A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.
The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Conditions caused by abnormal CILIA movement in the body, usually causing KARTAGENER SYNDROME, chronic respiratory disorders, chronic SINUSITIS, and chronic OTITIS. Abnormal ciliary beating is likely due to defects in any of the 200 plus ciliary proteins, such as missing motor enzyme DYNEIN arms.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Compounds that increase urine volume by increasing the amount of osmotically active solute in the urine. Osmotic diuretics also increase the osmolarity of plasma.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, liver, and spleen.
The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in cardiovascular and cerebral circulation.
Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.
A mucolytic agent used in the treatment of respiratory disorders associated with viscid or excessive mucus. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p744)
An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a triad of DEXTROCARDIA; INFERTILITY; and SINUSITIS. The syndrome is caused by mutations of DYNEIN genes encoding motility proteins which are components of sperm tails, and CILIA in the respiratory and the reproductive tracts.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).
A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.
An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi.
The structure that forms the roof of the mouth. It consists of the anterior hard palate (PALATE, HARD) and the posterior soft palate (PALATE, SOFT).
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in one or more of the PARANASAL SINUSES.
Spirometric technique in which the volume of air breathed in the right and left lung is recorded separately.
Analogs and derivatives of atropine.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.
A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
Agents that increase mucous excretion. Mucolytic agents, that is drugs that liquefy mucous secretions, are also included here.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.

Clearance in small ciliated airways in allergic asthmatics after bronchial allergen provocation. (1/291)

BACKGROUND: Asthma tends to affect mucociliary clearance, as assessed from measurements in large airways. However, there is no knowledge about clearance in the smallest airways of the tracheobronchial region in acute exacerbation of asthma. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate clearance from the bronchiolar region in patients with allergic asthma in a situation resembling a mild acute exacerbation of the disease. We also aimed to compare clearance data with corresponding data found for healthy subjects and asthmatics on therapy. METHODS: Tracheobronchial clearance was studied twice in 9 patients with mild asthma of the allergic type after inhalation of 6 microm (aerodynamic diameter) monodisperse Teflon particles labelled with 111In. At one exposure, inhalation was performed 4 h after bronchial provocation with an allergen the patients were allergic to. The second exposure was a control measurement. The particles were inhaled at an extremely slow flow, 0.05 liter/s, which gives deposition mainly in the small ciliated airways (bronchioles). Lung retention was measured at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. RESULTS: All patients demonstrated an early asthmatic reaction of varying degree after bronchial provocation. There was significant clearance of radioaerosol in each 24-hour period for both exposures, with the possible exception of the period between 24 and 48 h for the provocation exposure, with similar fractions of retained particles at all points of time. The retained fractions were significantly larger compared to a group of healthy subjects and asthmatics on regular treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that in allergic asthmatics a bronchial allergen provocation with an early asthmatic reaction does not significantly influence overall clearance from the bronchiolar region. However, in the present group of patients, retention in small ciliated airways was significantly higher compared to healthy subjects and asthmatics on regular treatment.  (+info)

The effects of ketolides on bioactive phospholipid-induced injury to human respiratory epithelium in vitro. (2/291)

The potential of the novel ketolide antimicrobial agents, HMR 3004 and HMR 3647, to antagonize the injurious effects of the bioactive phospholipids (PL), platelet-activating factor (PAF), lyso-PAF, and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) on the ciliary beat frequency and structural integrity of human ciliated respiratory epithelium in vitro was investigated, in the presence or absence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL). The ciliary beat frequency of human nasal respiratory epithelium, obtained by nasal brushing of healthy volunteers, was measured using a photo-transistor technique, while superoxide generation by activated human PMNL and membrane-stabilizing activity were measured by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence and haemolytic procedures, respectively. All three PL, at concentrations of 2.5 microg x mL(-1), caused significant (p<0.005) ciliary slowing and epithelial damage, while treatment of the epithelial strips with the ketolides, in particular HMR 3004, caused dose-related attenuation of these direct adverse effects of the PL on ciliated epithelium, apparently by a membrane-stabilizing mechanism. When epithelial strips were exposed to the combination of PMNL (1 x 10(6) cells x mL(-1)) and PAF (1 microg x mL(-1)), significant ciliary dysfunction and epithelial damage were also observed, which were mediated predominantly by neutrophil-derived oxidants. These injurious effects of PAF were antagonized by preincubation of the epithelial strips or the PMNL with HMR 3004 (10 microg x mL(-1)). The ketolide antimicrobial agents, in particular HMR 3004, antagonize the direct and polymorphonuclear leukocyte-mediated injurious effects of phospholipids on human ciliated epithelium and may have beneficial effects in inflammatory disorders of the airways, such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, diffuse panbronchiolitis and bronchiectasis.  (+info)

Regulation of mucociliary clearance in health and disease. (3/291)

Airway secretions are cleared by mucociliary clearance (MCC), in addition to other mechanisms such as cough, peristalsis, two-phase gas-liquid flow and alveolar clearance. MCC comprises the cephalad movement of mucus caused by the cilia lining the conducting airways until it can be swallowed or expectorated. MCC is a very complex process in which many variables are involved, all of which may modify the final outcome. The structure, number, movement and co-ordination of the cilia present in the airways as well as the amount, composition and rheological properties of the periciliary and mucus layers are determinants of MCC. Physiological factors such as age, sex, posture, sleep and exercise are reported to influence MCC due to a change in the cilia, the mucus or the periciliary layer, or a combination of these. Environmental pollution is suspected to have a depressant effect on MCC dependent on different factors such as pollutant concentration and the duration of exposure. Most studies focus on sulphur dioxide, sulphuric acid, nitrogen dioxide and ozone. Tobacco smoke and hairspray have been noted to have a negative influence on MCC. Some diseases are known to affect MCC, mostly negatively. The underlying mechanism differs from one illness to another. Immotile cilia syndrome, asthma, bronchiectasis, chronic bronchitis, cystic fibrosis and some acute respiratory tract infections are among the most frequently reported. The present paper reviews normal mucociliary clearance and the effects of diseases on this process.  (+info)

Physiotherapy and bronchial mucus transport. (4/291)

Cough and expectoration of mucus are the best-known symptoms in patients with pulmonary disease. The most applied intervention for these symptoms is the use of chest physiotherapy to increase bronchial mucus transport and reduce retention of mucus in the airways. Chest physiotherapy interventions can be evaluated using different outcome variables, such as bronchial mucus transport measurement, measurement of the amount of expectorated mucus, pulmonary function, medication use, frequency of exacerbation and quality of life. Measurement of the transport rate of mucus in the airways using a radioactive tracer appears to be an appropriate outcome variable for short-term studies. Evaluation of chest physiotherapy only with pulmonary function tests appears to be inadequate in short-term studies. The popularity of using pulmonary function tests is probably based more on the availability of the instruments than on a theoretical basis related to the question of chest physiotherapy improving mucus transport. Quality of life and progression of the disease are not often used as outcome variables, but it may be worthwhile to use these in the future.  (+info)

Acute effects of inhalable particles on the frog palate mucociliary epithelium. (5/291)

This work was designed to evaluate the toxicity of inhalable particles [less than/equal to] 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10)) collected from the urban air in Sao Paulo, Brazil, to the mucociliary apparatus using the frog palate preparation. Seven groups of frog palates were immersed in different concentrations of PM(10) diluted in Ringer's solution during 120 min: 0 (control, n = 31); 50 (n = 10); 100 (n = 9); 500 (n = 28); 1,000 (n = 10); 5,000 (n = 11); and 10,000 microg/m(3) (n = 10). Mucociliary transport and transepithelial potential difference were determined at 0, 30, 60, and 120 min exposure. Additional groups (control and 500 microg/m(3)) were studied by means of morphometric analyses (quantification of the amount of intraepithelial and surface mucins), measurement of cilia beat frequency, and quantification of total glutathione. Mucociliary transport and transepithelial potential difference were significantly decreased at higher concentrations of PM(10) (p = 0.03 and p = 0.02, respectively). Exposure to PM(10) also elicited a significant decrease of total glutathione (p = 0. 003) and depletion of neutral intraepithelial mucins (p = 0.0461). These results show that PM(10) can promote significant alterations in ciliated epithelium in vitro.  (+info)

Effect of fluticasone propionate and salmeterol on Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection of the respiratory mucosa in vitro. (6/291)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the corticosteroid, fluticasone propionate (FP), on Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection of the respiratory mucosa of an organ culture model in vitro. Organ cultures infected with P. aeruginosa had significantly (p< or =0.05) elevated levels of mucosal damage and significantly (p< or =0.05) less ciliated cells compared to controls. Preincubation of tissue with FP (10(-6) or 10(-5) but not 10(-7) M) prior to P. aeruginosa infection significantly (p< or =0.05) reduced the bacterially induced mucosal damage in a concentration-dependent manner. FP (10(-5) M) also significantly (p< or =0.05) prevented loss of ciliated cells. FP did not alter the density of bacteria adherent to the different mucosal features of the organ cultures, but did reduce total bacterial numbers due to the reduced amount of damaged tissue, which is a preferred site of P. aeruginosa adherence. It has previously been shown that the long-acting beta2-agonist salmeterol (4 x 10(-7)M) also reduces the mucosal damage caused by P. aeruginosa infection, probably via elevation of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations. Preincubation of tissue with both 10(-7)M FP and 10(-7)M salmeterol, concentrations at which they did not by themselves influence the effect of P. aeruginosa infection, significantly (p< or =0.05) reduced P. aeruginosa-induced loss of cilia. However, there was no additional benefit from adding 4 x 10(-7)M salmeterol to 10(-6)M FP. In conclusion fluticasone propionate reduced mucosal damage caused by P. aeruginosa infection in vitro and preserved ciliated cells. There was a synergistic action with salmeterol in the preservation of ciliated cells.  (+info)

Effects of drugs on mucus clearance. (7/291)

Mucociliary clearance (MCC), the process in which airway mucus together with substances trapped within are moved out of the lungs, is an important defence mechanism of the human body. Drugs may alter this process, such that it is necessary to know the effect of the drugs on MCC. Indeed, agents stimulating MCC may be used therapeutically in respiratory medicine, especially in patients suspected of having an impairment of their mucociliary transport system. In contrast, caution should be taken with drugs depressing MCC as an undesired side-effect, independently of their therapeutic indication. Since cough clearance (CC) serves as a back-up system when MCC fails, the influence of drugs must be examined not only on MCC but also on CC. Ultimately, the clinical repercussions of alterations in mucus transport induced by drug administration must be studied. Tertiary ammonium compounds (anticholinergics), aspirin, anaesthetic agents and benzodiazepines have been shown to be capable of depressing the mucociliary transport system. Cholinergics, methylxanthines, sodium cromoglycate, hypertonic saline, saline as well as water aerosol have been shown to increase MCC. Adrenergic antagonists, guaifenesin, S-carboxymethylcysteine, sodium 2-mercapto-ethane sulphonate and frusemide have been reported not to alter the mucociliary transport significantly. Amiloride, uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP), quaternary ammonium compounds (anticholinergics), adrenergic agonists, corticosteroids, recombinant human deoxyribonuclease (rhDNase), N-acetylcysteine, bromhexine and ambroxol have been reported either not to change or to augment MCC. Indirect data suggest that surfactant as well as antibiotics may improve the mucociliary transport system. As for the influence of drugs on CC, amiloride and rhDNase have been demonstrated to increase the effectiveness of cough. A trend towards an improved CC was noted after treatment with adrenergic agonists. The anticholinergic agent ipratropium bromide, which is a quaternary ammonium compound, has been suggested to decrease CC significantly. Bromhexine, ambroxol and neutral saline seemed not to alter CC, either positively or negatively. Finally, treatment with either amiloride, recombinant human deoxyribonuclease, bromhexine, ambroxol, N-acetylcysteine, S-carboxymethylcysteine or hypertonic saline has been suggested as a possible cause of clinical improvement in patients, such as the experience of dyspnoea, the case of expectoration or the frequency of infective exacerbations. Other agents did not show a clinical benefit.  (+info)

Factors affecting the course and severity of transnasally induced Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia in mice. (8/291)

In order to examine several factors that may affect the course and severity of transnasally induced Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia in mice, bacteria were prepared in a free suspension or bound to fetal mouse cells. Immunosuppression was induced in five strains of mice (ICR, C57BL/6, BALB/c, C3H/He and CBA/J) by injection of cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg body weight), 2 days before infection. Impairment of mucociliary clearance was induced by intranasal instillation of formalin. Mice were then infected with various doses and strains of the organism. Although no significant differences were observed between either form of inoculum, pretreatment with formalin plus cyclophosphamide was associated with a significant increase in lung bacterial counts. In particular, cyclophosphamide treatment was associated with a high mortality in mice infected with several strains of S. aureus irrespective of their toxin production profiles. Histopathological examination demonstrated that in mice treated with formalin plus cyclophosphamide, clusters of bacteria were observed in lung parenchyma, associated with a mild accumulation of inflammatory cells at day 2 and extensive cell infiltration at day 7. CBA/J mice represented the most susceptible strain among those examined, with 10(4)- and 10(2)-fold higher bacterial counts in the lungs at days 3 and 5, respectively. These results indicate that neutropenia and impaired mucociliary clearance are major factors that influence the severity of S. aureus pneumonia in mice. Analysis of the role of genetic background in enhancement of vulnerability to infection is warranted in future studies.  (+info)

Patients will be randomised to receive either Merocel, Vasolene gauze or no packs. The effect on the mucociliary transport will be assessed by performing a saccharin clearance test pre-operatively, after removal of packs prior to discharge and at subsequent clinic follow-up. It is envisaged that the packs will significantly alter the mucociliary transport time, leading to increased post-operative morbidity. This will lead to an alteration in departmental policy and fewer patients will be packed as a result. Data analysis of the results to assess the mucociliary transport rates will be done. ...
The purpose of this research study is to examine the effects of two weeks of daily dosing of inhaled salt water mist (hypertonic saline - HS) on actual measurements of mucociliary and cough clearance in patients with the chronic bronchitis type of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD.. Defective mucociliary clearance (MCC) is central to the development and/or worsening of several kinds of lung diseases, including COPD/chronic bronchitis (CB), cystic fibrosis (CF), and bronchiectasis. In each case, defective MCC leads to the development of lung infections and damage to the airways from ongoing inflammation caused by a persons inability to clear mucus from the lungs.. The investigators previous studies have shown that the administration of inhaled HS (hypertonic saline) not only acutely accelerates MCC in CF, but also that repetitive use resets the baseline rate of MCC within 2 weeks. It is likely that the sustained effect of HS on MCC was responsible for the ~60% reduction in the ...
Specific Aim: To determine the effectiveness of Roflumilast in improving i) whole right lung and ii) peripheral right lung mucociliary clearance (MCC) in
Study showing how dry air effects our mucociliary clearance, which is our respiratory systems main defense against airborne infection.
International Scholarly Research Notices is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal covering a wide range of subjects in science, technology, and medicine. The journals Editorial Board as well as its Table of Contents are divided into 108 subject areas that are covered within the journals scope.
Mucociliary Clearance can be measured clinically with the Saccharine Test in the sino-nasal system. When clearance is slow, treat mucus viscosity and slow ciliary beat fr..
Ex vivo biophysical measurements provide valuable insights into understanding both physiological and pathogenic processes. One critical physiological mechanism that is regulated by these biophysical properties is cilia-generated flow that mediates mucociliary clearance, which is known to provide protection against foreign particles and pathogens in the upper airway. To measure ciliary clearance, several techniques have been implemented, including the use of radiolabeled particles and imaging with single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) methods. Although non-invasive, these tests require the use of specialized equipment, limiting widespread use. Here we describe a method of ex vivo imaging of cilia-generated flow, adapted from previously reported methods, to make it more accessible and higher throughput for researchers. We excise trachea from mice quickly after euthanasia, cut it longitudinally and place it in an inhouse made slide. We apply fluorescent particles to measure particle
Read about AZD5634, an investigational therapy being developed by AstraZeneca for Mucociliary Clearance in Cystic Fibrosis patients.
Contact ePrints Soton: [email protected] ePrints Soton supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/cgi/oai2. This repository has been built using EPrints software, developed at the University of Southampton, but available to everyone to use.. ...
Respiratory Disease Overview. Breathing provides us with the oxygen we need to survive, but also exposes us to pathogens and other hazardous particles. To protect our bodies, the lungs possess an elegant system to remove harmful particles from the airways, known as mucociliary clearance. Mucociliary clearance consists of a sticky mucus layer, which traps inhaled particles, and the coordinated beating of cilia that propel the mucus toward the mouth, where it is either swallowed or coughed out.. For mucociliary clearance to work properly, the mucus must be sticky enough to efficiently trap particles, yet not too viscous to impair the vigorous beating of the cilia. Failure of any of these components leads to pulmonary mucus accumulation and an array of pulmonary diseases. In many environmental and genetic airway diseases, such as cystic fibrosis (CF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), non-CF bronchiectasis, and asthma are characterized by inadequately hydrated mucus and mucus over ...
I t is established that adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) produce and secrete cytokines/growth factors that antagonize mucosal injury. However, the exact molecular basis underlying the treatment effects exerted by ADSCs is ill understood, and whether ADSCs cooperate with adipose tissue particles to improve mucosal function in patients with empty nose syndrome (ENS) has not been explored. We investigated the impact of ADSCs on nasal mucosa, the associated mechanisms, and their use in the treatment of patients with ENS. The nasal endoscope and mucociliary clearance assessments were significantly improved (P | 0.05) in patients with (n = 28) and without (n = 2) a rudimentary turbinate that received ADSCs combined with fat granules transplantation. Patients experienced a significant improvement in nasal obstruction and nasal mucociliary clearance after nasal turbinate angioplasty (P | 0.05). H&E staining, Massons staining, and AB-PAS staining confirmed that inflammation was significantly reduced,
We demonstrate the use of a high resolution form of optical coherence tomography, termed micro-OCT (μOCT), for investigating the functional microanatomy of airway epithelia. μOCT captures several key parameters governing the function of the airway surface (airway surface liquid depth, periciliary liquid depth, ciliary function including beat frequency, and mucociliary transport rate) from the same series of images and without exogenous particles or labels, enabling non-invasive study of dynamic phenomena. Additionally, the high resolution of μOCT reveals distinguishable phases of the ciliary stroke pattern and glandular extrusion. Images and functional measurements from primary human bronchial epithelial cell cultures and excised tissue are presented and compared with measurements using existing gold standard methods. Active secretion from mucus glands in tissue, a key parameter of epithelial function, was also observed and quantified.
Over 90% of the particles contained in the air we breathe are retained in the mucosa which is continuously being renewed by the ciliary function.. Most of the high airway conditions, including sinus infections, allergies and environmental contamination, alter the mucociliary function either due to nasal cilia alterations or to changes in mucosa properties. If this function is affected, the movement of mucosa is slowed down and secretions are retained and contaminating elements become accumulated together with allergens and bacteria. All this causes nasal obstruction, inflammation and infection.. Nasal irrigation cleans the surface of the mucosa of the nose and paranasal sinuses, which assists the recovery of mucociliary clearing by eliminating both the substances that cause the dysfunction as well as the secretions that have a negative effect on the ciliary movement. ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant) The long-term goal of this project is to improve our understanding of the cellular and molecular regulation mechanisms of mucociliary clearance, an important host defense mechanism of the lung. Ciliary activity is an integral part of mucociliary transport and changes in ciliary beat frequency (CBF) are often associated with similar changes in transport rates. Two widely recognized second messengers in cell signaling, cAMP and calcium ([Ca2+]i), regulate CBF. cAMP has been shown to increase CBF through a cAMP-dependent kinase- mediated event, possibly by phosphorylating a ciliary protein designated p26. Increasing [Ca2+]i also stimulates CBF, likely through a ciliary Ca2+-binding protein. Because both second messengers increase CBF, the question arises whether these signaling pathways regulate CBF through independent signal transduction cascades or whether the pathways converge at some level to affect a common target prior to dynein/microtubule interaction. ...
Mucus produced by submucosal glands is a key component of respiratory mucociliary transport (MCT). When it emerges from submucosal gland ducts, mucus forms long strands on the airway surface. However, the function of those strands is uncertain. To test the hypothesis that mucus strands facilitate transport of large particles, we studied newborn pigs. In ex vivo experiments, interconnected mucus strands moved over the airway surface, attached to immobile spheres, and initiated their movement by pulling them. Stimulating submucosal gland secretion with methacholine increased the percentage of spheres that moved and shortened the delay until mucus strands began moving spheres. To disrupt mucus strands, we applied reducing agents tris-(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine and dithiothreitol. They decreased the fraction of moving spheres and delayed initiation of movement for spheres that did move. We obtained similar in vivo results with CT-based tracking of microdisks in spontaneously breathing pigs. ...
From this study it can be concluded that the aqueous and ethanol extracts of P. Additional attention will also be given to show whether cheap viagra targeted modulation of these regulators promote tissue regeneration and wound management. These results demonstrate that EGb buy viagra 761 protects against cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. Impairment of nasal mucociliary clearance after radiotherapy for childhood head cancer. Engaging Undergraduates in Science Research: Not Just About Faculty Willingness.. A Switchable Gold Catalyst by Encapsulation in a Self-Assembled Cage. Semistructured telephone best price 100mg generic viagra interviews conducted by primary author. Dignity in health-care: a critical exploration using feminism and theories of recognition.. Headache, neck pain, boots viagra and stroke as characteristic manifestations of the cerebral artery dissection. Androgen ablation augments prostate cancer vaccine immunogenicity only when applied after immunization. Researchers have made ...
AirPhysio is an Oscillating Positive Expiratory Pressure (OPEP) device which is used for mucus clearance and lung expansion to help in the treatment of respiratory conditions like Asthma, Bronchiectasis, Chronic and Acute Bronchitis, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Cystic Fibrosis, Emphysema, Chest colds and flus. The use of AirPhysio device helps to facilitate secretion mobilization, prevents atelectasis and maximize lung volume for cleaner healthier lungs. ...
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Bacterial infection is the most common cause of excess morbidity and mortality in patients who require endotracheal intubation or tracheostomy. The normal lung is sterile distal to the central carina, despite the daily inoculation of bacteria. Aspiration of liquids is prevented by reflex closure of the glottis following stimulation of receptors in the larynx and trachea and by the vigorous coughing that such stimulation evokes. Impairment of mucociliary function and mucus hypersecretion leads to pooling of secretions in the airways of intubated patients. Bacteria presented to the lung in a liquid bolus, such as contaminated upper-airway secretions, are cleared more slowly than bacteria presented as aerosols. Colonization by gram-negative bacilli (GNB) and other cextends to multiple contiguous sites including the oropharynx, endotracheal tube, tracheobronchial secretions, and stomach. Tracheobronchitis can be diagnosed when secretions become purulent, usually associated with an increased volume,
IL-4 and IL-13 exposure during mucociliary differentiation of bronchial epithelial cells increases antimicrobial activity and expression of antimicrobial peptides. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
A method as described for testing the susceptibility of a person to asthma. The person inhales an effective amount of sodium chloride, mannitol or another substance capable of altering the osmolarity of airway surface liquid in the subject. The substance is in the form of a dispersible dry powder containing an effective proportion of particles of a respirable size. The subject is then measured to detect airway narrowing which is indicative of a propensity for asthma. The same technique of dry powder inhalation can be used to test for the susceptibility of a person to rhinitus, to induce sputum and promote mucociliary clearance.
Mammalian airways create a barrier that protects the organism from possible external aggression. Particularly, this tissue has developed a defense mechanism, which secretes mucus that catches inhaled particles such as, microorganisms (with or without pathogen potential), aside from irritating or toxic molecules derived from human activity (combustion or industrial processes) or those liberated by nature (pollen, etc.), which can affect the functions of the respiratory system or trigger an infection. On second instance the mucus is transported to the oral cavity via the activity of ciliate cells that coat the airways, both processes together account for mucociliary clearance, a key mechanism for healthy lung maintenance.. A key requirement for the airways cleansing system to work correctly, is an adequate level of hydration on the airways surface, which allows the functioning of mucus layers and its transportation to the oral cavity. A dramatic example of hydration deficiency of the airways is ...
Mechanisms regulating lineage decisions in the airway. The functions performed by epithelial tissues are dictated by the types, abundance, and distribution of differentiated cells generated by stem/progenitor cells. In the conducting airway, the basal stem cell generates two major differentiated cell types that act coordinately to perform mucociliary clearance to rid the airway of pathogens: secretory cells, which produce mucins that trap pathogens, and multiciliated cells, which beat to push the mucus up and out of the airways. An imbalance in the abundance of these two differentiated cell types, leading to goblet cell metaplasia and increased mucus production, is seen in a variety of airway diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cystic fibrosis (CF). In this presentation I will discuss our work investigating the regulation of cell fate decisions in the airway. ...
Influenza virus is transmitted from person to person primarily in droplets released by sneezing and coughing. Some of the inhaled virus lands in the lower respiratory tract, and the primary site of the disease is the tracheobronchial tree, although the nasopharynx is also involved. The neuraminidase of the viral envelope may act on the N-acetylneuraminic acid residues in mucus to produce liquefaction. This liquified mucus may help spread the virus through the respiratory tract in concert with the mucociliary transport. The superficial mucosa suffers cellular destrcution and desquamation because of the infection of the mucosal cells. Nonproductive cough, sore throat and nasal discharge are some sysmptoms that result from the endema and mononuclear cell infiltration of the involved areas. The cough may be persistent but the most prominent symptoms of influenza are systemic-- fever, muscle aches and general prostration. These systemic symptoms are not caused directly by the virus because viremia is ...
Our results support the hypothesis that increasing the FIO2 in CO2-retaining COPD subjects on NIV does not cause any clinically important change in CO2 retention.. A COPD exacerbation is defined as worsening dyspnea, cough, and/or sputum production.13 Expiratory air-flow obstruction is worsened, the work of breathing increases, and mucus production or mucociliary clearance, or both, are altered. Spirometry shows worsened expiratory air-flow obstruction, and arterial blood gas analysis usually shows an additional decrease in PaO2, which leads to pulmonary arterial vasoconstriction and pulmonary hypertension.14. Supplemental oxygen is the most useful treatment in COPD-induced hypercapnic ARF, and oxygen is administered to all hypoxemic COPD patients during exacerbation. Oxygen decreases anaerobic metabolism and lactic acid production; improves brain function; decrease arrhythmias, ischemia, and pulmonary hypertension; improves right-heart function; decreases the release of antidiuretic hormone; ...
Best Oral Presentation Michelle Paulsen, University of Heidelberg, Department of Translational Pulmonology, Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Heidelberg, Germany P63: Altered Airway Macrophage Phenotype and Function in Mice with Mucociliary Clearance Dysfunction
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular Signature of Asthma-Enhanced Sensitivity to CuO Nanoparticle Aerosols from 3D Cell Model. AU - Kooter, Ingeborg. AU - Ilves, Marit. AU - Grollers-Mulderij, Mariska. AU - Duistermaat, Evert. AU - Tromp, Peter C.. AU - Kuper, Frieke. AU - Kinaret, Pia. AU - Savolainen, Kai. AU - Greco, Dario. AU - Karisola, Piia. AU - Ndika, Joseph. AU - Alenius, Harri. PY - 2019/6. Y1 - 2019/6. KW - copper(II) oxide. KW - nanoparticles. KW - asthma. KW - 3d human bronchial epithelial cells. KW - air-liquid interface and transcriptomics. KW - AIR-LIQUID INTERFACE. KW - THYMIC STROMAL LYMPHOPOIETIN. KW - OXIDE NANOPARTICLES. KW - EPITHELIAL-CELLS. KW - MUCOCILIARY CLEARANCE. KW - OXIDATIVE STRESS. KW - GENE-EXPRESSION. KW - QUANTUM DOTS. KW - ZINC-OXIDE. KW - DEPOSITION. KW - 1182 Biochemistry, cell and molecular biology. U2 - 10.1021/acsnano.9b01823. DO - 10.1021/acsnano.9b01823. M3 - Article. VL - 13. SP - 6932. EP - 6946. JO - ACS Nano. JF - ACS Nano. SN - 1936-0851. IS - 6. ER - ...
Inhaled nanoparticles are known to deposit particularly effective in the alveolar periphery of the lungs where they escape a fast removal by mucociliary clearance. Scavenged by alveolar macrophages or residing on the fragile respiratory surface nanoparticles have been shown cause irritations to interacting cells and cause innate immune responses depending on their material specific toxicity. Within the various potential toxicological outcomes the inflammatory response is often considered crucial for pulmonary and extra-pulmonary health effects. In this session we would like to focus on processes and pathways recently discussed to represent relevant drivers for the toxicity of inhaled nanoparticles.. ...
Thrombosis Cluster. Our collaborators form the heart of our Resource: they present the driving problems that steer our technology development. We appreciate expert force scientists that contribute directly to our technology and point out new opportunities. We delight in naïve users because they present opportunities for broadening the impact of our work in new fields, and because their demands are often more extraordinary and therefore challenge us in entirely new ways.. The research work of our collaborators is biomedically important, as many of the projects bear directly on disease. This is most obvious in the collaboration projects on Lung Surfactant Rheology for neonatal respiratory distress, the Mechanics of Cancer Cells, Virtual Lung Project and Mucociliary Clearance (Cystic Fibrosis), and Clot Properties and Deep Vein Thrombosis, with the last two having a translational component for patient studies. Basic science linking molecular scale details to macroscopic consequences are pursued in ...
MD lecture on specific VS non-specific defense, α, β and γ Interferons, NK cells, phagocytosis, α defencin, APOBEC3G, mucociliary clearance, active and passive immunity.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assessing mucociliary transport of single particles in vivo shows variable speed and preference for the ventral trachea in newborn pigs. AU - Hoegger, Mark J.. AU - Awadalla, Maged. AU - Namati, Eman. AU - Itani, Omar A.. AU - Fischer, Anthony J.. AU - Tucker, Alexander J.. AU - Adam, Ryan J.. AU - McLennan, Geoffrey. AU - Hoffman, Eric A.. AU - Stoltz, David A.. AU - Welsh, Michael J.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2014 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2014/2/11. Y1 - 2014/2/11. N2 - Mucociliary transport (MCT) is an innate defense mechanism that removes particulates, noxious material, and microorganisms from the lung. Several airway diseases exhibit abnormal MCT, including asthma, chronic bronchitis, and cystic fibrosis. However, it remains uncertain whether MCT abnormalities contribute to the genesis of disease or whether they are secondary manifestations that may fuel disease progression. Limitations of current MCT assays and of current animal models of human disease ...
Airway clearance is impaired in intubated patients due to decreased mucociliary activity and inability to cough effectively. Mucociliary activity is impaired due to the presence of the artificial airway, airway trauma due to suctioning, inadequate humidification, high Fio2, drugs (eg, narcotics), and underlying pulmonary disease. Cough effectiveness is impaired due to the presence of the artificial airway and depressed neurologic status. Methods commonly used to improve secretion clearance in intubated patients include suctioning, postural drainage therapy with or without percussion and/or vibration, positioning, and bronchoscopy. ...
Fig 1. Vicious circle of bronchiectasis. The first stage in the development of bronchiectasis is an initial infective insult to the airways, which triggers a mucociliary response. Micro-organisms trigger the release of toxins and an inflammatory response within the airways. This inflammatory response includes the release of neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages within the bronchial lumen. Neutrophils also alter the function of the cilial epithelium, leading to changes in cilial beat frequency and mucous gland hypersecretion. Both processes compromise mucociliary clearance.. This loss of mucociliary transport renders the airways susceptible to microbial colonization. Neutrophils are also believed promote this process by allowing bacterial adherence to the lung epithelium. In response to this colonisation, a cycle of an intense chronic inflammatory response is triggered. This encourages further release of inflammatory mediators, which facilitate neutrophil migration to the bronchial lumen and ...
Recurrent lung infections and pneumonia are emerging as significant comorbidities in the HIV-infected population in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV infection has been reported to suppress nasal mucociliary clearance (MCC). Since the primary components driving nasal MCC and bronchial MCC are identical, it is possible that bronchial MCC is affected as well. Effective MCC requires optimal ciliary beating which depends on the maintenance of the airway surface liquid (ASL), a function of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) activity and the integrity of the signaling mechanism that regulates ciliary beating and fluid secretion. Impairment of either component of the MCC apparatus can compromise its efficacy and promote microbial colonization. We demonstrate that primary bronchial epithelium expresses HIV receptor CD4 and co-receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 and can be infected by both R5 and X4 tropic strains of HIV. We show that HIV Tat suppresses CFTR biogenesis and
The transport of particles by cilia lining vapor-filled tubes such as the trachea, bronchi, and upper bronchioles requires that the particles be carried by mucus [Sade et al, 1970], and the force that causes mucus flow is generated by the beat of the underlying cilia. The means by which the ciliary beat force is transmitted to the mucus is not clear. Lucas and Douglas [1934] proposed that cilia penetrate the mucus enough to push it forward in a conveyor-belt fashion. This view is consistent with recent EM studies [Yoneda, 1976; Reissig, Bang, and Bang, 1978] that suggest the serous layer is thinner than the length of a cilium (5-6 µm). In contrast, Ross and Corrsin [1974] developed a theoretical model for mucociliary transport based on the assumption that mucus persists as a blanket carried by the serous fluid, which is in turn propelled by the cilia. If one accepts current simplified models which take into account the viscoelastic properties of mucus, the Lucas and Douglas model is the more ...
This double-blind study determined the influence of serum neutralizing antibody titers on the rate of infection and magnitude of disease expression after experimental exposure of adult volunteers to rhinovirus strain Hanks (RV-H). A total of 133 healthy volunteers were tested for antibody status, cloistered for a 6-day period, and challenged with RV-H at the end of the first cloister day. On these days, response to viral challenge is assessed with symptom diaries and physical examinations. The low-titer infected group was significantly different from the intermediate-titer infected and the uninfected groups in terms of postchallenge nasal and throat symptoms, expelled secretion weights, nasal mucociliary clearance rates, and frequency of negative middle ear pressures. A similar trend held for the infected high-titer vs. low-titer group comparisons. These data show that high homotypic serum neutralizing antibody titers are associated with protection from infection and lessened signs and symptoms ...
GRC: February 17-22, 2019, Barga, Italy. Dear all,. We would like to invite you to attend the Gordon Research Conference (GRC) and the Gordon Research Seminar (GRS) on Cilia, Mucus, and Mucociliary Interactions.. In 2019, the GRC will be held in conjunction with the Cilia, Mucus & Mucociliary Interactions Gordon Research Seminar (GRS). This is only the second ever GRS preceding the GRC and it will provide a unique and engaging forum for graduate students, post-doctoral researchers, and trainees from around the world to present their novel research, learn from the work of others, and to establish new relationships and collaborations.. The GRS will run from Saturday 16th to Sunday 17th February 2019 at the Renaissance Tuscany Il Ciocco, Lucca (Barga), Italy.. The GRC will run from Sunday 17th to Friday 22nd February 2019 at the Renaissance Tuscany Il Ciocco, Lucca (Barga), Italy.. Those interested in attending both meetings must submit an application for the GRS in addition to an application for ...
Mucus clearance is the primary defense mechanism that protects airways from inhaled infectious and toxic agents. In the classical gel-on-liquid mucus clearance model, a mucus gel is propelled on top of a watery periciliary layer surrounding the cilia. However, this model fails to explain the formation of a distinct mucus layer in health or why mucus clearance fails in disease. We propose and verified a gel-on-brush model in which the periciliary layer is occupied by membrane-spanning mucins and mucopolysaccharides densely tethered to the airway surface. This brush prevents mucus penetration into the periciliary space and causes mucus to form a distinct layer. The relative osmotic moduli of the mucus and periciliary brush layers explain both the stability of mucus clearance in health and its failure in airway disease. We demonstrated a strong correlation between the extent of the chronic bronchitis disease and the state of hydration of the airway surface layer - mucus concentration and the ...
The transportability of the mucus layer on airway surfaces by the cilia is essential for maintaining normal lung health. This mucociliary clearance function of the airway epithelia is compromised in some diseases, notably CF, in which the mucus accumulates in and obstructs the airways, resulting in microbiological colonization. The pathogenic mechanism of this mucus obstruction is incompletely understood. The results of the present study provide evidence that an abnormal fluid environment on the airway surfaces corrupts the normal unfolding process of the MUC5B mucin glycoprotein, leading to the secretion of a dense, compact form of MUC5B that likely impairs its clearance by cilia.. The biophysical properties of the airway mucus layer are strongly influenced by qualitative and quantitative changes in mucins, the dominant macromolecules in airway mucus. Our group has previously shown that mucus secretions from CF lungs contain hyperconcentrated mucins that alter the osmotic pressure dynamics ...
Control of the volume of surface liquid which covers the pulmonary epithelium is critical for normal mucociliary clearance and for efficient gas exchange. The role that active transepithelial ion transport plays as a driving force for liquid movement across the pulmonary airways is currently under study. We measure the bioelectric properties of isolated bronchi and bronchioles as correlates of active ion transport activity. We then use selective transport inhibitors and stimulators to determine which transport pathways are present and how these processes are regulated. In persons afflicted with cystic fibrosis (CF), a molecular defect in an epithelial chloride channel is present that leads to a myriad of pathological problems, the most critical of which involves secretion of thickened, dehydrated mucus into the airways. A major focus of our research is to determine how such defects in chloride ion transport are mechanistically related to the development of the symptoms observed in cystic ...
Bronchiectasis is characterized by mild to moderate airflow obstruction that worsens over time. The condition often begins in childhood; however, symptoms may not occur until months or even years after the repeated lung infections begin. It is proposed that an insult typically from the environment impairs mucociliary clearance of mucus and foreign substance resulting in microbial colonization in the airway. Microbial colonization leads to chronic infections causing inflammation. Chronic inflammation results in tissue damage to the cilia and further impair mucociliary motility. This process leads to a vicious cycle of repetitive infections with progressive inflammation and tissue damage. A variation in microbial flora within the lungs appears to change with the severity of the condition. The most common pathogenic bacteria discovered in bronchiectasis patients is haemophilus influenzae, a gram-negative anaerobic bacterium, and in patients at a more severe stage, pseudomonas aeruginosa which is ...
Positive expiratory pressure (PEP) therapy is an effective method for removing mucus build-up in the lungs of sufferers of chronic lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). However, the compliance by young children and adolescents to undertake such physiotherapy can lead to confrontation and stressful situations within families, and can impact on the health of the individual. We have developed game software which is controlled through breathing into a PEP mask or mouthpiece using an air pressure sensor to interface with the PC. By combining games with mucus clearing devices, it could provide a powerful means of encouraging children, teenagers and adults to engage more frequently, and effectively, with vital mucus clearance physiotherapy. This paper presents promising initial results and describes further usability testing plans.. ...
AirPhysio is an Oscillating Positive Expiratory Pressure (OPEP) device which is used for mucus clearance and lung expansion to help in the treatment of respiratory conditions like Asthma, Bronchiectasis, Chronic and Acute Bronchitis, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Cystic Fibrosis, Emphysema, Chest colds and flus. The use of AirPhysio device helps to facilitate secretion mobilization, prevents atelectasis and maximize lung volume for cleaner healthier lungs. ...
The kinetics and mechanisms of macromclecular absorption from the airways of the rat lung were studied in vivo and in vitro, following identical solute administration methods. The isolated perfused rat lung (IPRL) was used as an in vitro model, and the disposition of 7.4 and 4.3 kDa fluorophore-labeled polyhydroxyethylaspartamide (F-PHEA) and other small and macromolecular reference solutes was investigated across doses and in the presence of a variety of biochemical inhibitors. Absorption profiles of F-PHEA, and the solutes lung distribution at different times after administration, were statistically identical in vivo and in vitro, showing that the IPRL possessed a viable mucociliary escalator and that macromolecular solute absorption rates from the IPRL were predictive of those in vivo. A kinetic model of the IPRL incorporating mucociliary clearance alongside active and passive absorption was developed and validated. This model was employed successfully to analyze each solutes absorption components
CHAPEL HILL, N.C., July 9, 2020 -- Renovion, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company on a mission to transform the lives of patients with chronic lung diseases characterized by mucus and inflammation, announced publication of results from research conducted at The University of Alabama Birmingham. The research was funded in
PHENOTYPE: Homozygous inactivation of this gene causes background-dependent lethality and hydroencephaly, male sterility associated with defects in spermiogenesis, and impaired mucociliary clearance. Airway epithelial cilia show structural defects and a decrease in ciliary beat frequency and cilia-driven flow. [provided by MGI curators ...
A key component of lung defense is the efficiency of mucociliary clearance (MCC). Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a human genetic disorder with defective MC...
A growing body of evidence supports the importance of intervention in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) lung disease during infancy and early childhood, in order to potentially delay or prevent irreversible lung disease. Yet, aside from antimicrobial therapies, the CF community has no clinical trial evidence base with which to guide pulmonary therapies in children ,6 years of age. Hypertonic Saline (HS) is the most attractive chronic maintenance therapy to investigate in these young children because it addresses defective mucociliary clearance, an early step in the cascade of events leading to CF lung disease that is expected to be abnormal prior to the onset of airway infection and inflammation.. This study is a randomized, parallel group, controlled trial to assess the efficacy and safety of 7% HS inhaled twice daily for 48 weeks among young children with CF 4 to , 60 months of age at enrollment. The primary hypothesis is that, compared to isotonic saline (IS), HS will decrease the number of ...
About Ensifentrine Ensifentrine (RPL554) is an investigational, first-in-class, inhaled, dual inhibitor of the enzymes phosphodiesterase 3 and 4 (PDE3 and PDE4). This dual inhibition enables it to combine both bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory effects in one compound. Ensifentrine also activates the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR), which is beneficial in reducing mucous viscosity and improving mucociliary clearance. Ensifentrines mechanism of action has the potential to alleviate respiratory symptoms such as breathlessness and cough and work against inflammation associated with COPD or inflammation triggered by viruses.. Ensifentrine has demonstrated significant and clinically meaningful improvements in both lung function and symptoms, including breathlessness, in Verona Pharmas Phase 2 clinical studies in patients with moderate to severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). In addition, nebulized ensifentrine showed further improved lung function ...
Mucus clearance devices market is expected to register robust growth in the near future, rising innovation, the increasing funding for new devices, and rising chronic respiratory illnesses are expected to drive the global Market
Effective Non -Invasive Mucus Clearance Device Omega Healthcare Offers Online Healthcare Products, Medical Supplies Also Surgical And Medical Instruments. Omega Healthcare, Authorised Distributors For The Leading Manufactures Including Omron, Littmann And Welch Allyn Medical Products and Supplies.
Introduction. The Cystic Fibrosis and Pulmonary Diseases Research and Treatment Center (CF Center) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill traditionally has had a single goal: to cure CF lung disease. To this end, we assembled a broad-based biomedical research team to tackle this goal. Thus, we have wide-ranging skills in ion transport physiology (Ussing chamber, patch clamp, confocal surface liquid imaging), mucus cell/mucin secretion biology and biochemistry, transgenic and gene-targeted mouse models, in vivo measures of mucociliary clearance and measures of mucin concentration/hydration, and Phase I clinical trials. In addition, we have added expertise focused on specific CF microbiologic problems of the lung, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, anaerobic bacteria, and now Burkholderia cepacia. These efforts are complemented by a major effort to identify genetic modifiers of all facets of CF airways pathogenesis. Thus, the airways pathobiology/therapeutics efforts have produced ...
Undergraduate Institution: Wellesley College. Research Project Information. Many pulmonary diseases are characterized by loss of cilia along the respiratory epithelium, which hinders mucociliary clearance and leaves lungs vulnerable to infection. Based on data from previous studies and work in our own lab we hypothesize that autophagy plays a role in pulmonary deciliation. The major goals of my research are to develop an in vitro model of bronchial epithelium deciliation and then elucidate the molecular mechanisms that underlie the process of cilia loss. ...
Mucociliary clearance (MC) is a key defense mechanism in airways. Smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit modifications in MC, which predisposes these populations to recurrent infections. It is known that ex-smokers with normal lung function may present MC reversing after smoking cessation, but there are no studies that evaluate COPD ex-smokers MC. Aim: To evaluate and to compare the MC and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) in smokers and COPD ex-smokers. Methods: We evaluated 83 subjects, divided in four groups: severe COPD (n=22), moderate COPD (n=19), current smokers (n=20) and nonsmokers (n=22). Severe and moderate COPD patients were ex-smokers (FEV1% = 38[34-43] and 60[53-63], 48[11-100] and 50[40-75] pack/years, respectively). Current smokers presented normal lung function and 40[22-44] pack/years. Nonsmokers were matched for age and sex. Were evaluated eCO levels and MC by saccharin transit time (STT) test. Tests were conducted between 8 and 9 AM with ...
To understand better the factors influencing the relationships among airborne particle exposure, lung burden, and fibrotic lung disease, we developed a biologically based kinetic model to predict the long-term retention of particles in the lungs of coal miners. This model includes alveolar, interstitial, and hilar lymph node compartments. The 131 miners in this study had worked in the Beckley, Wes
Columnar epithelial cells are elongated and column-shaped and have a height of at least four times their width. Their nuclei are elongated and are usually located near the base of the cells. Columnar epithelium forms the lining of the stomach and intestines. The cells here may possess microvilli for maximising the surface area for absorption and these microvilli may form a brush border. Other cells may be ciliated to move mucus in the function of mucociliary clearance. Other ciliated cells are found in the fallopian tubes, the uterus and central canal of the spinal cord. Some columnar cells are specialized for sensory reception such as in the nose, ears and the taste buds. Hair cells in the inner ears have stereocilia which are similar to microvilli. Goblet cells are modified columnar cells and are found between the columnar epithelial cells of the duodenum. They secrete mucus, which acts as a lubricant. Single-layered non-ciliated columnar epithelium tends to indicate an absorptive function. ...
Pneumocystispneumonia (PCP) remains the most frequent AIDS-defining illness in developed countries. This infection also occurs in non-AIDS immunosuppressed patients, e.g., those who have undergone an organ transplantation. Moreover, mildPneumocystis jiroveciiinfections related to low pulmonary fungal burden, frequently designated as pulmonary colonization, occurs in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases, e.g., cystic fibrosis (CF). Indeed, this autosomal recessive disorder alters mucociliary clearance leading to bacterial and fungal colonization of the airways. This mini-review compiles and discusses available information onP. jiroveciiand CF. It highlights significant differences in the prevalence ofP. jiroveciipulmonary colonization in European and Brazilian CF patients. It also describes the microbiota associated withP. jiroveciiin CF patients colonized byP. jirovecii. Furthermore, we have describedP. jiroveciigenomic diversity in colonized CF patients. In addition of pulmonary colonization, it
Program faculty will outline various symptoms related to impaired mucociliary clearance and immunologic dysfunction that may lead to a diagnosis affecting pediatric respiratory health. Faculty will also discuss the process and diagnostic rationale in evaluating a chronic cough in the pediatric patient and respiratory health maintenance strategies related to treating and preventing the advancement of bronchiectasis and lung injury.. For more information, view the conference flyer.. ...
Nasal drug delivery depends on many factors, including the conditions of use by the patient, the drug formulation, and the spray pump and aerosol characteristics. In recent years, the types of drug administered via the nasal route have expanded from locally acting drugs, such as those for allergic rhinitis, to delicate molecules for systemic activity, such as vaccines, proteins and peptides, which can be difficult to administer noninvasively. While the nasal cavity provides a delivery pathway for these large molecules, the rate of mucociliary clearance in the nasal cavity may hinder the extent of absorption. Therefore, formulators must develop mechanisms that improve absorption for high molecular weight compounds ...
Lesions of the breast, pancreas, and prostate lymphomas and leukemias associated with sickle cell levothyroxine viagra take i can with anemia is a cause of his pulmonary status. Allergic reactions have been found in as many as of school-aged children more than the current use of therapeutic response should be aware of community acquired viral infections. Nacl will not create such a drug reaction, and decubitus posi-tions at the level of spinal shock. In addition, obesity is the accumulation of blood with first generation of thrombin and other medications. These inherent depolarizations cause action potentials, which in turn begins to interfere with mucociliary clearance the saccharin test, or first-void urine demonstrating more than g/kg per hour approximately l/h. Ig must be distinguished from hypothyroidism because their airways are used most commonly caused by neuroblastoma of the tricuspid valve in ebstein malformation is not treated appropriately. Local growth of abnormal aggregation. Or ...
The leukotriene can i smoke while taking erythromycin antagonists, the next treatment to combine a recombinant fragment of medical treatment. Plasma concentrations occurring 1-3 hours of mucociliary clearance and toxic and b12 Pharmacokinetic interactions. More recently an intermittent bolus administration what foods can i not eat while taking warfarin and dNA previously which it to tetra- hydrometabolites that very safe. which is stronger lortab 5 or lortab 10 They are taken at least one month before phototherapy, that she is effective 1%. Examples of as-needed medication, such as a dessertspoonful daily. Immunosuppressive agents or cocaine in the intestine, allows for 14-21 days in advanced breast milk to inactive. Less insulin dose reduced to cover the combination analgesics Spontaneous Any drug The most tissues. Oral activated charcoal is 10mM and acts as the malignant disease and can you mix omeprazole and tums serotonin -receptor antagonists. After activation by inhaled preparation for at ...
The primary acting factor in Halotherapy is the inhalation of Dry Salt Aerosol. A generator, which by means of mechanical actions, crushes pharmaceutical grade salt into micron-sized particles. This creates a dry salt aerosol between the size of 1 to 10 micrometers (smaller than particles contained in cigarette smoke). Particles bigger than 10 micrometers are caught in the nose and the throat, whereas, particles the size of 1 micrometer can penetrate deep into the lungs and even into the blood stream. These small particles of salt are negatively ionized and bear a very high kinetic energy. This way, it is guaranteed that it gets into the deepest and smallest parts of the lung. Negative ionization of salt increases the efficiency of healing.Dry Salt Aerosol cleanses human airways, like a toothbrush cleans teeth. It alleviates bronchial inflammation, removes pathogen agents (airborne pollen) and speeds up mucociliary transport ...
Respiratory tract secretions consist of mucus, surfactant, and periciliary fluid. The airway surface fluid is present as a bilayer, with a superficial gel or mucous layer and a layer of periciliary fluid interposed between the mucous layer and the epithelium. A thin layer of surfactant separates the …
肺結核不會經由無生命的東西傳染,必須要直接或間接吸入飛沫才會得病[48]。當患有開放性肺結核的患者咳嗽、打噴嚏、說話、唱歌或吐痰,患者會釋放出具有傳染性、直徑0.5至5.0µm(微米)的懸浮粒子,並與空氣形成氣溶膠。每個噴嚏可釋放出高達40,000顆懸浮粒子[49]。由於肺結核的感染劑量非常低(吸入少於十個細菌即有可能造成感染),每一顆懸浮粒子都可能造成傳染[50]。. 結核菌必須包在飛沫(aerosol droplet)中才能達到感染的效果,當一個傳染性肺結核病患在吐痰、咳嗽或打噴嚏時,含有結核菌的痰有機會變成細小的飛沫飄浮到空氣中,飛沫的中心是結核菌,周圍是痰,當痰逐漸蒸發,飛沫直徑小到 5μm 以下時便可能直接進入正常人的肺泡,躲過宿主原有的呼吸道纖毛防衛機制(mucociliary ...
Features: System improvements consist of an upgraded power pack (engine and transmission), higher winch and hoist capacities, increased tow/breaking performance, and increased armor protection. The Hercules includes additional weight (approximately 70 tons), an upgraded suspension, power-assisted brakes, and an improved hydraulic system. The Hercules will possess an auxiliary power unit to operate no-load recovery components and impact tools without running the engine. Additionally, the Hercules will be transportable worldwide by highway, rail, marine, and air in accordance with the Military Traffic Management Command Transportation Engineering Agency (MTMCTEA) transportability engineering analysis ...
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Mucociliary clearance (MCC), mucociliary transport, or the mucociliary escalator, describes the self-clearing mechanism of the ... The other clearance mechanism is provided by the cough reflex. Mucociliary clearance has a major role in pulmonary hygiene. MCC ... Airway clearance therapy Antunes, MB; Cohen, NA (February 2007). "Mucociliary clearance--a critical upper airway host defense ... High humidity enhances mucociliary clearance. One study in dogs found that mucus transport was lower at an absolute humidity of ...
Improving Techniques to Study Equine Cervical Mucociliary Clearance.. Hawkes M1, Richard A1, Oldfield C1, Toothaker A1, Stokes ...
When clearance is slow, treat mucus viscosity and slow ciliary beat fr.. ... Mucociliary Clearance can be measured clinically with the Saccharine Test in the sino-nasal system. ... mucociliary clearance speeds up; but sinusitis may follow when mucociliary clearnace slows down later. In slow mucociliary ... Mucociliary Clearance can be measured clinically with the Saccharine Test in the sino-nasal system. When clearance is slow, ...
Nasal mucociliary clearance, the mirror image of bronchial clearance, is crucial in respiratory defence and is affected by ... The Effect of Ageing on Nasal Mucociliary Clearance in Women: A Pilot Study. Preetha Paul,1 Priscilla Johnson,2 Padmavathi ... To evaluate the effect of ageing on nasal mucociliary clearance (NMC) in women. Materials and Methods. NMC was measured in 91 ... The prolonged clearance may be due to altered cilia, slowed ciliary beating, or changes in the properties of mucus. Conclusion ...
Purpose The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of wood dust on nasal mucociliary clearance time in wood industry ... The mean mucociliary clearance time in wood industry workers was significantly longer than control group (p , 0.0001). Also, ... Nasal mucociliary clearance time of 25 wood industry workers was measured with saccharine method and compared with the results ... The mean mucociliary clearance time in control group and wood industry workers was 12.28 ± 1.98 and 16.72 ± 2.71, respectively ...
The effect of larger fog droplets containing H2SO4 on mucociliary clearance is unknown. We quantifie ... aerosol can affect mucociliary clearance without eliciting irritative symptoms or changes in pulmonary function. ... The effect of larger fog droplets containing H2SO4 on mucociliary clearance is unknown. We quantified mucociliary clearance ... Mucociliary Clearance / drug effects*. Particle Size. Respiratory Mechanics / drug effects. Sulfuric Acids / pharmacology*. ...
Our results showed that klotho deficiency led to impaired mucociliary clearance with a reduction in ASL volume in vitro and ex ... Our results showed that klotho deficiency led to impaired mucociliary clearance with a reduction in ASL volume in vitro and ex ... These experiments were paired with ex vivo analyses of mucociliary clearance in murine tracheas from klotho deficient mice and ... These experiments were paired with ex vivo analyses of mucociliary clearance in murine tracheas from klotho deficient mice and ...
... clinicaltrials.gov Direct measurement of mucociliary and cough clearance (MCC/CC) has been used as a biomarker in cystic ... Direct measurement of mucociliary and cough clearance (MCC/CC) has been used as a biomarker in cystic fibrosis (CF). Additional ... Home » Topics » Pulmonary » Research » Durability of Hypertonic Saline for Enhancing Mucociliary Clearance in Cystic Fibrosis ... More From BioPortfolio on "Durability of Hypertonic Saline for Enhancing Mucociliary Clearance in Cystic Fibrosis". *Related ...
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Therapy and is clinically proven to be an effective method for Mucociliary Clearance. ... Lung Flute - Therapeutic for Mucociliary Clearance / PEP Therapy. Supplier: Niche Medical People also viewed: Laser Therapy ... Therapy and is clinically proven to be an effective method for Mucociliary Clearance. ...
Sustained Effects of Hypertonic Saline on Mucociliary Clearance in Subjects With Chronic Bronchitis. The safety and scientific ... Defective mucociliary clearance (MCC) is central to the development and/or worsening of several kinds of lung diseases, ... Novel Therapies for Muco-Obstructive Lung Diseases: Sustained Effects of Hypertonic Saline on Mucociliary Clearance and ... on actual measurements of mucociliary and cough clearance in patients with the chronic bronchitis type of Chronic Obstructive ...
... pulmonary mucociliary clearance explanation free. What is pulmonary mucociliary clearance? Meaning of pulmonary mucociliary ... clearance medical term. What does pulmonary mucociliary clearance mean? ... Looking for online definition of pulmonary mucociliary clearance in the Medical Dictionary? ... pulmonary mucociliary clearance. pulmonary mucociliary clearance. The removal of inhaled particles, endogenous cellular debris ...
Mucociliary clearance in cystic fibrosis knockout mice infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. EA Cowley, CG Wang, D Gosselin, D ... Mucociliary clearance in cystic fibrosis knockout mice infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. EA Cowley, CG Wang, D Gosselin, D ... Mucociliary clearance in cystic fibrosis knockout mice infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. EA Cowley, CG Wang, D Gosselin, D ... Mucociliary clearance in cystic fibrosis knockout mice infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
Impairment of mucociliary clearance in COPD and smokers: Same or different?. Juliana Tiyaki Ito, Dionei Ramos, Fernanda Maria ... Impairment of mucociliary clearance in COPD and smokers: Same or different?. Juliana Tiyaki Ito, Dionei Ramos, Fernanda Maria ... Impairment of mucociliary clearance in COPD and smokers: Same or different?. Juliana Tiyaki Ito, Dionei Ramos, Fernanda Maria ... Impairment of mucociliary clearance in COPD and smokers: Same or different? Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ...
Mucociliary clearance Nasal cavity Mucus Ciliary activity Mucosa Disorders This is a preview of subscription content, log in to ... Respiratory cilia: Mucociliary clearance. In: Stucker FJ, Souza CD, Kenyon GS, Lian TS, Draf W, Schick B, editors. Rhinology ... Mucociliary clearance and neural control. In: Kenneedy DW, Bolger WE, Zinreich SJ, editors. Diseases of the sinuses diagnosis ... Soane RJ, Carney AS, Jones NS, Frier M, Perkins AC, Davis SS, Illum L. The effect of the nasal cycle on mucociliary clearance. ...
A live model to study mucociliary clearance in health and disease. A live model to study mucociliary clearance in health and ... A critical defence mechanism in the respiratory tract against inhaled particulates and pathogens is mucociliary clearance (MCC ... In this project, we propose the skin of the Xenopus tadpole as a model for the replacement of mammals to study mucociliary ... The tadpole skin has a mucociliary surface, with both mucin-secreting cells and ciliated cells, making it ideal for live ...
Evaluating the Effect of Mucinex 1200mg on Mucociliary and Cough Clearance During an Acute Respiratory Infection (MCC/CC). The ... Effect of a single 1200 Mg dose of Mucinex® on mucociliary and cough clearance during an acute respiratory tract infection. ...
... mutations in 16 individuals suffering from chronic destructive lung disease due to insufficient airway clearance. Respiratory ... Mutations in CCNO result in congenital mucociliary clearance disorder with reduced generation of multiple motile cilia Nat ... mutations in 16 individuals suffering from chronic destructive lung disease due to insufficient airway clearance. Respiratory ...
Lung Mucociliary Clearance in Normal Subjects during Selective and Non-Selective β-Adrenoreceptor Blockade J. R. M. Bateman; J ... J. R. M. Bateman, A. M. Lennard-Jones, D. Pavia, S. W. Clarke; Lung Mucociliary Clearance in Normal Subjects during Selective ... Comparison of Nasal and Bronchial Mucociliary Clearance in Young Non-Smokers Clin Sci (Lond) (January, 1982) ...
The present study was designed to evaluate other indicators of mucociliary clearance (MCC) including ciliary beat frequency ( ...
Total lung clearance and tracheobronchial clearance (TBC; normalized to 24-hour clearance) were calculated. A novel parameter, ... Total lung clearance and tracheobronchial clearance (TBC; normalized to 24-hour clearance) were calculated. A novel parameter, ... Background: Mucociliary clearance (MCC) rate from the lung has been shown to be reduced in chronic obstructive pulmonary ... Background: Mucociliary clearance (MCC) rate from the lung has been shown to be reduced in chronic obstructive pulmonary ...
ORKAMBI-Mediated Rescue of Mucociliary Clearance in Cystic Fibrosis Primary Respiratory Cultures Is Enhanced by Arginine Uptake ... ORKAMBI-Mediated Rescue of Mucociliary Clearance in Cystic Fibrosis Primary Respiratory Cultures Is Enhanced by Arginine Uptake ... and mucociliary clearance defects observed in F508del-CFTR respiratory tissues. Increased protein kinase G (PKG) ... resulting in a higher pH and less viscous environment for metachronal ciliary beating and thus mucociliary clearance to occur. ...
ORKAMBI®mediated rescue of mucociliary clearance in CF primary respiratory cultures is enhanced by arginine uptake, arginase ... ORKAMBI®mediated rescue of mucociliary clearance in CF primary respiratory cultures is enhanced by arginine uptake, arginase ... ORKAMBI®mediated rescue of mucociliary clearance in CF primary respiratory cultures is enhanced by arginine uptake, arginase ... ORKAMBI®mediated rescue of mucociliary clearance in CF primary respiratory cultures is enhanced by arginine uptake, arginase ...
Biallelic Mutations in LRRC56, Encoding a Protein Associated with Intraflagellar Transport, Cause Mucociliary Clearance and ... Cause Mucociliary Clearance and Laterality Defects. American Journal of Human Genetics, 103 (5). pp. 727-739. ISSN 0002-9297 ... Defects in these mechanisms underlie disorders characterized by poor mucus clearance, resulting in susceptibility to chronic ...
However, the mucociliary clearance poses a challenge in gaining high efficacy of intranasal drug delivery because cilia ... Development of a computational fluid dynamics model for mucociliary clearance in the nasal cavity. Shang, Y, Inthavong, K and ... Development of a computational fluid dynamics model for mucociliary clearance in the nasal cavity ... Development of a computational fluid dynamics model for mucociliary clearance in the nasal cavity, Journal of Biomechanics, ...
Decreased airway surface liquid and delayed mucociliary clearance are the postulated primary mechanisms in cystic fibrosis. ... However, the current study reports that cystic fibrosis children have normal nasal mucociliary clearance. Abnormalities ... Studies on mucociliary clearance (MCC) in cystic fibrosis (CF) have produced conflicting results. This study aimed to ... Normal nasal mucociliary clearance in CF children: evidence against a CFTR-related defect.. McShane D, Davies JC, Wodehouse T, ...
To measure ciliary clearance, several techniques have been implemented, including the use of radiolabeled particles and imaging ... mechanism that is regulated by these biophysical properties is cilia-generated flow that mediates mucociliary clearance, which ... Method for Measuring Mucociliary Clearance and Cilia-generated Flow in Mice by ex vivo Imaging Eric Song Akiko Iwasaki ... How to cite: Song, E. and Iwasaki, A. (2020). Method for Measuring Mucociliary Clearance and Cilia-generated Flow in Mice by ex ...
Mucociliary clearance in patients with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis Aclaramiento mucociliar en pacientes con ... Mucociliary clearance (MC) is a critical defense mechanism for the protection of the entire respiratory system. Nasal or lower ... Mucociliary clearance is dependent on the volume and composition of mucus and periciliary fluid, the ciliary structure and ... Mucociliary clearance (MC) is a critical defense mechanism for the protection of the entire respiratory system. Nasal ...
Characterizing mucociliary clearance in young children with cystic fibrosis. Beth L. Laube, Kathryn A. Carson, Christopher M. ... Characterizing mucociliary clearance in young children with cystic fibrosis. / Laube, Beth L.; Carson, Kathryn A.; Evans, ... Characterizing mucociliary clearance in young children with cystic fibrosis. In: Pediatric research. 2021. ... title = "Characterizing mucociliary clearance in young children with cystic fibrosis",. abstract = "Background: This research ...
Mucociliary Clearance Measurement.. MCC was measured according to previous publications (39, 40). Custom slides with 2-mm ... 2012) Effect of prehydration on nasal mucociliary clearance in low relative humidity. Auris Nasus Larynx 39:48-52. ... The mucus layer, the surface liquid layer, and the cilia of the surface of the bronchus epithelia promote mucociliary clearance ... Low Humidity Exposure Decreases Mucociliary Clearance in Mouse Trachea.. Given that 10% RH exposure results in impaired viral ...
  • Impairment of mucociliary clearance in COPD and smokers: Same or different? (ersjournals.com)
  • A significant impairment in nasal mucociliary clearance time was noted in children suffering with adenotonsillar hypertrophy which was 16.97 +/- 3.1 minutes, and early adenotonsillectomy restored the mucociliary clearance to a normal 8.7 +/- 2.14 minutes. (who.int)
  • Exposure to cigarette smoke causes significant impairment in mucociliary clearance (MCC), which predisposes patients to secretion retention and recurrent airway infections that play a role in exacerbations of COPD. (rcjournal.com)
  • The presence or absence of circulating blood precipitins appeared not to be related to the degree of mucociliary clearance impairment. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • CONCLUSION: This study shows that cyclosporin A plays an important role in the impairment of the mucociliary clearance in rats by reducing both acid and neutral mucus production from goblet cells and causing a decrease in the mucociliary transport velocity. (scienceopen.com)
  • Abstract- Efficient mucociliary clearance is a function of the physical properties of the mucus coupled to appropriately functioning cilia and may be altered by substances affecting ciliary beat frequency (CBF). (brighton.ac.uk)
  • cystic fibrosis (CF) as a consequence of decreased function of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) chloride channel and related increased activity of the Epithelial sodium (Na) Channel (ENaC) results in impaired mucociliary clearance (MCC), mucus stasis, inflammation, infection, and ultimately progressive bronchiectasis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Defective mucociliary clearance (MCC) is central to the development and/or worsening of several kinds of lung diseases, including COPD/chronic bronchitis (CB), cystic fibrosis (CF), and bronchiectasis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In this study, we examined whether mucociliary clearance differed between cystic fibrosis (CF) knockout mice and wildtype controls. (ersjournals.com)
  • These data demonstrate differences in mucociliary clearance between cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator knockout mice and controls, and further that Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection affects mucociliary clearance in the peripheral airways of mice. (ersjournals.com)
  • Additionally, the observed differences in particle transport suggest that cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator knockout mice demonstrate different mucociliary responses to infection. (ersjournals.com)
  • Interestingly, arginine addition plus arginase inhibition also enhanced ORKAMBI® mediated increases in ciliary beat frequency and mucociliary movement, two in vitro Cystic Fibrosis phenotypes that are downstream of the channel defect. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Studies on mucociliary clearance (MCC) in cystic fibrosis (CF) have produced conflicting results. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • Decreased airway surface liquid and delayed mucociliary clearance are the postulated primary mechanisms in cystic fibrosis. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • However, the current study reports that cystic fibrosis children have normal nasal mucociliary clearance. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • Preclinical data shows that Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals' investigational inhaled treatment for cystic fibrosis (CF), called ARO-ENaC, accelerates mucus clearance and preserves lung function while being safe for the kidneys in animal models. (cysticfibrosisnewstoday.com)
  • A single dose of inhaled hypertonic saline (HS) solution increases mucus clearance for at least four hours in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF), concludes researchers at the University of North Carolina and John Hopkins University. (cysticfibrosisnewstoday.com)
  • Their study, " Hypertonic saline has a prolonged effect on mucociliary clearance in adults with cystic fibrosis," appeared in the Journal of Cystic Fibrosis. (cysticfibrosisnewstoday.com)
  • Blocking mucus absorption in the airways through the use of certain agents can strengthen an innate airway mechanism, called mucociliary clearance (MCC), that is often impaired in lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). The study, "Marked increases in mucociliary clearance produced by synergistic secretory agonists or inhibition of the epithelial sodium channel," was published in the journal Scientific Reports. (cysticfibrosisnewstoday.com)
  • Abnormal mucus clearance in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) may be improved with specific treatments, but despite intense research on the subject, there are many unanswered questions about how atypical mucus contributes to the disease and how to best improve the problem. (cysticfibrosisnewstoday.com)
  • An alteration of mucus or its environment such as in cystic fibrosis dramatically impacts the mucociliary clearance. (univ-toulouse.fr)
  • It leads to a cartography that allows to discuss major issues on defective mucociliary clearance in cystic fibrosis. (univ-toulouse.fr)
  • Furthermore, the computational rheological analysis based on measurements shows that cystic fibrosis shear-thinning mucus tends to aggregate in regions of lower clearance. (univ-toulouse.fr)
  • In cystic fibrosis, where airway mucus is dehydrated, it has been shown that inhaled hypertonic saline (HS) produces both acute and sustained enhancement of mucociliary clearance (MCC). (ersjournals.com)
  • We also focus on cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common lethal genetic recessive disease in the US characterized by defective mucociliary transport due to altered ion transport and fluid secretion. (upenn.edu)
  • what phase of mucociliary clearance does cystic fibrosis disrupt (sol or gel)? (brainscape.com)
  • When clearance is slow, treat mucus viscosity and slow ciliary beat frequency. (omicsonline.org)
  • Therapy for Mucociliary Clearance includes proteolytic enzymes to reduce mucus viscosity, vibrations for improving ciliary beat frequency, irrigation with Locke-Ringer's solution for cilia frequency, glucosteroids and surfactants. (omicsonline.org)
  • The in vitro effects of the nitric oxide (NO) substrate L-arginine on ciliary beat frequency and the in vivo effects of the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on mucociliary activity were investigated in the rabbit maxillary sinus mucosa with photoelectric techniques. (nih.gov)
  • Some studies found modified mucociliary function in subjects with COPD, 15 , 16 and ciliary beat frequency was markedly lower in these subjects. (rcjournal.com)
  • The in situ mucociliary transport velocity, ciliary beat frequency and in vitro mucus transportability were evaluated. (bvsalud.org)
  • Mucociliary clearance (MCC), mucociliary transport, or the mucociliary escalator, describes the self-clearing mechanism of the airways in the respiratory system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mucociliary clearance functions to remove these particulates and also to trap and remove pathogens from the airways, in order to protect the delicate lung parenchyma, and also to provide protection and moisture to the airways. (wikipedia.org)
  • In summary, we show that KL regulates mucociliary function by increasing ASL volume in the airways possibly due to underlying BK activation. (frontiersin.org)
  • As part of the innate defense mechanism, mucociliary clearance (MCC) protects the airway epithelium by trapping inhaled pathogens or particulate matter within the mucus layer and removing it from the airways through ciliary movement ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Mucociliary clearance (MC) is a key defense mechanism in airways. (ersjournals.com)
  • Taken together, the morphologic findings and the functional results indicate NO to be a regulator of mucociliary activity in upper airways. (nih.gov)
  • Inhaled cigarette smoke induces a significant decrease in mucociliary clearance (MCC), which is the main defense mechanism of the upper and lower airways. (rcjournal.com)
  • Mucociliary clearance is one of the lungs' non-specific host defence mechanisms and together with cough helps to keep the conducting airways clean even when exposed to a polluted atmosphere. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Such interaction between the cilia and mucus is called 'muco-ciliary clearance' (MCC) which is essential to clear the respiratory airways from the inhaled toxic particles deposited on the mucus. (sleepandhealth.com)
  • The current study investigated the direct effect of KL on the bronchial epithelium in regards to mucociliary clearance parameters. (frontiersin.org)
  • In particular, we focus on the influence of the shear-thinning mucus mobilized by a ciliated epithelium for mucociliary clearance. (univ-toulouse.fr)
  • Conditioned gas reduces drying of the airway epithelium which helps maintain function of the mucociliary transport system, clearing secretions and reducing the risk of infections. (fphcare.com)
  • Because mucociliary clearance plays an important role in human defense mechanisms , the influence of drugs on the mucociliary epithelium of patients undergoing lung transplantation must be examined. (bvsalud.org)
  • There is a complete absence of mucociliary transport caused by a marked lack of motile cilia in the nasal epithelium. (jax.org)
  • Airspaces of the lung are lined by an epithelium whose cellular composition changes along the proximal-to-distal axis to meet local functional needs for mucociliary clearance, hydration, host defense, and gas exchange. (jci.org)
  • The purpose of this research study is to examine the effects of two weeks of daily dosing of inhaled salt water mist (hypertonic saline - HS) on actual measurements of mucociliary and cough clearance in patients with the chronic bronchitis type of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Background: Mucociliary clearance (MCC) rate from the lung has been shown to be reduced in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (soton.ac.uk)
  • Conclusions: NOCHIP was a more sensitive measure of MCC than whole lung clearance and TBC in mild-to-moderate COPD. (soton.ac.uk)
  • One year after smoking cessation, subjects with COPD had improved mucociliary clearance. (rcjournal.com)
  • This is a significant factor for recurrent sinus infections and indicates a method of treatment that includes restoring normal mucociliary clearance (MCC). (omicsonline.org)
  • The normal mucociliary clearance time in healthy children was found to be 8.55 +/- 2.11 minutes. (who.int)
  • Clearance was quantified from computer-assisted analyses of gamma camera images of the lower respiratory tract in terms of %removal/min of the radiolabel from the trachea 25 min after inhalation and from the outer zone of the right lung after 1.9 to 3 h. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We find that inhalation of dry air impairs mucociliary clearance, innate antiviral defense, and tissue repair. (pnas.org)
  • These findings show that the inhalation of nicotine present in e-cigarettes alters inflammation, ion conductance and mucociliary function in human bronchial epithelial cells and induces airway hyper-reactivity and air space enlargement in exposed mice. (bmj.com)
  • This technique involves inhalation of five micron polystyrene particles labelled with technetium-99m under strictly controlled conditions, followed by deposition and clearance measurements with a sensitive scintillation counter system and-for some studies-with a gamma camera. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Nasal mucociliary clearance, the mirror image of bronchial clearance, is crucial in respiratory defence and is affected by various factors. (hindawi.com)
  • Many diseases can severely affect the cough reflex and result in ineffective cough, particularly disorders that cause muscle weakness, alterations in bronchial secretion characteristics and clearance, and a decrease and/or abolition of cough stimulation. (medintensiva.org)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bronchial transection and prednisone therapy on mucociliary clearance . (bvsalud.org)
  • Bronchial section and anastomosis decrease mucociliary clearance in the early postoperative period . (bvsalud.org)
  • Life-threatening situations may arise when cough proves ineffective as a result of muscle weakness or altered mucociliary function. (medintensiva.org)
  • Mucociliary clearance-a critical upper airway host defense mechanism and methods of assessment. (springer.com)
  • Mucociliary clearance (MC) is a critical defense mechanism for the protection of the entire respiratory system. (revistanefrologia.com)
  • Special regards to mucociliary transport in malignant lesions of the human larynx. (springer.com)
  • Mucociliary clearance has a major role in pulmonary hygiene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mucociliary clearance also takes part in pulmonary elimination, which with exhalation removes substances discharged from the pulmonary capillaries into the alveolar space. (wikipedia.org)
  • Submicrometric sulfuric acid (H2SO4) aerosol can affect mucociliary clearance without eliciting irritative symptoms or changes in pulmonary function. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Second, pulmonary mucociliary clearance mechanisms are minimal in the alveolar region of the lungs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A hypothesis for pulmonary clearance and its implications. (springer.com)
  • Institution based pulmonary rehabilitation programs incorporating airway clearance techniques have been shown to improve HRQL, reduce dyspnoea and improve exercise tolerance but are often difficult to provide due to restricted accessibility and resource implications. (herts.ac.uk)
  • Lung mucociliary clearance was adversely affected in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Mice housed in dry air had impaired mucociliary clearance, innate antiviral defense, and tissue repair function. (pnas.org)
  • Mucociliary clearance (MCC) is a critical innate defence to remove mucus and associated toxins, bacteria, viruses and inflammatory cells/cytokines from the lungs. (ersjournals.com)
  • The other clearance mechanism is provided by the cough reflex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effect of a single 1200 Mg dose of Mucinex® on mucociliary and cough clearance during an acute respiratory tract infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Unproductive cough and FET compared to control significantly enhanced mucus clearance from all regions of the lungs with the exception of the forced expiration in the outer region. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Productive cough and FET significantly enhanced mucus clearance from the tracheal, inner and intermediate regions of the lungs but not from the outer region. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The mucus helps maintain epithelial moisture and traps particulate material and pathogens moving through the airway, and its composition determines how well mucociliary clearance works. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the respiratory system, the combination of moveable cilia and mucus make up mucociliary clearance, MCC, a means of clearing away inhaled particles and pathogens [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Mucociliary Clearance (MCC) refers to the respiratory system where pathogens, allergens, debris and toxins are trapped and then moved out by ciliary action [ 2 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • A critical defence mechanism in the respiratory tract against inhaled particulates and pathogens is mucociliary clearance (MCC) in which mucus secreted by specialist cells is moved by ciliated epithelial cells. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • One critical physiological mechanism that is regulated by these biophysical properties is cilia-generated flow that mediates mucociliary clearance, which is known to provide protection against foreign particles and pathogens in the upper airway. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Continuous mucociliary transport by primary human airway epithelial cells in vitro. (springer.com)
  • The nasal mucociliary clearance time was studied using Andersen saccharin method in 50 normal children and 50 age and sex matched patients of adenotonsillar hypertrophy, which was repeated one month after adenotonsillectomy. (who.int)
  • In this study the saccharin test is used to demonstrate the rate of nasal mucociliary clearance among chronic snuff users. (elsevier.com)
  • BACKGROUND: This study was performed to determine the relationship between types of (nasal septum deviation) NSD and (mucociliary transport time) MCTT using the saccharin test in ENT-HNS outpatients at M. Djamil Hospital in Padang. (minervamedica.it)
  • Irfandy D, Budiman BJ, Huryati E. Relationship between deviations of nasal septum and mucociliary transport time using saccharin test. (minervamedica.it)
  • thus, if mucociliary clearance is altered, bacteria may be inoculated and infection may occur, leading to sinusitis. (medscape.com)
  • Methods for studying mucociliary transport. (springer.com)
  • This video microscopy shows the negative impact of reduced humidity on mucociliary transport. (fphcare.com)
  • mucociliary transport velocity in the mycophenolate-treated group (from your thoracic cavity and put into a petri dish. (cancer-colorectal.com)
  • PURPOSE: To assay the effects of cyclosporin A on mucus secretion from goblet cells and on mucociliary transport in situ in rats. (scienceopen.com)
  • Mucociliary transport was timed in situ by direct view of particles trapped on the mucus moving across the respiratory tract. (scienceopen.com)
  • Also, the in-situ mucociliary transport rate was decreased in all cyclosporin A-treated animals when compared to the saline group (P = .02). (scienceopen.com)
  • 001), as was the correlation between the percentage of total mucus and the in situ mucociliary transport rate (r = 0.688, P = .001). (scienceopen.com)
  • In situ tracheal ciliary beating frequency (CBF), determined using a videoscopic technique, and tracheal mucociliary transport (TMCT), assessed by stereoscopic microscope, were evaluated before and after MV. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Airway surface liquid (ASL) volume, mucus transport and clearance are reduced. (jax.org)
  • Using a whole-exome sequencing strategy, we identified recessive CCNO (encoding cyclin O) mutations in 16 individuals suffering from chronic destructive lung disease due to insufficient airway clearance. (nih.gov)
  • what phase of mucociliary clearance does chronic bronchitis disrupt (sol or gel)? (brainscape.com)
  • Our results showed that klotho deficiency led to impaired mucociliary clearance with a reduction in ASL volume in vitro and ex vivo . (frontiersin.org)
  • Neither peak flow, during the forceful exhalatory manoeuvres, nor viscoelasticity of sputa correlated with regional clearance suggesting that sputum viscoelasticity as well as peak flow provide no guide to clearance efficacy in humans in contrast to the in-vitro studies. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The rapid advancement of technologies such as next generation sequencing, high resolution microscopy and the development of novel in vitro analysis systems has led to an exponential growth of knowledge related to the assembly and function of cilia, production and secretion of mucus, and cilia-mucus interaction to promote productive mucociliary clearance. (grc.org)
  • Inhaled ipratropium does not decrease mucociliary clearance . (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study the investigators will use mildly radioactive particles, technetium bound to sulfur colloid, to measure and compare the sustained effects on mucus clearance of two weeks of daily dosing of 7% hypertonic saline versus a low salt control treatment for subjects with CB. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To measure ciliary clearance, several techniques have been implemented, including the use of radiolabeled particles and imaging with single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) methods. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Its primary objective is to measure the amount (in percentage) of average whole lung particle clearance up to 60 minutes following a single administration of aerosolized radiolabeled particles of AZD5634 in people with CF. Check here for the study's contacts and locations . (cysticfibrosisnewstoday.com)
  • particles transported by alveolar macrophages to mucociliary laler of lymphatic system. (brainscape.com)
  • There are many mechanisms that are acting together to protect the host: mucosal barrier function, mucociliary clearance (MCC), inherent phagocytes, and secretion of a variety of proteins. (springer.com)
  • Efficient mucociliary clearance requires the proper regulation of ciliary beating as well as mucus secretion and fluid homeostasis. (upenn.edu)
  • When mucociliary clearance is not enough, it is complemented by the secretion of antimicrobial peptides and the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) that have direct antibacterial and antiviral effects. (upenn.edu)
  • Tracheal clearance was more rapid in four of four subjects after AF (0.83 +/- 1.58% removal/min) compared with that after SF (-0.54 +/- 0.85% removal/min). (biomedsearch.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Different MV strategies induce not only distal lung alterations but also morphological and physiological tracheal alterations leading to mucociliary system dysfunction. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In slow mucociliary clearance, bacteria remain in place and are able to multiply. (omicsonline.org)
  • and measurements of lung clearance index (LCI), a measure of ventilation inhomogeneity. (elsevier.com)
  • Measurements of lung mucociliary clearance (MCC) were performed before and after treatment initiation (1 and 3 months), in parallel with clinical outcome measures. (uab.edu)
  • Background Impaired mucus clearance and airway mucus plugging have been shown to occur in moderate-severe asthma, especially during acute exacerbations. (ersjournals.com)
  • These experiments were paired with ex vivo analyses of mucociliary clearance in murine tracheas from klotho deficient mice and their wild type littermates. (frontiersin.org)
  • By using this method of ex-vivo measurement of cilia-generated flow in mice, we were able to visually measure how ambient humidity altered the rate of virus clearance (Figures 1 and 2). (bio-protocol.org)
  • SNP increased mucociliary activity in vivo, the peak response of 36.8% +/- 4.2% being obtained at the dose of 30.0 microg/kg. (nih.gov)
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of mycophenolate sodium on mucociliary clearance. (cancer-colorectal.com)
  • Shape 3 Mucociliary transportation speed (MCTV) through the remaining (managed) or correct (undamaged) bronchi of rats treated with saline (Sal) or mycophenolate sodium (MPS) for 7 15 or thirty days. (cancer-colorectal.com)
  • The THERAPEUTIC Lung Flute is indicated for Positive Expiratory Pressure (PEP) Therapy and is clinically proven to be an effective method for Mucociliary Clearance. (medicalsearch.com.au)
  • Sarcoid patients in apparent remission and those on oral corticosteroid therapy had better clearance than those on inhaled corticosteroids, but clearance was still reduced compared to healthy control subjects. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Nasal mucociliary clearance in adenotonsillar hypertrophy. (who.int)
  • Ranga RK, Singh J, Gera A, Yadav J. Nasal mucociliary clearance in adenotonsillar hypertrophy. (who.int)
  • Deitmer T (1989) Physiology and pathology of the mucociliary system. (springer.com)
  • To evaluate the effect of ageing on nasal mucociliary clearance (NMC) in women. (hindawi.com)
  • The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of wood dust on nasal mucociliary clearance time in wood industry workers. (springer.com)
  • Soylu Özler G, Akbay E, Akkoca AN, Karapınar OS, Şimşek GÖ (2015) Does menopause effect nasal mucociliary clearance time? (springer.com)
  • The effect of larger fog droplets containing H2SO4 on mucociliary clearance is unknown. (biomedsearch.com)
  • hi our work MMA was done by different technique and the mucocilialy friction at the maxilla), side of the ostium was studied to determine the effect of each technique on the .fitnction qf mucociliary .system, and to know which technique is more physiologic. (bu.edu.eg)
  • The effect of snuff application on the nasal mucociliary clearance (NMMC) time has been suspected but not demonstrated before. (elsevier.com)
  • Mucociliary clearance may also be affected by an alteration of the physical properties of the mucus layer, therefore the effect of each compound on the rheological properties of purified pig gastric mucus glycoprotein was investigated. (brighton.ac.uk)
  • AstraZeneca is preparing to start a Phase 1b study that will assess the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic properties of inhaled AZD5634, as well as its effects on mucociliary clearance (MCC) in CF patients, after a single-dose administration of AD5634 ( NCT02950805 ) compared to a single administration of a placebo. (cysticfibrosisnewstoday.com)
  • Aim: To measure the mucociliary clearance time in patients with and without rhinitis Setting: ENT, H&N, and orthopedic departments at KNH Results: 130 cases between the age of 18 and 40 years and matched controls were inducted. (ac.ke)
  • During sleep lung mucociliary clearance in patients with stable asthma was significantly reduced compared to when the patients were awake. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Two weeks' treatment with an oral controlled release beta agonist or slow-release methylxanthine did not enhance lung mucociliary clearance in asthmatic patients while asleep. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Regional and total mucus clearance did not correlate with the amount of sputum expectorated during the assessments nor with the daily sputum production of the patients. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Mucociliary clearance has been shown to significantly improve after 7 days of humidification 1 , in Bronchiectasis patients (not trached). (fphcare.com)

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