A chronic blistering disease with predilection for mucous membranes and less frequently the skin, and with a tendency to scarring. It is sometimes called ocular pemphigoid because of conjunctival mucous membrane involvement.
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.
Group of chronic blistering diseases characterized histologically by ACANTHOLYSIS and blister formation within the EPIDERMIS.
A desmosomal cadherin that is an autoantigen in the acquired skin disorder PEMPHIGUS VULGARIS.
A chronic and relatively benign subepidermal blistering disease usually of the elderly and without histopathologic acantholysis.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Chronic, localized granulomatous infection of mucocutaneous tissues, especially the NOSE, and characterized by HYPERPLASIA and the development of POLYPS. It is found in humans and other animals and is caused by the mesomycetozoean organism RHINOSPORIDIUM SEEBERI.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
INFLAMMATION of the soft tissues of the MOUTH, such as MUCOSA; PALATE; GINGIVA; and LIP.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A loss of mucous substance of the mouth showing local excavation of the surface, resulting from the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue. It is the result of a variety of causes, e.g., denture irritation, aphthous stomatitis (STOMATITIS, APHTHOUS); NOMA; necrotizing gingivitis (GINGIVITIS, NECROTIZING ULCERATIVE); TOOTHBRUSHING; and various irritants. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p842)
Rare cutaneous eruption characterized by extensive KERATINOCYTE apoptosis resulting in skin detachment with mucosal involvement. It is often provoked by the use of drugs (e.g., antibiotics and anticonvulsants) or associated with PNEUMONIA, MYCOPLASMA. It is considered a continuum of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
A genus in the order Dermocystidium, class MESOMYCETOZOEA. It causes RHINOSPORIDIOSIS in MAMMALS and BIRDS.
Oral lesions accompanying cutaneous lichen planus or often occurring alone. The buccal mucosa, lips, gingivae, floor of the mouth, and palate are usually affected (in a descending order of frequency). Typically, oral lesions consist of radiating white or gray, velvety, threadlike lines, arranged in a reticular pattern, at the intersection of which there may be minute, white, elevated dots or streaks (Wickham's striae). (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry)
Diseases of the skin with a genetic component, usually the result of various inborn errors of metabolism.
Skin diseases characterized by local or general distributions of blisters. They are classified according to the site and mode of blister formation. Lesions can appear spontaneously or be precipitated by infection, trauma, or sunlight. Etiologies include immunologic and genetic factors. (From Scientific American Medicine, 1990)
A skin and mucous membrane disease characterized by an eruption of macules, papules, nodules, vesicles, and/or bullae with characteristic "bull's-eye" lesions usually occurring on the dorsal aspect of the hands and forearms.
An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by glassy degenerative thickening (hyalinosis) of SKIN; MUCOSA; and certain VISCERA. This disorder is caused by mutation in the extracellular matrix protein 1 gene (ECM1). Clinical features include hoarseness and skin eruption due to widespread deposition of HYALIN.
A clinical syndrome characterized by development, usually in infancy or childhood, of a chronic, often widespread candidiasis of skin, nails, and mucous membranes. It may be secondary to one of the immunodeficiency syndromes, inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, or associated with defects in cell-mediated immunity, endocrine disorders, dental stomatitis, or malignancy.
A disorder of the skin, the oral mucosa, and the gingiva, that usually presents as a solitary polypoid capillary hemangioma often resulting from trauma. It is manifested as an inflammatory response with similar characteristics to those of a granuloma.
Diseases affecting the eye.
An inflammatory, pruritic disease of the skin and mucous membranes, which can be either generalized or localized. It is characterized by distinctive purplish, flat-topped papules having a predilection for the trunk and flexor surfaces. The lesions may be discrete or coalesce to form plaques. Histologically, there is a "saw-tooth" pattern of epidermal hyperplasia and vacuolar alteration of the basal layer of the epidermis along with an intense upper dermal inflammatory infiltrate composed predominantly of T-cells. Etiology is unknown.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
Separation of the prickle cells of the stratum spinosum of the epidermis, resulting in atrophy of the prickle cell layer. It is seen in diseases such as pemphigus vulgaris (see PEMPHIGUS) and DARIER DISEASE.
A common superficial bacterial infection caused by STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS or group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. Characteristics include pustular lesions that rupture and discharge a thin, amber-colored fluid that dries and forms a crust. This condition is commonly located on the face, especially about the mouth and nose.
A desmosomal cadherin that is an autoantigen in the acquired skin disorder PEMPHIGUS FOLIACEUS.
The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Visible accumulations of fluid within or beneath the epidermis.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Refers to any inflammation of the sclera including episcleritis, a benign condition affecting only the episclera, which is generally short-lived and easily treated. Classic scleritis, on the other hand, affects deeper tissue and is characterized by higher rates of visual acuity loss and even mortality, particularly in necrotizing form. Its characteristic symptom is severe and general head pain. Scleritis has also been associated with systemic collagen disease. Etiology is unknown but is thought to involve a local immune response. Treatment is difficult and includes administration of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids. Inflammation of the sclera may also be secondary to inflammation of adjacent tissues, such as the conjunctiva.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LARYNX which coordinates many functions such as voice production, breathing, swallowing, and coughing.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from patients to health professionals or health care workers. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Structures which are part of the CELL MEMBRANE or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
Functionally and structurally differentiated, purple-pigmented regions of the cytoplasmic membrane of some strains of Halobacterium halobium. The membrane develops under anaerobic conditions and is made almost entirely of the purple pigment BACTERIORHODOPSINS. (From Singleton & Sainsbury Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
A fold of the mucous membrane of the CONJUNCTIVA in many animals. At rest, it is hidden in the medial canthus. It can extend to cover part or all of the cornea to help clean the CORNEA.
The inner layer of CHOROID, also called the lamina basalis choroideae, located adjacent to the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM; (RPE) of the EYE. It is a membrane composed of the basement membranes of the choriocapillaris ENDOTHELIUM and that of the RPE. The membrane stops at the OPTIC NERVE, as does the RPE.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Spontaneous tearing of the membranes surrounding the FETUS any time before the onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR. Preterm PROM is membrane rupture before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.
A layer of the cornea. It is the basal lamina of the CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM (from which it is secreted) separating it from the CORNEAL STROMA. It is a homogeneous structure composed of fine collagenous filaments, and slowly increases in thickness with age.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Application of a life support system that circulates the blood through an oxygenating system, which may consist of a pump, a membrane oxygenator, and a heat exchanger. Examples of its use are to assist victims of smoke inhalation injury, respiratory failure, and cardiac failure.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.

Explanations for the clinical and microscopic localization of lesions in pemphigus foliaceus and vulgaris. (1/2167)

Patients with pemphigus foliaceus (PF) have blisters on skin, but not mucous membranes, whereas patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV) develop blisters on mucous membranes and/or skin. PF and PV blisters are due to loss of keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion in the superficial and deep epidermis, respectively. PF autoantibodies are directed against desmoglein (Dsg) 1; PV autoantibodies bind Dsg3 or both Dsg3 and Dsg1. In this study, we test the hypothesis that coexpression of Dsg1 and Dsg3 in keratinocytes protects against pathology due to antibody-induced dysfunction of either one alone. Using passive transfer of pemphigus IgG to normal and DSG3(null) neonatal mice, we show that in the areas of epidermis and mucous membrane that coexpress Dsg1 and Dsg3, antibodies against either desmoglein alone do not cause spontaneous blisters, but antibodies against both do. In areas (such as superficial epidermis of normal mice) where Dsg1 without Dsg3 is expressed, anti-Dsg1 antibodies alone can cause blisters. Thus, the anti-desmoglein antibody profiles in pemphigus sera and the normal tissue distributions of Dsg1 and Dsg3 determine the sites of blister formation. These studies suggest that pemphigus autoantibodies inhibit the adhesive function of desmoglein proteins, and demonstrate that either Dsg1 or Dsg3 alone is sufficient to maintain keratinocyte adhesion.  (+info)

Regulation and function of family 1 and family 2 UDP-glucuronosyltransferase genes (UGT1A, UGT2B) in human oesophagus. (2/2167)

Human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are expressed in a tissue-specific fashion in hepatic and extrahepatic tissues [Strassburg, Manns and Tukey (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 8719-8726]. Previous work suggests that these enzymes play a protective role in chemical carcinogenesis [Strassburg, Manns and Tukey (1997) Cancer Res. 57, 2979-2985]. In this study, UGT1 and UGT2 gene expression was investigated in human oesophageal epithelium and squamous-cell carcinoma in addition to the characterization of individual UGT isoforms using recombinant protein. UGT mRNA expression was characterized by duplex reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis and revealed the expression of UGT1A7, UGT1A8, UGT1A9 and UGT1A10 mRNAs. UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A5 and UGT1A6 transcripts were not detected. UGT2 expression included UGT2B7, UGT2B10 and UGT2B15, but UGT2B4 mRNA was absent. UGT2 mRNA was present at significantly lower levels than UGT1 transcripts. This observation was in agreement with the analysis of catalytic activities in oesophageal microsomal protein, which was characterized by high glucuronidation rates for phenolic xenobiotics, all of which are classical UGT1 substrates. Whereas UGT1A9 was not regulated, differential regulation of UGT1A7 and UGT1A10 mRNA was observed between normal oesophageal epithelium and squamous-cell carcinoma. Expression and analysis in vitro of recombinant UGT1A7, UGT1A9, UGT1A10, UGT2B7 and UGT2B15 demonstrated that UGT1A7, UGT1A9 and UGT1A10 catalysed the glucuronidation of 7-hydroxybenzo(alpha)pyrene, as well as other environmental carcinogens, such as 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo-(4, 5-beta)-pyridine. Although UGT1A9 was not regulated in the carcinoma tissue, the five-fold reduction in 7-hydroxybenzo(alpha)pyrene glucuronidation could be attributed to regulation of UGT1A7 and UGT1A10. These data elucidate an individual regulation of human UGT1A and UGT2B genes in human oesophagus and provide evidence for specific catalytic activities of individual human UGT isoforms towards environmental carcinogens that have been implicated in cellular carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Invasion of human mucosal epithelial cells by Neisseria gonorrhoeae upregulates expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). (3/2167)

Infection of the mucosa by Neisseria gonorrhoeae involves adherence to and invasion of epithelial cells. Little is known, however, about the expression by mucosal epithelial cells of molecules that mediate cellular interactions between epithelial cells and neutrophils at the site of gonococcal infection. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) by epithelial cells during the process of gonococcal invasion. The highly invasive strain FA1090 and the poorly invasive strain MS11 were incubated with human endometrial adenocarcinoma (HEC-1-B) or human cervical carcinoma (ME-180) epithelial cells, after which ICAM-1 expression was measured by flow cytometry. After 15 h of infection with FA1090, expression of ICAM-1 increased 4.7- and 2.1-fold for HEC-1-B and ME-180 cells, respectively, whereas 15 h of infection of HEC-1-B cells with MS11 increased ICAM-1 expression only 1.6-fold. ICAM-1 expression was restricted to the cell surface, since no soluble ICAM-1 was detected. The distribution of staining was heterogeneous and mimicked that seen after treatment of HEC-1-B cells with the ICAM-1 agonist tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in the absence of bacteria. PCR and dot blot analyses of ICAM-1 mRNA showed no change in levels over time in response to infection. Although TNF-alpha was produced by HEC-1-B cells after infection, the extent of ICAM-1 upregulation was not affected by neutralizing anti-TNF-alpha antiserum. Dual-fluorescence flow cytometry showed that the cells with the highest levels of ICAM-1 expression were cells with associated gonococci. We conclude that epithelial cells upregulate the expression of ICAM-1 in response to infection with invasive gonococci. On the mucosa, upregulation of ICAM-1 by infected epithelial cells may function to maintain neutrophils at the site of infection, thereby reducing further invasion of the mucosa by gonococci.  (+info)

Clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis from the murine genital mucosa does not require perforin-mediated cytolysis or Fas-mediated apoptosis. (4/2167)

The molecular mechanisms of resistance to genital infection with the mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) strain of Chlamydia trachomatis are unknown. A role for major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted, interleukin-12-dependent CD4(+) T cells has been established, but the functional activity of these cells does not depend on secretion of gamma interferon. Here we examined the potential contribution of T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity and apoptosis to mucosal clearance of MoPn by using mice deficient in the molecular mediators of target cell lysis. Animals lacking perforin, Fas, Fas ligand, or both perforin and Fas ligand were infected genitally with C. trachomatis MoPn and monitored for expression of immunity to chlamydial antigens and clearance of MoPn from the genital mucosa. In each case, the profile of spleen cytokine production, the magnitude of the host antibody response, and the kinetics of chlamydial clearance were similar to those of genetically intact controls. Compensatory overproduction of tumor necrosis factor alpha, an alternate mediator of apoptosis in certain cell types, did not appear to account for the ability of mutant mice to resolve Chlamydia infections. These results fail to support CD4(+) T-cell-mediated apoptosis or CD8(+) T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity as being critical to the clearance of C. trachomatis MoPn urogenital infections.  (+info)

Langerhans cells in the human oesophagus. (5/2167)

The dendrite cells of Langerhans, first identified in the epidermis, have now been observed in the middle and superficial layers of the normal human oesophageal mucosa. They exhibit typical Langerhans granules, but no desmosomes and tonofilaments. They often have irregular indented nuclei, with a relatively pale cytoplasm contrasting with that of the adjacent squamous cells. These cells are sometimes difficult to distinguish from intra-epithelial lymphocytes, which are also encountered in the oesophageal mucosa and which share certain ultrastructural characteristics with Langerhans cells.  (+info)

Oesophageal epithelial innervation in health and reflux oesophagitis. (6/2167)

BACKGROUND: The response of the oesophagus to refluxed gastric contents is likely to depend on intact neural mechanisms in the oesophageal mucosa. The epithelial innervation has not been systematically evaluated in health or reflux disease. AIMS: To study oesophageal epithelial innervation in controls, and also inflamed and non-inflamed mucosa in patients with reflux oesophagitis and healed oesophagitis. PATIENTS: Ten controls, nine patients with reflux oesophagitis, and five patients with healed oesophagitis. METHODS: Oesophageal epithelial biopsy specimens were obtained at endoscopy. The distribution of the neuronal marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP), and the neuropeptides calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), substance P (SP), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Density of innervation was assessed by the proportion of papillae in each oesophageal epithelial biopsy specimen containing immunoreactive fibres (found in the subepithelium and epithelial papillae, but not penetrating the epithelium). RESULTS: The proportion of papillae positive for PGP immunoreactive nerve fibres was significantly increased in inflamed tissue when compared with controls, and non-inflamed and healed tissue. There was also a significant increase in VIP immunoreactive fibres within epithelial papillae. Other neuropeptides showed no proportional changes in inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Epithelial biopsy specimens can be used to assess innervation in the oesophagus. The innervation of the oesophageal mucosa is not altered in non-inflamed tissue of patients with oesophagitis but alters in response to inflammation, where there is a selective increase (about three- to fourfold) in VIP containing nerves.  (+info)

Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency and fluorouracil-related toxicity. (7/2167)

Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is the initial and rate-limiting enzyme of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) catabolism. We report lymphocytic DPD data concerning a group of 53 patients (23 men, 30 women, mean age 58, range 36-73), treated by 5-FU-based chemotherapy in different French institutions and who developed unanticipated 5-FU-related toxicity. Lymphocyte samples (standard collection procedure) were sent to us for DPD determination (biochemical method). Among the whole group of 53 patients, 19 had a significant DPD deficiency (DD; below 150 fmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein, i.e. less than 70% of the mean value observed from previous population study). There was a greater majority of women in the DD group (15 out of 19, 79%) compared with the remaining 34 patients (15 out of 34, 44%, P<0.014). Toxicity was often severe, leading to patient death in two cases (both women). The toxicity score (sum of WHO grading, theoretical range 0-20) was twice as high in patients with marked DD (below 100 pmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein, n = 11, mean score = 13.2) compared with patients with moderate DD (between 150 and 100 pmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein, n = 8, mean score = 6.8), P = 0.008. In the DD group, there was a high frequency of neurotoxic syndromes (7 out of 19, 37%). The two deceased patients both had severe neurotoxicity. The occurrence of cardiac toxicity was relatively rare (1 out of 19, 5%). These data suggest that women are particularly prone to DPD deficiency and allow a more precise definition of the DD toxicity profile.  (+info)

Mucin expression and function in the female reproductive tract. (8/2167)

Reproductive tract epithelia are characterized by the presence of a thick, apical glycocalyx. This glycoprotein coat is drastically reduced in the uterus of many species during the time of embryo implantation. Recent studies indicate that mucin glycoproteins constitute a large proportion of the apical glycocalyx. One of these mucins, Muc-1, has particularly important functions at the luminal surface of the uterus and other female reproductive tract tissues. Muc-1 appears to play a dominant role in maintaining a functionally non-receptive uterine surface with regard to blastocyst attachment. Conversion to a receptive uterine state is brought about by the concerted actions of ovarian steroid hormones that in several species also strongly modulate Muc-1 protein and mRNA expression. Muc-1 also appears to serve a general function in protecting reproductive tract mucosa since Muc-1 null mice are particularly prone to bacterial infection. Collectively, these studies indicate that mucins, including Muc-1, play important barrier roles in reproductive processes and protection from bacterial pathogenesis in the female reproductive tract.  (+info)

Fernando Real, Morgane Bomsel. HIV infection of the genital mucosa in real time. médecine/sciences, EDP Sciences, 2019, 35 (3), pp.209-212. ⟨10.1051/medsci/2019044⟩. ⟨hal-02355295⟩ ...
കാർബോളിക് അമ്ളം, കാസ്റ്റിക് സോഡ എന്നീ രാസവസ്തുക്കൾ കഴിക്കുന്നതിന്റെ ഫലമായി അന്നനാളിയുടെ ശ്ളേഷ്മവലയം (mucous layer) അടർന്ന് പഴുപ്പു പിടിക്കുന്നു. കൂടുതൽ ഛർദിക്കുക മൂലവും ആമാശയത്തിലെ ഉപദ്രവകാരികളായ അമ്ളങ്ങൾ തികട്ടി അന്നനാളിയിൽ കടന്നുകൂടുക മൂലവും അന്നനാളിക്കകത്തു പഴുപ്പ് ഉണ്ടാകുന്നു. പഴുപ്പ് വർധിക്കുന്നതിന്റെ ഫലമായി മാംസപേശികൾ ചുരുങ്ങി അന്നനാളിയുടെ പ്രവർത്തനശേഷി ...
The quest for new therapeutics and better follow-up of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) requires the clearest possible picture of the immunological mechanisms underlying these complex pathologies. We identified recently a potential new player in this destructive game, a non-conventional T cell subset called Mucosal-Associated Invariant T (MAIT) cells. These cells were initially identified on the basis of their use of a semi-invariant TCR, made of the invariant V7.2-J33 TCR chain (now TCRAV1S2-AJ33) paired to a limited number of different TCR chains (1). Human MAIT cells are mostly CD8+ T cells with an effector/memory phenotype and expression of various chemokine receptors involved in extra-lymphoid migration. They also express most markers associated with IL-17 producing T cells, such as RORt, high CD161, IL-23R and CD26. They make up to 10% of peripheral blood and intestinal lamina propria T cells, and are even more abundant in the liver (2). The most striking feature of
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are an innate-like T-cell population involved in anti-bacterial immunity. In human beings, MAIT cells are abundant, comprising ~10% of the CD8(+) T-cell compartment in blood. They are enriched at mucosal sites and are particularly prevalent within the liver. MAIT cells are defined by the expression of a semi-invariant T-cell receptor (Vα7.2-Jα33/12/20) and are restricted by the non-polymorphic, highly evolutionarily conserved MHC class Ib molecule, MHC-related protein (MR)1. MR1 has recently been shown to present an unstable pyrimidine intermediate derived from a biosynthetic precursor of riboflavin; riboflavin biosynthesis occurs in many bacteria but not in human beings. Consistent with this, MAIT cells are responsive to riboflavin-metabolizing bacteria, including Salmonella. In mouse models, MAIT cells have been shown to play a non-redundant role in anti-bacterial immunity, including against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Mycobacterium bovis
The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, which are involved in absorption and secretion. They line various body cavities that are exposed to the external environment and internal organs. It is at several places continuous with skin: at the nostrils, the lips, the ears, the genital area, and the anus. The sticky, thick fluid secreted by the mucous membranes and gland is termed mucus. The term mucous membrane refers to where they are found in the body and not every mucous membrane secretes mucus. Body cavities featuring mucous membrane include most of the respiratory system. The glans penis (head of the penis) and glans clitoridis and the inside of the prepuce (foreskin) and clitoral hood are mucous membranes, not skin. ...
A new study published by the Journal of Clinical Investigation has revealed that chronic inflammation is caused by obesity and alters the immune system and the gut microbial environment. The changes to the immune system consist of alterations to the mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells. MAIT cells are an innate-like T cell population that recognizes bacterial ligands and is enriched in mucosal and inflamed tissues. Obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation in fat tissue and dysfunctional fat cells produce inflammatory molecules. The fat tissue accumulation of immune cells such as macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and mast cells is a contributing factor in obesity and obesity-induced type 2 diabetes (T2D). In the fat tissue of lean people, the innate immune semi-invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are enriched in contrast to the fat tissue of obese patients. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a novel subset of innate-like immune cells found in peripheral ...
As the primary site of HIV-1 replication is the mucosa, a desirable feature of a HIV-1 vaccine would be the generation of immune responses at mucosal sites. We created an optimized CCL27 DNA construct as well as optimized SIV gag, pol, and env plasmids for immunizing rhesus macaques. Macaques (n=5/group) were immunized with SIV plasmids +/- CCL27. Both immunization groups had significant IFN-g responses against the encoded SIV antigens (~12,000 SFU/106 PBMCs). CD8+ T cell proliferation as measured by CFSE staining was similar between the groups at ~22%. While systemic immune responses were robust, co-delivery of CCL27 did not adjuvant peripheral responses similar to what was observed in mice. Interestingly, macaques that received CCL27 had greater antigen specific IgA at mucosal sites including bronchial lavage and fecal samples. In addition, CD4+ T cells secreting effector cytokines were enhanced in the CCL27 group at mucosal, but not peripheral sites when compared to the antigenic group alone. ...
Mucosal epithelia are the first tissue sites of contact of HIV with the human body during the course of infection, and these play a critical role in determining its success in establishing systemic infection. We have shown that experimental disruption of tight junctions of mucosal epithelium may facilitate HIV transmission across mucosal epithelia by paracellular penetration, which requires no viral replication and, therefore, antiretroviral therapy would not be expected to block such transmission. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted agent of the mucosal epithelium. We have also shown that the tight junctions in HPV-infected epithelial anal lesions are disrupted, suggesting that HPV dissemination within the mucosal epithelium may increase the risk of HIV transmission. It is well documented that oncogenic type HPV-infected anogenital epithelial lesions contain elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including interferon gamma (IFN-_) and tumor necrosis ...
In the previous entry commented that many times the mucous membranes are important as indicative of the state of health of our dog. I take photos of my dog that I used in the previous post to show what would be a normal coloration of mucous membranes.. Usually the mucous membranes have a pinkish color. If they appear paler (in some cases they become completely white), they are indicative of anemia, severe bleeding or shock. Bluish mucous membranes indicate Cyanosis (Abnormal amount of hemoglobin, molecule that is responsible for transporting oxygen). If they are yellowish they are a sign of jaundice (increase of bilirubin) and therefore of a problem in the liver.. If they are dry it means that the animal is dehydrated.. The mucous membranes also serve to assess the Capillary Refill Time (CRT). It is a quick test to assess blood circulation. It is measured by pressing with a finger the mucosa (usually the gingival), after pressing a white mark remains in the place where we press with the finger, ...
Bacterial adhesins promote colonization at the initial stages of an infection by mediating attachment to host tissues, thus avoiding nonspecific host defenses such as mechanical clearance and allowing bacterial multiplication to occur within the host (1). To exert these functions, adhesins need to be presented at the surface of the bacterium. Like typical adhesins, B. pertussis FHA attaches the bacterium to receptors in the respiratory tract (17-21, 28). However, in addition to being surface-associated, large amounts of FHA are also released into the extracellular milieu (15). This has so far only been observed in vitro. In this work, we show for the first time that FHA is likely to also be released in vivo, and that its secretion is necessary for efficient colonization in a mouse model of infection. Our results support the paradigm that the secreted form of bacterial adhesins may participate in pathogenesis.. The use of B. pertussis strains deficient in FHA release but presenting FHA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human thymic MR1-restricted MAIT cells are innate pathogen-reactive effectors that adapt following thymic egress. AU - Gold, M. C.. AU - Eid, T.. AU - Smyk-Pearson, S.. AU - Eberling, Y.. AU - Swarbrick, G. M.. AU - Langley, S. M.. AU - Streeter, P. R.. AU - Lewinsohn, D. A.. AU - Lewinsohn, D. M.. PY - 2013/1. Y1 - 2013/1. N2 - Human mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells express the semi-invariant T-cell receptor (TCR) Vα7.2 and are restricted by the major histocompatibility complex-Ib molecule MR1. While MAIT cells share similarities with other innate T cells, the extent to which MAIT cells are innate and their capacity to adapt is unknown. We evaluated the function of Vα7.2 + T cells from the thymus, cord blood, and peripheral blood. Although antigen-inexperienced MAIT cells displayed a naïve phenotype, these had intrinsic effector capacity in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-infected cells. Vα7.2+ effector thymocytes contained signal joint TCR gene ...
MUCOUS MEMBRANES, Mucus membrane and its function in the body, Venus of the Hard Sell by Mucous Membrane (Spiderlegs) 2012, Body Membranes, Mucous Membrane (Gingiva)lab 2016, Oral mucosa - Epithelium part I: Introduction, Ultrastructure and Proliferation
Mucosal melanoma is a rare disease epidemiologically and molecularly distinct from cutaneous melanoma developing from melanocytes located in mucosal membranes. Little is known about its therapy. In this paper, we aimed to evaluate the results of immunotherapy and radiotherapy in a group of patients with advanced mucosal melanoma, based on the experience of five high-volume centers in Poland and Italy. There were 82 patients (53 female, 29 male) included in this retrospective study. The median age in this group was 67.5 (IQR: 57.25–75.75). All patients received anti-PD1 or anti-CTLA4 antibodies in the first or second line of treatment. Twenty-three patients received radiotherapy during anti-PD1 treatment. In the first-line treatment, the median progression-free survival (PFS) reached six months in the anti-PD1 group, which was statistically better than 3.1 months in the other modalities group (p = 0.004). The median overall survival (OS) was 16.3 months (CI: 12.1–22.3) in the whole cohort.
Often it causes big discomfort for a woman and it makes sexual life of a woman very complicated and reduces her life quality. Until now the treatment alternative was hormonal therapy (which is often contraindicated, e.g. after the treatment of breast cancer, or not recommended), phytoestrogens therapy (unfortunately, it is effective not for all women) and lubricants for improving sexual intercourse.. Thanks to the most advanced technology, the treatment with the laser Er:YAG (SMOOTH) is a safe and effective way for a women to get rid of vaginal mucosa atrophy symptoms and to feel comfortable in her everyday life and her intimate life.. ...
This study provides evidence that the female cervicovaginal mucosa can be an effective site for induction and boosting of effector memory CD8+ T cell responses using a non-replicating viral vector. Previous studies involving live viruses or attenuated replicating vectors left open the possibility that the presence of these cells in the cervicovaginal mucosa might have resulted from their immune induction at remote sites. Trafficking of the virus/vector and expression of the antigen in other tissues could lead to subsequent recruitment of immunocytes to the cervicovaginal mucosa. We have focused our studies on the induction of effector T cell responses, rather than antibodies, because the efficient induction of cervicovaginal mucosa T cells by a non-replicating vaccine had not previously been demonstrated. In contrast, it is now recognized, thanks to the remarkable efficacy of the commercial HPV prophylactic vaccines, that systemic immunization with a protein antigen, in this case a virus-like ...
Mucous membrane is a type of tissue that lines the nose, mouth, lungs, esophagus, stomach, and intestines. Cells in the mucous membrane produce mucus ...
Define mucous membrane: a membrane rich in mucous glands; specifically : one that lines body passages and cavities which communicate directly or…
Current knowledge on mucosa, especially genitals in women, however, remain inadequate, especially regarding defense mechanisms and possibilities for a vaccine to induce an active immune response at mucosal front door of the most pathogens. Induction of mucosal immune response has emerged as a research priority research prophylactic vaccine.The development of strategies to prevent sexual transmission of HIV-1 depends in part on an understanding of specific and innate immune mechanisms involved in this transmission.. MUCOVAC is a feasibility study of the immunological and transcriptomic analysis of cervicovaginal samples of women infected or not infected with HIV-1. We also assess tolerance samples taken by cytobrush and cervicovaginal washings, efficiency and reproducibility of the sample by cytobrush and cervicovaginal lavage for transcriptomic analysis, measurement of cytokines by Luminex technology, quantification of IgG and IgA. In blood we will determine the phenotype of B cells and Tfh cell ...
We hypothesized that the beneficial effects of early enteral compared with parenteral feeding are related to the increased variety of aerobic microorganisms that colonize the gut. Our aim was to describe the relationship, first, between the type of feeding and mucosal colonization and, second, betwe …
Nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab appears to be more efficacious than either agent alone in cutaneous and mucosal melanoma.
article{CCO4293, author = {Lu Si and Xuan Wang and Jun Guo}, title = {Genotyping of mucosal melanoma}, journal = {Chinese Clinical Oncology}, volume = {3}, number = {3}, year = {2014}, keywords = {}, abstract = {Mucosal melanoma is rare and associated with extremely poor prognosis. Mucosal melanoma has historically been refractory to traditional therapeutic approaches. Recently molecularly based targeted drugs show great success in melanoma. The success of these drug strategies can be partially attributed to the identification of the genetic alterations responsible for the development and progression of metastatic melanoma. This review will focus on genes involved in two major mucosal melanoma-related signaling pathways, the RAS/RAF/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K)-AKT pathway, and detail the current understanding of their roles in melanoma progression. Additional mutations in key genes, such as KIT, GNAQ and MITF, in mucosal melanoma ...
in. Aside from the nose being the entrance and passageway for air, it also makes sure that the air we breathe is warm, moistened and filtered before it enters the lungs. This is all thanks to the mucous membrane that is found on the insides of our nose. The hair on our nose also protects the lungs by trapping dirt and other large particles and foreign objects from going into the lungs. We ...
The present invention relates to a method and material for cleansing fluid discharging skin surfaces, wounds and mucous membranes, which method and material includes the use of a material comprising certain water-insoluble hydrophilic polymers.
Find patient medical information for Chloraseptic Max Mucous Membrane on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, interactions, pictures, warnings and user ratings.
Increased mucous output from any of the mucous membranes. Healthy skin is an indication of a healthy mucous membrane, and disorders of the mucous membrane may not infrequently be caused to disappear by the employment of tonic means calculated to bring the skin into a thoroughly healthy condition. p376. ...
Uncontrollable developments, for example, Parkinsons malady, may show parasites in the sensory system. Joint or muscle agony, for example, joint inflammation, can be an indication that the nearness of a parasite is disturbing the joint or tissue and subsequently bringing about irritation. Increased defenselessness to contaminations in lungs, sinuses, vagina, bladder or any mucous layer may demonstrate the nearness of a parasite. A portion of the basic indications of a parasitic contamination in the body incorporate at least one of the accompanying: sensitivities, iron deficiency, uneasiness, endless weariness disorder (CFS), blockage, gloom, the runs, invulnerable brokenness, touchy gut disorder (IBS), joint and muscle a throbbing painfulness, anxiety, and rest issue. Obviously these are recently a portion of the manifestations that are conceivable; there are numerous others that have not been recorded.. On the off chance that you are a host for specific sorts of parasites, you will probably ...
COX-2 Expression in Tissues of Pregnant Cows Total RNA was prepared from myometrium, endometrium, caruncles, fetal cotyledons, and cervical mucosa (n = 3).
Sinus blockage causes uneasiness and influences relaxing. The blockage is regularly resulted by mucus developments. Mucus is the substance emitted by mucous layers.
The Dropship Medicines is a high quality exporter and supplier of Pharmcy Medicines.We are provided generic pharmacy wholesale, Medicine Dropshipper.Nexium is a specific inhibitor of a proton pump (PPIs) of the parietal cells of the mucous layer of stomach. It is a form of...
Principle In numerous animals, the surface of mucous membranes is ciliated similar to the bronchial mucosa in humans. Mussels not only breathe with their gills but they are also able to feed themselves by using them. The cilia growing on the surface of
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බොහෝමයක් ලිංගික රෝග ශිෂ්ණය,යෝනි මාර්ගය හා මුඛය වැනි අවයවවල ආස්තරන පටල හරහා වඩාත් පහසුවෙන් බෝවේ. ශිෂ්ණයෙහි හිස කොටස ආස්තරණය කරනු ලබන පටලය ද ඉහත ආකාරයේ ආස්තරණ පටලයක්වන අතර එමගින් ස්‍රාවයන් නිකුත් කරනු නොලබයි. (මුඛෙයහි තොල්වලින් ද මේ හා සමාන ව්‍යුහයක් ඇත.) මේකී ආස්තරණ පටල (mucous Membranes) සමෙන් වෙනස් වන්නේ එමගින් නොයෙකුත් ව්‍යාධිජනකයින්ට සිරුර තුළට ඇතුළු වීම සදහා ඉඩ ප්‍රස්තා ලබාදෙන බැවිණි. ...
This western style formula supports immune function, especially short-term. Supports the health and function of the mucous membranes.
Antiseptics used to wound and mucous membrane treatment and preventive purposes El bieta Kutrowska Streszczenie Leczenie ran cz sto wymaga stosowania antyseptyk w. Dotyczy to zw aszcza ran powsta ych w wyniku wypadku, poniewa w tych okoliczno ciach istnieje najwi ksze ryzyko ich zaka enia. Ponadto za pomoc antyseptyk w leczy si rany przewlek e: odle yny, owrzodzenia powsta e na skutek cukrzycy i ylak w ko czyn dolnych. Rany te bardzo cz sto s skolonizowane lub zaka one, ... ...
**Bronchial Wellness** is a unique herbal syrup that helps support bronchial health all year long.* The formulas ability to support healthy mucous membranes…
Introduction Mucosal-Associated Invariant T cells (MAIT) are recently described human T lymphocytes with possible functions in mucosal antibacterial host defence.1 MAIT express a highly conserved T cell receptor (TCR) alpha chain consisting of an invariant Vα7.2-Jα33 rearrangement.2 Recent evidence suggests a role for T lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of chronic pancreatitis (CP), but little is known about the composition of T cell subsets in this disease.3 4 Intestinal bacterial overgrowth is common in chronic pancreatitis patients.5 We hypothesised that this antigenic load may promote MAIT infiltration of the pancreas and used flow cytometry to study T lymphocytes in resected pancreatic tissue and blood of patients with chronic pancreatitis.. ...
Looking for online definition of nasal mucous membrane in the Medical Dictionary? nasal mucous membrane explanation free. What is nasal mucous membrane? Meaning of nasal mucous membrane medical term. What does nasal mucous membrane mean?
Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) remains a leading cause of infectious mortality worldwide. Acquisition of the pneumococcus occurs at the nasopharyngeal mucosa and elicits a rapid influx of neutrophils (PMNs) to the nasal lumen. However, the pneumococcus efficiently eludes clearance by PMNs and persists in the nasopharynx weeks after the acute inflammatory response recedes, amplifying the risk of invasive disease. A growing number of studies implicate the secreted phospholipid platelet-activating factor (PAF) as an important local mediator of PMN recruitment and activation in response to mucosal infections. While the pneumococcus has been shown to secrete a cell wall-bound esterase, Pce, which efficiently hydrolyzes PAF in vitro, it remains unknown whether regulation of local PAF concentration influences pneumococcal survival during colonization. Methods: We make use of atraumatic colonization of the murine nasopharynx to model carriage in the human upper respiratory ...
A survey based on both literary data and the authors own results, concerning the mechanisms of sIgA-mediated antibacterial immunity, is presented. Secretory IgA is characterized as a specific component of the immune system of mucous membranes, which can recognize harmful bacterial and distinguish them from indigenous microflora physiologically colonizing the mucous membranes, to fix them to the mucous membrane surface and to direct further factors, such as mucin, lysozyme,etc. (which form the effector component of the mucous membrane immunity system) for thvir final inactivation and neutralization.
Humans have populations of innate-like T lymphocytes with an invariant TCR α-chain that recognize nonpeptide Ags, including invariant NKT (iNKT) cells and mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells. iNKT cell involvement in human asthma is controversial, whereas there has been little analysis of MAIT cells. Using peripheral blood cells from 110 participants from the Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA) birth cohort study, these cells were analyzed for number and function. We determined whether iNKT cell or MAIT cell frequency at 1 y is correlated with the cytokine polarization of mainstream CD4+ T cells and/or the development of asthma by age 7 y. Dust samples from 300 houses were tested for iNKT cell antigenic activity. Our results show that a higher MAIT cell frequency at 1 y of age was associated with a decreased risk of asthma by age 7 y. The frequency of MAIT cells was associated with increased production of IFN-γ by activated CD4+ T cells from the URECA cohort. iNKT cell ...
Bronchial asthma often starts in early childhood. Clinical manifestation of the disease is likely due to inflammatory processes in the airways initiated by various stimuli. Developed remodelling is regularly observed in the bronchial mucosa of adult asthmatics but we still lack information about its onset and latter development with the natural course of the disease. In this study, we analysed histological findings in bronchial biopsies obtained from very young children (under 4 yr of age). We hypothesized that initial undetectable changes in the airway epithelium of children predisposed to asthma may be one of the first mechanisms leading to morphological changes in the bronchial mucosa. ...
Malignant mucosal melanoma is a rare condition. Although the head and neck region is the most common site for mucosal melanoma, a melanoma arising in the eustachian tube is rare. Here we present a cas
Human mucosal-associated invariant T cells contribute to antiviral influenza immunity via IL-18-dependent activation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 113. 2016 ...
Biopsy Interpretation of the Gastrointestinal Tract Mucosa is your definitive bench reference for the diagnosis of these challenging specimens. One of the best-selling titles in the Biopsy Interpretation Series, its practical, richly illustrative coverage encompasses the most common mucosal biopsies from the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus, helping you to evaluate the full range of samples and recognize their distinguishing features. This volume focuses on non-neoplastic entities; Volume Two, also available, is your complete source on neoplastic gastrointestinal lesions. Key FeaturesSuccessfully navigate both common and unusual issues that arise in the day-to-day interpretation of gastrointestinal biopsies. Entities covered in this volume include: Autoimmune gastritis, sexually transmitted infectious proctitis, inflammatory bowel disease and mimics, medication induced injury, and many others.Enhance your interpretation skills with valuable pearls and pitfalls at ...
mucous membrane n : mucus-secreting membrane lining all body cavities or passages that communicate with the exterior [syn: {mucosa}] dictd_www.dict.org_gcide Mucous membrane Mucous \Mucous\, a. [L. mucosus, fr. mucus mucus.] 1. Of, pertaining to, or resembling, mucus; slimy, ropy, or stringy, and lubricous; as, a mucous substance. [1913 Webster] 2. Secreting a slimy or mucigenous substance; as, the mucous membra
What role does the olfactory mucous membrane play in the absorption of nanoparticles by nasal respiration? You can find out more about the olfactory mucous membrane as a possible entry point for nanoparticles into the brain at nanopartikel.info.
Spapen H. 1, Suys E. 1, Nieboer K. 2, Stiers W. 1, De Regt J. 1 ✉. 1 Department of Intensive Care, University Hospital, Vrije Universiteit, Brussels, Belgium; 2 Department of Radiology, University Hospital, Vrije Universiteit, Brussels, Belgium. ...
Before treating gastritis, it is important to determine the cause of the condition first.. It is difficult to treat gastritis if the cause of the damage to the mucous layer is not eliminated first.. Many causes can be remedied at home, by simply eliminating things from your diet such as alcohol, excessive fats, or over the counter pain relievers.. Other causes may take a doctor to diagnose and treat such as the H. Pylori infection.. Remedies for Gastritis aim at soothing the various symptoms and restoring the mucous layer of the stomach. Slippery elm is highly effective at symptom relief because the mucilage has anti-inflammatory properties which can sooth the inflammation of the stomach lining.. The mucilage also has a gel viscosity that coats the stomach in a protective layer, giving it protection from further damage.. This protection allows healing to take place by aiding the stomach in rebuilding the stomach lining.. Slippery elm is often taken with the amino acid glutamine, Acidophilus, ...
BACKGROUND: Mucosal melanoma (MM) is a rare but diverse cancer entity. Prognostic factors are not well established for Caucasians with MM. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analysed the disease course of 444 patients from 15 German skin cancer centres. Disease progression was determined with the cumulative incidence function. Survival times were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Prognostic parameters were identified with multivariate Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: Common anatomic sites of primary tumours were head and neck (MMHN, 37.2%), female genital tract (MMFG, 30.4%) and anorectal region (MMAN, 21.8%). MMAN patients showed the highest vertical tumour thickness (p = 0.001), had a more advanced nodal status (p = 0.014) and a higher percentage of metastatic disease (p = 0.001) at diagnosis. Mutations of NRAS (13.8%), KIT (8.6%) and BRAF (6.4%) were evenly distributed across all tumour site groups. Local relapses were observed in 32.4% and most commonly occurred in the MMHN group (p = 0.016). ...
If you look at the response rate in those who got ipilimumab with nivolumab, a more potent and somewhat more toxic regimen, we are looking at a 37% response rate for the nivolumab patients versus a 60% response rate for those who had standard cutaneous melanoma. The progression-free survival was only about 5.5 months in the combination regimen versus 11-plus months for those with standard cutaneous melanoma.[1] It seemed clear that patients will not do quite as well when they have mucosal melanoma as when they have cutaneous melanoma, when receiving either PD-1 antibodies such as nivolumab alone or in combination with ipilimumab. However, it is clear that there is benefit. Patients will respond. Some patients will have long-term survival. It remains to be seen what drugs could be added to these regimens that will bring the response rate, the progression-free survival, and the overall survival up to what we see with cutaneous melanoma patients. ...
The PIANO trial is an open-label, single-arm, multicentre phase II trial of PLX3397 in advanced acral and mucosal melanoma. All eligible patients will receive PLX3397 1000mg/day as monotherapy and will remain on treatment as long as they are deriving benefit (at the treating Investigators discretion).. The primary objective of this study is to assess the efficacy of PLX3397 by review of the number of patients who are progression-free at 6 months. Additional objectives include assessing the safety of PLX3397, overall survival and (for a sub-set of patients) biomarker research.. A maximum of 24 eligible patients may be treated in this study. In order to recruit 24 patients, it is expected that a total of approximately 240 patients will need to be consented and screened for the KIT mutation, as only KIT mutant patients are eligible (and this is estimated to be 10-15% of this patient population). An interim analysis by the Independent Data Monitoring Committee will be done after 9 patients have ...
Chang S-Y, Song J-H, Guleng B, Cotoner CA, Arihiro S, Zhao Y, Chiang H-S, OKeeffe M, Liao G, Karp CL, et al. Circulatory antigen processing by mucosal dendritic cells controls CD8(+) T cell activation. Immunity. 2013;38 (1) :153-65.
In this study human tissue of the respiratory tract was examined retrospectively. It was extremely difficult to collect an adequate number of cases who had died an acute death since necroscopic examination in these cases is rare. The data presented support the findings of other investigators who described DCs in human lung tissue and, for the first time, yield information on the initial occurrence and frequency of mature DCs in the human tracheal mucosa.. Animal data suggest an increase in bone marrow progenitor cells of DC and the immigration of these cells into different lung compartments.26 27 Since it has been shown that the number of DCs in the respiratory mucosa increases faster than neutrophil granulocytes after bacterial stimulation, local stimulation and ongoing proliferation might also be involved.28 Interestingly, our data are in line with recent findings in very young mice in whom few DCs were found in the airways. Resistance to pulmonary allergen sensitisation of these mice could be ...
Do you experience dryness and discomfort within the vagina? Read our guide to dry mucous membranes here. Youll find advice to eradicate the problem »
WFDC2/HE4 encodes a poorly characterised secretory protein that shares structural similarity to the multifunctional host defence protein, SLPI, through possession of two conserved Whey Acidic Protein/four disulphide-core (WFDC) domains. Like SLPI, WFDC2 is expressed in multiple epithelia within the respiratory tract and although its function remains unresolved, recent evidence supports its role as an antiproteinase. We have previously shown that it is over-expressed in lung diseases characterised by abnormalities of protease/antiprotease balance, including cystic fibrosis. Nothing is known about the distribution of WFDC2 in the mouse. In this study we have systematically localized the protein in normal adult mice as well in a number of mouse models characterised by epithelial remodelling. Strong WFDC2 staining is seen throughout the airway epithelium from the trachea down to the smallest airways. Staining is also seen in tracheal submucosal glands. No staining is seen in the peripheral lung. ...
SJS targets the skin and the mucous membranes. Mucous membranes are found all over the body as they line the cavities or passages inside the body, such as the lungs, mouth, nostrils, ears, digestive tract, anus and genitalia. They are also adjacent to the skin. SJS can be a very grave condition because it causes the skin and mucous membranes to become inflamed. The inflammation would quickly aggravate and damage not only the mucous membranes but the major organs of the body as well.. Stevens Johnson Syndrome is brought forth when the body negatively reacts to certain drugs. Under normal conditions, the body metabolizes the chemicals from the medicine the same way as the digestive system digests food. However, with SJS, a chemical component of the drug causes a wrong metabolic response by stimulating the body to excrete protein that would severely affect the cells on the outermost skin layer or epidermis. This abnormal immune response weakens the skins integrity, making it susceptible to foreign ...
Johnson, F. P. (1910), The development of the mucous membrane of the œsophagus, stomach and small intestine in the human embryo. Am. J. Anat., 10: 521-575. doi: 10.1002/aja.1000100116 ...
I had dry nasal mucous membranes and my nose was constantly bleeding yesterday. This is because i was around the driest and coldest weather which dried up my right nasal membranes causing it to bleed. It is now a day after and Im going to
There are many reasons we get a runny nose, technically known as rhinorrhea. When you have a cold or the flu, the mucous membranes that line the cavities in your nose produce a combination of…. ...
Megan Brashear, CVT VTS (ECC) demonstrates how to examine mucous membrane color and measure capillary refill time in feline patients.
Two unique forms of cytochrome P-450 (P-450), designated NMa and NMb, were recently isolated in this laboratory from nasal microsomes of rabbits. In the present study, polyclonal antibodies to the purified nasal cytochromes were prepared. Immunochemical analysis with specific rabbit anti-NMa and sheep anti-NMb antibodies indicated that P-450 isozymes identical to or having a high structural homology with NMa are present in both olfactory and respiratory mucosa, as well as in liver, but NMb was detected only in the olfactory mucosa. Neither form was detected in other tissues examined, including brain, esophageal mucosa, heart, intestinal mucosa, kidney, and lung. The specific occurrence of NMb in the olfactory mucosa was further substantiated by the detection and specific inhibition by anti-NMb of the formation of unique NMb-dependent metabolites of testosterone in olfactory microsomes but not in microsomes from liver or respiratory mucosa. Similar experiments with antibodies to previously ...
Lymphocytes expressing a Testosterone levels cell receptor (TCR) composed of Vgamma9 and Vdelta2 stores represent a small small percentage of human being thymocytes. people overlap intensive in their moving repertoire. This type of selection indicates the existence of a monomorphic antigen-presenting molecule that is definitely an subject of current study but continues to be incompletely described. While selection on a monomorphic delivering molecule may appear uncommon, related systems form the alpha dog beta Capital t cell repertoire including the intense good examples of NKT or mucosal-associated invariant Capital t cells (MAIT) and the much less dramatic amplification of general public Vbeta string rearrangements powered by specific MHC substances and connected with level of resistance to virus-like pathogens. Choosing and amplifying general public Capital t cell receptors whether alpha dog beta or gamma delta, are essential methods in developing an anticipatory TCR repertoire. Cell ...
By: Dr. Deborah Moskowitz Many menopausal women experience some form of vaginal dryness or irritation due to the thinning of the vaginal mucosa that typically occurs as hormone levels decline. Severity of symptoms may vary from woman to woman, even if their vaginal mucosa appear similarly affected. Some women experience only occasional discomfort while for…
Our laboratory seeks to understand how T cells integrate diverse local microbial and environmental stimuli at mucosal sites to shape distinct, and dynamic immune processes inhealth and disease. T cells are a key component of host defense against pathogenic infection in barrier mucosal surfaces, which are common sites of microbial entry. Often these potent, anti-pathogenic inflammatory responses need to be tightly regulated to maintain barrier integrity and vital physiologic functions. The mucosal immune system in the female reproductive tract (FRT) has evolved to mount a robust anti-pathogen defense while maintaining tolerance towards an immunologically foreign fetus. Thus, the FRT provides a unique model system to study T cell adaptation to diverse environmental inputs. Our research program is aimed to develop a more complete understanding of the fundamental biology of T cells in the reproductive mucosae.Further, we seek to apply this knowledge to informing improved vaccination strategies, ...
The absorbance power of diosmectite also allows DIONIT to interact with the glycoproteins of the mucous layer covering the gastroduodenal wall, changing their physical characteristics so to form a protective gel against acid hypersecretion and gastrolesive substances. Fibers, thanks to their bifidogenic and lactogenic effects, are able to restore the endogenous microflora balance, thus normalizing intestinal transit.. Ingredients ...
HIV-1 mucosal transmission begins with virus or virus-infected cells moving through mucus across mucosal epithelium to infect CD4+ T cells. Although broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) are the type of HIV-1 antibodies ...
A 67-year-old man presents with diplopia, blurred vision in his left eye, and an intermittent headache, all for around two weeks. Further questioning reveals recurrent left-sided nasal stuffiness with a blood-streaked mucus discharge for around six months. He has refused to obtain medical attention thus far, and it was only today that his family members were able to persuade him to see a doctor. His medical, surgical, and family histories are otherwise unremarkable, and he is not on any medications ...
Disclaimer: we are in no way claiming that SIBU Omega 7 Pure or any of our products are made to combat the COVID-19 virus. However, we are stating the facts that sea buckthorn and omega 7 contain unique & potent benefits that help strengthen the bodys natural (and #1) defense mechanisms to better fight off sicknes
gi tract definition: tubular passage of mucous membrane layer and muscle tissue expanding about 8.3 yards from lips to anus; functions in food digestion and reduction; tubular passage of mucous membrane…
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PeaceHealth endeavors to provide comprehensive health care information, however some topics in this database describe services and procedures not offered by our providers or within our facilities because they do not comply with, nor are they condoned by, the ethics policies of our organization.. ...
I had a scant benign endocervical and squamous mucosa in a background of mucus debris with no evidence of dysplasia or malignancy. What do I do next? I am 60 years and would like to know about what the...
Asthma is a disorder affecting the airways of the lungs. In response to certain triggers the mucous membranes of the lungs of a patient swell up causing
Dear Readers, In view of the new strain of flu going around, I offer a suggestion. Take 16,000 to 20,000 IU of Vitamin A (Retinol) daily. This will hopefully make the mucous membranes of the nose, via its secretions, destroy any incoming viruses and wash the debris down to the nostrils. it is only a suggestion and you have the option to follow or ignore. Regards, Ralph ...
One cup of spinach contains over 337% of the RDA of vitamin A that not only protects and strengthens entry points into the human body, such as mucous membranes, respiratory, urinary and intestinal tracts, but is also a key component of lymphocytes (or white blood cells) that fight infection ...
Tx360® - 10 Pack (Main). The Tx360® device is a small volume (= 1cc) nasal atomizer intended for use in adults to deliver fluids, selected by a healthcare professional, to the mucous membrane covering structures of the na
These are semisolid preparations of drugs, either dispersed or dissolved in a suitable base, meant for application to the skin or mucous membranes. ADVANTAGES
Do not ingest directly. Keep out of reach of children to avoid accidental poisoning. Caution: Highly concentrated flavoring. Avoid contact with skin, eyes or mucous membranes.. ...
Warning: Keep out of reach of children. Highly concentrated, dilute properly before use. Keep away from eyes & mucous membranes. Not For Internal Use. If pregnant, seek professional advice before use ...
During this stage hæmatemesis, hæmoptysis, melænæ, and hæmaturia have been observed, and petechiæ of the skin and mucous membranes is common ...
Mucous membrane pemphigoid • Mucous retention cyst • MUDH • Mumps • Mutually protected occlusion • Nasolabial cyst • ...
Harris, Tom Vague, Mucous Membrane, Perry. "Vague Rants - Vaguely Definitive". Retrieved 15 March 2020. Edgar, David (16 ...
The duct is lined by mucous membrane. The duct empties into the nasal cavity middle nasal meatus through the infundibulum of ...
Section of mucous membrane of human rectum. X 60. Janeway Jr CA, Travers P, Walport M, Shlomchik MJ (2001). "The mucosal immune ... PRRs are localized extracellularly as membrane-bound receptors (Toll-like receptors) or intracellularly (NOD-like and RIG-like ...
It mainly affects the rectal mucous membrane. The condition can be acute or it may be a chronic condition. Rectitis may be ...
Section of mucous membrane of human stomach, near the cardiac orifice. Section of mucous membrane of human rectum. X 60. Layers ... In the gastrointestinal tract, the term mucosa or mucous membrane refers to the combination of epithelium, lamina propria, and ...
Vertical section of mucous membrane of human uterus. Skin v t e. ...
Acute (short-term) exposure ... results in irritation of the eyes, mucous membranes, ... Chronic (long-term) exposure ... has ...
Abnormal growth of mucous membrane of sinus (polyp). Dental cyst. For management of hematoma or hemorrhage in the maxillary ...
As a ciliated mucous membrane with shallow blood supply, the nasal mucosa cleans and warms the inhaled air in preparation for ... These are lined with mucous membranes that can perform two functions. They can improve the sense of smell by increasing the ... Scott, J.H. (1954). "Heat regulating function of the nasal mucous membrane". Journal of Larynology and Otology. 68 (5): 308-317 ... Of these three, filtration is achieved mostly by other more effective means such as mucous and cilia. As air passes over the ...
The mucous membranes are dark. The lyre-shaped horns are brought up. The breed is of small size and low weight. Cows measures ...
These descend to the vagina, supplying its mucous membrane. They anastomose with branches from the uterine artery. It can send ...
In mucous membranes, parakeratosis is normal. In the skin, this process leads to the abnormal replacement of annular squames ...
Mucous membranes readily absorb free nicotine. The burning sensation is caused by the nicotine itself (similar to the tingle of ... that reduces the stinging sensation and irritation to the snus users gum and oral mucous membrane. The sting-free snus portion ...
... is corrosive to mucous membranes. It irritates eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Based on data collected ...
When melanoma occurs on mucous membranes. Desmoplastic melanoma Melanoma with small nevus-like cells Melanoma with features of ... A melanoma in situ has not invaded beyond the basement membrane, whereas an invasive melanoma has spread beyond it. Some ...
The Raço di Biòu is uniformly black, or occasionally dark brown.:147 The mucous membranes are dark. The horns are large; they ...
The stomach was large and the mucous membrane only congested. It contained partly digested food, apparently consisting of ...
... there is mild mucous membrane irritation that can usually be tolerated for about an hour. At 5-15 ppm, there is moderate mucous ... membrane irritation. At 30 ppm and beyond, there is immediate chest pain, shortness of breath, and cough. At approximately 40- ...
They are circular in form, and about the size of small peas; their ducts open by minute orifices upon the mucous membrane. Like ... The labial glands are minor salivary glands situated between the mucous membrane and the orbicularis oris around the orifice of ...
The entire small intestine has circular folds of mucous membrane. The majority extend transversely around the cylinder of the ...
Mucous membranes, such as the mouth, are also typically involved. Complications include dehydration, sepsis, pneumonia, and ...
On the Structure of the Mucous Membrane of the Stomach. London: Wilson & Ogilvy. Todd, Robert Bentley (1844). Vorlesungen über ...
... they also supply the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus. Anterior superior alveolar nerve Posterior superior alveolar ...
The stomach was large and the mucous membrane only congested. It contained partly digested food, apparently consisting of ...
The skin and mucous membranes are pale. The horns are lyre-shaped. Bulls weigh about 900 kg and cows about 600 kg. Cows stand ...
This poison is irritating to mucous membranes. The eggs are brown above and lighter below. They are 1.4-1.8 mm large coated ...
The Brava is variable in colour, but is most often uniformly black.:138:177 The mucous membranes are dark. The horns are large ...
Concentrated solutions are destructive to mucous membranes. Its critical micelle concentration (CMC) is ~ 0.0009-0.0011M, and ...
It irritates skin, mucous membranes and eyes. It may also cause harm to unborn babies and might have effects on fertility. The ...
... includes any device which contacts intact mucous membranes but which does not ordinarily penetrate the blood barrier or ...
EBOV is thought to infect humans through contact with mucous membranes or skin breaks.[54] After infection, endothelial cells ( ... Bleeding from mucous membranes or from sites of needle punctures has been reported in 40-50% of cases.[31] This may cause ... Virions bud off from the cell, gaining their envelopes from the cellular membrane from which they bud. The mature progeny ... which is followed by fusion of the viral envelope with cellular membranes.[50] The virions taken up by the cell then travel to ...
Mucous. membrane. *Aphthous stomatitis. *oral candidiasis. *lichen planus. *leukoplakia. *pemphigus vulgaris. *mucous membrane ...
These secretions can also be moderately irritating if they come in contact with the eyes, mucous membranes, or broken skin. ...
That is, oral candidiasis is a mycosis (yeast/fungal infection) of Candida species on the mucous membranes of the mouth. ... the organisms must be capable of adhering to the epithelial surface of the mucous membrane lining the mouth. This adhesion ... in the mouth and on other mucous membranes (i.e., a secondary oral candidiasis). These include Localized chronic mucocutaneous ... It may precede the formation of a pseudomembrane, be left when the membrane is removed, or arise without prior pseudomembranes ...
The skin consists of a thin outer epidermis with mucous cells and sensory cells, and a connective tissue dermis consisting ... which is mostly suspended from the roof of the mantle cavity by numerous membranes. The tract consists of a crop, where the ...
Yerba mansa is used to treat inflammation of the mucous membranes, swollen gums and sore throat. An infusion of roots can be ...
In the central nervous system, the three outer membranes (the meninges) that envelop the brain and spinal cord are composed of ... Another type of relatively undifferentiated connective tissue is mucous connective tissue, found inside the umbilical cord.[15] ...
It is possible to acquire the infection through broken skin or mucous membranes that are directly exposed to infectious ...
When the khat leaves are chewed, cathine and cathinone are released and absorbed through the mucous membranes of the mouth as ...
... mucous membranes, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts.The various diseases often overlap in clinical and histological ...
Mucous membrane. *Muscle. N. *Neck. O. *Oxter. P. *Pancreas. *Parathyroid gland. *Perineum ...
... personal protective equipment must be watertight and prevent the skin and mucous membranes from contacting infectious material ...
Strychnine is rapidly absorbed by the mucous membranes. If it is given under the skin, or intravenously, a quantity of 15 mg ...
... mucous membrane - Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study - multi-drug rescue therapy - multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) - ...
This is sometimes confirmed by isolation of S. aureus from blood, mucous membranes, or skin biopsy; however, these are often ... Unlike toxic epidermal necrolysis, SSSS spares the mucous membranes. It is most common in children under 6 years, but can be ...
They are rare in the blood, but numerous in the mucous membranes of the respiratory, digestive, and lower urinary tracts.[9] ...
... dissolve in the upper airway and immediately cause mucous membrane irritation, which may alert people to the need to escape the ... Others modulate the activity of ion channels that control fluid transport across lung membranes or target surfactant, a ... Prolonged inflammation and destruction of pneumocytes leads to fibroblastic proliferation, hyaline membrane formation, tracheal ... the endothelium and the basement membrane of the alveolus. In the acute phase of ALI, there is increased permeability of this ...
It inflames the mucous membranes in the eyes, nose, throat and lungs.[4] It causes immediate closing of the eyes, difficulty ...
Mast cells are a type of innate immune cell in connective tissue and the mucous membranes. They are intimately associated with ... To engulf a particle or pathogen, a phagocyte extends portions of its plasma membrane, wrapping the membrane around the ... disrupt the plasma membrane of an infected cell, causing cytolysis of the infected cell, and death of the pathogen. ... They can move across the cell membrane of capillary vessels and go between cells to hunt invading pathogens. Macrophages are ...
... and gums are tightly connected by a fold of mucous membrane called the philtrum, which runs from the tip of the nose to the ...
The yellow colour of the skin and mucous membranes happens because of an increase in the bile pigment, bilirubin, in the blood. ...
Mast cells are a type of innate immune cell that reside in connective tissue and in the mucous membranes. They are intimately ... To engulf a particle or pathogen, a phagocyte extends portions of its plasma membrane, wrapping the membrane around the ... form holes in the plasma membrane of the pathogen, resulting in cytolysis of the pathogen cell, causing the death of the ... Toll-like receptors are located in the endosomal membrane and recognize double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), MDA5 and RIG-I receptors ...
Mucous membrane. *Olfactory mucosa. Paranasal sinuses. *Maxillary sinus. *Sphenoidal sinuses. *Frontal sinus ...
... through the thyrohyoid membrane, thyroid cartilage, or cricothyroid membrane.[23] After VFSI, patients are recommended to take ... Sub-epithelial cysts (also known as mucous retention cysts) are closed lesions that occur from a build-up of tissue on the ... They can result from the blockage of a mucous gland's excretory duct.[10] In this case, they are sometimes referred to as ...
Scurvy leads to the formation of brown spots on the skin, spongy gums, and bleeding from all mucous membranes. The spots are ... SVCT1 and SVCT2 import the reduced form of ascorbate across plasma membranes.[102] GLUT1 and GLUT3 are glucose transporters, ...
The only parts of the body that Kyrle disease do not form are the palms, soles, and mucous membranes. Lesions may heal ...
The cartilage and mucous membrane of the primary bronchi are similar to those in the trachea. They are lined with respiratory ... The mucous membrane also undergoes a transition from ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium to simple cuboidal ...
... and mucous membranes.[21] The portal of entry for a specific microbe is normally dependent on how it travels from its natural ...
... a mucous membrane that produces a lubricating mucus, of which only a small amount is needed. Mucous membranes vary in structure ... Underlying the mucous membrane in the mouth is a thin layer of smooth muscle tissue and the loose connection to the membrane ... The mucous membrane in the mouth continues as the thin mucosa which lines the bases of the teeth. The main component of mucus ... It is covered with a mucous membrane and there are taste buds on its lingual surface which faces into the mouth.[21] Its ...
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs. It ... Some mucous membranes secrete mucus, a thick protective fluid. The function of the membrane is to stop pathogens and dirt from ... Mucous membranes also protect the body from itself; for instance mucosa in the stomach protects it from stomach acid, and ... Mucous membranes line the digestive, respiratory and reproductive tracts and are the primary barrier between the external world ...
Beneath the mucous membrane on the oral surface of the soft palate is a considerable amount of adenoid tissue. The palatine ... The mucous membrane of the soft palate is thin, and covered with stratified squamous epithelium on both surfaces, except near ... According to Klein, the mucous membrane on the nasal surface of the soft palate in the fetus is covered throughout by columnar ...
The term mucous membrane refers to where they are found in the body and not every mucous membrane secretes mucus. ... are mucous membranes. The urethra is also a mucous membrane. The secreted mucus traps the pathogens in the body, preventing any ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, which are ... The sticky, thick fluid secreted by the mucous membranes and glands is termed mucus. ...
... refers to a group of rare chronic autoimmune blistering diseases that predominately affects the mucous membranes, including the ... encoded search term (Cicatricial (Mucous Membrane) Pemphigoid) and Cicatricial (Mucous Membrane) Pemphigoid What to Read Next ... Different epithelial membrane zone components have been recognized by antibodies in patients with mucous membrane pemphigoid, ... Cicatricial (Mucous Membrane) Pemphigoid. Updated: May 03, 2017 * Author: Manuel Valdebran, MD; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD ...
... The simple forms of inflammation are those caused by the toxins generated by the influence ... Catarrhal inflammation of mucous membranes may be considered an index of the state of digestion and assimilation. The catarrhal ... irritation of the mucous membranes of all exposed canals results, until catarrhal inflammations become a constant state of the ...
... There are a great many safe modern treatments available for allergy ... All three members of our family have problems with dry and swollen mucous membranes. ...
"mucous membrane". Entries tagged with: mucous membrane. 1 result(s) displayed (1 - 1 of 1): ... mucous membrane, mushrooms, phytonutrients, pyrogallol, reproductive system, skin, type A antibodies, urinary system, white ...
... the mucous membranes are limited to the urethra in circumcised men, and possibly the urethra, head of the penis, and foreskin ... Location of mucous membrane. Aug 31, 2001. Dear Ryan, probably you have answered my question already in your forum many times ... Which part of the penis consists the mucous membrane? When the condom covers the penis for more than 50 and the top of the ... When talking about the penis, the mucous membranes are limited to the urethra in circumcised men, and possibly the urethra, ...
Children who develop asthma or allergies have an altered immune response to intestinal bacteria in the mucous membranes even ... A genetic modification in the mucous membrane of the esophagus, the Barrett esophagus, can lead to esophageal cancer. If ... Almost all infections make us sick by getting past our first line of defense - the sticky mucous surfaces that line our mouths ...
The mucous membranes that line each of these regions are continuous with your skin. All of your mucous membranes line areas of ... Mucous membranes are not meant to come into regular contact with soap, or for that matter, any detergents that are hydrophobic ... Your mucous membranes dont produce and secrete sebum to offer protection against the drying effects of soap and detergents. ... This is why regular contact with soap can cause a wide variety of health challenges in and around your mucous membranes, some ...
... mucous membranes and scalps are treated by administering to individuals in need of such treatment, thus effective amounts of at ... especially a mucous membrane, semi-mucous membrane or scalp.. Such a topical application makes it possible to topically treat ... features a cosmetic regime or regimen for treating sensitive skin and/or mucous membranes and/or semi-mucous membranes and/or ... BACTERIAL EXTRACTS CULTURED IN THERMAL WATERS FOR TREATING SENSITIVE SKIN, MUCOUS MEMBRANES AND SCALPS ...
Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world. The Merck Veterinary Manual was first published in 1955 as a service to the community. The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Veterinary Manual in the US and Canada and the MSD Manual outside of North America.. ...
Icteric mucous membranes, foal. Severely icteric mucous membranes in a foal with neonatal isoerythrolysis. ...
Can eating roasted maize cause inflammation of the mucous membranes? « Reply #1 on: 08/07/2008 19:24:08 » ... Can eating roasted maize cause inflammation of the mucous membranes? « on: 08/07/2008 12:43:25 » ... Can eating roasted maize cause inflammation of the mucous membranes? *1 Replies ... in my area tend to say that if you consume too much roasted maize that it usually cause inflammation of the mucus membrane is ...
... idiopathic condition consisting of a dense plasma-cell infiltrate of the mucous membranes. Zoon first described a plasma-cell ... Mucous membrane plasmacytosis is a rare, idiopathic condition consisting of a dense plasma-cell infiltrate of the mucous ... simplified the terminology by suggesting all plasma-cell infiltrates of the mucous membranes of body orifices be termed plasma- ... The differential diagnoses and treatment for mucous membrane plasmacytosis are summarized. A middle-aged female with an unusual ...
Pages in category "Conditions of the mucous membranes". The following 4 pages are in this category, out of 4 total. ... Retrieved from "https://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/Category:Conditions_of_the_mucous_membranes" ...
... reflex dive tribe diver rescue diver training dive diving attraction doctors domestic travel dri-suits dry mucous membranes dry ... longevity lower stress marine pathogens medical issues medical procedures medical risk assesment minor illness mucous membranes ...
Xyloglucan, a Plant Polymer with Barrier Protective Properties over the Mucous Membranes: An Overview. Núria Piqué 1,2,* , ... "Xyloglucan, a Plant Polymer with Barrier Protective Properties over the Mucous Membranes: An Overview." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 19, ... Xyloglucan, a Plant Polymer with Barrier Protective Properties over the Mucous Membranes: An Overview. International Journal of ... a Plant Polymer with Barrier Protective Properties over the Mucous Membranes: An Overview. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 673. ...
This study was undertaken to assess the potential effect of powdering floor polish on the mucous membranes of the eyes and ... Powdering floor polish and mucous membrane irritation in secondary school pupils. Malmberg, B. ... particulate air pollution can cause respiratory symptoms and that indoor dust particles may be associated with mucous membrane ...
Painful inflammatory lesions of the skin and mucous membranes may occur in children who develop bacterial pneumonia. A research ... Severe skin and mucous membrane lesions as complication of pneumonia. The reason why infections with M. pneumoniae often lead ... Rapidly dying mucous membrane cells in the mouth, eye and genital regions, and vesicles and blisters on the skin can be ... Immune response attacks also skin and mucous membranes. The group at the Childrens Hospital is currently investigating which ...
Definition of mucous membrane written for English Language Learners from the Merriam-Webster Learners Dictionary with audio ... What made you want to look up mucous membrane? Include any comments and questions you have about this word. ...
Acrolein, a component of photochemical smog, has a pungent odor and irritates eyes and mucous membranes. (a) What are the ... Acrolein, a component of photochemical smog, has a pungent odor and irritates eyes and mucous membranes. ... has a pungent odor and irritates eyes and mucous membranes. (a) What are the hybridizations of carbon atoms 1 and 2? (b) What ...
Definition of mucous membrane - an epithelial tissue which secretes mucus, and lines many body cavities and tubular organs ... Avoid use on face or near mucous membranes (absorption through mucous membranes may cause seizures). ... Liquid leaks out of the blood vessels, making the mucous membranes lining the nose and throat to swell, and stimulating nearby ... The mucus that is produced by the mucous membranes in your sinuses normally drains into your nose through small holes called ...
In this lesson, you will learn how mucous... ... Mucous objects create the slimy substance we often prefer not ... There are mucous cells, mucous fluid, mucous membranes, and mucous glands. They are all different objects that can secrete ... Video: What Are Mucous Membranes? - Definition & Explanation. Mucous objects create the slimy substance we often prefer not to ... Mucous vs. Mucus. Mucous is the adjectival form of the more familiar noun, mucus. In other words, mucous is actually the action ...
Natural solution for damage done by chemo: Omega 3s found to treat wounds from inflamed mucous membranes in cancer patients. ... www.naturalnews.com/2018-07-13-omega-3s-found-to-treat-wounds-from-inflamed-mucous-membranes-in-cancer-patients.html",Natural ... www.naturalnews.com/2018-07-13-omega-3s-found-to-treat-wounds-from-inflamed-mucous-membranes-in-cancer-patients.html. ... Omega 3s found to treat wounds from inflamed mucous membranes in cancer patients,/a,. ...
Painful inflammatory lesions of the skin and mucous membranes may occur in children who develop bacterial pneumonia. A research ... Severe skin and mucous membrane lesions as complication of pneumonia. The new ELISpot blood test has already been used in a ... Rapidly dying mucous membrane cells in the mouth, eye and genital regions, and vesicles and blisters on the skin can be ... Skin and mucous membrane lesions were observed in 23 percent of these pneumonia cases caused by M. pneumoniae - three of the ...
Lectures on the Morbid Anatomy of the Serous and Mucous Membranes (Volume 1). Bei der Büchersuchmaschine eurobuch.com können ... Lectures on the Morbid Anatomy of the Serous and Mucous Membranes (Volume 1). - neues Buch ... Detailangaben zum Buch - Lectures on the Morbid Anatomy of the Serous and Mucous Membranes (Volume 1) ... Lectures on the Morbid Anatomy of the Serous and Mucous Membranes (Volume 1). ...
What is palatal mucous membrane? Meaning of palatal mucous membrane medical term. What does palatal mucous membrane mean? ... Looking for online definition of palatal mucous membrane in the Medical Dictionary? palatal mucous membrane explanation free. ... palatal mucous membrane. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. palatal mucous membrane. The lining of the mouth ... Palatal mucous membrane , definition of palatal mucous membrane by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
Chronic inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes following prolonged exposure to high doses of toxic hexavalent chromium ... Mucous Membrane. Nasal Septum. Nose Diseases / chemically induced*. Occupational Diseases / chemically induced*. Occupational ... Severe chronic inflammation of the mucous membranes in the eyes and upper respiratory tract due to work-related exposure to ... Chronic inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes following prolonged exposure to high doses of toxic hexavalent chromium ...
The vasomotor activities of the nasal mucous membrane.. @article{Malcomson1959TheVA, title={The vasomotor activities of the ... nasal mucous membrane.}, author={K G Malcomson}, journal={The Journal of laryngology and otology}, year={1959}, volume={73 2}, ...
  • Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP), also known as cicatricial pemphigoid, refers to a group of rare chronic autoimmune blistering diseases that predominately affect the mucous membranes, including the conjunctiva, and occasionally the skin. (medscape.com)
  • The first international consensus on mucous membrane pemphigoid was published in 2002. (medscape.com)
  • See the illustration below depicting ocular mucous membrane pemphigoid. (medscape.com)
  • Ocular manifestations of cicatricial pemphigoid (mucous membrane pemphigoid) include symblepharon, demonstrated in this photograph by the tethering of the lower lid to the cornea. (medscape.com)
  • Classification of mucous membrane pemphigoid patients has been difficult because some patients with other autoimmune blistering diseases, including bullous pemphigoid (BP), epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA),and anti-p200 pemphigoid, may have mucosal involvement. (medscape.com)
  • By direct immunofluorescence (DIF) study, antibodies bound in a linear band at the epidermal-dermal junction have been found in patients with mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP), as depicted below. (medscape.com)
  • Different epithelial membrane zone components have been recognized by antibodies in patients with mucous membrane pemphigoid, including BP antigens 1 and 2 (BP230 and BP180), laminin-332, laminin-311, type VII collagen, b4 integrin subunit, and antigens with unknown identities (a 45-kd protein, uncein, a 168-kd epithelial protein, and a 120-kd epithelial protein). (medscape.com)
  • The incidence of mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) has been estimated to be 2 cases per million in studies performed in France and Germany. (medscape.com)
  • [ 5 ] . Among white patients in the United States, mucous membrane pemphigoid is associated with human leukocyte antigen DQB1*0301 (HLA-DQB1*0301). (medscape.com)
  • Most patients with mucous membrane pemphigoid are elderly, with a mean age of 62-66 years. (medscape.com)
  • Extensive studies on the long-term outcome of patients with mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) have not been performed. (medscape.com)
  • In general, mucous membrane pemphigoid is a chronic, progressive disorder that responds poorly to therapy. (medscape.com)
  • Mucous membrane pemphigoid is a chronic blistering disease that frequently heals with scarring. (medscape.com)
  • A cohort study of 35 patients with anti-laminin-332 mucous membrane pemphigoid indicated an increased risk of malignancy that approximates that for adults with dermatomyositis. (medscape.com)
  • The findings of histopathological and direct immunofluorescence examinations were sufficient for the diagnosis of oral mucous membrane pemphigoid in the context of adequate clinical correlation. (hindawi.com)
  • The authors report a rare unilateral presentation of oral mucous membrane pemphigoid on the right buccal and hard palate mucosa, without additional involvement during a period of five years. (hindawi.com)
  • Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) describes a heterogeneous group of chronic autoimmune subepithelial blistering diseases, primarily affecting mucous membranes, with or without skin involvement [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Mucous membrane pemphigoid is also called cicatricial pemphigoid or oral pemphigoid. (dermnetnz.org)
  • Mucous membrane pemphigoid is predominantly a disease of the elderly with a peak incidence at around 70 years. (dermnetnz.org)
  • What are the signs and symptoms of mucous membrane pemphigoid? (dermnetnz.org)
  • Mucous membrane pemphigoid is an autoimmune blistering disease , which basically means that an individual's immune systems starts reacting against his or her own tissue. (dermnetnz.org)
  • How is mucous membrane pemphigoid diagnosed? (dermnetnz.org)
  • Mucous membrane pemphigoid is suspected from the clinical appearance of blisters and scarring. (dermnetnz.org)
  • The severity of the mucous membrane pemphigoid can be assessed using the mucous membrane pemphigoid disease area index (MMPDAI). (dermnetnz.org)
  • Mucous membrane pemphigoid is a particularly difficult disease to treat as it can affect so many different parts of the body. (dermnetnz.org)
  • Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) describes a group of chronic auto-immune bullous diseases (AIBD) of the basement membrane zone (BMZ), characterized by predominant or exclusive mucosal involvement, including oral, naso-pharyngeal, laryngo-tracheal, genital, oesophageal, anal and ocular mucous membranes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We investigated whether patients with negative biopsy results differ from those with biopsy-proven disease in terms of areas involved and disease progression in a retrospective cohort study of patients seen at a tertiary multi-disciplinary Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid clinic. (arvojournals.org)
  • Mucous membrane pemphigoid is an uncommon, chronic blistering disorder affecting the mouth [186]. (alpfmedical.info)
  • It has also been called benign mucous membrane pemphigoid and cicatricial pemphigoid. (alpfmedical.info)
  • Mucous membrane pemphigoid is more common in women than men and most patients are in the 40-60-year age range. (alpfmedical.info)
  • Due to the strongly positive Nikolsky phenomenon seen in mucous membrane pemphigoid, it is very common to receive a biopsy specimen where most or all of the epithelium has been lost or completely separated from the connective tissue. (alpfmedical.info)
  • This type of appearance, though not diagnostic, is highly suggestive of mucous membrane pemphigoid. (alpfmedical.info)
  • However, these deposits do not distinguish mucous membrane pemphigoid from bullous pemphigoid, epidermolysis bullosa aquista or linear IgA bullous dermatosis. (alpfmedical.info)
  • Several possible target antigens have been identified in the sera of patients with mucous membrane pemphigoid. (alpfmedical.info)
  • Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) is a rare, chronic and vesiculobullous disorder that classified as autoimmune disease.MMP can affect various mucous membranes but predominantly occurs in the oral cavity. (ommegaonline.org)
  • Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) is a rare, chronic and vesiculobullous disorder that classified as autoimmune disease. (ommegaonline.org)
  • Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) encompasses a group of rare autoimmune blistering diseases that can be relatively difficult to diagnose and manage, reflecting the potential diversity and severity of organ system involvement. (infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com)
  • Desquamative gingivitis of mucous membrane pemphigoid. (infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com)
  • Mucosal biopsy of mucous membrane pemphigoid demonstrates subepithelial cleavage. (infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com)
  • Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (ucdenver.edu)
  • It is sometimes called ocular pemphigoid because of conjunctival mucous membrane involvement. (ucdenver.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane" by people in this website by year, and whether "Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane" by people in Profiles. (ucdenver.edu)
  • The clinical and laboratory data on 81 patients with benign mucous membrane pemphigoid (BMMP) seen during the years 1950 through 1968 were reviewed. (jamanetwork.com)
  • A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some examples include: Bronchial mucosa and the lining of vocal folds Endometrium: the mucosa of the uterus Esophageal mucosa Gastric mucosa Intestinal mucosa Nasal mucosa Olfactory mucosa Oral mucosa Penile mucosa Vaginal mucosa Frenulum of tongue Tongue Anal canal Palpebral conjunctiva Developmentally, the majority of mucous membranes are of endodermal origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Areas commonly involved are the oral mucosa (lining of the mouth) and conjunctiva (mucous membrane that coats the inner surface of the eyelids and the outer surface of the eye). (dermnetnz.org)
  • Mucous membranes or "mucosa," line the inside of cavities that open directly to the outside world. (tumtree.life)
  • Mucous-membrane and cutaneous involvements were variable, but the oral mucosa and conjunctivae were eventually involved in approximately 75% of the cases. (jamanetwork.com)
  • If they grow to significant size or cause pain, bleeding, necrosis, shown circular excision fallen mucosa and stapling its Central region with the mucous membranes of the vulva. (medicalency.com)
  • The nasal mucosa lines the nasal is part of the respiratory mucosa, the mucous membrane lining the respiratory tract. (jydrescueteam.com)
  • The nasal mucosa is intimately adherent to the periosteum or perichondrium of the nasal is continuous with the skin through the nostrils, and with the mucous membrane of the nasal part of the pharynx through the : D Mucous membrane is covered by a single layer of columnar epithelium with occasional goblet cells. (jydrescueteam.com)
  • Mucous membrane color and moisture are easily observed at the level of the oral mucosa, the gingiva. (jydrescueteam.com)
  • A mucous membrane, also known as a mucosa (plural: mucosae), is a layer of cells that surrounds body organs and body orifices. (biologydictionary.net)
  • These membranes are referred to as the oral mucosa, esophageal mucosa, gastric mucosa, and intestinal mucosa. (biologydictionary.net)
  • The sticky, thick fluid secreted by the mucous membranes and glands is termed mucus . (princeton.edu)
  • Rhinitis also causes overactivity of the glands in the mucous membrane, causing excessive mucus production and a watery discharge. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • The hard palate has heavily keratinized epithelium and copious mucous glands or fat in the submucosa. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The mobile soft palate contains muscle in addition to mucous glands, and is much less keratinized on the surface. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Parrot examined sections of the gastric mucous membrane, and found the more superficial portions of the glands to be destroyed by the parasitic vegetation, which had penetrated into their interior, and had also advanced, although to a less extent, into the intervening tissue. (gluedideas.com)
  • A membrane lining all body passages that communicate with the air, such as the respiratory and alimentary tracts, and having cells and associated glands that secrete mucus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Science: pathology) The lubricated inner lining of the mouth, nasal passages, vagina and urethra, any membrane or lining which contains mucous secreting glands. (lymphedemapeople.com)
  • and in sections vertical to the surface the mucous membrane is shown to consist in greater part of tubular glands, sometimes branched, called the gastric follicles. (jydrescueteam.com)
  • Direct immunofluorescence on peri-lesional mucosal biopsies shows continuous deposits of IgG, IgA or C3, either singly or in combination, along the basement membrane zone (BMZ) in about 80% of cases. (alpfmedical.info)
  • Imagine all the pain and discomfort that stems from one or more of your mucosal linings (mucous membranes) becoming inflamed. (tumtree.life)
  • Leukoplakia (also termed leucoplakia, leukokeratosis, leukoplasia, idiopathic leukoplakia, idiopathic keratosis, or idiopathic white patch), normally refers to a condition where areas of keratosis appear as firmly attached white patches on the mucous membranes of the oral cavity, although the term is sometimes used for white patches of other gastrointestinal tract mucosal sites, or mucosal surfaces of the urinary tract and genitals. (studylib.net)
  • Damage to the intestinal mucous membrane can result from feeding with cow's milk, allergic reactions to complementary foods, and infections. (ormedmedical.us)
  • Why keep your mucous membranes healthy? (tumtree.life)
  • It is therefore important that you keep your mucous membranes healthy and strong so that you are best equipped for stopping foreign substances that could cause bacterial infections. (australian-bodycare.com)
  • Catarrhal inflammation of mucous membranes may be considered an index of the state of digestion and assimilation. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Can eating roasted maize cause inflammation of the mucous membranes? (thenakedscientists.com)
  • people in my area tend to say that if you consume too much roasted maize that it usually cause inflammation of the mucus membrane is it a fact or a fiction? (thenakedscientists.com)
  • The connection between a M. pneumoniae infection and inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes is difficult to prove, however: Routine diagnostic tests can detect M. pneumoniae, but do not answer the question of whether it is the cause of the infection or whether the bacteria has colonized only the nasopharyngeal cavity without any consequences. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Severe chronic inflammation of the mucous membranes in the eyes and upper respiratory tract due to work-related exposure to hexavalent chromium. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Chronic inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes following prolonged exposure to high doses of toxic hexavalent chromium is well known in the occupational medical literature. (biomedsearch.com)
  • You can probably begin to name symptoms yourself for the inflammation created by mucous membrane imbalance in the urinary tract (UTI's, cystitis) reproductive tract as well. (tumtree.life)
  • Blackberry leaf is also approved in Germany for treating mild inflammation of the mucous membranes of the mouth and throat, according to Flora Health. (livestrong.com)
  • The urethra is also a mucous membrane. (princeton.edu)
  • When talking about the penis, the mucous membranes are limited to the urethra in circumcised men, and possibly the urethra, head of the penis, and foreskin of uncircumcised men. (thebody.com)
  • Excessive development and excessive weakness of the connective tissue that connects the wall of the urethra with mucous membranes, can be accompanied in women, the emphasis on the latter via the outer opening of the urethra. (medicalency.com)
  • Bright red color of her gradually becomes bluish-red, swelling develops due to venous stagnation, caused by infringement of the mucous membrane in the outer opening of the urethra. (medicalency.com)
  • First, the loss of the mucous membrane in the urethra does not cause any symptoms. (medicalency.com)
  • cocktail spritz of the nether regions perhaps?Responding to your specific questions:No, not unless the skin was not intact ( open wound ).Extremely unlikely.No, but they can be quite irritating to delicate mucous membranes in the urethra (pee hole). (thebody.com)
  • The eyeball is also covered by a transparent mucous membrane (the conjunctiva), which is continuous along the inner surface of both eyelids (the palpebral conjunctiva). (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • Over the sclera lies the conjunctiva, a clear mucous membrane that protects the eye from becoming dry. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • Some mucous membranes secrete mucus, a thick protective fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells in the mucous membranes secrete mucus, which lubricates the membranes and protects against infection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Mucous membranes can contain or secrete mucus, which is a thick fluid that protects the inside of the body from dirt and pathogens such as viruses and bacteria . (biologydictionary.net)
  • Megan Brashear, CVT, VTS (ECC), demonstrates how to examine mucous membrane color and measure capillary refill time in feline patients. (atdove.org)
  • The mucous membranes also serve to assess the Capillary Refill Time (CRT). (breezyhollowboergoats.com)
  • Acrolein, a component of photochemical smog, has a pungent odor and irritates eyes and mucous membranes. (bartleby.com)
  • Flush eyes and mucous membranes with cool water. (drugs.com)
  • The good news is, there's lots you can do to remedy the problems of dry and delicate mucous membranes in the vagina, so you can get that comfortable feeling back. (australian-bodycare.com)
  • Mucous is the adjectival form of the more familiar noun, mucus. (study.com)
  • A. Mucous is an adjective that describes the mucous membrane, while mucus is a noun. (biologydictionary.net)
  • It has been defined as a group of putative autoimmune, chronic inflammatory, subepithelial blistering diseases predominantly affecting mucous membranes and characterised by linear deposition of IgG, IgA and C3 along the epithelial basement membrane [33]. (alpfmedical.info)
  • How to Remedy Dry Mucous Membranes in The Vagina? (australian-bodycare.com)
  • From time to time, most women experience discomfort in their vagina due to dry mucous membranes. (australian-bodycare.com)
  • Dry mucous membranes in the vagina may, for example, cause a fungal infection in the vagina. (australian-bodycare.com)
  • When the mucous membranes dry out, this can change the pH of the vagina, which causes the natural bacterial balance to falter. (australian-bodycare.com)
  • Dry mucous membranes and dryness in the vagina indicates an unpleasant condition within the abdomen. (australian-bodycare.com)
  • This causes the vagina to feel dry and irritated because the wall or mucous membranes are weakened for various reasons. (australian-bodycare.com)
  • Dryness in the vagina occurs when mucous membranes are insufficiently moist and the dry sensation of the vagina is often accompanied by severe irritation and discomfort. (australian-bodycare.com)
  • Dry mucous membranes in the vagina are an extremely bothersome problem. (australian-bodycare.com)
  • The opening of the vagina may even feel closed or narrowed because the mucous membranes have lost some of their elasticity. (australian-bodycare.com)
  • The same applies to the skin and mucous membranes in the vagina. (australian-bodycare.com)
  • If you are in doubt about whether you have dry mucous membranes in the vagina, it is always a good idea to seek out your doctor. (australian-bodycare.com)
  • If you suspect that you have dry mucous membranes in the vagina, check to see which of the following symptoms you have. (australian-bodycare.com)
  • The mucous membranes that line each of these regions are continuous with your skin. (drbenkim.com)
  • In this particular instance autoantibodies react with proteins found in mucous membranes and skin tissue resulting in blistering lesions. (dermnetnz.org)
  • 1. A cosmetic/dermatological regime or regimen for preventing and/or treating sensitive skin, mucous membranes and/or the scalp, comprising administering to an individual in need of such treatment, a thus effective amount of at least one extract of a non-photosynthetic and non-fruiting filamentous bacterium cultured in a medium which comprises at least one non-sulfurous mineral and/or thermal water. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Recognizing inflammatory lesions of the skin and mucous membranes as infection-triggered enables more specific treatment. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Painful inflammatory lesions of the skin and mucous membranes may occur in children who develop bacterial pneumonia. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Rapidly dying mucous membrane cells in the mouth, eye and genital regions, and vesicles and blisters on the skin can be symptoms and signs of drug allergies or infections. (medicalxpress.com)
  • M. pneumoniae can also be found outside the lungs and trigger severe, painful skin and mucous membrane lesions. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Early recognizing inflammatory lesions of the skin and mucous membranes as infection-triggered rather than drug-triggered enables more specific treatment, and most importantly, avoids restriction of possibly causative drugs," says Patrick Meyer Sauteur, Consultant in Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology at the University Children's Hospital Zurich. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The reason why infections with M. pneumoniae often lead to skin and mucous membrane lesions. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The new ELISpot blood test has already been used in a childhood pneumonia study at the Children's Hospital Zurich, in which skin and mucous membrane lesions were the first time prospectively investigated. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Skin and mucous membrane lesions were observed in 23 percent of these pneumonia cases caused by M. pneumoniae - three of the children had severe lesions, predominantly of the mucous membranes. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In contrast, only three percent of children who had infections caused by other pathogens experienced skin and mucous membrane lesions. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The reason why infections with M. pneumoniae, in addition to respiratory disease, often lead to skin and mucous membrane lesions is not yet fully understood. (medicalxpress.com)
  • This leads to an interesting conclusion: It may be not M. pneumoniae itself that causes the skin and mucous membrane lesions , but the immune system, which reacts to the bacteria," says Meyer Sauteur. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The group at the Children's Hospital is currently investigating which bacterial components trigger this distinct immune reaction and which structures of the skin and mucous membranes are targeted. (medicalxpress.com)
  • These responses can occur when materials containing latex come into contact with the skin, mucous membranes, or internal tissues. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • The skin epithelium is not as efficient as the epithelia of the mucous membranes that line the gut and airways. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • Gloves must be worn when handling any biologic specimen and when touching blood, body fluids, mucous membranes or non-intact skin of all patients. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • Microbial flora of the skin and mucous membranes : Resident flora, usually commensal microorganisms 2. (slideserve.com)
  • A pharmaceutical preparation useful for treating a skin or mucous membrane lesion is provided. (patentgenius.com)
  • PAHIDERMIA - thickening of the skin (or mucous membrane) caused by hyperplasia of the connective tissue and often the epithelial tramadol and sertraline cover (hyperkeratosis). (tramadol-online.biz)
  • N-COUNT A mucous membrane is skin that produces mucus to prevent itself from becoming dry. (youdao.com)
  • The present invention relates to a method and material for cleansing fluid discharging skin surfaces, wounds and mucous membranes, which method and material includes the use of a material comprising certain water-insoluble hydrophilic polymers. (google.com)
  • It is well known that liquid discharges from most skin wounds, mucous membranes and body surfaces that have become diseased, cut or infected in one way or another. (google.com)
  • The glans penis (head of the penis ) and glans clitoridis and the inside of the prepuce (foreskin) and clitoral hood are mucous membranes, not skin. (wikidoc.org)
  • The skin and the mucous membrane linings of the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts provide the first line of defense against invasion by microbes or parasites. (britannica.com)
  • Like the outer layer of the skin but much softer, the mucous membrane linings of the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts provide a mechanical barrier of cells that are constantly being renewed. (britannica.com)
  • CMCC is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by chronic candidal infections of the nails, skin, and mucous membranes. (medscape.com)
  • A chronic blistering disease with predilection for mucous membranes and less frequently the skin, and with a tendency to scarring. (ucdenver.edu)
  • The skin covering the outside of your body is the second largest semipermeable membrane and also serves as a filter to allow skin to breathe but keep all the essential parts of you in, and larger particles from the outside world like pet dander, synthetic fabric fibers and surface microbes out. (tumtree.life)
  • From frequent urination, stomachaches, burping and bloating, to achy joints, itchy skin, asthma, chronic sinus congestion …and then all the organs in the body that are also lined with semipermeable "Serous" membrane. (tumtree.life)
  • DISEASES OF THE MUCOUS MEMBRANES Homeopathy treatment of Diseases of Mucous Membranes, with indicated homeopathic remedies from the Diseases of the Skin by Frederick Myers Dearborn. (jydrescueteam.com)
  • Ectoderm - The outermost layer of cells in a developing embryo that goes on to form structures like the skin , nerves and mucous membranes. (biologydictionary.net)
  • Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory and immune mediated disease that affects the skin, nails, hair, and mucous membranes. (rug.nl)
  • Autoantibodies binding to the epithelial basement membrane zone (BMZ) have been demonstrated in this subset, targeting bullous antigens 1 and 2, laminin 332 and laminin 311, type VII collagen, β 4-integrin subunit, and some nonidentified basal membrane zone antigens [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • MMP will demonstrate linear basement membrane zone staining for one or more of the following: IgG, C3, or IgA ( Figure 3 ). (infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com)
  • Laughter Therapy increases the antibody levels in the mucous membranes of the respiratory passages, thereby reducing the frequency of chest infections. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • the membranes lining passages and cavities which communicate with the exterior , as well as ducts and receptacles of secretion , and habitually secreting mucus . (webster-dictionary.net)
  • Anatomy) a mucus-secreting membrane that lines body cavities or passages that are open to the external environment. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Any of the membranes lining the passages of the body that open onto the outside, such as the respiratory and digestive tracts. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 3) Any of the membranes lining the passages of the body, such as the respiratory and digestive tracts, that open to the outside. (lymphedemapeople.com)
  • Section of mucous membrane of human stomach, near the cardiac orifice. (princeton.edu)
  • We have conducted a comparative analysis of statistic markers, which describe used methods of research, in order to establish an opportunity to use noninvasive immune ferment analysis method for atrophic and precancerous changes of the mucous membrane of stomach at H. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Table 1: Border marker of a certain degree of atrophy of the mucous membrane of stomach at antral atrophic gastritis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Objective: To study the clinical value of the ultrasound diagnosis to the tumor under the stomach mucous membrane . (youdao.com)
  • This route of administration has the advantage of quickly and easily placing the drug in contact with the relatively large surface membrane of the stomach, which has a rich supply of capillaries for entry into the plasma compartment. (rutgers.edu)
  • This study was undertaken to assess the potential effect of powdering floor polish on the mucous membranes of the eyes and respiratory tract. (diva-portal.org)
  • The data sheet also states that it is irritating to mucous membranes and the upper respiratory tract. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • These fumes are toxic and may have irritating effects on mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and eyes. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • As powder is inhaled, it can sensitize an individual through the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • The ways in which these infections come to the body to begin with, are through the lining of the upper respiratory tract, that is, that mucous membrane lining the nose and the throat. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • Mucous membranes line the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, reproductive tracts and the urinary tract. (tumtree.life)
  • The next permeable membrane extends through the upper and lower respiratory systems including ears, nose and throat and the lower respiratory tract from the neck down. (tumtree.life)
  • With a well-functioning and healthy mucous membrane, it is difficult for foreign substances to find their way in - the mucous membranes function as a kind of shield. (australian-bodycare.com)
  • Are you sure your patient has genital and mucous membranes? (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • How did the patient develop genital and mucous membranes? (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • Which individuals are of greater risk of developing genital and mucous membranes? (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • Dry mucous membranes are one of the biggest, most widespread genital problems women face, and it can cause serious pain and irritation. (australian-bodycare.com)
  • As more blood flows to your body's mucous membranes, the lining of your nose and airway swells. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • However, we do want our customers and the general public to know that consumption of sea buckthorn may help boost immunity and enhance the mucous membranes given the huge omega-7 content and the 190+ bio-active compounds that may aid the human body's response to certain health threats. (sibu.com)
  • Pinkeye, also known as conjunctivitis, is a contagious and painful bacterial infection of the mucous membrane that lines your eyelids. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • Conditions that damage the mucous membrane of infants, such as oral thrush ( Candida infection ), may be associated with an increased risk of transmission through breastfeeding . (ormedmedical.us)
  • The invention relates to the field of oral health, more specifically a device for cleaning the tongue and oral mucous membranes and tooth surfaces (hereafter called tongue cleaning device) periodontitis, tooth decay and bad breath diseases are very widespread worldwide and are known to be caused or caused by microorganisms, mainly bacteria in the oral cavity. (google.com)
  • Body cavities featuring mucous membrane include most of the respiratory system . (wikidoc.org)
  • It is being produced all the time by the membranes lining the sinus and nasal cavities. (jydrescueteam.com)
  • Your immune system is only as healthy as your mucous membranes. (tumtree.life)
  • Secretory IgA is characterized as a specific component of the immune system of mucous membranes, which can recognize harmful bacterial and distinguish them from indigenous microflora physiologically colonizing the mucous membranes, to fix them to the mucous membrane surface and to direct further factors, such as mucin, lysozyme,etc. (which form the effector component of the mucous membrane immunity system) for thvir final inactivation and neutralization. (naver.com)
  • Some other infectious causes of mucous membrane lesions not related to sexual contact are candidal lesions and tinea cruris. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • On the mucous membrane of the mouth, the thrush membrane is at first white, and firmly adherent. (gluedideas.com)
  • In the mouth, the thrush is limited to a few white patches, looking like particles of curd adhering to the mucous membrane. (gluedideas.com)
  • If you need an exceptional deal an astonishing sell improvement an excellent deal an impressive bargain a whole lot a huge quantity a huge quantity a great deal even more mucous simply reheat the problems to be milk along with reproduce this task. (plumbingspicewood.com)
  • if you need had mucous simply reheat the remaining to be to be to be milk in addition to replicate this job See to it not to minimize the milk. (plumbingspicewood.com)
  • The airways also become inflamed with swelling of the bronchial mucous membrane and secretion of excessive thick mucus that is difficult to expel. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • it is a word describing the fluid secretion from a mucous membrane. (biologydictionary.net)
  • If the organism is abused by overeating, overclothing, or living in too hot houses, or when the body is especially enervated, and is then exposed to low temperatures, or passing from hot houses, hot beds, to cold air--winter --temperature--irritation of the mucous membranes of all exposed canals results, until catarrhal inflammations become a constant state of the most exposed of these membranes. (chestofbooks.com)
  • It is now generally acknowledged that particulate air pollution can cause respiratory symptoms and that indoor dust particles may be associated with mucous membrane irritation and odour annoyance. (diva-portal.org)
  • Menthol topical oral mucous membrane (for use inside the mouth) is used to treat minor sore throat pain, or mouth irritation caused by a canker sore. (healthridgemedical.com)
  • Liquid leaks out of the blood vessels, making the mucous membranes lining the nose and throat to swell, and stimulating nearby gland to produce mucus. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • The mucus that is produced by the mucous membranes in your sinuses normally drains into your nose through small holes called ostia. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • Sinuses are lined with the same mucous membranes that line the nose and mouth. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • C. Mucus is only found in the nose, while mucous is found in other areas of the body. (biologydictionary.net)
  • simplified the terminology by suggesting all plasma-cell infiltrates of the mucous membranes of body orifices be termed plasma-cell orificial mucositis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The function of the membrane is to stop pathogens and dirt from entering the body and to prevent bodily tissues from becoming dehydrated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The outer or epithelial layer of the membrane is an important defense mechanism that prevents the entry of pathogens and microbes into the body. (tumtree.life)
  • The term mucous membrane refers to where they are found in the body and not every mucous membrane secretes mucus. (princeton.edu)
  • All sellers» Mucous Membranes: Normal and Abnormal Including Mucin and Malignancy. (jydrescueteam.com)
  • In the uterus, the mucous membrane is called the endometrium, and it swells each month and is then eliminated during menstruation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients are at increased risk for candidal infections of the mucous membranes if they have any of the following risk factors: are HIV positive, elderly or very young, diabetic, recent antibiotic use, and high estrogen oral contraceptives. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • Bluish mucous membranes indicate Cyanosis (Abnormal amount of hemoglobin, molecule that is responsible for transporting oxygen). (breezyhollowboergoats.com)
  • The mucus that is secreted by mucous objects lies on top of the tissues to not only protect it from invaders but also to keep the underlying tissue from drying out. (study.com)
  • In general, the functions of mucous membranes are to protect the body from being infected by viruses and bacteria and to keep the tissues of the body adequately moisturized. (biologydictionary.net)
  • The diagnosis of MMP is mainly based on the patients history, clinical examination and biopsy with histologic or direct immunoflorescent examination that showing deposition of IgG, IgA, and C3 in the basal membrane zone (BMZ). (ommegaonline.org)