A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Protein domains that are enriched in PROLINE. The cyclical nature of proline causes the peptide bonds it forms to have a limited degree of conformational mobility. Therefore the presence of multiple prolines in close proximity to each other can convey a distinct conformational arrangement to a peptide chain.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The asymmetrical segregation of genes during replication which leads to the production of non-reciprocal recombinant strands and the apparent conversion of one allele into another. Thus, e.g., the meiotic products of an Aa individual may be AAAa or aaaA instead of AAaa, i.e., the A allele has been converted into the a allele or vice versa.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A species of protozoa that is a cause of bovine babesiosis. Ticks of the genera Boophilus, Rhipicephalus, and IXODES are the chief vectors.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glycine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A family of proline-rich proteins that constitute the majority of the protein component of SALIVA. Salivary proline-rich proteins occur as acidic, basic and glycosylated basic proteins. They perform a variety of functions such as adhering to the acquired ENAMEL PELLICLE, acting as lubricants and precipitating TANNINS.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
The functional hereditary units of protozoa.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria whose organisms are obligate parasites of vertebrates. Species are transmitted by arthropod vectors with the host range limited to ruminants. Anaplasma marginale is the most pathogenic species and is the causative agent of severe bovine anaplasmosis.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Keratins that form into a beta-pleated sheet structure. They are principle constituents of the corneous material of the carapace and plastron of turtles, the epidermis of snakes and the feathers of birds.
A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.
A group of alcohol-soluble seed storage proteins from the endosperm of corn.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.
Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.
Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Multinucleate cells or a stage in the development of sporozoan protozoa. It is exemplified by the life cycle of PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM in the MALARIA infection cycle.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Cells or feeding stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. In the malarial parasite, the trophozoite develops from the MEROZOITE and then splits into the SCHIZONT. Trophozoites that are left over from cell division can go on to form gametocytes.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
A species of gram-negative bacteria that is the causative agent of human EHRLICHIOSIS. This organism was first discovered at Fort Chaffee, Arkansas, when blood samples from suspected human ehrlichiosis patients were studied.
Two-dimensional separation and analysis of nucleotides.
A family of snakes comprising three subfamilies: Azemiopinae (the mountain viper, the sole member of this subfamily), Viperinae (true vipers), and Crotalinae (pit vipers). They are widespread throughout the world, being found in the United States, Central and South America, Europe, Asia and Africa. Their venoms act on the blood (hemotoxic) as compared to the venom of elapids which act on the nervous system (neurotoxic). (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp333-36)
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
Animals that have no spinal column.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins found in any species of algae.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.
A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.
A portion of the animal phylum Chordata comprised of the subphyla CEPHALOCHORDATA; UROCHORDATA, and HYPEROTRETI, but not including the Vertebrata (VERTEBRATES). It includes nonvertebrate animals having a NOTOCHORD during some developmental stage.
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).
Two identical genes showing the same phenotypic action but localized in different regions of a chromosome or on different chromosomes. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
Constituent of the 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 120 nucleotides and 34 proteins. It is also a constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.
An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.
A family of insect viruses isolated from endoparasitic hymenopteran insects belonging to the families Ichneumonidae and Braconidae. The two genera are Ichnovirus and Bracovirus.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of AMP to IMP. EC
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Family of calcium- and phospholipid-binding proteins which are structurally related and exhibit immunological cross-reactivity. Each member contains four homologous 70-kDa repeats. The annexins are differentially distributed in vertebrate tissues (and lower eukaryotes) and appear to be involved in MEMBRANE FUSION and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A large family of transmembrane proteins found in TIGHT JUNCTIONS. They take part in the formation of paracellular barriers and pores that regulate paracellular permeability.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
A species of PLASMODIUM causing malaria in rodents.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The reciprocal exchange of segments at corresponding positions along pairs of homologous CHROMOSOMES by symmetrical breakage and crosswise rejoining forming cross-over sites (HOLLIDAY JUNCTIONS) that are resolved during CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION. Crossing-over typically occurs during MEIOSIS but it may also occur in the absence of meiosis, for example, with bacterial chromosomes, organelle chromosomes, or somatic cell nuclear chromosomes.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.
Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A group (or class) of aquatic plants, including the streptophyte algae, that are the closest relatives to land plants (EMBRYOPHYTA).
A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.
The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Diseases of plants.
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Proteins found in any species of helminth.

The cardiac homeobox gene Csx/Nkx2.5 lies genetically upstream of multiple genes essential for heart development. (1/13607)

Csx/Nkx2.5 is a vertebrate homeobox gene with a sequence homology to the Drosophila tinman, which is required for the dorsal mesoderm specification. Recently, heterozygous mutations of this gene were found to cause human congenital heart disease (Schott, J.-J., Benson, D. W., Basson, C. T., Pease, W., Silberbach, G. M., Moak, J. P., Maron, B. J., Seidman, C. E. and Seidman, J. G. (1998) Science 281, 108-111). To investigate the functions of Csx/Nkx2.5 in cardiac and extracardiac development in the vertebrate, we have generated and analyzed mutant mice completely null for Csx/Nkx2.5. Homozygous null embryos showed arrest of cardiac development after looping and poor development of blood vessels. Moreover, there were severe defects in vascular formation and hematopoiesis in the mutant yolk sac. Interestingly, TUNEL staining and PCNA staining showed neither enhanced apoptosis nor reduced cell proliferation in the mutant myocardium. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated that, among 20 candidate genes examined, expression of ANF, BNP, MLC2V, N-myc, MEF2C, HAND1 and Msx2 was disturbed in the mutant heart. Moreover, in the heart of adult chimeric mice generated from Csx/Nkx2.5 null ES cells, there were almost no ES cell-derived cardiac myocytes, while there were substantial contributions of Csx /Nkx2.5-deficient cells in other organs. Whole-mount &bgr;-gal staining of chimeric embryos showed that more than 20% contribution of Csx/Nkx2. 5-deficient cells in the heart arrested cardiac development. These results indicate that (1) the complete null mutation of Csx/Nkx2.5 did not abolish initial heart looping, (2) there was no enhanced apoptosis or defective cell cycle entry in Csx/Nkx2.5 null cardiac myocytes, (3) Csx/Nkx2.5 regulates expression of several essential transcription factors in the developing heart, (4) Csx/Nkx2.5 is required for later differentiation of cardiac myocytes, (5) Csx/Nkx2. 5 null cells exert dominant interfering effects on cardiac development, and (6) there were severe defects in yolk sac angiogenesis and hematopoiesis in the Csx/Nkx2.5 null embryos.  (+info)

Characterization of an amphioxus paired box gene, AmphiPax2/5/8: developmental expression patterns in optic support cells, nephridium, thyroid-like structures and pharyngeal gill slits, but not in the midbrain-hindbrain boundary region. (2/13607)

On the basis of developmental gene expression, the vertebrate central nervous system comprises: a forebrain plus anterior midbrain, a midbrain-hindbrain boundary region (MHB) having organizer properties, and a rhombospinal domain. The vertebrate MHB is characterized by position, by organizer properties and by being the early site of action of Wnt1 and engrailed genes, and of genes of the Pax2/5/8 subfamily. Wada and others (Wada, H., Saiga, H., Satoh, N. and Holland, P. W. H. (1998) Development 125, 1113-1122) suggested that ascidian tunicates have a vertebrate-like MHB on the basis of ascidian Pax258 expression there. In another invertebrate chordate, amphioxus, comparable gene expression evidence for a vertebrate-like MHB is lacking. We, therefore, isolated and characterized AmphiPax2/5/8, the sole member of this subfamily in amphioxus. AmphiPax2/5/8 is initially expressed well back in the rhombospinal domain and not where a MHB would be expected. In contrast, most of the other expression domains of AmphiPax2/5/8 correspond to expression domains of vertebrate Pax2, Pax5 and Pax8 in structures that are probably homologous - support cells of the eye, nephridium, thyroid-like structures and pharyngeal gill slits; although AmphiPax2/5/8 is not transcribed in any structures that could be interpreted as homologues of vertebrate otic placodes or otic vesicles. In sum, the developmental expression of AmphiPax2/5/8 indicates that the amphioxus central nervous system lacks a MHB resembling the vertebrate isthmic region. Additional gene expression data for the developing ascidian and amphioxus nervous systems would help determine whether a MHB is a basal chordate character secondarily lost in amphioxus. The alternative is that the MHB is a vertebrate innovation.  (+info)

Molecular chaperones: small heat shock proteins in the limelight. (3/13607)

Small heat shock proteins have been the Cinderellas of the molecular chaperone world, but now the crystal structure of a small heat shock protein has been solved and mutation of two human homologues implicated in genetic disease. Intermediate filaments appear to be one of the key targets of their chaperone activity.  (+info)

TIF1gamma, a novel member of the transcriptional intermediary factor 1 family. (4/13607)

We report the cloning and characterization of a novel member of the Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 1 (TIF1) gene family, human TIF1gamma. Similar to TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, the structure of TIF1beta is characterized by multiple domains: RING finger, B boxes, Coiled coil, PHD/TTC, and bromodomain. Although structurally related to TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, TIF1gamma presents several functional differences. In contrast to TIF1alpha, but like TIF1beta, TIF1 does not interact with nuclear receptors in yeast two-hybrid or GST pull-down assays and does not interfere with retinoic acid response in transfected mammalian cells. Whereas TIF1alpha and TIF1beta were previously found to interact with the KRAB silencing domain of KOX1 and with the HP1alpha, MODI (HP1beta) and MOD2 (HP1gamma) heterochromatinic proteins, suggesting that they may participate in a complex involved in heterochromatin-induced gene repression, TIF1gamma does not interact with either the KRAB domain of KOX1 or the HP1 proteins. Nevertheless, TIF1gamma, like TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, exhibits a strong silencing activity when tethered to a promoter. Since deletion of a novel motif unique to the three TIF1 proteins, called TIF1 signature sequence (TSS), abrogates transcriptional repression by TIF1gamma, this motif likely participates in TIF1 dependent repression.  (+info)

Molecular phylogeny of the ETS gene family. (5/13607)

We have constructed a molecular phylogeny of the ETS gene family. By distance and parsimony analysis of the ETS conserved domains we show that the family containing so far 29 different genes in vertebrates can be divided into 13 groups of genes namely ETS, ER71, GABP, PEA3, ERG, ERF, ELK, DETS4, ELF, ESE, TEL, YAN, SPI. Since the three dimensional structure of the ETS domain has revealed a similarity with the winged-helix-turn-helix proteins, we used two of them (CAP and HSF) to root the tree. This allowed us to show that the family can be divided into five subfamilies: ETS, DETS4, ELF, TEL and SPI. The ETS subfamily comprises the ETS, ER71, GABP, PEA3, ERG, ERF and the ELK groups which appear more related to each other than to any other ETS family members. The fact that some members of these subfamilies were identified in early metazoans such as diploblasts and sponges suggests that the diversification of ETS family genes predates the diversification of metazoans. By the combined analysis of both the ETS and the PNT domains, which are conserved in some members of the family, we showed that the GABP group, and not the ERG group, is the one most closely related to the ETS group. We also observed that the speed of accumulation of mutations in the various genes of the family is highly variable. Noticeably, paralogous members of the ELK group exhibit strikingly different evolutionary speed suggesting that the evolutionary pressure they support is very different.  (+info)

ETO-2, a new member of the ETO-family of nuclear proteins. (6/13607)

The t(8;21) is associated with 12-15% of acute myelogenous leukemias of the M2 subtype. The translocation results in the fusion of two genes, AML1 (CBFA2) on chromosome 21 and ETO (MTG8) on chromosome 8. AML1 encodes a DNA binding factor; the ETO protein product is less well characterized, but is thought to be a transcription factor. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of ETO-2, a murine cDNA that encodes a new member of the ETO family of proteins. ETO-2 is 75% identical to murine ETO and shares very high sequence identities over four regions of the protein with ETO (domain I-III and zinc-finger). Northern analysis identifies ETO-2 transcripts in many of the murine tissues analysed and in the developing mouse embryo. ETO-2 is also expressed in myeloid and erythroid cell lines. We confirmed the nuclear localization of ETO-2 and demonstrated that domain III and the zinc-finger region are not required for nuclear localization. We further showed that a region within ETO, containing domain II, mediates dimerization among family members. This region is conserved in the oncoprotein AML-1/ETO. The recent identification of another ETO-like protein, myeloid translocation gene-related protein 1, together with the data presented here, demonstrates that at least three ETO proteins exist with the potential to form dimers in the cell nucleus.  (+info)

Isolation of zebrafish gdf7 and comparative genetic mapping of genes belonging to the growth/differentiation factor 5, 6, 7 subgroup of the TGF-beta superfamily. (7/13607)

The Growth/differentiation factor (Gdf) 5, 6, 7 genes form a closely related subgroup belonging to the TGF-beta superfamily. In zebrafish, there are three genes that belong to the Gdf5, 6, 7 subgroup that have been named radar, dynamo, and contact. The genes radar and dynamo both encode proteins most similar to mouse GDF6. The orthologous identity of these genes on the basis of amino acid similarities has not been clear. We have identified gdf7, a fourth zebrafish gene belonging to the Gdf5, 6, 7 subgroup. To assign correct orthologies and to investigate the evolutionary relationships of the human, mouse, and zebrafish Gdf5, 6, 7 subgroup, we have compared genetic map positions of the zebrafish and mammalian genes. We have mapped zebrafish gdf7 to linkage group (LG) 17, contact to LG9, GDF6 to human chromosome (Hsa) 8 and GDF7 to Hsa2p. The radar and dynamo genes have been localized previously to LG16 and LG19, respectively. A comparison of syntenies shared among human, mouse, and zebrafish genomes indicates that gdf7 is the ortholog of mammalian GDF7/Gdf7. LG16 shares syntenic relationships with mouse chromosome (Mmu) 4, including Gdf6. Portions of LG16 and LG19 appear to be duplicate chromosomes, thus suggesting that radar and dynamo are both orthologs of Gdf6. Finally, the mapping data is consistent with contact being the zebrafish ortholog of mammalian GDF5/Gdf5.  (+info)

Analysis of two cosmid clones from chromosome 4 of Drosophila melanogaster reveals two new genes amid an unusual arrangement of repeated sequences. (8/13607)

Chromosome 4 from Drosophila melanogaster has several unusual features that distinguish it from the other chromosomes. These include a diffuse appearance in salivary gland polytene chromosomes, an absence of recombination, and the variegated expression of P-element transgenes. As part of a larger project to understand these properties, we are assembling a physical map of this chromosome. Here we report the sequence of two cosmids representing approximately 5% of the polytenized region. Both cosmid clones contain numerous repeated DNA sequences, as identified by cross hybridization with labeled genomic DNA, BLAST searches, and dot matrix analysis, which are positioned between and within the transcribed sequences. The repetitive sequences include three copies of the mobile element Hoppel, one copy of the mobile element HB, and 18 DINE repeats. DINE is a novel, short repeated sequence dispersed throughout both cosmid sequences. One cosmid includes the previously described cubitus interruptus (ci) gene and two new genes: that a gene with a predicted amino acid sequence similar to ribosomal protein S3a which is consistent with the Minute(4)101 locus thought to be in the region, and a novel member of the protein family that includes plexin and met-hepatocyte growth factor receptor. The other cosmid contains only the two short 5'-most exons from the zinc-finger-homolog-2 (zfh-2) gene. This is the first extensive sequence analysis of noncoding DNA from chromosome 4. The distribution of the various repeats suggests its organization is similar to the beta-heterochromatic regions near the base of the major chromosome arms. Such a pattern may account for the diffuse banding of the polytene chromosome 4 and the variegation of many P-element transgenes on the chromosome.  (+info)

Symptoms of ehrlichiosis typically begin within one to two weeks after the tick bite and may include fever, headache, muscle pain, joint pain, and rash. In severe cases, the infection can spread to the bloodstream and cause more serious complications, such as respiratory distress, liver failure, and kidney failure.

Ehrlichiosis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, including a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect the bacterial DNA in the blood. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, such as doxycycline or azithromycin, which are effective against the bacteria that cause ehrlichiosis.

Prevention of ehrlichiosis primarily involves avoiding tick habitats and using tick-repellent clothing and insecticides to prevent tick bites. Early detection and treatment of ehrlichiosis can help reduce the risk of serious complications and improve outcomes for infected individuals.

Ly-49 Multigene Family. New Members Of A Superfamily Of Type II Membrane Proteins With Lectin-Like Domains. [3], Smith, H, F ... "Ly-49 Multigene Family Expressed By IL-2-Activated NK Cells.". Karlhofer, F., Orihuela, M. and Yokoyama, W., 1995. Ly-49- ... Takei's lab continued working on other members of this family. They showed that each member of this family of highly ... The Ly-49 family: genes, proteins and recognition of class I MHC. Immunological Reviews, 155(1), pp.67-77. Halim, T., Krauß, R ...
Kedes L, Ng SY, Lin CS, Gunning P, Eddy R, Shows T, Leavitt J (1986). "The human beta-actin multigene family". Transactions of ... Actins are a family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments. ACTA2 is one of 6 different actin isoforms ...
... families can be classified as multigene families or superfamilies. Multigene families typically consist of members with similar ... A special type of multigene family is implicated in the movement of gene families and gene family members. LINE (Long ... Gene members of a multigene family or multigene families within superfamilies exist on different chromosomes due to relocation ... Ohta, Tomoka (2008). "Gene families: multigene families and superfamilies". eLS. doi:10.1038/npg.els.0005126. ISBN 978- ...
Kedes L, Ng SY, Lin CS, Gunning P, Eddy R, Shows T, Leavitt J (1986). "The human beta-actin multigene family". Transactions of ...
The multigene families that encode the toxins of venomous animals are actively selected, creating more diverse toxins with ... Kordiš, D.; Gubenšek, F. (2000). "Adaptive evolution of animal toxin multigene families". Gene. 261 (1): 43-52. doi:10.1016/ ... containing the suborders Serpentes and Iguania and the families Varanidae, Anguidae, and Helodermatidae. Euchambersia, an ...
The multigene family contains a processed pseudogene". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 262 (21): 9931-4. doi:10.1016/S0021 ...
A Multigene Family of Putative Cell Adhesion Molecules". Plant Physiology. 133 (4): 1911-1925. doi:10.1104/pp.103.031237. PMC ... The APG IV system and The Plant List Webpage do not share this family assignment. Seagrass populations are currently threatened ... "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV". Botanical ... Today, seagrasses are a polyphyletic group of marine angiosperms with around 60 species in five families (Zosteraceae, ...
Matsunami H, Buck LB (August 1997). "A multigene family encoding a diverse array of putative pheromone receptors in mammals". ... V2R genes can be grouped into four separate families, labelled A - D. Family C V2Rs are quite distinct from the other families ... Ryba NJ, Tirindelli R (August 1997). "A new multigene family of putative pheromone receptors". Neuron. 19 (2): 371-379. doi: ... Recent studies proved a new family of formyl peptide receptor like proteins in VNO membranes of mice, which points to a close ...
"The cyclophilin multigene family of peptidyl-prolyl isomerases. Characterization of three separate human isoforms". The Journal ... The PPIase family is further divided into three structurally distinct subfamilies: cyclophilin (CyP), FK506-binding protein ( ... As a member of the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) family, this protein catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of ... Though PPIF was identified as a candidate for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) for one afflicted family, further study revealed no ...
A multigene family that exhibits differential expression patterns". Plant Physiology. 109 (2): 525-31. doi:10.1104/pp.109.2.525 ...
Ryba, NJ; Tirindelli, R (August 1997). "A new multigene family of putative pheromone receptors". Neuron. 19 (2): 371-9. doi: ... In rat, the family comprises 30-40 genes. These are expressed in the apical regions of the VNO, in neurons expressing Gi2. ... Two distinct families of vomeronasal receptors - which putatively function as pheromone receptors - have been identified in the ... The V1 receptors share between 50 and 90% sequence identity but have little similarity to other families of G protein-coupled ...
A Multigene Family of Putative Cell Adhesion Molecules". Plant Physiology. 133 (4): 1911-1925. doi:10.1104/pp.103.031237. ISSN ... The GT31 family is one of the families involved in AGP glycan backbone biosynthesis. Numerous members of the GT31 family have ... AGPs belong to large multigene families and are divided into several sub-groups depending on the predicted protein sequence. " ... "A small multigene hydroxyproline-O-galactosyltransferase family functions in arabinogalactan-protein glycosylation, growth and ...
The dynamics of multigene family evolution in Drosophila. lib.cam.ac.uk (PhD thesis). University of Cambridge. OCLC 499809938. ... "Rate of turnover of structural variants in the rDNA gene family of Drosophila melanogaster". Nature. 295 (5850): 564-568. ...
Karathanasis SK (1985). "Apolipoprotein multigene family: tandem organization of human apolipoprotein AI, CIII, and AIV genes ... "Structure and evolution of the apolipoprotein multigene family". J. Mol. Biol. 187 (3): 325-340. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(86)90436 ...
Many genes occurred in large, multi-gene families. When compared to the genome of E. histolytica, Wang et al. found that on ...
Buck L, Axel R (April 1991). "A novel multigene family may encode odorant receptors: a molecular basis for odor recognition". ... Niimura Y (April 2012). "Olfactory receptor multigene family in vertebrates: from the viewpoint of evolutionary genomics". ... The olfactory receptors form a multigene family consisting of around 800 genes in humans and 1400 genes in mice. In vertebrates ... "Concerted and birth-and-death evolution of multigene families". Annual Review of Genetics. 39: 121-52. doi:10.1146/annurev. ...
Myosin heavy chains are encoded by a multigene family. In mammals, at least ten different myosin heavy chain (MYH) isoforms ... encoded by the MYO1 family of genes (MYO1A-MYO1H). Class I MYO1 genes function in many cell types throughout biology and are ... "Comparative sequence analysis of the complete human sarcomeric myosin heavy chain family: implications for functional diversity ... of phylogenetically conserved domains controlling developmental regulation of the human skeletal myosin heavy chain gene family ...
Semënov MV, Snyder M (1997). "Human dishevelled genes constitute a DHR-containing multigene family". Genomics. 42 (2): 302-10. ...
This gene is a member of a multi-gene family which shares strong similarity with the Drosophila dishevelled gene, dsh. The ... Semënov MV, Snyder M (1997). "Human dishevelled genes constitute a DHR-containing multigene family". Genomics. 42 (2): 302-310 ... in mouse Vangl2 that cause neural tube defects in looptail mice impair interaction with members of the Dishevelled family". J. ...
Holmer L, Pezhman A, Worman HJ (1999). "The human lamin B receptor/sterol reductase multigene family". Genomics. 54 (3): 469-76 ...
Holmer L, Pezhman A, Worman HJ (Dec 1998). "The human lamin B receptor/sterol reductase multigene family". Genomics. 54 (3): ...
Holmer L, Pezhman A, Worman HJ (December 1998). "The human lamin B receptor/sterol reductase multigene family". Genomics. 54 (3 ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the ERG4/ERG24 family. It localizes to the inner membrane of the nuclear envelope ...
Semënov MV, Snyder M (June 1997). "Human dishevelled genes constitute a DHR-containing multigene family". Genomics. 42 (2): 302 ... The name derives from the first 2 members of the family to be discovered: int-1 (mouse) and wingless (Drosophila). It is now ... Members of the Wnt gene family are defined by their sequence similarity to mouse Wnt-1 and Wingless in Drosophila. They encode ... Wnt-mediated signalling is believed to proceed initially through binding to cell surface receptors of the frizzled family; the ...
Beals CR, Wilson CB, Perlmutter RM (Nov 1987). "A small multigene family encodes Gi signal-transduction proteins". Proceedings ... Woulfe DS, Stadel JM (Jun 1999). "Structural basis for the selectivity of the RGS protein, GAIP, for Galphai family members. ... Downes GB, Gautam N (Dec 1999). "The G protein subunit gene families". Genomics. 62 (3): 544-52. doi:10.1006/geno.1999.5992. ... Evidence for two Gi alpha-like protein families". FEBS Letters. 219 (1): 259-63. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(87)81228-0. PMID 3109953 ...
"Molecular characterization of the patatin multigene family of potato". Gene. 62 (1): 27-44. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(88)90577-X. ... Family of patatin-like phospholipases consists of various patatin glycoproteins from the total soluble protein from potato ... This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro: IPR002641 (Protein domains, Protein families, Single- ...
Evidence for the existence of a peroxidase multigene family". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 169 (5): 1757-69. doi: ... The fold of the enzyme is known as the heme peroxidase fold, conserved among all members of this gene family. However, not all ...
Semënov MV, Snyder M (1997). "Human dishevelled genes constitute a DHR-containing multigene family". Genomics. 42 (2): 302-10. ... This gene encodes a member of the dishevelled (dsh) protein family. The vertebrate dsh proteins have approximately 40% amino ... in mouse Vangl2 that cause neural tube defects in looptail mice impair interaction with members of the Dishevelled family". J. ...
... encodes one member of the multigene transglutaminase family. Transglutaminases (TGs) are involved in protein cross-linking ... Other families with more-widespread peeling skin phenotypes lacked TGM5 mutations. This study identifies the first causative ... in all affected persons in two unrelated families. The mutation was present on the same haplotype in both kindreds, indicating ...
Nei M, Rooney AP (2005-11-14). "Concerted and birth-and-death evolution of multigene families". Annual Review of Genetics. 39 ( ... Birth-and-death evolution is one of the mechanistic explanations for the size of the MHC class I gene family. Birth-and-death ... Since their emergence in jawed vertebrates, this gene family has been subjected to many divergent evolutionary paths as ... TAP is a member of the ABC transporter family and is a heterodimeric multimembrane-spanning polypeptide consisting of TAP1 and ...
Mignery GA, Pikaard CS, Park WD (1988). "Molecular characterization of the patatin multigene family of potato". Gene. 62 (1): ... Patatin is a family of glycoproteins found in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) and is also known as tuberin as it is commonly found ... Members of this protein family have also been found in animals. Patatin is identified as a major cause of potato allergy. It ...
Phaeosphaera Family Phaeodinidae Cachon-Enjumet 1961 - Phaeodina Family Atlanticellidae Cachon-Enjumet 1961 - Gymnocelia, ... Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Chao, Ema E.; Lewis, Rhodri (April 2018). "Multigene phylogeny and cell evolution of chromist ... Challengeron Family Medusettiidae Haeckel 1887 - Euphysetta, Gazelletta, Medusetta Family Lirellidae Loeblich & Tappan 1961 - ... Haeckel 1887 Family Aulosphaeridae Haeckel 1887 - Aulosphaera, Aularia, Aulotractus Family Cannosphaeridae Haeckel 1887 - ...
A multi-gene estimate of phylogeny in the nightjars and nighthawks (Caprimulgidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 55: ... The collared nightjar (Gactornis enarratus) is a species of nightjar in the family Caprimulgidae. It is endemic to Madagascar. ...
2008). "Multigene phylogeny of the Mustelidae: Resolving relationships, tempo and biogeographic history of a mammalian adaptive ... Ictonychinae is a subfamily of the mammal family Mustelidae found mainly in the Neotropics (three species) and Africa (three ...
... , also called minute mud-loving beetles, is the only genus in the beetle family Georissidae (or Georyssidae). They are ... using multigene analyses. Zoologica Scripta 35 (6), 597-606, 2006 v t e (CS1 errors: missing periodical, Articles with short ... Phylogeny and classification of the staphyliniform beetle families (Coleoptera). Biologiske Skrifter 48, Copenhagen, 1997 "12. ... "Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta)". ZooKeys (88): 1-972. doi:10.3897/zookeys.88.807. PMC 3088472. PMID 21594053. M. ...
A member of the family Boletaceae, the mushrooms produced by the fungus have tubes and pores instead of gills on the underside ... Worldwide Based on Multi-Gene Phylogeny, Morphology and Biogeography, and Insights on Amoenoboletus". Journal of Fungi. 8 (2): ... "Molecular phylogenetic analyses redefine seven major clades and reveal 22 new generic clades in the fungal family Boletaceae". ...
... single gene test or multi-gene panel) CMM has clear severe impacts on a patient's ability to carry out daily manual tasks. It ... family, and friends that the disorder bears no relation to intellectual abilities. However, the rarity of this neurologic ... of a homozygous splice site mutation in the dynein axonemal light chain 4 gene on 22q13.1 in a large consanguineous family from ...
2011 Family Mantamonadidae Cavalier-Smith Glücksman et al. 2011 Genus Mantamonas Cavalier-Smith Glücksman et al. 2011 Species ... "Multigene eukaryote phylogeny reveals the likely protozoan ancestors of opisthokonts (animals, fungi, choanozoans) and ...
Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Patton, James L.; Leite, Yuri L. R. (2016). "Family Echimyidae (hutias, South American spiny-rats and ... a multigene phylogenetic approach". Zoologica Scripta. 42 (2): 117-134. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2012.00572.x. ISSN 1463-6409. ...
... proteins are cytoskeletal proteins that confer resistance to mechanical stress and are encoded by a dispersed multigene family ... Synemin is an intermediate filament (IF) family member. IF ...
The intracellular fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) belongs to a multigene family. FABPs are divided into at least three ... "Members of the fatty acid binding protein family are differentiation factors for the mammary gland". The Journal of Cell ...
A multigene haplotype is set of inherited alleles covering several genes, or gene-alleles; common multigene haplotypes are ... Early studies of families across Europe recognized what most HLA associations had already shown, that there is an inherited ( ... Multigene haplotypes following standard dynamics only exist in robust populations for a short time, the average distance ... HLA A1-B8-DR3-DQ2 haplotype (Also: AH8.1, COX, Super B8, ancestral MHC 8.1 or 8.1 ancestral haplotype) is a multigene haplotype ...
... is a novel member of the armadillo multigene family". J. Cell Sci. 107. ( Pt 8) (8): 2259-70. doi:10.1242/jcs.107.8.2259. PMID ... This gene encodes a member of the arm-repeat (armadillo) and plakophilin gene families. Plakophilin proteins contain numerous ... "Cell type-specific desmosomal plaque proteins of the plakoglobin family: plakophilin 1 (band 6 protein)". Differentiation. 58 ( ...
This family is distinct from the fireflies (family Lampyridae), which may also be called "glow-worms" in its larval stage. ... resolved by multigene phylogenetic analysis". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. Oxford University Press (OUP). doi: ... long-lipped beetles were treated as a family Telegeusidae but are most recently treated as a subfamily within the family ... and information retrieval for families and sub-families. glow-worms on the UF / IFAS Featured Creatures Web site (Articles with ...
"Proposal for a subdivision of the family Psathyrellaceae based on a taxon-rich phylogenetic analysis with iterative multigene ... Tulosesus congregatus is a species of mushroom producing fungus in the family Psathyrellaceae. It was first described in 1782 ... Andreas Melzer reclassified many species in the Psathyrellaceae family based on phylogenetic analysis. "Species Fungorum - ...
Linda Buck & Richard Axel (1991). "A novel multigene family may encode odorant receptors: a molecular basis for odor ... "A Chemosensory Gene Family Encoding Candidate Gustatory and Olfactory Receptors in Drosophila". Cell. 104 (5): 661-673. doi: ...
2007). "A multi-gene phylogeny of Clavicipitaceae (Ascomycota, Fungi): identification of localized incongruence using a ... O. sinensis parasitizes the larvae of moths within the family Hepialidae, specifically genera found on the Tibetan Plateau and ... in the family Ophiocordycipitaceae. It is mainly found in the meadows above 3,500 metres (11,500 ft) on the Tibetan Plateau in ... resulting in the naming of a new family Ophiocordycipitaceae and the transfer of several Cordyceps species including C. ...
It contains eight orders and 36 families. Arctomiaceae is the only family in the Ostropomycetidae that associates with ... 2014). "A multigene phylogenetic synthesis for the class Lecanoromycetes (Ascomycota): 1307 fungi representing 1139 ... Reeb, V.; Lutzoni, F.; Roux, C. (2004). "Multilocus phylogenetic circumscription of the lichen-forming fungi family ... The following taxa are of uncertain classification (incertae sedis) in the Ostropomycetidae: Family incertae sedis: ...
The monotypic family Apystomyiidae has also been placed within the Eremoneura as a sister of the Cyclorrhapha. Grimaldi, David ... doi:10.11646/zootaxa.2078.1.2. Trautwein, Michelle D.; Wiegmann, Brian M.; Yeates, David K. (2010). "A multigene phylogeny of ... A.; Cumming, Jeffrey M.; Arillo, Antonio (2009). "Chimeromyiidae, a new family of Eremoneuran Diptera from the Cretaceous". ...
"Evaluating a multigene environmental DNA approach for biodiversity assessment". GigaScience. 4: 46. doi:10.1186/s13742-015-0086 ... showing from which plants each arthropod family is obtained. Plant names: Angeli (Angelica archangelica), Centau (Centaurea ...
She has described two new orders (Ahnfeltiales and Atractophorales) of alga, and three new families (Ahnfeltiaceae, ... "Multigene analyses resolve early diverging lineages in the Rhodymeniophycidae (Florideophyceae, Rhodphyta)" (PDF). Journal of ...
... is a family of passerine birds native to Australia and nearby areas. It has a complicated taxonomic history and ... Norman, Janette A., Per G.P. Ericson, Knud A. Jønsson, Jon Fjeldså & Les Christidis (2009) A multi-gene phylogeny reveals novel ... A number of authors later treated the quail-thrushes and allies as the family Cinclosomatidae, a name first coined by Gregory ... Sometimes the Malaysian rail-babbler and blue-capped ifrit (Ifrita kowaldi) were also included in the family. In 1985, Sibley ...
1998). The families and genera of vascular plants. Vol.3. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-540-64060-8. Retrieved ... multigene approaches to the phylogeny of Amaryllidaceae". Aliso. 22: 355-366. doi:10.5642/aliso.20062201.29. Retrieved 25 ... Stenomesseae was a tribe (in the family Amaryllidaceae, subfamily Amaryllidoideae), where it forms part of the Andean clade, ...
... comprise nine families, the type family being the rose family, Rosaceae. The largest of these families are Rosaceae (90 ... ISBN 978-0-87893-407-2 Shu-dong Zhang, De-zhu Li; Soltis, Douglas E.; Yang, Yang; Ting-shuang, Yi (July 2011). "Multi-gene ... It consisted of the family Rosaceae and 23 other families that are now placed in various other orders. These families and their ... Many ornamental species of plant are also in the family Rosaceae, including the rose after which the family and order were ...
The two stem-pinniped arctoid families Amphicynodontidae and Semantoridae are included here as well, although neither family ... assessed using a multigene dataset". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 7: 216. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-216. PMC 2245807. PMID 17996107 ... Two stem-pinniped families found outside of Pinnipedimorpha, Amphicynodontidae and Semantoridae, were in the past considered to ...
... reveals a multigene family". Gene. 129 (2): 239-47. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(93)90274-7. PMID 8392015. Bolger G, Michaeli T, ... This gene is a member of the type IV, cyclic AMP (cAMP)-specific, cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) family. Cyclic ... Martins T, St John T, Steiner B, Rodgers L, Riggs M, Wigler M, Ferguson K (Oct 1993). "A family of human phosphodiesterases ...
... are a family of water moulds that contains 21 genera, comprising more than 600 species. Most of them are called ... A multi-gene phylogenetic analysis of downy mildews". Fungal Genetics and Biology. 44 (2): 105-122. doi:10.1016/j.fgb.2006.07. ...
A patient's family history also known as genealogy, can provide important insight into medical conditions within the family. ... This is often referred to as multigene panel testing because testing simultaneously examines a number of different genes. For ... When obtaining a family history, it is helpful to gather health information for the following family members: grandparents, ... Family sharing. The implications of genetic test results for other family members are important to consider in patients ...
... is a genus of lizards in the family Diplodactylidae. It includes six species, commonly known as beaked geckos, all ... Morphological and multi-gene evidence for four new species of Beaked Geckos (Rhynchoedura)". Molecular Phylogenetics and ...
Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) is a member of a multigene family (at least six separate genes are known) that encode carbonic ...
Multigene Family * Multiprotein Complexes * Neoplasms / genetics * Neoplasms / metabolism * Neoplasms / mortality * Neoplasms ...
ApoC-II and apoC-III belong to the apolipoprotein multigene family. Apolipoproteins are proteins that bind to lipids to form ...
1991) A novel multigene family may encode odorant receptors: a molecular basis for odor recognition. Cell 65:175-187. ... In vertebrates, odorant transduction is mediated by G-protein-coupled receptors, which are encoded by a family of ∼1000 odorant ...
Semenov MV, Snyder M. Human dishevelled genes constitute a DHR-containing multigene family. Genomics. 1997 Jun 1;42(2):302-10. ...
Member of the seripauperin multigene family; encoded mainly in subtelomeric regions; active during alcoholic fermentation; ...
Multigene Family 17% * Genes 12% * Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction 12% * Polymerase Chain Reaction 9% ...
Groot, P. C., Mager, W. H. & Frants, R. R. Interpretation of polymorphic DNA patterns in the human α-amylase multigene family. ... A 1.5 million-base pair inversion polymorphism in families with Williams-Beuren syndrome. Nature Genet. 29, 321-5 (2001). A ... Detection of exon deletions and duplications of the mismatch repair genes in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families ...
Population structure of the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia hermsii as indicated by polymorphism of two multigene families ...
Apr 18, 12:22 Chromosomal mapping of histone multigene family in Hypancistrus zebra & H. sp. Pão by Jools in Taxonomy & ...
... multigene family; mutants; oligomycin; secondary metabolites; spectral analysis. Abstract:. ... The genomes of actinomycetes ... 1-Naphthylmethyl and 1-naphthylmethoxymethyl protecting groups: New members of the benzyl- and benzyloxymethyl-type family ... 8. (Propargylsulfanyl)-2-aza-1,3,5-trienes as a direct source for novel family of highly functionalized 4,5-dihydro-1,3- ... and benzyloxymethyl-type family. NAPI and NAPOMI can be introduced under conventional conditions, such as NAPIBr/NaH/room ...
Axel, R. A novel multigene family may encode odorant receptors: a molecular basis for odor recognition. Cell. 65 (1), 175-187 ( ... Cada OSN expressa um receptor olfativo (OR) seleccionados a partir de uma grande família multigene 6. Há ~ 1000 RUP expressos ...
The vitamin D-binding protein, alpha-fetoprotein, albumin multigene family: detection of transcripts in multiple tissues.. ... The Albuminoid Gene Family. AFP, as a member of an albuminoid gene family, is structurally characterized by 32 cysteine ... and position in the albuminoid gene family in comparison to other gene family members. Ontogenetic AFP gene expression is ... AFP from other albuminoid family members whose proteins lack the short peptide sequence similarities to the ECM protein family ...
Li Q, Chen J, Xiao Y, Di P, Zhang L, Chen W. The dirigent multigene family in Isatis indigotica: Gene discovery and ... L. Gaertner) is one of the oldest known medicinal plants belonging to the Asteraceae family. It was described and named by Carl ... The F3H enzyme belongs to the family of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases. It is highly conserved in plant species [72, 73 ... Tognolli M, Penel C, Greppin H, Simon P. Analysis and expression of the class III peroxidase large gene family in Arabidopsis ...
Multigene Panel. Individuals with clinical suspicion and family members. Diagnosis, management and risk. ... Multigene panel. Clinical suspicion or family history of cardiac channelopathies. Diagnosis and management ... Individuals diagnosed with BrCa and their family members. Management of individuals and early detection/prevention for family ... Individuals with clinical suspicion or family history of Parkinsons disease. Diagnosis and treatment of individuals and family ...
A new member of the human cystatin multigene family has been cloned from a genomic library using a cystatin C cDNA probe. The ... A new member of the human cystatin multigene family has been cloned from a genomic library using a cystatin C cDNA probe. The ... article{b8ff40f8-dd21-4ef9-9ff1-55bb47ae34db, abstract = {{A new member of the human cystatin multigene family has been cloned ... Cystatin D, being the first described member of a third subfamily within the cystatin Family 2, thus appears to have a distinct ...
The effects of mental illness on families within faith communities. Rogers, E. B., Stanford, M. & Garland, D. R., Mar 2012, In ...
Evolution and expansion of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE and PPE multigene families and their association with the ... A recently evolved sublineage of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing strain family is associated with an increased ability ...
Families, Multigene. Family, Multigene. Gene Cluster. Gene Clusters. Gene, Reiterated. Genes, Reiterated. Multigene Families. ... Multigene Family Entry term(s). Families, Multigene Family, Multigene Multigene Families Genes, Reiterated - Narrower Concept ... Multigene Family - Preferred Concept UI. M0009111. Scope note. A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ... Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins ...
Unver A, Rikihisa Y, Stich RW, Ohashi N, Felek S. The omp-1 major outer membrane multigene family of Ehrlichia chaffeensis is ... Health Sciences Clinical Professor, UC Irvine Department of Family Medicine; Associate Dean for Diversity and Inclusion, UC ... Health Sciences Clinical Professor, UC Irvine Department of Family Medicine; Associate Dean for Diversity and Inclusion, UC ...
In animals and plants, miRNAs exist as multigene families (two or more closely related sequences and vary by 1 or 2 nt only). ... we can suggest the relative tissue contribution of at least a few miRNA families. For instance, the miR-1 family has the ... discriminating individual members within a miRNA family is difficult. The expression information of a member of a miRNA family ... The miR-1 family is represented by three members (miR-1a, miR-1b and miR-1c) in diverse animals (miRBase). We cannot ascertain ...
... in terms of activation of transcription of this multigene family, is acquired late in metamorphosis at around Nieuwkoop-Faber ... but a pattern of unequal activation of individual genes of the Xenopus vitellogenin multigene family is established thereafter ...
Prolamin genes of cereals - multigene families with unusual molecular-structure. A - Papers appearing in refereed journals ... Prolamin genes of cereals - multigene families with unusual molecular-structure. Heredity. 53 (DEC), pp. 572-573. ... Prolamin genes of cereals - multigene families with unusual molecular-structure. A - Papers appearing in refereed journals ... Prolamin genes of cereals - multigene families with unusual molecular-structure. Hereditas. 101 (DEC), pp. 280-280. ...
Multigene PE/PPE family is exclusively present in mycobacterium species. Only few selected genes of this family have been ... Rv1900c, a two domain protein, has been grouped in lip gene family. The expression of rv1900c was upregulated under acidic, ... Rv1800 is predicted as PPE family protein found in pathogenic mycobacteria only. Under acidic stress, the rv1800 gene was ... family. The docking analysis predicted formation of hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions between donor acetyl-co-A and ...
99; use MULTIGENE FAMILY 1987-98. Related:. Chromosome Duplication MeSH Multigene Family MeSH Segmental Duplications, Genomic ... Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.. Annotation:. do not confuse with GENES, ... Multigene Family (1987-1998). Public MeSH Note:. 99; see MULTIGENE FAMILY 1987-98. ...
Multigene Family. B. P. Berman, Nibu, Y., Pfeiffer, B. D., Tomancak, P., Celniker, S. E., Levine, M., Rubin, G. M., and Eisen, ...
Multigene families; Organic evolution - evidences, mechanism and theories. Role of RNA in origin and evolution. ... Study of angiospermic families - Mangnoliaceae, Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae, Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae, ...
Multigene Family Medicine & Life Sciences 54% * Biological Products Medicine & Life Sciences 27% ...
  • Semenov MV, Snyder M. Human dishevelled genes constitute a DHR-containing multigene family. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The complete nucleotide sequence of a 4.3-kilobase DNA segment, containing a complete gene with structure very similar to those of known Family 2 cystatin genes, was determined. (lu.se)
  • Tales genes pueden estar agrupados en el mismo cromosoma o dispersos en diferentes cromosomas. (bvsalud.org)
  • Los tres últimos son ejemplos de genes reiterados en los que están presentes cientos de genes idénticos organizados en tándem. (bvsalud.org)
  • At the early developmental stages (up to stage 61 ) of acquired competence, there appears to be no fixed pattern of expression, but a pattern of unequal activation of individual genes of the Xenopus vitellogenin multigene family is established thereafter and then retained at all developmental stages of tadpoles, froglets, and in both male and female adults. (xenbase.org)
  • Procesos que se dan en distintos organismos, por el que surgen nuevos genes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Identification of germline pathogenic variants in DNA damage repair genes by a next-generation sequencing multigene panel in BRCAX patients. (cdc.gov)
  • Multigene testing of moderate-risk genes: be mindful of the missense. (who.int)
  • Optimizing the identification of risk-relevant mutations by multigene panel testing in selected hereditary breast/ovarian cancer families. (cdc.gov)
  • A new member of the human cystatin multigene family has been cloned from a genomic library using a cystatin C cDNA probe. (lu.se)
  • The structure of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is presented in light of AFP membership and position in the albuminoid gene family in comparison to other gene family members. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • RAD51 and breast cancer susceptibility: no evidence for rare variant association in the Breast Cancer Family Registry study. (cdc.gov)
  • To inform affect individuals and their related family members about diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. (medscape.com)
  • Les isolats de Mycobacterium tuberculosis issus de patients précédemment traités (n = 88) provenant de toutes les régions de la République arabe syrienne ont été caractérisés en termes de sensibilité aux antibiotiques et en fonction de leur génotype au moyen de la méthode de PCR d'éléments répétitifs doubles (DRE-PCR) pour la proximité des éléments d'ADN IS6110 répétés (élément génétique mobile) et des séquences répétées PGRS (Polymorphic GC-rich repetitive sequence). (who.int)
  • It is also ideal for screening patients' family members. (medscape.com)
  • Cystatin D, being the first described member of a third subfamily within the cystatin Family 2, thus appears to have a distinct function in the body in contrast to other cystatins. (lu.se)
  • The cystatin D sequence contains all regions of relevance for cysteine proteinase inhibitory activity and also the 4 cysteine residues that form disulfide bridges in the other members of cystatin Family 2. (lu.se)
  • 9. Detection of germline variants using expanded multigene panels in patients with localized pancreatic cancer . (nih.gov)
  • For example, 2964 amiRNAs target annotated DNA and RNA binding protein families and 1777 target transporter proteins, and another sublibrary targets proteins of unknown function. (nih.gov)
  • 6. The results of multigene panel sequencing in Slovak HBOC families. (nih.gov)
  • The results of multigene panel sequencing in Slovak HBOC families. (cdc.gov)
  • When a family member has been diagnosed with FAP with a known mutation, the patient's at-risk family members can be screened for this mutation only , as opposed to undergoing the slower and more expensive process of multigene panel sequencing. (medscape.com)
  • The human metallothionein gene family: structure and expression. (nih.gov)
  • [ 2 ] Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) are a multi gene family of heme-containing isoenzymes that are involved in oxidative metabolism of drug, steroids and carcinogens. (medscape.com)