Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A homeodomain protein that interacts with TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN. It represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES and plays a critical role in ODONTOGENESIS.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.
The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.
The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.
A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.
A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.
An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.
The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.
An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.
A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.
A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.
An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.
A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).
A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.
Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.
A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.
An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.
Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
A family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA-binding domain. The name derives from viral oncogene-derived protein oncogene protein v-ets of the AVIAN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
A general transcription factor that is involved in basal GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. It consists of nine subunits including ATP-DEPENDENT DNA HELICASES; CYCLIN H; and XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM GROUP D PROTEIN.
An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It may play a role in transcriptional activation of gene expression by interacting with the TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.
A ubiquitously expressed octamer transcription factor that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of SMALL NUCLEAR RNA; IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES; and HISTONE H2B genes.
Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that was originally identified in DROSOPHILA as essential for proper gastrulation and MESODERM formation. It plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MUSCLE CELLS, and is found in a wide variety of organisms.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
Factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE III and aid in transcription. They include the assembly factors TFIIIA and TFIIIC and the initiation factor TFIIIB. All combine to form a preinitiation complex at the promotor that directs the binding of RNA POLYMERASE III.
A heterotetrameric transcription factor composed of two distinct proteins. Its name refers to the fact it binds to DNA sequences rich in GUANINE and ADENINE. GA-binding protein integrates a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and regulates expression of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE control, PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS, and cellular METABOLISM.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
An early growth response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway. The activity of the protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN. Transcription factor 7-like 2 protein plays an important role in the embryogenesis of the PANCREAS and ISLET CELLS.
An ets proto-oncogene expressed primarily in adult LYMPHOID TISSUE; BRAIN; and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A tissue-specific subunit of NF-E2 transcription factor that interacts with small MAF PROTEINS to regulate gene expression. P45 NF-E2 protein is expressed primarily in MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; and MAST CELLS.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. TFIIIB recruits and positions pol III over the initiation site and remains stably bound to the DNA through multiple rounds of re-initiation by RNA POLYMERASE III.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
One of the BASIC-LEUCINE ZIPPER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that is synthesized as a membrane-bound protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. In response to endoplasmic reticulum stress it translocates to the GOLGI APPARATUS. It is activated by PROTEASES and then moves to the CELL NUCLEUS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in the unfolded protein response.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A family of mammalian POU domain factors that are expressed predominately in NEURONS.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates GLOBIN gene expression and is related to TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1. NF-E2 consists of a small MAF protein subunit and a tissue-restricted 45 kDa subunit.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
A heterotrimeric DNA-binding protein that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of eukaryotic genes. It is composed of three subunits: A, B and C.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of this subfamily have been implicated in regulating the differentiation of OLIGODENDROCYTES during neural crest formation and in CHONDROGENESIS.
Ubiquitously expressed basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF transcription factors. They bind CANNTG sequences in the promoters of a variety of GENES involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
A subclass of LIM domain proteins that include an additional centrally-located homeodomain region that binds AT-rich sites on DNA. Many LIM-homeodomain proteins play a role as transcriptional regulators that direct cell fate.
A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.

Expression of chick Barx-1 and its differential regulation by FGF-8 and BMP signaling in the maxillary primordia. (1/265)

The vertebrate face develops from a series of primordia surrounding the primitive mouth and is thought to be patterned by the differential expression of homeobox-containing genes. Here we describe the isolation of the chick homologue of the homeobox-containing gene, Barx-1, and show its expression in the developing facial primordia, stomach, and appendicular skeleton. In the maxillary primordia, mesenchymal expression of Barx-1 is complementary to that of Msx-1, which correlate with overlying epithelial expression of Fgf-8 and Bmp-4, respectively. We show that epithelial signals are required to maintain Barx-1 expression and that FGF-8 can substitute for the epithelium. By contrast, BMPs reduce Barx-1 expression and can antagonize FGF-8 signaling. This suggests that in vivo, FGF-8/BMP signaling may regulate Barx-1 gene expression. This provides evidence that the differential expression of FGF-8 and BMPs may determine homeobox-containing gene expression and hence patterning of the facial primordia.  (+info)

Transcriptional autorepression of Msx1 gene is mediated by interactions of Msx1 protein with a multi-protein transcriptional complex containing TATA-binding protein, Sp1 and cAMP-response-element-binding protein-binding protein (CBP/p300). (2/265)

The TATA-less murine Msx1 promoter contains two Msx1-binding motifs, located at -568 to -573 and +25 to +30, and is subject to potent autorepression [Takahashi, Guron, Shetty, Matsui and Raghow (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 22667-22678]. To investigate the molecular mechanism by which Msx1 represses the activity of its own promoter, we transfected C2C12 myoblasts with Msx1-promoter-luciferase constructs and assessed reporter gene activity, with and without the exogenous expression of Msx1. We demonstrate that Msx1-mediated autorepression remained unaffected, regardless of the presence or absence of the Msx1 recognition motifs on the promoter. Furthermore, graded exogenous expression of TATA-binding protein (TBP), Sp1 or cAMP-response-element-binding protein-binding protein (CBP/p300) could counteract the autoinhibitory activity of Msx1. Finally, we demonstrate that Msx1 protein can be immunoprecipitated in a multiprotein complex containing TBP, Sp1 and CBP/p300. We hypothesize that the interaction of Msx1 protein with one or more ubiquitous or tissue-restricted transcription factors mediates transcriptional autorepression of the Msx1 gene.  (+info)

The homeobox gene Msx1 is expressed in a subset of somites, and in muscle progenitor cells migrating into the forelimb. (3/265)

In myoblast cell cultures, the Msx1 protein is able to repress myogenesis and maintain cells in an undifferentiated and proliferative state. However, there has been no evidence that Msx1 is expressed in muscle or its precursors in vivo. Using mice with the nlacZ gene integrated into the Msx1 locus, we show that the reporter gene is expressed in the lateral dermomyotome of brachial and thoracic somites. Cells from this region will subsequently contribute to forelimb and intercostal muscles. Using Pax3 gene transcripts as a marker of limb muscle progenitor cells as they migrate from the somites, we have defined precisely the somitic origin and timing of cell migration from somites to limb buds in the mouse. Differences in the timing of migration between chick and mouse are discussed. Somites that label for Msx1(nlacZ )transgene expression in the forelimb region partially overlap with those that contribute Pax3-expressing cells to the forelimb. In order to see whether Msx1 is expressed in this migrating population, we have grafted somites from the forelimb level of Msx1(nlacZ )mouse embryos into a chick host embryo. We show that most cells migrating into the wing field express the Msx1(nlacZ )transgene, together with Pax3. In these experiments, Msx1 expression in the somite depends on the axial position of the graft. Wing mesenchyme is capable of inducing Msx1 transcription in somites that normally would not express the gene; chick hindlimb mesenchyme, while permissive for this expression, does not induce it. In the mouse limb bud, the Msx1(nlacZ )transgene is downregulated prior to the activation of the Myf5 gene, an early marker of myogenic differentiation. These observations are consistent with the proposal that Msx1 is involved in the repression of muscle differentiation in the lateral half of the somite and in limb muscle progenitor cells during their migration.  (+info)

Msx1 is required for the induction of Patched by Sonic hedgehog in the mammalian tooth germ. (4/265)

We have used the mouse developing tooth germ as a model system to explore the transmission of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signal in the induction of Patched (Ptc). In the early developing molar tooth germ, Shh is expressed in the dental epithelium, and the transcripts of Shh downstream target genes Ptc and Gli1 are expressed in dental epithelium as well as adjacent mesenchymal tissue. The homeobox gene Msx1 is also expressed in the dental mesenchyme of the molar tooth germ at this time. We show here that the expression of Ptc, but not Gli1, was downregulated in the dental mesenchyme of Msx1 mutants. In wild-type E11.0 molar tooth mesenchyme SHH-soaked beads induced the expression of Ptc and Gli1. However, in Msx1 mutant dental mesenchyme SHH-soaked beads were able to induce Gli1 but failed to induce Ptc expression, indicating a requirement for Msx1 in the induction of Ptc by SHH. Moreover, we show that another signaling molecule, BMP4, was able to induce Ptc expression in wild-type dental mesenchyme, but induced a distinct expression pattern of Ptc in the Msx1 mutant molar mesenchyme. We conclude that in the context of the tooth germ Msx1 is a component of the Shh signaling pathway that leads to Ptc induction. Our results also suggest that the precise pattern of Ptc expression in the prospective tooth-forming region is controlled and coordinated by at least two inductive signaling pathways.  (+info)

Establishment and maintenance of the border of the neural plate in the chick: involvement of FGF and BMP activity. (5/265)

We have investigated the cell interactions and signalling molecules involved in setting up and maintaining the border between the neural plate and the adjacent non-neural ectoderm in the chick embryo at primitive streak stages. msx-1, a target of BMP signalling, is expressed in this border at a very early stage. It is induced by FGF and by signals from the organizer, Hensen's node. The node also induces a ring of BMP-4, some distance away. By the early neurula stage, the edge of the neural plate is the only major site of BMP-4 and msx-1 expression, and is also the only site that responds to BMP inhibition or overexpression. At this time, the neural plate appears to have a low level of BMP antagonist activity. Using in vivo grafts and in vitro assays, we show that the position of the border is further maintained by interactions between non-neural and neural ectoderm. We conclude that the border develops by integration of signals from the organizer, the developing neural plate, the paraxial mesoderm and the non-neural epiblast, involving FGFs, BMPs and their inhibitors. We suggest that BMPs act in an autocrine way to maintain the border state.  (+info)

Id genes are direct targets of bone morphogenetic protein induction in embryonic stem cells. (6/265)

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are morphogenetic signaling molecules essential for embryonic patterning. To obtain molecular insight into the influence of BMPs on morphogenesis, we searched for new genes directly activated by BMP signaling. In vitro cultured mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells were used, cultivated in chemically defined growth medium (CDM). CDM-cultured ES cells responded very selectively to stimulation by various mesoderm inducers (BMP2/4, activin A, and basic fibroblast growth factor). BMP2/4 rapidly induced transcript levels of the homeobox genes Msx-1 and Msx-2 and the proto-oncogene JunB, whereas c-jun transcripts displayed delayed albeit prolonged increase. Using differential display cDNA cloning, six direct BMP target genes were identified. These include Id3, which showed strong mRNA induction, and the moderately induced Cyr61, DEK, and eIF4AII genes, as well as a gene encoding a GC-binding protein. Besides Id3, also the Id1 and Id2 genes were activated by BMP4 in both ES cells and a range of different cell lines. Id genes encode negative regulators of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors. In vivo we observed local ectopic expression of Id3 and Msx-2 mRNAs in Ft/+ embryos at overlapping regions of ectopic Bmp4 misexpression. We therefore propose that the Msx and Id genes are direct target genes of embryonic BMP4 signaling in vivo.  (+info)

Gli3 is required for Emx gene expression during dorsal telencephalon development. (7/265)

Dentate gyrus and hippocampus as centers for spatial learning, memory and emotional behaviour have been the focus of much interest in recent years. The molecular information on its development, however, has been relatively poor. To date, only Emx genes were known to be required for dorsal telencephalon development. Here, we report on forebrain development in the extra toes (Xt(J)) mouse mutant which carries a null mutation of the Gli3 gene. This defect leads to a failure to establish the dorsal di-telencephalic junction and finally results in a severe size reduction of the neocortex. In addition, Xt(J)/Xt(J) mice show absence of the hippocampus (Ammon's horn plus dentate gyrus) and the choroid plexus in the lateral ventricle. The medial wall of the telencephalon, which gives rise to these structures, fails to invaginate during embryonic development. On a molecular level, disruption of dorsal telencephalon development in Xt(J)/Xt(J) embryos correlates with a loss of Emx1 and Emx2 expression. Furthermore, the expression of Fgf8 and Bmp4 in the dorsal midline of the telencephalon is altered. However, expression of Shh, which is negatively regulated by Gli3 in the spinal cord, is not affected in the Xt(J)/Xt(J) forebrain. This study therefore implicates Gli3 as a key regulator for the development of the dorsal telencephalon and implies Gli3 to be upstream of Emx genes in a genetic cascade controlling dorsal telencephalic development.  (+info)

Inhibitory patterning of the anterior neural plate in Xenopus by homeodomain factors Dlx3 and Msx1. (8/265)

Patterning of the embryonic ectoderm is dependent upon the action of negative (antineural) and positive (neurogenic) transcriptional regulators. Msx1 and Dlx3 are two antineural genes for which the anterior epidermal-neural boundaries of expression differ, probably due to differential sensitivity to BMP signaling in the ectoderm. In the extreme anterior neural plate, Dlx3 is strongly expressed while Msx1 is silent. While both of these factors prevent the activation of genes specific to the nascent central nervous system, Msx1 inhibits anterior markers, including Otx2 and cement gland-specific genes. Dlx3 has little, if any, effect on these anterior neural plate genes, instead providing a permissive environment for their expression while repressing more panneural markers, including prepattern genes belonging to the Zic family and BF-1. These properties define a molecular mechanism for translating the organizer-dependent morphogenic gradient of BMP activity into spatially restricted gene expression in the prospective anterior neural plate.  (+info)

This gene encodes a member of the muscle segment homeobox gene family. The encoded protein is a transcriptional repressor whose normal activity may establish a balance between survival and apoptosis of neural crest-derived cells required for proper craniofacial morphogenesis. The encoded protein may also have a role in promoting cell growth under certain conditions and may be an important target for the RAS signaling pathways. Mutations in this gene are associated with parietal foramina 1 and craniosynostosis type 2.[3] ...
Most importantly, Atoh1 transcripts and protein were not detected throughout the entire anteroposterior axis of the double-mutant developing spine (compare Fig. 2Aa,Ba with 2Ab,Bb and 2Ae). In addition, Atoh1 expression was reduced by more than half in Msx1 single mutants (Fig. 2Ae). Msx2 inactivation alone appeared to alter Atoh1 expression to a lesser extent (Fig. 2Ad,Bd) and the number of Atoh1+ cells is significantly different between either single mutant (P=7×10−4; Fig. 2Ae). Thus, Msx1 and Msx2 are both required for Atoh1 expression in the dp1 domain, but Msx1 plays a predominant role in this process.. We next analyzed the expression profiles of Neurog1 (dp2 marker), Neurog2 (dp2 and dp3 marker), Olig3 (dp1 to dp3 marker) and Ascl1 (dp3 to dp5 marker) in the absence of Msx1 and Msx2. In Msx1/Msx2 mutants, the Neurog1+ domain is included in the Olig3 territory, as in wild-type embryos (Fig. 2Ca,b,d,e,D). However, the position of the shared dorsal boundary of the Neurog1+ and Neurog2+ ...
The importance of Msx genes in regulating development of ocular, neuronal, cardiac, ectodermal and oro-craniofacial structures has been well established. Previous studies have shown that Msx proteins regulate gene transcription predominantly through repression by forming transcriptionally inactive heteromeric complexes. In contrast to their known suppressor activities, gene expression studies using either the gain-of-function or the loss-of-function mutants revealed many gene targets whose expression requires functional Msx proteins. Here we present data demonstrating for the first time that Msx proteins function as activators of transcription by controlling the intracellular distribution and by modulating the transcriptional activity of partnering molecules. Msx proteins activate the Hsp70 promoter through a mechanism in which Msx protein physically interacts with and modify Heat shock transcriptional factors (Hsfs) to facilitate their nuclear translocation, accumulation and subsequent ...
SOX2 is a key transcription factor that plays critical roles in maintaining stem cell property and conferring drug resistance. However, the underlying mechanisms by which SOX2 level is precisely regulated remain elusive. Here we report that MLN4924, also known as pevonedistat, a small-molecule inhibitor of neddylation currently in phase II clinical trials, down-regulates SOX2 expression via causing accumulation of MSX2, a known transcription repressor of SOX2 expression. Mechanistic characterization revealed that MSX2 is a substrate of FBXW2 E3 ligase. FBXW2 binds to MSX2 and promotes MSX2 ubiquitylation and degradation. Likewise, FBXW2 overexpression shortens the protein half-life of MSX2, whereas FBXW2 knockdown extends it. We further identified hypoxia as a stress condition that induces VRK2 kinase to facilitate MSX2-FBXW2 binding and FBXW2-mediated MSX2 ubiquitylation and degradation, leading to SOX2 induction via derepression. Biologically, expression of FBXW2 or SOX2 promotes tumor sphere ...
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Complete information for MSX2 gene (Protein Coding), Msh Homeobox 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for MSX2 gene (Protein Coding), Msh Homeobox 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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References for Abcams Recombinant Human Msx2/Hox8 protein (ab114704). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
TY - JOUR. T1 - MSX1 inhibits MyoD expression in fibroblast × 10T 1 2 cell hybrids. AU - Woloshin, Paul. AU - Song, Kening. AU - Degnin, Catherine. AU - Killary, Ann McNeill. AU - Goldhamer, David J.. AU - Sassoon, David. AU - Thayer, Mathew (Matt). PY - 1995/8/25. Y1 - 1995/8/25. N2 - Transfer of human chromosome 11, which contains the myoD locus, from primary fibroblasts into 10T 1 2 cells results in activation of myoD. In contrast, hybrids that retain human chromosome 11 and additional human chromosomes fail to activate myoD. We show that human chromosome 4 inhibits myoD activation. myoD enhancer/promoter reporter constructs show that repression is at the transcriptional level. Chromosome fragment-containing hybrids localize the repressing activity to the region of 4p that contains the homeobox gene MSX1. MSX1 is expressed in primary human fibroblasts and in 10T 1 2 cells containing human chromosome 4, while parental 10T 1 2 cells do not express Msx1. Forced expression of Msx1 represses myoD ...
Skeletal growth and homeostasis require the finely orchestrated secretion of mineralized tissue matrices by highly specialized cells, balanced with their degradation by osteoclasts. Time- and site-specific expression of Dlx and Msx homeobox genes in the cells secreting these matrices have been identified as important elements in the regulation of skeletal morphology. Such specific expression patterns have also been reported in osteoclasts for Msx genes. The aim of the present study was to establish the expression patterns of Dlx genes in osteoclasts and identify their function in regulating skeletal morphology. The expression patterns of all Dlx genes were examined during the whole osteoclastogenesis using different in vitro models. The results revealed that Dlx1 and Dlx2 are the only Dlx family members with a possible function in osteoclastogenesis as well as in mature osteoclasts. Dlx5 and Dlx6 were detected in the cultures but appear to be markers of monocytes and their derivatives. In vivo, ...
The amino acid sequence of the Muscle segment homeobox (MSH) homeodomain is highly homologous to the homeodomains of the Drosophila s59/NK1 and empty spiracles genes and the Hox 7 and Hox 8 family of vertebrate homeobox genes. In addition, the 5 end of MSH has 52% sequence identity to the 5 end of the Empty spiracles protein, encoding several stretches of amino acids rich in serine, alanine, proline, glutamine, and acidic amino acids, and thus indicating potential domains of regulatory activity (Lord, 1995). The conservation of developmental functions exerted by Antp-class homeoproteins in protostomes and deuterostomes has suggested that homologs with related functions are present in diploblastic animals, in particular, in Hydra. Phylogenetic analyses show that Antp-class homeodomains belong either to non-Hox or to Hox/paraHox families. See Phylogenetic relationships among 200 Antp-class genes. Among the 13 non-Hox families, 9 reported here have diploblastic homologs: Msx, Emx, Barx, Evx, Tlx, ...
One such protein is Msx1, a critical factor involved in dorsal neural patterning (3, 84). Msx1 along with Msx2 and Msx3 form a family of homeodomain transcriptional repressors (18, 96, 111). The earliest expression of Msx1 is observed at the neural fold stage, along the boundary of the neural plate (17, 38). Upon closure of the neural tube, Msx1 is prominently expressed along the entire length of the dorsal midline of the neural tube. Msx1 is also expressed in the SCO, choroid plexus (CP), and the habenula in the third ventricle (84). Bach et al. clearly demonstrated that homozygous mutants for Msx1 were unable to sustain Wnt1 and Bmp6 expression in the dorsal midline of P1, and histological analysis demonstrated the absence of a SCO and a poorly organized posterior commissure (3, 84). Loss of morphogen induction in P1 consequently downregulated cell fate markers such as Pax6, Pax7, and Lim1, whereas the P2 marker Gbx2 remained unaffected. The Msx1 mutant mice developed hydrocephaly, and the ...
MSX6 erfahrungen reinforce an erection and leads to the erection to last for longer. Read more about MSX6 erfahrung & its Nebenwirkungen
Cover art for Xenon (MSX) database containing game description & game shots, credits, groups, press, forums, reviews, release dates and more.
perl -wMstrict -le my $s = xxxx yy zzzzz xxxx qqq xxxx yy zzzzz xxxx qqq; ;; for my $ar ([2, 4, 3], [5, 3]) { my $rx = rxg(@$ar); print $rx; my @groups = $s =~ m{ $rx }xmsg; print qq{$_} for @groups; } ;; sub rxg { my ($rx) = map qr{ \b $_ \b }xms, join \b .+? \b , map qq{\\w{$_}}, @_ ; ;; return $rx; } (?^msx: \b \w{2} \b .+? \b \w{4} \b .+? \b \w{3} \b ) yy zzzzz xxxx qqq yy zzzzz xxxx qqq (?^msx: \b \w{5} \b .+? \b \w{3} \b ) zzzzz xxxx qqq zzzzz xxxx qqq ...
MSX2 Polyclonal Antibody from Invitrogen for Western Blot applications. This antibody reacts with Human samples. Supplied as 400 µL purified antibody (Lot-specific) in PBS with 0.09% sodium azide.
Dr. Timothy Kremchek discusses athletes preparations for the fall season and wanting to answer your questions in our weekly Mind & Muscle segment.
Looking for online definition of MSX or what MSX stands for? MSX is listed in the Worlds largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and acronyms
Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) and nonsyndromic cleft palate only (CPO) are common congenital anomalies with significant medical, psychological, social, and economic ramifications. Both CL/P and CPO are examples of complex genetic traits. There exists sufficient evidence to hypothesize that disease loci for CL/P and CPO can be identified by a candidate-gene linkage-disequilibrium (LD) strategy. Candidate genes for clefting, including TGFA, BCL3, DLX2, MSX1, and TGFB3, were screened for LD with either CL/P or CPO in a predominantly Caucasian population, with both case-control- and nuclear-family-based approaches. Previously reported LD for TGFA with both CL/P and CPO could not be confirmed, except in CL/P patients with a positive family history. Also, in contrast to previous studies, no LD was found between BCL3 and either CL/P or CPO. Significant LD was found between CL/P and both MSX1 and TGFB3 and between CPO and MSX1, suggesting that these genes are involved in the
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Phantasie III: The Wrath of Nikademus is the third chapter of the Phantasie trilogy. This time, the Dark Lord Nikademus has set his evil sights on conquering - not only an island - but the entire world. He must be stopped, and youve chosen to undertake this difficult and dangerous quest.The basic g...
Unusual comQXPA-like loci.(A) Non-canonical unusual com system is present in B. cereus VD102, B. cereus BAG4X12 1, B. cereus MSX A1 and L. fusiformis ZC1. Note
This study analyzes the expression and the function of Xenopus msx-1 (Xmsx-1) in embryos, in relation to the ventralizing activity of bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4). Expression of Xmsx-1 was increased in UV-treated ventralized embryos and decreased in LiCl-treated dorsalized embryos at the neurula stage (stage 14). Whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis showed that Xmsx-1 is expressed in marginal zone and animal pole areas, laterally and ventrally, but not dorsally, at mid-gastrula (stage 11) and late-gastrula (stage 13) stages. Injection of BMP-4 RNA, but not activin RNA, induced Xmsx-1 expression in the dorsal marginal zone at the early gastrula stage (stage 10+), and introduction of a dominant negative form of BMP-4 receptor RNA suppressed Xmsx-1 expression in animal cap and ventral marginal zone explants at stage 14. Thus, Xmsx-1 is a target gene specifically regulated by BMP-4 signaling. Embryos injected with Xmsx-1 RNA in dorsal blastomeres at the 4-cell stage exhibited a ...
Early tooth decay is damage on the tooths enamel, and can happen anywhere on the tooth, and at any age. The good news is that its very treatable.
Abstract: A fungal extract (MSX 63619), from the Mycosynthetix library of over 50,000 fungi, displayed promising cytotoxicity against a human tumor cell panel. Bioactivity-directed fractionation led to the isolation of an o-pyranonaphthoquinone decaketide, which we termed obionin B (1). The structure of 1 was deduced via spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques. The IC50 value of 1 was moderate, ranging from 3 to 13 µM, depending on the cell line tested.. Obionin B: an o-pyranonaphthoquinone decaketide from an unidentified fungus (MSX 63619) from the order Pleosporales ...
The congenital absence of teeth, commonly referred to as hypodontia or tooth agenesis, is a common developmental anomaly of human dentition that affects approximately 20% of the population. Although new genetic and molecular approaches in humans and mice have increased our understanding of the molecules that control tooth patterning (number, position, shape and size), the precise nature of the genes involved in hypodontia in humans is poorly understood. Hence, understanding the molecular basis for missing teeth is an issue of paramount importance that is both timely and significant to the practice of dentistry. So far, only two genes have been associated with non-syndromic familial tooth agenesis: MSX1 and PAX9. Substitution mutations in the homeodomain region of MSX1 were linked to premolar agenesis while an insertion mutation in the paired box domain of PAX9 was shown to be responsible for molar oligodontia.. The long-term goals of this research are to elucidate the molecular pathology of ...
It was shown in both mouse and human tooth development that PAX9 and MSX1 are the most important genes regulating progression through early stages of tooth development. These genes are encoding transcription factors involved in epithelial/mesenchymal interactions. Their key function seems to be maintenance and regulation of Bmp4 expression in dental mesenchyme. If the functions of PAX9 and MSX1 are disturbed, the tooth will not develop.
The T420 and T440 infrared cameras arm users, with superior infrared imaging resolution, works harder to reveal trouble spots. In addition to sharp thermal resolution at 76,800 pixels (320x240) for accurate diagnostics even from a distance, the new T440 features MSX Multi-Spectral Dynamic Imaging, a FLIR exclusive. MSX adds the detail of real-time visible spectrum images captured by the built-in digital camera to thermal spectrum images, providing extraordinary sharpness, contrast and clarity previously unavailable in thermal imaging. MSX instantly highlights where the problem area is for easier orientation to help customers and co-workers see what needs repairing ...
Tooth agenesis can involve one or more congenitally missing teeth (CMT) and is the most common congenital dental anomalies in humans. Tooth agenesis and reduction of mesiodistal tooth width are reportedly associated, suggesting that the pathogenesis of the two conditions is related. The current study analyzed the frequency of tooth agenesis and mesiodistal tooth width in cases of hypodontia (1-5 CMT) and oligodontia (≥ 6 CMT) in Japanese patients based on the hypothesis that reductions in mesiodistal tooth width are more frequently associated with oligodontia than hypodontia. Japanese patients with tooth agenesis were divided into hypodontia cases (60 female and 25 male, mean age 19.6 years, mean CMT number 1.31 ± 1.65) and oligodontia cases (26 female and 25 male, mean age 14.6 years, mean CMT number 8.07 ± 2.39). Controls included patients with a skeletal class I relationship and no CMT (female and 60 male, mean age 20.8 years). Dental casts and orthopantomograms were used to analyze the CMT
Definition : Molecular assay reagents intended to identify mutations in the muscle segment homeo box homologue 2 (MSX2) gene, located at chromosome 5q34-q35, which encodes for a transcription factor protein presumed to be critical for skull development. Mutations at this locus have been identified in patients with parietal foramina type 1 and craniosyostosis type 2.. Entry Terms : Familial Craniosynostosis Type 2 Gene Mutation Reagents , Cranium Bifidum Syndrome Gene Mutation Reagents , Enlarged Parietal Foramina Type 1 Gene Mutation Reagents , MSX2 Gene Mutation Detection Reagents , IVD Test Reagent/Kits, Molecular Assay, Tumor Marker, Gene Mutation, hML1/hMSH2 , Reagents, Molecular Assay, Gene Anomaly, Mutation, MSX2. UMDC code : 24614 ...
Homeobox protein MSX-1 (hereafter referred to as MSX-1) is essential for early tooth-germ development. Tooth-germ development is arrested at bud stage in Msx1 knockout mice, which prompted us to study the functions of MSX-1 beyond this stage. Here, we investigated the roles of MSX-1 during late bell stage. Mesenchymal cells of the mandibular first molar were isolated from mice at embryonic day (E)17.5 and cultured in vitro. We determined the expression levels of β-catenin, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2), Bmp4, and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (Lef1) after knockdown or overexpression of Msx1 ...
Looking for online definition of bud stage of tooth in the Medical Dictionary? bud stage of tooth explanation free. What is bud stage of tooth? Meaning of bud stage of tooth medical term. What does bud stage of tooth mean?
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Abnova Anti-MSX1 Monoclonal (1D2), Catalog # H00004487-M05. Tested in Western Blot (WB), Immunoprecipitation (IP) and ELISA (ELISA) applications. This antibody reacts with Human samples. Supplied as 100 µg purified antibody (See Label).
We are starting our fall conference season by going to ERS in Vienna. It would be great to talk to you at the joined emka/SCIREQ booth B2.04. at the Reed Messe. During the conference we would be happy to demonstrate the MSX (multi-subject extension) for our flexiVent FX to you. The MSX combines the efficiency of easily and simultaneously measuring respiratory mechanics in four parallel subjects with the highly detailed input impedance and Constant Phase Model measurements that make the flexiVent so unique. Although our chief scientist Dr. Robichaud will not be present at ERS, she has looked through the conference schedule and thought the following course and sessions could be of interest to you: ...
J:112545 Wang XP, Aberg T, James MJ, Levanon D, Groner Y, Thesleff I, Runx2 (Cbfa1) inhibits Shh signaling in the lower but not upper molars of mouse embryos and prevents the budding of putative successional teeth. J Dent Res. 2005 Feb;84(2):138-43 ...
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of tooth agenesis, microdontia, and tooth malformation among non-syndromic oral cleft patients and their potential association with cleft type and gender. Intraoral records and radiographs of 154 patients (97 males and 57 females) were examined. The variables assessed were tooth agenesis, microdontia, dental malformations, and cleft types. The statistics included chi-square and Fishers exact tests as well as logistic regression to assess any mutual effects of gender and cleft type on the dental variables. Tooth agenesis occurred in 50% of the sample and microdontia in 18%. Non-statistically significant odds ratios for the association of gender and cleft type with tooth agenesis were obtained. Tooth agenesis was substantially higher at the unilateral right CL + P and the bilateral CL + P in quadrant 1 and at the unilateral left CL + P and bilateral CL + P in quadrant 2. It was also higher, at the isolated cleft palate (CP) in quadrants 3 and 4.
PubMed journal article: Patterns of tooth agenesis in patients with orofacial clefts. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
mNanog and ventx1/2 overexpression cause similar effects in Xenopus embryos.(A) Four-cell stage embryos (NF3) were injected in both dorsal blastomeres, with a 1
Au début des années 1980, la compagnie développe exclusivement sur MSX. Ce nest quà partir de 1986 que HAL commence à développer sur Famicom (plus particulièrement sur Famicom Disk System), et devient un développeur affilié à Nintendo. Durant la première moitié des années 1990, la compagnie utilise le nom HALKEN, dérivé du japonais HAL Kenkyūjo (Kenkyūjo signifiant en japonais laboratoire). La compagnie possède également une filiale américaine nommée HAL America. Satoru Iwata, président de Nintendo de 2002 jusquà sa mort en 2015[4], était auparavant président de HAL Laboratory. ...
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) play an essential role in development and patterning of the vertebrate embryo. Despite extensive literature documenting the diverse roles of FGF signalling during craniofacial development, comparatively little is known about the specific downstream effectors through which FGFs influence gene expression. A previous study in our laboratory reported exogenous FGF elicited differential chondrogenic responses in frontonasal and mandibular mesenchyme (Bobick et al., 2007). Pea3 transcription factors are crucial components of the downstream effector pathway through which FGFs influence gene expression (Raible and Brand, 2001). Therefore, the purpose of my research was to examine whether differences in pea3, erm, and er81 gene expression profiles underlie the distinct responses of the frontonasal and mandibular mesenchyme cells to FGF. The present study demonstrates that FGF2 treatment differentially affects chondrogenesis in micromass cultures of frontonasal and ...
The initial information for patterning of early tooth development resides in the epithelium. Later, this is shifted to the mesenchyme. The process is governed by multiple epithelial- mesenchymal interactions, Integrins are cell surface receptors for extracellular matrix components. Expression of the beta(5) integrin subunit alternates between epithelium and mesenchyme during early tooth development (Yamada et al, [1994] Int, J. Dev. Biol, 38: 553-556), By immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization we show here a remarkably similar oscillating expression pattern of the alpha(v) integrin subunit. This subunit is known to associate with beta(5), and we therefore suggest that integrin alpha(v) beta(5) is involved in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during tooth development, We also demonstrate that the developing tooth epithelium expresses the alpha(6), beta(1) and beta(4) subunits. The laminin receptors alpha(6) beta(1) and alpha(6) beta(4) may thus in part mediate the effect of basement ...
Dorsoventral patterning of body axis in vertebrate embryo is tightly controlled by a complex regulatory network of transcription factors. Ventx1.1 is known as a transcriptional repressor to inhibit dorsal mesoderm formation and neural differentiation in Xenopus. In an attempt to identify, using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-Seq, genome-wide binding pattern of Ventx1.1 in Xenopus gastrulae, we observed that Ventx1.1 associates with its own 5-flanking sequence. In this study, we present evidence that Ventx1.1 binds a cis-acting Ventx1.1 response element (VRE) in its own promoter, leading to repression of its own transcription. Site-directed mutagenesis of the VRE in the Ventx1.1 promoter significantly abrogated this inhibitory autoregulation of Ventx1.1 transcription. Notably, Ventx1.1 and Xcad2, an activator of Ventx1.1 transcription, competitively co-occupied the VRE in the Ventx1.1 promoter. In support of this, mutation of the VRE down-regulated basal and Xcad2-induced levels of ...
Flir E4-NIST - Compact Thermal Imaging Infrared Camera with Wi-Fi & MSX Enhancement & NIST Calibration, 80x60 Resolution Includes: Power supply/charger with four plugs Rechargeable battery
Zoological Science publishes articles, reviews and editorials that cover the broad and increasingly interdisciplinary field of zoology.
This table contains the main catalog from Version 2.3 of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) Point Source Catalog (PSC), which supersedes the previous version (1.2) that was released in 1999, and contains 100,000 more sources than the latter. The MSX PSC main catalog used to create this Browse table contains all the sources found in the Galactic Plane survey, and the primary high-latitude regions (the IRAS gaps regions, and the Large Magellanic Cloud). Note that this HEASARC table does not contain the MSX PSC supplementary catalogs, viz. the singleton catalog, the low-reliability catalog, or the minicatalogs for 19 selected regions. The principal objective of the astronomy experiments onboard the MSX satellite was to complete the census of the mid-infrared (4.2-25 micron or um) sky: namely, the areas missed by the IRAS mission (about 4% of the sky was not surveyed by IRAS), and the Galactic Plane (where the sensitivity of IRAS was degraded by confusion noise in regions of high source densities ...
Homeobox genes are transcription factors primarily involved in embryonic development. Several homeobox gene families have so far been identified: Hox, EMX, PAX, MSX as well as many isolated divergent homeobox genes. Among these, Hox genes are most intriguing for having a regulatory network structure …
chains in the Genus database with same CATH superfamily 2LXP C; 4TU4 A; 5CUB A; 4BW4 A; 2YQL A; 4QYL A; 4FIP A; 5FE4 A; 2E7O A; 2RFJ A; 4QSS A; 5LVR A; 2C2V S; 5E74 A; 5HLS A; 5C85 A; 2I8N A; 5FE9 A; 5KU3 A; 4O71 A; 5FH7 A; 1WEQ A; 5B79 A; 2IDA A; 1VD4 A; 4PPE A; 2YT5 A; 5ENJ A; 5HEN A; 4UIY A; 4QNS A; 5IGM A; 4O7A A; 5CQ4 A; 2LV9 A; 5CUC A; 5ENC A; 2MIQ A; 2PNX A; 3U5J A; 5FB1 A; 5HQ5 A; 5HM0 A; 5I7X A; 3ZYQ A; 2EGP A; 5EWD A; 4X2I A; 2YQD A; 3GV4 A; 5HQ6 A; 5LUU A; 2E6R A; 4A9F A; 5HEM A; 1T1H A; 4MSX A; 4N3W A; 3N9P A; 4TT6 A; 5C8G A; 5A82 A; 2KR4 A; 3N9M A; 1E4U A; 3S92 A; 1WEE A; 5IGN A; 5FE8 A; 5J0D A; 5K29 A; 4NR6 A; 4L7X A; 4LLB A; 4A9H A; 3D7C A; 5I83 A; 2YUR A; 4A4B A; 5ETB A; 2VJF A; 2WP1 A; 4A9N A; 3I2D A; 5TAB A; 4IOQ A; 5H1V A; 5G4R A; 4YYK A; 5KTU A; 4MEP A; 5E73 A; 4CLB A; 5A5P A; 4TKP B; 2LN0 A; 3FKM X; 2FSA A; 2CT2 A; 4QSQ A; 2YW8 A; 2VPB A; 5IBN A; 2L0B A; 5DKH A; 3U5M A; 2CKL A; 4HBW A; 1F68 A; 5CFW A; 2YW5 A; 4UYF B; 4YY6 A; 3ZYU A; 4UYF A; 4CUU A; 3MUK A; 4NR5 A; 1WEW A; ...
MSX1 and PAX9 are necessary transcription factors that help to form normal teeth. Studies done in mice, have shown that MSX1 ... The protein of MSX1 serves as a repressor for gene transcription and interchanges with other homeoproteins. In studies of ... and PAX9 encode transcription factors with different DNA binding sequence patterns, a paired domain and homeodomain, which are ... Traits that are used for kinship analysis must be determine by genetic factors, must be rare in the general population, and the ...
Experimental evidence places these transcription factors upstream of neural crest specifiers. For example, in Xenopus Msx1 is ... Twist, a bHLH transcription factor, is required for mesenchyme differentiation of the pharyngeal arch structures. Id is a ... These molecules include Zic factors, Pax3/7, Dlx5, Msx1/2 which may mediate the influence of Wnts, BMPs, and Fgfs. These genes ... Signaling events that establish the neural plate border lead to the expression of a set of transcription factors delineated ...
... border specifiers are induced as a set of transcription factors. Distalless-5, PAX3 and PAX7 prevent the border ... In a newly formed neural plate, PAX3 mRNA, MSX1 mRNA, and MSX1/MSX2 proteins are expressed mediolaterally. When the neural ... These induce a second set of transcription factors called neural crest specifiers, which cause cells to become neural crest ... Bone morphogenetic protein 4, or BMP4, is a transforming growth factor that causes the cells of the ectoderm to differentiate ...
Msx-1, Pax-4 and SRY. (RE1-silencing transcription factor) (REST) is a transcription repressor that binds to REST DNA ... Evaluation of the 5'untranslated regions of PTPrho (PTPRT) cDNA indicate a number of transcription factor binding site ... where it needs to localize to function as a transcription factor. PTPrho also dephosphorylates paxillin on tyrosine 88. Higher ... Dephosphorylation by PTPrho in colorectal cancer cells results in a reduction in the total level of transcription of the STAT3 ...
... several cardiac specific transcription factors including GATA-4, MEF2c, Msx-1, Nkx2.5, MHox, Msx-2 and MLP are found to change ... "Increased levels of FoxA1 transcription factor in pluripotent P19 embryonal carcinoma cells stimulate neural differentiation". ... "Enhanced cardiogenesis in embryonic stem cells overexpressing the GATA-4 transcription factor". Development. 124 (12): 2387-95 ... Skerjanc, IS; Petropoulos, H; Ridgeway, AG; Wilton, S (1998-12-25). "Myocyte enhancer factor 2C and Nkx2-5 up-regulate each ...
... has been shown to interact with DLX5, CREB binding protein, Sp1 transcription factor, DLX2, TATA binding protein and Msh ... Msh homeobox 1, also known as MSX1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MSX1 gene. MSX1 transcripts are not only ... MSX1+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) MSX1 human gene location in the UCSC ... The interaction between MSX1 and LHX2 is mediated through the homeodomain-containing regions of both proteins. MSX1 and LHX2 ...
"Transcriptional autorepression of Msx1 gene is mediated by interactions of Msx1 protein with a multi-protein transcriptional ... Transcription factor Sp1, also known as specificity protein 1* is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SP1 gene. The ... The SP1 transcription factor contains a zinc finger protein motif, by which it binds directly to DNA and enhances gene ... Sp1 transcription factor has been shown to interact with: AATF, CEBPB, COL1A1, E2F1, FOSL1, GABPA, HDAC1, HDAC2, HMGA1, HCFC1, ...
1999). "RLIM inhibits functional activity of LIM homeodomain transcription factors via recruitment of the histone deacetylase ... Bendall AJ, Rincón-Limas DE, Botas J, Abate-Shen C (1998). "Protein complex formation between Msx1 and Lhx2 homeoproteins is ...
"The high-mobility-group domain of Sox proteins interacts with DNA-binding domains of many transcription factors". Nucleic Acids ... Stelnicki EJ, Kömüves LG, Holmes D, Clavin W, Harrison MR, Adzick NS, Largman C (1997). "The human homeobox genes MSX-1, MSX-2 ... "Homeodomain proteins Mox1 and Mox2 associate with Pax1 and Pax3 transcription factors". FEBS Lett. 499 (3): 274-8. doi:10.1016/ ... "Homeodomain proteins Mox1 and Mox2 associate with Pax1 and Pax3 transcription factors". FEBS Lett. 499 (3): 274-8. doi:10.1016/ ...
The gene PAX9 which can be found on chromosome 14 encodes a group of transcription factors that play an important role in early ... Along with the mutation of the PAX9 gene, MSX1 gene mutations have also shown to affect dental development in fetuses. PAX9 has ... This gene is a member of the paired box (PAX) family of transcription factors. During mouse embryogenesis Pax9 expression ... "Human PLU-1 Has transcriptional repression properties and interacts with the developmental transcription factors BF-1 and PAX9 ...
PAX3 is needed for the transcription of c-Met. Associated Genetic Factors: PAX3, c-Met, Mox2, MSX1, Six, Myf5, and MyoD Mox2 ( ... proteins transcription factor family. Cells that make myogenic bHLH transcription factors (including MyoD or Myf5) are ... Sim2, a BHLH-Pas transcription factor, inhibits transcription by active repression and displays enhanced expression in ventral ... A transcription factor (TCF4) of connective tissue fibroblasts is involved in the regulation of myogenesis. Specifically, it ...
Wu L, Wu H, Ma L, Sangiorgi F, Wu N, Bell JR, Lyons GE, Maxson R (July 1997). "Miz1, a novel zinc finger transcription factor ... Stelnicki EJ, Kömüves LG, Holmes D, Clavin W, Harrison MR, Adzick NS, Largman C (October 1997). "The human homeobox genes MSX-1 ... Shirakabe K, Terasawa K, Miyama K, Shibuya H, Nishida E (October 2001). "Regulation of the activity of the transcription factor ... Msh homeobox 2 has been shown to interact with DLX5, DLX2 and MSX1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000120149 - Ensembl, May ...
The transcription factor Sox9 can be found in multiple sites in the body (pancreas, central nervous system, intestines) and it ... During this process, TGF-β can stimulate differentiation into either chondrocytes or osteoblasts via FGF, Msx1, and Ctgf ... Runx2 (which may also be known as Cbfa1), and Osx (a zinc finger containing transcription factor) are necessary for ... These factors also have a role in hypertrophic chondrocyte maturation. β-catenin of the canonical Wnt signalling pathway plays ...
It is due to recessive mutations in forkhead/winged-helix domain transcription factor (FKLH15 or TTF2). It is associated with ... Venza I, Visalli M, Parrillo L, De Felice M, Teti D, Venza M (March 2011). "MSX1 and TGF-beta3 are novel target genes ...
... modulated by protein co-factors. For example, it can interact with other transcription factors such as Nkx2-5, Msx 1/2 and Sox4 ... "Msx1 and Msx2 are functional interacting partners of T-box factors in the regulation of Connexin43". Cardiovascular Research. ... T-box transcription factor TBX3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TBX3 gene. T-box 3 (TBX3) is a member of the T- ... Willmer T, Cooper A, Peres J, Omar R, Prince S (July 2017). "The T-Box transcription factor 3 in development and cancer". ...
This gene encodes a member of a homeobox transcription factor gene family similar to the Drosophila distal-less (Dll) gene. The ... DLX5 has been shown to interact with DLX1, DLX2, DLX6, MSX1 and MSX2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000105880 - Ensembl, ... "Regulation of osteocalcin gene expression by a novel Ku antigen transcription factor complex". The Journal of Biological ... co-activates transcription with DLX homeodomain proteins". Brain Research. Developmental Brain Research. 130 (2): 217-30. doi: ...
Batlle E, Sancho E, Francí C, Domínguez D, Monfar M, Baulida J, García De Herreros A (February 2000). "The transcription factor ... Other genes, most of which act downstream of Wnt include Msx1, Pax3, and Mesogenin 1 (Msgn1). Msgn1 activates SNAI1 by binding ... Maturi V, Morén A, Enroth S, Heldin CH, Moustakas A (June 2018). "Genomewide binding of transcription factor Snail1 in triple- ... Snail is a family of transcription factors that promote the repression of the adhesion molecule E-cadherin to regulate ...
The CREB protein carries out its function by activating transcription, where interaction with transcription factors is managed ... "Transcriptional autorepression of Msx1 gene is mediated by interactions of Msx1 protein with a multi-protein transcriptional ... "BRCA1 augments transcription by the NF-kappaB transcription factor by binding to the Rel domain of the p65/RelA subunit". The ... Goto NK, Zor T, Martinez-Yamout M, Dyson HJ, Wright PE (November 2002). "Cooperativity in transcription factor binding to the ...
... role of Dlx2 and Dlx5 transcription factors". Front. Biosci. 8 (6): s1249-65. doi:10.2741/1170. PMID 12957859. Qiu M, Bulfone A ... MSX1 and Msh homeobox 2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000115844 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... 1996). "Sequence, organization, and transcription of the Dlx-1 and Dlx-2 locus". Genomics. 35 (3): 473-85. doi:10.1006/geno. ... co-activates transcription with DLX homeodomain proteins". Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. 130 (2): 217-30. doi:10.1016/S0165-3806( ...
ಟೆಂಪ್ಲೇಟು:Transcription factor and coregulator deficiencies. ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯ ಇಂದ. (ಟೆಂಪ್ಲೇಟು:Transcription factor/coregulator ... Transcription factor and coregulator deficiencies,state=autocollapse}} *shows the template collapsed to the title bar if there ... Transcription factor and coregulator deficiencies,state=collapsed}} to show the template collapsed, i.e., hidden apart from its ... Transcription factor and coregulator deficiencies,state=expanded}} to show the template expanded, i.e., fully visible ...
June 2009). "Restoring transcription factor HoxA5 expression inhibits the growth of experimental hemangiomas in the brain". ... MSX1, MSX2; NANOG; NOTO; TLX1, TLX2, TLX3; TSHZ1, TSHZ2, TSHZ3; VAX1, VAX2, VENTX; Nkx: NKX2-1, NKX2-4; NKX2-2, NKX2-8; NKX3-1 ... Homeodomain proteins function as transcription factors due to the DNA binding properties of the conserved HTH motif. ... Boudreau NJ, Varner JA (February 2004). "The homeobox transcription factor Hox D3 promotes integrin alpha5beta1 expression and ...
Some of the other recruited transcription factors include TFIIA, TFIIB, and TFIIF. Each of these transcription factors contains ... "Transcriptional autorepression of Msx1 gene is mediated by interactions of Msx1 protein with a multi-protein transcriptional ... Through its association with different transcription factors, TBP can initiate transcription from different RNA polymerases. ... "Transcription factor IIA derepresses TATA-binding protein (TBP)-associated factor inhibition of TBP-DNA binding". J. Biol. Chem ...
MSX1 mutations have been identified as one of the contributing factors of missing second premolars, third molars, with a small ... Heterozygous mutations in PAX9 (paired box gene 9) could arrest tooth morphogenesis as it plays a role of transcription the ... Environmental factors can be classified into two main groups, invasive and non-invasive. These factors act additively or ... may also be contributing factors. In a recent study assessing environmental risk factors for hypodontia, it was established ...
This is achieved by expressing the appropriate transcription factors in the cell and suppressing others. More information about ... Some of the pathways that have shown interaction in dedifferentiation are MSX1, Notch 1, BMP, and Wnt/β-Catenin. MSx1 [2], a ... Reduced levels of Msx1 expression resulted in inability to regenerate tadpole tails. Bone Morphogenic Proteins (BMP [5]) are a ... Downregulation of the BMP pathway led to a downregulation of MSx1, resulting in no regeneration in the tadpole. Once BMP ...
Transcription factor deficiencies. *IUIS-PID table 3 immunodeficiencies. *Noninfectious immunodeficiency-related cutaneous ...
Genetic disorders relating to deficiencies of transcription factor or coregulators. (1) Basic domains. ... An in vitro assay of ERα-dependent gene transcription found that the EC50 for transactivation had been reduced by 240-fold ...
Genetic disorder, protein biosynthesis: Transcription factor/coregulator deficiencies. (1) Basic domains. 1.2. *Feingold ...
Genetic disorders relating to deficiencies of transcription factor or coregulators. (1) Basic domains. ...
Genetic disorder, protein biosynthesis: Transcription factor/coregulator deficiencies. (1) Basic domains. 1.2. *Feingold ... Deafness can also result from environmental factors or a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including certain ... More than half of these cases are caused by genetic factors. Most cases of genetic deafness (70% to 80%) are nonsyndromic; the ...
... , protein biosynthesis: Transcription factor/coregulator deficiencies. (1) Basic domains. 1.2. *Feingold ... Complex disorders are also difficult to study and treat, because the specific factors that cause most of these disorders have ... This is opposed to the more traditional phenotype-first approach, and may identify causal factors that have previously been ... meaning they are likely associated with the effects of multiple genes in combination with lifestyles and environmental factors ...
positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • negative regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. • BMP ... "Association of MSX1 and TGFB3 with nonsyndromic clefting in humans". American Journal of Human Genetics. 63 (2): 557-68. doi ... transforming growth factor beta receptor binding. • growth factor activity. • transforming growth factor beta binding. • type ... type III transforming growth factor beta receptor binding. • cytokine activity. • type I transforming growth factor beta ...
The syndrome is linked to germline mutations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene,[3] which encodes a transcription factor (p53) ...
LIM homeobox transcription factor Lhx2 inhibits skeletal muscle differentiation in part via transcriptional activation of Msx1 ... LIM homeobox transcription factor Lhx2 inhibits skeletal muscle differentiation in part via transcriptional activation of Msx1 ... LIM homeobox transcription factor Lhx2 inhibits skeletal muscle differentiation in part via transcriptional activation of Msx1 ... LIM homeobox transcription factor Lhx2 inhibits skeletal muscle differentiation in part via transcriptional activation of Msx1 ...
The role of the Msx1 transcription factor in the intestinal epithelia and colorectal cancer. Úloha transkripčního faktoru Msx1 ...
MSX1 Transcription Factor / genetics * MSX1 Transcription Factor / physiology * Mammals * Regeneration / physiology* * Signal ... The transcriptional repressor Msx1, a direct target of BMP signalling with known roles in vertebrate appendage regeneration, ...
Msx1 interacts with Lhx6 and Sna in vivo. A network of transcription factors operates during early tooth morphogenesis. Title: ... DNA-binding transcription factor activity NAS Non-traceable Author Statement. more info ... Title: The LIM homeodomain transcription factor LHX6: a transcriptional repressor that interacts with pituitary homeobox 2 ( ... Title: The LIM homeodomain transcription factors Lhx6 and Lhx7 are key regulators of mammalian dentition. ...
Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the DHX34 gene promoter:. *Msx-1 ... No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for DHX34 ... Transcription Factor. Binding Sites. Gene Targets. GH19J047348. Promoter/Enhancer. 1.5. Ensembl ENCODE 617.8. +0.3. 251. 2.1. ...
In mammals, Nanog is a key transcription factor that maintains cellular pluripotency by controlling competence to respond … ... counteracts lineage commitment towards both dorsal and ventral fates and prevents msx1-induced ventralization. Furthermore, ... In mammals, Nanog is a key transcription factor that maintains cellular pluripotency by controlling competence to respond to ... Ventx factors function as Nanog-like guardians of developmental potential in Xenopus PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e36855. doi: 10.1371/ ...
Transcription factors[edit]. Main articles: Gene transcriptions/Factors and Transcription factors. GeneID: 860 RUNX2 runt- ... GeneID: 4487 MSX1 msh homeobox 1 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]. MSX1 "encodes a member of the muscle segment homeobox gene family. ... related transcription factor 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]. RUNX2 "is a member of the RUNX family of transcription factors and ... Gene transcriptions[edit]. Main article: Gene transcriptions. GeneID: 8091 HMGA2 high mobility group AT-hook 2 [ Homo sapiens ( ...
Colored lines enclose expression domains of the transcription factors listed at neural plate. stages. Listing of transcription ... Msx1. and Msx 2 are strongly expressed only in the dorsal part of the indicated region). For details and references, see Fig. 5 ... Transcription factors that control neuronal determination and differentiation and are expressed in all neurogenic placodes but ... 6. Schematic summary of transcription factor expression domains in the placodal ectoderm. of neural plate. stage Xenopus ...
MSX1 and PAX9 are necessary transcription factors that help to form normal teeth. Studies done in mice, have shown that MSX1 ... The protein of MSX1 serves as a repressor for gene transcription and interchanges with other homeoproteins. In studies of ... and PAX9 encode transcription factors with different DNA binding sequence patterns, a paired domain and homeodomain, which are ... Traits that are used for kinship analysis must be determine by genetic factors, must be rare in the general population, and the ...
Neural plate border specifiers are induced as a set of transcription factors. Distalless-5, PAX3 and PAX7 prevent the border ... In a newly formed neural plate, PAX3 mRNA, MSX1 mRNA, and MSX1/MSX2 proteins are expressed mediolaterally.[9] When the neural ... These induce a second set of transcription factors called neural crest specifiers, which cause cells to become neural crest ... Bone morphogenetic protein 4, or BMP4, is a transforming growth factor that causes the cells of the ectoderm to differentiate ...
Amongst them are numerous transcription factors (e.g. Tbx1, Tbx22, Msx1, IRF6) and signaling molecules and their receptors (e.g ... The etiology of cleft palate is multifactorial, with both genetic and environmental factors playing a role. A cleft palate ... Amongst them are numerous transcription factors (e.g. Tbx1, Tbx22, Msx1, IRF6) and signaling molecules and their receptors (e.g ... How these environmental factors interact with cellular and molecular events during early development of the embryo is only one ...
Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for CHGA Gene Localization for CHGA Gene Jump to section. Aliases. ... Transcription Factor. Binding Sites. Gene Targets. GH14J092922. Promoter/Enhancer. 2.1. EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas ... Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the CHGA gene promoter:. *CREB ... Serpinin]: Regulates granule biogenesis in endocrine cells by up-regulating the transcription of protease nexin 1 (SERPINE2) ...
Experimental evidence places these transcription factors upstream of neural crest specifiers. For example, in Xenopus Msx1 is ... Twist, a bHLH transcription factor, is required for mesenchyme differentiation of the pharyngeal arch structures. Id is a ... These molecules include Zic factors, Pax3/7, Dlx5, Msx1/2 which may mediate the influence of Wnts, BMPs, and Fgfs. These genes ... Signaling events that establish the neural plate border lead to the expression of a set of transcription factors delineated ...
... revealed that the dura secretes a variety of growth and transcription factors that regulate cell activity within the overlying ... These include TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, FGF-2, BMP-4, BMP-7, FGF-9, MSX1, and MSX2. Because suture fusion occurs within certain ... Transforming growth factor beta s and fibroblast growth factors and their receptors: role in sutural biology and ... These biomechanical factors emanate from the contraction of temporalis and masseter and load the sagittal suture in tension to ...
... of regulatory networks that underlie mesenchymal/NCC-like cell identities through PRRX1 and YAP/TAZ transcription factors. ... Although transcription factor hierarchies and some of their interplay with morphogenetic signaling pathways have been ... Although transcription factor hierarchies and some of their interplay with morphogenetic signalling pathways have been ... FGF and Notch signaling determine NC induction and activate transcription factors (e.g., MSX1, MYCN, DLX5/6), in the neural ...
Acts downstream of msx1 to induce the neura...[+] Probable transcription factor. Promotes both hatching gland and neural crest ... paired box transcription factor with homeodomain Protein Function :. Probable transcription factor. Promotes both hatching ... K] Transcription factor PRD and related proteins, contain PAX and HOX domains ... Q28DP6,sp,Q28DP6.2,PAX3_XENTR RecName: Full=Paired box protein Pax-3; AltName: Full=Paired-domain transcription factor Pax3 ...
... enriched for transcription factors including MSX1, EGLN3, and OTX2, was uncertain. The presence of discrete NKX2-1+ states ... focused on genes associated with transcription factor activity. Heatmap of the top transcription factors or genes with ... and filtered genes based on GO classification for transcription factor activity (GO:0003700, "transcription factor activity"). ... Elf5 is an epithelium-specific, fibroblast growth factor-sensitive transcription factor in the embryonic lung. Dev Dyn. 2007; ...
Barker, D. M., & Beck, C. W. (2009). Overexpression of the transcription factor msx1 is insufficient to drive complete ...
The researchers uncovered two transcription factor proteins, Lmx1a and Msx1, tha. "/>. Contact: Heidi Hardman. [email protected] ... The basic findings in mice revealed critical factors that determine the fate of one type of nerve cell progenitor and that set ...
MSX1 is a homeobox transcription factor known to be involved in craniofacial development and odontogenesis. MSX1 is also ... Proteins expressed during both the proliferative and secretory phase include HOXA11, a transcription factor involved in the ... Our analysis shows that MSX1 is group enriched in the cervical and endometrial glands. ... a complement C1q tumor necrosis factor-related protein with unknown function, expressed in stroma cells. ...
The gene encoding the T-box factor Tbx2 is a target for the Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor in melanocytes. J. ... Monsoro-Burq, A. H., Wang, E. and Harland, R. (2005). Msx1 and Pax3 cooperate to mediate FGF8 and WNT signals during Xenopus ... The transcription factors PAX3 and SOX10 cooperate to induce expression of MITF in nascent melanoblasts (Watanabe et al., 1998 ... Kos, R., Reedy, M. V., Johnson, R. L. and Erickson, C. A. (2001). The winged-helix transcription factor FoxD3 is important for ...
Houzelstein, D., Cohen, A., Buckingham, M. E. and Robert, B. (1997). Insertional mutation of the mouse Msx1 homoeobox gene by a ... The winged helix transcription factor Foxd3 (CWH3, Hfh2, Genesis) is expressed in the presumptive neural crest region in both ... Labosky, P. A. and Kaestner, K. H. (1998). The winged helix transcription factor Hfh2 is expressed in neural crest and spinal ... The transcription factor Pax6 is expressed in dividing progenitors that give rise to Lhx1/5-positive/Pax2-positive interneurons ...
IRF6 codes for a transcription factor that is involved in the early development. The mutated copy of the gene decreases the ... A) Epidermal growth factor (EGF). (B) Interleukin-6 (IL-6). (C) Prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2). (D) Transforming growth factor-beta ( ... The mutation for van der Woude syndrome has been mapped to the interferon regulatory factor 6 (IRF6) gene in chromosome 1. The ... Mutations in the genetic locus for fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR-3) have been found, in a greater than expected ...
... a set of dynamic factors that influence gene activity - may lead to an inherited form of mental retardation that affects boys, ... the transcription factor MSX1. Taking a cue from the scientific literature, Qi and his collaborators, Madathia Sarkissian and ... A subtle mutation affecting the epigenome - a set of dynamic factors that influence gene activity - may lead to an inherited ... As importantly, providing more of the fish version of the MSX1 gene (whose activity the demethylase enzyme encourages) also ...
It functions as a transcription factor with a high affinity f0or specific DNA target sequences in response to DNA damage or ... Louis, MO). The human Msx1 gene in vector pCB6+ (pCB6+/Msx1), pGEX-2T-Msx1 (1-297), and pGEX2T-Msx1 (1-165) were gifts from Dr ... and Joonho Choe for their gifts of Msx1 constructs [pCB6+/Msx1, pGEX-2T-Msx1 (1-297), and pGEX-2T-Msx1 (1-165)], pJM17, and GST ... Msx1 Induces Apoptosis in Human Cancer Cells. To explore the role of the homeobox protein Msx1 in human cancer cells, Msx1 ...
Tyson KL, Reynolds JL, McNair R, Zhang Q, Weissberg PL, and Shanahan CM. Osteo/chondrocytic transcription factors and their ... diabetes upregulates aortic expression of Msx2 and Msx1 (16, 110). These two related homeodomain proteins are BMP2-regulated ... The novel zinc finger-containing transcription factor osterix is required for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. ... Osteopontin transcription in aortic vascular smooth muscle cells is controlled by glucose-regulated upstream stimulatory factor ...
The transcription factor MSX1, which is known to regulate BMP signaling, was the most upregulated gene (4Ã-) in IPAH patients. ... revealing three distinct factors: (i) an interactive self-care factor; (ii) a complementary medicine factor; and (iii) a third ... and transcription factors. Common to IPAH and HPAH but not UMC were an upregulation of vesicle trafficking, oxidative/ ... The purpose of this study is to delineate side impact airbag (SIAB) deployment rates, injury rates, and analyze crash factors ...
Moreover, three transcription factors (Msx-1, Msx-2, and Egr-1) whose expression is governed by epithelial signaling were ... To address the role of this factor, BMP-4-releasing agarose beads were added to dental mesenchyme in culture. These beads ... Growth factor-mediated signaling has been implicated in the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during ... Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4), a member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, is expressed in the ...
... and provide a basis for interpreting tooth induction in terms of transcription factors which, individually, are necessary but ... Fgf8 expression is preserved in Msx1 mutant epithelium while that of Fgf3 is not detected in Msx1 mutant dental mesenchyme. ... Moreover, in contrast to the tooth bud stage arrest observed in Msx1 mutants, Msx1,Msx2 double mutants exhibit an earlier ... even though both signaling molecules can induce Msx1 and Msx1 is necessary for Fgf3 and Bmp4 expression in dental mesenchyme. ...
... many other transcription factors play key roles. At the distal end of the developing mandible, the bHLH transcription factors ... Msx1 and Pax9. Loss of Msx1 and Pax9 leads to a downregulation of Bmp4 and an arrest of tooth development at the bud stage in ... Nakamura T, De Vega S, Fukumoto S, Jimenez L, Unda F, Yamada Y (2008) Transcription factor epiprofin is essential for tooth ... 2008). Epfn is a zinc-finger transcription factor, homologous to Sp6. In this case the mice survive up to 2 years old and ...
  • Short interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Lhx2 in the developing limb buds of mouse embryos resulted in a reduction in Msx1 and Msx2 mRNA levels, suggesting that they are downstream target genes of Lhx2. (umn.edu)
  • Moreover, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that Lhx2 is present in chromatin DNA complexes bound to the enhancer regions of the Msx1 and Msx2 genes. (umn.edu)
  • In addition, overexpression of Lhx2 significantly enhanced the mRNA levels of bone morphogenetic protein 4 and transforming growth factor beta family genes. (umn.edu)
  • The reason for tooth agenesis has not been completely understood, despite the identification of several mutations in MSX1 and PAX9 genes which are related to tooth agenesis and mutations in AXIN2 gene which cause oligodontia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Underlying the development of neural crest is a gene regulatory network, described as a set of interacting signals, transcription factors, and downstream effector genes that confer cell characteristics such as multipotency and migratory capabilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • In coherence with this observation, the promoter region of slug (a neural crest specific gene) contains a binding site for transcription factors involved in the activation of Wnt-dependent target genes, suggestive of a direct role of Wnt signaling in neural crest specification. (wikipedia.org)
  • It functions as a transcription factor with a high affinity f0or specific DNA target sequences in response to DNA damage or hypoxia and it also up-regulates the expression of target genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Functional analyses performed via knockdown or forced expression of these genes revealed regulatory network disturbances effecting downregulation of MSX1 which may underlie malignant development in NK-cells. (oncotarget.com)
  • HES1/HRY and HEY1/HESR1/HRT1 are NOTCH activated target genes and members of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The TCF/LEF family, which was first discovered during a study of T lymphocytes, has been shown to regulate the expression of specific genes, such as c-myc , cylinD1 , runt-related transcriptional factor 2 ( Runx2 ), and Osx . (medsci.org)
  • Candidate genes for clefting, including TGFA, BCL3, DLX2, MSX1, and TGFB3, were screened for LD with either CL/P or CPO in a predominantly Caucasian population, with both case-control- and nuclear-family-based approaches. (uiowa.edu)
  • Significant LD was found between CL/P and both MSX1 and TGFB3 and between CPO and MSX1, suggesting that these genes are involved in the pathogenesis of clefting. (uiowa.edu)
  • In addition, a mutation search in the genes DLX2, MSX1, and TGFB3 was performed in 69 CPO patients and in a subset of the CL/P patients. (uiowa.edu)
  • These results form the basis for future research, including (a) mutation searches in the MSX1 and TGFB3 genes in Caucasian CL/P patients and (b) extension of the search for MSX1 mutations in CPO patients to the noncoding regions. (uiowa.edu)
  • [ 4 ] The Hox genes, well described as the master regulators of development, encode a set of transcription factors that specify the identity of particular segments during embryogenesis. (medscape.com)
  • This is mostly a reflex of the complexity and diversity of the molecular mechanisms involved in embryogenesis, with the participation of multiple genes and the influence of environmental factors 10,11 . (scielo.br)
  • The two factors -- encoded by genes that are named Lmx1a and Msx1-transcribe a DNA recipe for a protein so that the cell can manufacture it according to specifications. (sfn.org)
  • The genes Bmp-2, Bmp-4, Fgf-4 and Shh encode signal molecules, Lef-1 , Msx-1 and Msx-2, are transcription factors and p21 CIP1/WAF1 participates in the regulation of cell cycle. (springer.com)
  • Expression of neural crest specifier genes such as FoxD3 and Sox10 is controlled by enhancers specific to particular axial levels, driving onset of their transcription in either the head or trunk neural crest but not both ( 8 , 9 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • RNA-seq analysis comparing these two populations identified 216 genes that were enriched in the cranial neural crest relative to the trunk ( Fig. 1, D and E , and database S1), including 16 transcription factors (listed in Fig. 1F ). (sciencemag.org)
  • PRH is a DNA-binding protein that can repress and activate the transcription of its target genes using multiple mechanisms. (biochemj.org)
  • Some of the genes that PRH regulates encode proteins that are involved in control of the cell cycle or in growth factor signalling pathways. (biochemj.org)
  • Mutations of several genes such as PAX9 , MSX1 , AXIN2 , KDF1 and WNT10A have been reported which are associated with non-syndromic tooth agenesis. (ajmb.org)
  • Among several genes involved in tooth development, mutations in MSX1 , PAX9 , AXIN2 , WNT10A , EDA and KDF1 have been reported to play a role in tooth agenesis 6-13 . (ajmb.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to identify the mutations in the candidate genes, PAX9 , MSX1 and WNT10A , responsible for tooth agenesis in 4 Iranian families with hereditary pattern of non-syndromic tooth agenesis. (ajmb.org)
  • It represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES and plays a critical role in ODONTOGENESIS. (bvsalud.org)
  • Venous blood samples were obtained to screen variants in the PAX9, MSX1, AXIN2, and EDA genes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Mutations in the MSX1 and EDA genes were not identified. (bvsalud.org)
  • Estudos moleculares em famílias com agenesia dentária têm identificado mutações em diversos genes que codificam fatores de transcrição dentre eles o MSX1 e o PAX9. (unb.br)
  • O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar mutações nos genes MSX1 e PAX9 em famílias com agenesia dentária acompanhadas na Clínica de Anomalias Dentárias da Divisão de Odontologia do Hospital Universitário de Brasília. (unb.br)
  • Molecular studies of families with non-syndromic tooth agenesis have shown mutations affecting mainly two genes encoding transcription factors, MSX1 and PAX9. (unb.br)
  • The aim of this study it was to investigate mutations on genes MSX1 and PAX9 in families with dental agenesis. (unb.br)
  • Furthermore, nonlinear effects of Fgf8 gene dose on the expression of a subset of genes, including Bmp4 and Msx1, correlate with a holoprosencephaly phenotype and with the nonlinear expression of transcription factors that regulate neocortical patterning. (escholarship.org)
  • Several genes have been explored, including, but not limited to PAX9 and MSX1. (pacific.edu)
  • It was shown in both mouse and human tooth development that PAX9 and MSX1 are the most important genes regulating progression through early stages of tooth development. (pacific.edu)
  • These genes are encoding transcription factors involved in epithelial/mesenchymal interactions. (pacific.edu)
  • The protein of MSX1 serves as a repressor for gene transcription and interchanges with other homeoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In studies of homozygous mice, it has been found that deletion of the MSX1 gene has resulted in a double cleft palate, deficiency of the alveolar bone, failure of incisor and molar development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in the MSX1 homeobox gene are associated with non-syndromic cleft palate and tooth agenesis in humans. (biologists.org)
  • NKL homeobox gene MSX1 is physiologically expressed in lymphoid progenitors and subsequently downregulated in developing T- and B-cells. (oncotarget.com)
  • However, NK-cell lines analyzed here showed normal MSX1 gene configurations, indicating that this aberration might be uncommon. (oncotarget.com)
  • A subtle mutation affecting the epigenome - a set of dynamic factors that influence gene activity - may lead to an inherited form of mental retardation that affects boys, find researchers at Children's Hospital Boston. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • One signal, BMP4, has been shown to induce morphologic changes in dental mesenchyme and mesenchymal gene expression via Msx1, but BMP4 cannot substitute for all the inductive functions of the dental epithelium. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The last activates transcription factor CBF1/CSL/RBPJ which is associated with a repressor complex, mediating target gene silencing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MSX1 gene polymorphisms in Mexican patients with non-syndromic cleft lip/palate. (cdc.gov)
  • Mutations in the MSX1 gene are critical during craniofacial development. (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of MSX1 gene polymorphisms to the risk of developing CL/P in a sample of Mexican patients. (cdc.gov)
  • The results of this study suggest an association between CL/P susceptibility and SNP1, located near the MSX1 gene, in the Mexican population. (cdc.gov)
  • Mutational analysis of the muscle segment homeobox gene 1 (MSX1) in Chilean patients with cleft lip/palate]. (pitt.edu)
  • BACKGROUND: Mutations of the MSX1 gene may contribute to non-syndromic forms of cleft lip and/or cleft palate. (pitt.edu)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Rare MSX1 mutations are found in some cases of cleft lip and/or cleft palate but others remain to be found most likely in other regulatory regions of the gene. (pitt.edu)
  • MSX and DLX are members of the Antennapedia class of non-Hox homeodomain transcription factors that regulate gene expression and influence development of the craniofacial structures and anterior forebrain. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • For example, variations in the homeobox gene family member MSX1, including a CA repeat located within its single intron , may play a role in clefting. (bvsalud.org)
  • These results suggest that the CA repeat polymorphism of the MSX1 gene may play a role in risk of NSOC in populations from Southern Brazil . (bvsalud.org)
  • Five variants (rs149370601, rs8670, rs186861426 and rs774949973) including a missense variant (rs36059701) were detected in MSX1 gene and no variants were found in WNT10A gene. (ajmb.org)
  • Conclusion: All variants were analyzed based on bioinformatics websites and Iranian gene databases, and as a result, it was revealed that variants of PAX9 , MSX1 and WNT10A may not play a role in non-syndromic tooth agenesis among Iranian cases. (ajmb.org)
  • MSX1 is the first gene detected to have an association with this anomaly 6 . (ajmb.org)
  • MSX1 belongs to Homeobox family and is the first gene reported in association with tooth agenesis 17 . (ajmb.org)
  • MSX1 is a member of the muscle segment homeobox gene family. (thermofisher.com)
  • As a result, searching through human and mouse corpuses, we identified numerous bovine homologs, among which 11 to 14% of transcription factors including the gold standard TF as well as novel TF potentially important to gene regulation in ruminant embryo development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Herein we describe experiments that utilize small molecule inhibitors, phenylcyclopropylamines, along with small interfering RNA to probe the role of LSD1 in breast cancer proliferation and in estrogen-dependent gene transcription. (dukecancerinstitute.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of MSX1 gene to the risk of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NS-CL +/- P) in the Korean population. (bvsalud.org)
  • PCR primers for intronic sequences flanking the two exons of MSX1 gene were used to amplify DNA templates for sequence analysis. (unb.br)
  • Of these molecules, YM155 is one of the inhibitors targeting the BIRC5 ( Survivin ) gene, an anti-apoptotic factor, which is highly overexpressed in ESCs/iPSCs and cancer stem cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • During head and neck development, the interferon regulatory factor 6 (IRF6) gene is involved in the structure formation of the oral and maxillofacial regions, and the transforming growth factor alpha (TGFA) is an essential cell regulator, acting during proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. (bvsalud.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the T-box family of transcription factors. (nih.gov)
  • The normal function of the PAX9 gene, a transcription factor that plays an important role in signaling between epithelial and mesenchymal cells during tooth development, seems to be critical during development of dental lamina. (pacific.edu)
  • Homeodomain proteins are conserved DNA-binding factors that are involved in the transcriptional regulation of key developmental processes. (embl.de)
  • Here, we identify homeobox Msx1 as a p53-interacting protein and show its novel function as a p53 regulator. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The homeodomain of Msx1 functions as a protein-protein interacting motif rather than a DNA-binding domain and is essential for stabilization, nuclear accumulation, and apoptotic function of wild-type p53. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The biochemical properties of Msx1 protein and its fundamental role as an embryonic transcriptional regulator are well established. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4), a member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, is expressed in the presumptive dental epithelium at the initiation of tooth development. (nih.gov)
  • An atypical canonical bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway regulates Msh homeobox 1 (Msx1) expression during odontogenesis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Yeast one-hybrid assays revealed that the msh-like homeodomain protein, MSX1, bound specifically to the Hx sequence of MFCS1. (g3journal.org)
  • The PRH (proline-rich homeodomain) protein, also known as the Hex (haematopoietically expressed homeobox) protein (also termed Hhex or HHEX) is a transcription factor that contains the well-characterized DNA-binding domain termed the homeodomain. (biochemj.org)
  • Using protein immunodetection and histological techniques comparing transgenic mice to controls, we show here that the persistent expression of Hoxa2 in chondrogenic territories provokes a general down-regulation of the main factors controlling the differentiation cascade, such as Bapx1, Bmp7, Bmpr1a, Ihh, Msx1, Pax9, Sox6, Sox9 and Wnt5a. (mdpi.com)
  • MSX1 (NP_002439, 216 a.a. approximately 297 a.a) full length recombinant protein with GST tag. (thermofisher.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry confirmed increased dentin sialophosphoprotein, dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein 1, and transforming growth factor beta 1 protein expression in treated SCAPs. (bvsalud.org)
  • A large family of structurally-related transcription factors that were originally discovered based upon their close sequence homology to an HMG-box domain found in SEX-DETERMINING REGION Y PROTEIN. (harvard.edu)
  • We found that Msx1 expression was restricted to the anterior of the first upper molar site in the palatal mesenchyme and that Msx1 was required for the expression of Bmp4 and Bmp2 in the mesenchyme and Shh in the medial edge epithelium (MEE) in the same region of developing palate. (biologists.org)
  • Transgenic expression of human Bmp4 driven by the mouse Msx1 promoter in the Msx1 -/- palatal mesenchyme rescued the cleft palate phenotype and neonatal lethality. (biologists.org)
  • Ectopic Bmp4 appears to bypass the requirement for Msx1 and functions upstream of Shh and Bmp2 to support palatal development. (biologists.org)
  • FGFs and BMP4 induce both Msx1-independent and Msx1-dependent signaling pathways in early tooth development. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The muscle dedifferentiation factors Msx1 and Msx2 were strongly induced by the Lhx2 overexpression. (umn.edu)
  • We found two Lhx2 consensus-binding sites in the -2097 to -1189 genomic region of Msx1 and two additional sites in the -536 to +73 genomic region of Msx2. (umn.edu)
  • These data demonstrate that Msx1 and Msx2 are direct transcriptional targets of Lhx2. (umn.edu)
  • Furthermore, analysis of MSX2 expression levels in T-cell lines after treatment with core thymic factors confirmed their involvement in regulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the cases and pseudo-controls, an association was found between CL/P and the SNP1-G allele (P = 0.031) and the SNP1-G/G genotype (P = 0.032), a polymorphism located near MSX1. (cdc.gov)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MSX1 CA repeat polymorphism and NSOC in a Southern Brazilian population using a case- parent triad design. (bvsalud.org)
  • Association of MSX1 and TGFB3 with nonsyndromic clefting in humans" by A. C. Lidral, P. A. Romitti et al. (uiowa.edu)
  • Non-syndromic cleft lip/palate malformation (CL/P) is one of the most common birth defects in humans and has a complex etiology involving genetic and environmental factors. (cdc.gov)
  • Joint over-expression of Xenopus ventx1.2 and ventx2.1-b (ventx1/2) counteracts lineage commitment towards both dorsal and ventral fates and prevents msx1-induced ventralization. (nih.gov)
  • If the functions of PAX9 and MSX1 are disturbed, the tooth will not develop. (pacific.edu)
  • Thus, PPD caused by mutations in MFCS1 has two major types of molecular etiology: loss of a cis -motif for negative regulation of Shh , and acquisition of a new cis -motif binding to a preexisting transcription factor, as represented by the Hx mutation. (g3journal.org)
  • A heterozygous mutation in either PAX9 or MSX1 has been widely reported to cause tooth agenesis in populations 6,11, 13-16 . (ajmb.org)
  • A genetic cascade controlled by the secreted molecule Sonic hedgehog, including the transcription factors Lmx1a, Msx1 and Nkx6-1, acts in parallel with the Wnt1-regulated network to establish the midbrain dopaminergic progenitor domain. (tum.de)
  • Msx1 encodes a homeoprotein that functions as a transcriptional repressor through interactions with components of the core transcription complex as well as other homeoproteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Msx1 thus controls a genetic hierarchy involving BMP and Shh signals that regulates the growth of the anterior region of palate during mammalian palatogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • Serpinin]: Regulates granule biogenesis in endocrine cells by up-regulating the transcription of protease nexin 1 (SERPINE2) via a cAMP-PKA-SP1 pathway. (genecards.org)
  • These transcription factors are closely linked with each other and in conjunction with bone-related signaling pathways form a complex network that regulates osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. (medsci.org)
  • These transcription factors are interdependent and closely linked with each other to form a network in the above signaling pathways, which regulates the entire process of osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. (medsci.org)
  • Recently, substantial advances have been made by demonstrating that the secreted molecule Wnt1 regulates a genetic network, including the transcription factors Otx2 and Nkx2-2, for the initial establishment of the dopaminergic progenitor domain in the mammalian ventral midbrain. (tum.de)
  • PIAS1 also regulates the homeoprotein Msx1 by regulating its subnuclear localization and its DNA-binding specificity in a SUMO E3-ligase independent manner (Lee et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a pleiotropic cytokine from interleukin- (IL-) 6 family, regulates various cellular functions via binding to membrane-bound LIF receptor (LIFR) and gp130 [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • These inductive factors include sonic hedgehog (Shh), a member of the hedgehog family, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and members of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily. (biologists.org)
  • Recent evidence shows that several proteins involved in oncogenesis, such as ADP ribosylation factor, oncogenic Ras, RB, and TSG101, also affect the stability of p53 by modulating Mdm2-mediated degradation (reviewed in ref. 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Epithelium-derived signals such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), sonic hedgehog (SHH), and WNT induce autoregulatory positive signaling and mutual inhibitory feedback within and between the epithelium and the mesenchyme to orchestrate the molecular interplay required for lower-jaw outgrowth ( 5 , 7 - 13 ). (asm.org)
  • The SAP domain contains a LXXLL motif which is involved in direct-DNA binding or in physical interaction with other proteins involved in DNA-binding, such as transcription factors, co-regulators and nuclear receptors (Aravind and Koonin, 2000). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • These include activation of transcription factors, expression of specific cell-surface proteins, reorganization and expression of cytoskeletal proteins, production of ECM-degrading enzymes, and changes in the expression of specific microRNAs. (jci.org)
  • The transcriptional repressor Msx1, a direct target of BMP signalling with known roles in vertebrate appendage regeneration, fails to be re-expressed in both tail and limb in the presence of noggin. (nih.gov)
  • It functions as a transcriptional repressor during embryogenesis through interactions with components of the core transcription complex and other homeoproteins. (thermofisher.com)
  • MSX1 may also have roles in limb-pattern formation, craniofacial development, particularly odontogenesis, and tumor growth inhibition. (thermofisher.com)
  • Our research aimed to look into the clinical traits and genetic mutations in sporadic non-syndromic anodontia and to gain insight into the role of mutations of PAX9, MSX1, AXIN2 and EDA in anodontia phenotypes, especially for the PAX9. (bvsalud.org)
  • Acts downstream of msx1 to induce the neura. (xenbase.org)
  • Acts downstream of msx1 to induce the neural crest, cooperating with zic1 and mediating signals from both the wnt and fgf8 signaling pathways. (xenbase.org)
  • Myogenin is a muscle-specific transcription factor that can induce myogenesis in a variety of cell types in tissue;culture. (creativebiomart.net)
  • We propose that Lhx2 is involved in the early stage of skeletal muscle development by inducing multiple differentiation inhibitory factors. (umn.edu)
  • In mammals, Nanog is a key transcription factor that maintains cellular pluripotency by controlling competence to respond to differentiation cues. (nih.gov)
  • Accordingly, lymphocyte differentiation depends on activities of particular transcription factors (TFs) like PAX5 for B-cells, BCL11B for T-cells, and ID2, NFIL3 and STAT5 for NK-cells [ 4 , 5 ]. (oncotarget.com)
  • Differentiation and maturation of osteoblasts is a prerequisite to bone formation and is regulated by many factors. (medsci.org)
  • Recent experiments have shown that transcription factors play an important role in regulating osteoblast differentiation, proliferation, and function. (medsci.org)
  • Transcription factors are important players in these signaling pathways and play an important role in the regulation of proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. (medsci.org)
  • microRNA-9-2 and microRNA-9-3 double-mutant mice demonstrate that microRNA-9 ( miR-9 ) controls neural progenitor proliferation and differentiation in the developing telencephalon by regulating the expression of multiple transcription factors. (jneurosci.org)
  • Several transcription factors control the proliferation/differentiation of these cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • In addition, Wnt1 appears to regulate the differentiation of the postmitotic progeny of these precursors by initiating the expression of midbrain dopaminergic-specific transcription factors. (tum.de)
  • Many SOX transcription factors play important roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION. (harvard.edu)
  • In vivo and in vitro analyses indicated that the cleft palate seen in Msx1 mutants resulted from a defect in cell proliferation in the anterior palatal mesenchyme rather than a failure in palatal fusion. (biologists.org)
  • To address the role of this factor, BMP-4-releasing agarose beads were added to dental mesenchyme in culture. (nih.gov)
  • Effect of fibroblast growth factors on outgrowth of facial mesenchyme. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Using Shh Cre to target the mandibular epithelium, we ablated transcription factor Islet1 , resulting in a distally truncated mandible via unbalanced cell apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation in the distal mesenchyme. (asm.org)
  • MSX1 and PAX9 are two transcription factors which are expressed in dental mesenchyme in response to epithelial signals and they play an important role during progression from bud to cap stage in odontogenesis 6,19 . (ajmb.org)
  • Ectopic expression of some of these factors caused trunk neural crest cells to function as cranial neural crest cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Studies done in mice, have shown that MSX1 and PAX9 encode transcription factors with different DNA binding sequence patterns, a paired domain and homeodomain, which are co-expressed during tooth development. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have used Msx1 -deficient mice as a model system that exhibits severe craniofacial abnormalities, including cleft secondary palate and lack of teeth, to study the genetic regulation of mammalian palatogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • Overexpression of homeobox Msx1 induced apoptosis of cancer cells harboring nonfunctional wild-type p53 and suppressed growth of human tumor xenografts in nude mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The basic findings in mice revealed critical factors that determine the fate of one type of nerve cell progenitor and that set bone marrow stem cells into action. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Finally, mice lacking MSX1 or DLX1 and 2 show altered numbers of GnRH -expressing cells in regions where these factors likely function. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Since Hoxa2 deregulation in mice induces a proportionate short stature phenotype mimicking human idiopathic conditions, our results give an insight into understanding proportionate short stature pathogenesis by highlighting molecular factors whose combined deregulation may be involved in such a disease. (mdpi.com)
  • Success, Nuclear factorB and signal transducer and activator of transcription three had been constitutively activated selleckchem in iMycEu mice, not merely in LBLs but in addition inside the splenic B lymphocytes of youthful animals months prior to tumors formulated. (hsdpathway.com)
  • Interestingly, in silico analyses and literature scanning reveal that basal vertebrate ventral homeobox (ventxs) and mammalian Nanog factors share extensive structural, evolutionary and functional properties. (nih.gov)
  • Signaling events that establish the neural plate border lead to the expression of a set of transcription factors delineated here as neural plate border specifiers. (wikipedia.org)
  • We propose that Wnt signaling is a major determinant of regulatory networks that underlie mesenchymal/neural crest cell (NCC)-like cell identities through PRRX1 and YAP/TAZ transcription factors. (frontiersin.org)
  • We address this by performing a fine-scale quantitative temporal analysis of transcription factor expression in the neural plate border of chick embryos. (elifesciences.org)
  • these studies did not examine early neural plate border stages or the relationship between different transcription factors in the border region. (elifesciences.org)
  • To this end, we performed quantitative analysis of the transcription factors Sox2, Pax7, Msx1/2, Tfap2a and Six1 in neural plate border cells of chick embryos as a function of time. (elifesciences.org)
  • The expression of a handful of transcription factors identifies cranial neural crest cells as distinct from trunk neural crest cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Using axial-level specific enhancers to isolate and perform genome-wide profiling of the cranial versus trunk neural crest in chick embryos, we identified and characterized regulatory relationships between a set of cranial-specific transcription factors. (sciencemag.org)
  • The neural fate commitment of pluripotent stem cells requires the repression of extrinsic inhibitory signals and the activation of intrinsic positive transcription factors. (elifesciences.org)
  • have shown that a transcription factor called Pou3f1 triggers stem cells within a region of the ectoderm to turn into neural progenitor cells, thereby generating the neuroectoderm. (elifesciences.org)
  • The Sonic-hedgehog-controlled cascade may diverge from the Wnt1-regulated network at later stages of neural development through induction of proneural transcription factors required for the acquisition of generic neuronal properties by the midbrain dopaminergic progeny. (tum.de)
  • Secreted from neighboring tissues, signaling molecules of the Wnt, Fgf, and Bmp families cooperate to activate a distinct combination of transcription factors at the neural plate border. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since there is virtually no mitosis during blastema formation, we propose that high levels of EVI5 function to arrest dedifferentiated cells somewhere in the G 1 /S/G 2 phases of the cell cycle until they have accumulated under the wound epidermis and enter mitosis in response to neural and epidermal factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MTHFR and MSX1 contribute to the risk of nonsyndromic cleft lip/palate. (nih.gov)
  • While T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) subsets exhibit aberrant overexpression of MSX1, we show here that in malignant NK-cells the level of MSX1 transcripts is aberrantly downregulated. (oncotarget.com)
  • Msx1 interacts with Lhx6 and Sna in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Here we show that Msx1 interacts with p53 and inhibits tumor growth by inducing apoptosis in vitro and in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Binding of LIF to LIFR recruits gp130 to form high affinity functional receptor complex leading to activation of downstream signal transduction pathway such as signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The etiology of cleft palate is multifactorial, with both genetic and environmental factors playing a role. (frontiersin.org)
  • The etiology of NSOC is complex, involving both genetic and environmental factors. (bvsalud.org)
  • Both genetic and environmental factors have been suggested to play roles in MIH's development, but no conclusive risk factors have shown the source of the disease. (bvsalud.org)
  • AIM: To search for mutations of MSX1 coding regions, including one highly conserved non-coding region in the single intron, among Chilean patients with cleft lip/palate. (pitt.edu)
  • however, several rare variants of MSX1 and TGFB3 were found that may alter the latters' normal function. (uiowa.edu)
  • Currently, three spliced variants of LIF have been identified which include membrane-associated, diffusible, and truncated forms acting as paracrine factors in embryo implantation [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, our data demonstrate that in malignant NK-cell lines AUTS2 performed MSX1 activation as well, but in accordance with downregulated MSX1 transcription therein we detected reduced AUTS2 expression, a small genomic deletion at 7q11 removing exons 3 and 4, and truncating mutations in exon 1. (oncotarget.com)
  • Our findings provide insights into the cellular and molecular etiology of the non-syndromic clefting associated with Msx1 mutations. (biologists.org)
  • Environmental factors affecting children that were 3 years of age or older were also hypothesized to play a role in the disease etiology. (bvsalud.org)
  • In this paper, we discuss the structure of T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) and its role in embryonic skeletal development and the crosstalk with related signaling pathways and factors. (medsci.org)
  • Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2)-mediated reciprocal regulation loop between FGF8 and FGF10 is essential for limb induction. (semanticscholar.org)
  • TCF/LEF transcription factor family is the intrinsic target of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway and is a typical transcription factor for β-catenin expressed in the nucleus. (medsci.org)
  • A homeobox transcription factor, MSX1 was able to inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and suppress Wnt/β-catenin-induced migration and invasion of cultured glioblastoma cells ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Exportin 4 mediates a novel nuclear import pathway for Sox family transcription factors. (harvard.edu)
  • DNA labelling studies show that proliferation in the notochord and spinal cord of the tail, and of the blastema in the limb bud, is significantly inhibited by noggin induction, suggesting that in the context of these regenerating appendages BMP is mainly required, directly or indirectly, as a mitogenic factor. (nih.gov)
  • Msx1 is expressed at sites where cellular proliferation and apoptosis occur during pattern formation in embryogenesis (reviewed in ref. 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Additional experiments reviewed by Opperman ( 2000 ) revealed that the dura secretes a variety of growth and transcription factors that regulate cell activity within the overlying suture. (wiley.com)
  • Msx1 expression in the midline activates the expression of Wnts and Bmps. (physiology.org)
  • Activates transcription from promoters with several copies of the Tcf motif CCTTTGATC in the presence of CTNNB1. (uniprot.org)
  • How these environmental factors interact with cellular and molecular events during early development of the embryo is only one of the questions that remain about the intricate developmental processes during palate development. (frontiersin.org)
  • Growth factor-mediated signaling has been implicated in the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during organogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Transcription factors play a key role in the transformation of mesenchymal progenitor cells into functional osteoblasts. (medsci.org)
  • ATLANTA, October 16, 2006 - Recent research has identified two genetic transcription factors that play central roles in embryonic stem cells into dopamine neurons found in the midbrain, a potential path to a treatment for Parkinson's. (sfn.org)
  • Recent research has identified two genetic transcription factors that play central roles in embryonic stem cells into dopamine neurons found in the midbrain. (sfn.org)
  • Here, we report that expression patterns of the Msx and Dlx families of homeodomain transcription factors largely coincide with the migratory route of GnRH neurons and co-express with GnRH in neurons during embryonic development. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These transcription factors share a DNA-binding domain called the T-box, and play a role in several developmental processes including early embryonic cell fate and organogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Björklund's labs have identified two transcription factors that play central roles in inducing dopamine neurons with a correct midbrain identity. (sfn.org)
  • Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is involved in various inflammatory processes, including periodontitis. (wikiversity.org)
  • 24 However, because calcium phosphate mineral deposition itself elicits inflammatory responses, 25 including tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production by macrophages, 26,27 a primary role for inflammation in the pathogenesis of clinically relevant vascular calcification was unproven until very recently. (ahajournals.org)
  • 34 OPG was first shown to function as an antagonistic "faux receptor" of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), the TNF superfamily member that signals via its receptor activator of nuclear factor κB on monocyte/macrophage progenitors to promote the formation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts. (ahajournals.org)
  • Sarkar A, Hochedlinger K. The sox family of transcription factors: versatile regulators of stem and progenitor cell fate. (harvard.edu)
  • Transcription factors play a critical role in this process and my thesis focuses on the role of the LIM-homeodomain transcription factor, Lhx2, in the development of three different organ systems, the liver, the hematopoietic system and the olfactory system. (diva-portal.org)
  • stages, while listing of transcription factors preceded by asterisks refers to expression domains established at later stages. (xenbase.org)
  • In contrast, elevated expression levels of MSX1 persist in mature natural killer (NK)-cells, indicating a functional role in this compartment. (oncotarget.com)
  • To identify alternative MSX1 regulatory mechanisms we compared expression profiling data of primary normal NK-cells and malignant NK-cell lines. (oncotarget.com)
  • Moreover, three transcription factors (Msx-1, Msx-2, and Egr-1) whose expression is governed by epithelial signaling were induced in response to BMP-4. (nih.gov)
  • Vance KW, Woodcock DJ, Reid JE, Bretschneider T , Ott S, Koentges G. Conserved cis-regulatory modules control robustness in Msx1 expression at single cell resolution . (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Moreover, inhibition of both transcription factor in iMycEu 1 cells suppressed growth and induced apoptosis, and also the abrogation of NFB exercise decreased DNA binding by each STAT3 and Myc, at the same time as Myc expression. (hsdpathway.com)
  • We hypothesized that the treatment of SCAPs with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or nerve growth factor (NGF) may impact the expression of osteogenic and dentinogenic markers. (bvsalud.org)
  • In addition, in LPS-challenged SCAPs, treatment with these growth factors also exhibited increased expression of DSPP, DMP1, and TGFB1 mRNAs, with the most significant change induced by VEGF (P (bvsalud.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: VEGF- and NGF-induced dentinogenic/neuronal/healing marker expression in SCAPs indicates the potential value of applying these growth factors in regenerative endodontic procedures. (bvsalud.org)
  • The identification of a novel function of Msx1 as a p53 regulator may open new avenues for developing improved molecular therapies for tumors with a nonmutational p53 inactivation mechanism. (aacrjournals.org)
  • PIAS1 is a negative regulator of several transcription factors. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Characterization of recombinant human fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-10 reveals functional similarities with keratinocyte growth factor (FGF-7). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Chromosomal deletions at 4p16 hosting the MSX1 locus have been described in NK-cell leukemia patients. (oncotarget.com)