Mucociliary Clearance: A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Cilia: Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Ciliary Motility Disorders: Conditions caused by abnormal CILIA movement in the body, usually causing KARTAGENER SYNDROME, chronic respiratory disorders, chronic SINUSITIS, and chronic OTITIS. Abnormal ciliary beating is likely due to defects in any of the 200 plus ciliary proteins, such as missing motor enzyme DYNEIN arms.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Diuretics, Osmotic: Compounds that increase urine volume by increasing the amount of osmotically active solute in the urine. Osmotic diuretics also increase the osmolarity of plasma.Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, liver, and spleen.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in cardiovascular and cerebral circulation.Saccharin: Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.Bromhexine: A mucolytic agent used in the treatment of respiratory disorders associated with viscid or excessive mucus. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p744)Kartagener Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a triad of DEXTROCARDIA; INFERTILITY; and SINUSITIS. The syndrome is caused by mutations of DYNEIN genes encoding motility proteins which are components of sperm tails, and CILIA in the respiratory and the reproductive tracts.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Saline Solution, Hypertonic: Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).Terbutaline: A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Bronchiectasis: Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi.Palate: The structure that forms the roof of the mouth. It consists of the anterior hard palate (PALATE, HARD) and the posterior soft palate (PALATE, SOFT).Rhinitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in one or more of the PARANASAL SINUSES.Bronchospirometry: Spirometric technique in which the volume of air breathed in the right and left lung is recorded separately.Atropine Derivatives: Analogs and derivatives of atropine.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Motion Pictures as Topic: The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Mannitol: A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.Expectorants: Agents that increase mucous excretion. Mucolytic agents, that is drugs that liquefy mucous secretions, are also included here.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Technetium: The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator: A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.

Clearance in small ciliated airways in allergic asthmatics after bronchial allergen provocation. (1/291)

BACKGROUND: Asthma tends to affect mucociliary clearance, as assessed from measurements in large airways. However, there is no knowledge about clearance in the smallest airways of the tracheobronchial region in acute exacerbation of asthma. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate clearance from the bronchiolar region in patients with allergic asthma in a situation resembling a mild acute exacerbation of the disease. We also aimed to compare clearance data with corresponding data found for healthy subjects and asthmatics on therapy. METHODS: Tracheobronchial clearance was studied twice in 9 patients with mild asthma of the allergic type after inhalation of 6 microm (aerodynamic diameter) monodisperse Teflon particles labelled with 111In. At one exposure, inhalation was performed 4 h after bronchial provocation with an allergen the patients were allergic to. The second exposure was a control measurement. The particles were inhaled at an extremely slow flow, 0.05 liter/s, which gives deposition mainly in the small ciliated airways (bronchioles). Lung retention was measured at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. RESULTS: All patients demonstrated an early asthmatic reaction of varying degree after bronchial provocation. There was significant clearance of radioaerosol in each 24-hour period for both exposures, with the possible exception of the period between 24 and 48 h for the provocation exposure, with similar fractions of retained particles at all points of time. The retained fractions were significantly larger compared to a group of healthy subjects and asthmatics on regular treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that in allergic asthmatics a bronchial allergen provocation with an early asthmatic reaction does not significantly influence overall clearance from the bronchiolar region. However, in the present group of patients, retention in small ciliated airways was significantly higher compared to healthy subjects and asthmatics on regular treatment.  (+info)

The effects of ketolides on bioactive phospholipid-induced injury to human respiratory epithelium in vitro. (2/291)

The potential of the novel ketolide antimicrobial agents, HMR 3004 and HMR 3647, to antagonize the injurious effects of the bioactive phospholipids (PL), platelet-activating factor (PAF), lyso-PAF, and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) on the ciliary beat frequency and structural integrity of human ciliated respiratory epithelium in vitro was investigated, in the presence or absence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL). The ciliary beat frequency of human nasal respiratory epithelium, obtained by nasal brushing of healthy volunteers, was measured using a photo-transistor technique, while superoxide generation by activated human PMNL and membrane-stabilizing activity were measured by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence and haemolytic procedures, respectively. All three PL, at concentrations of 2.5 microg x mL(-1), caused significant (p<0.005) ciliary slowing and epithelial damage, while treatment of the epithelial strips with the ketolides, in particular HMR 3004, caused dose-related attenuation of these direct adverse effects of the PL on ciliated epithelium, apparently by a membrane-stabilizing mechanism. When epithelial strips were exposed to the combination of PMNL (1 x 10(6) cells x mL(-1)) and PAF (1 microg x mL(-1)), significant ciliary dysfunction and epithelial damage were also observed, which were mediated predominantly by neutrophil-derived oxidants. These injurious effects of PAF were antagonized by preincubation of the epithelial strips or the PMNL with HMR 3004 (10 microg x mL(-1)). The ketolide antimicrobial agents, in particular HMR 3004, antagonize the direct and polymorphonuclear leukocyte-mediated injurious effects of phospholipids on human ciliated epithelium and may have beneficial effects in inflammatory disorders of the airways, such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, diffuse panbronchiolitis and bronchiectasis.  (+info)

Regulation of mucociliary clearance in health and disease. (3/291)

Airway secretions are cleared by mucociliary clearance (MCC), in addition to other mechanisms such as cough, peristalsis, two-phase gas-liquid flow and alveolar clearance. MCC comprises the cephalad movement of mucus caused by the cilia lining the conducting airways until it can be swallowed or expectorated. MCC is a very complex process in which many variables are involved, all of which may modify the final outcome. The structure, number, movement and co-ordination of the cilia present in the airways as well as the amount, composition and rheological properties of the periciliary and mucus layers are determinants of MCC. Physiological factors such as age, sex, posture, sleep and exercise are reported to influence MCC due to a change in the cilia, the mucus or the periciliary layer, or a combination of these. Environmental pollution is suspected to have a depressant effect on MCC dependent on different factors such as pollutant concentration and the duration of exposure. Most studies focus on sulphur dioxide, sulphuric acid, nitrogen dioxide and ozone. Tobacco smoke and hairspray have been noted to have a negative influence on MCC. Some diseases are known to affect MCC, mostly negatively. The underlying mechanism differs from one illness to another. Immotile cilia syndrome, asthma, bronchiectasis, chronic bronchitis, cystic fibrosis and some acute respiratory tract infections are among the most frequently reported. The present paper reviews normal mucociliary clearance and the effects of diseases on this process.  (+info)

Physiotherapy and bronchial mucus transport. (4/291)

Cough and expectoration of mucus are the best-known symptoms in patients with pulmonary disease. The most applied intervention for these symptoms is the use of chest physiotherapy to increase bronchial mucus transport and reduce retention of mucus in the airways. Chest physiotherapy interventions can be evaluated using different outcome variables, such as bronchial mucus transport measurement, measurement of the amount of expectorated mucus, pulmonary function, medication use, frequency of exacerbation and quality of life. Measurement of the transport rate of mucus in the airways using a radioactive tracer appears to be an appropriate outcome variable for short-term studies. Evaluation of chest physiotherapy only with pulmonary function tests appears to be inadequate in short-term studies. The popularity of using pulmonary function tests is probably based more on the availability of the instruments than on a theoretical basis related to the question of chest physiotherapy improving mucus transport. Quality of life and progression of the disease are not often used as outcome variables, but it may be worthwhile to use these in the future.  (+info)

Acute effects of inhalable particles on the frog palate mucociliary epithelium. (5/291)

This work was designed to evaluate the toxicity of inhalable particles [less than/equal to] 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10)) collected from the urban air in Sao Paulo, Brazil, to the mucociliary apparatus using the frog palate preparation. Seven groups of frog palates were immersed in different concentrations of PM(10) diluted in Ringer's solution during 120 min: 0 (control, n = 31); 50 (n = 10); 100 (n = 9); 500 (n = 28); 1,000 (n = 10); 5,000 (n = 11); and 10,000 microg/m(3) (n = 10). Mucociliary transport and transepithelial potential difference were determined at 0, 30, 60, and 120 min exposure. Additional groups (control and 500 microg/m(3)) were studied by means of morphometric analyses (quantification of the amount of intraepithelial and surface mucins), measurement of cilia beat frequency, and quantification of total glutathione. Mucociliary transport and transepithelial potential difference were significantly decreased at higher concentrations of PM(10) (p = 0.03 and p = 0.02, respectively). Exposure to PM(10) also elicited a significant decrease of total glutathione (p = 0. 003) and depletion of neutral intraepithelial mucins (p = 0.0461). These results show that PM(10) can promote significant alterations in ciliated epithelium in vitro.  (+info)

Effect of fluticasone propionate and salmeterol on Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection of the respiratory mucosa in vitro. (6/291)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the corticosteroid, fluticasone propionate (FP), on Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection of the respiratory mucosa of an organ culture model in vitro. Organ cultures infected with P. aeruginosa had significantly (p< or =0.05) elevated levels of mucosal damage and significantly (p< or =0.05) less ciliated cells compared to controls. Preincubation of tissue with FP (10(-6) or 10(-5) but not 10(-7) M) prior to P. aeruginosa infection significantly (p< or =0.05) reduced the bacterially induced mucosal damage in a concentration-dependent manner. FP (10(-5) M) also significantly (p< or =0.05) prevented loss of ciliated cells. FP did not alter the density of bacteria adherent to the different mucosal features of the organ cultures, but did reduce total bacterial numbers due to the reduced amount of damaged tissue, which is a preferred site of P. aeruginosa adherence. It has previously been shown that the long-acting beta2-agonist salmeterol (4 x 10(-7)M) also reduces the mucosal damage caused by P. aeruginosa infection, probably via elevation of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations. Preincubation of tissue with both 10(-7)M FP and 10(-7)M salmeterol, concentrations at which they did not by themselves influence the effect of P. aeruginosa infection, significantly (p< or =0.05) reduced P. aeruginosa-induced loss of cilia. However, there was no additional benefit from adding 4 x 10(-7)M salmeterol to 10(-6)M FP. In conclusion fluticasone propionate reduced mucosal damage caused by P. aeruginosa infection in vitro and preserved ciliated cells. There was a synergistic action with salmeterol in the preservation of ciliated cells.  (+info)

Effects of drugs on mucus clearance. (7/291)

Mucociliary clearance (MCC), the process in which airway mucus together with substances trapped within are moved out of the lungs, is an important defence mechanism of the human body. Drugs may alter this process, such that it is necessary to know the effect of the drugs on MCC. Indeed, agents stimulating MCC may be used therapeutically in respiratory medicine, especially in patients suspected of having an impairment of their mucociliary transport system. In contrast, caution should be taken with drugs depressing MCC as an undesired side-effect, independently of their therapeutic indication. Since cough clearance (CC) serves as a back-up system when MCC fails, the influence of drugs must be examined not only on MCC but also on CC. Ultimately, the clinical repercussions of alterations in mucus transport induced by drug administration must be studied. Tertiary ammonium compounds (anticholinergics), aspirin, anaesthetic agents and benzodiazepines have been shown to be capable of depressing the mucociliary transport system. Cholinergics, methylxanthines, sodium cromoglycate, hypertonic saline, saline as well as water aerosol have been shown to increase MCC. Adrenergic antagonists, guaifenesin, S-carboxymethylcysteine, sodium 2-mercapto-ethane sulphonate and frusemide have been reported not to alter the mucociliary transport significantly. Amiloride, uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP), quaternary ammonium compounds (anticholinergics), adrenergic agonists, corticosteroids, recombinant human deoxyribonuclease (rhDNase), N-acetylcysteine, bromhexine and ambroxol have been reported either not to change or to augment MCC. Indirect data suggest that surfactant as well as antibiotics may improve the mucociliary transport system. As for the influence of drugs on CC, amiloride and rhDNase have been demonstrated to increase the effectiveness of cough. A trend towards an improved CC was noted after treatment with adrenergic agonists. The anticholinergic agent ipratropium bromide, which is a quaternary ammonium compound, has been suggested to decrease CC significantly. Bromhexine, ambroxol and neutral saline seemed not to alter CC, either positively or negatively. Finally, treatment with either amiloride, recombinant human deoxyribonuclease, bromhexine, ambroxol, N-acetylcysteine, S-carboxymethylcysteine or hypertonic saline has been suggested as a possible cause of clinical improvement in patients, such as the experience of dyspnoea, the case of expectoration or the frequency of infective exacerbations. Other agents did not show a clinical benefit.  (+info)

Factors affecting the course and severity of transnasally induced Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia in mice. (8/291)

In order to examine several factors that may affect the course and severity of transnasally induced Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia in mice, bacteria were prepared in a free suspension or bound to fetal mouse cells. Immunosuppression was induced in five strains of mice (ICR, C57BL/6, BALB/c, C3H/He and CBA/J) by injection of cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg body weight), 2 days before infection. Impairment of mucociliary clearance was induced by intranasal instillation of formalin. Mice were then infected with various doses and strains of the organism. Although no significant differences were observed between either form of inoculum, pretreatment with formalin plus cyclophosphamide was associated with a significant increase in lung bacterial counts. In particular, cyclophosphamide treatment was associated with a high mortality in mice infected with several strains of S. aureus irrespective of their toxin production profiles. Histopathological examination demonstrated that in mice treated with formalin plus cyclophosphamide, clusters of bacteria were observed in lung parenchyma, associated with a mild accumulation of inflammatory cells at day 2 and extensive cell infiltration at day 7. CBA/J mice represented the most susceptible strain among those examined, with 10(4)- and 10(2)-fold higher bacterial counts in the lungs at days 3 and 5, respectively. These results indicate that neutropenia and impaired mucociliary clearance are major factors that influence the severity of S. aureus pneumonia in mice. Analysis of the role of genetic background in enhancement of vulnerability to infection is warranted in future studies.  (+info)

  • Blocking mucus absorption in the airways through the use of certain agents can strengthen an innate airway mechanism, called mucociliary clearance (MCC), that is often impaired in lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). The study, "Marked increases in mucociliary clearance produced by synergistic secretory agonists or inhibition of the epithelial sodium channel," was published in the journal Scientific Reports. (
  • In the conducting airway, the basal stem cell generates two major differentiated cell types that act coordinately to perform mucociliary clearance to rid the airway of pathogens: secretory cells, which produce mucins that trap pathogens, and multiciliated cells, which beat to push the mucus up and out of the airways. (
  • In this study the investigators will use mildly radioactive particles, technetium bound to sulfur colloid, to measure and compare the sustained effects on mucus clearance of two weeks of daily dosing of 7% hypertonic saline versus a low salt control treatment for subjects with CB. (
  • Its primary objective is to measure the amount (in percentage) of average whole lung particle clearance up to 60 minutes following a single administration of aerosolized radiolabeled particles of AZD5634 in people with CF. Check here for the study's contacts and locations . (
  • AstraZeneca is preparing to start a Phase 1b study that will assess the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic properties of inhaled AZD5634, as well as its effects on mucociliary clearance (MCC) in CF patients, after a single-dose administration of AD5634 ( NCT02950805 ) compared to a single administration of a placebo. (
  • The in vitro effects of the nitric oxide (NO) substrate L-arginine on ciliary beat frequency and the in vivo effects of the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on mucociliary activity were investigated in the rabbit maxillary sinus mucosa with photoelectric techniques. (
  • Tracheal clearance was more rapid in four of four subjects after AF (0.83 +/- 1.58% removal/min) compared with that after SF (-0.54 +/- 0.85% removal/min). (
  • CONCLUSIONS: In an animal model of severe P. aeruginosa pneumonia, neither manual hyperinflation nor ventilator hyperinflation improved mucus clearance. (
  • There are many mechanisms that are acting together to protect the host: mucosal barrier function, mucociliary clearance (MCC), inherent phagocytes, and secretion of a variety of proteins. (
  • The rapid advancement of technologies such as next generation sequencing, high resolution microscopy and the development of novel in vitro analysis systems has led to an exponential growth of knowledge related to the assembly and function of cilia, production and secretion of mucus, and cilia-mucus interaction to promote productive mucociliary clearance. (
  • Efficient mucociliary clearance requires the proper regulation of ciliary beating as well as mucus secretion and fluid homeostasis. (
  • When mucociliary clearance is not enough, it is complemented by the secretion of antimicrobial peptides and the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) that have direct antibacterial and antiviral effects. (
  • Its primary objective is to measure the amount (in percentage) of average whole lung particle clearance up to 60 minutes following a single administration of aerosolized radiolabeled particles of AZD5634 in people with CF. Check here for the study's contacts and locations . (
  • Our results showed that klotho deficiency led to impaired mucociliary clearance with a reduction in ASL volume in vitro and ex vivo . (
  • These experiments were paired with ex vivo analyses of mucociliary clearance in murine tracheas from klotho deficient mice and their wild type littermates. (
  • SNP increased mucociliary activity in vivo, the peak response of 36.8% +/- 4.2% being obtained at the dose of 30.0 microg/kg. (
  • The THERAPEUTIC Lung Flute is indicated for Positive Expiratory Pressure (PEP) Therapy and is clinically proven to be an effective method for Mucociliary Clearance. (
  • These achievements have paved the way for future development of therapeutic strategies to treat mucociliary clearance disorders. (