The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A slightly alkaline secretion of the endocervical glands. The consistency and amount are dependent on the physiological hormone changes in the menstrual cycle. It contains the glycoprotein mucin, amino acids, sugar, enzymes, and electrolytes, with a water content up to 90%. The mucus is a useful protection against the ascent of bacteria and sperm into the uterus. (From Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1988)
Diseases in any part of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the accessory organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.
Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A group of anaerobic coccoid bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
The second stomach of ruminants. It lies almost in the midline in the front of the abdomen, in contact with the liver and diaphragm and communicates freely with the RUMEN via the ruminoreticular orifice. The lining of the reticulum is raised into folds forming a honeycomb pattern over the surface. (From Concise Veterinary Dictionary, 1988)
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Congenital structural abnormalities of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.
The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.
The fourth stomach of ruminating animals. It is also called the "true" stomach. It is an elongated pear-shaped sac lying on the floor of the abdomen, on the right-hand side, and roughly between the seventh and twelfth ribs. It leads to the beginning of the small intestine. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
A radiopaque medium used for urography, angiography, venography, and myelography. It is highly viscous and binds to plasma proteins.
The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.
A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.
Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports basic and applied research for a national program in diabetes, endocrinology, and metabolic diseases; digestive diseases and nutrition; and kidney, urologic, and hematologic diseases. It was established in 1948.
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
An order of fish with 26 families and over 3,000 species. This order includes the families CYPRINIDAE (minnows and CARPS), Cobitidae (loaches), and Catostomidae (suckers).
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.
The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
A galectin found in the small and large intestine and the stomach. It occurs as a homodimer with two 36-kDa subunits and is localized to sites of cell adhesion where it may play role in assembly of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Its organisms are found in fresh water and sewage and are pathogenic to humans, frogs, and fish.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
A family of gram-negative bacteria, in the phylum FIRMICUTES.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A gel-forming mucin found predominantly in SMALL INTESTINE and variety of mucous membrane-containing organs. It provides a protective, lubricating barrier against particles and infectious agents.
Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.
Mucins that are found on the surface of the gastric epithelium. They play a role in protecting the epithelial layer from mechanical and chemical damage.
That part of the STOMACH close to the opening from ESOPHAGUS into the stomach (cardiac orifice), the ESOPHAGOGASTRIC JUNCTION. The cardia is so named because of its closeness to the HEART. Cardia is characterized by the lack of acid-forming cells (GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS).
A gel-forming mucin that is primarily found on the surface of gastric epithelium and in the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Mucin 5AC was originally identified as two distinct proteins, however a single gene encodes the protein which gives rise to the mucin 5A and mucin 5C variants.
Pathological processes involving the STOMACH.
The insertion of a tube into the stomach, intestines, or other portion of the gastrointestinal tract to allow for the passage of food products, etc.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.
An aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram-negative bacteria, especially the PSEUDOMONAS species. It is a 10% component of the antibiotic complex, NEBRAMYCIN, produced by the same species.
A degradation product of ethylenebis(dithiocarbamate) fungicides. It has been found to be carcinogenic and to cause THYROID hyperplasia.
Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.
Any impairment, arrest, or reversal of the normal flow of INTESTINAL CONTENTS toward the ANAL CANAL.
Endoscopes for examining the interior of the esophagus.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Fodder converted into succulent feed for livestock through processes of anaerobic fermentation (as in a silo).
A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Tumors or cancer of the PHARYNX.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Endoscopes used for examining the interior of the stomach.
The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Common name for two families of FLATFISHES belonging to the order Pleuronectiformes: left-eye flounders (Bothidae) and right-eye flounders (Pleuronectidae). The latter is more commonly used in research.
Tumors or cancer of the DUODENUM.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.
The consumption of edible substances.
A rod-shaped bacterium isolated from milk and cheese, dairy products and dairy environments, sour dough, cow dung, silage, and human mouth, human intestinal contents and stools, and the human vagina.
Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Cyclic polypeptide antibiotic from Bacillus colistinus. It is composed of Polymyxins E1 and E2 (or Colistins A, B, and C) which act as detergents on cell membranes. Colistin is less toxic than Polymyxin B, but otherwise similar; the methanesulfonate is used orally.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate and water to 1L-myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5-pentakisphosphate and orthophosphate. EC
A subfamily of assassin bugs (REDUVIIDAE) that are obligate blood-suckers of vertebrates. Included are the genera TRIATOMA; RHODNIUS; and PANSTRONGYLUS, which are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, the agent of CHAGAS DISEASE in humans.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Difficulty in SWALLOWING which may result from neuromuscular disorder or mechanical obstruction. Dysphagia is classified into two distinct types: oropharyngeal dysphagia due to malfunction of the PHARYNX and UPPER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; and esophageal dysphagia due to malfunction of the ESOPHAGUS.
A gel-forming mucin that is predominantly expressed by submucosal glands of airway tissues and the SUBLINGUAL GLAND. It is one of the principal components of high molecular weight salivary mucin.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A complex of cyclic peptide antibiotics produced by the Tracy-I strain of Bacillus subtilis. The commercial preparation is a mixture of at least nine bacitracins with bacitracin A as the major constituent. It is used topically to treat open infections such as infected eczema and infected dermal ulcers. (From Goodman and Gilman, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1140)
Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.
A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
Agents that increase mucous excretion. Mucolytic agents, that is drugs that liquefy mucous secretions, are also included here.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.
The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.
Excision of the whole (total gastrectomy) or part (subtotal gastrectomy, partial gastrectomy, gastric resection) of the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Digestive system manifestations of diseases of the gastrointestinal system or of other organs.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
A histochemical technique for staining carbohydrates. It is based on PERIODIC ACID oxidation of a substance containing adjacent hydroxyl groups. The resulting aldehydes react with Schiff reagent to form a colored product.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
A primitive form of digestive gland found in marine ARTHROPODS, that contains cells similar to those found in the mammalian liver (HEPATOCYTES), and the PANCREAS.
Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
All tumors in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT arising from mesenchymal cells (MESODERM) except those of smooth muscle cells (LEIOMYOMA) or Schwann cells (SCHWANNOMA).
Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
Tumors or cancer of the OROPHARYNX.
The inactive proenzyme of trypsin secreted by the pancreas, activated in the duodenum via cleavage by enteropeptidase. (Stedman, 25th ed)
An abnormal passage communicating between any components of the digestive system, or between any part of the digestive system and surrounding organ(s).
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
The segment of GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the ESOPHAGUS; the STOMACH; and the DUODENUM.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Surgery performed on the digestive system or its parts.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
A membrane-bound mucin subtype that is primarily found in INTESTINAL MUCOSA. Two closely-related subtypes of this protein have been identified in humans.
If poison ivy is eaten, the mucus lining of the mouth and digestive tract can be damaged. An urushiol rash usually develops ...
If poison ivy is eaten, the mucus lining of the mouth and digestive tract can be damaged. An urushiol rash usually develops ... Seeds are spread mainly by animals and remain viable after passing through the digestive tract. T. radicans vine with typical ...
... either from lower in the digestive tract, or from a more active source in the upper digestive tract. Alcoholism can also ... digestive system and general health. Normally human feces is semisolid, with a mucus coating. Small pieces of harder, less ... This is known as melena, and is typically due to bleeding in the upper digestive tract, such as from a bleeding peptic ulcer. ... Feces can be green due to having large amounts of unprocessed bile in the digestive tract and strong-smelling diarrhea. This ...
Insoluble fiber - which does not dissolve in water - is inert to digestive enzymes in the upper gastrointestinal tract. ... The presence of mucus or fiber, e.g., pectin or guar, in the unstirred layer may alter the viscosity and solute diffusion ... which may cause gas and digestive distress at doses higher than 15 grams/day in most people. Individuals with digestive ... Dietary fiber is defined to be plant components that are not broken down by human digestive enzymes. In the late 20th century, ...
The rejected particles are wrapped in mucus, and are then expelled without having passed through the digestive tract. Thus, ... The outer palps send this rejected material into the mantle cavity as a mucus-bound mass. These mucus-bound masses are the ...
The mucus secreted is very thick and blocks passageways in the lungs and digestive tracts. This mucus causes problems with ... which causes the mucus-secreting organs to produce abnormally thick mucus. The gene is recessive, meaning that a person must ... Cystic fibrosis affects the respiratory, digestive and reproductive systems, as well as the sweat glands. ...
... species can be found in the digestive tracts of humans and animals, especially reptiles. Salmonella on the skin of ... Bacterial colonies may also become trapped in mucus produced in the esophagus. By the end of the incubation period, the nearby ... The organisms enter through the digestive tract and must be ingested in large numbers to cause disease in healthy adults. An ... They usually invade only the gastrointestinal tract and cause salmonellosis, the symptoms of which can be resolved without ...
They have a single-opening digestive tract; in Tricladida planarians this consists of one anterior branch and two posterior ... Planarians move by beating cilia on the ventral dermis, allowing them to glide along on a film of mucus. Some also may move by ... The digestive system consists of a mouth, pharynx, and a gastrovascular cavity. The mouth is located in the center of the ... Digestive enzymes are secreted from the mouth to begin external digestion. The pharynx connects the mouth to the gastrovascular ...
... in some cases feeding on blood in addition to tissue and mucus. Blood is often seen in the digestive tract, especially of adult ... Copepods and chalimus stages have a developed gastrointestinal tract and feed on host mucus and tissues within range of their ... L. salmonis is known to secrete large amounts of trypsin into its host's mucus, which may assist in feeding and digestion. ... Sea lice are marine ectoparasites (external parasites) that feed on the mucus, epidermal tissue, and blood of host marine fish ...
... this symptom is due to protein loss from the bloodstream into the digestive tract. Paratuberculosis is progressive; affected ... The diarrhea is usually thick, without blood, mucus, or epithelial debris, and may be intermittent. Several weeks after the ...
The secreted mucin assists in digestion by coating the bolus such that it travels easily through the digestive tract. Mucins ... While mucus is mostly composed of water, its structural and rheological properties are characterized by mucin. Under an atomic ... Mucin originates from the mucus secretions from submaxillary glands, which are salivary glands that are located under the floor ... These interactions require very close contact between the surface and the mucus in order to facilitate strong bonding. Most ...
The snail can remain alive as it passes through the digestive tract because it is protected from the digestive enzymes. Snails ... This simple mucus epiphragm covers the entire aperture of the snail, being attached at the rim of the aperture, and depending ... A mucus epiphragm is usually transparent or translucent, and is fairly elastic. A few species, including Helix pomatia create a ... In most species the epiphragm is made of dried mucus, and although it is elastic, it is fairly easily torn when forcibly ...
Considering the lancelets are filter feeders, the natural current would draw nearby plankton into the digestive tract. GFP is ... produces a film of mucus. Ciliary action pushes the mucus in a film over the surface of the gill slits, trapping suspended food ... and passed back to the rest of the digestive tract. Having passed through the gill slits, the water enters an atrium ... The remainder of the digestive system consists of a simple tube running from the pharynx to the anus. The hepatic caecum, a ...
... which are secreted in the mucus of the respiratory and digestive tracts. The sugars when attached to mucins give them ... considerable water-holding capacity and also make them resistant to proteolysis by digestive enzymes. ...
AFGPs are created in the pancreas and are released into the digestive tract to wrap around ice crystals so they can be safely ... Fish also excrete AFGPs in their mucus and on the surface of their skin to prevent external freezing. AFGPs do not eliminate ...
Besides this, the endings of the vagus nerve (CN X) and the intramural nervous plexus in the digestive tract influence the ... These cells also produce mucus - a viscous barrier to prevent gastric acid from damaging the stomach. The pancreas further ... In such conditions, there is greater risk of infections of the digestive tract (such as infection with Vibrio or Helicobacter ... Gastric acid, gastric juice, or stomach acid, is a digestive fluid formed within the stomach lining. With a pH between 1 and 3 ...
In some inarticulate brachiopods the digestive tract is U-shaped and ends with an anus that eliminates solids from the front of ... all of which are lined with cilia and cells that secrete mucus and digestive enzymes. The stomach wall has branched ceca (" ... Food particles that collide with the tentacles are trapped by mucus, and the cilia down the middle drive this mixture to the ... These animals bundle solid waste with mucus and periodically "sneeze" it out, using sharp contractions of the gut muscles. The ...
... where food particles are trapped on a mucus mesh produced by the pharynx and drawn into the digestive tract. The mucus mesh ...
... from where they enter the digestive tract. While they are primarily feeding structures, the radioles also serve as respiratory ... Planktonic food particles are swept into these grooves, where they become trapped in a coating of mucus. At this point, the ... The operculum, which is usually similar in color to the other radioles, secretes a mucus which seems to possess antibiotic ...
The digestive tract of Nigerian free-tailed bats is somewhat unusual. There is a large glandular sac attached to the duodenum, ... which is lined by Brunner's glands, and secretes alkaline mucus into the intestine to neutralise excess acid from the stomach. ...
The most typical signs are seen in the digestive tract. When entering an affected flock, one sees many animals with hind limbs ... The same lesions are also present in pharynx, oesophagus, and on mucus-producing epithelia of the gut, from abomasum to rectum ... The lesions are situated in the digestive tract. Quick post mortem examination will lead to the discovery of many haemorrhagic ...
... can carry the virus passively on its surface and in its digestive tract. Under laboratory conditions Lepeophtheirus salmonis ... The Lepeophtheirus salmonis sea louse, a small crustacean parasite that attacks the protective mucus, scales and skin of the ...
The digestive tract of typical bivalves consists of an oesophagus, stomach, and intestine. A number of digestive glands open ... Cilia in the sac cause the style to rotate, winding in a stream of food-containing mucus from the mouth, and churning the ... Octopuses either pull bivalves apart by force, or they bore a hole into the shell and insert a digestive fluid before sucking ... The tentacles are covered in mucus, which traps the food, and cilia, which transport the particles back to the palps. These ...
Brunner's gland cell in duodenum (enzymes and alkaline mucus) Insulated goblet cell of respiratory and digestive tracts (mucus ... mucus secretion) Bartholin's gland cell (vaginal lubricant secretion) Gland of Littre cell (mucus secretion) Uterus endometrium ... bicarbonate and digestive enzyme secretion) Paneth cell of small intestine (lysozyme secretion) Type II pneumocyte of lung ( ... secretion) Stomach Foveolar cell (mucus secretion) Chief cell (pepsinogen secretion) Parietal cell (hydrochloric acid secretion ...
Non-ciliated types are found in the digestive tract. Ciliated types are found within bronchioles of the respiratory tract and ... Ciliated columnar epithelium moves mucus and other substances via cilia and is found in the upper respiratory tract, the ... In humans, a simple columnar epithelium lines most organs of the digestive tract including the stomach, small intestine, and ... In either case, mucus builds up and forms a good site for secondary bacterial infections, resulting in mucus.[citation needed] ...
The largest structure of the digestive system is the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). This starts at the mouth and ends at ... Bile produced by the liver is made up of water (97%), bile salts, mucus and pigments, 1% fats and inorganic salts.[25] ... See also gastrointestinal tract.. "Digestive system" and "alimentary system" redirect here. For digestive systems of non-human ... The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary ...
Another distinctive feature of the digestive tract is that, along with the rest of the visceral mass, it has undergone torsion ... Filter feeders use the gills, mantle lining, or nets of mucus to trap their prey, which they then pull into the mouth with the ... The highly modified parasitic genus Enteroxenos has no digestive tract at all, and simply absorbs the blood of its host through ... This action, rather than muscular peristalsis, is responsible for the movement of food through the gastropod digestive tract. ...
For this reason, velvet worms are dependent upon habitats with high air humidity.[citation needed] The digestive tract begins ... The saliva that they produce contains mucus and hydrolytic enzymes, which initiate digestion in and outside the mouth. The ... undigestable components take around 18 hours to pass through the digestive tract. Onychophora probably do not primarily use ... On entering the central intestine, food particles are coated with a mucus-based peritrophic membrane, which serves to protect ...
The human digestive tract is a very efficient organ, and the faecal excretion of nitrogenous material and fats is a small ... mucus, and only to a small extent, unabsorbed dietary components. This might be one reason why he chose to use availability ...
The gastrointestinal tract, also known as digestive tract, plays an important role in one's health and it is said that all ... and the mucus lining the lungs, throat, mouth, and nose, which require humidity and flexibility to function properly. The ... Joints, and respiratory and digestive tracts function healthily with sufficient amounts of phlegm. Ancient Iranian medicine ... Burning in the anus and urinary tract can be common among this group. Due to the warmness in their body they digest food ...
... it is usually in the gastrointestinal tract.[35] The incidence of bleeding into the gastrointestinal tract was reported to be ~ ... Sharma N, Cappell MS (September 2015). "Gastrointestinal and Hepatic Manifestations of Ebola Virus Infection". Digestive ... mucus, vomit, feces, sweat, tears, breast milk, urine and semen.[4][41] The WHO states that only people who are very sick are ... Digestive Diseases and Sciences. 60 (9): 2590-2603. doi:10.1007/s10620-015-3691-z. ISSN 1573-2568. PMID 25972150. S2CID 5674317 ...
London: The Religious Tract Society.. *^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Octopus". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge ... The digestive system of the octopus begins with the buccal mass which consists of the mouth, pharynx, radula and salivary ... Before it leaves the funnel, the ink passes through glands which mix it with mucus, creating a thick, dark blob which allows ... The tract consists of a crop, where the food is stored, a stomach, where food is ground down, a caecum where the now sludgy ...
... is coffee made from coffee berries that have been eaten by and passed through the digestive tract of the Asian palm civet ( ... The appearance of human fecal matter varies according to diet and health.[9] Normally it is semisolid, with a mucus coating. A ... Provided the seed can withstand the pathway through the digestive system, it is not only likely to be far away from the parent ... The reason this analysis is possible at all is due to the digestive system not being entirely efficient, in the sense that not ...
Gastrointestinal tract. Peristalsis, gastric acid, bile acids, digestive enzyme,. flushing, thiocyanate,[2] defensins,[2] gut ... increased production of mucus, which can cause symptoms like a runny nose or a productive cough; ... Kobayashi H (2005). "Airway biofilms: implications for pathogenesis and therapy of respiratory tract infections". Treatments in ... mucus traps infectious agents.[2] The gut flora can prevent the colonization of pathogenic bacteria by secreting toxic ...
History of Cholera Outbreaks in Iran during the 19th and 20th Centuries." Middle East journal of digestive diseases 2.1 (2010 ... they must propel themselves through the thick mucus that lines the small intestine to reach the intestinal walls where they can ... Gastrointestinal tract disorders. *Intestinal infectious diseases. *Neglected tropical diseases. *Tropical diseases. *Epidemics ... cholerae through the human digestive system and an increased infectivity state. Furthermore, the researchers found the ...
The reef lizardfish secretes a mucus coating which reduces drag when they swim. But some parasites find the mucus good to eat. ... Venomous fish don't necessarily cause poisoning if they are eaten, since the venom is often destroyed in the digestive system. ... and spends the day safely protected inside the seacucumbers alimentary tract. At night it emerges the same way and feeds on ... The reef lizardfish secretes a mucus coating which reduces drag when they swim and also protects it from some parasites. But ...
Symptoms include coughing up mucus, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest discomfort.[1] Bronchitis is divided into two ... Other symptoms include coughing up mucus, wheezing, shortness of breath, fever, and chest discomfort. The infection may last ...
It also serves as a passage for urine to flow.[1] Urine typically contains epithelial cells shed from the urinary tract. Urine ... There are small mucus-secreting urethral glands, that help protect the epithelium from the corrosive urine. ... As the urethra is an open vessel with a lumen, investigations of the genitourinary tract may involve the urethra. Endoscopy of ... For this process, urine must be collected in a reliable fashion, and if urine samples are inadequate, the urinary tract can be ...
... the main component of mucus. Mucus helps to moisten and protect the airways.[5] Mucus lines the ciliated cells of the trachea ... As a major part of the respiratory tract, when obstructed the trachea prevents air entering the lungs and so a tracheostomy may ... A person affected with tracheitis may start with symptoms that suggest an upper respiratory tract infection such as a cough, ... infections occur with inflammation of other parts of the respiratory tract, such as the larynx and bronchi, known as croup,[8][ ...
The esophagus is thus one of the first components of the digestive system and the gastrointestinal tract. After food passes ... These are separated by the myenteric plexus, a tangled network of nerve fibers involved in the secretion of mucus and in ... The esophagus is also the area of the digestive tract where horses may suffer from choke. ... The esophagus is one of the upper parts of the digestive system. There are taste buds on its upper part.[2] It begins at the ...
"Muscarinic receptor subtypes in the alimentary tract" (PDF). Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 60 (1): 3-21. PMID ... Digestive system. *Human cells. *Stomach. Hidden categories: *CS1 maint: uses authors parameter ...
Diseases of the digestive system (primarily K20-K93, 530-579). Upper GI tract. ... Blood or mucus in the diarrhea, significant abdominal pain, or high fever suggests a more serious cause, such as cholera, ... characterized by a rapid onset of weakness and torrents of watery diarrhea with flecks of mucus (described as "rice water" ...
Anatomy of torso, digestive system: Gastrointestinal tract, excluding mouth (TA A05.3-7, TH H3.04.02-04, GA 11.1141) ...
The stomach has a dilated structure and functions as a vital digestive organ. In the digestive system the stomach is involved ... Only cardiac glands are found here and they primarily secrete mucus.[10] They are fewer in number than the other gastric glands ... The enveloped portions form the basis for the adult gastrointestinal tract.[15] The sac is surrounded by a network of vitelline ... Digestive system. Artery. Right gastric artery, left gastric artery, right gastro-omental artery, left gastro-omental artery, ...
He described the pituitary gland as part of a series of secretory organs for the excretion of nasal mucus.[12] Anatomist ... Mammillothalamic tract. *Pallidothalamic tracts *Ansa lenticularis. *Lenticular fasciculus. *Thalamic fasciculus. *PCML *Medial ... In the seventeenth century the supposed function of the pituitary gland to produce nasal mucus was debunked.[12] The expression ...
"Digestive Diseases and Sciences. 60 (3): 762-72. doi:10.1007/s10620-014-3444-4. PMC 4779895. PMID 25492499.. ... tumor cells are discohesive and secrete mucus, which invades the interstitium producing large pools of mucus. This occurs in ... Colorectal cancer is a disease originating from the epithelial cells lining the colon or rectum of the gastrointestinal tract, ... If the mucus remains inside the tumor cell, it pushes the nucleus at the periphery, this occurs in "signet-ring cell." ...
... family predominantly expressed in the digestive tract and trachea". FEBS Letters. 455 (3): 295-301. doi:10.1016/s0014-5793(99) ... This causes the buildup of mucus in the body and chronic infections. GABAA Glycine Receptor Calcium-activated chloride channel ...
... mannan oligosaccharides structures that can fit to various receptors of animal digestive tracts, and to the receptors on the ... This mucus is produced in specific cells called goblet cells. In general the number of goblet cells is an indicator of mucus ... "Intervening with Urinary Tract Infections Using Anti-Adhesives Based on the Crystal Structure of the FimH-Oligomannose-3 ... To reduce the risk of digestive upsets it is critical to keep the concentrations of potential pathogens low. MOS has been shown ...
... it is usually in the gastrointestinal tract.[32] The incidence of bleeding into the gastrointestinal tract has decreased since ... Sharma, N; Cappell, MS (September 2015). "Gastrointestinal and Hepatic Manifestations of Ebola Virus Infection". Digestive ... mucus, vomit, feces, sweat, tears, breast milk, urine and semen.[4][35] The WHO states that only people who are very sick are ...
In this manner, irritants caught in the mucus which lines the respiratory tract are expelled or moved to the mouth where they ... The tract is divided into an upper and a lower respiratory tract. The upper tract includes the nose, nasal cavities, sinuses, ... The lower tract (Fig. 2.) includes the lower part of the larynx, the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and the alveoli. ... The branching airways of the lower tract are often described as the respiratory tree or tracheobronchial tree (Fig. 2).[4] The ...
Saliva controls pH in this region of the digestive tract. Salivary amylase is contained in saliva and starts the breakdown of ... As the first two chemicals may damage the stomach wall, mucus is secreted by the stomach, providing a slimy layer that acts as ... pH plays a crucial role in a normally functioning digestive tract. In the mouth, pharynx and esophagus, pH is typically about ... Digestive system. Digestive systems take many forms. There is a fundamental distinction between internal and external digestion ...
Gas pains Belching or passing gas clears gas from the digestive tract, but when gas is stuck it causes abdominal pain. ... Cystic fibrosis Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease that causes the body to produce abnormally thick and sticky mucus. ... Helicobacter pylori infection Helicobacter, bacteria in the digestive tract, causes peptic ulcers and their associated pain and ... Crohn's disease Crohn's disease is a digestive condition that causes swelling, cramping, diarrhea, and nutritional problems. ...
... are associated with the digestive tract. Thus, most knowledge about visceral regeneration in holothurians concerns this system. ... Within two weeks of skin wounding the mucus is secreted into the wound and this initiates the healing process.[107] One study ... skin and intestinal tract), red blood cell replacement, antler regeneration and hair cycling.[70][71] Male deer lose their ...
... and help diagnose an infection of the digestive tract. In the case of staphylococcal enteritis, it is conducted to see if the ... Vesterlund, S. (1 June 2006). "Staphylococcus aureus adheres to human intestinal mucus but can be displaced by certain lactic ... It is a heat stable toxin and is resistant to digestive protease. It is the ingestion of the toxin that causes the inflammation ...
The worm has no digestive tract and is wholly reliant on its internal symbionts for nutrition. The bacteria oxidize either ... A special mucus on the clownfish protects it from the stinging tentacles.[29] ... including the inner surface of the digestive tract or the ducts of exocrine glands.[5][23] Examples of this include ...
Alkaline mucus[change , change source]. In the human digestive system, mucus is used as a lubricant for materials that must ... Mucus is not digested in the intestinal tract. Alkaline mucus is also found in other places, such as eyes, saliva and cervix.[3 ... Mucus may have antiseptic enzymes (such as lysozymes) and immunoglobulins (antigens).[1] A major function of this mucus is to ... Mucus is produced in many parts of the body. All the alimentary canal, nose, and sexual organs have mucus glands which pass the ...
Large amount of abnormally thick mucus in the lungs and intestines; leads to congestioni, pneumonia, diarrhea and poor growth ... a urinary tract infection or kidney stones may decide to have their genes tested and the result could confirm the diagnosis of ... Digestive problems; Muscle, joint, and spinal problems; Typical facial features; Familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC) ( ...
However, if the dog has a swallowing disorder or a digestive tract disease, secretions may be forced into the postnasal area. ... This nasal discharge may be watery, thick and mucus-like, or it may have pus or blood in it. (Blood-tinged discharge is a good ... digestive tract. The whole system involved in digestion from mouth to anus ... mucus. A type of slime that is made up of certain salts, cells, or leukocytes ...
Is Your Digestion Bogged Down with Mucus? Individuals have an innate curiosity about what happens in the murky depths of the ... Mucus in the Digestive Tract. Mucus serves several main functions in the body - lubrication, soothing, and protection. Mucus is ... One of the most common signs of digestive distress is mucus on stools. Whether youve had mucus in the stool, mucus in diarrhea ... Some people have too little mucus in the GI tract, and they will want to increase mucus with sweet and demulcent foods. In a ...
... stubborn mucus and expel it from your body. (page 1) ... Mucus Formula is a combination of herbs that have been selected ... I started eating dairy and started accumulating Mucus. It is building in my throat. It works, try it. ... Colon & Digestive Tract. Add to Cart $16.95 122 Reviews Oxy-Oil (8 oz). ...
... stubborn mucus and expel it from your body. (page 3) ... Mucus Formula is a combination of herbs that have been selected ... The Mucus Formula, in conjunction with the alkaline formula, has broken up mucus in my system, and kept me from getting sick ... I am reordering another supply of Mucus Formula and the Mucus tea also. Great product thank you Dherbs. * ... The Mucus Formula is great. It is a great way to reduce runny nose and the phlegm that is stored in your chest area. As a ...
The Benefits of Mucus in Your Digestive Tract New research shows mucus may be beneficial in treating chronic digestive ... but now researchers have discovered that when the mucus is located in your digestive tract, it may be key to helping you feel ... Stomach and Digestive + Original Articles 5 Hardest Foods to Digest Plus simple advice to better digest any food you eat. ... Too Much Stress May Cause This Digestive Ailment Stress can magnify minor health problems. Get acquainted with the tools youll ...
Liquefy mucus secretions.. *Treat enterozoic worms and other parasites in the digestive tract. ... The pancreas, which produces chymotrypsin and other digestive enzymes , is a digestive organ in the abdomen that is located ... National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease, and ... Digestive Enzymes. New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing, Inc., 1993.. Cichoke, Anthony J. The Complete Book of Enzyme Therapy. ...
A look at mucus in urine, which is usually a symptom of an underlying condition. Included is detail on when to see a doctor and ... One possible symptom of IBS is mucus in the digestive tract. Although mucus is present in the large intestine (colon) and ... Fast facts on mucus in urine:. *The bladder and urethra produce mucus to help keep the urinary tract germ-free. ... Mucus coats and protects the urinary tract, so some mucus in the urine is normal. ...
Breaking up thick mucus secretions.. *Cataracts.. *Digestive tract ulcers.. *Sunburn.. *Other conditions. ... Bet 3. Honey for the symptomatic relief of cough in children with upper respiratory tract infections. Emerg.Med J 2009;26:522- ... Abuelgasim H, Albury C, Lee J. Effectiveness of honey for symptomatic relief in upper respiratory tract infections: a ...
If you find mucus, blood, or worms in your poop, heres what they each could mean. ... Mucus. Your digestive tract is lined with mucus to help food pass smoothly. If you frequently go #2, your colon contracts more ... The bigger concern is if you see blood along with the mucus, which could point to inflammation, infection, or a tumor in your ... often-so its normal for people with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) to see mucus in their stools, says Robert Burakoff, M.D., ...
There are many different causes for visible mucus in your stool. Your digestive tract is lined with membranes that secrete ... but there are times when it can be an indication of underlying problems in your digestive system. ... It is not unusual to see small amounts of mucus in your stool, ... Your digestive tract is lined with membranes that secrete mucus ... Your digestive tract is lined with membranes that secrete mucus. The purpose of the mucus is to lubricate your intestines so ...
09/02/2019 Digestive System A comprehensive catalogue of human digestive tract bacteria ... Our saliva consists of water and mucus, among other things, and the mucus plays an important role. It stimulates white blood ... The mucus in the mouth causes the white blood cells to throw out a net that traps bacteria", explains Ole Sørensen from the ... "It appears to be precisely the mucus in the saliva that stimulates white blood cells to form these effective nets of DNA and ...
... a parasite that can infect a cats gastrointestinal tract. Typically, only a few worms are present; in fact, single worm ... The digestive tract containing the stomach and intestine. gastric. Anything having to do with the stomach ... mucus. A type of slime that is made up of certain salts, cells, or leukocytes ... Physalopterosis is caused by the organism Physaloptera spp., a parasite that can infect a cats gastrointestinal tract. ...
a cough with mucus;. * asthma, COPD, or other breathing disorder;. * blockage in your digestive tract (stomach or intestines); ...
Maldigestion occurs when an important digestive enzyme or tissue is lacking or not functioning correctly. Source for ... Malabsorption occurs when the gastrointestinal (GI) tract cannot take up a dietary compound. This is caused by the loss of ... Mucosa- The cells lining the digestive tract. These cells secrete mucus to protect themselves from digestion. ... The absorptive capacity of the gastrointestinal tract is staggering. In general, we absorb hundreds of grams of carbohydrates, ...
Mucus in the stool can be an indication of a serious health condition such as Crohns disease, irritable bowel disease or ... Mucus stools in children can be a cause for concern if they occur regularly or become chronic. ... Normally there is a certain amount of bacteria in the digestive tract. This is healthy and assists in digestion. But if it ... It can also be the result of changes in the natural bacteria in the digestive tract and may accompany diarrhoea or constipation ...
Urinary and digestive tracts Glands in this tissue release a thick fluid called mucus. ...
Enteroviruses begin to multiply in the digestive tract and can spread through the body to cause meningitis. ... These viruses can spread through contact with saliva, mucus, or feces (poop). But you dont need to kiss or take a bite of ...
goblet cells These produce mucus in the digestive tract (and elsewhere in the body). If found in oesophageal tissue, they ... Mucosa - the surface lining of interior organs that produces mucus to keep it moist. ...
Our results show that CNCM I-3690 can (i) physically maintain modulated goblet cells and the mucus layer and (ii) counteract ... We studied adhesins which are believed to play a crucial role in the persistence of lactobacilli strains in the digestive tract ... Importance of digestive mucus and mucins for designing new functional food ingredients *Mounira Kebouchi ... We analyzed the effect of CNCM I-3690 on the mucus layer and mucus producing cells. HES-stained cells showed no significant ...
... polymers found in mucus, have been discovered by a team of researchers from MIT. ... Mucus runs along the wet surfaces of the body, areas like the respiratory and digestive tracts. "The textbook view of mucus is ... What causes mucus in stools? Mucus serves an important function, but should it be in the stool? This symptom can sometimes ... This can be sped up by a decrease in mucus due to dehydration, chemotherapy, and aging, or in mucus-clogged lungs of cystic ...
However, its far more likely that the blood is originating elsewhere in your respiratory tract or in your digestive tract. ... If theres blood in your mucus or sputum when you cough, the blood is mostly likely coming from your respiratory tract. The ... However, theres a large possibility that the blood is originating elsewhere in your respiratory or digestive tract. ... If the blood is coming from your digestive tract, its called hematemesis. ...
digestive, genitourinary and respiratory tracts) *Mucus is produced by the mucosal cells ... Digestive tract *Mouth and lower digestive tract lots of bacteria (mostly anaerobes e.g. Bacteroides, anaerobic streptococci ... Other defenses destroy microbe or inactivate ... Cilia- on mucus membranes, propel items in mucus upward ... , PowerPoint PPT ... Mucus contain antibacterial agents, antibodies and immune cells called phagocytes 9. First line of defense physical chemical ...
intestine -- The portion of the digestive tract between the stomach and anus; it is the region where most of the nutrients and ... mucus -- Sticky secretion used variously for locomotion, lubication, or protection from foreign particles. ... mouth -- Front opening of the digestive tract, into which food is taken for digestion. In flatworms, the mouth is the only ... anus -- End of the digestive tract, or gut, through which waste products of digestion are excreted, as distinct from the mouth. ...
a cough with mucus;. *asthma, COPD, or other breathing disorder;. *blockage in your digestive tract (stomach or intestines); ...
a cough with mucus;. *asthma, COPD, or other breathing disorder;. *blockage in your digestive tract (stomach or intestines); ...
... tract from the mouth to the anus, involves ... be associated with inflammatory damage of the digestive tract [ ... Diarrhea: Possible presence of mucus/blood in stool; occurs at night; incontinence ... Crohn disease can affect any portion of the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the anus, and causes three patterns of ... Generally, the manifestations of IBD depend on the area of the intestinal tract involved. The symptoms, however, are not ...
A. mucus I cant stop hacking up. B. riot going on in my digestive tract ...
This causes problems in their lungs and their digestive tracts. ... You may know that you have mucus in your nose, mouth, and lungs ... This causes problems in their lungs and their digestive tract. The condition makes it hard for them to breathe and also to get ... But kids with the condition cystic fibrosis have bodies that make thick, sticky mucus. ...
... and even your digestive tract. If youre like lot of kids, you have another name for nose mucus: snot. Your nose and sinuses ... Mucus has a pretty important job - it keeps the lining of your nose moist and warms the air you breathe. Mucus also protects ... To understand what boogers are, you need to know about mucus (say: MYOO-kus). Mucus is the sticky, slimy stuff thats made ... These hairs help move the mucus and the trapped stuff toward the front of the nose or the back of the throat. When the mucus, ...
The digestive tract is home to 100 trillion bacteria. Collectively known as the gut microbiota, these bacteria help with ... A thick layer of mucus separates gut bacteria from the lining of the intestine. A research team led by Dr. Andrew T. Gewirtz at ... Mice fed emulsifiers had bacteria (red) deep in the mucus layer (green) so they were closer to intestinal cells (purple and ... Chemically similar to detergents, they have been shown to alter the mucus barrier and the microbes associated with it. To ...
  • Mucus, along with enzymes and bile, alkalizes the acidity of food in the small intestine. (
  • The pancreas, which produces chymotrypsin and other digestive enzymes , is a digestive organ in the abdomen that is located just below the stomach. (
  • Muscles in the stomach need to contract to mix up the food with digestive enzymes and acid. (
  • Though it is well known that enzymes are an essential part of a healthy digestive system it is less well known the essential role they play in supporting a healthy immune system. (
  • Enzymes are secreted with beautifully orchestrated precision by your digestive organs to accelerate the breakdown of food (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) so your gut can extract and distribute the nutrients that are locked inside. (
  • In fact, even when your digestive enzymes are flowing freely and in the right amounts, they may only be able to break down and extract about 40 to 50 percent of your food's true nutrient value. (
  • Your digestive organs and enzymes end up working overtime, especially if you regularly eat more than you should. (
  • Taking supplemental enzymes, especially when eating foods that are highly processed, cooked improperly or difficult to digest, reduces stress to the digestive system, supports the proper uptake of nutrients and creates an ideal environment for 70% of your immune system. (
  • The stomach also contains hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes that continue the digestion of food that began in the mouth. (
  • Extra mucus in the pancreas can also block the release of enzymes that are important for digestion, which prevents patients from absorbing vital nutrients from the food they eat, and can result in malnutrition, the CFF says. (
  • Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disease of the secretory glands, which produce mucus, sweat, and enzymes that aid in digestion. (
  • When the ducts in the pancreas are clogged, digestive enzymes made in the pancreas cannot reach your small intestine. (
  • The thick mucus can also block tubes that carry digestive enzymes from your pancreas to your small intestine. (
  • Without these digestive enzymes, your intestines cannot fully absorb the nutrients in the food you eat. (
  • And the four bacteria strains that flourished most in low-fiber and no-fiber conditions were the only ones that make enzymes that are capable of breaking down the long molecules called glycoproteins that make up the mucus layer. (
  • Just like the mix of bacteria, the mix of enzymes changed depending on what the mice were being fed, with even occasional fiber deprivation leading to more production of mucus-degrading enzymes. (
  • The sugars when attached to mucins give them considerable water-holding capacity and also make them resistant to proteolysis by digestive enzymes. (
  • Mucus is a slimy substance produced by membranes and glands to lubricate and protect certain parts of the body. (
  • Your digestive tract is lined with membranes that secrete mucus. (
  • Whether it's in the lungs or the digestive tract, Irish moss helps sooth irritated mucous membranes. (
  • Thin or clear mucus is often a sign of cold sinuses, or irritation of the sinus membranes due to toxicity. (
  • Have you ever wondered why your mucus membranes become more irritated, productive, or dry each winter? (
  • In a perfect world, we would live in harmony with the seasonal harvest, and nature would provide protection of the body's mucus membranes. (
  • Mucus membranes that line the respiratory and digestive tracts react first. (
  • Mucus membranes exposed to the outer environment through breath and digestion may be shocked and overreact to seasonal changes because we have insulated ourselves from the graceful transition nature intended. (
  • As the seasons change, dry and irritated membranes may produce reactive mucus to protect against accumulating heat and the dryness. (
  • Nature not only provides cooling fruits and vegetables in the summer and warming, lubricating, and insulating nuts, seeds, and grains in the winter, but also numerous herbal plants to balance mucus membranes. (
  • Turmeric also supports a healthy environment of mucus membranes, in which beneficial bacteria can proliferate, which compete with undesirable bacteria for growing space in both respiratory and intestinal tracts. (
  • It would also spare the beneficial bacteria that live on mucus membranes. (
  • They exist in the air inhaled, on the surface of skin and in mucus membranes. (
  • Any of the membranes lining the passages of the body that open onto the outside, such as the respiratory and digestive tracts. (
  • Cells in the mucous membranes secrete mucus, which lubricates the membranes and protects against infection. (
  • Hayfever is an allergic condition affecting the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract and the eyes. (
  • Practicing neti scours out the breathing passageway, clearing the mucus membranes. (
  • Taken internally, it also benefits the mucus membranes of the mouth, throat and digestive tract. (
  • The bigger concern is if you see blood along with the mucus, which could point to inflammation, infection, or a tumor in your rectum or higher up in your gastrointestinal tract, says Dr. Mullin. (
  • a parasite that can infect a cat's gastrointestinal tract. (
  • Malabsorption occurs when the gastrointestinal (GI) tract cannot take up a dietary compound. (
  • The absorptive capacity of the gastrointestinal tract is staggering. (
  • Lactobacillus rhamnosus is an anaerobic facultative heterofermentative rod-shaped bacterium that can live in different parts of the human body, including the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) 2 . (
  • The two major types of inflammatory bowel disease are ulcerative colitis (UC), which is limited to the colonic mucosa, and Crohn disease (CD), which can affect any segment of the gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus, involves "skip lesions," and is transmural. (
  • Because these guidelines are designed to take burden off of the gastrointestinal tract, following them can also help relieve common symptoms of indigestion, including bloating, excessive gas production, acid reflux, constipation, and diarrhea. (
  • The bacteria found in stool are representative of the bacteria that are present in the digestive system (gastrointestinal tract). (
  • Certain bacteria and fungi called normal flora inhabit everyone's gastrointestinal tract. (
  • Irritable bowel syndrome occurs when the muscles in the gastrointestinal tract either contract too strongly or too weakly, leading to cramping and diarrhea or constipation, explains Mayo Clinic. (
  • Food passes through a long tube inside the body known as the alimentary canal or the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). (
  • The esophagus is a muscular tube connecting the pharynx to the stomach that is part of the upper gastrointestinal tract . (
  • The small intestine is a long, thin tube about 1 inch in diameter and about 10 feet long that is part of the lower gastrointestinal tract . (
  • Additionally, it was indicated that KYNA is an agonist of GPR35 receptors which are mainly present in the gastrointestinal tract [ 21 ]. (
  • Importantly, concentrations of KYNA in the digestive system gradually increase along the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • The reason for this gradual increase in KYNA content is not known as is the source of KYNA in the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • A new imaging technique is under development with the aim of detecting and characterizing early cancerous changes in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. (
  • A stool culture is used to detect the presence of disease-causing (pathogenic) bacteria and help diagnose an infection of the digestive system (gastrointestinal, GI tract). (
  • When CFTR is absent or defective, the mucus normally secreted by the cells in the pulmonary airways (breathing tubes), pancreatic ducts, gastrointestinal tract, and the reproductive system becomes thickened. (
  • Cystic fibrosis affects tissues that produce mucus secretions including the airway, gastrointestinal tract, ducts of the pancreas, bile ducts of the liver and the male urogenital tract. (
  • This nasal discharge may be watery, thick and mucus -like, or it may have pus or blood in it. (
  • Glands in this tissue release a thick fluid called mucus. (
  • Symptoms include difficulty breathing, wheezing, frequent chest colds, frequent sinus infections, and a persistent cough with thick mucus. (
  • But kids with the condition cystic fibrosis have bodies that make thick, sticky mucus. (
  • A thick layer of mucus separates gut bacteria from the lining of the intestine. (
  • The mucus is a thick liquid that coats your digestive tract. (
  • A multi-system disorder that causes the body to produce a thick mucus. (
  • This genetic disease results in thick mucus secretions in the lungs and digestive tract. (
  • The mucus secreted is very thick and blocks passageways in the lungs and digestive tracts. (
  • The disease causes thick, sticky mucus to build up in the airways and digestive tract. (
  • Cystic fibrosis is a genetic condition in which the body produces abnormally thick mucus, which builds up in the lungs, pancreas and digestive tract. (
  • Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disease in which the body's glands produce abnormally thick mucus. (
  • The thick and sticky mucus associated with CF clogs the tubes that carry air in and out of your lungs. (
  • The thick mucus can block the tubs of the reproductive system and CF is associated with several reproductive system signs and symptoms. (
  • A thick mucus layer, generated by the cells of the colon's wall, provides protection against invading bacteria and other pathogens. (
  • The result: the mucus layer stayed thick, and the infection didn't take full hold, in mice that received a diet that was about 15 percent fiber from minimally processed grains and plants. (
  • In the lungs, where the effects are most devastating, a build-up of thick mucus causes severe respiratory problems. (
  • The bladder and urethra produce mucus to help keep the urinary tract germ-free. (
  • goblet cells These produce mucus in the digestive tract (and elsewhere in the body). (
  • The lining of the digestive system can also produce mucus. (
  • It causes cells to produce mucus that is sticky and thicker than normal. (
  • Mucus is secreted throughout the GI tract, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine (mostly in the jejunum) and in the colon. (
  • Mucus in the esophagus ensures that food is easily swallowed and makes its way down into the stomach. (
  • Mucus in the stomach protects the body from the hot intensity of stomach acid. (
  • The purpose of the mucus is to lubricate your intestines so that food moves through them more easily, and to protect the lining of your stomach and intestines from digestive acid. (
  • Worms will usually attach to the stomach lining, or to the mucus -covered lining of the intestines. (
  • A careful and thorough exam is necessary for detecting worms because there are generally not many present, and they can be hidden by mucus and stomach contents. (
  • Darker stools indicate that the blood is coming from the upper digestive tract, such as the stomach or small intestines. (
  • The liver is a roughly triangular accessory organ of the digestive system located to the right of the stomach, just inferior to the diaphragm and superior to the small intestine. (
  • Peptic ulcers develop in the digestive tract, largely, in the stomach or the duodenum. (
  • Thus you killed good bacteria in digestive tract and now have stomach symptoms. (
  • The digestive tube passing from the stomach to the anus. (
  • The portion of the digestive tract extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consisting of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. (
  • However, if the dog has a swallowing disorder or a digestive tract disease, secretions may be forced into the postnasal area. (
  • If your dog has a middle ear disease , it may decrease the normal secretions and cause the animal to secrete an abnormal amount of mucus. (
  • Certain cells in these organs normally make mucus and other watery secretions. (
  • The body tries to compensate by overproducing bodily secretions such as water, sweat and mucus. (
  • Eating capsaicin may improve digestion by increasing digestive fluid secretions and fighting off infections in the digestive tract. (
  • It can also create problems in your gut because mucus creates the perfect environment for bacteria to thrive. (
  • Excess mucus is not only a sign of a problem in your gut, it can also create problems in your gut because it harbors bacteria. (
  • The mucus in the mouth causes the white blood cells to throw out a 'net' that traps bacteria", explains Ole Sørensen from the Division of Infection Medicine. (
  • It can also be the result of changes in the natural bacteria in the digestive tract and may accompany diarrhoea or constipation. (
  • Normally there is a certain amount of bacteria in the digestive tract. (
  • These symptoms can be alleviated by eating yoghurt, which will rebalance the digestive system bacteria. (
  • In order for bacteria to travel through the mucus layer and infect the tissues below, they need to create groups that can stick to the surface of the tissue. (
  • Mouth and lower digestive tract lots of bacteria (mostly anaerobes e.g. (
  • Mice fed emulsifiers had bacteria (red) deep in the mucus layer (green) so they were closer to intestinal cells (purple and blue) than they should be. (
  • The digestive tract is home to 100 trillion bacteria. (
  • Mice that consumed the emulsifiers had an altered bacterial composition and thinner intestinal mucus, so that bacteria were closer to the cells lining the colon. (
  • When the digestive system is working properly it serves as a barrier to bacteria, viruses and pathogens of all kinds. (
  • Dry or excess mucus in the respiratory or intestinal tract can alter the natural environment that supports healthy and beneficial bacteria. (
  • Excess or depleted mucus can be a breeding ground for undesirable bacteria, which compete for the same resources as trillions of beneficial bacteria required for optimal health and a robust immune system. (
  • The stool culture is a test that detects and identifies bacteria that cause infections of the lower digestive tract. (
  • The test distinguishes between the types of bacteria that cause disease ( pathogenic ) and the types that are normally found in the digestive tract ( normal flora ). (
  • the drugs inhibit the growth of normal flora and allow the bacteria Clostridium difficile that is resistant to the antibiotics to survive and overgrow the digestive tract, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea and abdominal pain. (
  • Pathogenic bacteria can enter and infect the digestive tract when someone eats food or drinks water that is contaminated. (
  • Researchers at MIT have identified new polymers found in mucus, known as mucins, that can provide protection against biofilm formation, the slimy layers of bacterial growth that are very difficult to remove, by trapping the bacteria and preventing them from clumping together on a surface. (
  • For bacteria to effectively penetrate the mucus layer and infect the tissues below, they need to form clusters that can adhere to the tissue surface. (
  • A good, healthy colonization of bacteria in the digestive system makes for optimal breakdown of food into nutritional components. (
  • Bacteria line the surface of mucus in the respiratory tract, the digestive system and the urinary system. (
  • The abundance of bacteria in the digestive system helps to quickly breakdown foods, acting on proteins and carbohydrates to break them down to their smallest components. (
  • Intestinal bacteria play a role in the synthesis of vitamin K. In cases where antibiotics may have destroyed much of the normal flora of the intestinal tract, endogenous production of vitamin K will be decreased. (
  • In addition to maintaining a strong defense against bad bacteria and aiding the digestive system, good bacteria are involved in chemical conversions that need to occur in the body. (
  • Excessive mucus in the lungs creates an ideal place for bacteria to thrive and multiply, the CFF says. (
  • The mucus also makes it easy for bacteria to grow, which can lead to repeated infections, especially in the lungs. (
  • By studying and replicating mucus' natural ability to control pathogenic bacteria, the scientists hope to find new methods for combatting infections. (
  • Starved, they begin to munch on the natural layer of mucus that lines the gut, eroding it to the point where dangerous invading bacteria can infect the colon wall. (
  • While mucus is constantly being produced and degraded in a normal gut, the change in bacteria activity under the lowest-fiber conditions meant that the pace of eating was faster than the pace of production - almost like an overzealous harvesting of trees outpacing the planting of new ones. (
  • Therefore, sugar and Kapha aggravating foods generally increase the amount of mucus. (
  • The amount of mucus in urine can vary. (
  • If you notice an increased amount of mucus in your stool for more than a few weeks, the Mayo Clinic recommends that you consult your doctor. (
  • Normally mucus helps line and lubricate the intestines, and most stool contains a small amount of mucus. (
  • The conditions that can cause an increase of mucus in the stool include haemorrhoids, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, bacterial infection and intestinal blockage. (
  • This is an indication that there is bleeding in the intestinal tract or rectum. (
  • According to Wrong Diagnosis, one of the causes of mucus in stools can be ulcerative colitis, which can affect adolescents and young adults and is a condition in which the intestinal tract is chronically inflamed. (
  • Generally, the manifestations of IBD depend on the area of the intestinal tract involved. (
  • This digestive disorder damages the intestinal lining. (
  • Production of excess reactive mucus in the respiratory and intestinal tract can bog down cilia and villa, compromising absorption of nutrients and natural intestinal detoxification, while congesting the sinuses and upper respiratory tract as we approach winter. (
  • Turmeric ( Curcuma longa ) is a pungent root well-documented to support a healthy immune system, the external and internal skin (which lines the intestinal and respiratory tracts), healthy clear respiration, and natural expectoration of healthy lungs. (
  • If you can't clean up after your dog except with paper towels, something is really irritating his intestinal tract. (
  • See also intestinal tract , and see color plates. (
  • The large bowel or colon commences with the caecum, the area of the intestinal tract responsible for the digestion of cellulose. (
  • Is Your Digestion Bogged Down with Mucus? (
  • anus -- End of the digestive tract, or gut, through which waste products of digestion are excreted, as distinct from the mouth. (
  • 2000). The most widespread function of mucus in the mollusks is for digestion. (
  • The mucus can cause problems with digestion, breathing, and regulating body temperature. (
  • Get to the bottom of this puzzling mystery by learning what mucus on stool can indicate, the signs and symptoms of excess mucus, and what you can do to support your body's healing. (
  • Symptoms of bacterial overgrowth include feeling bloated, gas and mucus stools. (
  • One of the symptoms of a severe blow to the chest area can be coughing up blood or blood-stained mucus. (
  • Patients with IBD may have symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), with cramping, irregular bowel habits, and passage of mucus without blood or pus. (
  • The symptoms like excessive mucus production can persist for several days or weeks after the main symptoms resolve. (
  • Other symptoms include bloating, gas and mucus in the stool. (
  • People with CF have a higher than normal level of salt in their sweat.Most of the other signs and symptoms of CF affect the respiratory system or the digestive system. (
  • The inflammation causes uncomfortable and bothersome symptoms and may seriously damage the digestive tract. (
  • Most common symptoms are pain in the abdomen (belly) and bloody diarrhea with mucus. (
  • Whether you've had mucus in the stool, mucus in diarrhea, pooping mucus only, or maybe you've had a poop covered in mucus, excess mucus is always a sign of problems in the gut. (
  • Diarrhea, sometimes with blood and mucus. (
  • Inflammatory bowel disease occurs when the digestive tract is inflamed, resulting in abdominal and bowel pain, diarrhea, weight loss, fever and fatigue, says Mayo clinic. (
  • Bright red stools indicate the blood is coming from the rectum or the lower digestive tract, according to MedLinePlus. (
  • This can happen from surgery involving the rectum or anus, radiation treatment for cancer, or inflammatory bowel diseases (disorders that cause irritation to the lining of the lower digestive system). (
  • The yoga world's equivalent to the enema or colonic, used to cleanse the lower digestive tract. (
  • The mucus accumulates primarily in the lungs and the digestive tract, resulting in chronic lung infections and poor growth. (
  • Excessive mucus can increase the risk of infections in the respiratory tract and even affect normal functioning in the area. (
  • These are two common viral infections where there is excessive mucus production in the air passages. (
  • The chronic cystitis and yeast infections (internal and external) soon disappeared and her food allergies, exhaustion, and digestive problems all began to heal. (
  • The cause of death in CF patients is usually respiratory tract infections or respiratory distress, coupled with enlargement of the right side of the heart (cor pulmonale). (
  • Treatments include antibiotics to prevent respiratory infections, nutritional and enzyme supplements, and percussion to loosen mucus in the lungs. (
  • I am so excited about mucus because I am convinced it can help us find new strategies for protecting us from infections, in particular those that relate to an overgrowth of harmful microbes," said Ribbeck. (
  • The salt air breathed in helps to break up the congestion in cystic fibrosis lungs caused by the build up of mucus and allows for better airway clearance, thus preventing recurring lung infections that are so detrimental to the condition of CF lungs and their ability to breathe. (
  • Treat and prevent long infections mucus, and help you cough up mucus, improves long infections. (
  • Our saliva consists of water and mucus, among other things, and the mucus plays an important role. (
  • It appears to be precisely the mucus in the saliva that stimulates white blood cells to form these effective nets of DNA and proteins", says Ole Sørensen. (
  • These viruses can spread through contact with saliva, mucus, or feces (poop). (
  • Excessive mucus arises when the saliva-producing cells or glands are overstimulated. (
  • The lowest concentration was found in saliva while the highest in mucus of rat's ileum [ 22 ]. (
  • But grown in the presence of MUC5B (both in real saliva and in MUC5B-containing synthetic mucus), the two species tended to establish a more even balance, suggesting mucin could be instrumental in supporting greater bacterial diversity. (
  • Mucin coverings could aid in preventing biofilm formation on medical devices and may find implementations in personal hygiene, such as combining them into products like toothpaste and mouthwash, which could boost the body's own defenses, specifically in people whose own mucus has been used up. (
  • Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic, progressive and genetic (inherited) disease of the body's exocrine (mucus producing) glands which affects approximately 30,000 children and adults in the United States. (
  • Mucin coatings may help prevent biofilm formation on medical devices and could also find applications in personal hygiene: Incorporating them into products such as toothpaste or mouthwash may supplement the body's own defenses, especially in people whose natural mucus has been depleted, Ribbeck says. (
  • It happens when your body's immune system attacks your digestive tract. (
  • The purpose of mucous neck cells is to secrete mucus. (
  • A membrane lining all body passages that communicate with the air, such as the respiratory and alimentary tracts, and having cells and associated glands that secrete mucus. (
  • The mucosa has no villi but contains glands that secrete mucus. (
  • Mucus may accompanied by itchiness or inflammation. (
  • Overproduction, however, is often the result of an infection or chronic inflammation of GI tract. (
  • This means that the digestive tract appears normal and does not show damage or inflammation, but it does not function normally. (
  • When chronic infection or inflammation causes the walls of your bronchi (airways) thicken and accumulate mucus, you have bronchiectasis. (
  • A research team led by Dr. Andrew T. Gewirtz at Georgia State University wondered whether chemicals that disrupt this mucus barrier might alter the gut microbiota and play a role in disorders associated with inflammation, including inflammatory bowel disease and metabolic syndrome. (
  • When the team fed emulsifiers to germ-free mice, which don't have gut microbiota, the mice showed no signs of gut inflammation, mucus thinning, or metabolic syndrome. (
  • If the inflammation is at the end of the digestive tract, the blood will be bright red. (
  • Mucus also indicates inflammation or irritation, but isn't as critical as blood as long as it is clear. (
  • Crohn's disease is a chronic (long-term) inflammation of the digestive tract. (
  • Others find it both confusing and alarming to see mucus on their stool. (
  • Small amounts of mucus in the stool is normal - especially for Kapha predominant people. (
  • To combat damage to the colon, the body may produce excess mucus, which passes from the body in the stool. (
  • What does mucus in the stool mean? (
  • It is not unusual to see small amounts of mucus in your stool, but there are times when it can be an indication of underlying problems in your digestive system. (
  • There are many different causes for visible mucus in your stool. (
  • According to the Mayo Clinic, it's normal for there to be small amounts of mucus in the stool. (
  • You should also consult your doctor if the increased mucus is accompanied by blood in the stool, changes in bowel habits or unusual pain. (
  • Mucus in the stool can be an indication of a serious health condition such as Crohn's disease, irritable bowel disease or ulcerative colitis. (
  • But if it grows out of control, then it can contribute to mucus in the stool. (
  • Crohn's disease is similar to ulcerative colitis and is also accompanied by chronic diarrhoea and constipation and occasionally mucus in the stool. (
  • Mucus in the stool can also be an indication of bowel obstruction, according to Wrong Diagnosis. (
  • Children have their own natural and normal rhythm for bowel movements, but if your child has not moved their stool in several days and this is not normal for them, they will be in great distress and may only have small urges to move their stools that are accompanied only by amounts of mucus. (
  • Stool is made of undigested food and mucus. (
  • Specimen collection containers consist of any number, shape and size of container for collecting urine, stool, mucus or other type of bodily fluids. (
  • The collection types range from urine collection to stool collecting hats and mucus traps. (
  • Some dogs often have mucus surrounding their stools, although the stool itself looks healthy. (
  • Causes of mucus in human stool include digestive tract conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, digestive tract cancer, re. (
  • Blood in the stool may come from anywhere along your digestive tract from your m. (
  • the membrane lining these secretes sticky mucus to trap microbes. (
  • I'm liking this formula so far it's been about a week or so and I noticed that I'm coughing up a lot of phlegm/mucus. (
  • Mucus is a form of phlegm that comes from your respiratory system's lower airways. (
  • When this mucus is coughed up we usually refer to its phlegm or sputum. (
  • A chronic cough can irritate the upper respiratory tract and tear the blood vessels resulting in coughing up blood or bloody mucus. (
  • Red raspberry is also beneficial for treatment of conditions of the upper respiratory tract, especially when characterized by thin watery mucus. (
  • The liver and pancreas produce digestive juices to help break down food into small parts the body can use for nourishment. (
  • Cystic Fibrosis can affect the whole body, including the lungs, pancreas, liver, digestive and reproductive tracts," according to the American Lung Association. (
  • Mucus clogs organs including your lungs, liver, and pancreas. (
  • To make this formula even more beneficial for balancing vata and kapha respiratory tracts, we combine it with turmeric and a bio-enhancing formula called trikatu , which consists of ginger, long pepper, and black pepper. (
  • Many of us have mucus membrane issues in the winter and spring. (
  • The thin membrane lining the mouth, the nose, the inside of the digestive tract, and the vagina. (
  • They are small areas of erosion or open sores in the mucus membrane lining the gut. (
  • A break in the mucus membrane lining of the digestive tract results in ulcers. (
  • Mucus is produced by mucous cells, which are frequently clustered into small glands located on the mucous membrane that lines virtually the entire digestive tract. (
  • Anatomy) a mucus-secreting membrane that lines body cavities or passages that are open to the external environment. (
  • any EPITHELIUM that secretes MUCUS , such as the MUCOUS MEMBRANE lining the alimentary canal. (
  • The digestive system converts food into nourishment and energy by breaking down food into a useable format so it can be absorbed through the walls of the intestines into the body. (
  • You may know that you have mucus in your nose, mouth, and lungs, and that it helps keep you healthy. (
  • Strands of mucus originating at the mouth trap and transport food particles through the digestive tract to the anus. (
  • If poison ivy is eaten, the mucus lining of the mouth and digestive tract can be damaged. (
  • Tiny hair-like protrusions then push the mucus up and out of the airways into the mouth where it is spat out or swallowed. (
  • In fact the mouth and even salivary glands also release mucus into the oral cavity. (
  • Food begins its journey through the digestive system in the mouth, also known as the oral cavity . (
  • We produce about a gallon of mucus each day to sustain a protective coating on more than 2,000 square feet of internal surface area, including the entire digestive tract as well as the mouth, eyes, lungs, female reproductive tract and, of course, the nose. (
  • The digestive tract can be considered as a tube that starts at the mouth and finishes at the rectum (Fig.1-2). (
  • Once food reaches the colon, mucus protects your bowels from irritation by rough insoluble fibers found in certain foods. (
  • Although mucus is present in the large intestine (colon) and leaves the body through the anus, it may mix with urine in the toilet bowl - leading people to think the mucus is in their urine. (
  • If you frequently go #2, your colon contracts more often-so it's normal for people with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) to see mucus in their stools, says Robert Burakoff, M.D., chief of gastroenterology, hepatology, and endoscopy at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston. (
  • Your health care professional may include your primary care physician, gastroenterologist (a doctor who specializes in the digestive system), proctologist (a doctor who specializes in diseases of the colon, rectum, and anus), gynecologist (a doctor who specializes in the female reproductive system), urogynecologist (a doctor who specializes in disorders of the pelvic floor), surgeon, nurse practitioner, or physician assistant. (
  • This image of a mouse's colon shows the mucus (green). (
  • Images of the mucus layer, and the "goblet" cells of the colon wall that produce the mucus constantly, showed the layer was thinner the less fiber the mice received. (
  • Irritation is found in the lower part of the tract, the colon (large intestine), and can result in open sores or wounds called ulcers. (
  • The outer layer of the small intestine contains mucus, produced by special cells lining the digestive tract. (
  • Bloody gut - A descriptive term applied to haemorrhage in the lower part of the small intestine or the complete digestive tract. (
  • This autoimmune inflammatory bowel disease affects the entire digestive tract. (
  • Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common, genetically acquired chronic disease that predominately affects the lungs and digestive system. (
  • Mucus is naturally secreted by the digestive tract lining to lubricate it for the easy passage of stools. (
  • Sweet, oily and unctuous foods will soothe and lubricate the respiratory tract afflicted by rough Vata. (
  • Maldigestion occurs when an important digestive enzyme or tissue is lacking or not functioning correctly. (
  • Instead of taking a digestive enzyme, most turn to drugs that reduce or neutralize this acid (antacids and proton pump inhibitors). (
  • You can try switching from soluble fiber foods (e.g. oats, apples, blueberries) to insoluble fiber (e.g. whole grains, brown rice), and add a digestive enzyme. (
  • Cystic fibrosis (CF) primarily affects the respiratory, digestive and reproductive systems, as well as the sweat glands. (
  • The upshot is that all systems with a large number of mucus-producing cells are affected, including the respiratory , digestive , exocrine and reproductive systems. (
  • Mucus coats and protects the urinary tract, so some mucus in the urine is normal. (
  • As the mucus moves through the urinary tract, it flushes out germs that may otherwise cause infection. (
  • In addition, unhealthy stools usually indicate deeper digestive disorders which are best addressed in early stages. (
  • One of the most common signs of digestive distress is mucus on stools . (
  • Mucus stools in children can be a cause for concern if they occur regularly or become chronic. (
  • According to Wrong Diagnosis, one of the causes of mucus stools in children is bacterial overgrowth. (
  • Another serious cause for concern is if mucus stools are accompanied by bloody or tarry stools. (
  • Stools become dark and tarry when they have been exposed to digestive juices. (
  • What Causes Mucus in Human Stools? (
  • Bloody stools often are a sign of a problem in the digestive tract. (
  • This will gently encourage a bowel motion and cleanse digestive toxins. (
  • Crohn's disease is an inflammatory bowel disease that affects the lining of the digestive tract, explains Mayo Clinic. (
  • The less mucus I have in my body, I noticed that I am not sick with a cold or sinus infection. (
  • However, large amounts of mucus, or mucus that changes color might indicate an infection or other problem. (
  • It is more likely that mucus in the urine is related to an infection, digestive condition, or one of the other causes discussed above. (
  • The textbook view of mucus is that it forms a barrier to infection, but it's not at all clear how it does so," Ribbeck says. (
  • Shiga-like toxin producing E coli hemolytic-uremic syndrome (STEC-HUS) is a disorder that most often occurs when an infection in the digestive system. (
  • This thickened mucus causes blockages, frequent infection, and loss of function in the affected organs. (
  • Found myself recently with a runny nose, started taking the Mucus Formula and within no time at all my nose was completely dried up and feeling 100 percent better. (
  • Mucus is the sticky, slimy stuff that's made inside your nose, airways, and even your digestive tract. (
  • If you're like lot of kids, you have another name for nose mucus: snot. (
  • Mucus has a pretty important job - it keeps the lining of your nose moist and warms the air you breathe. (
  • After this stuff gets stuck inside the nose , the mucus surrounds it and some of the tiny hairs inside the nose called cilia (say: SIL-ee-uh). (
  • These hairs help move the mucus and the trapped stuff toward the front of the nose or the back of the throat. (
  • Some mucus may also drip out of the nose. (
  • When the mucus is excessive we may experience is as a runny nose, post-nasal drip or productive cough. (
  • Mucus lines most of the inner surface of our bodies, such as our digestive tract, lungs, liver, and other vital organs. (
  • As a result of taking the Mucus Formula along with a fresh fruit and vegetable lifestyle, I do not have chronic coughs like I did in the past. (
  • New research shows mucus may be beneficial in treating chronic digestive disorders. (
  • Asthma is a chronic airway condition where there is narrowing along with excess mucus production. (
  • Ulcerative colitis usually results in ulcers along the large intestine, while Crohn's disease can occur along any part of the digestive tract. (
  • The Mucus Formula, in conjunction with the alkaline formula, has broken up mucus in my system, and kept me from getting sick this winter. (
  • It presents a functional unit of a physical barrier consisting of a mucus layer and a monolayer of epithelial cells and of a mucosal lymphoid system that together efficiently discriminate between pathogenic and commensal microorganisms 16 . (
  • This not only takes a toll on our digestive system but it also short-changes your immune system. (
  • Good health is dependent on a healthy digestive and immune system. (
  • Fecal fat testing may be performed if your doctor suspects that your digestive system isn't functioning correctly. (
  • By Jason Ramos What is the Main Function of the Digestive System? (
  • In the hidden recesses of the digestive system, microorganisms are hard at work breaking down foods into substances that can be easily absorbed by the digestive mucosa. (
  • The digestive system is a group of organs working together to convert food into energy and basic nutrients to feed the entire body. (
  • Furthermore, it was suggested that KYNA might be absorbed from the digestive system to the blood stream and then transported to other tissues. (
  • But new research shows that's exactly what happens when microbes inside the digestive system don't get the natural fiber that they rely on for food. (
  • These practices are incredibly powerful, and each address a different system in the body: the digestive, respiratory, circulatory and nervous systems. (
  • For instance, instead of swallowing the cloth or engaging in basti, consider alternative purification techniques, such as detoxing your system with lemon water spiked with cayenne pepper (which helps remove mucus) and cinnamon (which reduces swelling). (
  • It is a multi-system disease that affects mainly the lungs and the digestive system. (
  • The digestive system of the pig has the ability to convert vegetable and animal materials into highly digestible nutrients. (
  • This can be sped up by a decrease in mucus due to dehydration , chemotherapy , and aging, or in mucus-clogged lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. (
  • Cystic fibrosis is an inherited condition that severely impacts the respiratory tract. (
  • Or it may be that the mucus does not get replaced often enough, as happens in the mucus-clogged lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. (
  • Our results show that CNCM I-3690 can (i) physically maintain modulated goblet cells and the mucus layer and (ii) counteract changes in local and systemic lymphocytes. (
  • A possible new protection against biofilm formation, polymers found in mucus, have been discovered by a team of researchers from MIT. (
  • However, today we live in houses with dry heat that triggers excess mucus production, congestion, and postnasal drip each spring. (
  • In this type of cancer, the tumor is composed of abnormal cells that "float" in pools of mucin, part of the slimy, slippery substance known as mucus. (
  • Breast cancer cells can produce some mucus. (
  • Mucus is produced by the small mucous-producing cells and glands that line the respiratory tract. (
  • These cells also line the digestive tract. (
  • That gut surface is a sheet of mucus-secreting cells with a huge total area, measured in acres. (
  • The way the disease actually works, according to WebMD , is by affecting the way water and salt are moved into and out of mucus -producing cells . (
  • Sometimes excessive mucus in the airways may produce a sensation of choking but it does not completely obstruct the airways like in choking on a foreign body. (
  • When it comes to the airways the mucus moisturizes the lining which quickly dries due to the constant movement of air. (
  • Apart from the spasm of the bronchi, the excessive mucus also narrows the airways. (
  • This mucus builds up, particularly in the lungs and organs of the digestive tract. (
  • Chemically similar to detergents, they have been shown to alter the mucus barrier and the microbes associated with it. (
  • Microbes are also incredibly prevalent on and within our bodies, and most of these trillions of microbes live inside the mucus that lines the digestive tract. (
  • Through her research into the functions of mucus, Ribbeck has elucidated how this slimy substance helps maintain a healthy balance between beneficial and potentially harmful microbes. (
  • Over millions of years, the mucus has evolved the ability to keep a number of these problematic pathogenic microbes in check, preventing them from causing damage," said Ribbeck. (
  • But the mucus does not kill the microbes. (
  • In its new work, her team investigated how mucins, the sugar-coated molecules that form the mucus gel, influence the makeup of our internal microbial communities by constraining the formation of multicellular assemblies (also known as biofilms) by the microbes. (
  • But when the researchers substituted a diet with no fiber in it, even for a few days, some of the microbes in their guts began to munch on the mucus. (
  • Because CF patients have extraordinary amounts of mucus in their digestive tracts, nutrient absorption is impaired. (
  • The practitioner literally swallows the gauze, which cleanses the throat and top digestive track. (