU/ml and 0.005 50% tissue culture infective dose/ml. This method was found to be specific, since no PCR product was detected in each of the CSF samples from patients with proven non-mumps virus-related meningitis or encephalitis. Mumps virus RNA was detected in all 18 CSF samples confirmed by culture to be infected with mumps virus. Positive PCR results were obtained for the CSF of 26 of 28 patients that were positive for signs of mumps virus infection (i.e., cultivable virus from urine or oropharyngeal samples or positivity for anti-mumps virus immunoglobulin M) but without cultivable virus in their CSF. Overall, mumps virus RNA was detected in CSF of 96% of the patients with a clinical diagnosis of viral central nervous system (CNS) disease and confirmed mumps virus infection, while mumps virus was isolated in CSF of only 39% of the patients. Furthermore, in a retrospective study, we were able to detect mumps virus RNA in 25 of 55 (46%) CSF samples from patients with a clinical diagnosis of viral CNS disease and negative laboratory evidence of viral infection including mumps virus infection. The 25 patients represent 12% of the 236 patients who had a clinical diagnosis of viral CNS infections and whose CSF was examined at our laboratory for a 2-year period. The findings confirm the importance of mumps virus as a causative agent of CNS infections in countries with low vaccine coverage rates. In summary, our study demonstrates the usefulness of the mumps virus RT-n-PCR for the diagnosis of mumps virus CNS disease and suggests that this assay may soon become the "gold standard" test for the diagnosis of mumps virus CNS infection.  (+info)

A secondary school outbreak of mumps following the childhood immunization programme in England and Wales. (8/298)

Since the introduction of routine measles, mumps and rubella immunization for children in England and Wales in 1988, the incidence of mumps has declined steadily. We describe an outbreak of mumps in 1996 attacking 34 of a cohort of 98 schoolchildren born in 1982 and 1983. This is the largest outbreak in the UK since the introduction of the vaccine into the childhood immunization schedule. Salivary IgM assay was used as a simple, minimally invasive test to confirm the diagnosis. The occurrence of the outbreak demonstrates that British children who were just too old to receive mumps immunization in 1988 continue to be at risk of this disease as a result of diminished natural exposure. Further cases and outbreaks in this cohort are to be expected. Cohorts born before 1982 appear to be at less risk, presumably because of naturally acquired infection before the introduction of immunization.  (+info)

  • Play media Mumps is usually preceded by a set of prodromal symptoms including low-grade fever, headache, and malaise. (
  • Other symptoms of mumps can include dry mouth, sore face and/or ears and some patients find it difficult to talk. (
  • Anyone with mumps should not go back to child care, school or work for 9 days after symptoms begin. (
  • Persons who may have been in contact with a mumps case should be educated on the signs and symptoms of mumps disease and should seek medical attention if any of these symptoms begin. (
  • The Monmouth County Health Department issued a public health bulletin this week after receiving reports of mumps-like symptoms throughout Belmar, N.J. (
  • 'Mumps-like symptoms have been reported at local medical offices and those individuals are being tested for mumps,' Michael Meddis, Monmouth County's public health coordinator, said in a statement. (
  • For the individuals with the seven probable cases of mumps, a treatment of bed rest, fluid intake, and fever reduction has been recommended to reduce their symptoms. (
  • Mumps symptoms usually last about two weeks in adult patients, according to Healthline. (
  • Symptoms of mumps include swelling around the area of the saliva glands, body aches, a low-grade fever and headache. (
  • Identify the signs and symptoms associated with mumps. (
  • About one-third of people who contract the mumps virus do not develop any symptoms. (
  • Up to half of people who get mumps have very mild or no symptoms, and therefore do not know they were infected with mumps. (
  • The mumps virus can be spread for a few days before symptoms appear and for up to 5 days after. (
  • Adults and children with mumps must stay home from any group setting for five days after they first have symptoms. (
  • What are the usual symptoms of mumps? (
  • It is thought that about 3 in 10 people who contract the mumps virus have no symptoms. (
  • Mumps is most commonly diagnosed by your symptoms and the type of glands that are enlarged in your body. (
  • Though people generally recover completely after about 10 days of symptoms, mumps can lead to complications such as pneumonia, meningitis and temporary deafness. (
  • Symptoms of mumps are same as that of flu like swollen glands (neck), sore throat, aches, fever and pains and earache. (
  • In such cases hearing loss due to mumps is usually sudden on onset, profound or complete, and may be associated with vestibular symptoms (parts of the inner ear and brain that help control balance and eye movements). (
  • don't know the level of antibody required to stop a case of mumps in a person, so that question of knowing if the vaccine works less well over time is something we're still working to investigate", we should still force people to get vaccinated? (
  • A case of mumps has been confirmed at Trafalgar Campus. (
  • Grant County Health Department Director Jeff Kindrai said there have been 52 reports and 23 confirmed cases of the mumps since October 2016. (
  • In 2016 and 2017, a surge of mumps cases at Boston-area universities prompted researchers at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard to study mumps virus transmission using genomic data, in collaboration with the Massachusetts Department of Public Health and local university health services. (
  • In Massachusetts, the typical rate of mumps is less than 10 cases per year - but more than 250 cases were reported in 2016 and more than 170 in 2017, despite high rates of vaccination. (
  • These results were considered in the October 2017 Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendation for use of a third dose of MMR vaccine for persons at increased risk for mumps during an outbreak and in the development of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidance for HDs when applying the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendation. (
  • Painful testicular inflammation develops in 15-40 percent of men who have completed puberty and contract the mumps virus. (
  • The mumps virus is an enveloped single-stranded, linear negative-sense RNA virus of the Rubulavirus genus and Paramyxovirus family. (
  • Does the current vaccine work against the mumps virus that is causing the outbreak? (
  • The strain of mumps virus in the Midwest is the same as the one that is found in other countries, and that caused a large ongoing outbreak in the United Kingdom (UK) with more than 60,000 cases. (
  • Reuters Health) - U.S. scientists used gene sequencing technology to tie together what appeared to be unrelated outbreaks of mumps in the Boston area, helping to rule out the possibility that the virus had mutated to evade vaccine protection, a new report says. (
  • Ultimately, the researchers determined that the Massachusetts mumps cases were closely related to a 2006 mumps outbreak and that the virus was largely domestic rather than imported from other countries. (
  • Mumps is a virus that affects a person's parotid, or saliva glands, states Healthline. (
  • Mumps virus, together with parainfluenza types 1 through 4, respiratory syncytial virus, and measles virus are classified in the family Paramyxovirdae. (
  • As the outbreaks unfolded, the teams analyzed mumps virus genomes collected from patients, revealing new links between cases that first appeared unrelated and other details about how the disease was spreading that weren't apparent from the epidemiological investigation. (
  • To learn more, the research teams paired traditional epidemiological data with analysis of mumps virus whole-genome sequences from 201 infected individuals, focusing primarily on the Massachusetts university communities. (
  • However, the genomic data indicated that the mumps viruses in the East Boston cases were genetically similar to those in the Harvard virus samples. (
  • The vaccine is supposed to protect against A-virus mumps, whereas the outbreak in 2006 was caused by the G-virus strain. (
  • Due to the fact that mumps is caused by a virus, antibiotics are not an option. (
  • However, the mumps virus is not thought to cause malformations or defects in an unborn baby. (
  • There is no medicine that kills the mumps virus. (
  • Mumps virus can also cause painful swelling of the testicles in teenage boys or young men, and swelling of the ovaries in women and girls," said Kathy Jovanovic, supervisor of communicable disease control services for Halton Region. (
  • No medicine is yet available that can kill the mumps virus. (
  • Conclusions: Our study revealed heterogeneity across HDs' mumps outbreak responses but also identified common challenges that will inform future Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidance. (
  • The US Centre for Disease Control and Prevention claims the mumps vaccine is 76 to 95 percent effective, but they offer no scientific evidence whatsoever to support that claim. (
  • Some scientists-including Dr. Paul Offit, who wants to expand the government schedule of vaccines even more and who has a notorious conflict of interest-are suggesting that the reason for the increase in mumps cases is due to the waning effectiveness of the vaccine. (
  • Pharmacists can play a key role in educating people about mumps and the importance of vaccination, and they can also become certified to administer vaccines in a variety of settings. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reveals that at least 84 per cent of young adults aged between 18 and 24 years had received two-dose vaccines against mumps. (
  • Before vaccines were available, nearly everyone was infected with mumps during childhood. (
  • Their theory, of course, is based on the idea that mumps vaccines halt mumps infections. (
  • All adults born in 1957 or later should receive at least one dose of MMR vaccine (persons at high risk for exposure to mumps, including college students, health care workers, and international travelers, should receive two doses). (
  • Getting vaccinated is your best protection against mumps. (
  • This testicular inflammation is generally one-sided (both testicles are swollen in 15-30 percent of mumps orchitis cases) and typically occurs about 10 days after the parotid gland inflamed. (
  • People who were vaccinated with the MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) vaccine, as an infant and again between the ages of 4 and 6, are 90 percent less likely to contract mumps, according to the CDC. (
  • However, people who have mumps can return to work as early as a week after first being diagnosed by a doctor. (
  • Last week, at least 1,521 people in New York and New Jersey developed mumps. (
  • News reports indicate that over 2,200 people in two immigration detention centers have been exposed to mumps, resulting in a 25-day quarantine of those detainees that began in early March. (
  • Most people recover but mumps can lead to meningitis (a swelling of the covering of the brain), swelling of the ovaries, inflammation of the pancreas, and short-term or permanent hearing loss. (
  • People who have been exposed to mumps and are not vaccinated should not attend school, work or travel from day 12 through day 25 after exposure. (
  • The majority of people born before 1957 are likely to have been infected with mumps and therefore are presumed to be protected. (
  • Should people with mumps keep away from others? (
  • For most people, mumps improves over a week with no long-term problems. (
  • The other is because of growing numbers of individuals who have never been vaccinated for mumps and are infectious while coming into contact where are a lot of people sharing food and drinks. (
  • What's unusual is that the health authorities slipped up and admitted that most of the people infected with mumps had already been vaccinated against mumps . (
  • Therefore, the use of the mumps vaccine could be predicted to delay people becoming ill with mumps until adulthood. (
  • 1. Harmsen T, Jongerius MC, van der Zwan CW, et al: Comparison of a neutralization enzyme immunoassay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for evaluation of immune status of children vaccinated for mumps. (