Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance
Leukemia, Plasma Cell
Bence Jones Protein
Immunoglobulin Light Chains
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14
Tumor Cells, Cultured
Bone Marrow Cells
Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating
Stem Cell Transplantation
Drug Resistance, Neoplasm
Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
Combined Modality Therapy
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4
Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3
In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
Neoplasms, Plasma Cell
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization
Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation
Constitutive activation of Stat3 signaling confers resistance to apoptosis in human U266 myeloma cells. (1/5264)Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is the major survival factor for myeloma tumor cells and induces signaling through the STAT proteins. We report that one STAT family member, Stat3, is constitutively activated in bone marrow mononuclear cells from patients with multiple myeloma and in the IL-6-dependent human myeloma cell line U266. Moreover, U266 cells are inherently resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis and express high levels of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL. Blocking IL-6 receptor signaling from Janus kinases to the Stat3 protein inhibits Bcl-xL expression and induces apoptosis, demonstrating that Stat3 signaling is essential for the survival of myeloma tumor cells. These findings provide evidence that constitutively activated Stat3 signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma by preventing apoptosis. (+info)
Insertion of excised IgH switch sequences causes overexpression of cyclin D1 in a myeloma tumor cell. (2/5264)Oncogenes are often dysregulated in B cell tumors as a result of a reciprocal translocation involving an immunoglobulin locus. The translocations are caused by errors in two developmentally regulated DNA recombination processes: V(D)J and IgH switch recombination. Both processes share the property of joining discontinuous sequences from one chromosome and releasing intervening sequences as circles that are lost from progeny cells. Here we show that these intervening sequences may instead insert in the genome and that during productive IgH mu-epsilon switch recombination in U266 myeloma tumor cells, a portion of the excised IgH switch intervening sequences containing the 3' alpha-1 enhancer has inserted on chromosome 11q13, resulting in overexpression of the adjacent cyclin D1 oncogene. (+info)
Bone marrow angiogenesis and mast cell density increase simultaneously with progression of human multiple myeloma. (3/5264)Immunohistochemical, cytochemical and ultrastructural data showing vivid angiogenesis and numerous mast cells (MCs) in the bone marrow of 24 patients with active multiple myeloma (MM) compared with 34 patients with non-active MM and 22 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) led us to hypothesize that angiogenesis parallels progression of MM, and that MCs participate in its induction via angiogenic factors in their secretory granules. (+info)
Detection of Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus DNA sequences in multiple myeloma bone marrow stromal cells. (4/5264)Whether Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is associated with multiple myeloma (MM) remains controversial. We assayed for KSHV DNA sequences in long-term bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) from 26 patients with MM and 4 normal donors. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers which amplify a KSHV gene sequence to yield a 233-bp fragment (KS330233 within open reading frame 26) was negative in all cases. Aliquots of these PCR products were used as templates in subsequent nested PCR, with primers that amplify a 186-bp product internal to KS330233. BMSCs from 24 of 26 (92%) patients with MM and 1 of 4 normal donors were KSHV PCR+. DNA sequence analyses showed interpatient specific mutations (2 to 3 bp). Both Southern blot and sequence analyses confirmed the specificity of PCR results. The presence of the KSHV gene sequences was further confirmed by amplifying T 1.1 (open reading frame [ORF] K7) and viral cyclin D (ORF 72), two other domains within the KSHV genome. Immunohistochemical studies of KSHV PCR+ MM BMSCs demonstrate expression of dendritic cell (DC) lineage markers (CD68, CD83, and fascin). Serological studies for the presence of KSHV lytic or latent antibodies were performed using sera from 53 MM patients, 12 normal donors, and 5 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/KSHV+ patients. No lytic or latent antibodies were present in sera from either MM patients or normal donors. Taken together, these findings show that KSHV DNA sequences are detectable in BMSCs from the majority of MM patients, but that serologic responses to KSHV are not present. Ongoing studies are defining whether the lack of antibody response is caused by the absence of ongoing infection, the presence of a novel viral strain associated with MM, or underlying immunodeficiency in these patients. (+info)
Bone marrow and peripheral blood dendritic cells from patients with multiple myeloma are phenotypically and functionally normal despite the detection of Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus gene sequences. (5/5264)Multiple myeloma (MM) cells express idiotypic proteins and other tumor-associated antigens which make them ideal targets for novel immunotherapeutic approaches. However, recent reports show the presence of Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) gene sequences in bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDCs) in MM, raising concerns regarding their antigen-presenting cell (APC) function. In the present study, we sought to identify the ideal source of DCs from MM patients for use in vaccination approaches. We compared the relative frequency, phenotype, and function of BMDCs or peripheral blood dendritic cells (PBDCs) from MM patients versus normal donors. DCs were derived by culture of mononuclear cells in the presence of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-4. The yield as well as the pattern and intensity of Ag (HLA-DR, CD40, CD54, CD80, and CD86) expression were equivalent on DCs from BM or PB of MM patients versus normal donors. Comparison of PBDCs versus BMDCs showed higher surface expression of HLA-DR (P =.01), CD86 (P =. 0003), and CD14 (P =.04) on PBDCs. APC function, assessed using an allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR), demonstrated equivalent T-cell proliferation triggered by MM versus normal DCs. Moreover, no differences in APC function were noted in BMDCs compared with PBDCs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of genomic DNA from both MM patient and normal donor DCs for the 233-bp KSHV gene sequence (KS330233) was negative, but nested PCR to yield a final product of 186 bp internal to KS330233 was positive in 16 of 18 (88.8%) MM BMDCs, 3 of 8 (37.5%) normal BMDCs, 1 of 5 (20%) MM PBDCs, and 2 of 6 (33.3%) normal donor PBDCs. Sequencing of 4 MM patient PCR products showed 96% to 98% homology to the published KSHV gene sequence, with patient specific mutations ruling out PCR artifacts or contamination. In addition, KHSV-specific viral cyclin D (open reading frame [ORF] 72) was amplified in 2 of 5 MM BMDCs, with sequencing of the ORF 72 amplicon revealing 91% and 92% homology to the KSHV viral cyclin D sequence. These sequences again demonstrated patient specific mutations, ruling out contamination. Therefore, our studies show that PB appears to be the preferred source of DCs for use in vaccination strategies due to the ready accessibility and phenotypic profile of PBDCs, as well as the comparable APC function and lower detection rate of KSHV gene sequences compared with BMDCs. Whether active KSHV infection is present and important in the pathophysiology of MM remains unclear; however, our study shows that MMDCs remain functional despite the detection of KSHV gene sequences. (+info)
Cell adhesion mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR): role of integrins and resistance to apoptosis in human myeloma cell lines. (6/5264)Integrin-mediated adhesion influences cell survival and may prevent programmed cell death. Little is known about how drug-sensitive tumor cell lines survive initial exposures to cytotoxic drugs and eventually select for drug-resistant populations. Factors that allow for cell survival following acute cytotoxic drug exposure may differ from drug resistance mechanisms selected for by chronic drug exposure. We show here that drug-sensitive 8226 human myeloma cells, demonstrated to express both VLA-4 (alpha4beta1) and VLA-5 (alpha5beta1) integrin fibronectin (FN) receptors, are relatively resistant to the apoptotic effects of doxorubicin and melphalan when pre-adhered to FN and compared with cells grown in suspension. This cell adhesion mediated drug resistance, or CAM-DR, was not due to reduced drug accumulation or upregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members. As determined by flow cytometry, myeloma cell lines selected for drug resistance, with either doxorubicin or melphalan, overexpress VLA-4. Functional assays revealed a significant increase in alpha4-mediated cell adhesion in both drug-resistant variants compared with the drug-sensitive parent line. When removed from selection pressure, drug-resistant cell lines reverted to a drug sensitive and alpha4-low phenotype. Whether VLA-4-mediated FN adhesion offers a survival advantage over VLA-5-mediated adhesion remains to be determined. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that FN-mediated adhesion confers a survival advantage for myeloma cells acutely exposed to cytotoxic drugs by inhibiting drug-induced apoptosis. This finding may explain how some cells survive initial drug exposure and eventually express classical mechanisms of drug resistance such as MDR1 overexpression. (+info)
Overexpression of the receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility (RHAMM) characterizes the malignant clone in multiple myeloma: identification of three distinct RHAMM variants. (7/5264)The receptor for hyaluronan (HA)-mediated motility (RHAMM) controls motility by malignant cells in myeloma and is abnormally expressed on the surface of most malignant B and plasma cells in blood or bone marrow (BM) of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). RHAMM cDNA was cloned and sequenced from the malignant B and plasma cells comprising the myeloma B lineage hierarchy. Three distinct RHAMM gene products, RHAMMFL, RHAMM-48, and RHAMM-147, were cloned from MM B and plasma cells. RHAMMFL was 99% homologous to the published sequence of RHAMM. RHAMM-48 and RHAMM-147 variants align with RHAMMFL, but are characterized by sequence deletions of 48 bp (16 amino acids [aa]) and 147 bp (49 aa), respectively. The relative frequency of these RHAMM transcripts in MM plasma cells was determined by cloning of reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) products amplified from MM plasma cells. Of 115 randomly picked clones, 49% were RHAMMFL, 47% were RHAMM-48, and 4% were RHAMM-147. All of the detected RHAMM variants contain exon 4, which is alternatively spliced in murine RHAMM, and had only a single copy of the exon 8 repeat sequence detected in murine RHAMM. RT-PCR analysis of sorted blood or BM cells from 22 MM patients showed that overexpression of RHAMM variants is characteristic of MM B cells and BM plasma cells in all patients tested. RHAMM also appeared to be overexpressed in B lymphoma and B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. In B cells from normal donors, RHAMMFL was only weakly detectable in resting B cells from five of eight normal donors or in chronically activated B cells from three patients with Crohn's disease. RHAMM-48 was detectable in B cells from one of eight normal donors, but was undetectable in B cells of three donors with Crohn's disease. RHAMM-147 was undetectable in normal and Crohn's disease B cells. In situ RT-PCR was used to determine the number of individual cells with aggregate RHAMM transcripts. For six patients, 29% of BM plasma cells and 12% of MM B cells had detectable RHAMM transcripts, while for five normal donors, only 1. 2% of B cells expressed RHAMM transcripts. This work suggests that RHAMMFL, RHAMM-48, and RHAMM-147 splice variants are overexpressed in MM and other B lymphocyte malignancies relative to resting or in vivo-activated B cells, raising the possibility that RHAMM and its variants may contribute to the malignant process in B-cell malignancies such as lymphoma, CLL, and MM. (+info)
Ibandronate reduces osteolytic lesions but not tumor burden in a murine model of myeloma bone disease. (8/5264)We determined the effects of the potent bisphosphonate ibandronate in a murine model of human myeloma bone disease. In this model, bone lesions typical of the human disease develop in mice following inoculation of myeloma cells via the tail vein. Treatment with ibandronate (4 micrograms per mouse per day) significantly reduced the occurrence of osteolytic bone lesions in myeloma-bearing mice. However, ibandronate did not prevent the mice from developing hindlimb paralysis and did not produce a detectable effect on survival. There was no significant effect of ibandronate on total myeloma cell burden, as assessed by morphometric measurements of myeloma cells in the bone marrow, liver, and spleen, or by measurement of serum IgG2b levels. These results support clinical findings that bisphosphonates may be useful for the treatment of myeloma-associated bone destruction, but suggest that other therapies are also required to reduce tumor growth. (+info)
Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer that affects plasma cells, which are a type of white blood cell that produces antibodies to fight infections. In multiple myeloma, these plasma cells become abnormal and start to multiply uncontrollably, leading to the formation of tumors in the bone marrow and other parts of the body. The abnormal plasma cells also produce large amounts of abnormal antibodies, which can damage healthy tissues and cause a variety of symptoms, including bone pain, fatigue, weakness, and frequent infections. Multiple myeloma can also cause anemia, kidney damage, and hypercalcemia (high levels of calcium in the blood). Treatment for multiple myeloma typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and targeted therapies, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In some cases, a stem cell transplant may also be recommended. The prognosis for multiple myeloma varies depending on the stage of the disease and other factors, but with appropriate treatment, many people with multiple myeloma can live for many years.
Myeloma proteins, also known as monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains or M-proteins, are abnormal proteins produced by plasma cells in the bone marrow of individuals with multiple myeloma. These proteins are usually found in the blood, urine, and/or spinal fluid of people with multiple myeloma and can cause a variety of symptoms, including kidney damage, bone pain, and infections. Myeloma proteins are typically detected through blood tests and can be used to diagnose and monitor the progression of multiple myeloma.
Boronic acids are a class of organic compounds that contain a boron-oxygen bond. They are commonly used in the medical field as reagents in analytical chemistry and in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other bioactive molecules. One of the key properties of boronic acids is their ability to form reversible complexes with diol-containing molecules, such as sugars and other carbohydrates. This property has been exploited in the development of diagnostic tests for diseases such as diabetes and cancer, where changes in the levels of specific sugars in the body can be detected using boronic acid-based assays. Boronic acids are also used in the synthesis of drugs and other bioactive molecules. For example, they can be used to synthesize inhibitors of enzymes that play important roles in the development of diseases such as cancer and Alzheimer's disease. Boronic acids can also be used to synthesize compounds that bind to and stabilize proteins, which can be useful in the development of drugs that target specific proteins. Overall, boronic acids are an important class of compounds in the medical field, with a wide range of applications in analytical chemistry, drug discovery, and the treatment of diseases.
Pyrazines are a class of heterocyclic compounds that contain a five-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms and three carbon atoms. They are commonly found in a variety of natural and synthetic compounds, including some drugs and pesticides. In the medical field, pyrazines have been studied for their potential therapeutic effects. For example, some pyrazines have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, making them potential candidates for the treatment of pain and inflammation. Other pyrazines have been found to have antiviral and antifungal activity, making them potential candidates for the treatment of infections. Pyrazines have also been studied for their potential use as pesticides. Some pyrazines have been found to be effective at controlling pests such as insects and fungi, making them potential candidates for use in agriculture and other industries. Overall, pyrazines are a diverse class of compounds with a range of potential applications in the medical and agricultural fields.
Thalidomide is a medication that was originally developed in the 1950s as a sedative and hypnotic drug. It was later marketed in Europe and other countries under the brand name Contergan to treat morning sickness in pregnant women. However, it was later discovered that thalidomide caused severe birth defects in babies whose mothers took it during pregnancy, including limb abnormalities, craniofacial defects, and heart defects. Thalidomide is now primarily used to treat certain types of cancer, including multiple myeloma, leprosy, and certain skin conditions. It works by suppressing the immune system and reducing inflammation, which can help slow the growth of cancer cells and reduce symptoms of certain conditions. Thalidomide is also used to treat certain blood disorders, such as peripheral artery disease and erythema nodosum leprosum. It is typically administered as a tablet or capsule, and its side effects can include dizziness, drowsiness, constipation, and peripheral neuropathy (numbness or tingling in the hands and feet).
Ajmaline is a medication used in the medical field to treat certain types of arrhythmias, which are abnormal heart rhythms. It works by slowing down the electrical activity in the heart, allowing it to beat more regularly. Ajmaline is typically administered intravenously and is used to diagnose and treat certain types of arrhythmias, such as Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and atrial fibrillation. It is also sometimes used to treat ventricular tachycardia, a type of fast and irregular heartbeat that can be life-threatening.
Melphalan is a chemotherapy drug that is used to treat various types of cancer, including multiple myeloma, ovarian cancer, and breast cancer. It works by interfering with the production of DNA in cancer cells, which prevents them from dividing and growing. Melphalan is usually given intravenously or orally, and its side effects can include nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and an increased risk of infection. It is important to note that Melphalan can be toxic to healthy cells as well, so it is typically used in combination with other medications to minimize side effects and increase its effectiveness.
Paraproteinemias are a group of disorders characterized by the presence of an abnormal amount of one or more paraproteins in the blood. Paraproteins are abnormal proteins produced by plasma cells, which are a type of white blood cell that normally produce antibodies to fight infections. There are several types of paraproteinemias, including multiple myeloma, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer that affects plasma cells and is characterized by the production of large amounts of a single abnormal protein called a monoclonal protein or M protein. Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia is a type of lymphoma that also produces an abnormal protein, but the protein is smaller than the M protein produced in multiple myeloma. MGUS is a condition in which a single clone of abnormal plasma cells produces a small amount of an abnormal protein, but the cells do not cause any symptoms or damage to organs. Paraproteinemias can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on the type and severity of the disorder. Some common symptoms include fatigue, weakness, bone pain, kidney problems, and anemia. Treatment for paraproteinemias depends on the specific type and severity of the disorder, and may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation, or targeted therapies.
Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS) is a condition characterized by the presence of an abnormal protein, called a monoclonal gammopathy, in the blood or urine. The protein is produced by a single clone of abnormal white blood cells, called plasma cells, in the bone marrow. MGUS is considered a premalignant condition, meaning that it has the potential to develop into a more serious disease, such as multiple myeloma or Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. However, most people with MGUS do not experience any symptoms and the condition is often discovered incidentally during a routine blood test. Treatment for MGUS is typically not necessary unless the protein levels become too high or the condition progresses to a more serious disease.
Leukemia, Plasma Cell, also known as Plasma Cell Leukemia (PCL), is a rare and aggressive type of blood cancer that affects the plasma cells, which are a type of white blood cell that produces antibodies to fight infections. In PCL, the plasma cells multiply uncontrollably and accumulate in the bone marrow, leading to a decrease in the production of normal blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. The symptoms of PCL can vary depending on the stage of the disease, but common signs and symptoms include fatigue, weakness, bone pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and anemia. PCL is typically diagnosed through a combination of blood tests, bone marrow biopsy, and imaging studies. Treatment for PCL typically involves chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and stem cell transplantation. The prognosis for PCL is generally poor, with a median survival rate of around 12-18 months. However, advances in treatment have led to some improvements in survival rates for patients with PCL.
A plasmacytoma is a type of cancer that arises from plasma cells, which are a type of white blood cell that produces antibodies. Plasmacytomas are typically found in the bone marrow, but they can also occur in other tissues, such as the lymph nodes, spleen, and soft tissues. There are two main types of plasmacytomas: solitary plasmacytoma and multiple myeloma. Solitary plasmacytoma is a single tumor that arises from a single plasma cell, while multiple myeloma is a more aggressive form of the disease that involves the proliferation of multiple plasma cells in the bone marrow. Plasmacytomas can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on the location and size of the tumor. Some common symptoms include bone pain, fatigue, weakness, and anemia. Treatment for plasmacytomas typically involves chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of both. In some cases, a stem cell transplant may also be recommended.
Dexamethasone is a synthetic glucocorticoid hormone that is used in the medical field as an anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and antipyretic agent. It is a potent corticosteroid that has a wide range of therapeutic applications, including the treatment of allergic reactions, inflammatory diseases, autoimmune disorders, and cancer. Dexamethasone is available in various forms, including tablets, injections, and inhalers, and is used to treat a variety of conditions, such as asthma, COPD, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease. It is also used to treat severe cases of COVID-19, as it has been shown to reduce inflammation and improve outcomes in patients with severe illness. However, dexamethasone is a potent drug that can have significant side effects, including weight gain, fluid retention, high blood pressure, increased risk of infection, and mood changes. Therefore, it is typically prescribed only when other treatments have failed or when the potential benefits outweigh the risks.
Syndecan-1 is a type of cell surface proteoglycan that plays a role in cell adhesion, migration, and signaling. It is expressed on the surface of many different types of cells, including epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. Syndecan-1 is composed of a core protein and a number of covalently attached glycosaminoglycan chains, which give it a complex and dynamic structure. In the medical field, syndecan-1 is of interest because it is involved in a number of different diseases and conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and inflammatory disorders. It is also being studied as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of these conditions.
Bence Jones protein, also known as monoclonal free light chains (MFLC), are abnormal proteins produced by abnormal plasma cells in the blood and urine of patients with multiple myeloma, a type of cancer that affects plasma cells in the bone marrow. These proteins are named after British physician Henry Bence Jones, who first described them in 1848. Bence Jones protein is composed of two types of light chains, kappa and lambda, which are normally produced in pairs by healthy plasma cells. In multiple myeloma, however, plasma cells produce abnormal amounts of only one type of light chain, leading to an excess of that particular type of Bence Jones protein in the blood and urine. The presence of Bence Jones protein in the urine is a common diagnostic test for multiple myeloma, as it is often the first sign of the disease. High levels of Bence Jones protein in the blood can also indicate the presence of multiple myeloma, although other conditions can also cause elevated levels of these proteins. Treatment for multiple myeloma typically involves chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or stem cell transplantation. In some cases, the removal of Bence Jones protein from the blood and urine may also be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
In the medical field, paraproteins refer to abnormal proteins that are produced by the body's plasma cells, which are a type of white blood cell. These proteins are also known as monoclonal proteins or M-proteins. Paraproteins can be either monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) or multiple myeloma. MGUS is a condition in which a person has an abnormal level of paraprotein in their blood, but they do not have any symptoms or signs of cancer. Multiple myeloma, on the other hand, is a type of cancer in which the plasma cells produce large amounts of abnormal paraprotein, which can lead to a variety of symptoms and complications. Paraproteins can be detected through blood tests, and their presence can be an indication of a variety of medical conditions, including MGUS, multiple myeloma, and other types of plasma cell disorders. Treatment for paraproteins depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy.
Immunoglobulin light chains are small protein chains that are produced in association with immunoglobulin heavy chains. They are an essential component of antibodies, which are proteins that play a crucial role in the immune system's defense against pathogens. There are two types of immunoglobulin light chains: kappa (κ) and lambda (λ). These chains are encoded by different genes and have distinct structures and functions. The kappa and lambda light chains are associated with different types of antibodies, and their expression can vary depending on the type of immune response. Immunoglobulin light chains are synthesized in the bone marrow by B cells, which are a type of white blood cell. The light chains are then paired with heavy chains to form complete antibodies, which are secreted by the B cells and circulate in the bloodstream. The antibodies bind to specific antigens on the surface of pathogens, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Immunoglobulin light chains can also be produced by abnormal B cells in certain types of cancer, such as multiple myeloma and lymphoma. In these cases, the light chains can accumulate in the blood and urine, leading to a condition called monoclonal gammopathy. Monoclonal gammopathy can be a precursor to more serious forms of cancer, and it is often monitored by measuring levels of immunoglobulin light chains in the blood.
Osteolysis is a medical condition characterized by the breakdown and destruction of bone tissue. It can occur in various parts of the body, including the bones of the spine, pelvis, and extremities. Osteolysis can be caused by a variety of factors, including infection, inflammation, trauma, and certain medical conditions such as osteoporosis, cancer, and metabolic disorders. It can also be a complication of certain medical treatments, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy. The symptoms of osteolysis may include pain, swelling, and tenderness in the affected area, as well as weakness or instability in the affected joint. In severe cases, osteolysis can lead to the formation of bone cysts or tumors, which can cause further complications. Treatment for osteolysis depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, medications may be used to manage pain and inflammation, while in other cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged bone tissue or stabilize the affected joint. In some cases, physical therapy or other forms of rehabilitation may also be recommended to help improve strength and mobility.
Bone diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the structure, strength, and function of bones. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, hormonal imbalances, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, infections, and injuries. Some common bone diseases include osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, Paget's disease, and bone cancer. Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones that are prone to fractures, especially in the spine, hip, and wrist. Osteogenesis imperfecta is a genetic disorder that causes bones to be abnormally weak and brittle, leading to frequent fractures and deformities. Paget's disease is a chronic disorder that causes bones to become thickened and misshapen due to excessive bone remodeling. Bone cancer, also known as skeletal sarcoma, is a rare type of cancer that starts in the bone or bone marrow. Treatment for bone diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. It may include medications, lifestyle changes, physical therapy, and in some cases, surgery. Early detection and treatment are important for preventing complications and improving outcomes.
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine, a type of signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in the immune system. It is produced by a variety of cells, including immune cells such as macrophages, monocytes, and T cells, as well as non-immune cells such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells. IL-6 has a wide range of functions in the body, including regulating the immune response, promoting inflammation, and stimulating the growth and differentiation of immune cells. It is also involved in the regulation of metabolism, bone metabolism, and hematopoiesis (the production of blood cells). In the medical field, IL-6 is often measured as a marker of inflammation and is used to diagnose and monitor a variety of conditions, including autoimmune diseases, infections, and cancer. It is also being studied as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of these conditions, as well as for the management of chronic pain and other conditions.
Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia (WM) is a rare type of cancer that affects the bone marrow and produces abnormal antibodies called immunoglobulin M (IgM). These antibodies can accumulate in the blood and cause a variety of symptoms, including fatigue, weakness, and frequent infections. WM is typically diagnosed through a combination of blood tests, imaging studies, and a bone marrow biopsy. Treatment options for WM include chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and stem cell transplantation. While WM is a serious condition, it is generally slow-growing and can be managed with effective treatment.
Immunoglobulin kappa-chains are a type of light chain that are found in antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins. They are one of two types of light chains that make up antibodies, the other being immunoglobulin lambda-chains. Immunoglobulin kappa-chains are encoded by the kappa light chain gene, which is located on chromosome 2. They are responsible for binding to specific antigens, or foreign substances, and are an important part of the immune system's defense against infection.
Diphosphonates are a class of medications that are commonly used in the medical field to treat a variety of conditions related to bone health. They work by inhibiting the activity of enzymes that are involved in the breakdown of bone tissue, which can help to slow down the rate of bone loss and reduce the risk of fractures. Diphosphonates are often used to treat osteoporosis, a condition in which the bones become weak and brittle due to a lack of calcium and other minerals. They may also be used to treat Paget's disease of the bone, a condition in which the bones become abnormally thick and weak due to an overproduction of bone tissue. Diphosphonates are typically taken orally in the form of tablets or capsules. They may be prescribed on a short-term or long-term basis, depending on the specific condition being treated and the individual patient's needs. It is important to follow the instructions provided by your healthcare provider carefully when taking diphosphonates, as they can have side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
Vincristine is a chemotherapy drug that is used to treat various types of cancer, including leukemia, lymphoma, and neuroblastoma. It works by interfering with the growth and division of cancer cells, which can slow or stop the growth of tumors. Vincristine is usually administered intravenously, and its side effects can include nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and damage to the nerves that control movement. It is also known by the brand name Oncovin.
Syndecans are a family of transmembrane proteoglycans that are found on the surface of many different types of cells in the human body. They are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including cell adhesion, migration, and signaling. Syndecans are composed of a core protein that is linked to a glycosaminoglycan chain, which is a long chain of sugar molecules. The glycosaminoglycan chain is responsible for the interactions between syndecans and other molecules in the extracellular matrix, such as growth factors and matrix proteins. In the medical field, syndecans are being studied for their potential role in a variety of diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and inflammatory disorders.
Prednisone is a synthetic corticosteroid medication that is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including allergies, autoimmune disorders, inflammatory diseases, and certain types of cancer. It works by reducing inflammation and suppressing the immune system, which can help to reduce symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Prednisone is available in both oral and injectable forms, and it is typically prescribed in doses that are gradually increased or decreased over time, depending on the patient's response to the medication and the specific condition being treated. While prednisone can be effective in treating a wide range of medical conditions, it can also have side effects, including weight gain, mood changes, and increased risk of infections. Therefore, it is important for patients to work closely with their healthcare provider to monitor their response to the medication and adjust the dosage as needed.
Immunoglobulin lambda-chains are a type of light chain found in some immunoglobulins (antibodies) produced by B cells. They are composed of two identical polypeptide chains, each containing about 210 amino acids, and are encoded by the IGL gene locus on chromosome 22. Immunoglobulin lambda-chains are typically associated with the lambda isotype of immunoglobulins, which are a subset of antibodies that have a lambda light chain paired with a heavy chain. These antibodies are produced by a subset of B cells called lambda B cells, and they are involved in the immune response to certain types of pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria. Immunoglobulin lambda-chains are important for the function of lambda immunoglobulins, as they play a role in the binding of antigens and the activation of immune cells. Mutations in the IGL gene locus can lead to the production of abnormal lambda immunoglobulins, which can cause a variety of immune disorders, such as agammaglobulinemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, and autoimmune diseases.
Translocation, genetic refers to a type of chromosomal rearrangement in which a segment of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to a different chromosome or to a different part of the same chromosome. This can result in a variety of genetic disorders, depending on the specific genes that are affected by the translocation. Some examples of genetic disorders that can be caused by translocations include leukemia, lymphoma, and certain types of congenital heart defects. Translocations can be detected through genetic testing, such as karyotyping, and can be important for diagnosing and treating genetic disorders.
Doxorubicin is an anthracycline chemotherapy drug that is used to treat a variety of cancers, including breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and leukemia. It works by interfering with the production of DNA and RNA, which are essential for the growth and division of cancer cells. Doxorubicin is usually administered intravenously, and its side effects can include nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and damage to the heart and kidneys. It is a powerful drug that can be effective against many types of cancer, but it can also have serious side effects, so it is typically used in combination with other treatments or in low doses.
In the medical field, recurrence refers to the reappearance of a disease or condition after it has been treated or has gone into remission. Recurrence can occur in various medical conditions, including cancer, infections, and autoimmune diseases. For example, in cancer, recurrence means that the cancer has come back after it has been treated with surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or other treatments. Recurrence can occur months, years, or even decades after the initial treatment. In infections, recurrence means that the infection has returned after it has been treated with antibiotics or other medications. Recurrence can occur due to incomplete treatment, antibiotic resistance, or other factors. In autoimmune diseases, recurrence means that the symptoms of the disease return after they have been controlled with medication. Recurrence can occur due to changes in the immune system or other factors. Overall, recurrence is a significant concern for patients and healthcare providers, as it can require additional treatment and can impact the patient's quality of life.
Cyclophosphamide is an immunosuppressive drug that is commonly used to treat various types of cancer, including lymphoma, leukemia, and multiple myeloma. It works by inhibiting the growth and division of cells, including cancer cells, and by suppressing the immune system. Cyclophosphamide is usually administered intravenously or orally, and its dosage and duration of treatment depend on the type and stage of cancer being treated, as well as the patient's overall health. Side effects of cyclophosphamide can include nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and an increased risk of infection. It can also cause damage to the kidneys, bladder, and reproductive organs, and may increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer later in life.
Hypergammaglobulinemia is a medical condition characterized by an abnormally high level of gamma globulins, a type of protein found in the blood. Gamma globulins are a component of the immune system and are produced by specialized white blood cells called plasma cells. Hypergammaglobulinemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, autoimmune disorders, certain types of cancer, and genetic disorders. In some cases, the cause of hypergammaglobulinemia may not be identified. Symptoms of hypergammaglobulinemia may include fatigue, weakness, joint pain, and swelling. In some cases, hypergammaglobulinemia may be asymptomatic and be discovered through routine blood tests. Treatment for hypergammaglobulinemia depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, no treatment may be necessary if the condition is asymptomatic. However, if hypergammaglobulinemia is caused by an underlying condition, such as an infection or autoimmune disorder, treatment for that condition may be necessary. In some cases, medications may be used to lower the level of gamma globulins in the blood.
Beta 2-Microglobulin (β2M) is a small protein that is produced by most cells in the body, including immune cells such as T cells and B cells. It is a component of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, which are found on the surface of most cells and are responsible for presenting antigens (foreign substances) to the immune system. In the medical field, β2M is often used as a marker of kidney function. High levels of β2M in the blood can indicate kidney damage or failure, as the kidneys are responsible for removing β2M from the bloodstream. In addition, high levels of β2M have been associated with an increased risk of certain types of cancer, including multiple myeloma and prostate cancer. β2M is also used as a diagnostic tool in the laboratory to help identify and monitor certain diseases and conditions, such as multiple myeloma, autoimmune disorders, and viral infections. It is also used as a component of some types of cancer treatments, such as immunotherapy.
Amyloidosis is a rare disorder characterized by the abnormal accumulation of a protein called amyloid in various tissues and organs of the body. Amyloid is a protein that is normally produced by cells in the body and broken down naturally. However, in amyloidosis, the amyloid protein is produced in excess or is not broken down properly, leading to the formation of abnormal deposits in tissues and organs. The accumulation of amyloid can cause damage to the affected organs and tissues, leading to a range of symptoms and complications depending on the location and severity of the deposits. Common symptoms of amyloidosis include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, swelling in the legs and abdomen, and difficulty breathing. There are several types of amyloidosis, including primary amyloidosis, secondary amyloidosis, and familial amyloidosis. Primary amyloidosis is the most common form and is usually caused by abnormal production of the amyloid protein in the body. Secondary amyloidosis is caused by another underlying medical condition, such as chronic inflammatory diseases or cancer. Familial amyloidosis is an inherited form of the disease that is caused by mutations in certain genes. Treatment for amyloidosis depends on the type and severity of the disease, as well as the underlying cause. Treatment options may include medications to manage symptoms, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation, and supportive care to manage complications.
Disease progression refers to the worsening or progression of a disease over time. It is a natural course of events that occurs in many chronic illnesses, such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Disease progression can be measured in various ways, such as changes in symptoms, physical examination findings, laboratory test results, or imaging studies. In some cases, disease progression can be slowed or stopped through medical treatment, such as medications, surgery, or radiation therapy. However, in other cases, disease progression may be inevitable, and the focus of treatment may shift from trying to cure the disease to managing symptoms and improving quality of life. Understanding disease progression is important for healthcare providers to develop effective treatment plans and to communicate with patients about their condition and prognosis. It can also help patients and their families make informed decisions about their care and treatment options.
Receptors, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) are proteins that are found on the surface of cells in the body. They are responsible for binding to the cytokine Interleukin-6 (IL-6), which is a signaling molecule that plays a role in the immune response and inflammation. When IL-6 binds to its receptor, it triggers a cascade of signaling events within the cell that can lead to a variety of effects, including the activation of immune cells, the production of other cytokines, and the regulation of metabolism. In the medical field, the study of IL-6 receptors is important for understanding the role of IL-6 in various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and inflammatory conditions.
Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3 (FGFR3) is a protein that acts as a receptor for fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), a group of signaling molecules that play important roles in cell growth, differentiation, and development. FGFR3 is expressed in various tissues throughout the body, including bone, cartilage, and brain. In the context of medical research, FGFR3 is a well-studied protein that has been implicated in a number of diseases and conditions. Mutations in the FGFR3 gene have been associated with a number of skeletal disorders, including achondroplasia, the most common form of short-limbed dwarfism in humans. These mutations lead to abnormal bone growth and development, resulting in short stature and other skeletal abnormalities. FGFR3 has also been implicated in other diseases, including bladder cancer, prostate cancer, and certain types of brain tumors. In these cases, abnormal activation of FGFR3 signaling pathways can contribute to the development and progression of cancer. Overall, FGFR3 is an important protein in the regulation of cell growth and development, and its dysfunction can have significant consequences for human health.
Immunoglobulin D (IgD) is a type of immunoglobulin, which is a protein produced by B cells in response to an infection or other foreign substance. It is the least abundant immunoglobulin in the blood, accounting for only about 0.001% of the total immunoglobulin in the body. IgD is primarily found on the surface of mature B cells, where it plays a role in B cell activation and differentiation. It is also involved in the immune response to certain types of bacteria and viruses, and has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. In the medical field, the level of IgD in the blood can be measured as a diagnostic tool for certain conditions, such as autoimmune disorders, infections, and certain types of cancer. It can also be used as a marker of immune function and as a tool for monitoring the effectiveness of certain treatments.
Neoplasm proteins are proteins that are produced by cancer cells. These proteins are often abnormal and can contribute to the growth and spread of cancer. They can be detected in the blood or other body fluids, and their presence can be used as a diagnostic tool for cancer. Some neoplasm proteins are also being studied as potential targets for cancer treatment.
Neoplasms, Plasma Cell, also known as plasma cell neoplasms, are a group of rare blood cancers that affect the plasma cells, which are a type of white blood cell that produces antibodies. These antibodies are important for fighting infections and diseases in the body. There are several types of plasma cell neoplasms, including multiple myeloma, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, and heavy chain diseases. These conditions are characterized by the uncontrolled growth of abnormal plasma cells in the bone marrow, which can lead to a variety of symptoms, including bone pain, fatigue, weakness, and frequent infections. Treatment for plasma cell neoplasms typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and targeted therapies, as well as stem cell transplantation in some cases. The prognosis for these conditions varies depending on the specific type and stage of the disease, as well as the overall health of the patient.
Chromosome aberrations refer to changes or abnormalities in the structure or number of chromosomes in a cell. These changes can occur naturally during cell division or as a result of exposure to mutagens such as radiation or certain chemicals. Chromosome aberrations can be classified into several types, including deletions, duplications, inversions, translocations, and aneuploidy. These changes can have significant effects on the function of the affected cells and can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including cancer, genetic disorders, and birth defects. In the medical field, chromosome aberrations are often studied as a way to understand the genetic basis of disease and to develop new treatments.
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are laboratory-made proteins that can mimic the immune system's ability to fight off harmful pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria. They are produced by genetically engineering cells to produce large quantities of a single type of antibody, which is specific to a particular antigen (a molecule that triggers an immune response). In the medical field, monoclonal antibodies are used to treat a variety of conditions, including cancer, autoimmune diseases, and infectious diseases. They can be administered intravenously, intramuscularly, or subcutaneously, depending on the condition being treated. Monoclonal antibodies work by binding to specific antigens on the surface of cells or pathogens, marking them for destruction by the immune system. They can also block the activity of specific molecules involved in disease processes, such as enzymes or receptors. Overall, monoclonal antibodies have revolutionized the treatment of many diseases, offering targeted and effective therapies with fewer side effects than traditional treatments.
I'm sorry, but I couldn't find any information on a medical term called "Fonofos." It's possible that you may have misspelled the term or that it is not a commonly used term in the medical field. If you have any additional information or context, please let me know and I'll do my best to assist you.
Immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as viruses, bacteria, and toxins. They are Y-shaped molecules that recognize and bind to specific antigens, which are molecules found on the surface of pathogens. There are five main classes of immunoglobulins: IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, and IgE. Each class has a unique structure and function, and they are produced by different types of immune cells in response to different types of pathogens. Immunoglobulins play a critical role in the immune response by neutralizing pathogens, marking them for destruction by other immune cells, and activating the complement system, which helps to destroy pathogens. They are also used in medical treatments, such as immunoglobulin replacement therapy for patients with primary immunodeficiencies, and in the development of vaccines and monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of various diseases.
Lymphoma is a type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system, which is a part of the immune system. It occurs when lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, grow and divide uncontrollably, forming abnormal masses or tumors in the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, or other parts of the body. There are two main types of lymphoma: Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Hodgkin lymphoma is a less common type of lymphoma that typically affects younger adults and has a better prognosis than non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a more common type of lymphoma that can affect people of all ages and has a wide range of outcomes depending on the specific subtype and the stage of the disease. Symptoms of lymphoma can include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, weight loss, fatigue, and itching. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of physical examination, blood tests, imaging studies, and a biopsy of the affected tissue. Treatment for lymphoma depends on the subtype, stage, and overall health of the patient. It may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. In some cases, a stem cell transplant may also be necessary.
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the body's immune system. It is the most abundant antibody in the mucous membranes, which line the surfaces of the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts. IgA is produced by plasma cells in the bone marrow and is secreted into the bloodstream and mucous membranes. It is particularly important in protecting against infections in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, where it helps to neutralize and eliminate pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. IgA can also be found in tears, saliva, and breast milk, where it provides protection against infections in the eyes, mouth, and digestive tract. In addition, IgA plays a role in the immune response to certain types of cancer and autoimmune diseases. Overall, IgA is a critical component of the body's immune system and plays a vital role in protecting against infections and diseases.
Hematologic neoplasms are a group of disorders that affect the blood and bone marrow, including the production of blood cells. These disorders are characterized by the abnormal growth and proliferation of blood cells, which can lead to an overproduction of certain types of blood cells (such as leukemias) or a deficiency of certain types of blood cells (such as anemia). Hematologic neoplasms can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can affect people of all ages. Some common types of hematologic neoplasms include leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and myelodysplastic syndromes. Treatment for hematologic neoplasms typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or stem cell transplantation.
Osteonecrosis is a medical condition characterized by the death of bone tissue due to a lack of blood supply to the bone. It can occur in any bone in the body, but it is most commonly seen in the femoral head (the ball-shaped portion of the hip joint) and the upper end of the tibia (the shinbone). Osteonecrosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including trauma, alcohol abuse, long-term use of corticosteroids, and certain medical conditions such as sickle cell disease and hypercoagulability disorders. The condition can also occur spontaneously, without an apparent cause. Symptoms of osteonecrosis may include pain in the affected bone, difficulty walking or bearing weight, and swelling or tenderness in the affected area. In some cases, osteonecrosis may be asymptomatic and only discovered through imaging tests such as X-rays or MRI. Treatment for osteonecrosis depends on the severity and location of the affected bone, as well as the underlying cause of the condition. Options may include medications to reduce pain and inflammation, physical therapy, and surgery to remove damaged bone or to fuse the joint. In some cases, a hip or knee replacement may be necessary.
In the medical field, oxides refer to compounds that contain oxygen and another element. These compounds can be found in various forms, such as minerals, gases, and solids, and they play important roles in various biological processes. For example, calcium oxide (CaO) is a common oxide that is used in the treatment of acid reflux and ulcers. It works by neutralizing stomach acid and forming a protective layer on the stomach lining. Another example is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is a powerful oxidizing agent that is used in wound care to kill bacteria and promote healing. In addition to their therapeutic uses, oxides are also important in the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions. For example, the measurement of blood oxygen levels is a critical part of respiratory and cardiovascular monitoring, and the use of oxygen therapy is a common treatment for patients with respiratory distress. Overall, oxides play important roles in many aspects of medicine, from the treatment of specific conditions to the diagnosis and monitoring of patients.
Multiple Myeloma Research Consortium
Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation
International Myeloma Foundation
Charles Freeman Geschickter
Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune
Mangum Mound Site
Scott Hamilton (figure skater)
Kenneth C. Anderson (physician)
Deaths in August 2012
Immunomodulatory imide drug
Hematological Cancer Research Investment and Education Act
Multiple myeloma: MedlinePlus Genetics
Treating Progressive Multiple Myeloma: Talking to Your Doctor
Fast Five Quiz: Multiple Myeloma
Coping With Multiple Myeloma | Cancer Support Community
Fatal Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome after SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination in Patient with Multiple Myeloma - Volume 27, Number 11...
Kirron Kher diagnosed with multiple myeloma, undergoing treatment
Study of Combination PS-341 and Thalidomide in Multiple Myeloma
Multiple Myeloma: Chaired by Thomas G. Martin, MD
Playing to Win: Tad Chance's Journey with Multiple Myeloma
Article Metrics] Cloudy corneas as an initial presentation of multiple myeloma | OPTH
FDA Approved Pepaxto for Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma
WHO EMRO | Review: Multiple myeloma of the central nervous system: a clinicopathological review | Volume 15, issue 6 | EMHJ...
Paper: Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Multiple Myeloma By Single Cell Mass Cytometry (CyTOF)
Innovative strategies help fight multiple myeloma: What every exec should know
Multiple Myeloma Cancer Support Group - Smith Center for Healing and the Arts
Whether it is always necessary to have bmt for multiple myeloma? | HealthTap Online Doctor
Network meta-analysis of randomized trials in multiple myeloma efficacy and safety in frontline therapy for patients not...
Classification of symptom subtypes in patients with multiple myeloma during treatment: a cross-sectional survey study in China ...
Tetraspanin 7 (TSPAN7) expression is upregulated in multiple myeloma patients and inhibits myeloma tumour development in vivo. ...
Israeli breakthroughs credited for early progress in treating multiple myeloma - Israel Cancer Research Fund
2019 MIPS Measure #069: Hematology: Multiple Myeloma: Treatment with Bisphosphonates | MDinteractive
Plasmacytoma Infiltrating Leiomyoma in Multiple Myeloma
Understanding Multiple Myeloma: Dr. Faith Davis from UAMS | UAMS Winthrop P. Rockefeller Cancer Institute
Multiple Myeloma Differential Diagnoses
Cancer Immunotherapy with Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T Cells: Overview, CAR T-Cell Structure, Clinical Experience
Multiple Myeloma: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology
Multiple Myeloma - Blood Disorders - MSD Manual Consumer Version
Saad Z. Usmani, MD, MBA, FACP - MSK Myeloma Specialist & Cellular Therapist
Refractory multiple myeloma3
- Mr Hossain, describe the quality of life for a patient with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. (pharmacytimes.com)
- Oncopeptides AB), an alkylating drug, for the treatment, in combination with dexamethasone, of adults with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who have received ≥4 lines of therapy and whose disease is triple-refractory to ≥1 proteasome inhibitors, 1 immunomodulatory drug, and 1 CD-38-directed monoclonal antibody. (ahdbonline.com)
- Of 157 patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma, 97 patients had triple-refractory disease and had received ≥4 lines of therapy. (ahdbonline.com)
Progression of multiple myeloma2
- Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy in which monoclonal plasma cells proliferate in bone marrow, resulting in an overabundance of monoclonal paraprotein (M protein), destruction of bone, and displacement of other hematopoietic cell lines. (medscape.com)
- Bone marrow aspirate demonstrating plasma cells of multiple myeloma. (medscape.com)
- Multiple myeloma typically starts in the bone marrow, which is the birthplace of new blood cells and specifically is impacted by antibody-producing white blood cells known as plasma cells. (jnj.com)
- Multiple myeloma often causes anemia (low red blood count), issues with bone and calcium, kidney damage or failure, and frequent infections. (rockymountaincancercenters.com)
- Multiple myeloma is the second most common blood cancer and develops in the bone marrow. (reachmd.com)
- What do I need to do after a bone marrow transplantation for myeloma? (healthtap.com)
- Multiple myeloma is a cancer of plasma cells in which abnormal plasma cells multiply uncontrollably in the bone marrow and occasionally in other parts of the body. (msdmanuals.com)
- In multiple myeloma, typically the majority of bone marrow elements are cancerous plasma cells. (msdmanuals.com)
- A vital pathophysiological characteristic of MM is the progress of osteolytic lesions, which are brought on by interactions between myeloma cells and the bone marrow microenvironment. (bvsalud.org)
- MMPs , certainly, are one of the fundamental causes of myeloma bone disease due to their ability to degrade various types of collagens. (bvsalud.org)
Patients with myeloma2
- In general, the first decision made in the management of patients with myeloma who require systemic therapy is whether stem cell transplantation is part of the strategy. (medscape.com)
- The Utah-based scientists developed CAR T cells that target a molecule, CD229, that is present on the cancer cells of patients with myeloma throughout the course of their disease. (reachmd.com)
- When the additional blood work came back, she sent me for an oncology appointment, where I was diagnosed with multiple myeloma. (rockymountaincancercenters.com)
- AbbVie will not exercise its exclusive licensing option for Harpoon Therapeutics ' HPN217 program, being developed for the treatment of multiple myeloma, the immuno-oncology biotech announced Wednesday. (pharmalive.com)
- Major advances have occurred over the past two decades in treating multiple myeloma, and these advances are progressing rapidly today, says Gerry Messerschmidt, MD, FACP, chief medical officer of Precision Oncology . (managedhealthcareexecutive.com)
- As a clinical oncologist and an executive with a leading oncology development provider specializing in clinical trial execution, biomarker services, and analytics, Messerschmidt is tuned into the changes in the myeloma landscape. (managedhealthcareexecutive.com)
- NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology, Multiple Myeloma Version 3.2016. (medscape.com)
- Multiple myeloma is a debilitating malignancy that is part of a spectrum of diseases ranging from monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS) to plasma cell leukemia. (medscape.com)
- Multiple myeloma (MM) remains an incurable plasma cell (PC) malignancy. (confex.com)
- ABSTRACT Multiple myeloma (MM) is a systemic malignancy of pathologic plasma cells that is treatable with chemotherapeutic agents and irradiation, but rarely curable. (who.int)
Standard investigative workup1
- Consensus recommendations for standard investigative workup: report of the International Myeloma Workshop Consensus Panel 3. (medscape.com)
- Too many patients with cancers like multiple myeloma relapse after treatment. (reachmd.com)
- Other options for progressive multiple myeloma may include chemotherapy or radiation to kill cancer cells. (healthline.com)
- Adding thalidomide to a standard regimen of high-dose chemotherapy in patients with the cancer multiple myeloma improved complete responses but did not give any advantage in five-year survival, according to a study published in the New England Journal of Medicine (March 9). (pharmatimes.com)
- In the present study, the levels of apoptosis were analyzed in dexamethasone‑sensitive (MM.1S), dexamethasone‑resistant (U266) and chemotherapy‑sensitive (RPMI 8226) myeloma cell lines. (spandidos-publications.com)
- If you've been diagnosed with a blood cancer, such as leukemia, lymphoma or multiple myeloma, and have questions about your treatment plan, or if you're interested in a second opinion on your diagnosis, call us or chat online with a member of our team. (cancercenter.com)
- In August 2021, Tad received a diagnosis he couldn't watch from the sidelines: stage 2 IgG kappa multiple myeloma . (rockymountaincancercenters.com)
- In December 2021, after ending RVD treatment, Tad received a stem cell transplant, a common procedure for people with multiple myeloma. (rockymountaincancercenters.com)
Combination with dexamethasone1
- Some participants with multiple myeloma will receive CFT7455 in combination with dexamethasone. (mskcc.org)
- The study was led by Djordje Atanackovic, MD, a physician-scientist at HCI and an associate professor of internal medicine, division of hematology and hematologic malignancies at the U of U, who cares for patients with multiple myeloma. (reachmd.com)
- This work's proposal is to analyse the perception of elders with Multiple Myeloma on their autonomy during treatment at the hematology ambulatory of the Clinics Hospital of the Federal University of Goiás. (bvsalud.org)
- Patients with multiple myeloma who are undergoing systemic treatment can see improvements from exercise, a recent study shows. (curetoday.com)
- All transplant-eligible multiple myeloma patients should receive a triplet induction therapy (immunomodulatory agents, proteasome inhibitor and dexamethasone). (medscape.com)
- PARIS - April 19, 20 21 - Today, the European Commission (EC) approved Sarclisa ® (isatuximab) in combination with carfilzomib and dexamethasone (Kd) for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed multiple myeloma who have received at least one prior therapy. (sanofi.com)
- The purpose of this study is to find the highest dose of the investigational drug CFT7455 that can be given safely in people with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) or multiple myeloma that has come back or continued to grow despite treatment. (mskcc.org)
- It is unknown why only men drinking higher amounts of diet soda showed increased risk for multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. (trialx.com)
- The treatment of MM remains unsatisfactory and new agents that specifically target key signaling pathways required for myeloma growth or survival are urgently required. (spandidos-publications.com)
- The study of 668 patients with newly-diagnosed multiple myeloma compared treatment with two courses of Celgene's Alkeran (melphalan) to the combination of Alkeran and Celgene's Thalomid brand of thalidomide alongside autologous stem cell transplantation. (pharmatimes.com)
- Last year, Celgene was forced to discontinue a trial of a thalidomide derivative - Revlimid (lenalidomide) - in multiple myeloma patients after patients developed blood clots. (pharmatimes.com)
- People with multiple myeloma typically develop the disorder around age 65. (medlineplus.gov)
- Patients who present with active (symptomatic) multiple myeloma are treated with induction therapy. (medscape.com)
- Treatment protocols for multiple myeloma are provided below. (medscape.com)
- Learning that treatment didn't work for your multiple myeloma or that your cancer has come back after a period of remission can be challenging. (healthline.com)
- Here's what you can ask your doctor about progressive multiple myeloma treatment options. (healthline.com)
- Veteran actress Kirron Kher has been diagnosed with multiple myeloma, a cancer of plasma cells, and is undergoing treatment. (assamtribune.com)
- The latter drug was approved for another haematological disease, myelodysplastic syndromes - in December 2005, and has been fast-tracked as a multiple myeloma treatment by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (pharmatimes.com)
- In 2005, the FDA issued an approvable letter for Thalomid in the treatment of multiple myeloma, asking for additional information on the drug. (pharmatimes.com)
- Participants must have NHL or multiple myeloma that has come back or continued to grow despite previous treatment. (mskcc.org)
- Melphalan flufenamide is the first peptide-drug conjugate approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma. (ahdbonline.com)
- This means more therapy, more often, and thus, potential financial ramifications for payers of myeloma treatment," Messerschmidt said. (managedhealthcareexecutive.com)
- This grim reality motivated researchers at Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI) at the University of Utah (U of U) to try to improve the depth and durability of treatment response in multiple myeloma through a new cancer cell targeting mechanism. (reachmd.com)
- Importantly, CD229 is also present on myeloma stem cells, which are the source of treatment-resistant tumor cells in patients who relapse. (reachmd.com)
- Treatment for relapsed myeloma? (healthtap.com)
- Myeloma today: Disease definitions and treatment advances. (medscape.com)
- Treatment of newly diagnosed myeloma. (medscape.com)
- In healthy people, plasma cells make antibodies to multiple targets, protecting patients against all types of infections. (jnj.com)
- Nongenetic factors that increase the risk of developing multiple myeloma include previous radiation therapy or other radiation exposure. (medlineplus.gov)
- The approval of new drugs continues to change the landscape of myeloma maintenance therapy. (medscape.com)
- This involves taking a low dose targeted therapy drug or corticosteroid to prevent the myeloma from coming back. (healthline.com)
- The healthcare executive must rely on hematologists and pharmacists to review, discuss, and recommend the drugs and procedures for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma through last therapy. (managedhealthcareexecutive.com)
- They hope to open clinical trials to further understand the potential of CD229 as a novel therapy for multiple myeloma. (reachmd.com)
- 6‑O‑angeloylplenolin (6‑OAP) is a sesquiterpene lactone agent that has been previously demonstrated to inhibit the growth of multiple myeloma (MM) cells through mitotic arrest with accumulated cyclin B1. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors in multiple myeloma: promote or inhibit? (bvsalud.org)
- She recalls telling others about her diagnosis and having to correct them when they misunderstood and thought she had melanoma, a form of skin cancer, rather than myeloma, a type of blood cancer. (jnj.com)
- The type of multiple myeloma diagnosis one receives is based on the immunoglobulin (protein) made by the myeloma cell (a white blood cell). (rockymountaincancercenters.com)
- The most widely accepted schema for the diagnosis of multiple myeloma (MM) uses particular combinations of laboratory, imaging, and procedure findings as diagnostic criteria. (medscape.com)
- Frailty score predicts outcome in transplant-ineligible patients with newly diagnosed myeloma and is incorporated into the staging criteria. (medscape.com)
- Multiple myeloma (MM) or plasma cell myeloma is a malignant disorder characterized by the accumulation of differentiated B cells (plasma cells). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Johnson & Johnson has been dedicated to developing innovative treatments for multiple myeloma for nearly 20 years and is committed to working toward its goal of one day eliminating the disease. (jnj.com)
- Multiple myeloma may not cause any noticeable symptoms until the disease is advanced. (jnj.com)
- Research has shown melphalan flufenamide to be a novel and innovative therapeutic option, which is active in refractory disease and has manageable toxicity, with the convenience of being administered by infusion once a month," said Paul G. Richardson, MD, Director of Clinical Research at the Jerome Lipper Multiple Myeloma Center, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. (ahdbonline.com)
- Thanks to advances in research and several new treatments, people diagnosed with multiple myeloma are living better and longer than ever before. (cancersupportcommunity.org)
- Multiple myeloma is characterized by abnormalities in plasma cells, a type of white blood cell. (medlineplus.gov)
- Somatic mutations, which are genetic changes that are not inherited but occur during an individual's lifetime in certain cells (in this case the plasma cells), have been identified in people with multiple myeloma. (medlineplus.gov)
- Mutations in these genes may interfere with proper control (regulation) of cell growth and division (proliferation), resulting in the excessive proliferation of plasma cells that characterizes multiple myeloma. (medlineplus.gov)
- In patients with multiple myeloma, however, plasma cells grow abnormally in an uncontrolled fashion, rendering the cells cancerous. (jnj.com)
- Multiple myeloma (MM) is a cancer of the plasma cells. (who.int)
- They confirmed their hypothesis CD229 CAR T kills mature multiple myeloma cells, as well as myeloma stem cells, using a mouse model, as well as stem cells derived from myeloma patients. (reachmd.com)
- This monthly support group is designed for adult patients/survivors diagnosed with Multiple Myeloma and their caregivers. (smithcenter.org)
- Although there's no current cure for this type of cancer, it's possible to live with multiple myeloma and manage your symptoms well. (healthline.com)
- Close relatives of people with multiple myeloma have an increased risk of developing it themselves, suggesting that inherited variations in certain genes may contribute to the development of the disorder in some individuals. (medlineplus.gov)
- Although its cause is not certain, the increased occurrence of multiple myeloma among close relatives indicates that heredity plays a role. (msdmanuals.com)
- But having progressive multiple myeloma doesn't mean you can't achieve remission again. (healthline.com)
- Smoldering multiple myeloma had been diagnosed 1.5 years before, but no laboratory abnormalities had been found in his most recent hospital visit 5 months earlier. (cdc.gov)
- Many newer drugs are also in development to treat multiple myeloma and will be arriving on the market this year and over the next several years. (managedhealthcareexecutive.com)
- The average age of people with multiple myeloma is about 70 years. (msdmanuals.com)
- Exposure to certain chemicals including benzene has also been found to increase myeloma risk. (medlineplus.gov)
- Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the apoptotic effect of 6-OAP against human myeloma cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
- 6-OAP induces apoptosis in multiple myeloma (MM) cells, as detected by DNA fragmentation assay. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Developed using Harpoon's proprietary TriTAC technology, HPN217 targets the B-cell maturation antigen, a protein highly and specifically expressed on myeloma cells. (pharmalive.com)
- Laboratory tests using mouse models and tumor cells from patients displayed promising results for this novel cellular immunotherapy for multiple myeloma and other types of blood cancer. (reachmd.com)
- The study builds on earlier work by Atanackovic and his colleagues in which they identified CD229 as present on multiple myeloma and other B cell cancer cells. (reachmd.com)
- This review focuses on the role of MMP -1, MMP -2, MMP -7, MMP -9, MMP -13, MMP -14, and MMP -15 and the four types of TIMPs in the invasion of myeloma cells , angiogenesis, osteolytic osteopathy, to offer some novel perspectives on the clinical diagnostics and therapeutics of MM. (bvsalud.org)
- The statement reads: "Just so that rumours don't get the better of a situation Sikandar and I would like to inform everyone that Kirron has been diagnosed with multiple myeloma, a type of blood cancer. (assamtribune.com)
- As one can see from the above, the preferred diet for myeloma patients has much in common with that for diabetic patients-important to target a steady blood sugar. (trialx.com)
- The word "multiple" refers to the cancer's tendency to accumulate in different parts of the body. (cancercenter.com)
- Your doctor can refer you to a clinical trial specialist to see whether you're eligible to participate in studies related to multiple myeloma. (healthline.com)
- As new scientific advancements occur at the genetic and protein levels, more strategies have been developed to identify and combat multiple myeloma. (managedhealthcareexecutive.com)
- The company will share interim results from the candidate's Phase I study at the upcoming International Myeloma Society (IMS) Annual Meeting, scheduled for Sept. 28, Eastland said. (pharmalive.com)
- A prospective, international phase 2 study of bortezomib retreatment in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma. (medscape.com)
- Tad's type, IgG Kappa, is the most common type of multiple myeloma. (rockymountaincancercenters.com)
- Total cost of care for multiple myeloma can be significantly affected by selection of dosing regimen. (pharmacytimes.com)
- Researchers from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSK) in New York City and MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, examined if acupuncture could help manage symptom burden of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) in patients with multiple myeloma. (curetoday.com)