Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetyltransferase reaction using ACETYL CoA as an acetyl donor and dihydrolipoamide as acceptor to produce COENZYME A (CoA) and S-acetyldihydrolipoamide. It forms the (E2) subunit of the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reduction of lipoamide by NADH to yield dihydrolipoamide and NAD+. The enzyme is a component of several MULTIENZYME COMPLEXES.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for KETONES.
An octanoic acid bridged with two sulfurs so that it is sometimes also called a pentanoic acid in some naming schemes. It is biosynthesized by cleavage of LINOLEIC ACID and is a coenzyme of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX). It is used in DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.
A species of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING BACTERIA in the family BACILLACEAE, found in soil, hot springs, Arctic waters, ocean sediments, and spoiled food products.
A mitochondrial protein consisting of four alpha-subunits and four beta-subunits. It contains enoyl-CoA hydratase, long-chain-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase activities and plays an important role in the metabolism of long chain FATTY ACIDS.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the hydration of unsaturated fatty acyl-CoA to yield beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA. It plays a role in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis, has broad specificity, and is most active with crotonyl-CoA. EC 4.2.1.17.
Enzyme that catalyzes the final step of fatty acid oxidation in which ACETYL COA is released and the CoA ester of a fatty acid two carbons shorter is formed.
A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE dependent enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of GLYCINE with the transfer of an aminomethyl group to the LIPOIC ACID moiety of the GLYCINE DECARBOXYLASE COMPLEX H-PROTEIN. Defects in P-protein are the cause of non-ketotic hyperglycinemia. It is one of four subunits of the glycine decarboxylase complex.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria in the family Thermoanaerobacteriaceae. They are thermophilic and saccharolytic.
The E1 component of the multienzyme PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX. It is composed of 2 alpha subunits (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha subunit) and 2 beta subunits (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 beta subunit).
A ketone oxidoreductase that catalyzes the overall conversion of alpha-keto acids to ACYL-CoA and CO2. The enzyme requires THIAMINE DIPHOSPHATE as a cofactor. Defects in genes that code for subunits of the enzyme are a cause of MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE. The enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.2.4.3.
A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.
Enzymes that catalyze inversion of the configuration around an asymmetric carbon in a substrate having one (racemase) or more (epimerase) center(s) of asymmetry. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.1.
A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.
Extracellular structures found in a variety of microorganisms. They contain CELLULASES and play an important role in the digestion of CELLULOSE.
A LIPOIC ACID-containing protein that plays the pivotal role in the transfer of methylamine groups and reducing equivalents between the three enzymatic components of the glycine decarboxylase complex.
Enzymes that reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a 3-hydroxyacyl CoA to 3-ketoacyl CoA in the presence of NAD. They are key enzymes in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.
A one-carbon group transferase that transfers lipoamide-linked methylamine groups to tetrahydrofolate (TETRAHYDROFOLATES) to form methylenetetrahydrofolate and AMMONIA. It is one of four components of the glycine decarboxylase complex.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Enzymes that catalyze the shifting of a carbon-carbon double bond from one position to another within the same molecule. EC 5.3.3.
A carboxypeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal amino acid with a broad specificity. It also plays a role in the LYSOSOMES by protecting BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and NEURAMINIDASE from degradation. It was formerly classified as EC 3.4.12.1 and EC 3.4.21.13.
The coenzyme form of Vitamin B1 present in many animal tissues. It is a required intermediate in the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX and the KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hydroxymethyl or formyl groups. EC 2.1.2.
A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.
Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A red yeast-like mitosporic fungal genus generally regarded as nonpathogenic. It is cultured from numerous sources in human patients.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A carbon-carbon double bond isomerase that catalyzes the movement double bond from C3 to C2 of an unsaturated acyl-CoA. The enzyme plays a key role in allowing acyl-CoA substrates to re-enter the beta-oxidation pathway.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An enzyme that activates aspartic acid with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.12.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.
An autosomal recessive inherited disorder with multiple forms of phenotypic expression, caused by a defect in the oxidative decarboxylation of branched-chain amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BRANCHED-CHAIN). These metabolites accumulate in body fluids and render a "maple syrup" odor. The disease is divided into classic, intermediate, intermittent, and thiamine responsive subtypes. The classic form presents in the first week of life with ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia, emesis, neonatal seizures, and hypertonia. The intermediate and intermittent forms present in childhood or later with acute episodes of ataxia and vomiting. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p936)
Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.
A class of enzymes that catalyze geometric or structural changes within a molecule to form a single product. The reactions do not involve a net change in the concentrations of compounds other than the substrate and the product.(from Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A genus of gram-positive bacteria whose spores are round to oval and covered by a sheath.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A enzyme complex that catalyzes the oxidative DECARBOXYLATION and DEAMINATION of GLYCINE into CARBON DIOXIDE; AMMONIA; NADH; and N5N10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. It is composed of four different component protein components referred to as H, P, L, and T.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
An enzyme that, in the course of pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzes ring closure by removal of water from N-carbamoylaspartate to yield dihydro-orotic acid. EC 3.5.2.3.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and glutamine. This enzyme is important in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines. EC 6.3.5.5.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of carboxyl- or carbamoyl- groups. EC 2.1.3.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

Mechanism and specificity of the terminal thioesterase domain from the erythromycin polyketide synthase. (1/7511)

BACKGROUND: Polyketides are important compounds with antibiotic and anticancer activities. Several modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) contain a terminal thioesterase (TE) domain probably responsible for the release and concomitant cyclization of the fully processed polyketide chain. Because the TE domain influences qualitative aspects of product formation by engineered PKSs, its mechanism and specificity are of considerable interest. RESULTS: The TE domain of the 6-deoxyerythronolide B synthase was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. When tested against a set of N-acetyl cysteamine thioesters the TE domain did not act as a cyclase, but showed significant hydrolytic specificity towards substrates that mimic important features of its natural substrate. Also the overall rate of polyketide chain release was strongly enhanced by a covalent connection between the TE domain and the terminal PKS module (by as much as 100-fold compared with separate TE and PKS 'domains'). CONCLUSIONS: The inability of the TE domain alone to catalyze cyclization suggests that macrocycle formation results from the combined action of the TE domain and a PKS module. The chain-length and stereochemical preferences of the TE domain might be relevant in the design and engineered biosynthesis of certain novel polyketides. Our results also suggest that the TE domain might loop back to catalyze the release of polyketide chains from both terminal and pre-terminal modules, which may explain the ability of certain naturally occurring PKSs, such as the picromycin synthase, to generate both 12-membered and 14-membered macrolide antibiotics.  (+info)

Cloning and characterisation of a novel ompB operon from Vibrio cholerae 569B. (2/7511)

The ompB operon of Vibrio cholerae 569B has been cloned and fully sequenced. The operon encodes two proteins, OmpR and EnvZ, which share sequence identity with the OmpR and EnvZ proteins of a variety of other bacteria. Although the order of the ompR and envZ genes of V. cholerae is similar to that of the ompB operon of E. coli, S. typhimurium and X. nematophilus, the Vibrio operon exhibits a number of novel features. The structural organisation and features of the V. cholerae ompB operon are described.  (+info)

Re-entering the translocon from the lumenal side of the endoplasmic reticulum. Studies on mutated carboxypeptidase yscY species. (3/7511)

Misfolded or unassembled secretory proteins are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and subsequently degraded by the cytosolic ubiquitin-proteasome system. This requires their retrograde transport from the ER lumen into the cytosol, which is mediated by the Sec61 translocon. It had remained a mystery whether ER-localised soluble proteins are at all capable of re-entering the Sec61 channel de novo or whether a permanent contact of the imported protein with the translocon is a prerequisite for retrograde transport. In this study we analysed two new variants of the mutated yeast carboxypeptidase yscY, CPY*: a carboxy-terminal fusion protein of CPY* and pig liver esterase and a CPY* species carrying an additional glycosylation site at its carboxy-terminus. With these constructs it can be demonstrated that the newly synthesised CPY* chain is not retained in the translocation channel but reaches its ER lumenal side completely. Our data indicate that the Sec61 channel provides the essential pore for protein transport through the ER membrane in either direction; persistent contact with the translocon after import seems not to be required for retrograde transport.  (+info)

AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase. (4/7511)

The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in rat skeletal and cardiac muscle is activated by vigorous exercise and ischaemic stress. Under these conditions AMPK phosphorylates and inhibits acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase causing increased oxidation of fatty acids. Here we show that AMPK co-immunoprecipitates with cardiac endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and phosphorylates Ser-1177 in the presence of Ca2+-calmodulin (CaM) to activate eNOS both in vitro and during ischaemia in rat hearts. In the absence of Ca2+-calmodulin, AMPK also phosphorylates eNOS at Thr-495 in the CaM-binding sequence, resulting in inhibition of eNOS activity but Thr-495 phosphorylation is unchanged during ischaemia. Phosphorylation of eNOS by the AMPK in endothelial cells and myocytes provides a further regulatory link between metabolic stress and cardiovascular function.  (+info)

Oligosaccharide modification in the early secretory pathway directs the selection of a misfolded glycoprotein for degradation by the proteasome. (5/7511)

The role of conformation-based quality control in the early secretory pathway is to eliminate misfolded polypeptides and unassembled multimeric protein complexes from the endoplasmic reticulum, ensuring the deployment of only functional molecules to distal sites. The intracellular fate of terminally misfolded human alpha1-antitrypsin was examined in hepatoma cells to identify the functional role of asparagine-linked oligosaccharide modification in the selection of glycoproteins for degradation by the cytosolic proteasome. Proteasomal degradation required physical interaction with the molecular chaperone calnexin. Altered sedimentation of intracellular complexes following treatment with the specific proteasome inhibitor lactacystin, and in combination with mannosidase inhibition, revealed that the removal of mannose from attached oligosaccharides abrogates the release of misfolded alpha1-antitrypsin from calnexin prior to proteasomal degradation. Intracellular turnover was arrested with kifunensine, implicating the participation of endoplasmic reticulum mannosidase I in the disposal process. Accelerated degradation occurred in a mannosidase-independent manner and was arrested by lactacystin, in response to the posttranslational inhibition of glucosidase II, demonstrating that the attenuated removal of glucose from attached oligosaccharides functions as the underlying rate-limiting step in the proteasome-mediated pathway. A model is proposed in which the removal of mannose from multiple attached oligosaccharides directs calnexin in the selection of misfolded alpha1-antitrypsin for degradation by the proteasome.  (+info)

Possible involvement of proteasomes (prosomes) in AUUUA-mediated mRNA decay. (6/7511)

We have identified a cellular target for proteasomal endonuclease activity. Thus, 20 S proteasomes interact with the 3'-untranslated region of certain cytoplasmic mRNAs in vivo, and 20 S proteasomes isolated from Friend leukemia virus-infected mouse spleen cells were found to be associated with a mRNA fragment showing great homology to the 3'-untranslated region of tumor necrosis factor-beta mRNA that contains AUUUA sequences. We furthermore demonstrate that 20 S proteasomes destabilize oligoribonucleotides corresponding to the 3'-untranslated region of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, creating a specific cleavage pattern. The cleavage reaction is accelerated with increasing number of AUUUA motifs, and major cleavage sites are localized at the 5' side of the A residues. These results strongly suggest that 20 S proteasomes could be involved in the destabilization of cytokine mRNAs such as tumor necrosis factor mRNAs and other short-lived mRNAs containing AUUUA sequences.  (+info)

Mechanisms for generating the autonomous cAMP-dependent protein kinase required for long-term facilitation in Aplysia. (7/7511)

The formation of a persistently active cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is critical for establishing long-term synaptic facilitation (LTF) in Aplysia. The injection of bovine catalytic (C) subunits into sensory neurons is sufficient to produce protein synthesis-dependent LTF. Early in the LTF induced by serotonin (5-HT), an autonomous PKA is generated through the ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated proteolysis of regulatory (R) subunits. The degradation of R occurs during an early time window and appears to be a key function of proteasomes in LTF. Lactacystin, a specific proteasome inhibitor, blocks the facilitation induced by 5-HT, and this block is rescued by injecting C subunits. R is degraded through an allosteric mechanism requiring an elevation of cAMP coincident with the induction of a ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase.  (+info)

Constitutive degradation of PML/RARalpha through the proteasome pathway mediates retinoic acid resistance. (8/7511)

PML/RARalpha is the leukemogenetic protein of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Treatment with retinoic acid (RA) induces degradation of PML/RARalpha, differentiation of leukaemic blasts, and disease remission. However, RA resistance arises during RA treatment of APL patients. To investigate the phenomenon of RA resistance in APL, we generated RA-resistant sublines from APL-derived NB4 cells. The NB4.007/6 RA-resistant subline does not express the PML/RARalpha protein, although its mRNA is detectable at levels comparable to those of the parental cell line. In vitro degradation assays showed that the half-life of PML/RARalpha is less than 30 minutes in NB4.007/6 and longer than 3 hours in NB4. Treatment of NB4.007/6 cells with the proteasome inhibitors LLnL and lactacystin partially restored PML/RARalpha protein expression and resulted in a partial release of the RA-resistant phenotype. Similarly, forced expression of PML/RARalpha, but not RARalpha, into the NB4/007.6 cells restored sensitivity to RA treatment to levels comparable to those of the NB4 cells. These results indicate that constitutive degradation of PML/RARalpha protein may lead to RA resistance and that PML/RARalpha expression is crucial to convey RA sensitivity to APL cells.  (+info)

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The posttranslational processing enzyme peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) occurs naturally in integral membrane and soluble forms. With the goal of understanding the targeting of these proteins to secretory granules, we have compared the maturation, processing, secretion, and storage of PAM proteins in stably transfected AtT-20 cells. Integral membrane and soluble PAM proteins exit the ER and reach the Golgi apparatus with similar kinetics. Biosynthetic labeling experiments demonstrated that soluble PAM proteins were endoproteolytically processed to a greater extent than integral membrane PAM; this processing occurred in the regulated secretory pathway and was blocked by incubation of cells at 20 degrees C. 16 h after a biosynthetic pulse, a larger proportion of soluble PAM proteins remained cell-associated compared with integral membrane PAM, suggesting that soluble PAM proteins were more efficiently targeted to storage granules. The nonstimulated secretion of soluble PAM ...
C.1 Purification and Proteomic Mapping of Murine Liver 19S Proteasome Complexes D. Wang, M.-C. Koag, C. Zong, X. Li, A. Gomes, and P. Ping Department of Physiology and Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA Proteasome complexes play an indispensable role in maintaining cell homeostasis. 19S proteasome complexes, also known as the regulatory particles, are critical components of the 26S proteasome system by governing substrates entry and tuning the catalytic activities of the 20S proteasomes. Multiple studies on proteasome functions reported accumulatively a total of 22 mammalian 19S subunits forming two sub-complexes, the base and the lid. Unfortunately, a comprehensive proteomic blueprint of mammalian 19S complexes remains scarce; which has made it difficult to advance our understanding of the dynamics of proteasome function and substrate specificity. A key limitation is the technology challenges encountered in order to obtain purified 19S proteasome ...
References for Abcams Recombinant Human PAM protein (ab116776). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Proteasome subunit alpha type-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PSMA2 gene. This protein is one of the 17 essential subunits (alpha subunits 1-7, constitutive beta subunits 1-7, and inducible subunits including beta1i, beta2i, beta5i) that contributes to the complete assembly of 20S proteasome complex ...
Biochemistry : Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of enzymes. Active site mapping and site-specific mutagenesis of enzymes. Enzyme kinetics and mechanisms of catalysis. Multienzyme complexes. Terms: Fall 2013 Instructors: Bhushan Nagar, Thomas Martin Schmeing, Matthias Gotte (Fall) ...
Peptidylglycine alpha-Amidating Monooxygenase/PAM Overexpression Lysate (Native). Tested Reactivity: Hu. Validated: WB. Backed by our 100% Guarantee.
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The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. The 19S regulator is composed of a base, which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. The immunoproteasome contains an alternate regulator, referred to as the 11S regulator or PA28, that replaces the 19S regulator. Three subunits (alpha, beta and gamma) of the 11S regulator have been identified. This gene encodes the gamma subunit of the 11S regulator. Six ...
Mammalian AMP-activated protein kinase presents strong structural and functional similarities with the yeast sucrose non-fermenting 1 (Snf1) kinase involved in the derepression of glucose-repressed genes. It is now clearly established that AMP-activated protein kinase in the liver decreases glycolytic/lipogenic gene expression as well as genes involved in hepatic glucose production. This is achieved through a decreased transcriptional efficiency of transcription factors such as sterol-regulatory-element-binding protein-1c, carbohydrate-response-element-binding protein, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α or forkhead-related protein. Clearly, the long-term consequences of AMP-activated protein kinase activation have to be taken into account if activators of this enzyme are to be designed as anti-diabetic drugs.. ...
Proteasome activator complex subunit 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PSME3 gene. The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. The 19S regulator is composed of a base, which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. The immunoproteasome contains an alternate regulator, referred to as the 11S regulator or PA28, that replaces the 19S regulator. Three subunits (alpha, beta and gamma) of the 11S ...
The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. The 19S regulator is composed of a base, which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. This gene encodes a non-ATPase subunit of the 19S regulator base that functions as a chaperone protein during 26S proteasome assembly. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012 ...
The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex which is characterized by its ability to cleave peptides with Arg, Phe, Tyr, Leu, and Glu adjacent to the leaving group at neutral or slightly basic pH. The proteasome has an ATP-dependent proteolytic activity. Incorporated instead of PSMB5 or PSMB8, this unit reduces the chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome. Plays a pivotal role in development of CD8-positive T-cells.
The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family, that is a 20S core alpha subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex which is characterized by its ability to cleave peptides with Arg, Phe, Tyr, Leu, and Glu adjacent to the leaving group at neutral or slightly basic pH. The proteasome has an ATP-dependent proteolytic activity. Mediates the association of the SCF(TIR1) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex with the proteasome.
Cell growth and viability are dependent on the function of the multicatalytic proteinase complex (proteasome), a multisubunit particle that affects progression through the mitotic cycle by degradation of cyclins. Exposure of rodent fibroblasts and human lymphoblasts in culture to benzyloxycarbonyl-leucyl-leucyl-phenylalaninal (Z-LLF-CHO), a cell-permeable peptidyl aldehyde inhibitor of the chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome, resulted in the induction of apoptosis in a rapid, dose-dependent fashion. Fibroblasts transformed with ras and myc, lymphoblasts transformed by c-myc alone, and a Burkitts lymphoma (BL) cell line that overexpresses c-Myc were up to 40-fold more susceptible to apoptosis than were either primary rodent fibroblasts or immortalized nontransformed human lymphoblasts, respectively. To determine whether such preferential apoptosis could impact upon tumor growth in vivo, toxicological studies were performed in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency and showed that ...
26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 14, also known as 26S proteasome non-ATPase subunit Rpn11, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PSMD14 gene. This protein is one of the 19 essential subunits of a complete assembled 19S proteasome complex. Nine subunits Rpn3, Rpn5, Rpn6, Rpn7, Rpn8, Rpn9, Rpn11, SEM1(Yeast analogue for human protein DSS1), and Rpn12 form the lid sub complex of 19S regulatory particle for proteasome complex. The gene PSMD14 encodes one of 26S proteasome non-ATPase subunit. The human gene PSMD14 has 12 Exons and locates at chromosome band 2q24.2. The human protein 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 14 is 34.6 kDa in size and composed of 310 amino acids. The calculated theoretical pI of this protein is 6.06. 26S proteasome complex is usually consisted of a 20S core particle (CP, or 20S proteasome) and one or two 19S regulatory particles (RP, or 19S proteasome) on either one side or both side of the barrel-shaped 20S. The CP and RPs pertain distinct ...
The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family, that is a 20S core alpha subunit. Two alternative transcripts encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] ...
Proteasome subunit beta type ; The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex which is characterized by its ability to cleave peptides with Arg, Phe, Tyr, Leu, and Glu adjacent to the leaving group at neutral or slightly basic pH. The proteasome has an ATP-dependent proteolytic activity (245 aa ...
The Ubiquitin-proteasome system is responsible for the regulated protein degradation in eucaryotic cells. The 20S proteasome is as a multicatalytic protease the central complex of these system. This study has shown that it is possible to separate 20S proteasome subtypes from HeLa cells by chromatography. 20s proteasome subtypes differ in structure and proteolytic activity. The subtype-pattern and the activity are significantly changed after an induction of the cells with gamma-Interferon (gamma-IFN) under formation of immuno proteasomes. After gamma-IFN induction mainly mixed complexes have been formed with both constitutive and immuno subunits. Further it has been shown that in cell compartements cytoplasm, microsomes and nucleus of HeLaS3 cells different 20S proteasome subtypes are located. Among other things glycosylation of some subunits is responsible for that phenomenon. With regard to new strategies in diagnostic and therapy of human diseases the exactly knowledge of structure and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Base-CP proteasome can serve as a platform for stepwise lid formation. AU - Yu,Zanlin. AU - Livnat-Levanon,Nurit. AU - Kleifeld,Oded. AU - Mansour,Wissam. AU - Nakasone,Mark A.. AU - Castaneda,Carlos A.. AU - Dixon,Emma K.. AU - Fushman,David. AU - Reis,Noa. AU - Pick,Elah. AU - Glickman,Michael H.. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - 26S proteasome, a major regulatory protease in eukaryotes, consists of a 20S proteolytic core particle (CP) capped by a 19S regulatory particle (RP). The 19S RP is divisible into base and lid sub-complexes. Even within the lid, subunits have been demarcated into two modules: module 1 (Rpn5, Rpn6, Rpn8, Rpn9 and Rpn11), which interacts with both CP and base sub-complexes and module 2 (Rpn3, Rpn7, Rpn12 and Rpn15) that is attached mainly to module 1. We now show that suppression of RPN11 expression halted lid assembly yet enabled the base and 20S CP to pre-assemble and form a base-CP. A key role for Regulatory particle non-ATPase 11 (Rpn11) in bridging lid ...
peptidylglycine monooxygenase: forms alpha-amide from C-terminal glycine precursor of peptide hormones by oxidation of hydrogen & spontaneous hydrolysis of resulting imino linkage; posseses both an alpha-hydroxylation domain (PHM) and an alpha-amidation domain (PAL); PAM refers to the bifunctional enzyme; may be the same as bovine Somatotropin; RefSeq NM_013626 (mouse), NM_013000 (rat), NM_138822 (human)
AMPK alpha 1 + AMPK alpha 2小鼠单克隆抗体[34.2](ab80039)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人, 果蝇样本反应并经WB, IP, ELISA, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被4篇文献引用并得到5个独立的用户反馈。
In a number of genetic disorders such as GNE myopathy, it is not clear how mutations in target genes result in disease phenotype. GNE myopathy is a progres
PA700 proteasome activator: high MW, ATP-dependent activator of 20 S proteasome; MW 700 kDa; composed of 16 peptides ranging in MW from 20-100 kDa
polyketide synthase [type I polyketide synthase] ATGGTTAACGACGAGACACTTGTCAAGTACCTGCGGCAGGTTACTGCCGACCTTCGGGAG AGTCGCCGCCAGGTGACGGAGATGGCGGAGCGGTCGGCGGAGCCACTGGCGATCGTCGGA ATGGCCTGCCGTCTCCCCGGAGGAGTGAGTTCGCCGGACGAGCTGTGGCGGCTGGCCCTC GAAGGCCGGGAAGGGATATCCGGCTTCCCCACCAACCGTGGCTGGGACGTGGACGGGCTC TACGACCCGGACCCGGACCAGCAGGGCACCTCGTACACCTGCGAGGGCGGCTTCCTCCAC GAGGCCGGTGACTTCGACCCCGCCTTCTTCGGGATCTCCCCGCGCGAGGCCCTGGCCATG GACCCGCAGCAGCGGCTCCTCCTGGAGACCTCCTGGGAAGCGGTGGAAAGCGCGGGCATC GACCCCCAGACCCTCAAGGGCGCCGGCGTCGGTGTGTTCACCGGCATGAGCTACCACGAC TACATATCCCAGATCGACACCGTGCCCGACGGCCTGGAGGGCTATCTCGGCACCGGTAAC GCGGGCAGTGTGGTCTCCGGTCGGATCGCCTATGTGATGGGACTCGAAGGCCCGGCGGTG ACCATCGACACGGCGTGTTCGTCGTCGCTGGTCGCAATGCATCTGGCGGGTCAGGCCCTG CGCCAGGGCGAGTGCTCGATGGCCCTCGCCGGTGGCGTGACCGTGATGGCGACGGCGGCC ACGTTCGTGGACTTCAGCCGTCAGCGCGGACTGGCGCCCGACGGGCGTTGCAAGTCCTTC GCCGCCGCTGCGGACGGCACCGGCTGGGCCGAGGGCGCCGGAATGCTCCTCCTGGAGCGA CTCTCGGACGCCCAGCGGCTCGGCCACCCCATCCTGGCCGTGATTCGGTCCAGCGCCGTC ...
polyketide synthase [type I polyketide synthase] ATGGCCGAGGAAGACAAGCTGCGCGACTACCTCAAACGGCTCACCGTCGACCTGCGCCGG ACCACGCGCAGGCTGCGGGAGGTGGAGGAGCAGCGGCGGGAGCCGGTCGCGGTCGTCGGC ATGGCCTGCCGCCTCCCCGGCGGCGTACGGAGCCCCGAGGAACTGTGGGAGCTGCTGCGG GACGGCCGGGACGCCATCTCCGCCATGCCCGCGAACCGGGACTGGCACCTGGACGACCAC TTCGACCCGGACCTCGGCCGGCCCGGCACGTCGTACGTGCGCGAGGGCGGCTTCCTCGAC GACGTCGCCGGCTTCGACGCGGCGTTCTTCGGCATCTCCCCGCGCGAGGCGCTGGCGATG GACCCGCAGCAGCGGCTCCTGCTGGAGCTGGCATGGGAGAGCGTGGAGCGGGCCGGGATC GACGCGCACGCGCTGCGCGGCTCGCGTACCGGCGTGTTCGTGGGCAGCAACCCCACCGAG TACGGCGGTCTGCTCGGTGATGCCGCCGCGCAGGTCGGCGGGCACCTGCTCACCGGCACG GTCCTCAGCGTGCTGTCCGGCCGGCTCGCGTACACCCTCGGTCTCGAGGGCCCGGCGGTG AGCGTGGACACCGCGTGCTCCACGTCGCTGACGGCGGTGCACCTCGCGGTGCAGGCGCTG CGCCGCGGCGAGTGCACGATGGCGCTGGCCGGCGGGGCGACGGTGTTCTCCACGGTCGGT CCGTTCACCGAGATGAGCCGGCAGCGGGTGCTGGCCGCCGACGGGCGCTGCAAGGCGTTC GGCGCGGGCGCCGACGGCATGGGCATGTCCGAGGGCGCGGGCGTCGTGCTGCTGGAGCCG CTCAGCGCGGCCCGCCGCAACGGCCACCGCGTGCTCGCCGTGATCCGCGGCAGCGCCGTC ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Evidence for a role of immunoproteasomes in regulating cardiac muscle mass in diabetic mice. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
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AMPK alpha 2山羊多克隆抗体(ab105028)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, sELISA实验严格验证。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteise complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator.The…
DRP1 inhibition induces AMPK activity in BTICsa. Lysates of 387 and 3565 BTICs expressing NT control shRNA, shDrp1#1, or shDrp1#2 were immunoblotted with the in
Human 5-AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha-2 (PRKAA2) ELISA Kit can measure Human 5-AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha-2 in serum, blood, plasma, cell culture supernatant and other related supernatants and tissues.
1K8M: Solution structure and dynamics of the lipoic acid-bearing domain of human mitochondrial branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex
Sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus contain specific autoantibodies directed against different polypeptide components of the multicatalytic proteinase (also known as proteasome or prosome). These human autoantibodies, in contrast to polyclonal antibodies obtained in rabbits against the purified enzyme, recognize highly conserved epitopes of the multicatalytic proteinase polypeptides from yeast to human. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The C terminus of Rpt3, an ATPase subunit of PA700 (19 S) regulatory complex, is essential for 26 S proteasome assembly but not for activation. AU - Kumar, Brajesh. AU - Kim, Young Chan. AU - DeMartino, George N.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2011 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2010/12/10. Y1 - 2010/12/10. N2 - PA700, the 19 S regulatory subcomplex of the 26 S proteasome, contains a heterohexameric ring of AAA subunits (Rpt1 to -6) that forms the binding interface with a heteroheptameric ring of α subunits (α1 to -7) of the 20 S proteasome. Binding of these subcomplexes is mediated by interactions of C termini of certain Rpt subunits with cognate binding sites on the 20 S proteasome. Binding of two Rpt subunits (Rpt2 and Rpt5) depends on their last three residues, which share an HbYX motif (where Hb is a hydrophobic amino acid) and open substrate access gates in the center of the α ring. The relative roles of other Rpt subunits for proteasome binding and activation ...
26S Proteasome regulatory subunit p55, 50 µg. The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator.
Rpt6-1 is a thermosensitive yeast mutant with a deletion of a gene encoding a regulatory subunit of the 26S proteasome, RPT6, which is able to grow at 25°C but not at 37°C. In this study, peptidase activities, activation profiles, and the subunit composition of the 20S proteasome purified from the rpt6-1 mutant was characterized. The 20S proteasome purified from rpt6-1 exhibited low levels of peptidase activities in the absence of activators, but nearly same activated activities in the presence of activators, suggesting a gating defect in the proteasome channel. Detailed analyses of the composition of the 20S proteasome through separation of all subunits by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by identification of each subunit using MALDI-TOF-MS revealed that two subunits, α1 and α7, differed from those of wild-type cells in both electrophoretic mobility and pI values. The changes in these two α-subunits were apparent at the permissive temperature, but disappeared during stress response at
Rationale: Elevated levels of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), a member of the C/EBP transcription factor family, in advanced atherosclerotic plaques is reported to be associated with atherosclerotic plaque rupture in humans. However, the molecular mechanism by which CHOP accumulation occurs is poorly defined. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate if (1) macrophage AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) regulates cellular CHOP accumulation and (2) whole-body Ampk deletion leads to neointimal disruption. Methods and Results: In isolated or cultured macrophages, Ampkα1 deletion markedly increased apoptosis and CHOP, whereas pharmacological activation of AMPK dramatically reduced CHOP protein level via promoting CHOP degradation by proteasome. In addition, co-transfection of Chop-specific siRNA, but not control siRNA, markedly reduced apoptosis in macrophages transfected with Ampkα1-specific siRNA. Mechanistically, AMPKα1 was found to co-immunoprecipitate with CHOP and phosphorylate CHOP at ...
The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved sensor of cellular energy status, and recent data demonstrate that it also plays a critical role in systemic energy balance. AMPK integrates nutritional and hormonal signals in peripheral tissues and the hypothalamus. It mediates …
Principal Investigator:KITA Kiyoshi, Project Period (FY):1989 - 1990, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:General medical chemistry
Huber, N., Sakai, N., Eismann, T., Shin, T., Kuboki, S., Blanchard, J., Schuster, R., Edwards, M. J., Wong, H. R. and Lentsch, A. B. (2009), Age-related decrease in proteasome expression contributes to defective nuclear factor-κB activation during hepatic ischemia/reperfusion. Hepatology, 49: 1718-1728. doi: 10.1002/hep.22840 ...
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As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Connexios Life Sciences and Boehringer Ingelheim are collaborating on the development of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) stimulants for the treatment of
ADOK_MYCTO (P9WID4 ), ADOK_MYCTU (P9WID5 ), FRUK_MYCGE (Q49396 ), FRUK_MYCPN (P75038 ), HEPPK_BORBR (Q7WGU8 ), HLDE_ACICJ (A5FVE7 ), HLDE_ACTP2 (A3MZC0 ), HLDE_ACTPL (Q8GLU7 ), HLDE_ACTSZ (A6VP06 ), HLDE_AERHH (A0KPL4 ), HLDE_AERS4 (A4SIG6 ), HLDE_ALCBS (Q0VM60 ), HLDE_ALISL (B6ELZ7 ), HLDE_ALKEH (Q0A4T7 ), HLDE_ARCB4 (A8EVR4 ), HLDE_AZOVD (C1DGT9 ), HLDE_BLOFL (Q7VQQ6 ), HLDE_BLOPB (Q493X3 ), HLDE_BRASB (A5EN78 ), HLDE_BRASO (A4YYB6 ), HLDE_CAMC1 (A7ZE26 ), HLDE_CAMC5 (A7GZF6 ), HLDE_CAMFF (A0RQR9 ), HLDE_CAMJ8 (A8FMK8 ), HLDE_CAMJD (A7H2L7 ), HLDE_CAMJE (Q6TG09 ), HLDE_CAMJJ (A1W0D6 ), HLDE_CAMJR (Q5HTW1 ), HLDE_CAUCR (Q9A2C5 ), HLDE_CAUSK (B0T663 ), HLDE_CHRSD (Q1R1M6 ), HLDE_CITK8 (A8APT1 ), HLDE_COXBN (A9KDJ2 ), HLDE_COXBR (A9N9S2 ), HLDE_COXBU (Q83B60 ), HLDE_CROS8 (A7MP93 ), HLDE_DESAA (B8FB71 ), HLDE_DICNV (A5EWS4 ), HLDE_ECO24 (A7ZRT3 ), HLDE_ECO27 (B7UIW0 ), HLDE_ECO45 (B7MAC8 ), HLDE_ECO55 (B7LGY7 ), HLDE_ECO57 (Q7AAQ7 ), HLDE_ECO5E (B5YR91 ), HLDE_ECO7I (B7NJR5 ), HLDE_ECO81 (B7N0K1 ...
BioResearch is a gateway to internet resources in the basic biological and biomedical sciences, based at the University of Nottingham ( http://bioresearch.ac.uk/browse/mesh/detail/C0026741L0026741.html ...
0001 Vynález sa týka zlúčenin, ktoré sú priamymi aktivátormi AMPK (AMPaktivovanej proteínkinázy) a ich použitia pri liečení porúch regulovaných deaktiváciou AMPK. Napríklad zlúčeniny podľa vynálezu sú použiteľné naDoterajší stav techniky a úvod vynálezu0002 AMPK je dobre zavedený ako senzor a regulátor homeostázy bunkovej energie (Hardie D. G. a Hawley S. A., AMP-activated protein kinase the energy charge hypothesis revisited Bioassays, 23, 1112, (2001), Kemp B. E. a kol. AMP-activated protein kinase, super metabolic regulator, Biochem Soc. Transactions, 31. 162 (2003. Alosterická aktivácia tejto kinázy vdaka zvýšeniu množstva AMP vedie k stavom svyčerpaním bunkovej energie. Výsledná fosforylácia serínu/treoninu cieľových enzýmov vedie kadaptácii bunkového metabolizmu na nízkoenergetický stav. Celkový efekt zmien vyvolaných aktiváciou AMPK je inhibícia procesov spotrebovávajúcich ATP a aktivácia metabolických ciest vytvárajúcich ATP, a ...
This gene encodes a major catalytic subunit of succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase, a complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The complex is composed of four nuclear-encoded subunits and is localized in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Mutations …
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MG-115 is a potent, reversible proteasome inhibitor with Ki of 21 nM for 20S proteasome and 35 nM for 26S proteasome. The inhibition of proteasome was through specific inhibition of chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome. Also shown to induce apopto
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Contraindicaciones del ampk. adversos, si bien la píldora del día después no presenta particulares indicaciones de uso, ni muchos efectos particulares,.
... s are multi-enzyme complexes. The cellulosomes are associated with the cell surface and mediate cell attachment to ... Cellulosome complexes are intricate multi-enzyme machines produced by many cellulolytic microorganisms (cellulosome producing ... The birth of the discrete, multi-enzyme cellulosome complex was thus documented . Currently known cellulosome-producing ... Cellulosomes exist as extracellular complexes that are either attached to the cell wall of bacteria or free in solution, where ...
Leopoldseder S, Hettwer S, Sterner R (November 2006). "Evolution of Multi-Enzyme Complexes: The Case of Tryptophan Synthase". ... TrpB2i formed transient complexes with TrpA and in the process activated TrpA unidirectionally. The other copy remained outside ... Subunits: Tryptophan synthase typically exists as an α-ββ-α complex. The α and β subunits have molecular masses of 27 and 43 ... As such, the channel is essential for enzyme complex function. α subunit reaction: The α subunit catalyzes the formation of ...
Kresge, Nicole; Robert D. Simoni; Robert L. Hill (21 August 2009). "Multienzyme Complexes and Hydrogen Transfer: the Work of ...
"Mutations in sialidosis impair sialidase binding to the lysosomal multienzyme complex". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (20): 17286-90. doi: ... "Association of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase with the multienzyme lysosomal complex of beta-galactosidase, ... In the lysosome, this enzyme is part of a heterotrimeric complex together with beta-galactosidase and cathepsin A (the latter ... sialidase molecular defects in sialidosis patients suggests the structural organization of the lysosomal multienzyme complex". ...
"Purification and characterization of a cellulolytic multienzyme complex produced by Neocallimastix patriciarum J11". ...
Enzymes taking part in IMP synthesis constitute a multienzyme complex in the cell. Evidences demonstrate that there are ... The inosinate synthesis is complex, beginning with a 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP). In the first step, an amino group ...
"Purification and partial characterization of the glycine decarboxylase multienzyme complex from Eubacterium acidaminophilum". ...
... a bacterial dehydrogenase in a multienzyme complex". FEBS Letters. 168 (2): 217-221. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(84)80249-5. ISSN ...
... is an enzyme component of the multienzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is responsible for ... de Kok A, Hengeveld AF, Martin A, Westphal AH (Jun 1998). "The pyruvate dehydrogenase multi-enzyme complex from Gram-negative ... "Atomic structure of the cubic core of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex". Science. 255 (5051): 1544-50. Bibcode: ... Typically PDH is the result of a mutation in the X-linked gene for the E1 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. ...
The composition of this multienzyme may vary depending on the organism. The multiprotein complex RNA degradosome in E. Coli ... it is really difficult for RNA to scape from the complex. The RNA degradosome is a huge multi-enzyme association that is ... function and relationship in other ribonucleolytic multienzyme complexes". Biochem. Soc. Trans. 30 (2): 150-5. doi:10.1042/ ... This muli-protein complex is stimulated by a non-coding RNA, called miRNA in Eukaryotic cells and sRNA in bacteria. Small ...
Aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (DARS) is part of a multienzyme complex of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Aspartyl-tRNA synthetase ... 1999). "Genetic dissection of protein-protein interactions in multi-tRNA synthetase complex". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 ... Norcum MT (1991). "Structural analysis of the high molecular mass aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex. Effects of neutral salts ... 2002). "Interaction network of human aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and subunits of elongation factor 1 complex". Biochem. Biophys ...
... exonucleases in mammalian multienzyme DNA polymerase complexes]". Mol. Biol. (Mosk.). 36 (6): 1055-61. PMID 12500544. Shevelev ...
Spring, S (2014). "Function and Evolution of the Sox Multienzyme Complex in the Marine Gammaproteobacterium Congregibacter ... When grown in culture, C. litoralis KT71 has a generation time of 4.5 hours and prefers to grow on complex substrates where the ... used direct plating on complex low-nutrient media called MPM developed by Schut et al. MPM was designed to mimic seawater. ... and fatty acids as well as more complex substrates like yeast extract and trypticase peptone. Within its genome, genes, ...
It is a multienzyme complex which possesses alpha-L-rhamnosidase and beta glucosidase active centers. The E.C. No.(EC 3.2.1.40 ...
Some studies have suggested the SBPase may be part of a large (900 kDa) multi-enzyme complex along with a number of other ... Ellis K.H; Arkona C.; Mantbuffel R.; Adler K. (June 1993). "Calvin cycle multienzyme complexes are bound to chloroplast ... "Origin and Distribution of Calvin Cycle Fructose and Sedoheptulose Bisphosphatases in Plantae and Complex Algae: A Single ... Secondary Origin of Complex Red Plastids and Subsequent Propagation via Tertiary Endosymbioses". Protist. 158 (3): 263-276. doi ...
This enzyme is also part of a larger multienzyme complex that channels the intermediates in the catalysis between subunits of ... This gene encodes one subunit of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. This complex catalyzes the overall conversion of 2- ... "Crystal structure of the E1 component of the Escherichia coli 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex". Journal of ... "Reduction in the E2k subunit of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex has effects independent of complex activity". The ...
Synthesis is conducted by multienzyme complexes, such as peptide synthetases, polypetide synthases, and tailoring enzymes. The ... nodularin is processed in a complex manner to induce toxic effects. During digestion, nodularins diffuse from small intestine ...
The purinosome is a putative multi-enzyme complex that carries out de novo purine biosynthesis within the cell. It is ... Thus far, isolation of a multienzyme complex inclusive of all purine biosynthesis enzymes has not been achieved. Purinosome ... The enzymes of the multi-step de novo purine biosynthesis pathway have been postulated to form a multi-enzyme complex to ... "Dynamic regulation of a metabolic multi-enzyme complex by protein kinase CK2". J Biol Chem. 285 (15): 11093-11099. doi:10.1074/ ...
This enzyme is required for the complete reaction of at least five different multi-enzyme complexes. Additionally, DLD is a ... In these complexes, DLD converts dihydrolipoic acid and NAD+ into lipoic acid and NADH. DLD also has diaphorase activity, being ... Hiromasa Y, Fujisawa T, Aso Y, Roche TE (2004). "Organization of the cores of the mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex ... 2004). "Molecular mechanism for regulation of the human mitochondrial branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex by ...
in Russian)[2] Kurganov B.I., Lyubarev A.E. Enzymes and multienzyme complexes as controllable systems. In: Soviet Scientific ... This hypothesis was well accepted in the former USSR and further developed for the complex of glycolytic enzymes (Embden- ... in Russian) [1]. Kurganov B. I, Lyubarev A. E. Hypothetical structure of the complex of glycolytic enzymes (glycolytic ... In biochemistry, a metabolon is a temporary structural-functional complex formed between sequential enzymes of a metabolic ...
Guiral M, Tron P, Aubert C, Gloter A, Iobbi-Nivol C, Giudici-Orticoni MT (Dec 2005). "A membrane-bound multienzyme, hydrogen- ... oxidizing, and sulfur-reducing complex from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus". The Journal of Biological ...
The protein encoded by the human PDHA2 gene is part of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex. The entire human complex ... The E1 complex specifically uses the TPP cofactor to cleave the Calpha-C(=O) bond of pyruvate, and then transfer the acetyl ... Overall the complex catalyzes five reactions, with the overall reaction being: Pyruvate + CoA + NAD+ → acetyl-CoA + CO2 There ... The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is responsible for the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate, with the final product being ...
"Specific release of the thioesterase component of the fatty acid synthetase multienzyme complex by limited trypsinization". ... Fatty acid synthase is a multi-enzyme protein that catalyzes fatty acid synthesis. It is not a single enzyme but a whole ... as the domains of the FAS II enzymes are largely homologous to their domain counterparts in FAS I multienzyme polypeptides. ... of yeast FAS and mammalian FAS show two distinct organization of highly conserved catalytic domains/enzymes in this multi-enzyme ...
Mowbray J, Moses V (June 1976). "The tentative identification in Escherichia coli of a multienzyme complex with glycolytic ... Consequently, the importance of these complexes for metabolism in general remains unclear. Some protein complexes contain a ... Srere PA (1987). "Complexes of sequential metabolic enzymes". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 56: 89-124. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi.56.070187. ... The cytosol is a complex mixture of substances dissolved in water. Although water forms the large majority of the cytosol, its ...
... structure of the truncated cubic core component of the Escherichia coli 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex". J. ... the core of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 68 (6): 1135-7. doi:10.1073/pnas.68.6.1135 ...
His PhD thesis, titled "Multienzyme organization of encephalomyocarditis virus replication complexes", was supervised by Vadim ...
"Long patch base excision repair proceeds via coordinated stimulation of the multienzyme DNA repair complex". J. Biol. Chem. 284 ...
"Association of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase with the multienzyme lysosomal complex of beta-galactosidase, ...
"Structure of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex E1 component from Escherichia coli at 1.85 A resolution". ... While defects have been identified in all 3 enzymes of the complex, the E1-α subunit is predominantly the culprit. Malfunction ... Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex Deficiency at eMedicine Recny MA, Hager LP (1982). "Reconstitution of native Escherichia coli ... Pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1) performs the first two reactions within the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC): a decarboxylation ...
Several of the enzymes in the cycle may be loosely associated in a multienzyme protein complex within the mitochondrial matrix ... Barnes SJ, Weitzman PD (June 1986). "Organization of citric acid cycle enzymes into a multienzyme cluster". FEBS Lett. 201 (2 ... It activates pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase which in turn activates the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Calcium also ... ubiquinone oxidoreductase complex, also acting as an intermediate in the electron transport chain. The citric acid cycle is ...
... hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase trifunctional multienzyme complex subunit beta. External IDs. OMIM: 143450 MGI: 2136381 ... or beta-subunit mutations exhibits similar phenotypes because mutations in either subunit alter TFP complex expression and ... or beta-subunit mutations exhibits similar phenotypes because mutations in either subunit alter TFP complex expression and ...
The protein encoded by the human PDHA2 gene is part of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex. The entire human complex ... pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Biological process. • metabolism. • tricarboxylic acid cycle. • oxidation-reduction process. • ... The E1 complex specifically uses the TPP cofactor to cleave the Calpha-C(=O) bond of pyruvate, and then transfer the acetyl ... These subunits are conserved across many species, as the function of this complex is essential for the generation of ATP for ...
Barnes, SJ; Weitzman, PD (April 1986). "Organization of citric acid cycle enzymes into a multienzyme cluster". FEBS Lett. 201 ( ... A very short hydrogen bond provides only moderate stabilization of an enzyme-inhibitor complex of citrate synthase. In: ...
Koza, John R. (1992). Genetic Programming: On the Programming of Computers by Means of Natural Selection, Complex Adaptive ... Weissman, Kira J.; Müller, Rolf (April 14, 2008). "Protein-Protein Interactions in Multienzyme Megasynthetases". ChemBioChem ( ... how to map and study the genetic architecture of dynamic complex traits". Nature Reviews Genetics (London: Nature Publishing ... "Lead isotope study of basic-ultrabasic layered complexes: Speculations about the age of the earth and primitive mantle ...
Wu R, Lin M (2006). "Functional mapping - how to map and study the genetic architecture of dynamic complex traits".Nat. Rev. ... "Protein-protein interactions in multienzyme megasynthetases". Chembiochem 9 (6): 826-48 ...
... of affected E1 alpha and E1 beta subunits of the branched-chain alpha-keto-acid dehydrogenase multienzyme complex". Biochim. ... The complex also contains 2 regulatory enzymes, a kinase and a phosphorylase. The BCKDHA gene encodes the alpha subunit of E1, ... mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. • mitochondrial matrix. • mitochondrion. Biological process. • ... 1990). "A T-to-A substitution in the E1 alpha subunit gene of the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex in two ...
രാസപരമായി എൻസൈമുകളെ സരളം (simple) എന്നും സങ്കീർണം (complex) എന്നും രണ്ടായി തിരിക്കാറുണ്ട്. സരള-എൻസൈമുകൾ[2] പ്രോട്ടീനുകൾ ... http://www.isagenix.com/us/en/multienzyme.dhtml *↑ http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Prosthetic+Group ...
april 2008). "Protein-Protein Interactions in Multienzyme Megasynthetases". ChemBioChem. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH. 9 (6): ... Rongling Wu; Min Lin (marts 2006). "Functional mapping - how to map and study the genetic architecture of dynamic complex ...
A set of multienzymes (peptide synthase CepA, CepB, and CepC) are responsible for assembling the heptapeptide. (Figure 2). The ... In the A domain, the specific amino acid is activated by converting into an aminoacyl adenylate enzyme complex attached to a ... 4'phosphopantetheine cofactor by thioesterification[42][43] The complex is then transferred to the PCP domain with the ...
이러한 효소는 일반적으로 독케린(dockerin)과 탄수화물 결합 모듈을 모함할 수 있는 다효소 복합체(multienzyme complex)의 일부로 분비된다.[33] ... 식물에서 셀룰로스는 로제트 말단 복합체(rosette terminal complexes, RTCs)에 의해 세포막에서 합성된다. 로제트 말단 복합체는 개개의 셀룰로스 사슬을 합성하는 셀룰로스 생성효소(cellulose ... "Immunogold labeling of rosette terminal cellulose-synthesizing complexes in the vascular plant vigna angularis". 》The Plant ...
Crystal structure of the E1k component of the Escherichia coli 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex. J. Mol. Biol. ... a b c d e f g h i Mastrogiacoma, F., Bergeron, C. and Kish, S.J., (1993) Brain α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex activity ... Crystal structure of the E1k component of the Escherichia coli 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex. J. Mol. Biol. ... The α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex[edit]. The α-KGDHC is found in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), which situated ...
Multienzyme complexes,state=autocollapse}} *shows the template collapsed to the title bar if there is a {{navbar}}, a {{sidebar ... Multienzyme complexes,state=collapsed}} to show the template collapsed, i.e., hidden apart from its title bar ... Multienzyme complexes,state=expanded}} to show the template expanded, i.e., fully visible ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Multienzyme_complexes&oldid=593023012" ...
Some enzymes or enzyme complexes require several cofactors. For example, the multienzyme complex pyruvate dehydrogenase[6] at ... Cofactors can be subclassified as either inorganic ions or complex organic molecules called coenzymes,[1] the latter of which ... Iron-sulfur clusters are complexes of iron and sulfur atoms held within proteins by cysteinyl residues. They play both ... The succinate dehydrogenase complex showing several cofactors, including flavin, iron-sulfur centers, and heme. ...
... function and relationship in other ribonucleolytic multienzyme complexes". Biochem. Soc. Trans. 30 (2): 150-5. doi:10.1042/ ... The exosome complex (or PM/Scl complex, often just called the exosome) is a multi-protein intracellular complex capable of ... Exosome complexes are found in both eukaryotic cells and archaea, while in bacteria a simpler complex called the degradosome ... Already years before the exosome complex was identified, this pattern was termed the PM/Scl complex.[41] Immunofluorescence ...
Several of the enzymes in the cycle may be loosely associated in a multienzyme protein complex within the mitochondrial matrix. ... These two electrons are later transferred to QH2 during Complex II of the ETC, where they generate the equivalent of 1.5 ATP ... Barnes SJ, Weitzman PD (June 1986). "Organization of citric acid cycle enzymes into a multienzyme cluster". FEBS Lett. 201 (2 ... Which way does the citric acid cycle turn during hypoxia? The critical role of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. ...
Rongling Wu; Min Lin (2006). "Functional mapping - how to map and study the genetic architecture of dynamic complex traits". ... Weissman KJ, Müller R (2008). "Protein-protein interactions in multienzyme megasynthetases". Chembiochem 9 (6): 826-48. PMID ... "Lead isotope study of basic-ultrabasic layered complexes: Speculations about the age of the earth and primitive mantle ...
A complex of the apoenzyme and citrate at 1.87 A resolution". Journal of Molecular Biology. 226 (3): 867-82. doi:10.1016/0022- ... and multienzyme interaction" (PDF). The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 263 (22): 10687-97. PMID 2899080. Guha A, Englard S, ... The active site of malate dehydrogenase is a hydrophobic cavity within the protein complex that has specific binding sites for ... Studies have indicated that the binding of the enol form oxaloacetate with the malate dehydrogenase:NADH complex forms much ...
... and rapC encode for three extremely large and complex multienzymes, RapA, RapB, and RapC, respectively. The gene rapL has been ... Unlike the tacrolimus-FKBP12 complex, which inhibits calcineurin (PP2B), the sirolimus-FKBP12 complex inhibits the mTOR ( ... LAM involves lung tissue infiltration with smooth muscle-like cells with mutations of the tuberous sclerosis complex gene (TSC2 ... Sirolimus also shows promise in treating tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a congenital disorder that leaves sufferers prone to ...
"Photosensitized Reduction of Water to Hydrogen Using Human Serum Albumin Complexed with Zinc−Protoporphyrin IX". Journal of the ... is the fermentative conversion of organic substrate to biohydrogen manifested by a diverse group of bacteria using multi enzyme ...
1991). "Domains, motifs, and linkers in 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase multienzyme complexes: a paradigm in the design of a ... The branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC or BCKDH complex) is a multi-subunit complex of enzymes that is ... H+ A deficiency in any of the enzymes of this complex as well as an inhibition of the complex as a whole leads to a buildup of ... "Crystal structure of human branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase and the molecular basis of multienzyme complex deficiency in ...
... this enzyme forms a complex composed of three components: Three classes of these multienzyme complexes have been characterized ... The oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDC) or α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex is an enzyme complex, most commonly ... Many of these allosteric regulators act at the E1 domain of the enzyme complex, but all three domains of the enzyme complex can ... The activity of the enzyme complex is upregulated with high levels of ADP and Pi, Ca2+, and CoA-SH. The enzyme is inhibited by ...
Locale about Experts and Doctors on multienzyme complexes in Brazil ... You are here: Locale , Experts and Doctors on multienzyme complexes in Brazil ... ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex*caulobacter crescentus*bacillus megaterium*sugar phosphates*monocrotaline*methylmalonic ... Trevisol E, Panek A, De Mesquita J, Eleutherio E. Regulation of the yeast trehalose-synthase complex by cyclic AMP-dependent ...
100% VEGAN : HealthyHey Multi-Enzyme Complex is made from plant derived enzymes, mean it is not an animal derived enzyme. 60 ... 100% VEGAN : HealthyHey Multi-Enzyme Complex is made from plant derived enzymes, mean it is not an animal derived enzyme. 60 ... DIGESTIVE BLEND : HealthyHey Multi-Enzyme Complex is made of Amylase, Protease, Lipase, Cellulase and Lactase, that supports ... DIGESTIVE BLEND : HealthyHey Multi-Enzyme Complex is made of Amylase, Protease, Lipase, Cellulase and Lactase, that supports ...
Post-translational modification in the archaea: structural characterization of multi-enzyme complex lipoylation. ...
A multienzyme complex has several catalytic domains on several polypeptide chains and can therefore catalyze multiple reactions ...
Multienzyme complexes,state=autocollapse}} *shows the template collapsed to the title bar if there is a {{navbar}}, a {{sidebar ... Multienzyme complexes,state=collapsed}} to show the template collapsed, i.e., hidden apart from its title bar ... Multienzyme complexes,state=expanded}} to show the template expanded, i.e., fully visible ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Multienzyme_complexes&oldid=593023012" ...
Multienzyme complexes. Definition. Multienzyme complexes are stable assemblies of more than one enzyme, generally involved in ... The membrane-spanning enzyme known as complex I couples the movement of electrons to that of protons as a way of converting ... Here the authors use evolutionary alignments of NRPS/PKS gene clusters to guide rational design of complexes that can produce ... These are distinct from a multienzyme polypeptide, in which multiple catalytic domains are found in a single polypeptide chain ...
CRYSTALLIZATION OF A MULTIENZYME COMPLEX: FATTY ACID SYNTHETASE FROM YEAST Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... CRYSTALLIZATION OF A MULTIENZYME COMPLEX: FATTY ACID SYNTHETASE FROM YEAST. D. Oesterhelt, H. Bauer, and F. Lynen ...
... and PBP multienzyme complexes of H. influenzae. The cross-linking of proteins in the multienzyme complex was accomplished with ... It is postulated that one multienzyme complex containing PBP 2 may be involved in cell elongation while the other complex ... Identification of two penicillin-binding multienzyme complexes in Haemophilus influenzae.. Alaedini A1, Day RA. ... The results hint at the existence of two penicillin-binding multienzyme complexes, each containing subunits that interact via ...
Find the most comprehensive real-world treatment information on Isagenix Multi-enzyme Complex at PatientsLikeMe. 0 patients ... bipolar I disorder or psoriasis currently take Isagenix Multi-enzyme Complex. ... No patients have reported taking Isagenix Multi-enzyme Complex. Last updated: February 22, 2018. ...
Identification of a Cytoplasmic Complex That Adds a Cap onto 5′-Monophosphate RNA Yuichi Otsuka, Nancy L. Kedersha, Daniel R. ... The Double-Histone-Acetyltransferase Complex ATAC Is Essential for Mammalian Development Sebastián Guelman, Kenji Kozuka, Yifan ... Knockdown of Human Nα-Terminal Acetyltransferase Complex C Leads to p53-Dependent Apoptosis and Aberrant Human Arl8b ...
A nucleolytic multi-enzyme complex now known as the RNA degradosome was discovered during the purification and characterization ... The Escherichia coli RNA degradosome: structure, function and relationship in other ribonucleolytic multienzyme complexes.. ... Since the discovery of the RNA degradosome in E. coli, related complexes have been described in other organisms. ...
... of the lipoyl domain from the dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase component of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase multienzyme ... LIPOYL DOMAIN FROM THE DIHYDROLIPOYL SUCCINYLTRANSFERASE COMPONENT OF THE 2-OXOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE MULTIENZYME COMPLEX OF ...
Substrate channelling in 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase multienzyme complexes. Richard N. Perham, D. Dafydd Jones, Hitesh J. Chauhan ... Substrate channelling in 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase multienzyme complexes. Richard N. Perham, D. Dafydd Jones, Hitesh J. Chauhan ... Substrate channelling in 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase multienzyme complexes Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... spectroscopy and other experiments indicate that the true substrate of the E1 component of 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complexes ...
We propose the Hdr:ACDS:Mer complex comprises a special class of multienzyme redox complex which functions as a biological ... Existence of a Hdr:ACDS:Mer complex is consistent with growth phenotypes of ACDS and Mer mutant strains in which the complex ... Hdr forms a multienzyme complex with acetyl-CoA decarbonylase synthase (ACDS), and F420-dependent methylene-H4MPT reductase ( ... but little is known about the complexes involved in biological methane production (methanogenesis). A crosslinking-mass ...
Investigation of the mechanism of active site coupling in the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Escherichia coli by ... dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase polypeptide chains of a pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex. The deletions reduced ... In all instances, pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes were still assembled in vivo around cores containing the deleted chains, and ... facilitates the movements of the lipoyl domains required for full catalytic activity and active-site coupling in the complex. ...
Electron-Spin-Resonance Studies of the Lipoamide Swinging Arm of the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Multienzyme Complex of ... Selective inactivation of the transacylase components of the 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase multienzyme complexes of Escherichia coli ... of the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Multienzyme Complex of Escherichia coli. Biochem Soc Trans 1 February 1978; 6 (1): 225-226. doi: ... Reengineering of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex: from disintegration to highly active agglomerates Biochem J ( ...
Adaptations in Protein Expression and Regulated Activity of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Multienzyme Complex in Human Systolic Heart ... Adaptations in Protein Expression and Regulated Activity of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Multienzyme Complex in Human Systolic Heart ...
Analysis of a possible multienzyme complex encoded by mother cell metabolic gene (mmg) operon of Bacillus subtilis strain 168. ... Analysis of a possible multienzyme complex encoded by mother cell metabolic gene (mmg) operon of Bacillus subtilis strain 168. ... as a complex in E.coli and our hypothesis is that the fatty acid degradation proteins may function as a complex as well. We ... If the four proteins formed a complex, the remaining mmgBCD would co-purify with the His-tagged mmgA. We observed a ~26 kDa ...
fatty acid beta-oxidation multienzyme complex mitochondrial protein complex fatty acid beta-oxidation multienzyme complex ... A complex that includes the long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase and long-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase activities in two ...
Isagenix Multi-Enzyme Complex™ - How does Isagenix Multi-Enzyme Complex help me have longer-lasting energy? ... Isagenix Multi-Enzyme Complex™ - How does Isagenix Multi-Enzyme Complex help me have longer-lasting energy? ... Isagenix Multi-Enzyme Complex™ - Why do I need Isagenix Multi-Enzyme Complex?. ... Isagenix Multi-Enzyme Complex™ - How does Isagenix Multi-Enzyme Complex enhance Nutritional Cleansing? ...
Consultation de terminologies scientifiques multilingues (définitions, traductions multilingues, synonymes, classifications, termes associés ou spécifiques ou génériques)
... by Body & Fit is a supplement with a reliable formula of digestive enzymes. Read more about ... Multi-enzyme complex to help your body break down food. Help your body break down food with DigeZyme® - our versatile blend of ... Take one capsule after every meal - Multi Enzyme Complex from Body&Fit is ideal for anyone looking to support their daily ...
However, the inactivation of the overall reaction does not affect any of the component activities of the enzyme complex. By ... dissociation occurs as a consequence of limited proteolysis of the lipoate acetyltransferase core of the multienzyme complex. ... Mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex is inactivated when treated with a leupeptin-sensitive enzyme (termed ... several methods it is demonstrated that treatment with the inactivase provokes the disassembly of the complex into its ...
... Bundle Pricing: Buy 4 for HK$420, Buy 9 for HK$840 on selected product(s) ...
Pro Multi Enzyme Complex is a TIER 1 supportive supplement used for TRIAD 2 GUT issues as a digestive enzyme supplement. It is ... Pro Multi Enzyme Complex is a TIER 1 supportive supplement used for TRIAD 2 GUT issues as a digestive enzyme supplement. ...
Outer membrane lipoprotein NlpI scaffolds peptidoglycan hydrolases within multi-enzyme complexes in Escherichia coli.. ... Consistent with such a role, we reconstitute PG multi-enzyme complexes containing NlpI, the PG synthesis regulator LpoA, its ... Our results indicate that peptidoglycan regulators and adaptors are part of PG biosynthetic multi-enzyme complexes, regulating ... In addition, NlpI seems to contribute both to PG elongation and division biosynthetic complexes based on its localization and ...
Multi-enzyme complexes (MECs) consist of a number of enzymes working in close proximity and synergistically to degrade complex ... "Bacillus subtilis SJ01 produces hemicellulose degrading multi-enzyme complexes," BioRes. 7(1), 1294-1309.. Abstract. Cellulose ... In nature, these polysaccharides are intertwined, forming complex materials that require multiple enzymes to degrade them. ...
Cellulosomes are multi-enzyme complexes. The cellulosomes are associated with the cell surface and mediate cell attachment to ... Cellulosome complexes are intricate multi-enzyme machines produced by many cellulolytic microorganisms (cellulosome producing ... The birth of the discrete, multi-enzyme cellulosome complex was thus documented . Currently known cellulosome-producing ... Cellulosomes exist as extracellular complexes that are either attached to the cell wall of bacteria or free in solution, where ...
Probing the structure of pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex from Escherichia coli with trivalent arsenicals. ... Adamson, S. R. (1981). Probing the structure of pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex from Escherichia coli with trivalent ...
Outer membrane lipoprotein NlpI scaffolds peptidoglycan hydrolases within multi‐enzyme complexes in Escherichia coli *Manuel ... Majdalani, N. & Gottesman, S. The Rcs phosphorelay: a complex signal transduction system. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 59, 379-405 ( ...
Multienzyme complexes. Terms: Fall 2017 Instructors: Bhushan Nagar, Enrico Purisima, Kalle Burgess Gehring, Albert Berghuis, ... Included: selected topics in carbohydrate, lipid and nitrogen metabolism; complex lipids and biological membranes; hormonal ... with respect to how the exquisite regulation of cellular transport plays a central role in complex biological systems. A series ... small molecules and complexes that underlie life and disease. ...
  • DIGESTIVE BLEND : HealthyHey Multi-Enzyme Complex is made of Amylase, Protease, Lipase, Cellulase and Lactase, that supports digestive health. (healthyhey.com)
  • 100% VEGAN : HealthyHey Multi-Enzyme Complex is made from plant derived enzymes, mean it is not an animal derived enzyme. (healthyhey.com)
  • Surprisingly, they isolated a very large multi-sub-unit supra-molecular complex, instead of a small protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • A multienzyme complex has several catalytic domains on several polypeptide chains and can therefore catalyze multiple reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The scaffoldin subunit selectively integrates the various cellulases and xylanase subunits into the cohesive complex, by combining its "cohesin" domains with a typical "dockerin" domain present on each of the subunit enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • All the data are consistent with a cis-Golgi distribution and provide a starting point to establish whether all the enzymes are clustered in a multimolecular complex or are distributed through the various compartments of the Golgi apparatus. (ku.dk)
  • Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts, aiding complex reactions that occur in all living systems. (novozymes.com)
  • The Thermoton® Plurazyme of Dr. Schumacher is a pH neutral cleaner concentrate on the basis of a special high-level multi-enzyme complex. (medicalcorner24.co.uk)
  • Our Associate Editor for Biotechnology for Biofuels , Ed Bayer, leads research into bacterial cellulosomes (multi-enzyme complexes) including those found in the stomach of ruminants (e.g. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This gene encodes a member of a multienzyme complex that functions in mediating the attachment of amino acids to their cognate tRNAs. (genecards.org)
  • The top products from the Hyderabad unit are Sabinsa's PteroWhite ® (Pterocarpus extract 90%), BioPerine ® (Black pepper 95%), Curcumin C3 Complex ® 95%, Boswellin ® , and FenuFibers ® , which are supplied to several world markets. (sabinsa.com)
  • ABSTRACT The multienzyme complex prolyl 4-hydroxylase catalyzes the hydroxylation of proline residues and acts as a chaperone during collagen synthesis in multicellular organisms. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Alcohol form, and then transfer electrons to complex III. (cosroma.com)
  • A highly absorbable, non-acidic form of vitamin C combined with rosehips and bioflavonoid complex. (total-wellness.co.uk)
  • A nutrient-dense, superfood greens, and reds complex offering all the benefits of whole plant foods, and then some, to help fuel your active lifestyle. (steelfitusa.com)