Peptide Initiation Factors: Protein factors uniquely required during the initiation phase of protein synthesis in GENETIC TRANSLATION.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2: Eukaryotic initiation factor of protein synthesis. In higher eukaryotes the factor consists of three subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. As initiation proceeds, eIF-2 forms a ternary complex with Met-tRNAi and GTP.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4E: A peptide initiation factor that binds specifically to the 5' MRNA CAP STRUCTURE of MRNA in the CYTOPLASM. It is a component of the trimeric complex EIF4F.Eukaryotic Initiation Factors: Peptide initiation factors from eukaryotic organisms. Over twelve factors are involved in PEPTIDE CHAIN INITIATION, TRANSLATIONAL in eukaryotic cells. Many of these factors play a role in controlling the rate of MRNA TRANSLATION.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4G: A component of eukaryotic initiation factor-4F that is involved in multiple protein interactions at the site of translation initiation. Thus it may serve a role in bringing together various initiation factors at the site of translation initiation.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4F: A trimeric peptide initiation factor complex that associates with the 5' MRNA cap structure of RNA (RNA CAPS) and plays an essential role in MRNA TRANSLATION. It is composed of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4A; EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4E; and EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4G.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-3: A multisubunit eukaryotic initiation factor that contains at least 8 distinct polypeptides. It plays a role in recycling of ribosomal subunits to the site of transcription initiation by promoting the dissociation of non-translating ribosomal subunits. It also is involved in promoting the binding of a ternary complex of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2; GTP; and INITIATOR TRNA to the 40S ribosomal subunit.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2B: A guanine nucleotide exchange factor that acts to restore EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2 to its GTP bound form.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4A: A component of eukaryotic initiation factor 4F that as an RNA helicase involved in unwinding the secondary structure of the 5' UNTRANSLATED REGION of MRNA. The unwinding facilitates the binding of the 40S ribosomal subunit.Peptide Chain Initiation, Translational: A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the formation of a peptide chain is started. It includes assembly of the RIBOSOME components, the MESSENGER RNA coding for the polypeptide to be made, INITIATOR TRNA, and PEPTIDE INITIATION FACTORS; and placement of the first amino acid in the peptide chain. The details and components of this process are unique for prokaryotic protein biosynthesis and eukaryotic protein biosynthesis.eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Reticulocytes: Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-1: A eukaryotic initiation factor that binds to 40S ribosomal subunits. Although initially considered a "non-essential" factor for eukaryotic transcription initiation, eukaryotic initiation factor-1 is now thought to play an important role in localizing RIBOSOMES at the initiation codon of MRNA.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-5: A eukaryotic initiation factor that interacts with the 40S initiation complex and promotes the hydrolysis of the bound GTP. The hydrolysis of GTP causes the release of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2 and EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-3 from the 40S subunit and the subsequent joining of the 60S ribosomal subunit to the 40S complex to form the functional 80S initiation complexPhosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.RNA Caps: Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.Eukaryotic Cells: Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.RNA, Transfer, Met: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying methionine to sites on the ribosomes. During initiation of protein synthesis, tRNA(f)Met in prokaryotic cells and tRNA(i)Met in eukaryotic cells binds to the start codon (CODON, INITIATOR).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.RNA Cap Analogs: Analogs of RNA cap compounds which do not have a positive charge. These compounds inhibit the initiation of translation of both capped and uncapped messenger RNA.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.Prokaryotic Initiation Factor-2: The largest of the three prokaryotic initiation factors with a molecular size of approximately 80 kD. It functions in the transcription initiation process by promoting the binding of formylmethionine-tRNA to the P-site of the 30S ribosome and by preventing the incorrect binding of elongator tRNA to the translation initiation site.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Poly(A)-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to the 3' polyadenylated region of MRNA. When complexed with RNA the proteins serve an array of functions such as stabilizing the 3' end of RNA, promoting poly(A) synthesis and stimulating mRNA translation.Polyribosomes: A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.PhosphoproteinsProtein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Codon, Initiator: A codon that directs initiation of protein translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) by stimulating the binding of initiator tRNA (RNA, TRANSFER, MET). In prokaryotes, the codons AUG or GUG can act as initiators while in eukaryotes, AUG is the only initiator codon.Ribosomal Protein S6: A ribosomal protein that may play a role in controlling cell growth and proliferation. It is a major substrate of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES and plays a role in regulating the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNAs that contain an RNA 5' TERMINAL OLIGOPYRIMIDINE SEQUENCE.RNA Cap-Binding Proteins: Proteins that specifically bind to RNA CAPS and form nuclear cap binding protein complexes. In addition to stabilizing the 5' end of mRNAs, they serve a diverse array of functions such as enhancing mRNA transport out of the CELL NUCLEUS and regulating MRNA TRANSLATION in the CYTOPLASM.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Prokaryotic Initiation Factor-3: A prokaryotic initiation factor that plays a role in recycling of ribosomal subunits for a new round of translational initiation. It binds to 16S RIBOSOMAL RNA and stimulates the dissociation of vacant 70S ribosomes. It may also be involved in the preferential binding of initiator tRNA to the 30S initiation complex.Activating Transcription Factor 4: An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.Guanosine Diphosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa: A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are considered the major physiological kinases for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6. Unlike RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 90KDa the proteins in this family are sensitive to the inhibitory effects of RAPAMYCIN and contain a single kinase domain. They are referred to as 70kDa proteins, however ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of mRNAs for proteins in this class also results in 85kDa variants being formed.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Sirolimus: A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.Ribosome Subunits, Small, Eukaryotic: The small subunit of the 80s ribosome of eukaryotes. It is composed of the 18S RIBOSOMAL RNA and 32 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.RNA, Transfer, Amino Acyl: Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)RNA, Double-Stranded: RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Hemin: Chloro(7,12-diethenyl-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-21H,23H-porphine-2,18-dipropanoato(4-)-N(21),N(22),N(23),N(24)) ferrate(2-) dihydrogen.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Protein Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Ribosomal Proteins: Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.Ribosome Subunits, Large, Eukaryotic: The large subunit of the 80s ribosome of eukaryotes. It is composed of the 28S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5.8S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5S RIBOSOMAL RNA, and about 50 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesTranscription Factor CHOP: A CCAAT-enhancer binding protein that is induced by DNA DAMAGE and growth arrest. It serves as a dominant negative inhibitor of other CCAAT-enhancer binding proteins.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Edeine: Basic peptide antibiotic from Bacillus brevis. It exhibits broad-spectrum antibacterial activity and inhibits bacterial DNA synthesis.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Potyvirus: A large genus of plant viruses of the family POTYVIRIDAE which infect mainly plants of the Solanaceae. Transmission is primarily by aphids in a non-persistent manner. The type species is potato virus Y.Prokaryotic Initiation Factors: Peptide initiation factors from prokaryotic organisms. Only three factors are needed for translation initiation in prokaryotic organisms, which occurs by a far simpler process than in PEPTIDE CHAIN INITIATION, TRANSLATIONAL of eukaryotic organisms.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Nuclear Cap-Binding Protein Complex: A heterodimeric protein complex of RNA cap-binding proteins, which binds with high affinity to the 5' MRNA CAP STRUCTURE in the CELL NUCLEUS. The complex contains two subunits, one of 80-kDa molecular weight and another of 20-kDa molecular weight.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Picornaviridae: A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Guanine NucleotidesPeptide Elongation Factor 2: Peptide Elongation Factor 2 catalyzes the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A site to the P site of eukaryotic ribosomes by a process linked to the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Artemia: A genus of CRUSTACEA of the order ANOSTRACA, found in briny pools and lakes and often cultured for fish food. It has 168 chromosomes and differs from most crustaceans in that its blood contains hemoglobin.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Encephalomyocarditis virus: The type species of CARDIOVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis and myocarditis in rodents, pigs, and monkeys. Infection in man has been reported with CNS involvement but without myocarditis.Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-NH Group Donors: Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of secondary amines, introducing a C=N double bond as the primary reaction. In some cases this is later hydrolyzed.Elongation Factor 2 Kinase: A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that specifically phosphorylates PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2. The enzyme lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE, however it is regulated by phosphorylation by PROTEIN KINASE A and through intramolecular autophosphorylation.Poliovirus: A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Globins: A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Puromycin: A cinnamamido ADENOSINE found in STREPTOMYCES alboniger. It inhibits protein synthesis by binding to RNA. It is an antineoplastic and antitrypanosomal agent and is used in research as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa: A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.Unfolded Protein Response: A cellular response to environmental insults that cause disruptions in PROTEIN FOLDING and/or accumulation of defectively folded protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. It consists of a group of regulatory cascades that are triggered as a response to altered levels of calcium and/or the redox state of the endoplasmic reticulum. Persistent activation of the unfolded protein response leads to the induction of APOPTOSIS.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Peptide Elongation Factors: Protein factors uniquely required during the elongation phase of protein synthesis.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Prokaryotic Initiation Factor-1: The smallest of the three prokaryotic initiation factors with a molecular size of approximately 8 kD. It binds near the A-site of the 30S subunit of RIBOSOMES and may play a role in preventing premature addition of aminoacyl-tRNA-linked PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR TU to the ribosome during the initiation of a peptide chain (PEPTIDE CHAIN INITIATION, TRANSLATIONAL).Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Protein Modification, Translational: Any of the enzymatically catalyzed modifications of the individual AMINO ACIDS of PROTEINS, and enzymatic cleavage or crosslinking of peptide chains that occur pre-translationally (on the amino acid component of AMINO ACYL TRNA), co-translationally (during the process of GENETIC TRANSLATION), or after translation is completed (POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING).Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.RNA Stability: The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.Protein Phosphatase 1: A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Arsenites: Inorganic salts or organic esters of arsenious acid.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).3' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress: Various physiological or molecular disturbances that impair ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM function. It triggers many responses, including UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE, which may lead to APOPTOSIS; and AUTOPHAGY.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor: A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.Polyenes: Hydrocarbons with more than one double bond. They are a reduced form of POLYYNES.Rats, Inbred F344Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Organic Chemistry Phenomena: The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Spermidine: A polyamine formed from putrescine. It is found in almost all tissues in association with nucleic acids. It is found as a cation at all pH values, and is thought to help stabilize some membranes and nucleic acid structures. It is a precursor of spermine.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Reoviridae: A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Interferons: Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Tunicamycin: An N-acetylglycosamine containing antiviral antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lysosuperificus. It is also active against some bacteria and fungi, because it inhibits the glucosylation of proteins. Tunicamycin is used as tool in the study of microbial biosynthetic mechanisms.Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Phosphorus Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.RNA Helicases: A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Ribonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.CinnamatesImmunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Messenger RNA decapping Eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) Temperley, Richard J.; Wydro, Mateusz; Lightowlers, Robert N.; ... Mitochondrial mRNA and chloroplastic mRNA are not capped. In eukaryotes, the 5′ cap (cap-0), found on the 5′ end of an mRNA ... Shatkin, A (December 1976). "Capping of eucaryotic mRNAs". Cell. 9 (4): 645-653. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(76)90128-8. Retrieved 23 ... Thus the 7-methylguanylate cap is a marker of an actively translating mRNA and is used by cells to regulate mRNA half-lives in ...
Eukaryotic initiation factor Eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) Hippuristanol Rocaglamide Rogers GW, Komar AA, Merrick WC ... a number of initiation factors must facilitate the synergy of the ribosome and the mRNA and ensure that the 5' UTR of the mRNA ... Yoder-Hill J, Pause A, Sonenberg N, Merrick WC (Mar 1993). "The p46 subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)-4F exchanges ... Eukaryotic initiation factor complex 2 (eIF2) forms a ternary complex with GTP and the initiator Met-tRNA - this process is ...
Eukaryotic initiation factors Eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) EIF4G2 EIF4G3 Lodish, Harvey; Berk, Arnold; Kaiser, Chris ... This has the effect of preventing most cellular mRNAs from binding eIF4G; however, a few cellular mRNAs with IRESs still ... Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 G (eIF4G) is a protein involved in eukaryotic translation initiation, and is a ... eukaryotic initiation factor 4F) contain an RNA recognition motif-like sequence and carry out an essential function". Molecular ...
... (eIF4F) is a heterotrimeric protein complex that binds the 5' cap of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) to ... freeing eIF4E to bind eIF4G and participate in translation initiation. Eukaryotic translation Eukaryotic initiation factor 5' ... Wells SE, Hillner PE, Vale RD, Sachs AB (July 1998). "Circularization of mRNA by eukaryotic translation initiation factors". ... eIF4E binds the m7G 5' cap and the eIF4G scaffold, connecting the mRNA 5' terminus to a hub of other initiation factors and ...
Translation initiation is mediated by specific recognition of the cap structure by eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F ... Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with ... Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 gamma 2 (also called p97, NAT1, and DAP-5) is a protein that in humans is encoded by ... "Entrez Gene: EIF4G2 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 gamma, 2". Gradi A, Imataka H, Svitkin YV, Rom E, Raught B, ...
mRNA cap binding complex. • eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F complex. Prosesau biolegol. • translational initiation ... "Tristetraprolin Recruits Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 4E2 To Repress Translation of AU-Rich Element-Containing mRNAs. ". Mol ... translation factor activity, RNA binding. • protein binding. • translation initiation factor activity. • ubiquitin protein ... EIF4E2, 4E-LP, 4EHP, EIF4EL3, IF4e, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E family member 2, h4EHP. ...
Eukaryotic initiation factors Eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000151247 - Ensembl, ... eIF4E is a eukaryotic translation initiation factor involved in directing ribosomes to the cap structure of mRNAs. It is a 24- ... Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E, also known as eIF4E, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF4E gene. All ... "Entrez Gene: eIF4E Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E". Napoli I, Mercaldo V, Boyl PP, Eleuteri B, Zalfa F, De Rubeis ...
... cap of mRNA and will recruit the helicase eukaryotic translation initiation factor A (eIF4A) and its cofactor eukaryotic ... Lee T, Pelletier J (Jan 2012). "Eukaryotic initiation factor 4F: a vulnerability of tumor cells". Future Medicinal Chemistry. 4 ... eIF4E is now free to join the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) and the eukaryotic translation initiation ... the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) binding protein 1. Their signaling will converge at the translation initiation ...
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF4B gene. EIF4B has been shown to ... Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with ... 2 is a cap-binding protein that stimulates cap recognition by eIF-4B and eIF-4F". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (11): 7279-84. PMID ... Milburn SC, Hershey JW, Davies MV, Kelleher K, Kaufman RJ (1990). "Cloning and expression of eukaryotic initiation factor 4B ...
eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F complex. • nucleolus. Biological process. • nuclear-transcribed mRNA poly(A) tail ... Eukaryotic initiation factor 4A-II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF4A2 gene.[5][6] ... Li W, Belsham GJ, Proud CG (2001). "Eukaryotic initiation factors 4A (eIF4A) and 4G (eIF4G) mutually interact in a 1:1 ratio in ... PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the structure information available in the PDB for Human Eukaryotic initiation factor 4A-II ...
... is a family of proteins that bind to the cap structure of eukaryotic cellular mRNAs. Members of this family recognise and bind ... Thach RE (January 1992). "Cap recap: the involvement of eIF-4F in regulating gene expression". Cell. 68 (2): 177-180. doi: ... In molecular biology, the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E family (eIF-4E) ... cap during an early step in the initiation of protein synthesis and facilitate ribosome binding to an mRNA by inducing the ...
... an early step in the initiation of protein synthesis and facilitates ribosome binding by inducing the unwinding of the mRNAs ... Component of the CYFIP1-EIF4E-FMR1 complex which binds to the mRNA cap and mediates translational repression. In the CYFIP1- ... May play an important role in spermatogenesis through translational regulation of stage-specific mRNAs during germ cell ... EIF4E-FMR1 complex this subunit mediates the binding to the mRNA cap. ...
Eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) is a heterotrimeric protein complex that binds the 5 cap of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) to ... freeing eIF4E to bind eIF4G and participate in translation initiation. Eukaryotic translation Eukaryotic initiation factor 5 ... Wells SE, Hillner PE, Vale RD, Sachs AB (July 1998). "Circularization of mRNA by eukaryotic translation initiation factors". ... eIF4E binds the m7G 5 cap and the eIF4G scaffold, connecting the mRNA 5 terminus to a hub of other initiation factors and ...
Messenger RNA decapping Eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) Temperley, Richard J.; Wydro, Mateusz; Lightowlers, Robert N.; ... Mitochondrial mRNA and chloroplastic mRNA are not capped. In eukaryotes, the 5′ cap (cap-0), found on the 5′ end of an mRNA ... Shatkin, A (December 1976). "Capping of eucaryotic mRNAs". Cell. 9 (4): 645-653. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(76)90128-8. Retrieved 23 ... Thus the 7-methylguanylate cap is a marker of an actively translating mRNA and is used by cells to regulate mRNA half-lives in ...
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) is a protein consist of eIF4A, eIF4E, and eIF4G. eIF4A is a helicase need ... 5.mRNA positioning in a sigle cell. *The mRNA positioning in a bacteria help us know the synthetic biology rules in the ... eIF4A is an abbreviation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4A. It is a member of the DEAD-box RNA helicase protein family eIF4F ( ... Human Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4G (eIF4G) Possesses Two Separate and Independent Binding Sites for eIF4A. Mol. ...
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) is a protein consists of eIF4A, eIF4E, and eIF4G. eIF4A is a helicase need ... Recent studies of mRNA localization show that a great part of mRNA localize in specific cytoplasm position (Martin and Ephrussi ... eIF4A is an abbreviation for eukaryotic initiation factor 4A. It is a member of the DEAD-box RNA helicase protein family eIF4F ... Imataka, H., and Sonenberg, N. (1997). Human eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) possesses two separate and ...
Yoder-Hill J., Pause A., Sonenberg N. and Merrick W. C. (1993). The p46 subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)-4F ... eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3), eIF1A, eIF1, eIF5 and eIF2 (eIF2-GTP-methionyl initiator tRNA)] to capped mRNA that is ... untranslated region of the mRNA for the initiation codon, at which point early initiation factors are released and the large ... including translation initiation factors, ribosomal subunits, PABP and TIA proteins. Among the translation initiation factors ...
Translation of the mRNA is initiated by the interaction between eukaryotic initiation factors 4F (eIF4F; mRNA cap-binding ... 4. Initiation of DNA synthesis and elongation (by primase and DNA polymerase) during which single-strand binding proteins ... The factors influencing the mutation rate are the gene size, mutational mechanism, presence of hotspots (methylated CpG ... They are transcribed (represented on mRNA) but not translated (do not exist in the peptide product). The 5 UTR is usually the ...
Effect of eukaryotic initiation factor 4F on AUG selection in a bicistronic mRNA J Biol Chem. 1991 Feb 25; 266(6):3594-601. . ... Differential expression of the murine eukaryotic translation initiation factor isogenes eIF4A(I) and eIF4A(II) is dependent ... Inhibition of eukaryotic translation by nucleoside 5-monophosphate analogues of mRNA 5-cap: changes in N7 substituent affect ... Erythropoietin-mediated expression of placenta growth factor is regulated via activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1a and ...
Schematic depiction of translation initiation and the eIF2 nucleotide exchange cycle. Eukaryotic initiation factor 4F, which ... The HCV pseudoknot (shaded in grey) positions the initiation codon (green box) in the mRNA binding cleft of the 40S subunit [] ... Next, the 43S preinitiation complex, composed of the 40S small ribosomal subunit and initiation factors eIF1, eIF1A, ... Initiation on virus internal ribosome entry sites (IRES). Virus IRESs use various non-canonical interactions with initiation ...
Stabilization of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding to the mRNA 5′-cap by domains of eIF4G. J. Biol. Chem. 275:30551-30555 ... Functional dissection of eukaryotic initiation factor 4F: the 4A subunit and the central domain of the 4G subunit are ... A polypeptide in eukaryotic initiation factors that crosslinks specifically to the 5′-terminal cap in mRNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. ... The cap is bound by eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F (eIF4F), which is composed of eIF4E, eIF4G, and eIF4A. eIF4E is ...
... translation initiation requires the interaction of the eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4F complex with the 5′-m7G-cap. eIF4F ... Regulation of translation initiation. In eukaryotic cells, synthesis of most proteins is driven by cap-dependent mRNA ... Sonenberg N, Dever TE (2003) Eukaryotic translation initiation factors and regulators. Curr Opin Struct Biol 13:56-63. ... of responsive mRNAs. Although several mRNA-binding proteins that regulate mRNA transport and translation in neurons have been ...
... inhibits the expression of viral mRNA and the VP4 protein. Mechanically, we confirmed that the silence of the eIF4F complex ... The Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4F Complex Restricts Rotavirus Infection via Regulating the Expression of IRF1 and ... Chen, S, Feng, C., Fang, Y, Zhou, X, Xu, L, Wang, WS, … Yin, Y. (2019). The Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4F Complex ... rotavirus, eIF4F complex, translation initiation factors, IRF1, IRF7 Persistent URL. dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20071580, hdl. ...
The multisubunit eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 4F recruits 40S ribosomal subunits to the 5′ end of mRNA. The ... eIF4F subunit eIF4E interacts directly with the mRNA 5′ cap structure. Assembly of the eIF4F complex is inhibited by a family ...
... of the cap structure on mRNA translation is mediated by a trimeric complex termed eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F ( ... 2000) Nuclear eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) colocalizes with splicing factors in speckles. J. Cell Biol. 148:239-247. ... 1998) Circularization of mRNA by eukaryotic translation initiation factors. Mol. Cell 2:135-140. ... 1999) eIF4 initiation factors: effectors of mRNA recruitment to ribosomes and regulators of translation Annu. Rev. Biochem. 68: ...
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) is a protein complex that mediates recruitment of ribosomes to mRNA ( ... 4EHP is a member of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) family that acts as an mRNA 5 cap structure-binding ... Ceruloplasmin mRNA ATP. EIF2AK2 ARIH1 UBE2L6 IFIT1 EIF4G2 ISG15 MAPK3 UBB(77-152) UBC(533-608) ISGylated 4EHP:mRNA. UBC(1-76) ... Ceruloplasmin mRNA AMP. IRF3 EIF4A2 NUP210 PLCG1 ATP. NEDD4. UBE2L6. UBC(153-228) ISG15 NUP153 USP18 ISG15 ARIH1 UBA52(1-76) ...
Alias: EIF4E, EIF4EL1, EIF4F, Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E, eIF-4F 25 kDa subunit, mRNA cap-binding protein ... Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E Alias: EIF4E, EIF4EL1, EIF4F, Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E, eIF-4F ... eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E, Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E, EIF4E ... Protein Name: Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E Alias: CBP, EIF4F, AUTS19, EIF4E1, EIF4EL1, CBP, EIF4F, AUTS19, ...
The multisubunit eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 4F recruits 40S ribosomal subunits to the 5 end of mRNA. The… ... A unifying model for mTORC1-mediated regulation of mRNA translation. *Carson C. Thoreen, Lynne Chantranupong, Heather R Keys, ...
Fluorescence study of the binding of m7GpppG and rabbit globin mRNA to protein synthesis initiation factors 4A, 4E, and 4F. ... 1990) Bidirectional RNA helicase activity of eucaryotic translation initiation factors 4A and 4F. Mol. Cell. Biol. 10:1134-1144 ... 1987) Poliovirus proteinase 2A induces cleavage of eucaryotic initiation factor 4F polypeptide p220. J. Virol. 61:2711-2718. ... 1996) Functional dissection of eukaryotic initiation factor 4F: the 4A subunit and the central domain of the 4G subunit are ...
... eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F complex, mitochondrial inner membrane; and molecular function included RNA binding ... cellular components included mRNA cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor complex, ... Codon 72 polymorphism of p53 and HPV type 16 E6 variants as risk factors for patients with squamous epithelial lesion of the ... Modulation of microRNA-mRNA Target Pairs by Human Papillomavirus 16 Oncoproteins. MBio. 2017;8:e02170-16 ...
... eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)4F. This step represents an attractive target for anticancer drug discovery because it ... The rate-limiting step of protein synthesis is the loading of ribosomes onto mRNA templates stimulated by the heterotrimeric ... of most of the sgmRNAs is thought to be cap dependent and displays a requirement for eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F), a ... The key factor is the strength of the top ranking hot spot, and how well a given fragment complements it. We show that ...
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) is a cap binding protein complex that consists of three subunits: eIF4A, ... The MA-3 mRNA was strongly expressed in the thymus although small amounts of the MA-3 mRNA were ubiquitously expressed in mouse ... with a high degree of homology to the p82 subunit of the wheat germ eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF-(iso)4F and ... DAP-5, a novel homolog of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G isolated as a putative modulator of gamma interferon- ...
Cap-dependent translation relies on the ability of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) complex to bind to ... Influences of mRNA secondary structure on initiation by eukaryotic ribosomes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83, 2850-2854 (1986 ... The selective inhibition of translation initiation for oncogenic mRNA in the context of cancer can be explained by several ... Insertion mutagenesis to increase secondary structure within the 5′ noncoding region of a eukaryotic mRNA reduces translational ...
... which requires all canonical initiation factors and is responsible for about 95-97% of all initiation events in eukaryotic ... Internal initiation of translation of specific mRNAs may contribute to development of severe disease and pathological states, ... which requires all canonical initiation factors and is responsible for about 95-97% of all initiation events in eukaryotic ... which requires a reduced subset of initiation factors and accounts for up to 5% of the remaining initiation events. Internal ...
Another key step in the translational control of protein synthesis occurs at the level of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4F ( ... Gingras AC, Raught B, and Sonenberg N. eIF4 initiation factors: effectors of mRNA recruitment to ribosomes and regulators of ... McKendrick L, Morley SJ, Pain VM, Kagis R, and Joshi B. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-4E (eIF4E) at Ser 209 ... Pyronnet S, Imatake H, Gingras AC, Fukunaga R, Hunter T, and Sonenberg N. Human eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G ( ...
The rate-limiting step in translation initiation is thought to be the formation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) ... Gingras AC, Raught B, Sonenberg N. eIF4 initiation factors: effectors of mRNA recruitment to ribosomes and regulators of ... Phosphorylation of eucaryotic translation initiation factor 4B Ser422 is modulated by S6 kinases. EMBO J 2004; 23: 1761-9. ... These mRNAs encode for growth factors, cell cycle activators, angiogenic factors, and inhibitors of apoptosis ( 11). Therefore ...
  • In bacteria, and potentially also in higher organisms, some RNAs are capped with NAD+, NADH, or 3'-dephospho-coenzyme A. In all organisms, mRNA molecules can be decapped in a process known as messenger RNA decapping. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eukaryotic cells utilize several modes to initiate translation of their messenger RNAs (mRNAs). (frontiersin.org)
  • Unlike the mRNAs of their eukaryotic hosts, many RNAs of viruses lack a 5' m7 GpppN cap and the 3' polyadenosine tail, and yet they are translated efficiently. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • MicroRNAs recruit eIF4E2 to repress translation of target mRNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • ARPP21 antagonizes miR-128 activity by co-regulating a subset of miR-128 target mRNAs enriched for neurodevelopmental functions. (nih.gov)
  • Activated Transcription Factor 3 in Association with Histone Deacetylase 6 Negatively Regulates MicroRNA 199a2 Transcription by Chromatin Remodeling and Reduces Endothelin-1 Expression Mol Cell Biol. (usc.edu)
  • MicroRNA 648 Targets ET-1 mRNA and is cotranscriptionally regulated with MICAL3 by PAX5 Mol Cell Biol. (usc.edu)
  • RSK activation of translation factor eIF4B drives abnormal increases of laminin γ2 and MYC protein during neoplastic progression to squamous cell carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • Activity was strongly enhanced by the addition of RRL, eIF4H, or the related translation factor eIF4B. (asm.org)
  • These data indicate that eIF4B and 4H stimulate the nuclease activity of vhs, and they provide evidence that additional mammalian factors are required for targeting to the EMCV IRES. (asm.org)
  • Recent studies of mRNA localization show that a great part of mRNA localize in specific cytoplasm position (Martin, 2009). (igem.org)
  • there are a few studies of mRNA location in prokaryotic system. (igem.org)
  • The cap contributes to many aspects of pol II transcript metabolism, including protection against 5′-3′ exonucleases, facilitating efficient pre-mRNA splicing, 3′ end formation, U snRNA and mRNA nuclear export, and translation of mRNAs ( 32 , 34 ). (asm.org)
  • We conclude that Nhm1 has evolved as a special branch of the HIT motif superfamily that has the potential to influence both the metabolism and the translation of mRNA, and that its presence in S. pombe suggests the utilization of a novel decapping pathway. (openrepository.com)
  • Although a detailed description of this process is beyond the scope of this review, there is evidence that suggests local translation in neurons is regulated at the initiation step. (jneurosci.org)