A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Protein domains that are enriched in PROLINE. The cyclical nature of proline causes the peptide bonds it forms to have a limited degree of conformational mobility. Therefore the presence of multiple prolines in close proximity to each other can convey a distinct conformational arrangement to a peptide chain.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The asymmetrical segregation of genes during replication which leads to the production of non-reciprocal recombinant strands and the apparent conversion of one allele into another. Thus, e.g., the meiotic products of an Aa individual may be AAAa or aaaA instead of AAaa, i.e., the A allele has been converted into the a allele or vice versa.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A species of protozoa that is a cause of bovine babesiosis. Ticks of the genera Boophilus, Rhipicephalus, and IXODES are the chief vectors.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glycine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A family of proline-rich proteins that constitute the majority of the protein component of SALIVA. Salivary proline-rich proteins occur as acidic, basic and glycosylated basic proteins. They perform a variety of functions such as adhering to the acquired ENAMEL PELLICLE, acting as lubricants and precipitating TANNINS.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
The functional hereditary units of protozoa.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria whose organisms are obligate parasites of vertebrates. Species are transmitted by arthropod vectors with the host range limited to ruminants. Anaplasma marginale is the most pathogenic species and is the causative agent of severe bovine anaplasmosis.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Keratins that form into a beta-pleated sheet structure. They are principle constituents of the corneous material of the carapace and plastron of turtles, the epidermis of snakes and the feathers of birds.
A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.
A group of alcohol-soluble seed storage proteins from the endosperm of corn.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.
Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.
Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Multinucleate cells or a stage in the development of sporozoan protozoa. It is exemplified by the life cycle of PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM in the MALARIA infection cycle.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Cells or feeding stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. In the malarial parasite, the trophozoite develops from the MEROZOITE and then splits into the SCHIZONT. Trophozoites that are left over from cell division can go on to form gametocytes.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
A species of gram-negative bacteria that is the causative agent of human EHRLICHIOSIS. This organism was first discovered at Fort Chaffee, Arkansas, when blood samples from suspected human ehrlichiosis patients were studied.
Two-dimensional separation and analysis of nucleotides.
A family of snakes comprising three subfamilies: Azemiopinae (the mountain viper, the sole member of this subfamily), Viperinae (true vipers), and Crotalinae (pit vipers). They are widespread throughout the world, being found in the United States, Central and South America, Europe, Asia and Africa. Their venoms act on the blood (hemotoxic) as compared to the venom of elapids which act on the nervous system (neurotoxic). (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp333-36)
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
Animals that have no spinal column.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins found in any species of algae.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.
A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.
A portion of the animal phylum Chordata comprised of the subphyla CEPHALOCHORDATA; UROCHORDATA, and HYPEROTRETI, but not including the Vertebrata (VERTEBRATES). It includes nonvertebrate animals having a NOTOCHORD during some developmental stage.
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).
Two identical genes showing the same phenotypic action but localized in different regions of a chromosome or on different chromosomes. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
Constituent of the 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 120 nucleotides and 34 proteins. It is also a constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.
An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.
A family of insect viruses isolated from endoparasitic hymenopteran insects belonging to the families Ichneumonidae and Braconidae. The two genera are Ichnovirus and Bracovirus.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of AMP to IMP. EC 3.5.4.6.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Family of calcium- and phospholipid-binding proteins which are structurally related and exhibit immunological cross-reactivity. Each member contains four homologous 70-kDa repeats. The annexins are differentially distributed in vertebrate tissues (and lower eukaryotes) and appear to be involved in MEMBRANE FUSION and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A large family of transmembrane proteins found in TIGHT JUNCTIONS. They take part in the formation of paracellular barriers and pores that regulate paracellular permeability.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
A species of PLASMODIUM causing malaria in rodents.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The reciprocal exchange of segments at corresponding positions along pairs of homologous CHROMOSOMES by symmetrical breakage and crosswise rejoining forming cross-over sites (HOLLIDAY JUNCTIONS) that are resolved during CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION. Crossing-over typically occurs during MEIOSIS but it may also occur in the absence of meiosis, for example, with bacterial chromosomes, organelle chromosomes, or somatic cell nuclear chromosomes.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.
Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A group (or class) of aquatic plants, including the streptophyte algae, that are the closest relatives to land plants (EMBRYOPHYTA).
A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.
The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Diseases of plants.
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Proteins found in any species of helminth.

The cardiac homeobox gene Csx/Nkx2.5 lies genetically upstream of multiple genes essential for heart development. (1/13607)

Csx/Nkx2.5 is a vertebrate homeobox gene with a sequence homology to the Drosophila tinman, which is required for the dorsal mesoderm specification. Recently, heterozygous mutations of this gene were found to cause human congenital heart disease (Schott, J.-J., Benson, D. W., Basson, C. T., Pease, W., Silberbach, G. M., Moak, J. P., Maron, B. J., Seidman, C. E. and Seidman, J. G. (1998) Science 281, 108-111). To investigate the functions of Csx/Nkx2.5 in cardiac and extracardiac development in the vertebrate, we have generated and analyzed mutant mice completely null for Csx/Nkx2.5. Homozygous null embryos showed arrest of cardiac development after looping and poor development of blood vessels. Moreover, there were severe defects in vascular formation and hematopoiesis in the mutant yolk sac. Interestingly, TUNEL staining and PCNA staining showed neither enhanced apoptosis nor reduced cell proliferation in the mutant myocardium. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated that, among 20 candidate genes examined, expression of ANF, BNP, MLC2V, N-myc, MEF2C, HAND1 and Msx2 was disturbed in the mutant heart. Moreover, in the heart of adult chimeric mice generated from Csx/Nkx2.5 null ES cells, there were almost no ES cell-derived cardiac myocytes, while there were substantial contributions of Csx /Nkx2.5-deficient cells in other organs. Whole-mount &bgr;-gal staining of chimeric embryos showed that more than 20% contribution of Csx/Nkx2. 5-deficient cells in the heart arrested cardiac development. These results indicate that (1) the complete null mutation of Csx/Nkx2.5 did not abolish initial heart looping, (2) there was no enhanced apoptosis or defective cell cycle entry in Csx/Nkx2.5 null cardiac myocytes, (3) Csx/Nkx2.5 regulates expression of several essential transcription factors in the developing heart, (4) Csx/Nkx2.5 is required for later differentiation of cardiac myocytes, (5) Csx/Nkx2. 5 null cells exert dominant interfering effects on cardiac development, and (6) there were severe defects in yolk sac angiogenesis and hematopoiesis in the Csx/Nkx2.5 null embryos.  (+info)

Characterization of an amphioxus paired box gene, AmphiPax2/5/8: developmental expression patterns in optic support cells, nephridium, thyroid-like structures and pharyngeal gill slits, but not in the midbrain-hindbrain boundary region. (2/13607)

On the basis of developmental gene expression, the vertebrate central nervous system comprises: a forebrain plus anterior midbrain, a midbrain-hindbrain boundary region (MHB) having organizer properties, and a rhombospinal domain. The vertebrate MHB is characterized by position, by organizer properties and by being the early site of action of Wnt1 and engrailed genes, and of genes of the Pax2/5/8 subfamily. Wada and others (Wada, H., Saiga, H., Satoh, N. and Holland, P. W. H. (1998) Development 125, 1113-1122) suggested that ascidian tunicates have a vertebrate-like MHB on the basis of ascidian Pax258 expression there. In another invertebrate chordate, amphioxus, comparable gene expression evidence for a vertebrate-like MHB is lacking. We, therefore, isolated and characterized AmphiPax2/5/8, the sole member of this subfamily in amphioxus. AmphiPax2/5/8 is initially expressed well back in the rhombospinal domain and not where a MHB would be expected. In contrast, most of the other expression domains of AmphiPax2/5/8 correspond to expression domains of vertebrate Pax2, Pax5 and Pax8 in structures that are probably homologous - support cells of the eye, nephridium, thyroid-like structures and pharyngeal gill slits; although AmphiPax2/5/8 is not transcribed in any structures that could be interpreted as homologues of vertebrate otic placodes or otic vesicles. In sum, the developmental expression of AmphiPax2/5/8 indicates that the amphioxus central nervous system lacks a MHB resembling the vertebrate isthmic region. Additional gene expression data for the developing ascidian and amphioxus nervous systems would help determine whether a MHB is a basal chordate character secondarily lost in amphioxus. The alternative is that the MHB is a vertebrate innovation.  (+info)

Molecular chaperones: small heat shock proteins in the limelight. (3/13607)

Small heat shock proteins have been the Cinderellas of the molecular chaperone world, but now the crystal structure of a small heat shock protein has been solved and mutation of two human homologues implicated in genetic disease. Intermediate filaments appear to be one of the key targets of their chaperone activity.  (+info)

TIF1gamma, a novel member of the transcriptional intermediary factor 1 family. (4/13607)

We report the cloning and characterization of a novel member of the Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 1 (TIF1) gene family, human TIF1gamma. Similar to TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, the structure of TIF1beta is characterized by multiple domains: RING finger, B boxes, Coiled coil, PHD/TTC, and bromodomain. Although structurally related to TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, TIF1gamma presents several functional differences. In contrast to TIF1alpha, but like TIF1beta, TIF1 does not interact with nuclear receptors in yeast two-hybrid or GST pull-down assays and does not interfere with retinoic acid response in transfected mammalian cells. Whereas TIF1alpha and TIF1beta were previously found to interact with the KRAB silencing domain of KOX1 and with the HP1alpha, MODI (HP1beta) and MOD2 (HP1gamma) heterochromatinic proteins, suggesting that they may participate in a complex involved in heterochromatin-induced gene repression, TIF1gamma does not interact with either the KRAB domain of KOX1 or the HP1 proteins. Nevertheless, TIF1gamma, like TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, exhibits a strong silencing activity when tethered to a promoter. Since deletion of a novel motif unique to the three TIF1 proteins, called TIF1 signature sequence (TSS), abrogates transcriptional repression by TIF1gamma, this motif likely participates in TIF1 dependent repression.  (+info)

Molecular phylogeny of the ETS gene family. (5/13607)

We have constructed a molecular phylogeny of the ETS gene family. By distance and parsimony analysis of the ETS conserved domains we show that the family containing so far 29 different genes in vertebrates can be divided into 13 groups of genes namely ETS, ER71, GABP, PEA3, ERG, ERF, ELK, DETS4, ELF, ESE, TEL, YAN, SPI. Since the three dimensional structure of the ETS domain has revealed a similarity with the winged-helix-turn-helix proteins, we used two of them (CAP and HSF) to root the tree. This allowed us to show that the family can be divided into five subfamilies: ETS, DETS4, ELF, TEL and SPI. The ETS subfamily comprises the ETS, ER71, GABP, PEA3, ERG, ERF and the ELK groups which appear more related to each other than to any other ETS family members. The fact that some members of these subfamilies were identified in early metazoans such as diploblasts and sponges suggests that the diversification of ETS family genes predates the diversification of metazoans. By the combined analysis of both the ETS and the PNT domains, which are conserved in some members of the family, we showed that the GABP group, and not the ERG group, is the one most closely related to the ETS group. We also observed that the speed of accumulation of mutations in the various genes of the family is highly variable. Noticeably, paralogous members of the ELK group exhibit strikingly different evolutionary speed suggesting that the evolutionary pressure they support is very different.  (+info)

ETO-2, a new member of the ETO-family of nuclear proteins. (6/13607)

The t(8;21) is associated with 12-15% of acute myelogenous leukemias of the M2 subtype. The translocation results in the fusion of two genes, AML1 (CBFA2) on chromosome 21 and ETO (MTG8) on chromosome 8. AML1 encodes a DNA binding factor; the ETO protein product is less well characterized, but is thought to be a transcription factor. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of ETO-2, a murine cDNA that encodes a new member of the ETO family of proteins. ETO-2 is 75% identical to murine ETO and shares very high sequence identities over four regions of the protein with ETO (domain I-III and zinc-finger). Northern analysis identifies ETO-2 transcripts in many of the murine tissues analysed and in the developing mouse embryo. ETO-2 is also expressed in myeloid and erythroid cell lines. We confirmed the nuclear localization of ETO-2 and demonstrated that domain III and the zinc-finger region are not required for nuclear localization. We further showed that a region within ETO, containing domain II, mediates dimerization among family members. This region is conserved in the oncoprotein AML-1/ETO. The recent identification of another ETO-like protein, myeloid translocation gene-related protein 1, together with the data presented here, demonstrates that at least three ETO proteins exist with the potential to form dimers in the cell nucleus.  (+info)

Isolation of zebrafish gdf7 and comparative genetic mapping of genes belonging to the growth/differentiation factor 5, 6, 7 subgroup of the TGF-beta superfamily. (7/13607)

The Growth/differentiation factor (Gdf) 5, 6, 7 genes form a closely related subgroup belonging to the TGF-beta superfamily. In zebrafish, there are three genes that belong to the Gdf5, 6, 7 subgroup that have been named radar, dynamo, and contact. The genes radar and dynamo both encode proteins most similar to mouse GDF6. The orthologous identity of these genes on the basis of amino acid similarities has not been clear. We have identified gdf7, a fourth zebrafish gene belonging to the Gdf5, 6, 7 subgroup. To assign correct orthologies and to investigate the evolutionary relationships of the human, mouse, and zebrafish Gdf5, 6, 7 subgroup, we have compared genetic map positions of the zebrafish and mammalian genes. We have mapped zebrafish gdf7 to linkage group (LG) 17, contact to LG9, GDF6 to human chromosome (Hsa) 8 and GDF7 to Hsa2p. The radar and dynamo genes have been localized previously to LG16 and LG19, respectively. A comparison of syntenies shared among human, mouse, and zebrafish genomes indicates that gdf7 is the ortholog of mammalian GDF7/Gdf7. LG16 shares syntenic relationships with mouse chromosome (Mmu) 4, including Gdf6. Portions of LG16 and LG19 appear to be duplicate chromosomes, thus suggesting that radar and dynamo are both orthologs of Gdf6. Finally, the mapping data is consistent with contact being the zebrafish ortholog of mammalian GDF5/Gdf5.  (+info)

Analysis of two cosmid clones from chromosome 4 of Drosophila melanogaster reveals two new genes amid an unusual arrangement of repeated sequences. (8/13607)

Chromosome 4 from Drosophila melanogaster has several unusual features that distinguish it from the other chromosomes. These include a diffuse appearance in salivary gland polytene chromosomes, an absence of recombination, and the variegated expression of P-element transgenes. As part of a larger project to understand these properties, we are assembling a physical map of this chromosome. Here we report the sequence of two cosmids representing approximately 5% of the polytenized region. Both cosmid clones contain numerous repeated DNA sequences, as identified by cross hybridization with labeled genomic DNA, BLAST searches, and dot matrix analysis, which are positioned between and within the transcribed sequences. The repetitive sequences include three copies of the mobile element Hoppel, one copy of the mobile element HB, and 18 DINE repeats. DINE is a novel, short repeated sequence dispersed throughout both cosmid sequences. One cosmid includes the previously described cubitus interruptus (ci) gene and two new genes: that a gene with a predicted amino acid sequence similar to ribosomal protein S3a which is consistent with the Minute(4)101 locus thought to be in the region, and a novel member of the protein family that includes plexin and met-hepatocyte growth factor receptor. The other cosmid contains only the two short 5'-most exons from the zinc-finger-homolog-2 (zfh-2) gene. This is the first extensive sequence analysis of noncoding DNA from chromosome 4. The distribution of the various repeats suggests its organization is similar to the beta-heterochromatic regions near the base of the major chromosome arms. Such a pattern may account for the diffuse banding of the polytene chromosome 4 and the variegation of many P-element transgenes on the chromosome.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Localization of the osteocalcin gene cluster on mouse Chromosome 3. AU - Desbois, C.. AU - Seldin, Michael F. AU - Karsenty, G.. PY - 1994/5. Y1 - 1994/5. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0028427906&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0028427906&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1007/BF00389550. DO - 10.1007/BF00389550. M3 - Article. C2 - 7915557. AN - SCOPUS:0028427906. VL - 5. SP - 321. EP - 322. JO - Mammalian Genome. JF - Mammalian Genome. SN - 0938-8990. IS - 5. ER - ...
Full Text - The B7-CD28 gene family plays a key role in regulating cellular immunity and is closely related to tumorigenesis and immune evasion. Here, we explored associations between clinical and immune features and B7-CD28 gene family expression in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets representing 1812 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. This included 414 in the GSE10846 training cohort and 470 and 928 patients in the GSE31312 and GSE117556 validation cohorts, respectively. Four survival-associated genes identified in the GSE10846 cohort by univariate Cox analysis were incorporated into a multivariate analysis, ultimately establishing a three-gene risk signature. Risk scores assigned based on expression of these genes were validated by Kaplan–Meier and multivariable Cox analyses in the remaining datasets and in important clinical subsets. High-risk patients had shorter overall survival and, in some cases, progression-free survival than low-risk patients. Additionally, expression
The ParaHox gene cluster is an array of homeobox genes (involved in morphogenesis, the regulation of patterns of anatomical development) from the Gsx, Xlox (Pdx) and Cdx gene families. These genes were first shown to be arranged into a physically-linked chromosomal cluster in amphioxus, an invertebrate with a single member of each of the three gene families. All the ParaHox genes in the amphioxus genome are therefore in the ParaHox gene cluster. In contrast, the human genome has six ParaHox genes (GSX1, GSX2, PDX1, CDX1, CDX2, CDX4), of which three genes (GSX1, PDX1 (=IPF1), CDX2) are physically linked to form a human ParaHox gene cluster on chromosome 13. Mouse has a homologous ParaHox gene cluster on chromosome 5. The other three human ParaHox genes are remnants from duplicated ParaHox gene clusters that were generated in the 2R genome duplications at the base of vertebrate evolution. Some vertebrates, notably chondrichthyan fish and coelacanths, have retained an additional ParaHox gene ...
Coronary artery disease (CAD) in many ways is an inflammatory disease. Inflammation plays an important role in the formation of atheroma which ultimately graduates to atheromatous injury, plaque rupture and...
DNA sequence polymorphism was determined for the microcin V gene cluster encoded on the microcin V plasmids of 12 natural isolates of Escherichia coli. These microcin V gene clusters are similar in DNA sequence, with only 10 of the 683 bp polymorphic. Further, the levels and patterns of microcin V gene cluster polymorphism differ from those of a chromosomal region, trpORF2, sequenced from each of the host isolates. These contrasting levels and patterns of polymorphism suggest that the microcin V gene cluster has experienced an evolutionary history different from that of the host ...
LEPIQUE, A. P.; ARMELIN, Hugo Aguirre. Acth regulares fos and jun families expression through transcriptional control but not C-myc in y-1 adrenocortical cells. Anais.. São Paulo: SBBQ, 1997 ...
A paraHox gene cluster has been described recently in Amphioxus. We show here using bioinformatics and cytogenetics that, as the probable result of the duplication of an ancestral paraHox gene cluster, human paraHOX genes are located in four paralogous regions of the genome, on chromosomes 4, 5, 13 …
J:29934 Williams R, Lendahl U, Lardelli M, Complementary and combinatorial patterns of Notch gene family expression during early mouse development. Mech Dev. 1995 Nov;53(3):357-68 ...
Differences in gene family size when comparing the initial chimpanzee assembly (Pan_troglodytes-1.0) to an updated version (Pan_troglodytes-2.1).Positive number
This gene is part of a gene cluster on chromosome Xp11.23. The encoded protein contains a zinc finger motif often found in transcriptional regulators, however, its exact
Prokaryotic genes associated with a specific function are often grouped together in contiguous regions of the genome known as gene clusters [1]. Many of the functions encoded in these clusters are of interest to biotechnology [2]. Unfortunately, gene clusters are frequently subject to complex and highly redundant host regulation. However, through a process known as refactoring, gene clusters can be recoded to systematically eliminate native regulation [2]. This process of refactoring aims to reduce the overall complexity of genetic systems and allows them to be tailored for a particular purpose. The term refactoring is borrowed from computer science and refers to the alteration of a programs underlying code without changing its functionality [2]. This term was first applied in biology to describe the top-down approach of simplifying the phage T7 genome [3], but it is used here to refer to the bottom-up approach of eliminating native regulation of gene clusters and replacing it with ...
Please Note, The ebooks are not always PDF format, you might receive epub/kindle formats after purchase. This is Digital Version of (Ebook) 978-3
The following table provides a functional overview of the MSigDB gene sets by categorizing their genes into a small number of carefully chosen gene families. To categorize the genes in a gene set, use the gene set page or the Investigate Gene Sets page.. Click on a gene family or gene family intersection to retrieve annotations for those genes.. ...
The following table provides a functional overview of the MSigDB gene sets by categorizing their genes into a small number of carefully chosen gene families. To categorize the genes in a gene set, use the gene set page or the Investigate Gene Sets page.. Click on a gene family or gene family intersection to retrieve annotations for those genes.. ...
mouse Cnih protein: Cnih - cornichon-like; member of the cornichon multigene family; C; involved in EGF signaling; RefSeq NM_009919
This is the same as my fic on FF.net, though, to follow forum rules, I decided to combine some of the shorter chapters. Rating: G(may go up later, I dunno) Short Summary: The Elite Four opens a challenge to those who want to join their ranks. Ash is included, of course, but if he loses just once to a single member, everything that he stands for as a trainer will be taken away from him! DISCLAIMER:I dont own Pokemon or its related characters. -Might as well put in a Table of Contents.
The Bonfiglioli Group maintains a high level of commitment to its workforce and colleagues, because every single member of our team represents an important resource for us.
You and your family can take steps right now and become Least Vulnerable People. Here are 15 things you can stop doing and start doing that will make
BackgroundSystemic inflammation is accepted as one of the pathophysiological mechanisms of atrial fibrillation (AF). The role of inflammation has been shown previously. Interleukin (IL) system is the main modulator of the inflammatory responses and genetic polymorphisms of IL-1 cluster genes are associated with increased risk for inflammatory diseases. ObjectivesTo investigate the association between polymorphisms of IL-1 cluster genes and lone AF. Subjects and MethodsDNA samples were collected from 70 proven lone AF patients and 70 healthy subjects. Genomic DNA was typed for the variable number of the tandem repeat (VNTR) IL-1 receptor antagonist (RN) gene polymorphism, IL-1B -511 C , T(rs16944) promoter polymorphism, and +3953 C , T(rs1143634) polymorphism in exon 5 by polymerase chain reaction. ResultsIn lone AF group the frequency of IL-1RN2/2 and IL-1RN1/2 genotypes were higher than in the control group (7.2% vs 4.3% and 48.5% vs 22.8%, respectively; (2) = 14.1; P = 0.028). The frequency of ...
The posterior genes of the HoxD cluster play a crucial role in the patterning of the tetrapod limb. This region is under the control of a global, long-range enhancer that is present in all vertebrates. Variation in limb types, as is the case in amphibians, can probably not only be attributed to variation in Hox genes, but is likely to be the product of differences in gene regulation. With a collection of vertebrate genome sequences available today, we used a comparative genomics approach to study the posterior HoxD cluster of amphibians. A frog and a caecilian were included in the study to compare coding sequences as well as to determine the gain and loss of putative regulatory sequences. We sequenced the posterior end of the HoxD cluster of a caecilian and performed comparative analyses of this region using HoxD clusters of other vertebrates. We determined the presence of conserved non-coding sequences and traced gains and losses of these footprints during vertebrate evolution, with particular focus on
Interleukin-1 family member 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL1F10 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. This cytokine is thought to participate in a network of interleukin 1 family members to regulate adapted and innate immune responses. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been reported. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000136697 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000046845 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Bensen JT, Dawson PA, Mychaleckyj JC, Bowden DW (Dec 2001). Identification of a novel human cytokine gene in the interleukin gene cluster on chromosome 2q12-14. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 21 (11): 899-904. doi:10.1089/107999001753289505. PMID 11747621. Taylor SL, Renshaw BR, Garka KE, Smith DE, Sims JE (May 2002). Genomic ...
Histones are the major protein component of nucleosomes, and de novo histone synthesis is essential for packaging newly replicated DNA into chromatin. As a result, histone gene expression is exquisitely and functionally coupled with DNA replication. Vastly divergent organisms such as yeast, fly and human all demonstrate the phylogenetically conserved propensity to maintain clustering of histone genes at one or more genomic loci. Although specific mechanisms are unclear, clustering is presumed to be important for common stringent transcriptional control of these genes at the G1/S phase transition. In this study, we describe a genomic duplication of the human histone gene cluster located at chromosome 1q21, which effectively doubles the previously known size and gene number of that cluster. The duplication persists in all examined tissues and cell lines, and the duplicated genes are transcriptionally active. Levels of messenger RNAs for duplicated histone H4 genes are high relative to those for non
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the 2nd leading cause of cancer death among men in the U.S. No accurate biomarkers exist and therapeutic options are limited for advanced PCa. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs, act as negative regulators of gene expression. MiRNAs have recently emerged as promising therapeutic tools for cancers. It is poorly understood how they function to promote cancer progression. We found miR-888 was involved with PCa progression. miR-888 belongs to a genomic cluster on human chromosome Xq27.3, linked to hereditary PCa. I hypothesized additional members of this cluster (miR-892c, -890, -892a, -892b, -891b, -891a) function to promote PCa progression. Our lab profiled miR-888 cluster expression in paired syngenic human PCa cell lines (RWPE1 & WPE1-NB26, LNCaP & C4-2, PC3-N & PC3-ML) differing in metastatic status and androgen response. We noted that the miR-888 cluster was preferentially elevated in metastatic PC3-ML and under-expressed in non-aggressive PC3-N cells. I ...
Gene-order-based comparison of multiple genomes provides signals for functional analysis of genes and the evolutionary process of genome organization. Gene clusters are regions of co-localized genes on genomes of different species. The rapid increase in sequenced genomes necessitates bioinformatics tools for finding gene clusters in hundreds of genomes. Existing tools are often restricted to few (in many cases, only two) genomes, and often make restrictive assumptions such as short perfect conservation, conserved gene order or monophyletic gene clusters. We present Gecko 3, an open-source software for finding gene clusters in hundreds of bacterial genomes, that comes with an easy-to-use graphical user interface. The underlying gene cluster model is intuitive, can cope with low degrees of conservation as well as misannotations and is complemented by a sound statistical evaluation. To evaluate the biological benefit of Gecko 3 and to exemplify our method, we search for gene clusters in a dataset ...
A Correction to the Research Article Titled: Identification of the miR-106b~25 MicroRNA Cluster as a Proto-Oncogenic PTEN-Targeting Intron That Cooperates with Its Host Gene MCM7 in Transformation by L. Poliseno, L. Salmena, L. Riccardi, A. Fornari, M. S. Song, R. M. Hobbs, P. Sportoletti, S. Varmeh, A. Egia, G. Fedele, L. Rameh, M. Loda, P. P. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Functional dissection of HOXD cluster genes in regulation of neuroblastoma cell proliferation and differentiation. AU - Zha, Yunhong. AU - Ding, Emily. AU - Yang, Liqun. AU - Mao, Ling. AU - Wang, Xiangwei. AU - McCarthy, Brian A.. AU - Huang, Shuang. AU - Ding, Hanfei. PY - 2012/8/7. Y1 - 2012/8/7. N2 - Retinoic acid (RA) can induce growth arrest and neuronal differentiation of neuroblastoma cells and has been used in clinic for treatment of neuroblastoma. It has been reported that RA induces the expression of several HOXD genes in human neuroblastoma cell lines, but their roles in RA action are largely unknown. The HOXD cluster contains nine genes (HOXD1, HOXD3, HOXD4, and HOXD8-13) that are positioned sequentially from 3′ to 5′, with HOXD1 at the 3′ end and HOXD13 the 5′ end. Here we show that all HOXD genes are induced by RA in the human neuroblastoma BE(2)-C cells, with the genes located at the 3′ end being activated generally earlier than those positioned more ...
Creative Biostructure provides custom gene-to-structure services for membrane protein families, unveiling the structures, functions and pharmaceutical properties.
18940666] Characterization of the alnumycin gene cluster reveals unusual gene products for pyran ring formation and dioxan biosynthesis. (Chem Biol. , 2008 ...
A new, expressed multigene family containing a hot spot for insertion of retroelements is associated with polymorphic subtelomeric regions of Trypanosoma ...
The fitness and evolution of prokaryotes and eukaryotes are affected by the organization of their genomes. In particular, the physical clustering of genes can coordinate gene expression and can prevent the breakup of co-adapted alleles. Although clustering may thus result from selection for phenotype optimization and persistence, the impact of environmental selection pressures on eukaryotic genome organization has rarely been systematically explored. Here, we investigated the organization of fungal genes involved in the degradation of phenylpropanoids, a class of plant-produced secondary metabolites that mediate many ecological interactions between plants and fungi. Using a novel gene cluster detection method, we identified 1110 gene clusters and many conserved combinations of clusters in a diverse set of fungi. We demonstrate that congruence in genome organization over small spatial scales is often associated with similarities in ecological lifestyle. Additionally, we find that while clusters ...
Prokaryotic genes associated with a specific function are often grouped together in contiguous regions of the genome known as gene clusters [1]. Many of the functions encoded in these clusters are of potential interest to synthetic biology. Unfortunately, gene clusters are frequently subject to complex and highly redundant host regulation [1]. Furthermore, there may be no laboratory conditions known that allow for expression of these clusters. However, through a process known as refactoring, gene clusters can be recoded to systematically eliminate native regulation [2]. This process of refactoring aims to reduce the overall complexity of genetic systems and allows them to be tailored for a particular purpose. The term refactoring is borrowed from computer science and refers to the alteration of a programs underlying code without changing its functionality [2]. This term was first applied in biology to describe the top-down approach of simplifying the phage T7 genome [3], but it is used here ...
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Zinc finger genes represent a large multigene family present in mammalian and other genomes. A subgroup of these genes contain a conserved motif, the KRAB domain, at the NH2-terminal region, which was recently shown to ...
Complete information for [email protected] gene (Gene Cluster), Protocadherin Alpha Cluster, Complex Locus, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
17158935] Cloning and characterization of the pyrrolomycin biosynthetic gene clusters from Actinosporangium vitaminophilum ATCC 31673 and Streptomyces sp. strain UC 11065. (Antimicrob Agents Chemother. , 2007 ...
The following is a list of institutions and organizations represented by Individual Members as. To Search the ISSFAL Database of Members, you must be an ISSFAL Member and be granted access to the Members Only Section.. ...
Evidence for Cu(I) clusters and Zn(II) clusters in neuronal growth-inhibitory factor isolated from bovine brain.: Neuronal growth-inhibitory factor (GIF), a cen
The Cluster Analysis is an explorative analysis that tries to identify structures within the data. Cluster analysis is also called segmentation analysis.
In the Cluster Portfolio Allocation post, I have outlined the 3 steps to construct Cluster Risk Parity portfolio. At each rebalancing period: Create Clusters
Clustering is a powerful new feature in Tableau 10 that allows you to easily group similar dimension members. This post shows how to do a cluster analysis.
Page contains details about high-nuclearity Ln26 clusters . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
K9s is a simple terminal UI for interacting with your Kubernetes clusters. Help this project grow by running it and testing out its features!
We analyse chromosome location of H3 and H4 histone gene clusters by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) in 35 species of Acrididae grasshoppers belonging to seven subfamilies. As in other organ
The rice pathogenic fungus Fusarium fujikuroi is known to produce a large variety of secondary metabolites. Besides the gibberellins, causing the bakanae effect in infected rice seedlings, the fungus produces several mycotoxins and pigments. Among the 47 putative secondary metabolite gene clusters identified in the genome of F. fujikuroi, the fumonisin gene cluster (FUM) shows very high homology t ...
The rice pathogenic fungus Fusarium fujikuroi is known to produce a large variety of secondary metabolites. Besides the gibberellins, causing the bakanae effect in infected rice seedlings, the fungus produces several mycotoxins and pigments. Among the 47 putative secondary metabolite gene clusters identified in the genome of F. fujikuroi, the fumonisin gene cluster (FUM) shows very high homology t ...
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Li, Y., Tan, W., Neo, T.W.L., Tan, T.M.C., Aung, M.O., Wasser, S., Lim, S.G. (2009). Role of the miR-106b-25 microRNA cluster in hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Science 100 (7) : 1234-1242. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1349-7006.2009.01164. ...
Aspergillus fumigatus is a major human pathogen that causes hundreds of thousands of infections yearly with high mortality rates. In contrast, Aspergillus fischeri and the recently described Aspergillus oerlinghausenensis, the two species most closely related to A. fumigatus, are not known to be pathogenic. Some of the cards of virulence that A. fumigatus possesses are secondary metabolites that impair the host immune system, protect from host immune cell attacks, or acquire key nutrients. Secondary metabolites and the biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) that typically encode them often vary within and between fungal species. To gain insight into whether secondary metabolism-associated cards of virulence vary between A. fumigatus, A. oerlinghausenensis, and A. fischeri, we conducted extensive genomic and secondary metabolite profiling analyses. By analyzing multiple A. fumigatus, one A. oerlinghausenensis, and multiple A. fischeri strains, we identified both conserved and diverged secondary ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules of each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) form an octamer, around which approximately 146 bp of DNA is wrapped in repeating units, called nucleosomes. The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher order structures. This gene is intronless and encodes a member of the histone H4 family. Transcripts from this gene lack polyA tails but instead contain a palindromic termination element. This gene is found in the large histone gene cluster on chromosome 6 ...
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed ...
This gene is a member of the protocadherin beta gene cluster, one of three related gene clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. The gene clusters demonstrate an unusual genomic organization similar to that of B-cell and T-cell receptor gene clusters. The beta cluster contains 16 genes and 3 pseudogenes, each encoding 6 extracellular cadherin domains and a cytoplasmic tail that deviates from others in the cadherin superfamily. The extracellular domains interact in a homophilic manner to specify differential cell-cell connections. Unlike the alpha and gamma clusters, the transcripts from these genes are made up of only one large exon, not sharing common 3 exons as expected. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins are integral plasma membrane proteins. Their specific functions are unknown but they most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell neural connections. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Fusarielins are polyketides with a decalin core produced by various species of Aspergillus and Fusarium. Although the responsible gene cluster has been identified, the biosynthetic pathway remains to be elucidated. In the present study, members of the gene cluster were deleted individually in a Fusarium graminearum strain overexpressing the local transcription factor. The results suggest that a trans-acting enoyl reductase (FSL5) assists the polyketide synthase FSL1 in biosynthesis of a polyketide product, which is released by hydrolysis by a trans-acting thioesterase (FSL2). Deletion of the epimerase (FSL3) resulted in accumulation of an unstable compound, which could be the released product. A novel compound, named prefusarielin, accumulated in the deletion mutant of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase FSL4. Unlike the known fusarielins from Fusarium, this compound does not contain oxygenized decalin rings, suggesting that FSL4 is responsible for the oxygenation.
Plasma shock waves are some of the most spectacular, visually striking and energetic events in the Universe (Image 1). Generated by the explosion of stars (supernovae) or induced by stellar winds (Image 2), they can have a number of important effects. Plasma shock waves are some of the most spectacular, visually striking and energetic events in the Universe (Image 1). Generated by the explosion of stars (supernovae) or induced by stellar winds...
beta-Globins: Members of the beta-globin family. In humans, they are encoded in a gene cluster on CHROMOSOME 11. They include epsilon-globin, gamma-globin, delta-globin and beta-globin. There is also a pseudogene of beta (theta-beta) in the gene cluster. Adult HEMOGLOBIN is comprised of two ALPHA-GLOBIN chains and two beta-globin chains.
Gene family identification from ESTs can be a valuable resource for analysis of genome evolution but presents unique challenges in organisms for which the entire genome is not yet sequenced. We have developed a novel gene family identification method based on negative selection patterns (NSP) between family members to screen EST-generated contigs. This strategy was tested on five known gene families in Arabidopsis to see if individual paralogs could be identified with accuracy from EST data alone when compared to the actual gene sequences in this fully sequenced genome. The NSP method uniquely identified family members in all the gene families tested. Two members of the FtsH gene family, three members each of the PAL, RF1, and ribosomal L6 gene families, and four members of the CAD gene family were correctly identified. Additionally all ESTs from the representative contigs when checked against MapViewer data successfully identify the gene locus predicted. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the NSP
The exploration of the ancestral history, the phylogeny, of different species can raise valuable information about their evolution. One approach for the reconstruction of phylogenetic scenarios or for the comparison of genomes is the examination of the genetic material on the level of the DNA, RNA or protein sequences. Another possibility is to study the genomic structure. On this higher level, one commonly considers the order of the genes within the genome. Evolutionary processes can modify a genome structurally and rearrange its gene order. The gene composition of some regions, however, is preserved and can be found in several related genomes. These segments and the contained genes are denoted as gene clusters. Studies revealed that such conserved regions often comprise functionally or phylogenetically related genes. The identification and comparison of gene clusters can therefore give valuable hints on their function or the evolution of genes. Various formal definitions of gene clusters based ...
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PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Gianpiero Di Leva, Pierluigi Gasparini, Claudia Piovan, Apollinaire Ngankeu, Michela Garofalo, Cristian Taccioli, Marilena V. Iorio, Meng Li, Stefano Volinia, Hansjuerg Alder, Tatsuya Nakamura, Gerard Nuovo, Yunlong Liu, Kenneth P. Nephew, Carlo M. Croce ...
P.2205 left column: Gene Duplications: Much of the genomes of flies and worms consists of duplicated genes [investigators] next asked how these paralogs are arranged. The frequency of local gene duplications and the number of their constituent genes differ widely between fly and worm, although in both genomes most paralogs are dispersed. The fly genome contains half the number of local gene duplications relative to C. elegans (ref 4), and these gene clusters are distributed randomly along the chromosome arms in C. elegans there is a concentration of gene duplications in the recombinogenic segments of the autosomal arms (ref 1). In both organisms, approximately 70% of duplicated gene pairs are on the same strand (306 out of 417 for D. melanogaster and 581 out of 826 for C. elegans ...
Versatile fermentation equipment is available allowing multiplexed screening for optimal production conditions as well as upscaling in bioreactors of medium size up to the 100-liter scale. Feeding studies are performed to increase production yields and, in cases, where gene cluster sequences are known, cloning of strong regulators in front of the cluster can be instrumental.. ...
Microbial genomes encode numerous biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) that may produce natural products with diverse applications in medicine, agriculture, the environment, and materials science. With the advent of genome sequencing and bioinformatics, heterologous expression of BGCs is of increasing …
Homeobox (HOX) genes are contributed in the genetic control of development of the body plan, pattern formation, and cell fate determination and the other several key developmental processes. HOX genes are also known as selector genes because expression within a given section of the embryo will cause its cells to choose ...
Sarah L. Howard, Aparna Jagannathan, Evelyn C. Soo, Joseph P. M. Hui, Annie J. Aubry, Imran Ahmed, Andrey Karlyshev, John F. Kelly, Michael A. Jones, Mark P. Stevens, Susan M. Logan, Brendan W. Wren ...
A rock song about DNA Duplication before Cell Division, binary fission & mitosis. Lyrics, free mp3 download & chapter summary notes.
Complete information for [email protected] gene (Gene Cluster), Immunoglobulin Lambda Variable Cluster, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
specifies that, when two clusters are joined, each must have at least n members in order for either cluster to be designated a modal cluster. If you specify MODE=1, each cluster must also have a maximum density greater than the fusion density in order for either cluster to be designated a modal cluster. Use the MODE= option only with METHOD=DENSITY or METHOD=TWOSTAGE. With METHOD=TWOSTAGE, the MODE= option affects the number of modal clusters formed. With METHOD=DENSITY, the MODE= option does not affect the clustering process but does determine the number of modal clusters reported on the output and identified by the _MODE_ variable in the output data set. If you specify the K= option, the default value of MODE= is the same as the value of K= because the use of kth-nearest-neighbor density estimation limits the resolution that can be obtained for clusters with fewer than k members. If you do not specify the K= option, the default is MODE=2. If you specify MODE=0, the default value is used ...
After performing small experiments on a patient with electrodes temporarily implanted in his brain, Stanford researchers have pinpointed two nerve clusters that play a crucial role in the brains ability to distinguish one face from another
TY - JOUR. T1 - MS/MS networking guided analysis of molecule and gene cluster families. AU - Don Duy Nguyen, [No Value]. AU - Wu, Cheng-Hsuan. AU - Moree, Wilna J.. AU - Lamsa, Anne. AU - Medema, Marnix H.. AU - Zhao, Xiling. AU - Gavilan, Ronnie G.. AU - Aparicio, Marystella. AU - Atencio, Librada. AU - Jackson, Chanaye. AU - Ballesteros, Javier. AU - Sanchez, Joel. AU - Watrous, Jeramie D.. AU - Phelan, Vanessa V.. AU - van de Wiel, Corine. AU - Kersten, Roland D.. AU - Mehnaz, Samina. AU - De Mot, Rene. AU - Shank, Elizabeth A.. AU - Charusanti, Pep. AU - Nagarajan, Harish. AU - Duggan, Brendan M.. AU - Moore, Bradley S.. AU - Bandeira, Nuno. AU - Palsson, Bernhard O.. AU - Pogliano, Kit. AU - Gutierrez, Marcelino. AU - Dorrestein, Pieter C.. PY - 2013/7/9. Y1 - 2013/7/9. N2 - The ability to correlate the production of specialized metabolites to the genetic capacity of the organism that produces such molecules has become an invaluable tool in aiding the discovery of biotechnologically ...
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Lets say the armrest is broken in your vintage car. As things stand, you would need a lot of luck and persistence to find the right spare part. But in the world of Industrie 4.0 and production with batch sizes of one, you can simply scan the armrest and print it out. This is made possible by the first ever 3D scanner capable of working autonomously and in real time. The autonomous scanning system will be on display at the Hannover Messe Preview on February 6 and at the Hannover Messe proper from April 23 to 27, 2018 (Hall 6, Booth A30). ...
Tiny Earth plans to sequence hundreds of genomes from antimicrobial-producing soil microbes and identify novel biosynthetic gene clusters.
Medema, M. H., Kottmann, R., Yilmaz, P., Cummings, M., Biggins, J. B., Blin, K., de Bruijn, I., Chooi, Y. H., Claesen, J., Coates, R. C., Cruz-Morales, P., Duddela, S., et al. Minimum information about a biosynthetic gene cluster Nature Chemical Biology 2015 11:625-631 PMID:26284661 ...
Sherson S, Gy I, Medd J, Schmidt R, Dean C, Kreis M, Lecharny A, Cobbett C: The arabinose kinase, ARA1, gene of Arabidopsis is a novel member of the galactose kinase gene family. ...
The PCDHGC3 gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene…
Free Essay: CLUSTERING TECHNIQUES Clustering or Cluster analysis is defined as the process of organizing objects into groups whose members are similar in...
Pink, lighter reverse. Fuchsia pink. Moderate fragrance. Average diameter 3″. Double (17-25 petals), in large clusters bloom form ...
Up and Running with Excel Cluster Analysis | 146MB Duration: 1h 10m | Video: AVC (.mp4) 1280x720 15fps | Audio: AAC 44.1KHz 1ch Genre: eLearning | Level: Advanced | Language: English Up and
Ly-49 Multigene Family. New Members Of A Superfamily Of Type II Membrane Proteins With Lectin-Like Domains. [3], Smith, H, F ... "Ly-49 Multigene Family Expressed By IL-2-Activated NK Cells.". Karlhofer, F., Orihuela, M. and Yokoyama, W., 1995. Ly-49- ... Takei's lab continued working on other members of this family. They showed that each member of this family of highly ... The Ly-49 family: genes, proteins and recognition of class I MHC. Immunological Reviews, 155(1), pp.67-77. Halim, T., Krauß, R ...
Kedes L, Ng SY, Lin CS, Gunning P, Eddy R, Shows T, Leavitt J (1986). "The human beta-actin multigene family". Transactions of ... Actins are a family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments. ACTA2 is one of 6 different actin isoforms ...
Kedes L, Ng SY, Lin CS, Gunning P, Eddy R, Shows T, Leavitt J (1986). "The human beta-actin multigene family". Transactions of ...
The multigene families that encode the toxins of venomous animals are actively selected, creating more diverse toxins with ... "Adaptive evolution of animal toxin multigene families". Gene. 261 (1): 43-52. doi:10.1016/s0378-1119(00)00490-x. PMID 11164036 ... containing the suborders Serpentes and Iguania and the families Varanidae, Anguidae, and Helodermatidae. Euchambersia, an ...
The multigene family contains a processed pseudogene". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 262 (21): 9931-4. doi:10.1016/S0021 ...
A multigene family encoding a diverse array of putative pheromone receptors in mammals. Cell. 1997 Aug 22;90(4):775-84. Ryba NJ ... V2R genes can be grouped into four separate families, labelled A - D. Family C V2Rs are quite distinct from the other families ... "A new multigene family of putative pheromone receptors". Neuron. 19 (2): 371-9. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(00)80946-0. hdl:11381/ ... Recent studies proved a new family of formyl peptide receptor like proteins in VNO membranes of mice, which points to a close ...
"The cyclophilin multigene family of peptidyl-prolyl isomerases. Characterization of three separate human isoforms". The Journal ... The PPIase family is further divided into three structurally distinct subfamilies: cyclophilin (CyP), FK506-binding protein ( ... As a member of the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) family, this protein catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of ... Though PPIF was identified as a candidate for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) for one afflicted family, further study revealed no ...
A multigene family that exhibits differential expression patterns". Plant Physiology. 109 (2): 525-31. doi:10.1104/pp.109.2.525 ...
Ryba, NJ; Tirindelli, R (August 1997). "A new multigene family of putative pheromone receptors". Neuron. 19 (2): 371-9. doi: ... In rat, the family comprises 30-40 genes. These are expressed in the apical regions of the VNO, in neurons expressing Gi2. ... Two distinct families of vomeronasal receptors - which putatively function as pheromone receptors - have been identified in the ... The V1 receptors share between 50 and 90% sequence identity but have little similarity to other families of G protein-coupled ...
A Multigene Family of Putative Cell Adhesion Molecules". Plant Physiology. 133 (4): 1911-1925. doi:10.1104/pp.103.031237. ISSN ... The GT31 family is one of the families involved in AGP glycan backbone biosynthesis. Numerous members of the GT31 family have ... AGPs belong to large multigene families and are divided into several sub-groups depending on the predicted protein sequence. " ... "A small multigene hydroxyproline-O-galactosyltransferase family functions in arabinogalactan-protein glycosylation, growth and ...
Coen, Enrico Sandro (1982). The dynamics of multigene family evolution in Drosophila. lib.cam.ac.uk (PhD thesis). University of ... "Rate of turnover of structural variants in the rDNA gene family of Drosophila melanogaster". Nature. 295 (5850): 564-568. ...
Many genes occurred in large, multi-gene families. When compared to the genome of E. histolytica, Wang et al. found that on ...
Buck L, Axel R (April 1991). "A novel multigene family may encode odorant receptors: a molecular basis for odor recognition". ... Niimura Y (April 2012). "Olfactory receptor multigene family in vertebrates: from the viewpoint of evolutionary genomics". ... The olfactory receptors form a multigene family consisting of around 800 genes in humans and 1400 genes in mice. In vertebrates ... "Concerted and birth-and-death evolution of multigene families". Annual Review of Genetics. 39: 121-52. doi:10.1146/annurev. ...
Myosin heavy chains are encoded by a multigene family. In mammals, at least ten different myosin heavy chain (MYH) isoforms ... encoded by the MYO1 family of genes (MYO1A-MYO1H). Class I MYO1 genes function in many cell types throughout biology and are ... "Comparative sequence analysis of the complete human sarcomeric myosin heavy chain family: implications for functional diversity ... of phylogenetically conserved domains controlling developmental regulation of the human skeletal myosin heavy chain gene family ...
Semënov MV, Snyder M (1997). "Human dishevelled genes constitute a DHR-containing multigene family". Genomics. 42 (2): 302-10. ...
This gene is a member of a multi-gene family which shares strong similarity with the Drosophila dishevelled gene, dsh. The ... Semënov MV, Snyder M (1997). "Human dishevelled genes constitute a DHR-containing multigene family". Genomics. 42 (2): 302-310 ... in mouse Vangl2 that cause neural tube defects in looptail mice impair interaction with members of the Dishevelled family". J. ...
Holmer L, Pezhman A, Worman HJ (1999). "The human lamin B receptor/sterol reductase multigene family". Genomics. 54 (3): 469-76 ...
Holmer L, Pezhman A, Worman HJ (Dec 1998). "The human lamin B receptor/sterol reductase multigene family". Genomics. 54 (3): ...
Holmer L, Pezhman A, Worman HJ (December 1998). "The human lamin B receptor/sterol reductase multigene family". Genomics. 54 (3 ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the ERG4/ERG24 family. It localizes to the inner membrane of the nuclear envelope ...
Semënov MV, Snyder M (June 1997). "Human dishevelled genes constitute a DHR-containing multigene family". Genomics. 42 (2): 302 ... The name derives from the first 2 members of the family to be discovered: int-1 (mouse) and wingless (Drosophila). It is now ... Members of the Wnt gene family are defined by their sequence similarity to mouse Wnt-1 and Wingless in Drosophila. They encode ... Wnt-mediated signalling is believed to proceed initially through binding to cell surface receptors of the frizzled family; the ...
Beals CR, Wilson CB, Perlmutter RM (Nov 1987). "A small multigene family encodes Gi signal-transduction proteins". Proceedings ... Woulfe DS, Stadel JM (Jun 1999). "Structural basis for the selectivity of the RGS protein, GAIP, for Galphai family members. ... Downes GB, Gautam N (Dec 1999). "The G protein subunit gene families". Genomics. 62 (3): 544-52. doi:10.1006/geno.1999.5992. ... Evidence for two Gi alpha-like protein families". FEBS Letters. 219 (1): 259-63. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(87)81228-0. PMID 3109953 ...
"Molecular characterization of the patatin multigene family of potato". Gene. 62 (1): 27-44. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(88)90577-X. ... Family of patatin-like phospholipases consists of various patatin glycoproteins from the total soluble protein from potato ...
Evidence for the existence of a peroxidase multigene family". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 169 (5): 1757-69. doi: ... The fold of the enzyme is known as the heme peroxidase fold, conserved among all members of this gene family. However, not all ...
Semënov MV, Snyder M (1997). "Human dishevelled genes constitute a DHR-containing multigene family". Genomics. 42 (2): 302-10. ... This gene encodes a member of the dishevelled (dsh) protein family. The vertebrate dsh proteins have approximately 40% amino ... in mouse Vangl2 that cause neural tube defects in looptail mice impair interaction with members of the Dishevelled family". J. ...
... encodes one member of the multigene transglutaminase family. Transglutaminases (TGs) are involved in protein cross-linking ... Other families with more-widespread peeling skin phenotypes lacked TGM5 mutations. This study identifies the first causative ... in all affected persons in two unrelated families. The mutation was present on the same haplotype in both kindreds, indicating ...
Nei M, Rooney AP (2005-11-14). "Concerted and birth-and-death evolution of multigene families". Annual Review of Genetics. 39 ( ... Birth-and-death evolution is one of the mechanistic explanations for the size of the MHC class I gene family. Birth-and-death ... Since their emergence in jawed vertebrates, this gene family has been subjected to many divergent evolutionary paths as ... TAP is a member of the ABC transporter family and is a heterodimeric multimembrane-spanning polypeptide consisting of TAP1 and ...
Mignery GA, Pikaard CS, Park WD (1988). "Molecular characterization of the patatin multigene family of potato". Gene. 62 (1): ... Patatin is a family of glycoproteins found in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). They have a molecular weight ranging from 40-45 kDa ... Members of this protein family have also been found in animals. Patatin is identified as a major cause of potato allergy. ...
Beals CR, Wilson CB, Perlmutter RM (Nov 1987). "A small multigene family encodes Gi signal-transduction proteins". Proceedings ...
Johnson DE, Williams LT (1993). Structural and functional diversity in the FGF receptor multigene family. Advances in Cancer ... This particular family member is a high-affinity receptor for acidic, basic and/or keratinocyte growth factor, depending on the ... FGFR family members differ from one another in their ligand affinities and tissue distribution. A full-length representative ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family, where amino acid sequence is ...
Jun 1993). "Evolution of the mammalian G protein alpha subunit multigene family". Nat Genet. 1 (2): 85-91. doi:10.1038/ng0592- ... G15α is a member of the Gq alpha subunit family, and functions as a constituent of a heterotrimeric G protein in cell signal ...
... haplotype (Also: AH8.1, COX,[1] Super B8, ancestral MHC 8.1[2] or 8.1 ancestral haplotype[3]) is a multigene ... Early studies of families across Europe recognized what most HLA associations had already shown, that there is an inherited ( ... A multigene haplotype is set of inherited alleles covering several genes, or gene-alleles; common multigene haplotypes are ... Multigene haplotypes following standard dynamics only exist in robust populations for a short time, the average distance ...
Linda Buck & Richard Axel (1991). "A novel multigene family may encode odorant receptors: a molecular basis for odor ...
O. sinensis parasitizes the larvae of moths within the family Hepialidae, specifically genera found on the Tibetan Plateau and ... 2007). "A multi-gene phylogeny of Clavicipitaceae (Ascomycota, Fungi): identification of localized incongruence using a ... in the family Ophiocordycipitaceae. It is mainly found in the meadows above 3,500 meters (11,483 feet) in the Himalayan regions ... resulting in the naming of a new family Ophiocordycipitaceae and the transfer of several Cordyceps species including C. ...
These families were traditionally grouped together in a single order Falconiformes but are now split into two orders, the ... "A multi-gene phylogeny of aquiline eagles (Aves: Accipitriformes) reveals extensive paraphyly at the genus level". Molecular ... The nocturnal birds of prey - the owls - are classified separately as members of two extant families of the order Strigiformes ... They belong to the Falconidae family, rather than the Accipitridae (accipiters). Many are particularly swift flyers. ...
The table indicates the genera within this family.[1] The family includes the largest known seaweeds: Nereocystis and ... Lane, C.E.; C. Mayes; L.D. Druehl; G.W. Saunders (2006). "A multi-gene molecular investigation of the kelp (Laminariales, ... Laminariaceae is a family of brown algal seaweeds, many genera of which are popularly called "kelp." ... "Composition of lipids and biological activity of lipids and photosynthetic pigments from algae of the families Laminariaceae ...
Form II enzymes in eukaryotic oxygenic phototrophs encoded by a nuclear multigene family. Plant Cell 8:539-553. ...
desember 2015). Bird Families of the World (Engelsk) (A Guide to the Spectacular Diversity of Birds utg.). Barcelona, Spania: ... multigene evidence for the Cretaceous origin of at least 14 clades of shorebirds, Biol. Lett. 3, 205-209. ...
A multi gene sequence-based phylogeny of the Musaceae (banana) family. BMC Ecol. Biol. 11: 103. ... Andersson, L. (1998). «Musaceae», en K. Kubitzki: The Families and Xenera of Vascular Plants. IV. Flowering Plants. ... compiláu por R. K. Brummitt (1992). «Vascular Plant Families and Xenera» (inglés). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Consultáu'l 8 de ... An Update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group Classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II.». Botanical ...
Family of birds. This article is about the old world flycatcher family Muscicapidae. For the new world Tyrant Flycatcher family ... Zuccon, D.; Ericson, P.G.P. (2010). "A multi-gene phylogeny disentangles the chat-flycatcher complex (Aves: Muscicapidae)". ... The Old World flycatchers are a large family, the Muscicapidae, of small passerine birds mostly restricted to the Old World ( ... Bock, Walter J. (1994). History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural ...
Multigene phylogeny of choanozoa and the origin of animals". PLoS ONE. 3 (5): e2098. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002098. PMC ... Elias M, Archibald JM (august 2009). „The RJL family of small GTPases is an ancient eukaryotic invention probably functionally ...
Zelko IN, Mariani TJ, Folz RJ (August 2002). "Superoxide dismutase multigene family: a comparison of the CuZn-SOD (SOD1), Mn- ... "American Family Physician. 76 (6): 801-8. PMID 17910294.. *^ Campion EW, Glynn RJ, DeLabry LO (March 1987). "Asymptomatic ...
N. Cleere: Family Caprimulgidae (Nightjars). W: J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott & J. Sargatal: Handbook of the Birds of the World. Cz. ... A Multi-gene Estimate of Phylogeny in the Nightjars and Nighthawks (Caprimulgidae). „Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution". 55 ...
... families which could either be segregated from more comprehensive families or could be included in them. These are the families ... "Multigene analyses of monocot relationships: a summary" (PDF), Aliso, 22: 63-75, doi:10.5642/aliso.20062201.06, archived from ... Family Xeronemataceae M.W.Chase, Rudall & M.F.Fay. The earlier 2003 version, APG II, allowed 'bracketed' families, i.e. ... Changes to family structure in APG IIIEdit. The APG III system when it was published in 2009, greatly expanded the families ...
Family Capromyidae Subfamily Capromyinae Tribe Capromyini Capromys Desmarest's hutia (Capromys pilorides). Geocapromys Bahamian ... a multigene phylogenetic approach". Zoologica Scripta. 42 (2): 117-134. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2012.00572.x. ISSN 1463-6409.. ... Hutias (known in Spanish as jutía[1]) are moderately large cavy-like rodents of the family Capromyidae that inhabit the ... Extant species of subfamily Capromyinae (Hutias) (formerly Capromyidae) in the family Echimyidae (Spiny rats) ...
2002). "Evolution of the regulators of G-protein signaling multigene family in mouse and human". Genomics. 79 (2): 177-185. doi ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) family. RGS family members share ... "Inhibition of G-protein-mediated MAP kinase activation by a new mammalian gene family". Nature. 379 (6567): 742-746. doi: ...
7 families) and Peritrichinae (presumably with only 1 family). Bergey et al[25] presented a classification which generally ... In the family Enterobacteriaceae of the class Gammaproteobacteria, the species in the genus Shigella (S. dysenteriae, S. ... Furthermore the families into which the class was subdivided, changed from author to author and for some such as Zipf the names ... Coryneform bacteria are members of the family Corynebacteriaceae. *Fruiting gliding bacteria or myxobacteria are members of the ...
"Use of a cDNA library for studies on evolution and developmental expression of the chorion multigene families". Cell. 18 (4): ...
Hatıra Taşkın, Saadet Büyükalacaa, Hasan Hüseyin Doğanb, Stephen A. Rehnerc and Kerry O'Donnell (Aug 2010). "A multigene ... of how a mountain family was saved from starvation by eating morels. In parts of West Virginia, they are known as molly ... "Multigene molecular phylogenetics reveals true morels (Morchella) are especially species-rich in China". Fungal Genetics and ...
... a member of the armadillo multigene family, is a constituent of sarcomeric I-bands in human skeletal muscle". J. Muscle Res. ... "Identification and localization of a neurally expressed member of the plakoglobin/armadillo multigene family". Differentiation ... Calkins CC, Hoepner BL, Law CM, Novak MR, Setzer SV, Hatzfeld M, Kowalczyk AP (2003). "The Armadillo family protein p0071 is a ... Setzer SV, Calkins CC, Garner J, Summers S, Green KJ, Kowalczyk AP (2004). "Comparative analysis of armadillo family proteins ...
For instance, if fossils of B or C date to X million years ago and the calculated "family tree" says A was an ancestor of B and ... "Estimating the timing of early eukaryotic diversification with multigene molecular clocks". PNAS. 108 (33): 13624-13629. ... Cladistics is a technique for working out the "family tree" of a set of organisms. It works by the logic that, if groups B and ... During this radiation, the total number of orders doubled, and families tripled,[107] increasing marine diversity to levels ...
Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) belong to a multigene family of more recently evolved Ig-like extracellular ... Ly49 (homodimers), relatively ancient, C-type lectin family receptors, are of multigenic presence in mice, while humans have ... NK Cells are not a subset of the T lymphocyte family. Natural cytotoxicity receptors directly induce apoptosis after binding to ... CD94/NKG2 (heterodimers), a C-type lectin family receptor, is conserved in both rodents and primates and identifies ...
George Hall and his family arrived in the New South Wales Colony in 1802. By 1825, the Halls had established two cattle ... though it is possible that there is a multi-gene cause for deafness in a dog with the piebald pigment genes.[38] Around 2.4% of ... In the manner of the time, the Hall family historian, A. J. Howard, gave these blue mottled dogs a name: Northumberland Blue ... After Hall's death in 1870, the dogs became available beyond the Hall family and their associates. They were subsequently ...
Zelko IN, Mariani TJ, Folz RJ (August 2002). "Superoxide dismutase multigene family: a comparison of the CuZn-SOD (SOD1), Mn- ... This gene encodes a member of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) protein family. SODs are antioxidant enzymes that catalyze the ...
Just two extant species[1] make up the entire family Cynocephalidae (/ˌsaɪnoʊˌsɛfəˈlaɪdi, -ˌkɛ-/)[4] and order Dermoptera. They ... Comparing multi-gene analyses with phylogenomic results leaves monophyly of Euarchonta doubtful". Integrative Zoology. 10 (2): ...
The honey badger has the least specialised diet of the weasel family next to the wolverine.[16] It accesses a large part of its ... "Multigene phylogeny of the Mustelidae: Resolving relationships, tempo and biogeographic history of a mammalian adaptive ...
Molecular cloning and functional characterization of two new members of the porin family". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... "Estimating the timing of early eukaryotic diversification with multigene molecular clocks". Proceedings of the National ...
Johnson DE, Williams LT (1993). "Structural and functional diversity in the FGF receptor multigene family". Adv. Cancer Res. ...
As well as being one of the most species-rich families in the order Carnivora, the family Mustelidae is one of the oldest. ... Multigene phylogenies constructed by Koepfli et al. (2008)[12] and Law et al. (2018)[3] found that Mustelidae comprises eight ... The Mustelidae (/ˌmʌˈstɛlɪdi/;[1] from Latin mustela, weasel) are a family of carnivorous mammals, including weasels, badgers, ... Mustelids (/ˈmʌstəlɪd/[2]) are a diverse group and form the largest family in the order Carnivora, suborder Caniformia. ...
1997). "SSX: a multigene family with several members transcribed in normal testis and human cancer". Int. J. Cancer. 72 (6): ... SSX4, CT5.4, synovial sarcoma, X breakpoint 4, SSX family member 4. External IDs. OMIM: 300326 MGI: 2446771 HomoloGene: 133052 ... Güre AO, Wei IJ, Old LJ, Chen YT (2002). "The SSX gene family: characterization of 9 complete genes". Int. J. Cancer. 101 (5): ... The product of this gene belongs to the family of highly homologous synovial sarcoma, X (SSX) breakpoint proteins. These ...
nov.: a distinct acrchaetioid represents a new order and family (Rhodachlyales ord. nov., Rhodachlyaceae fam. nov.) of the ... Estimating the timing of early eukaryotic diversification with multigene molecular clocks». Proceedings of the National Academy ...
... Brian Foley btf at t10.lanl.gov Fri Feb 14 17:23:53 EST 1997 *Previous message: multigene family ... between members of a multigene family, with the , members having different , evolutionary rates? Between orthologous sequences ...
Multigenerational Family Immigration Emigration: 5 assigned downloads, like Stepping Stones: A Refugee Familys Journey - ... Stepping Stones: A Refugee Familys Journey - Margriet Ruurs. A refugee familys flight to freedom, uniquely illustrated. ... Similar tags: brian caswell • david phu an chiem • ellen schwartz • emigration • family • historical • holocaust • immigration ... After her family is forced to move by Canadas racist wartime policies, Michiko is the only Japanese kid at school.... ...
... most multigene families were thought to be subject to concerted evolution, in which all member genes of a family evolve as a ... Three different models of evolution of multigene families. Open circles stand for functional genes and closed circles for ... Concerted and birth-and-death evolution of multigene families.. Nei M1, Rooney AP. ...
Structural and functional diversity in the FGF receptor multigene family.. Johnson DE1, Williams LT. ...
Craig EA, Kramer J, Kosic-Smithers J (1987) SSCI, a member of the 70-kDa heat shock protein multigene family of Saccharomyces ... Ingolia TD, Slater MJ, Craig EA (1982) Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains a complex multigene family related to the major heat ... cerevisiae HSP70 multigene family, encodes a mitochondrial protein. Mol Cell Biol 9:3000-3008Google Scholar ... Eukaryotic genomes encode multiple 70-kDa heat-shock proteins (HSP70s). The Saccharomyces cerevisiae HSP70 family is comprised ...
Nei, M., X. Gu and T. Sitnikova, 1997 Evolution by the birth-and-death process in multigene families of the vertebrate immune ... In contrast, multigene families associated with the vertebrate immune system comply with the birth-and-death model of evolution ... As shown in Figure 3, the ORFs identified in class 2 strains constitute two new members of the DUP240 multigene family. These ... Expansion and Contraction of the DUP240 Multigene Family in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Populations. Véronique Leh-Louis, ...
"Multigene Family" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Multigene Family" was a major or minor topic of ... "Multigene Family" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Multigene Family" by people in Profiles. ...
Selective Gene Expression in Multigene Families from Yeast to Mammals Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... AAAS login provides access to Science for AAAS members, and access to other journals in the Science family to users who have ... Exclusive gene expression, where only one member of a gene or gene cassette family is selected for expression, plays an ...
... Frugoli J.A., Zhong H.H., Nuccio M.L., McCourt P ... The catalase multigene family in Arabidopsis includes three genes encoding individual subunits that associate to form at least ...
The Enigmatic PE/PPE Multigene Family of Mycobacteria and Tuberculosis Vaccination Michael J. Brennan ... Localization and Developmental Regulation of a Dispersed Gene Family 1 Protein in Trypanosoma cruzi Noelia Lander, Carolina ...
In this study we made a physical mapping of the H3 and H4 histone multigene family and the transposable elements Rex1 and Rex3 ... Valente etsomal and histone multigene families, and noncoding seal., 2011; Ferreira et al., 2011a), and influences on karyotype ... Birth-and-death evolution with strong purifying selection in the Histone H1 multigene family and the origin of orphon H1 genes ... Discussion Histone genes constitute a complex multigene family and may show variations in copy number and organization within ...
Natural killer cell receptors in cattle: a bovine killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor multigene family contains members ... Identification of a human member of the Ly-49 multigene family. Eur. J. Immunol. 1998. 28: 1839-1846. Direct Link: ... a bovine killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor multigene family contains members with divergent signaling motifs. Eur. J. ... Anderson, S. K., Ortaldo, J. R. and McVicar, D. W., The ever-expanding Ly49 gene family: repertoire and signaling. Immunol. Rev ...
"With this method, expression of all members of a multigene family at many different developmental stages, in diverse tissues ... In this paper, a reverse-transcriptase PCR-based protocol suitable for efficient expression analysis of multigene families is ... a highly efficient technique for expression analysis of multigene families. A Fischer, H Saedler, and G Theissen. *. Max-Planck ... a highly efficient technique for expression analysis of multigene families Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ...
There has been considerable discussion in recent years on the evolution of the tandemly repeated multigene families, since some ... Nei M, Rooney AP (2005) Concerted and birth-and-death evolution of multigene families. Annu Rev Genet 39:121-152PubMedCrossRef ... Multigene family Sparidae Hybrids Concerted evolution Birth-and-death evolution Electronic supplementary material. The online ... Merlo MA, Cross I, Chairi H, Manchado M, Rebordinos L (2010) Analysis of three multigene families as useful tools in species ...
The Arabidopsis Expansin Multigene Family. Previous classifications of the expansin gene family divided proteins into two ... In theory, because the present expansin multigene family has arisen from ancient gene duplication events, many existing family ... Plant Expansins Are a Complex Multigene Family with an Ancient Evolutionary Origin. Yi Li, Catherine P. Darley, Verónica Ongaro ... 2001) Phylogenetic analysis of the UDP-glycosyltransferase multigene family of Arabidopsis thaliana. J Biol Chem 276:4338-4343. ...
Comparative genomics may provide decisive information to reconstruct the evolutionary history of this multi-locus toxin family ... played key roles along the evolutionary pathway that shaped the current diversity within the multi-locus SVMP gene family. In ... family from an A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase (ADAM) ancestor remain poorly understood. ... Insights into the Evolution of a Snake Venom Multi-Gene Family from the Genomic Organization of Echis ocellatus SVMP Genes. ...
The presence of a dnaK (HSP70) multigene family in members of the orders Planctomycetales and Verrucomicrobiales.. N Ward- ... strain PCC7942 and Escherichia coli, the only other prokaryotes for which a dnaK multigene family has been demonstrated. ... The presence of a dnaK (HSP70) multigene family in members of the orders Planctomycetales and Verrucomicrobiales. ... The presence of a dnaK (HSP70) multigene family in members of the orders Planctomycetales and Verrucomicrobiales. ...
Interplay of gene conversion and crossover in the molecular evolution of multigene families. ...
Developmental regulation of expression of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) multigene family during mouse spermatogenesis ... Developmental regulation of expression of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) multigene family during mouse spermatogenesis ... Developmental regulation of expression of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) multigene family during mouse spermatogenesis ... Developmental regulation of expression of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) multigene family during mouse spermatogenesis ...
The data indicate that ACC synthase is encoded by a divergent multigene family in tomato that encodes proteins related to ... 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase in tomato is encoded by a multigene family whose transcription is induced during ...
... as well as the similar modulation of multi-gene family/interferon-related genes previously associated to fish that survived ... immune-related multi-gene families and interferon-related genes were constitutively upregulated in uninfected adult rag1-/- ... immune-related multi-gene families and interferon-related genes were constitutively upregulated in uninfected adult rag1-/- ... On the other hand, resemblance in the modulation of multigene families (mx, crp, nitr, psm) between rag1−/− fish and VHSV- ...
Functional genomics of the Arabidopsis multigene family of glycosyltransferases involved in cellular homeostasis Dianna Bowles ... A multigene family of glycosyltransferases in a model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana Biochem Soc Trans (April, 2002) ... Differential tissue expression of the glutathione transferase multigene family Biochem J (September, 1986) ... Dianna Bowles; Functional genomics of the Arabidopsis multigene family of glycosyltransferases involved in cellular homeostasis ...
The Organization, Expression, and Evolution of Antibody Genes and Other Multigene Families L Hood, J H Campbell, and S C R ... The Organization, Expression, and Evolution of Antibody Genes and Other Multigene Families ... and Evolution of Antibody Genes and Other Multigene Families. Annual Review of Genetics, 9 . pp. 305-353. ISSN 0066-4197. https ...
The Enigmatic PE/PPE Multigene Family of Mycobacteria and Tuberculosis Vaccination Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ... The Enigmatic PE/PPE Multigene Family of Mycobacteria and Tuberculosis Vaccination. Michael J. Brennan ...
Investigation of the cir multi-gene family of Plasmodium chabaudi. Open access status:. An open access version is available ... Investigation of the cir multi-gene family of Plasmodium chabaudi. Doctoral thesis , UCL (University College London). ... The pir genes comprise the largest multi-gene family in Plasmodium, with members found in P. vivax, P. knowlesi and rodent ... Conserved and sub-family specific peptides were also synthesized. Antibodies present in the sera of P. chabaudi immune mice ...
... Fung, Raymond W.M. ... A multigene family encoding sucrose phosphate synthase in kiwifruit. ResearchSpace Repository. Login ... One Family A member, SPS-A2, encoded a longer predicted open reading frame than the other two A-family genes, with a unique C- ... One family B gene was cloned from kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) and shown to be a single gene family. Three cDNA clones were ...
Phylogenetic analysis of the tomato P450 multigene family. The phylogenetic tree of SlP450 proteins divided into two major ... Intron gain and loss events to investigate evolution of P450 multigene family. Understanding gain and loss of the intron ... Annotation and classification of tomato P450 multigene family. A total of 300 tomato P450 genes were identified from tomato ... Cytochrome P450 (P450) belongs to a very divergent multigene family present in all living organisms. In angiosperms, ...
A revised schematic classification at the family level in the phylogenetic context of widely accepted and newly revealed ... A multigene phylogenetic synthesis for the class Lecanoromycetes (Ascomycota): 1307 fungi representing 1139 infrageneric taxa, ... Here we provide a multigene phylogenetic synthesis (using three ribosomal RNA-coding and two protein-coding genes) of the ... Miadlikowska, J., Kauff, F., Högnabba, F., Oliver, J. C., Molnár, K., Fraker, E., ... & Stenroos, S. (2014). A multigene ...
... description of the various hsp70 genes more general characteristics of the organization and evolution of the multigene family ... The family of genes encoding heat shock proteins of about 70 kDa (hsp70) in vertebrates is reviewed under genetic aspects. ... Genetic aspects of the hsp70 multigene family in vertebrates. @article{Gnther1994GeneticAO, title={Genetic aspects of the hsp70 ... The family of genes encoding heat shock proteins of about 70 kDa (hsp70) in vertebrates is reviewed under genetic aspects. ...
These sequence characteristics define B6P as a novel member of the armadillo multigene family and raise the question of whether ... is a novel member of the armadillo multigene family ... is a novel member of the armadillo multigene family. M. ... is a novel member of the armadillo multigene family ... is a novel member of the armadillo multigene family. M. ...
  • Until around 1990, most multigene families were thought to be subject to concerted evolution, in which all member genes of a family evolve as a unit in concert. (nih.gov)
  • Here we present the nucleotide sequence of the SSA3 and SSB2 genes, completing the nucleotide sequence data for the yeast HSP70 family. (springer.com)
  • Studies on tandemly repeated rRNA and U2 snRNA genes have suggested that members of a gene family do not evolve independently of each other but rather evolve in a concerted fashion ( L iao 1999 ). (genetics.org)
  • The S. cerevisiae DUP240 family, which consists of 10 genes with a high level of nucleotide identity (from 50 to 98%) in the reference strain S288C, is one of the largest gene families in yeast ( D ujon 1998 ). (genetics.org)
  • The catalase multigene family in Arabidopsis includes three genes encoding individual subunits that associate to form at least six isozymes that are readily resolved by nondenaturing gel electrophoresis. (uniprot.org)
  • Even though studies on physical mapping of histone genes and TEs are few, interesting features about those sequences have been revealed, such as association with other repetitive families (Cioffi et al. (scielo.br)
  • Comparisons between them and between these genes and the genomic structures of Anolis carolinensis ADAM28 and E. ocellatus PIII-SVMP EOC00089 suggest that insertions and deletions of intronic regions played key roles along the evolutionary pathway that shaped the current diversity within the multi-locus SVMP gene family. (mdpi.com)
  • Gene sets corresponding to apoptotic functions, immune-related multigene families, and interferon-related genes were constitutively upregulated in uninfected adult rag1 −/− zebra fish. (frontiersin.org)
  • This antiviral state was characterized by (i) a more rapid response to viral infection, which resulted in increased survival, (ii) the involvement of NK-cell- and macrophage-mediated transcript responses rather than B- and/or T-cell dependent cells, and (iii) enhanced apoptosis, described here for the first time, as well as the similar modulation of multigene family/interferon-related genes previously associated to fish that survived lethal viral infections. (frontiersin.org)
  • The pir genes comprise the largest multi-gene family in Plasmodium, with members found in P. vivax, P. knowlesi and rodent malaria species. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • 198 cir genes were identified in the P. chabaudi genome, 86% of which clustered to form two major sub-families on the basis of sequence similarity. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The clones (designated A1, A2 and A3) are closely related, sharing 94-96% nucleotide identity in the coding region, and ca 67% nucleotide identity to Family B. RT-PCR was used to monitor transcripts of the four kiwifruit genes, using primers in the gene-specific 3' untranslated regions. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • All three family A genes were expressed in all tissues, but only A1 was present at high abundance and responded to developmental and environmental stimuli. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • One Family A member, SPS-A2, encoded a longer predicted open reading frame than the other two A-family genes, with a unique C-terminal extension of 102 amino acids. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • Out of 22 intron gain/loss positions, two positions were conserved in tomato P450 genes supporting intron late theory of intron evolution in Sl P450 families. (springer.com)
  • This study allows comparison of Sl P450 gene family with other Solanaceae members which are also economically important and attempt to classify functionally important Sl P450 genes into groups and families. (springer.com)
  • The cumulative addition of taxa with an increasing amount of missing data (i.e., a cumulative supermatrix approach, starting with taxa for which sequences were available for all five targeted genes and ending with the addition of taxa for which only two genes have been sequenced) revealed relatively stable relationships for many families and orders. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The family of genes encoding heat shock proteins of about 70 kDa (hsp70) in vertebrates is reviewed under genetic aspects. (semanticscholar.org)
  • After a detailed description of the various hsp70 genes more general characteristics of the organization and evolution of the multigene family are discussed. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Jørgensen, JH 1992, ' Multigene families of powdery resistance genes in locus Mla on barley chromosome 5 ', Plant Breeding , vol. 108, pp. 53-59. (dtu.dk)
  • We studied the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in rubber trees through the characterisation of the ACC oxidase multigene family and the responses of individual genes to ethylene and wounding. (cirad.fr)
  • A family of sequence-related genes within a genome which evolved from a single ancestral gene by gene duplication and subsequent mutations. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Phylogenomic analysis of UDP glycosyltransferase1 multigene family in Linum usitatissimum identified genes with varied expression patterns. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Reg and Reg-related genes were isolated and revealed to constitute a multigene family , the Reg family, which consists of four subtypes (types I, II, III, and IV) based on the primary structures of the encoded proteins of the genes [4, 5, 9, 10]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • ERF transcription factors, a huge multigene family of transcription factors regulating the expression of ethylene dependent genes, are the most prominent components directing the specific and diversified plant responses to the ethylene signal. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this work, the authors propose a new bioinformatics workflow (ACACIA) for performing genotyping analysis of multigene complexes, such as self-incompatibility genes in plants, major histocompatibility genes (MHC) in vertebrates, and homeobox genes in animals, which are particularly challenging to genotype in non-model organisms. (peercommunityin.org)
  • This study aims to provide data about the mutation spectrum of HBOC-associated genes in Slovak HBOC families and estimate the ratio of BRCA versus non-BRCA causal variants. (cdc.gov)
  • We used panel sequencing containing 22 high/moderate-risk susceptibility genes and parallel MLPA analysis of BRCA1/2, CHEK2 genes, to analyze 94 individuals with a strong family/personal history of breast and/or ovarian cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • It has traditionally been thought that nuclear ribosomal DNA (45S and 5S) and U2 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes are multigene families that undergo a concerted long-term evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Multigene families optimise fitness by providing a set of related genes with possibly different temporal and/or topological expression patterns. (pasteur.fr)
  • Unlike the dispersed rDNA units, the sera family is arranged as a tandem gene cluster, with seven contiguous similar genes, and one more distantly related paralog. (pasteur.fr)
  • To evaluate the expression of the genes that encode for these proteins during seed development, the transcription activities and mRNA levels of several gene classes that comprise these multigene families were assessed. (elsevier.com)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of the 19 proteins indicated that the Ii DIR genes cluster into three distinct subfamilies, DIR-a, DIR-b/d, and DIR-e, of a larger plant DIR and DIR-like gene family. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Although recent studies reported multiple occurrences of genes that encode this glue-like protein spiggin in threespine and ninespine sticklebacks, it is still unclear how many genes compose the spiggin multi-gene family. (beds.ac.uk)
  • These results suggest that the genes of the group of six non-receptor type kinases and those of the erbB-1 and erbB-2 gene group are descendants evolved by duplication of two distinct ancestor genes and are members of two distinct multi-gene families. (elsevier.com)
  • The genes coding for protein kinases may be members of a super-family including multiple distinct gene families. (elsevier.com)
  • We designed a rapid qRT-PCR system with the aim of characterising the variation in the expression of hordein genes families. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Yamamoto, Y 2003, ' Specific RNA interference in psbP genes encoded by a multigene family in Nicotiana tabacum with a short 3'-untranslated sequence ', Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry , vol. 67, pp. 107-113. (elsevier.com)
  • genes led to the demonstration that these enzymes belong to a multigene family and are regulated by a complex network of developmental and environmental signals responding to both internal and external stimuli (reviewed in Johnson and Ecker, 1998 ). (plantcell.org)
  • Targeting multigene families or genes in polyploid species. (eurekalert.org)
  • Human dishevelled genes constitute a DHR-containing multigene family. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Previous classifications of the expansin gene family divided proteins into two subfamilies, α and β, based on substrate specificity and sequence similarity ( Cosgrove, 1997 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • The data indicate that ACC synthase is encoded by a divergent multigene family in tomato that encodes proteins related to aminotransferases. (nih.gov)
  • To investigate the role PIR proteins play during the erythrocytic stages of infection, the P. chabaudi model was chosen, where this gene family is termed cir. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Here we show that TAP belongs to an evolutionarily conserved family of proteins that has more than one member in higher eukaryotes. (asm.org)
  • These sequence characteristics define B6P as a novel member of the armadillo multigene family and raise the question of whether the structural proteins B6P, plakoglobin, beta-catenin and armadillo share some function. (biologists.org)
  • Evidence for inclusion in the multigene family of complement-regulatory proteins. (rupress.org)
  • The protein has, beginning at the NH2 terminus, four approximately 60-amino acid repeat units that match the consensus sequence found in a multigene family of complement regulatory proteins (C3b-receptor or CR1, C3d-receptor or CR2, decay-accelerating factor, C4-binding protein, and factor H), as well as several other complement and non-complement proteins. (rupress.org)
  • This same genetic region contains the multigene family of complement-regulatory proteins, which is thereby enlarged to include the functionally and structurally related MCP. (rupress.org)
  • S100B belongs to a multigene family of calcium binding proteins and is expressed abundantly in the brain [22]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We discuss the results concerning the SERA proteins expression and function in the context of the long overlooked multigene family. (pasteur.fr)
  • DIR proteins are members of a large family of proteins which impart stereoselectivity on the phenoxy radical-coupling reaction, yielding optically active lignans from two molecules of E -coniferyl alcohol. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Analysis of transcription profiling database from I. indigotica revealed a family of 19 full-length unique DIR and DIR-like proteins. (beds.ac.uk)
  • dirigere , to guide or align) proteins are members of a large family which imparts stereoselectivity on the phenoxy radical-coupling reaction. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Cereal storage proteins represent one of the most important sources of protein for food and feed and they are coded by multigene families. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The exostosin family: proteins with many functions. (cancerindex.org)
  • Actins are a family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Craig EA, Kramer J, Kosic-Smithers J (1987) SSCI , a member of the 70-kDa heat shock protein multigene family of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is essential for growth. (springer.com)
  • Craig EA, Kramer J, Shilling J, Werner-Washburne M, Holmes S, Kosic-Smither J, Nicolet CM (1989) SSCI , an essential member of the S. cerevisiae HSP70 multigene family, encodes a mitochondrial protein. (springer.com)
  • Through the phylogenetic analysis of Solanum lycopersicum P450 ( Sl P450) protein sequences, they were classified into two major clades and nine clans further divided into 42 families. (springer.com)
  • Three new members of the serine-aspartate repeat protein multigene family of Staphylococcus aureus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Vitamin D-binding protein, that is a member of a multigene family including alpha-fetoprotein and albumin, reversibly binds and transports vitamin D and its metabolites to target cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Patatin is a family of glycoproteins that accounts for up to 40% of the total soluble protein in potato tubers. (nih.gov)
  • The goal of this research project is to develop a new approach that combines chromatin immunoprecipitation, tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry to identify possible activators and/or repressors of the var multigene family encoding the malaria virulence factor, Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1, PfEMP1. (grantome.com)
  • These results suggest that, in addition to regulation at the transcriptional/post-transcriptional levels, ER membrane-associated translational control is also involved in the expression of rice seed storage protein multigene families. (elsevier.com)
  • Okita, Thomas W. / Expression of storage protein multigene families in developing rice endosperm . (elsevier.com)
  • However, the DIR and DIR-like protein gene family in I. indigotica has not been analyzed in detail yet. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Non-receptor type protein-tyrosine kinases closely related to src and yes compose a multigene family. (elsevier.com)
  • Structure, pharmacology and therapeutic prospects of family C G-protein coupled receptors. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In this review, we summarize current knowledge about the biochemical activities and some proposed functions of the members of the EXT protein family and their roles in human disease. (cancerindex.org)
  • In this study we made a physical mapping of the H3 and H4 histone multigene family and the transposable elements Rex1 and Rex3 in the genome of three known S. marmoratus karyomorphs. (scielo.br)
  • The availability of information from genome sequencing programs now offer a new route to understanding multigene families within and across different species. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The present study is the first to analyze all expansin-like sequences in the entire genome of a single plant species, and reveals that expansins exist as a large multigene family. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Probing tomato genome for P450 identification would provide valuable information about the functions and evolution of the P450 gene family. (springer.com)
  • New clues about the genome organization and evolution of the multigene families are offered in this study. (biomedcentral.com)
  • genome evolution & multigene families. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • We propose that similar systematic analyses of all multigene families from human and other mammalian genomes will help complete the assembly and annotation of the human genome sequence. (elsevier.com)
  • The method thus enables a detailed, high-resolution expression analysis of known gene family members as well as the identification and characterization of new ones. (pnas.org)
  • The phylogenetic analysis and expression profiles of tomato P450 gene family offers essential genomic resource for their functional characterization. (springer.com)
  • To characterize chromosomal rearrangements involving duplicated sequences, we compared the organization of tandem repeats of the DUP240 gene family in 15 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains of various origins. (genetics.org)
  • Sequences of family members become homogenized by interlocus recombination events that preserve gene function. (genetics.org)
  • The DUP240 gene family of yeast provides a good system to approach questions of the evolution of duplicated sequences and their influence on chromosomal stability, since its tandem repeats are potential targets for intra- and interchromosomal recombinations that could reshape the chromosome. (genetics.org)
  • All publicly available SPS gene sequences can be classified phylogenetically into three families, designated A, B and C. Members of the same family from different species were found to have similar intron/exon genomic organization. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • The histone family (H1, H2A, H2B, H3 and H4) is an example [ 1 ], since their coding regions are similar, owing to the purifying selection mechanism, but spacer sequences are highly variable. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses of these sequences suggested that an ancestral spiggin gene originated from a member of the mucin gene family as a single gene in the common ancestor of teleosts, and gene duplications of spiggin have occurred in the stickleback lineage. (beds.ac.uk)
  • We'll start on Tuesday by answering any questions left over from Nora's lectures last week on detecting selection on molecular sequences and on evolution in multigene families. (uconn.edu)
  • I've posted notes for next week's lectures about detecting selection on nucleotide sequences (which will introduce you to Tajima's D ) and on evolution in multigene families (which will introduce you to orthology, paralogy, and concerted evolution). (uconn.edu)
  • Concerted and birth-and-death evolution of multigene families. (nih.gov)
  • Three different models of evolution of multigene families. (nih.gov)
  • There has been considerable discussion in recent years on the evolution of the tandemly repeated multigene families, since some organisms show a concerted model whereas others show a birth-and-death model. (springer.com)
  • The molecular events underlying the evolution of the Snake Venom Metalloproteinase (SVMP) family from an A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase (ADAM) ancestor remain poorly understood. (mdpi.com)
  • Duplication history and molecular evolution of the rbcS multigene family in angiosperms. (unil.ch)
  • Multigene families have proven to be good markers for a better understanding of the variability, organization and evolution of fish species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Three different tandemly-repeated gene families (45S rDNA, 5S rDNA and U2 snDNA) have been studied in Plectorhinchus mediterraneus (Teleostei: Haemulidae), at both molecular and cytogenetic level, to elucidate the taxonomy and evolution of these multigene families, as well as for comparative purposes with other species of the family. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Concerted evolution is the model which has commonly been used to explain the long-term evolution of these multigene families. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Under this evolution model the gene array undergoes homogenizing forces, such as unequal crossing-over, gene conversion or purifying selection [ 2 ], that tend to remove or to spread the mutations which arise in a gene unit from the family. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, although the evolution of some multigene families fits this model, there are other families which do not present a good fit with concerted evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Yet, no comprehensive study has been done about the origins and evolution of this gene family. (oup.com)
  • In this paper, a reverse-transcriptase PCR-based protocol suitable for efficient expression analysis of multigene families is presented. (pnas.org)
  • Background The Nuclear Factor I (NFI) multi-gene family encodes site-specific transcription factors essential for the development of a number of organ systems. (bosutinib.info)
  • Analysis of temporal gene expression combined with genetic variation in large multigene families with high homology among the alleles is very challenging. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Saccharomyces cerevisiae HSP70 family is comprised of eight members. (springer.com)
  • The presence of a dnaK (HSP70) multigene family in members of the orders Planctomycetales and Verrucomicrobiales. (asm.org)
  • Localization of the gene encoding human BiP/GRP78, the endoplasmic reticulum cognate of the HSP70 family, to chromosome 9q34. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The largest multigene family recognized so far is the Plasmodium interspersed repeats (pir) which includes repetitive interspersed family (rif) in P. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We analyse here the structural organisation and sequence diversity of the rDNA, sera and var C Plasmodium falciparum families, and discuss their consequences for parasite biology. (pasteur.fr)
  • We have investigated here the Pf60 multigene family restriction patterns of four distinct variants of the Plasmodium falciparum Palo Alto line propagated in Saimiri monkeys. (pasteur.fr)
  • Cytochrome P450 (P450) belongs to a very divergent multigene family present in all living organisms. (springer.com)
  • With this method, expression of all members of a multigene family at many different developmental stages, in diverse tissues and even in different organisms, can be displayed on one gel. (pnas.org)
  • Our results suggest that the P. lividus MT family originated after the speciation events by gene duplications, evolving developmental and environmental sub-functionalization. (mdpi.com)
  • Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses on four multigene datasets assembled using a cumulative supermatrix approach with a progressively higher number of species and missing data (5-gene, 5 + 4-gene, 5 + 4 + 3-gene and 5 + 4 + 3 + 2-gene datasets) show that the current classification includes non-monophyletic taxa at various ranks, which need to be recircumscribed and require revisionary treatments based on denser taxon sampling and more loci. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The potential resurrection of the families Eigleraceae and Lopadiaceae is considered here to alleviate phylogenetic and classification disparities. (oregonstate.edu)
  • A revised schematic classification at the family level in the phylogenetic context of widely accepted and newly revealed relationships across Lecanoromycetes is included. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Phylogenetic analysis was performed and the members of the different hordein families were classified into subfamilies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The method combines restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technology with a gene family-specific version of mRNA differential display and hence is called "RFLP-coupled domain-directed differential display. (pnas.org)
  • Exclusive gene expression, where only one member of a gene or gene cassette family is selected for expression, plays an important role in the establishment of cell identity in several biological systems. (sciencemag.org)
  • Results from nuclear run-on transcription assays and RNA blot studies showed that the expression of these gene classes for each multigene family was not coordinate but instead differentially regulated at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. (elsevier.com)
  • These results, in contradistinction to existing serological data, suggest that expression of the T19 gene family is not confined to γδ T cells. (monash.edu)
  • Multigene expression profile testing in breast cancer: is there a role for family physicians? (cdc.gov)
  • Primer sets were designed to discriminate the gene expression level of whole families, subfamilies or individual members. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Quantitative RT-PCR with SYBR Green labelling can be a useful technique to follow gene expression levels of large gene families with highly homologues members. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Alternative splicing contributes to the multiplicity of forms in this lectin gene family, and different types of Rlecs vary in terms of tissue distribution, expression quantity and response to bacterial challenge. (figshare.com)
  • The wide occurrence of molecular rearrangements associated with expression of specific members within multigene families led us to investigate whether this also happens during antigenic variation of malaria parasites. (pasteur.fr)
  • In this study, three species of the Sparidae family ( Pagrus pagrus , P. auriga and Diplodus sargus ) and an interspecific hybrid ( P. pagrus (♀) × P. auriga (♂)) have been studied at both molecular and cytogenetic level, taking three different multigene families (5S rDNA, 45S rDNA and U2 snDNA). (springer.com)
  • Upon P. chabaudi challenge of mice immunized with CIR sub-family specific reagents, increased levels of cir transcripts belonging to the other major sub-family were detected. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The result obtained in the hybrid allowed the recombination frequency in each multigene family to be estimated. (springer.com)
  • The DUP240 gene family consists of 10 members of unknown function in the reference strain S288C. (genetics.org)
  • AAAS login provides access to Science for AAAS members, and access to other journals in the Science family to users who have purchased individual subscriptions. (sciencemag.org)
  • Moreover, bands of interest, representing gene family members, are directly accessible to sequence analysis, without the need for subcloning. (pnas.org)
  • Not only the overall domain organization but also residues important for p15 and nucleoporin interaction are conserved in most family members. (asm.org)
  • This cotargeting strategy was efficiently used to delete all 11 members of the A2 virulence gene family. (asm.org)
  • The SLC16 gene family has fourteen members. (isharonline.org)
  • The alternative oxidase (AOX) of the soybean (Glycine max L.) inner mitochondrial membrane isencoded by a multigene family (Aox) with three known members. (usda.gov)
  • Our results indicate that different members of a GSH S-transferase gene family with limited amino acid substitutions have different but overlapping substrate specificities. (elsevier.com)
  • The fold of the enzyme is known as the heme peroxidase fold, conserved among all members of this gene family. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, after Wayne Yokoyama found that Ly-49 is MHC-I specific receptor on NK cells, Dr. Takei's lab continued working on other members of this family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparative genomics may provide decisive information to reconstruct the evolutionary history of this multi-locus toxin family. (mdpi.com)
  • Catalase is encoded by a multigene family in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (uniprot.org)
  • The comparison between tomato and other related plant P450s families showed that CYP728, CYP733, CYP80, CYP92, CYP736 and CYP749 families have been evolved in tomato and few higher plants whereas lost from Arabidopsis . (springer.com)
  • The P450 gene family is third largest gene family present in Arabidopsis . (springer.com)
  • The karyotype of the species was composed of 2n = 48 acrocentric chromosomes, and each of the three multigene families were located in different chromosome pairs, thus providing three different chromosomal markers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As a consequence of this, the evolutionary model of the multigene families is discussed considering the results obtained and others from the bibliography. (springer.com)
  • Trabajo presentado en la 4th Meeting of the Spanish Society of the Evolutionary Biology (SESBE 2013) celebrada en Barcelona del 27 al 29 de noviembre de 2013. (csic.es)
  • Our results provide insight into the origin and dynamic evolutionary process of the spiggin multi-gene family in the threespine stickleback lineage. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Moreover, it may allow the exploration of the origin of and evolutionary processes occurring in the spiggin multi-gene family. (beds.ac.uk)
  • We aimed to resolve the spiggin multi-gene family in threespine stickleback and understand its origin and evolutionary processes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Rapid diversification of the Compositae in the mid-Eocene (40 Mya) is associated with a polyploidization event near the base of the family 19 and it has been conjectured that the base chromosome number for the family is nine 20 . (nature.com)
  • The human stromelysin 3 (STMY3) gene, a new member of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) gene family, may contribute to breast cancer cell invasion, and has been localized by in situ hybridization to the long arm of chromosome 22. (biomedsearch.com)
  • With the gene presence in almost all bacteria, often existing as a multigene family , or operons, the function of the 16S rRNA gene over time has not changed, suggesting that random sequence changes are a more accurate measure of time and the 16S rRNA gene (1500 bp) is large enough for informatics purposes [3]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This gene is a member of the multiple exostoses (EXT) family of glycosyltransferases, which function in the chain polymerization of heparan sulfate and heparin. (cancerindex.org)
  • The B-family transcript was detectable in roots, albeit at very low levels and in all other tissues examined. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • The ITS-1 sequence was more related to a species of another different genus than to that of the same genus, therefore a revision of the Hamulidae family systematic has been proposed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we focus on the growing role of proteomics in untangling gene families in model plant species. (edu.au)
  • scolymus) is an out-crossing, perennial, multi-use crop species that is grown worldwide and belongs to the Compositae, one of the most successful Angiosperm families. (nature.com)
  • Note that this gene has links to some "higher order" classes, such as Gene_Family and "Species", as well as links to "lower order" classes, such as Plasmid and Oligo. (umanitoba.ca)
  • In addition, a revision of the taxonomy of the Haemulidae family has been suggested, and three cytogenetic markers have been obtained. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Structural and functional diversity in the FGF receptor multigene family. (nih.gov)