**Multivariate Analysis**: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.

**Prognosis**: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.

**Retrospective Studies**: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.

**Risk Factors**: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.

**Treatment Outcome**: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.

**Survival Analysis**: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.

**Survival Rate**: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.

**Follow-Up Studies**: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.

**Prospective Studies**: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.

**Predictive Value of Tests**: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.

**Proportional Hazards Models**: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.

**Logistic Models**: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.

**Disease-Free Survival**: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.

**Neoplasm Staging**: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.

**Kaplan-Meier Estimate**: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)

**Time Factors**: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

**Cohort Studies**: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.

**Age Factors**: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.

**Tumor Markers, Biological**: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.

**Cross-Sectional Studies**: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.

**Analysis of Variance**: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.

**Regression Analysis**: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.

**Risk Assessment**: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)

**Odds Ratio**: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.

**Neoplasm Recurrence, Local**: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.

**Lymphatic Metastasis**: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.

**Case-Control Studies**: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.

**Prevalence**: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.

**Recurrence**: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.

**Chi-Square Distribution**: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.

**Sex Factors**: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.

**Incidence**: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.

**Breast Neoplasms**: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.

**Severity of Illness Index**: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.

**Immunohistochemistry**: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.

**Questionnaires**: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.

**Disease Progression**: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.

**Combined Modality Therapy**: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.

**Biological Markers**: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.

**United States**

**Socioeconomic Factors**: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.

**Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols**: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.

**Adenocarcinoma**: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.

**Liver Neoplasms**: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.

**Postoperative Complications**: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.

**ROC Curve**: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.

**Linear Models**: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.

**Lung Neoplasms**: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.

**Comorbidity**: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.

**Neoplasm Invasiveness**: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.

**Japan**

**Epidemiologic Methods**: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.

**Smoking**: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.

**HIV Infections**: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

**Colorectal Neoplasms**: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.

**Risk**: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.

**France**: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.

**Infant, Newborn**: An infant during the first month after birth.

**Chemotherapy, Adjuvant**: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.

**Principal Component Analysis**: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.

**Carcinoma, Squamous Cell**: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

**Body Mass Index**: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

**Tissue Array Analysis**: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.

**Longitudinal Studies**: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.

**Treatment Failure**: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.

**Carcinoma, Hepatocellular**: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.

**Sensitivity and Specificity**: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

**Hospital Mortality**: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.

**Italy**

**Registries**: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.

**Stomach Neoplasms**: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.

**Ki-67 Antigen**: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.

**Neoplasm Metastasis**: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.

**Confidence Intervals**: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.

**Reproducibility of Results**: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.

**Brazil**

**Probability**: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.

**Neoplasm Grading**: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.

**Genotype**: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.

**China**: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.

**Discriminant Analysis**: A statistical analytic technique used with discrete dependent variables, concerned with separating sets of observed values and allocating new values. It is sometimes used instead of regression analysis.

**Acute Disease**: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.

**Demography**: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.

**Age Distribution**: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.

**Myocardial Infarction**: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).

**Radiotherapy, Adjuvant**: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.

**Spain**: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.

**Chronic Disease**: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)

**Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung**: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.

**Prostatic Neoplasms**: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.

**Carcinoma**: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)

**Remission Induction**: Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.

**Esophageal Neoplasms**: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.

**Statistics as Topic**: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.

**Hepatectomy**: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)

**Lymph Node Excision**: Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)

**C-Reactive Protein**: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.

**Cyclophosphamide**: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.

**Length of Stay**: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.

**Sex Distribution**: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.

**Liver Transplantation**: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.

**Pregnancy**: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.

**Tomography, X-Ray Computed**: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.

**Patient Selection**: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.

**Receptors, Progesterone**: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.

**Educational Status**: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.

**Models, Statistical**: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.

**Health Surveys**: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.

**Ovarian Neoplasms**: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.

**European Continental Ancestry Group**: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.

**Urban Population**: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.

**Lymph Nodes**: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.

**Karnofsky Performance Status**: A performance measure for rating the ability of a person to perform usual activities, evaluating a patient's progress after a therapeutic procedure, and determining a patient's suitability for therapy. It is used most commonly in the prognosis of cancer therapy, usually after chemotherapy and customarily administered before and after therapy. It was named for Dr. David A. Karnofsky, an American specialist in cancer chemotherapy.

**Hospitalization**: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.

**Life Tables**: Summarizing techniques used to describe the pattern of mortality and survival in populations. These methods can be applied to the study not only of death, but also of any defined endpoint such as the onset of disease or the occurrence of disease complications.

**Stroke**: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)

**Liver Cirrhosis**: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.

**Statistics, Nonparametric**: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)

**Receptors, Estrogen**: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.

**Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic**: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.

**Coronary Artery Disease**: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.

**Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation**: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.

**Republic of Korea**: The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

**Rural Population**: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.

**Health Status**: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.

**Kidney Failure, Chronic**: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.

**Brain Neoplasms**: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.

**Preoperative Care**: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)

**Receptor, erbB-2**: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.

**Antineoplastic Agents**: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.

**Hypertension**: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.

**Quality of Life**: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.

**Immunoenzyme Techniques**: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.

**Asian Continental Ancestry Group**: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.

**Outcome Assessment (Health Care)**: Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).

**Kidney Neoplasms**: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.

**African Americans**: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.

**Vincristine**: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)

**Biopsy**: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.

**Neoadjuvant Therapy**: Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.

**Renal Dialysis**: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.

**Creatinine**

**Diabetes Mellitus**: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.

**Prostate-Specific Antigen**: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.

**Sexual Behavior**: Sexual activities of humans.

**Databases, Factual**: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.

**Transplantation, Homologous**: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.

**Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast**: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.

**Coronary Angiography**: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.

**Ethnic Groups**: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.

**Magnetic Resonance Imaging**: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.

**Graft Survival**: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.

**Carcinoma, Renal Cell**: A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.

**Cause of Death**: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.

**Actuarial Analysis**: The application of probability and statistical methods to calculate the risk of occurrence of any event, such as onset of illness, recurrent disease, hospitalization, disability, or death. It may include calculation of the anticipated money costs of such events and of the premiums necessary to provide for payment of such costs.

**Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice**: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).

**Doxorubicin**: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.

**Taiwan**

**Stroke Volume**: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.

**Neoplasm Proteins**: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.

**Radiotherapy Dosage**: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.

**Prostatectomy**: Complete or partial surgical removal of the prostate. Three primary approaches are commonly employed: suprapubic - removal through an incision above the pubis and through the urinary bladder; retropubic - as for suprapubic but without entering the urinary bladder; and transurethral (TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE).

**Coronary Disease**: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.

**Postoperative Period**: The period following a surgical operation.

**Cardiovascular Diseases**: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.

**Survival**: Continuance of life or existence especially under adverse conditions; includes methods and philosophy of survival.

**Blood Pressure**: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.

**Bacteremia**: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.

**Heart Failure**: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.

**Obesity**: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).

**Cluster Analysis**: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.

**Diabetes Complications**: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.

**Electrocardiography**: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.

**Algorithms**: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.

**Tumor Suppressor Protein p53**: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.

**Hispanic Americans**: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.

**Echocardiography**: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.

**Tissue Donors**: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.

**Kidney Transplantation**: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.

**Intensive Care Units**: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.

**Germany**

**Fluorouracil**: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.

**Gastrectomy**: Excision of the whole (total gastrectomy) or part (subtotal gastrectomy, partial gastrectomy, gastric resection) of the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)

**Tumor Burden**: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.

**Alcohol Drinking**: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.

**Least-Squares Analysis**: A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.

**Data Interpretation, Statistical**: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.

**California**

**Cholangiocarcinoma**: A malignant tumor arising from the epithelium of the BILE DUCTS.

**Prednisone**: A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.

**Reoperation**: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.

**Neoplasm, Residual**: Remnant of a tumor or cancer after primary, potentially curative therapy. (Dr. Daniel Masys, written communication)

**Rectal Neoplasms**: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.

**Chemoradiotherapy**: Treatment that combines chemotherapy with radiotherapy.

**Radiotherapy**: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.

**Data Collection**: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.

**Polymorphism, Genetic**: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.

**Social Class**: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.

**Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial**: Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.

**Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin**: Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.

**Melanoma**: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)

## Prevention of collagen-induced arthritis by gene delivery of soluble p75 tumour necrosis factor receptor. (1/22244)

Collagen type II-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1 mice can be passively transferred to SCID mice with spleen B- and T-lymphocytes. In the present study, we show that infection ex vivo of splenocytes from arthritic DBA/1 mice with a retroviral vector, containing cDNA for the soluble form of human p75 receptor of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-R) before transfer, prevents the development of arthritis, bone erosion and joint inflammation in the SCID recipients. Assessment of IgG subclass levels and studies of synovial histology suggest that down-regulating the effector functions of T helper-type 1 (Th1) cells may, at least in part, explain the inhibition of arthritis in the SCID recipients. In contrast, the transfer of splenocytes infected with mouse TNF-alpha gene construct resulted in exacerbated arthritis and enhancement of IgG2a antibody levels. Intriguingly, infection of splenocytes from arthritic DBA/1 mice with a construct for mouse IL-10 had no modulating effect on the transfer of arthritis. The data suggest that manipulation of the immune system with cytokines, or cytokine inhibitors using gene transfer protocols can be an effective approach to ameliorate arthritis. (+info)## Heart rate and subsequent blood pressure in young adults: the CARDIA study. (2/22244)

The objective of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that baseline heart rate (HR) predicts subsequent blood pressure (BP) independently of baseline BP. In the multicenter longitudinal Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study of black and white men and women initially aged 18 to 30 years, we studied 4762 participants who were not current users of antihypertensive drugs and had no history of heart problems at the baseline examination (1985-1986). In each race-sex subgroup, we estimated the effect of baseline HR on BP 2, 5, 7, and 10 years later by use of repeated measures regression analysis, adjusting for baseline BP, age, education, body fatness, physical fitness, fasting insulin, parental hypertension, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, oral contraceptive use, and change of body mass index from baseline. The association between baseline HR and subsequent systolic BP (SBP) was explained by multivariable adjustment. However, HR was an independent predictor of subsequent diastolic BP (DBP) regardless of initial BP and other confounders in white men, white women, and black men (0.7 mm Hg increase per 10 bpm). We incorporated the part of the association that was already present at baseline by not adjusting for baseline DBP: the mean increase in subsequent DBP was 1.3 mm Hg per 10 bpm in white men, white women, and black men. A high HR may be considered a risk factor for subsequent high DBP in young persons. (+info)## Antiphospholipid, anti-beta 2-glycoprotein-I and anti-oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein antibodies in antiphospholipid syndrome. (3/22244)

Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I (anti-beta 2-GPI) and anti-oxidized-low-density lipoprotein (LDL) antibodies are all implicated in the pathogenesis of antiphospholipid syndrome. To investigate whether different autoantibodies or combinations thereof produced distinct effects related to their antigenic specificities, we examined the frequencies of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)-related features in the presence of different antibodies [aPL, beta 2-GPI, anti-oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL)] in 125 patients with APS. Median follow-up was 72 months: 58 patients were diagnosed as primary APS and 67 as APS plus systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL), anti-beta 2-GPI and anti-oxidized LDL antibodies were determined by ELISA; lupus anticoagulant (LA) by standard coagulometric methods. Univariate analysis showed that patients positive for anti-beta 2-GPI had a higher risk of recurrent thrombotic events (OR = 3.64, 95% CI, p = 0.01) and pregnancy loss (OR = 2.99, 95% CI, p = 0.004). Patients positive for anti-oxidized LDL antibodies had a 2.24-fold increase in the risk of arterial thrombosis (2.24, 95% CI, p = 0.03) and lower risk of thrombocytopenia (OR = 0.41 95% CI, p = 0.04). Patients positive for aCL antibodies had a higher risk of pregnancy loss (OR = 4.62 95% CI, p = 0.001). When these data were tested by multivariate logistic regression, the association between anti-beta 2-GPI and pregnancy loss and the negative association between anti-oxidized LDL antibodies and thrombocytopenia disappeared. (+info)## Different factors influencing the expression of Raynaud's phenomenon in men and women. (4/22244)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the risk profile for Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is different between men and women. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 800 women and 725 men participating in the Framingham Offspring Study, the association of age, marital status, smoking, alcohol use, diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia with prevalent RP was examined in men and women separately, after adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS: The prevalence of RP was 9.6% (n = 77) in women and 5.8% (n = 42) in men. In women, marital status and alcohol use were each associated with prevalent RP (for marital status adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.3, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-3.9; for alcohol use OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-5.2), whereas these factors were not associated with RP in men (marital status OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.6-3.5; alcohol use OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.2-4.4). In men, older age (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.2) and smoking (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.3) were associated with prevalent RP; these factors were not associated with RP in women (older age OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.4-1.6; smoking OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.1). Diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia were not associated with RP in either sex. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that risk factors for RP differ between men and women. Age and smoking were associated with RP in men only, while the associations of marital status and alcohol use with RP were observed in women only. These findings suggest that different mechanisms influence the expression of RP in men and women. (+info)## Evidence of improving survival of patients with rectal cancer in france: a population based study. (5/22244)

BACKGROUND: Over the past 20 years there have been many changes in the management of rectal cancer. Their impact on the overall population is not well known. AIMS: To determine trends in management and prognosis of rectal cancer in two French regions. SUBJECTS: 1978 patients with a rectal carcinoma diagnosed between 1978 and 1993. METHODS: Time trends in treatment, stage at diagnosis, operative mortality, and survival were studied on a four year basis. A non-conditional logistic regression was performed to obtain an odds ratio for each period adjusted for the other variables. To estimate the independent effect of the period a multivariate relative survival analysis was performed. RESULTS: Over the 16 year period resection rates increased from 66.0% to 80.1%; the increase was particularly noticeable for sphincter saving procedures (+30.6% per four years, p=0.03). The percentage of patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy increased from 24.0% to 40.0% (p=0.02). The proportion of patients with Dukes' type A cancer increased from 17. 7% to 30.6% with a corresponding decrease in those with more advanced disease. Operative mortality decreased by 31.1% per four years (p=0.03). All these improvements have resulted in a dramatic increase in relative survival (from 35.4% for the 1978-1981 period to 57.0% for the 1985-1989 period). CONCLUSIONS: Substantial advances in the management of rectal cancer have been achieved, but there is evidence that further improvements can be made in order to increase survival. (+info)## Illness behaviour in elite middle and long distance runners. (6/22244)

OBJECTIVES: To examine the illness attitudes and beliefs known to be associated with abnormal illness behaviour (where symptoms are present in excess of objective signs and pathology) in elite middle and long distance runners, in comparison with non-athlete controls. METHODS: A total of 150 athletes were surveyed using the illness behaviour questionnaire as an instrument to explore the psychological attributes associated with abnormal illness behaviour. Subjects also completed the general health questionnaire as a measure of psychiatric morbidity. A control group of 150 subjects, matched for age, sex, and social class, were surveyed using the same instruments. RESULTS: A multivariate analysis of illness behaviour questionnaire responses showed that the athletes' group differed significantly from the control group (Hotelling's T: Exact F = 2.68; p = 0.01). In particular, athletes were more somatically focused (difference between means -0.27; 95% confidence interval -0.50 to -0.03) and more likely to deny the impact of stresses in their life (difference between means 0.78; 95% confidence interval 0.31 to 1.25). Athletes were also higher scorers on the Whiteley Index of Hypochondriasis (difference between means 0.76; 95% confidence interval 0.04 to 1.48). There were no differences in the levels of psychiatric morbidity between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: The illness attitudes and beliefs of athletes differ from those of a well matched control population. The origin of these psychological attributes is not clear but those who treat athletes need to be aware of them. (+info)## One-year survival among patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock, and its relation to early revascularization: results from the GUSTO-I trial. (7/22244)

BACKGROUND: Although 30-day survival is increased in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock who undergo coronary revascularization, the longer-term outcome in such patients and the duration of benefit from revascularization are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed 30-day survivors of acute myocardial infarction in the Global Utilization of Streptokinase and Tissue-Plasminogen Activator for Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO-I) trial and identified 36 333 who had not had cardiogenic shock (systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg for >/=1 hour, group 1) and 1321 patients who had shock (group 2). Group 2 patients were older and sicker. At 1 year, 97.4% of group 1 patients were alive versus 88.0% of group 2 (P=0.0001). Among group 2 patients, 578 (44%) had undergone revascularization within 30 days (group 2A) and 728 (56%) had not (group 2B). Revascularization was not required by protocol but was selected by the attending physicians. At 1 year, 91.7% of group 2A patients were alive versus 85.3% of group 2B (P=0.0003). With the use of multivariable logistic regression analysis to adjust for differences in baseline characteristics of shock patients alive at 30 days, revascularization within 30 days was independently associated with reduced 1-year mortality (odds ratio 0.6, [95% confidence interval 0.4, 0.9], P=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Most patients (88%) with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock who are alive at 30 days survived at least 1 year. Shock patients who underwent revascularization within 30 days had improved survival at 1 year compared with shock patients who did not receive revascularization, even after adjustment for differences in baseline characteristics between the 2 groups. (+info)## New-onset sustained ventricular tachycardia after cardiac surgery. (8/22244)

BACKGROUND: The de novo occurrence of sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) after CABG has been described, but the incidence, mortality rate, long-term follow-up, and mechanism are not well defined. METHODS AND RESULTS: This prospective study enrolled consecutive patients undergoing CABG at a single institution. Patients were followed up for the development of sustained VT, and a detailed analysis of clinical, angiographic, and surgical variables associated with the occurrence of VT was performed. A total of 382 patients participated, and 12 patients (3.1%) experienced >/=1 episode of sustained VT 4.1+/-4.8 days after CABG. In 11 of 12 patients, no postoperative complication explained the VT; 1 patient had a perioperative myocardial infarction. The in-hospital mortality rate was 25%. Patients with VT were more likely to have prior myocardial infarction (92% versus 50%, P<0.01), severe congestive heart failure (56% versus 21%, P<0.01), and ejection fraction <0.40 (70% versus 29%, P<0.01). When all 3 factors were present, the risk of VT was 30%, a 14-fold increase. Patients with VT had more noncollateralized totally occluded vessels on angiogram (1.4+/-0.97 versus 0.54+/-0.7, P<0.01), a bypass graft across a noncollateralized occluded vessel (1.50+/-1.0 versus 0.42+/-0.62, P<0.01), and a bypass graft across a noncollateralized occluded vessel to an infarct zone (1.50+/-1.0 versus 0.17+/-0.38, P<0.01). By multivariate analysis, the number of bypass grafts across a noncollateralized occluded vessel to an infarct zone was the only independent factor predicting VT. CONCLUSIONS: The first presentation of sustained monomorphic VT in the recovery period after CABG is uncommon, but the incidence is high in specific clinical subsets. Placement of a bypass graft across a noncollateralized total occlusion in a vessel supplying an infarct zone was strongly and independently associated with the development of VT. (+info)###### Using Multivariate Statistics - Barbara G. Tabachnick, Linda S. Fidell - Google Books

###### Using Multivariate Statistics - Barbara G. Tabachnick, Linda S. Fidell - Google Books

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###### Variance2

- Others include logistic regression and multivariate analysis of variance. (sciencing.com)
- IBM® SPSS® Amos is powerful structural equation modeling software that enables you to support your research and theories by extending standard multivariate analysis methods, including regression, factor analysis, correlation, and analysis of variance. (onthehub.com)

###### Methods6

- At this workshop we will review recent developments on multivariate methods in T MVA (the Toolkit for Multivariate Data Analysis in ROOT), discuss user experience and feedback, and explain the use of T MVA by means of a hands-on tutorial. (cern.ch)
- The schedule leaves room for user feedback on T MVA, and ideas for new multivariate approaches or improvements on existing methods. (cern.ch)
- Multivariate methods are employed widely in the analysis of experimental data but are poorly understood by those users who are not statisticians. (boomerangbooks.com.au)
- This is because of the wide divergence between the theory and practice of multivariate methods. (boomerangbooks.com.au)
- The contributors are all experienced in the theory and practice of multivariate methods and their aim has been to emphasize the major features from the point of view of applicability and to indicate the limitations and conditions of the techniques. (boomerangbooks.com.au)
- Bivariate and multivariate analyses are statistical methods to investigate relationships between data samples. (sciencing.com)

###### Regression Analysis3

- Multiple regression analysis is the most common method used in multivariate analysis to find correlations between data sets. (sciencing.com)
- I had a quick question about how to determine the cut off p value in order to include relevant variables from univariate analysis into multivariate regression analysis. (datamethods.org)
- 0.30 on univariate analysis, were included in the final multivariate regression analysis to determine which ones really are associated with the mortality. (datamethods.org)

###### Introduction to Multivariate Statistical Analysis1

- Anderson, T. W. is the author of 'Introduction to Multivariate Statistical Analysis', published 2003 under ISBN 9780471360919 and ISBN 0471360910. (valorebooks.com)

###### Exploratory1

- The book surveys the basic principles of multivariate statistical data analysis and emphasizes both exploratory and inferential statistics. (springer.com)

###### Analyzing multivariate data1

- Its overarching goal is to provide readers with the knowledge necessary to make proper interpretations and select appropriate techniques for analyzing multivariate data. (alibris.com)

###### Standard multivariate1

- With SPSS Amos you can build attitudinal and behavioral models that reflect complex relationships more accurately than with standard multivariate statistics techniques using either an intuitive graphical, or programmatic user interface. (onthehub.com)

###### Correlation1

- Bivariate analysis also examines the strength of any correlation. (sciencing.com)

###### Approaches1

- We'll present a project comparing univariate and multivariate approaches. (jmp.com)

###### Estimation1

- Significantly revised and expanded, Multivariate Statistical Analysis, Second Edition addresses several added topics related to the properties and characterization of symmetric distributions, elliptically symmetric multivariate distributions, singular symmetric distributions, estimation of covariance matrices, tests of mean against one-sided alternatives, and correlations in symmetrical distributions. (routledge.com)

###### Statistics2

- Rebecca M. Warner's bestselling Applied Statistics: From Bivariate Through Multivariate Techniques has been split into two volumes for ease of use over a two-course sequence. (sagepub.com)
- This new multivariate statistics text, Applied Statistics II: Multivariable and Multivariate Techniques, Third Edition is based on chapters from the second half of original book, but with much additional material. (sagepub.com)

###### Techniques1

- Given the increasing complexity of modern HEP experiments, multivariate analysis techniques have proven indispensable to extract the maximum information content out of the data. (cern.ch)

###### Examples1

- Its discussions and examples draw on a wide range of multivariate data, from biometry, agriculture, biomedical science, economics, to filtering and stochastic control, stock market data analysis, and random signal processing. (routledge.com)

###### Parameters1

- For example, in my analysis- I am looking at the different clinical parameters that are associated with increased risk of mortality. (datamethods.org)

###### Factorial2

- In a full factorial multivariate test, your traffic is divided evenly among all variations, which multiplies the amount of traffic necessary for statistical significance. (cxl.com)
- MVT tests require significantly more investment on the technology, design, setup, and analysis side, and certainly full-factorial MVT testing can burn through significant traffic (if you even have the traffic to support this testing method). (cxl.com)

###### Bivariate analysis3

- Bivariate analysis looks at two paired data sets, studying whether a relationship exists between them. (sciencing.com)
- Bivariate analysis investigates the relationship between two data sets, with a pair of observations taken from a single sample or individual. (sciencing.com)
- One example of bivariate analysis is a research team recording the age of both husband and wife in a single marriage. (sciencing.com)

###### Multivariable1

- Globally optimal multivariable regression model with b3 as the response variable and globally optimal multivariate regression model of all 17 variables. (biomedcentral.com)

###### Correspondence analysis1

- Correspondence Analysis, Biplots, and Procrustes Analysis in Chapter 12. (alibris.com)

###### Concepts1

- Focusing on applications this book presents the tools and concepts of multivariate data analysis in a way that is understandable for non-mathematicians and practitioners who need to analyze statistical data. (springer.com)

###### Observations1

- This market leading text provides experimental scientists in a wide variety of disciplines with a readable introduction to the statistical analysis of multivariate observations. (alibris.com)

###### Edition1

- The Fourth Edition has been revised to take greater advantage of graphical displays of multivariate data and of statistical software programs that facilitate the analysis of complex data. (alibris.com)

###### Researchers1

- Multivariate analysis was used in by researchers in a 2009 Journal of Pediatrics study to investigate whether negative life events, family environment, family violence, media violence and depression are predictors of youth aggression and bullying. (sciencing.com)

###### Variables3

- Multivariate analysis uses two or more variables and analyzes which, if any, are correlated with a specific outcome. (sciencing.com)
- Multivariate analysis examines several variables to see if one or more of them are predictive of a certain outcome. (sciencing.com)
- b ) Globally optimal multivariate regression model of all 17 variables, blacklog marginal likelihood = -8311.6. (biomedcentral.com)

###### Empirical1

- Most of the observable phenomena in the empirical sciences are of a multivariate nature. (springer.com)

###### Methods45

- He has taught mathematical statistics, multivariate analysis, bootstrap methods in statistics and econometrics at several European universities. (springer.com)
- The book is intended for masters and PhD students and researchers in the social, behavioral, economic and many other sciences who require a basic understanding of multivariate statistical theory and methods for their analysis of multivariate data. (springer.com)
- Pierre Trebbia and Noel Bonnet, "EELS elemental mapping with unconventional methods I Theoretical basis: image analysis with multivariate statistics and entropy concepts" Ultramicroscopy vol. 34 (1990) pp. 165-178. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Linear Statistical Models and Related Methods With Applications to Social Research John Fox A comprehensive, modern treatment of linear models and their variants and extensions, combining statistical theory with applied data analysis. (google.com)
- He is a co-author of Discrete Discriminant Analysis and intermediate Statistical Methods. (google.com)
- The complexity of social problems necessitates that social work researchers utilize multivariate statistical methods in their investigations. (oxfordscholarship.com)
- Having a thorough understanding of basic statistics can facilitate this process as multivariate methods have as their foundation many of these basic statistical procedures. (oxfordscholarship.com)
- The primary intention is to help prepare entry level doctoral students and early career social work researchers in the use of multivariate statistical methods by offering a straightforward and easy to understand explanation of these methods and the basic statistics that inform them. (oxfordscholarship.com)
- A wide range of methods is used for the analysis of multivariate data, both unstructured and structured, and this course will give a view of the variety of methods available, as well as going into some of them in detail. (bristol.ac.uk)
- Standard quality, or Shewhart, control charting methods for variables, such as X-bar and S charts, cumulative sum (CUSUM) charts and exponentially moving average (EWMA) charts, can be generalized to the multivariate or multiple-variable case. (qualitymag.com)
- Multiway analysis is a specialized branch of the larger field of multivariate statistics that extends the standard methods for two-way data, such as component analysis, factor analysis, cluster analysis, correspondence analysis, and multidimensional scaling to multiway data. (wiley.com)
- Big data' poses challenges that require both classical multivariate methods and contemporary techniques from machine learning and engineering. (cambridge.org)
- Here, we present a cohesive and general analytical framework for the comparative analysis of G that addresses these issues, and that incorporates and extends current methods with a strong geometrical basis. (nih.gov)
- Methods of Multivariate Analysis was among those chosen. (ebooks.com)
- The Second Edition of Alvin Rencher's Methods of Multivariate Analysis provides students of all statistical backgrounds with both the fundamental and more sophisticated skills necessary to master the discipline. (ebooks.com)
- Rencher takes a "methods" approach to his subject, with an emphasis on how students and practitioners can employ multivariate analysis in real-life situations. (ebooks.com)
- Methods of Multivariate Analysis provides an authoritative reference for statistics students as well as for practicing scientists and clinicians. (ebooks.com)
- This book provides a broad overview of the basic theory and methods of applied multivariate analysis. (cmu.ac.th)
- Studies reviewed in this paper have demonstrated that multivariate analytic methods are useful in identification of risk factors, detection of CP, movement assessment for CP prediction, and outcome assessment, and ML approaches have made it possible to automatically identify movement impairments in high-risk infants. (frontiersin.org)
- To make the multivariate and ML approaches useful in clinical settings, further research with large samples is needed to verify and improve these multivariate methods in risk factor identification, CP detection, movement assessment, and outcome evaluation or prediction. (frontiersin.org)
- At this workshop we will review recent developments on multivariate methods in T MVA (the Toolkit for Multivariate Data Analysis in ROOT), discuss user experience and feedback, and explain the use of T MVA by means of a hands-on tutorial. (cern.ch)
- The schedule leaves room for user feedback on T MVA, and ideas for new multivariate approaches or improvements on existing methods. (cern.ch)
- It covers methods of studying the stability of these techniques, including resampling by the bootstrap and jackknife and discusses sensitivity analysis through first-order approximations. (powells.com)
- In this pocket guide, the authors introduce readers to three of the more frequently used multivariate methods in social work research withan emphasis on basic statistics. (indigo.ca)
- The primary aim is to prepare entry-level doctoral students and early career social work researchers in the use of multivariate methods by providing an easy-to-understand presentation, building on the basic statistics that inform them. (indigo.ca)
- Help develop new e-science methods that fundamentally integrates Deep Learning and Multivariate analysis. (kdnuggets.com)
- Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden, is looking for a postdoc to a project where we will develop new e-science methods that fundamentally integrates Deep Learning and Multivariate analysis. (kdnuggets.com)
- In this mini-review, recent developments in multivariate calibration methods for NIR spectroscopic analysis, including non-linear approaches and ensemble techniques, are briefly summarized. (rsc.org)
- Multivariate normal distribution theory, correlation and dependence analysis, regression and prediction, dimension-reduction methods, sampling distributions and related inference problems, selected applications in classification theory, multivariate process control, and pattern recognition. (gatech.edu)
- In the present study, statistical methods based on multivariate analyses such as the Descriptive Discriminant Analysis (DDA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were applied to determine relationships between particle sizes and the composition of the associated semi-volatile compounds, in addition to evaluating these observations in relation to the emission sources, study areas, sampling campaigns and season. (igi-global.com)
- Multivariate Data Analysis (MVA) and Design of Experiments (DoE) are advanced analysis techniques which enable biopharmaceutical companies to improve their data analysis and ultimately accelerate development, reduce process-related costs and shorten the time to market.Given the large number and complexity of variables in biological production processes, MVA has significant advantages over traditional statistical methods. (eppendorf.com)
- Univariate extreme value methods do not allow for the required inference and multivariate methods exploiting the joint dependence of the data are necessary. (gerad.ca)
- We do not however have any assurance that all data are well modelled by these distributions as (1) the space of multivariate extreme-value copulas is infinite dimensional, (2) data on ozone levels are prone to outliers.The talk addresses the robust methods required for a proper analysis. (gerad.ca)
- Ideal for a junior/senior or graduate level course that explores the statistical methods for describing and analyzing multivariate data, the text assumes two or more statistics courses as a prerequisite. (pearson.com)
- Presents the concepts and methods of multivariate analysis at a level that is readily understandable by readers who have taken two or more statistics courses. (pearson.com)
- Emphasizes the applications of multivariate methods and, consequently, they have made the mathematics as palatable as possible. (pearson.com)
- Emphasis on applications of multivariate methods. (pearson.com)
- This report is part of a series whose aim is to present in a synthetic way the major methods of «analytic combinatorics» needed in the average--case analysis of algorithms. (inria.fr)
- The methods are essentially analytic and relie on multivariate generating functions, singularity analysis, and continuity theorems. (inria.fr)
- Introduction to Hyperspectral/Multivariate Image Analysis (MIA) shows how to apply multivariate and machine learning methods to these data cubes to extract maximum information. (eigenvector.com)
- This hands-on course considers methods for visualization, pattern recognition, classification, curve resolution, chemical mapping, regression and analysis of particles and textures. (eigenvector.com)
- This book is designed for a first course in both univariate and multivariate methods of statistical analysis, for research-oriented students with a typical mathematics background. (abebooks.com)
- Historically, use of the advanced multivariate methods introduced in the text were time-consuming and were only available to a relatively small handful of researchers with advanced training, but now with the proliferation of computers they are accessible to everyone and are commonplace in contemporary research. (abebooks.com)
- Also, the position is taken that the methods of statistical analysis fill one or more of three basic objectives, including data reduction, inference, and the identification of associations among variables. (abebooks.com)
- I've heard of methods like Structural Equation Modeling, although I have not done such an analysis and don't know how straightforward that would be to implement. (nitrc.org)

###### Evidential value of multivariate physicochemical data1

- Detailed description of likelihood ratio models for determining the evidential value of multivariate physicochemical data. (oreilly.com)

###### MANOVA5

- One of the main application of the MANOVA is multivariate comparison testing where parameters for the various categories of a factor are tested to be significantly different or not. (kovcomp.co.uk)
- When a k-way MANOVA is applied and the corresponding option is enabled, the results of the multivariate tests are displayed. (kovcomp.co.uk)
- Examples include: Two-way MANOVA for plastic film data (Example 6.11), Principal component analysis of turtle carapace data (Example 8.4), Factor analysis of consumer preference data (Example 9.9), Discriminant analysis of business school admission data (Example 11.11) and others. (pearson.com)
- Hotelling's T^2 test, multivariate linear models and MANOVA, testing independence, Bartlett's tests for equality of covariance matrices. (washington.edu)
- Parameter consistency of invariant tests for MANOVA and related multivariate hypotheses. (washington.edu)

###### Classification8

- Classification Analysis: Allocation of Observations to Groups. (ebooks.com)
- and identifying, by a computer, the material from results of the multivariate data analysis including the identification or classification of the grouping of the spectrum based on the barcode. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 13. The system of claim 12, wherein the clustering processor performs a multivariate data analysis classification process based on the sign of the second derivative of the spectrum. (freepatentsonline.com)
- The Unscrambler® X Prediction Engine and Unscrambler® X Classification Engine version 10.2 use the advanced multivariate prediction and classification models from the latest version of The Unscrambler® X. (prweb.com)
- The use of multivariate statistics for the analysis and classification of New Testament manuscripts is examined, the problem of coding the manuscripts for statistical analysis is considered, and various coding schemes are presented. (reltech.org)
- Cluster analysis and artificial neural networks multivariate classification of onion varieties. (biomedsearch.com)
- The advantage of these approaches is reflected in the fact that the analysis, classification and ranking can be done for all countries, based on all indicators of external indebtedness at the same time. (srce.hr)
- Examples include: Simultaneous confidence region and intervals in Section 6.2, Multivariate linear regression model in Section 7.7, Sample principal components and their properties in Section 8.3, Classification rules in Section 11.3 and others. (pearson.com)

###### Doing multivariate data analysis1

- This online unit provides comprehensive skills essential for postgraduate students doing multivariate data analysis and for critically judging the research of others. (edu.au)

###### Distributions4

- Significantly revised and expanded, Multivariate Statistical Analysis, Second Edition addresses several added topics related to the properties and characterization of symmetric distributions, elliptically symmetric multivariate distributions, singular symmetric distributions, estimation of covariance matrices, tests of mean against one-sided alternatives, and correlations in symmetrical distributions. (routledge.com)
- Results from the DDA showed that the PAHs distributions give the best discrimination capacity within the data set, whereas the PAH distribution in intermediate particle fractions incorporates noise in the statistical analysis. (igi-global.com)
- 0. Brief review of matrix algebra and the multivariate normal distribution: pdf, marginal and conditional distributions, covariance matrix, correlations and partial correlations. (washington.edu)
- Jacobians of multivariate distributions. (washington.edu)

###### Bivariate6

- By using advanced analytics, like bivariate and multivariate analysis, your business can add significant value to your market research and make sense of a chaotic business environment. (outsource2india.com)
- Bivariate analysis can help you effortlessly evaluate the relationship between any two variables. (outsource2india.com)
- The basic purpose of both multivariate regression analysis and bivariate analysis is to find patterns and exceptions in data. (outsource2india.com)
- Bivariate and Multivariate Linear Regression Analysis6. (indigo.ca)
- An approach to increase the efficiency of mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) was proposed earlier by the authors on the basis of bivariate analysis of correlated traits. (genetics.org)
- Mathematical symbols are reserved for introducing the basic univariate and bivariate concepts, while multivariate topics are treated conceptually as extensions of the bivariate relation. (abebooks.com)

###### Topics in multivariate statistics2

- This book presents topics in multivariate statistics in ten chapters. (springer.com)
- Treats all the basic and important topics in multivariate statistics. (isbn.nu)

###### Vectors1

- In many cases multivariate data are converted/transformed into feature vectors which can then be applied in data mining, machine learning, and information retrieval algorithms. (tu-darmstadt.de)

###### ASPECTS OF MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS1

- To present various aspects of multivariate analysis, covering data exploration, modeling and inference. (bristol.ac.uk)

###### Model building and ong1

- The same data connections are used for model building and ongoing multivariate and univariate SPC analysis. (adeptscience.co.uk)

###### Results of the multivariate1

- The material is identified from results of the multivariate data analysis based on the barcode. (freepatentsonline.com)

###### Applied Multivariate Techniques1

- Advanced) Sharma, S. (1996) Applied Multivariate Techniques. (wikipedia.org)

###### Exploratory data ana1

- The presentation integrates both theory and practice including both the analysis of formal linear multivariate models and exploratory data analysis techniques. (cmu.ac.th)

###### Wiley1

- He is the author of Linear Models in Statistics and Multivariate Statistical Inference and Applications, both available from Wiley. (ebooks.com)

###### Applications of multivariate1

- 1.1 This guide covers the applications of multivariate data analysis (MVDA) to support pharmaceutical development and manufacturing activities. (astm.org)

###### Matrix Algebra1

- Mathematical Tools for Applied Multivariate Analysis provides information pertinent to the aspects of transformational geometry, matrix algebra, and the calculus that are most relevant for the study of multivariate analysis. (elsevier.com)

###### Correlations3

- Uses for multivariate analysis include: design for capability (also known as capability-based design) inverse design, where any variable can be treated as an independent variable Analysis of Alternatives (AoA), the selection of concepts to fulfil a customer need analysis of concepts with respect to changing scenarios identification of critical design-drivers and correlations across hierarchical levels. (wikipedia.org)
- MVDA may be particularly appropriate for exploring and handling large sets of heterogenous data, mapping data of high dimensionality onto lower dimensional representations, exposing significant correlations among multivariate variables within a single data set or significant correlations among multivariate variables across data sets. (astm.org)
- In the same way, analysts are interested in relations in the data, such as correlations between individual attributes of the multivariate data sets. (tu-darmstadt.de)

###### Inference1

- The first 3/4 of the course will concentrate on "classical" multivariate analysis, i.e, distribution theory and statistical inference based on the multivariate normal distribution. (washington.edu)

###### Probability Inequalities1

- 5. Multivariate probability inequalities and their applications to the power of multivariate tests and multiparameter confidence intervals. (washington.edu)

###### Canonical3

- Discriminant function analysis Repeated measures design Canonical correlation analysis Warne, R. T. (2014). (wikipedia.org)
- You can use principal component analysis to examine relationships among several variables, canonical correlation analysis and maximum redundancy analysis to examine relationships between two sets of interval variables, and canonical discriminant analysis to examine relationships between a nominal variable and a set of interval variables. (sas.com)
- Nonlinear Generalized Canonical Analysis. (powells.com)

###### Data analyses2

- Op basis van multivariate data analyses zijn bijvoorbeeld instelparameters van een productieproces te relateren aan kwaliteitskenmerken van het resulterende product. (tue.nl)
- By doing this unit, you will be able to use multivariate data analyses using a wide-range of data and present in a format for publication. (edu.au)

###### Chapters3

- All chapters include practical exercises that highlight applications in different multivariate data analysis fields, and all the examples involve high to ultra-high dimensions and represent a number of major fields in big data analysis. (springer.com)
- The multivariate chapters conclude with brief step-by-step instructions for conducting multiple regression analysis and one-way ANOVA in Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), and path analysis inAmos, using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS: 88). (indigo.ca)
- Contains the methodological 'tools' of multivariate analysis in chapters 5 through 12. (pearson.com)

###### Regression model3

- Multivariate survival analysis using Cox's regression model. (nih.gov)
- Prognostic factors were analyzed using univariate model and multivariate regression model. (unboundmedicine.com)
- The acquisition of 25 static biomarkers and 48 dynamic signaling measurements at different days in culture, integrating single-cell and population based information, allowed the multivariate regression model to accurately predict CD8+ T-cell age. (mcponline.org)

###### Factor6

- Overview: Factor analysis is used to uncover the latent structure (dimensions) of a set of variables. (wikipedia.org)
- Factor analysis originated a century ago[when? (wikipedia.org)
- For example, integration of drilling and seismic data Factor analysis is part of the general linear model (GLM) family of procedures and makes many of the same assumptions as multiple regression, but it uses multiple outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
- Multivariate Analysis: Factor and Discriminant Analyses. (igi-global.com)
- Data were analyzed using multidimensional scaling and factor analysis. (hindawi.com)
- Principal component analysis denotes a popular algorithmic technique to dimension reduction and factor extraction. (hu-berlin.de)

###### Analyze4

- Focusing on applications this book presents the tools and concepts of multivariate data analysis in a way that is understandable for non-mathematicians and practitioners who need to analyze statistical data. (springer.com)
- And with multivariate data, what we're interested in is really any statistical technique used to analyze data from more than one variable. (coursera.org)
- Choosing Analyze:Multivariate ( Y X ) gives you access to a variety of multivariate analyses . (sas.com)
- Multivariate Data Analysis refers to any statistical technique used to analyze data that arises from more than one variable. (omicsonline.org)

###### Datasets4

- SPICE: exploration and analysis of post-cytometric complex multivariate datasets. (nih.gov)
- Polychromatic flow cytometry results in complex, multivariate datasets. (nih.gov)
- To date, tools for the aggregate analysis of these datasets across multiple specimens grouped by different categorical variables, such as demographic information, have not been optimized. (nih.gov)
- PyMVPA eases statistical learning analyses of large datasets. (ascl.net)

###### Statistical theory1

- Aspects of Multivariate Statistical Theory. (washington.edu)

###### Mathematical2

- This book discusses the mathematical foundations of applied multivariate analysis. (elsevier.com)
- Hi Mathematical and statistical analysis is my thing. (freelancer.com)

###### Introduction3

- Anderson, T. W. is the author of 'Introduction to Multivariate Statistical Analysis', published 2003 under ISBN 9780471360919 and ISBN 0471360910. (valorebooks.com)
- Introduction to Hyperspectral/Multivariate Image Analysis (MIA) starts with a brief review of sources of multivariate images and tools for viewing and investigating them. (eigenvector.com)
- An Introduction to Multivariate Statistical Analysis, Lecture Notes, Indiana University. (washington.edu)

###### Curve Resolution2

- Jeremy J. Andrew and Thomas M. Hancewicz, "Rapid Analysis of Raman Image Data Using Two-Way Multivariate Curve Resolution," Applied Spectroscopy. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Multivariate Curve Resolution (MCR) on images is presented and it is demonstrated how it can be used to create chemical maps. (eigenvector.com)

###### Methodology2

- This book traces the theory and methodology of multivariate statistical analysis and shows how it can be conducted in practice using the LISREL computer program. (springer.com)
- Multivariate data analysis is a powerful statistical methodology made possible in recent years by the availability of increased computing power. (appliedmaterials.com)

###### Theory1

- Dr. Wallentin's program of research is on the theory and applications of latent variable modeling and other types of multivariate statistical analysis, particularly their applications in the social and behavioral sciences. (springer.com)