The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.
Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.
Viral proteins that facilitate the movement of viruses between plant cells by means of PLASMODESMATA, channels that traverse the plant cell walls.
Physical activity of the FETUS in utero. Gross or fine fetal body movement can be monitored by the mother, PALPATION, or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.
The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.
Methods and procedures for recording EYE MOVEMENTS.
Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.
Eye movements that are slow, continuous, and conjugate and occur when a fixed object is moved slowly.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Performance of complex motor acts.
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The position or attitude of the body.
Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.
The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.
A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.
A mechanism of communicating one's own sensory system information about a task, movement or skill.
Voluntary activity without external compulsion.
Sense of movement of a part of the body, such as movement of fingers, elbows, knees, limbs, or weights.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
The region of the upper limb between the metacarpus and the FOREARM.
A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
Abnormal involuntary movements which primarily affect the extremities, trunk, or jaw that occur as a manifestation of an underlying disease process. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of dyskinesia as a primary manifestation of disease may be referred to as dyskinesia syndromes (see MOVEMENT DISORDERS). Dyskinesias are also a relatively common manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Excessive periodic leg movements during sleep that cause micro-arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. This condition induces a state of relative sleep deprivation which manifests as excessive daytime hypersomnolence. The movements are characterized by repetitive contractions of the tibialis anterior muscle, extension of the toe, and intermittent flexion of the hip, knee and ankle. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p387)
An increase in the rate of speed.
The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.
A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
The motion of air currents.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Locomotor behavior not involving a steering reaction, but in which there may be a turning random in direction. It includes orthokinesis, the rate of movement and klinokinesis, the amount of turning, which are related to the intensity of stimulation.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)
A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Force exerted when gripping or grasping.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
An attitude or posture due to the co-contraction of agonists and antagonist muscles in one region of the body. It most often affects the large axial muscles of the trunk and limb girdles. Conditions which feature persistent or recurrent episodes of dystonia as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as DYSTONIC DISORDERS. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p77)
Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Region of the body immediately surrounding and including the ELBOW JOINT.
Normal nystagmus produced by looking at objects moving across the field of vision.
A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.
A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.
A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.
An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.
Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.
A new pattern of perceptual or ideational material derived from past experience.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Involuntary, forcible, rapid, jerky movements that may be subtle or become confluent, markedly altering normal patterns of movement. Hypotonia and pendular reflexes are often associated. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of chorea as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as CHOREATIC DISORDERS. Chorea is also a frequent manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Methods or programs of physical activities which can be used to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.
The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The movement of CYTOPLASM within a CELL. It serves as an internal transport system for moving essential substances throughout the cell, and in single-celled organisms, such as the AMOEBA, it is responsible for the movement (CELL MOVEMENT) of the entire cell.
Membrane-like channels of cytoplasm connecting adjacent plant cells. Plasmodesmata connect through pores in the CELL WALL and associate with the CYTOSKELETON machinery. They are essential for intercellular transport and communication.
A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.
The first digit on the radial side of the hand which in humans lies opposite the other four.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Involuntary rhythmical movements of the eyes in the normal person. These can be naturally occurring as in end-position (end-point, end-stage, or deviational) nystagmus or induced by the optokinetic drum (NYSTAGMUS, OPTOKINETIC), caloric test, or a rotating chair.
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.
Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)
The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.
The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.
The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.
The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Cyclical movement of a body part that can represent either a physiologic process or a manifestation of disease. Intention or action tremor, a common manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES, is aggravated by movement. In contrast, resting tremor is maximal when there is no attempt at voluntary movement, and occurs as a relatively frequent manifestation of PARKINSON DISEASE.
The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.
Either of the two fleshy, full-blooded margins of the mouth.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.
Acceleration produced by the mutual attraction of two masses, and of magnitude inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two centers of mass. It is also the force imparted by the earth, moon, or a planet to an object near its surface. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.
Acquired and inherited conditions that feature DYSTONIA as a primary manifestation of disease. These disorders are generally divided into generalized dystonias (e.g., dystonia musculorum deformans) and focal dystonias (e.g., writer's cramp). They are also classified by patterns of inheritance and by age of onset.
Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.
The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.
The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.
Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.
A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.
Manner or style of walking.
Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
A genus of plant viruses in the family FLEXIVIRIDAE, that cause mosaic and ringspot symptoms. Transmission occurs mechanically. Potato virus X is the type species.
The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Slow or diminished movement of body musculature. It may be associated with BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; prolonged inactivity due to illness; and other conditions.
Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.
The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.
The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.
A group of cognitive disorders characterized by the inability to perform previously learned skills that cannot be attributed to deficits of motor or sensory function. The two major subtypes of this condition are ideomotor (see APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR) and ideational apraxia, which refers to loss of the ability to mentally formulate the processes involved with performing an action. For example, dressing apraxia may result from an inability to mentally formulate the act of placing clothes on the body. Apraxias are generally associated with lesions of the dominant PARIETAL LOBE and supramarginal gyrus. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp56-7)
Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.
A dyskinesia characterized by an inability to maintain the fingers, toes, tongue, or other body parts in a stable position, resulting in continuous slow, sinusoidal, and flowing involuntary movements. This condition is frequently accompanied by CHOREA, where it is referred to as choreoathetosis. Athetosis may occur as a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES or DRUG TOXICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p76)
Involuntary shock-like contractions, irregular in rhythm and amplitude, followed by relaxation, of a muscle or a group of muscles. This condition may be a feature of some CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; (e.g., EPILEPSY, MYOCLONIC). Nocturnal myoclonus is the principal feature of the NOCTURNAL MYOCLONUS SYNDROME. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp102-3).
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.
The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A superorder in the class CEPHALOPODA, consisting of the orders Octopoda (octopus) with over 200 species and Vampyromorpha with a single species. The latter is a phylogenetic relic but holds the key to the origins of Octopoda.
The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).
The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.
Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.
A region extending from the PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA through the MESENCEPHALON, characterized by a diversity of neurons of various sizes and shapes, arranged in different aggregations and enmeshed in a complicated fiber network.
Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.
The apparent deflection (Coriolis acceleration) of a body in motion with respect to the earth, as seen by an observer on the earth, attributed to a fictitious force (Coriolis force) but actually caused by the rotation of the earth. In a medical context it refers to the physiological effects (nausea, vertigo, dizziness, etc.) felt by a person moving radially in a rotating system, as a rotating space station. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Instrumentation consisting of hardware and software that communicates with the BRAIN. The hardware component of the interface records brain signals, while the software component analyzes the signals and converts them into a command that controls a device or sends a feedback signal to the brain.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The central part of the body to which the neck and limbs are attached.
A genus of plant viruses of the family BROMOVIRIDAE, which infect cucurbits and solanaceous plants. Transmission occurs via aphids in a non-persistent manner, and also via seeds. The type species Cucumber mosaic virus, a CUCUMOVIRUS, should not be confused with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, a TOBAMOVIRUS.
Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.
A technique that induces the processing of disturbing memories and experiences, by stimulating neural mechanisms that are similar to those activated during REM sleep. The technique consists of eye movements following side-to-side movements of the index and middle fingers, or the alternate tapping of the hands on the knees. This procedure triggers the processing of information, thus facilitating the connection of neural networks.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.
A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.
A species of the Chenopodium genus which is the source of edible seed called quinoa. It contains makisterone A and other STEROIDS, some having ECDYSTEROID activity on insects.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.

Signal-, set- and movement-related activity in the human brain: an event-related fMRI study. (1/9454)

Electrophysiological studies on monkeys have been able to distinguish sensory and motor signals close in time by pseudorandomly delaying the cue that instructs the movement from the stimulus that triggers the movement. We have used a similar experimental design in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), scanning subjects while they performed a visuomotor conditional task with instructed delays. One of four shapes was presented briefly. Two shapes instructed the subjects to flex the index finger; the other two shapes coded the flexion of the middle finger. The subjects were told to perform the movement after a tone. We have exploited a novel use of event-related fMRI. By systematically varying the interval between the visual and acoustic stimuli, it has been possible to estimate the significance of the evoked haemodynamic response (EHR) to each of the stimuli, despite their temporal proximity in relation to the time constant of the EHR. Furthermore, by varying the phase between events and image acquisition, we have been able to achieve high temporal resolution while scanning the whole brain. We dissociated sensory and motor components of the sensorimotor transformations elicited by the task, and assessed sustained activity during the instructed delays. In calcarine and occipitotemporal cortex, the responses were exclusively associated with the visual instruction cues. In temporal auditory cortex and in primary motor cortex, they were exclusively associated with the auditory trigger stimulus. In ventral prefrontal cortex there were movement-related responses preceded by preparatory activity and by signal-related activity. Finally, responses associated with the instruction cue and with sustained activity during the delay period were observed in the dorsal premotor cortex and in the dorsal posterior parietal cortex. Where the association between a visual cue and the appropriate movement is arbitrary, the underlying visuomotor transformations are not achieved exclusively through frontoparietal interactions. Rather, these processes seem to rely on the ventral visual stream, the ventral prefrontal cortex and the anterior part of the dorsal premotor cortex.  (+info)

Cerebellar Purkinje cell simple spike discharge encodes movement velocity in primates during visuomotor arm tracking. (2/9454)

Pathophysiological, lesion, and electrophysiological studies suggest that the cerebellar cortex is important for controlling the direction and speed of movement. The relationship of cerebellar Purkinje cell discharge to the control of arm movement parameters, however, remains unclear. The goal of this study was to examine how movement direction and speed and their interaction-velocity-modulate Purkinje cell simple spike discharge in an arm movement task in which direction and speed were independently controlled. The simple spike discharge of 154 Purkinje cells was recorded in two monkeys during the performance of two visuomotor tasks that required the animals to track targets that moved in one of eight directions and at one of four speeds. Single-parameter regression analyses revealed that a large proportion of cells had discharge modulation related to movement direction and speed. Most cells with significant directional tuning, however, were modulated at one speed, and most cells with speed-related discharge were modulated along one direction; this suggested that the patterns of simple spike discharge were not adequately described by single-parameter models. Therefore, a regression surface was fitted to the data, which showed that the discharge could be tuned to specific direction-speed combinations (preferred velocities). The overall variability in simple spike discharge was well described by the surface model, and the velocities corresponding to maximal and minimal discharge rates were distributed uniformly throughout the workspace. Simple spike discharge therefore appears to integrate information about both the direction and speed of arm movements, thereby encoding movement velocity.  (+info)

Complete compensation in skilled reaching success with associated impairments in limb synergies, after dorsal column lesion in the rat. (3/9454)

Each of the dorsal columns of the rat spinal cord conveys primary sensory information, by way of the medullary dorsal column nucleus, to the ventrobasal thalamus on the contralateral side; thus the dorsal columns are an important source of neural input to the sensorimotor cortex. Damage to the dorsal columns causes impairments in synergistic proximal or whole-body movements in cats and distal limb impairments in primates, particularly in multiarticulated finger movements and tactile foviation while handling objects, but the behavioral effects of afferent fiber lesions in the dorsal columns of rodents have not been described. Female Long-Evans rats were trained to reach with a forelimb for food pellets and subsequently received lesions of the dorsomedial spinal cord at the C2 level, ipsilateral to their preferred limb. Reaching success completely recovered within a few days of dorsal column lesion. Nevertheless, a detailed analysis of high-speed video recordings revealed that rotatory limb movements (aiming, pronation, supination, etc.) were irreversibly impaired. Compensation was achieved with whole-body and alternate limb movements. These results indicate the following: (1) in the absence of the dorsal columns, other sensorimotor pathways support endpoint success in reaching; (2) sensory input conveyed by the dorsal columns is important for both proximal and distal limb movements used for skilled reaching; and (3) detailed behavioral analyses in addition to endpoint measures are necessary to completely describe the effects of dorsal column lesions.  (+info)

Mechanical stimulation of starfish sperm flagella. (4/9454)

1. The responses of starfish sperm flagella to mechanical stimulation with a microneedle were analysed. Flagellar movement was recorded by high-speed microcinematography and by stroboscopic observation. 2. The amplitude of the bending wave of a flagellum was restricted over its entire length when the microneedle was brought near to the flagellum at its proximal region. Beyond the restricted part, the amplitude of the wave, and the bend angle, became smaller than those of a normally beating flagellum, while the curvature was practically unchanged. 3. When the tip of the microneedle was in contact with the flagellum, propagation of the bending wave beyond the microneedle was inhibited. The part of the flagellum between the base and the microneedle continued beating in some cases and stopped beating in other cases. The flagellum beyond the arrested part stopped beating and remained straight. When the microneedle was removed, the bending wave which existed in the part of the flagellum proximal to the microneedle, or the wave which was passively formed de novo at the time of the removal of the microneedle, propagated over the arrested part towards the tip. 4. A flagellum amputated by a microneedle in a medium containing ATP continued beating with a small amplitude, small curvature, small bend angle and low frequency. When the amputated flagellum was passively bent by a microneedle at the region near the point of amputation, this bend propagated towards the tip with a constant bend angle. 5. The beating frequency of the flagellum could be modulated by the application of a rhythmic external force generated by vibrating a microneedle near the flagellum. The beating was completely synchronized with vibration of the microneedle in the frequency range from 23 Hz to 43 Hz.  (+info)

Interactions of membrane potential and cations in regulation of ciliary activity in Paramecium. (5/9454)

Ciliary activity in Paramecium was investigated in different external solutions using techniques of voltage clamp and high frequency cinematography. An increase in the external concentration of K, Ca or Mg ions decreased the resting potential. It had no effect on ciliary activity. When the membrane potential was fixed, an increase in external Ca or Mg and, to a lesser extent, an increase in K concentration, raised the frequency of normal beating or decreased the frequency of reversed beating of the cilia. Similar effects resulted from membrane hyperpolarization with constant ionic conditions. Increase in concentration of Ca, but not of Mg or K, enhanced hyperpolarization-induced augmentation of ciliary frequency. Increase in Ca concentration also specifically augmented the delayed increase in inward current during rapid hyperpolarizing clamp. The results support the view that [Ca]i regulates the frequency and direction of ciliary beating. It is suggested that the insensitivity of the ciliary motor system to elevations of the external concentrations of ions results from compensation of their effects on [Ca]i. Depolarization itself appears to increase [Ca]i while elevation of the external ion concentrations at a fixed membrane potential appears to decrease [Ca]i.  (+info)

Myosin II-independent F-actin flow contributes to cell locomotion in dictyostelium. (6/9454)

While the treadmilling and retrograde flow of F-actin are believed to be responsible for the protrusion of leading edges, little is known about the mechanism that brings the posterior cell body forward. To elucidate the mechanism for global cell locomotion, we examined the organizational changes of filamentous (F-) actin in live Dictyostelium discoideum. We labeled F-actin with a trace amount of fluorescent phalloidin and analyzed its dynamics in nearly two-dimensional cells by using a sensitive, high-resolution charge-coupled device. We optically resolved a cyclic mode of tightening and loosening of fibrous cortical F-actin and quantitated its flow by measuring temporal and spatial intensity changes. The rate of F-actin flow was evaluated with respect to migration velocity and morphometric changes. In migrating monopodial cells, the cortical F-actin encircling the posterior cell body gradually accumulated into the tail end at a speed of 0.35 microm/minute. We show qualitatively and quantitatively that the F-actin flow is closely associated with cell migration. Similarly, in dividing cells, the cortical F-actin accumulated into the cleavage furrow. Although five times slower than the wild type, the F-actin also flows rearward in migrating mhcA- cells demonstrating that myosin II ('conventional' myosin) is not absolutely required for the observed dynamics of F-actin. Yet consistent with the reported transportation of ConA-beads, the direction of observed F-actin flow in Dictyostelium is conceptually opposite from a barbed-end binding to the plasma membrane. This study suggests that the posterior end of the cell has a unique motif that tugs the cortical actin layer rearward by means of a mechanism independent from myosin II; this mechanism may be also involved in cleavage furrow formation.  (+info)

MST neuronal responses to heading direction during pursuit eye movements. (7/9454)

As you move through the environment, you see a radial pattern of visual motion with a focus of expansion (FOE) that indicates your heading direction. When self-movement is combined with smooth pursuit eye movements, the turning of the eye distorts the retinal image of the FOE but somehow you still can perceive heading. We studied neurons in the medial superior temporal area (MST) of monkey visual cortex, recording responses to FOE stimuli presented during fixation and smooth pursuit eye movements. Almost all neurons showed significant changes in their FOE selective responses during pursuit eye movements. However, the vector average of all the neuronal responses indicated the direction of the FOE during both fixation and pursuit. Furthermore, the amplitude of the net vector increased with increasing FOE eccentricity. We conclude that neuronal population encoding in MST might contribute to pursuit-tolerant heading perception.  (+info)

Microtubule-dependent plus- and minus end-directed motilities are competing processes for nuclear targeting of adenovirus. (8/9454)

Adenovirus (Ad) enters target cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis, escapes to the cytosol, and then delivers its DNA genome into the nucleus. Here we analyzed the trafficking of fluorophore-tagged viruses in HeLa and TC7 cells by time-lapse microscopy. Our results show that native or taxol-stabilized microtubules (MTs) support alternating minus- and plus end-directed movements of cytosolic virus with elementary speeds up to 2.6 micrometer/s. No directed movement was observed in nocodazole-treated cells. Switching between plus- and minus end-directed elementary speeds at frequencies up to 1 Hz was observed in the periphery and near the MT organizing center (MTOC) after recovery from nocodazole treatment. MT-dependent motilities allowed virus accumulation near the MTOC at population speeds of 1-10 micrometer/min, depending on the cell type. Overexpression of p50/dynamitin, which is known to affect dynein-dependent minus end-directed vesicular transport, significantly reduced the extent and the frequency of minus end-directed migration of cytosolic virus, and increased the frequency, but not the extent of plus end-directed motility. The data imply that a single cytosolic Ad particle engages with two types of MT-dependent motor activities, the minus end- directed cytoplasmic dynein and an unknown plus end- directed activity.  (+info)

Movement disorders are a group of neurological conditions that affect the muscles and movement of the body. These disorders can cause involuntary movements, such as tremors, stiffness, or jerking, as well as difficulties with balance, coordination, and posture. Movement disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain injury, infections, toxins, and certain medications. Some common movement disorders include Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, dystonia, and essential tremor. Treatment for movement disorders depends on the specific disorder and its severity. It may include medications, physical therapy, occupational therapy, surgery, or a combination of these approaches. In some cases, lifestyle changes, such as exercise and a healthy diet, may also be helpful in managing symptoms.

Plant viral movement proteins (PVMs) are a group of proteins that are encoded by plant viruses and play a crucial role in the movement of the virus from one cell to another within the plant. These proteins are responsible for the formation of tubules or vesicles that transport the viral genome from the site of infection to the plasmodesmata, which are small channels that connect plant cells. PVMs are essential for the spread of the virus throughout the plant, as they allow the virus to move from cell to cell and infect neighboring tissues. They also play a role in the avoidance of plant defense mechanisms, as they can interfere with the normal functioning of the plant's cells and prevent the plant from mounting an effective immune response. In the medical field, PVMs are of interest because they represent potential targets for the development of antiviral therapies. By understanding how PVMs function and interact with plant cells, researchers can develop strategies to disrupt the movement of the virus and prevent its spread throughout the plant. Additionally, PVMs may have potential as a source of antigens for the development of vaccines against plant viruses.

Dyskinesias are involuntary, repetitive, and often awkward movements of the muscles. They can affect any part of the body, but are most commonly seen in the face, tongue, and limbs. Dyskinesias can be caused by a variety of factors, including medication side effects, neurological disorders, and genetic conditions. In the medical field, dyskinesias are often associated with conditions such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and tardive dyskinesia. Treatment for dyskinesias depends on the underlying cause and may include medication adjustments, physical therapy, or other interventions.

Nocturnal Myoclonus Syndrome (NMS) is a rare neurological disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions or jerks that occur during sleep. These muscle movements are typically brief and repetitive, and they can affect any part of the body, including the arms, legs, face, and neck. NMS is usually diagnosed in adults, although it can occur in children as well. The cause of NMS is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to abnormal electrical activity in the brain during sleep. Symptoms of NMS can include muscle spasms or jerks during sleep, difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep, and fatigue or daytime sleepiness. In some cases, NMS can also cause other symptoms, such as headaches, dizziness, and difficulty with balance. Treatment for NMS typically involves medications to help control the muscle movements and improve sleep quality. In some cases, physical therapy or other interventions may also be recommended to help manage symptoms.

Ocular motility disorders refer to a group of conditions that affect the movement of the eyes. These disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including damage to the nerves or muscles that control eye movement, problems with the brain's ability to coordinate eye movements, or abnormalities in the shape or position of the eyes or orbit. Symptoms of ocular motility disorders can include double vision, difficulty tracking objects with the eyes, limited ability to move the eyes in certain directions, and a sensation of the eyes being stuck or unable to move. These symptoms can be caused by a variety of conditions, including muscle weakness or paralysis, nerve damage, or problems with the brain's control of eye movement. Diagnosis of ocular motility disorders typically involves a comprehensive eye examination, including tests of eye movement and coordination, as well as imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans. Treatment options for ocular motility disorders depend on the underlying cause and may include medications, physical therapy, or surgery. In some cases, corrective lenses or other optical aids may also be helpful in improving vision and reducing symptoms.

Parkinson's disease is a chronic and progressive neurological disorder that affects movement. It is caused by the degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra, a region of the brain that plays a crucial role in controlling movement. The symptoms of Parkinson's disease typically develop gradually and may include tremors, stiffness, slow movement, and difficulty with balance and coordination. Other common symptoms may include loss of smell, constipation, sleep disturbances, and cognitive changes. Parkinson's disease is usually diagnosed based on a combination of medical history, physical examination, and neuroimaging tests. There is currently no cure for Parkinson's disease, but medications and other treatments can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for people with the condition.

Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions that cause abnormal movements, postures, or twisting of the body. It can affect any part of the body, including the face, neck, trunk, arms, and legs. Dystonia can be primary, meaning it has no known cause, or secondary, meaning it is caused by an underlying medical condition such as a brain injury, stroke, or infection. It can also be inherited in some cases. Symptoms of dystonia can vary widely depending on the affected muscles and the severity of the condition. Common symptoms include tremors, muscle spasms, stiffness, and repetitive movements or postures. Treatment for dystonia may include medications, physical therapy, botulinum toxin injections, and in severe cases, surgery.

Paresis is a medical term that refers to partial paralysis, which means that a person has lost some, but not all, of the function of a muscle or group of muscles. Paresis can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury, disease, or nerve damage. It is often characterized by weakness, stiffness, or difficulty moving the affected muscles. Paresis can affect any part of the body, but it is most commonly seen in the arms and legs. It is important to note that paresis is different from paralysis, which refers to the complete loss of muscle function.

Chorea is a type of movement disorder characterized by involuntary, rapid, and unpredictable movements of the body. These movements are often jerky, spasmodic, and may involve multiple body parts at once. Chorea can be a symptom of various medical conditions, including Huntington's disease, Wilson's disease, and certain infections or metabolic disorders. It can also be a side effect of certain medications or a symptom of a neurological disorder such as Tourette's syndrome. Treatment for chorea depends on the underlying cause and may include medication, physical therapy, or other interventions.

Actins are a family of globular, cytoskeletal proteins that are essential for the maintenance of cell shape and motility. They are found in all eukaryotic cells and are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell division, muscle contraction, and intracellular transport. Actins are composed of two globular domains, the N-terminal and C-terminal domains, which are connected by a flexible linker region. They are capable of polymerizing into long, filamentous structures called actin filaments, which are the main component of the cytoskeleton. Actin filaments are dynamic structures that can be rapidly assembled and disassembled in response to changes in the cellular environment. They are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including the formation of cellular structures such as the cell membrane, the cytoplasmic cortex, and the contractile ring during cell division. In addition to their role in maintaining cell shape and motility, actins are also involved in a number of other cellular processes, including the regulation of cell signaling, the organization of the cytoplasm, and the movement of organelles within the cell.

Green Fluorescent Proteins (GFPs) are a class of proteins that emit green light when excited by blue or ultraviolet light. They were first discovered in the jellyfish Aequorea victoria and have since been widely used as a tool in the field of molecular biology and bioimaging. In the medical field, GFPs are often used as a marker to track the movement and behavior of cells and proteins within living organisms. For example, scientists can insert a gene for GFP into a cell or organism, allowing them to visualize the cell or protein in real-time using a fluorescent microscope. This can be particularly useful in studying the development and function of cells, as well as in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. GFPs have also been used to develop biosensors, which can detect the presence of specific molecules or changes in cellular environment. For example, researchers have developed GFP-based sensors that can detect the presence of certain drugs or toxins, or changes in pH or calcium levels within cells. Overall, GFPs have become a valuable tool in the medical field, allowing researchers to study cellular processes and diseases in new and innovative ways.

Dyskinesia, drug-induced is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary, repetitive, and often awkward movements of the muscles. It is typically caused by long-term use of certain medications, such as antipsychotics, dopamine agonists, and some medications used to treat Parkinson's disease. The movements can range from subtle tremors to more severe, jerky movements of the face, tongue, and limbs. Dyskinesia can be a serious side effect of these medications and can significantly impact a person's quality of life. Treatment options may include reducing the dose of the medication, switching to a different medication, or using medications to manage the symptoms of dyskinesia.

Tremor is a rhythmic, involuntary movement of a part of the body, usually caused by an underlying medical condition or a side effect of medication. It can affect any part of the body, but is most commonly seen in the hands, arms, legs, and head. Tremor can be classified into several types based on its characteristics and the part of the body affected. Some common types of tremor include: 1. Essential tremor: This is the most common type of tremor and affects the hands, arms, head, and voice. It usually worsens with movement and is more noticeable when the person is trying to perform a task that requires fine motor skills. 2. Parkinson's disease: This is a progressive neurological disorder that causes tremor, stiffness, and slow movement. It usually affects the hands, arms, and legs, and can also cause other symptoms such as speech difficulties and cognitive impairment. 3. Essential hypertension: This type of tremor is caused by high blood pressure and is usually seen in the hands and arms. 4. Medication-induced tremor: Some medications, such as those used to treat anxiety, depression, and seizures, can cause tremor as a side effect. 5. Secondary tremor: This type of tremor is caused by an underlying medical condition, such as a brain tumor, multiple sclerosis, or thyroid disease. Tremor can be treated with medication, physical therapy, or surgery, depending on the underlying cause and the severity of the symptoms.

In the medical field, the term "illusions" refers to false perceptions or beliefs that are not based on reality. Illusions can occur in various forms, including visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile illusions. Visual illusions are the most common type of illusion and can involve misperceptions of shapes, colors, sizes, distances, and movement. For example, the famous "Mondrian Illusion" shows a grid of squares that appears to be tilted, even though it is not. Auditory illusions involve misperceptions of sound, such as hearing a sound that is not actually present or perceiving a sound differently than it was produced. Olfactory illusions involve misperceptions of smell, such as perceiving a scent that is not actually present or perceiving a scent differently than it was produced. Gustatory illusions involve misperceptions of taste, such as perceiving a flavor that is not actually present or perceiving a flavor differently than it was produced. Tactile illusions involve misperceptions of touch, such as perceiving a texture that is not actually present or perceiving a texture differently than it was produced. Illusions can be caused by a variety of factors, including brain injury, neurological disorders, medication side effects, and psychological conditions. In some cases, illusions may be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional.

Hemiplegia is a type of paralysis that affects one side of the body. It is caused by damage to the brain, usually from a stroke or head injury. Hemiplegia can affect the muscles of the face, arms, and legs, and can cause weakness, stiffness, and difficulty with movement on the affected side of the body. In severe cases, hemiplegia can also cause problems with speech, vision, and coordination. Treatment for hemiplegia typically involves physical therapy and other forms of rehabilitation to help improve strength, mobility, and function.

Dystonic Disorders are a group of neurological disorders characterized by involuntary muscle contractions that cause abnormal postures and movements. These disorders can affect any part of the body, but they are most commonly seen in the face, neck, trunk, and limbs. Dystonic Disorders can be primary, meaning they occur on their own, or secondary, meaning they are caused by another underlying medical condition. Primary dystonic disorders include Dystonia Musculorum, Dystonic Epilepsy, and Dystonic Tremor. Secondary dystonic disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including brain injury, stroke, infection, or exposure to certain medications. Symptoms of dystonic disorders can vary widely depending on the specific disorder and the affected muscles. Common symptoms include tremors, muscle spasms, stiffness, and abnormal postures. Treatment for dystonic disorders typically involves medications to reduce muscle contractions, physical therapy to improve muscle tone and flexibility, and in some cases, surgery to relieve symptoms.

Luminescent proteins are a class of proteins that emit light when they are excited by a chemical or physical stimulus. These proteins are commonly used in the medical field for a variety of applications, including imaging and diagnostics. One of the most well-known examples of luminescent proteins is green fluorescent protein (GFP), which was first discovered in jellyfish in the 1960s. GFP has since been widely used as a fluorescent marker in biological research, allowing scientists to track the movement and behavior of specific cells and molecules within living organisms. Other luminescent proteins, such as luciferase and bioluminescent bacteria, are also used in medical research and diagnostics. Luciferase is an enzyme that catalyzes a chemical reaction that produces light, and it is often used in assays to measure the activity of specific genes or proteins. Bioluminescent bacteria, such as Vibrio fischeri, produce light through a chemical reaction that is triggered by the presence of certain compounds, and they are used in diagnostic tests to detect the presence of these compounds in biological samples. Overall, luminescent proteins have proven to be valuable tools in the medical field, allowing researchers to study biological processes in greater detail and develop new diagnostic tests and treatments for a wide range of diseases.

Dyneins are a family of large molecular motors that are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including intracellular transport, cell division, and the maintenance of cell shape. They are composed of multiple protein subunits and use the energy from ATP hydrolysis to move along microtubules, which are important structural components of the cell. Dyneins are found in most eukaryotic cells and are responsible for a variety of important functions. For example, dynein is involved in the transport of organelles and vesicles within the cell, and it plays a key role in the movement of cilia and flagella, which are hair-like structures that protrude from the surface of some cells and are involved in movement and sensory functions. Dyneins are also involved in the process of cell division, where they help to move the chromosomes to opposite ends of the cell during mitosis. In addition, dyneins are involved in the maintenance of cell shape and the organization of the cytoskeleton, which is the network of protein fibers that provides support and structure to the cell. Dyneins are important for many cellular processes and are the subject of ongoing research in the field of cell biology.

Hypokinesia is a medical term that refers to a decrease in the amount of movement or muscle activity in a person's body. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including neurological disorders, muscle weakness, or injury. Hypokinesia can manifest in different ways, depending on the affected muscles and the severity of the condition. Some common symptoms of hypokinesia include slow or jerky movements, difficulty with coordination and balance, and reduced range of motion. In some cases, hypokinesia may be a sign of a more serious underlying condition, such as Parkinson's disease or multiple sclerosis. Treatment for hypokinesia depends on the underlying cause and may include physical therapy, medication, or surgery.

Apraxia is a neurological disorder that affects a person's ability to carry out learned motor tasks despite intact motor function and the ability to understand the purpose of the task. It is often associated with damage to the brain, particularly in the left hemisphere, which is responsible for controlling movement and language. There are several types of apraxia, including: 1. Action apraxia: This type of apraxia affects a person's ability to carry out complex, learned motor tasks, such as buttoning a shirt or tying a shoe. 2. Ideational apraxia: This type of apraxia affects a person's ability to plan and organize motor movements, such as reaching for a specific object or performing a series of steps to complete a task. 3. Verbal apraxia: This type of apraxia affects a person's ability to produce speech sounds and words correctly, despite intact cognitive and motor function. Apraxia can be a symptom of a variety of neurological conditions, including stroke, traumatic brain injury, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Treatment for apraxia may involve speech therapy, occupational therapy, and other forms of rehabilitation to help the person regain their ability to carry out motor tasks.

Athetosis is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary, slow, writhing movements of the arms, legs, and trunk. These movements are typically uncoordinated and may be accompanied by tremors, rigidity, or difficulty with balance and coordination. Athetosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, brain injuries, infections, and certain medications. It can affect both children and adults and can range from mild to severe. Treatment for athetosis may include physical therapy, medication, and in some cases, surgery.

Myoclonus is a type of involuntary muscle twitching or jerking that occurs suddenly and without warning. It can affect any muscle in the body, but is most commonly seen in the arms, legs, and trunk. Myoclonus can be a symptom of a variety of medical conditions, including neurological disorders such as epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease, as well as metabolic disorders, infections, and drug reactions. It can also be a normal phenomenon that occurs during sleep or in response to certain stimuli. Myoclonus can be a distressing and disruptive symptom, and treatment may involve addressing the underlying cause or using medications to reduce its frequency and severity.

Levodopa is a medication that is used to treat Parkinson's disease. It is a synthetic form of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that is produced by the brain and is important for controlling movement. Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurological disorder that is characterized by the loss of dopamine-producing cells in the brain, which leads to symptoms such as tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with movement. Levodopa works by being converted into dopamine in the brain, which helps to improve the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. It is usually taken in combination with other medications, such as carbidopa, to increase its effectiveness and reduce side effects.

Cerebellar diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the cerebellum, a part of the brain responsible for coordinating movement, balance, and posture. The cerebellum is located at the base of the brain, just above the brainstem, and is divided into several lobes. Cerebellar diseases can be classified into two main categories: primary and secondary. Primary cerebellar diseases are those that affect the cerebellum directly, while secondary cerebellar diseases are those that affect the cerebellum as a result of damage to other parts of the brain or the body. Some common primary cerebellar diseases include: 1. Cerebellar ataxia: A group of disorders characterized by difficulty with balance,。 2. Spinocerebellar ataxia: A group of genetic disorders that affect the cerebellum and spinal cord. 3. Wilson's disease: A rare genetic disorder that causes copper to build up in the liver, brain, and other organs, leading to damage to the cerebellum. 4. Multiple sclerosis: A chronic autoimmune disorder that can affect the cerebellum and other parts of the brain and spinal cord. Some common secondary cerebellar diseases include: 1. Stroke: A cerebrovascular accident that occurs when blood flow to the brain is interrupted, leading to damage to the cerebellum. 2. Brain tumors: Tumors that grow in the brain can compress the cerebellum and cause symptoms such as difficulty with balance and coordination. 3. Infections: Infections such as meningitis and encephalitis can cause inflammation and damage to the cerebellum. 4. Trauma: Head injuries can cause damage to the cerebellum and lead to symptoms such as difficulty with balance and coordination. Treatment for cerebellar diseases depends on the underlying cause and the severity of symptoms. In some cases, medications may be used to manage symptoms or slow the progression of the disease. Physical therapy and other forms of rehabilitation may also be recommended to help improve balance, coordination, and other motor functions. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove a brain tumor or repair damage to the cerebellum.

Myosins are a family of motor proteins that are responsible for muscle contraction in animals. They are found in almost all eukaryotic cells, including muscle cells, and play a crucial role in the movement of intracellular organelles and vesicles. In muscle cells, myosins interact with actin filaments to generate force and movement. The process of muscle contraction involves the binding of myosin heads to actin filaments, followed by the movement of the myosin head along the actin filament, pulling the actin filament towards the center of the sarcomere. This sliding of actin and myosin filaments past each other generates the force required for muscle contraction. There are many different types of myosins, each with its own specific function and localization within the cell. Some myosins are involved in the movement of organelles and vesicles within the cytoplasm, while others are involved in the movement of chromosomes during cell division. Myosins are also involved in a variety of other cellular processes, including cell migration, cytokinesis, and the formation of cell junctions.

Root resorption is a dental condition in which the root of a tooth becomes shorter or disappears due to various factors. It can occur in both primary (baby) and permanent teeth and can be caused by a variety of factors, including trauma, orthodontic treatment, dental procedures, and certain medical conditions. In some cases, root resorption may be asymptomatic and may not cause any noticeable symptoms. However, in severe cases, it can lead to tooth sensitivity, pain, and even tooth loss. Root resorption can be diagnosed through dental X-rays, which can show the extent and severity of the condition. Treatment options depend on the cause and severity of the root resorption, and may include observation, root canal therapy, or extraction of the affected tooth.

Recombinant fusion proteins are proteins that are produced by combining two or more genes in a single molecule. These proteins are typically created using genetic engineering techniques, such as recombinant DNA technology, to insert one or more genes into a host organism, such as bacteria or yeast, which then produces the fusion protein. Fusion proteins are often used in medical research and drug development because they can have unique properties that are not present in the individual proteins that make up the fusion. For example, a fusion protein might be designed to have increased stability, improved solubility, or enhanced targeting to specific cells or tissues. Recombinant fusion proteins have a wide range of applications in medicine, including as therapeutic agents, diagnostic tools, and research reagents. Some examples of recombinant fusion proteins used in medicine include antibodies, growth factors, and cytokines.

Calcium is a chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It is a vital mineral for the human body and is essential for many bodily functions, including bone health, muscle function, nerve transmission, and blood clotting. In the medical field, calcium is often used to diagnose and treat conditions related to calcium deficiency or excess. For example, low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia) can cause muscle cramps, numbness, and tingling, while high levels (hypercalcemia) can lead to kidney stones, bone loss, and other complications. Calcium supplements are often prescribed to people who are at risk of developing calcium deficiency, such as older adults, vegetarians, and people with certain medical conditions. However, it is important to note that excessive calcium intake can also be harmful, and it is important to follow recommended dosages and consult with a healthcare provider before taking any supplements.

Viral proteins are proteins that are synthesized by viruses during their replication cycle within a host cell. These proteins play a crucial role in the viral life cycle, including attachment to host cells, entry into the cell, replication of the viral genome, assembly of new viral particles, and release of the virus from the host cell. Viral proteins can be classified into several categories based on their function, including structural proteins, non-structural proteins, and regulatory proteins. Structural proteins are the building blocks of the viral particle, such as capsid proteins that form the viral coat. Non-structural proteins are proteins that are not part of the viral particle but are essential for viral replication, such as proteases that cleave viral polyproteins into individual proteins. Regulatory proteins are proteins that control the expression of viral genes or the activity of viral enzymes. Viral proteins are important targets for antiviral drugs and vaccines, as they are essential for viral replication and survival. Understanding the structure and function of viral proteins is crucial for the development of effective antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Muscimol is a psychoactive compound found in certain species of mushrooms, such as the fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) and the panther cap (Coprinus comatus). It is a GABA-A receptor agonist, meaning that it binds to and activates the GABA-A receptors in the brain, which are responsible for inhibiting the activity of neurons. This leads to a range of effects, including relaxation, drowsiness, altered perception, and hallucinations. Muscimol has been used in traditional medicine for centuries, and is still used today in some cultures for spiritual and recreational purposes. However, it is illegal to use muscimol for any purpose in many countries, and its use can be dangerous and potentially lethal if not used properly.

Sodium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in various bodily functions. In the medical field, sodium is often measured in the blood and urine to assess its levels and monitor its balance in the body. Sodium is primarily responsible for regulating the body's fluid balance, which is essential for maintaining blood pressure and proper functioning of the heart, kidneys, and other organs. Sodium is also involved in nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and the production of stomach acid. Abnormal levels of sodium in the body can lead to various medical conditions, including hyponatremia (low sodium levels), hypernatremia (high sodium levels), and dehydration. Sodium levels can be affected by various factors, including diet, medications, and underlying medical conditions. In the medical field, sodium levels are typically measured using a blood test called a serum sodium test or a urine test called a urine sodium test. These tests can help diagnose and monitor various medical conditions related to sodium levels, such as kidney disease, heart failure, and electrolyte imbalances.

Motor skills disorders refer to a group of medical conditions that affect an individual's ability to perform coordinated movements using their muscles. These disorders can affect both voluntary and involuntary movements and can range from mild to severe. Some common motor skills disorders include: 1. Dyspraxia: A developmental coordination disorder that affects an individual's ability to plan and execute motor tasks. 2. Parkinson's disease: A progressive neurological disorder that affects movement, balance, and coordination. 3. Cerebral palsy: A group of neurological disorders that affect movement and muscle tone due to damage to the brain before, during, or after birth. 4. Spina bifida: A birth defect that affects the development of the spinal cord and can lead to motor skills disorders. 5. Muscular dystrophy: A group of genetic disorders that affect muscle strength and function. 6. Multiple sclerosis: A neurological disorder that affects the central nervous system and can lead to motor skills disorders. Motor skills disorders can have a significant impact on an individual's daily life, including their ability to perform basic tasks such as dressing, eating, and grooming. Treatment for motor skills disorders may include physical therapy, occupational therapy, medication, and surgery, depending on the specific disorder and its severity.

Potassium is a mineral that is essential for the proper functioning of many bodily processes. It is the most abundant positively charged ion in the body and plays a crucial role in maintaining fluid balance, regulating muscle contractions, transmitting nerve impulses, and supporting the proper functioning of the heart. In the medical field, potassium is often measured in blood tests to assess its levels and determine if they are within the normal range. Abnormal potassium levels can be caused by a variety of factors, including certain medications, kidney disease, hormonal imbalances, and certain medical conditions such as Addison's disease or hyperaldosteronism. Low levels of potassium (hypokalemia) can cause muscle weakness, cramps, and arrhythmias, while high levels (hyperkalemia) can lead to cardiac arrhythmias, muscle weakness, and even cardiac arrest. Treatment for potassium imbalances typically involves adjusting the patient's diet or administering medications to correct the imbalance.

REM Sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD) is a sleep disorder characterized by the loss of muscle atonia, or the inability to move, during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. This can result in the individual acting out their dreams, which can be violent or bizarre, and potentially causing harm to themselves or their sleeping partner. RBD is often associated with other neurological conditions, such as Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy, and dementia with Lewy bodies. It is typically diagnosed through a combination of a sleep study and a physical examination to rule out other potential causes of the symptoms. Treatment may include medication, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, the use of a special type of mask to prevent injury during sleep.

In the medical field, water is a vital substance that is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. It is a clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that makes up the majority of the body's fluids, including blood, lymph, and interstitial fluid. Water plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's temperature, transporting nutrients and oxygen to cells, removing waste products, and lubricating joints. It also helps to regulate blood pressure and prevent dehydration, which can lead to a range of health problems. In medical settings, water is often used as a means of hydration therapy for patients who are dehydrated or have fluid imbalances. It may also be used as a diluent for medications or as a component of intravenous fluids. Overall, water is an essential component of human health and plays a critical role in maintaining the body's normal functions.

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a molecule that serves as the primary energy currency in living cells. It is composed of three phosphate groups attached to a ribose sugar and an adenine base. In the medical field, ATP is essential for many cellular processes, including muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and the synthesis of macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. ATP is produced through cellular respiration, which involves the breakdown of glucose and other molecules to release energy that is stored in the bonds of ATP. Disruptions in ATP production or utilization can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including muscle weakness, fatigue, and neurological disorders. In addition, ATP is often used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, as levels of ATP can be measured in various bodily fluids and tissues to assess cellular health and function.

In the medical field, a stroke is a medical emergency that occurs when blood flow to the brain is interrupted or reduced, causing brain cells to die. This can happen in two ways: 1. Ischemic stroke: This is the most common type of stroke, accounting for about 85% of all strokes. It occurs when a blood clot blocks a blood vessel in the brain, cutting off blood flow to the affected area. 2. Hemorrhagic stroke: This type of stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures, causing bleeding into the brain. Hemorrhagic strokes are less common than ischemic strokes, accounting for about 15% of all strokes. Strokes can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the location and severity of the brain damage. Common symptoms include sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body; difficulty speaking or understanding speech; vision problems; dizziness or loss of balance; and severe headache. Prompt medical treatment is crucial for stroke patients, as the sooner treatment is given, the better the chances of recovery. Treatment options may include medications to dissolve blood clots or prevent further clot formation, surgery to remove a blood clot or repair a ruptured blood vessel, and rehabilitation to help patients recover from the effects of the stroke.

A Phantom Limb is a sensation that a person experiences after the amputation of a limb. It is a feeling that the missing limb is still present and can be moved or felt. This sensation can be accompanied by pain, tingling, or itching in the area where the limb used to be. Phantom Limbs are a common experience among amputees and can be caused by a variety of factors, including the brain's attempt to fill in the sensory information that is no longer available from the missing limb. Treatment for Phantom Limbs may include physical therapy, medication, or psychological counseling.

Sleep deprivation is a condition that occurs when an individual does not get enough sleep, either in terms of duration or quality. It is a common problem that can have serious consequences on a person's physical and mental health. In the medical field, sleep deprivation is defined as a lack of sufficient sleep that affects a person's ability to function normally. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine recommends that adults should aim for 7-9 hours of sleep per night, and that children and adolescents need even more. Sleep deprivation can be caused by a variety of factors, including lifestyle habits such as irregular sleep schedules, exposure to bright light at night, and the use of electronic devices before bedtime. It can also be caused by underlying medical conditions such as sleep apnea, restless leg syndrome, and narcolepsy. The effects of sleep deprivation can range from mild to severe and can include fatigue, irritability, difficulty concentrating, memory problems, and an increased risk of accidents and injuries. In severe cases, sleep deprivation can lead to more serious health problems such as high blood pressure, heart disease, and diabetes. Treatment for sleep deprivation typically involves addressing the underlying cause and making lifestyle changes to improve sleep habits. In some cases, medication or other medical interventions may be necessary to treat underlying sleep disorders.

In the medical field, a torsion abnormality refers to a condition in which a structure, such as a testicle or ovary, twists on its own axis. This can cause a blockage of blood flow to the affected organ, leading to pain, swelling, and potentially serious complications if left untreated. Torsion abnormalities are typically diagnosed through physical examination and imaging studies, and may require surgical intervention to correct. They can occur in both males and females, and are more common in children and young adults.

Zebrafish proteins refer to proteins that are expressed in the zebrafish, a small freshwater fish that is commonly used as a model organism in biomedical research. These proteins can be studied to gain insights into the function and regulation of proteins in humans and other organisms. Zebrafish are particularly useful as a model organism because they have a similar genetic makeup to humans and other vertebrates, and they develop externally, making it easy to observe and manipulate their development. Additionally, zebrafish embryos are transparent, allowing researchers to visualize the development of their organs and tissues in real-time. Zebrafish proteins have been studied in a variety of contexts, including the development of diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. By studying zebrafish proteins, researchers can identify potential therapeutic targets and develop new treatments for these diseases.

Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a group of neurological disorders that affect a person's ability to move and control their muscles. It is caused by damage to the developing brain, usually before or during birth, which can result in a range of symptoms including muscle stiffness, weakness, tremors, and difficulty with coordination and balance. CP is a non-progressive condition, meaning that it does not get worse over time. However, the severity of symptoms can vary widely depending on the extent of the brain damage and the specific areas of the brain that were affected. There are four main types of CP: spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed. Spastic CP is the most common and is characterized by muscle stiffness and spasms. Athetoid CP is characterized by uncontrolled, writhing movements of the muscles. Ataxic CP is characterized by difficulty with balance and coordination. Mixed CP is a combination of two or more of these types. Treatment for CP typically involves a combination of physical therapy, occupational therapy, and assistive devices such as braces or wheelchairs. In some cases, medication or surgery may also be used to manage symptoms. While there is no cure for CP, early intervention and ongoing therapy can help individuals with the condition to achieve the best possible quality of life.

Stereotypic movement disorder (SMD) is a neurological disorder characterized by repetitive, stereotyped, and purposeless movements that are not under voluntary control. These movements can be rhythmic, writhing, or jerky in nature and can involve any part of the body, including the face, arms, legs, and trunk. SMD can be present from early childhood and may persist throughout life. It is often associated with other neurological disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and tic disorders. SMD can also be caused by certain medications, brain injuries, or infections. Symptoms of SMD can vary in severity and may cause distress or impairment in daily functioning. Treatment options for SMD may include medication, behavioral therapy, and other interventions, depending on the underlying cause and severity of symptoms.

Dystonia Musculorum Deformans (DM) is a rare genetic disorder that affects muscle tone and movement. It is caused by mutations in the TOR1A gene, which is responsible for producing a protein called torsinA. The symptoms of DM can vary widely depending on the severity of the condition and the specific muscles affected. Common symptoms include muscle stiffness, spasms, and involuntary movements, particularly in the face, neck, and limbs. In some cases, individuals with DM may also experience difficulty with speech, swallowing, and breathing. DM is typically diagnosed in early childhood, and there is currently no cure for the condition. Treatment options may include medications to manage symptoms, physical therapy, and surgery in some cases.

Narcolepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and cataplexy, which is a sudden loss of muscle tone or muscle weakness triggered by strong emotions such as laughter, excitement, or anger. Other symptoms of narcolepsy may include hypnagogic hallucinations (dream-like experiences that occur as you fall asleep or wake up), sleep paralysis (a feeling of being unable to move or speak while falling asleep or waking up), and automatic behaviors (such as driving or eating) while falling asleep or waking up. Narcolepsy is caused by a lack of a chemical called hypocretin, which is produced by cells in the brain that regulate sleep and wakefulness. It is a lifelong condition that can be managed with medication and lifestyle changes.

Psychomotor disorders are a group of neurological conditions that affect the coordination and control of voluntary movements. These disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic, environmental, and neurological factors. Psychomotor disorders can be further classified into two main categories: movement disorders and coordination disorders. Movement disorders are characterized by abnormal movements, such as tremors, stiffness, or jerky movements. Examples of movement disorders include Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and dystonia. Coordination disorders, on the other hand, are characterized by difficulty with balance, coordination, and fine motor skills. Examples of coordination disorders include ataxia, which is a disorder that affects the ability to coordinate muscle movements, and apraxia, which is a disorder that affects the ability to plan and execute complex movements. Psychomotor disorders can have a significant impact on a person's daily life, affecting their ability to perform daily activities, communicate, and interact with others. Treatment for psychomotor disorders may include medication, physical therapy, occupational therapy, and other forms of therapy, depending on the specific disorder and its severity.

Membrane proteins are proteins that are embedded within the lipid bilayer of a cell membrane. They play a crucial role in regulating the movement of substances across the membrane, as well as in cell signaling and communication. There are several types of membrane proteins, including integral membrane proteins, which span the entire membrane, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are only in contact with one or both sides of the membrane. Membrane proteins can be classified based on their function, such as transporters, receptors, channels, and enzymes. They are important for many physiological processes, including nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and cell growth and division.

Look up movement or movements in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Movement may refer to: Movement (clockwork), the internal ... Movement (EP), an EP by The Fray Movement, an EP by BT Movement (Holly Herndon album) Movement (Joe Harriott album), or the ... Movement (New Order album) Movement (The Gossip album) Movements (album), by Booka Shade "Movement" (LCD Soundsystem song), ... "Movement (운동, 運動)", a poem by Yi-sang Movement (music), a division of a larger composition or musical notes Movement (music ...
The Rwenzururu movement was an armed secessionist movement active in southwest Uganda, in the subnational kingdom of Tooro. The ... Amon Bazira, who was a key supporter of the movement to overthrow Idi Amin, had been a key person in the negotiations between ... One of the units that took part in the suppression of the Rwenzururu movement was the Ugandan 1st Battalion. After the Uganda- ... In the 1960s, the Rwenzururu Freedom movement began to shift its objective from creating a separate district to creating a ...
The Nuyorican movement is a cultural and intellectual movement involving poets, writers, musicians and artists who are Puerto ... In Visible Movement: Nuyorican Poetry from the Sixties to Slam. Iowa City: U. of Iowa Press, 2014. ISBN 978-1-60938-244-5 ... The Nuyorican movement has always included a strong visual arts component, including arts education. Raphael Montañez Ortiz, an ... Playwrights who pioneered the Nuyorican movement include Pedro Pietri, Miguel Piñero, Giannina Braschi, Jesús Papoleto Meléndez ...
Movement EP is the first EP from Denver-based rock band The Fray, released in 2002. The songs "Where You Want To" and "It's For ...
The Social Movement (Polish: Ruch Społeczny, RS) was a Christian-democratic political party in Poland. The party was ... In the 2001 parliamentary election the AWS was formed mainly of four components: the Social Movement, the Christian National ...
... may refer to: Conservatism in the United States, in politics Conservatism, a political philosophy ... unrelated to political ideology This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Conservative movement. If an ...
MenToo is a social movement in India which was started against false sexual harassment allegations in MeToo movement in India. ... MeToo movement India had called #MenToo movement ridiculous. She further said, "You know, I can't help but laugh when I hear ... MenToo movement. Karan Oberoi and Pooja Bedi also participated in the protest. Men Too movement was being applauded by the ... MeToo movement. Protestors in Bengaluru said that their movement is against false cases registered under Section 498A of the ...
The Bihar movement, also known as the JP movement, was a political movement initiated by students in the Indian state of Bihar ... It was also referred to as Sampoorna Kranti (Total Revolution Movement). When the Nav Nirman movement resulted in the forced ... The Bihar Movement turned into a Satyagraha and volunteers kept protesting at the Bihar Legislative Assembly, inviting arrest ... JP opposed such a movement in his letters to Indira Gandhi and called for her to resign. She imposed a nationwide Emergency to ...
... , Anti-caste movements, Political history of the Madras Presidency). ... The Dravidian movement in British India started with the formation of the Justice Party on 20 November 1916 in Victoria Public ... This breach was further exaggerated by Annie Besant and her Home Rule for India movement. The following table shows the ... 30-31 Irschick, Eugene F. (1969). Political and Social Conflict in South India; The non-Brahmin movement and Tamil Separatism, ...
The Confessing Movement is a largely lay-led theologically conservative Christian movement that opposes the influence of ... "Global Movement". Gafcon Global Anglicans. Retrieved 29 September 2022. "Lutherans Organize Confessing Movement". June 18, 2002 ... United Methodist The Confessing Church Movement Within The Presbyterian Church (USA) A confessing movement within the United ... The Confessing Movement within the United Methodist Church quotes Methodism's founder, John Wesley, who said: I AM not afraid, ...
The Akali movement /əˈkɑːli/, also called the Gurdwara Reform Movement, was a campaign to bring reform in the gurdwaras (the ... As the British authorities came to see the Akali movement to be a movement to overthrow the British and therefore to be ... The British Government considered the Akali movement to be a greater threat than Mahatma Gandhi's civil disobedience movement. ... over 400 had been killed and another 2,000 had been injured during the movement. The movement fueled the anti-British ...
... and in England upon the Pre-Raphaelite movement. They were also direct influences on the British artists William Dyce and ... p.1 Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nazarene movement. Nazarenes in the "History of Art" (Articles with short ...
The book and its author are often credited with launching the environmental movement. In the 1970s, worldwide movements ... a movement to manage lawns organically began to grow out of the practices of the organic farming movement. Activists in a ... The organic movement began in the early 1900s in response to the shift towards synthetic nitrogen fertilizers and pesticides in ... The organic movement broadly refers to the organizations and individuals involved worldwide in the promotion of organic food ...
Portrait of Movement Research in the French magazine Mouvement "Movement Research in Residence". Rethinking the Imprint of ... making 122CC Movement Research's first permanent home in their 40 year history. Among Movement Research's initiatives are a ... Movement Research organizes performances at the Judson Memorial Church among other locations around New York City. It has a ... In Spring 2018, Movement Research announced they will be occupying 3 spaces in the newly renovated 122 Community Center, ...
The Civic Movement (Czech: Občanské hnutí, OH) was a liberal political party based in the Czech Republic, which existed from ... Foreign Minister Jiří Dienstbier was elected leader of the Civic Movement. The party participated in the 1992 legislative ... Civic Movement, Defunct political parties in the Czech Republic, Liberal parties in the Czech Republic, Defunct liberal ...
The #KuToo movement is an ongoing movement in Japan against the high heel policy in workplaces. The name is a reference to the ... "Japan's #KuToo movement is fighting back against regressive dress codes for women". Quartz. Retrieved 2019-10-29. Barnish, ... Ishikawa has since expanded the movement from shoes to a broader spectrum of women's rights issues in Japan. Ishikawa often ... She described Japan as viewing the movement in terms of health concerns rather than discrimination based on gender. In answer ...
The Vineyard Movement and the British New Church Movement exemplify Third Wave or neo-charismatic organizations. Charismatic ... The charismatic movement in Christianity is a movement within established or mainstream Christian denominations to adopt ... Methodists became involved in the charismatic movement in the 1970s. The charismatic movement led to the founding of many ... C. Peter Wagner traces the spread of the charismatic movement within evangelicalism to around 1985. He termed this movement the ...
The Tabassum movement (Dari: جنبش تبسم, Junbesh-e Tabasum) was a grassroots protest movement in Afghanistan that held several ... The Tabassum movement was seen as leading to the 2016-2017 Enlightenment Movement and the 2017 Uprising for Change. People's ... The Tabassum movement was a grassroots movement with "collective decision-making processes" that avoided charismatic leadership ... The trigger event for the creation of the Tabassum movement was hostage taking by a group claiming allegiance to the Islamic ...
It defines itself as a social and political movement in the "Traditionalist Catholic lobby", a "movement whose cause is the ... It, and ICHTUS[further explanation needed], were split out from the integrist Cité catholique movement founded by the pro-Vichy ... It publishes news about the movement, and analyses the major political themes of the day. Pinte, Étienne; Turck, Jacques; ... The government dissolves fundamentalist Catholic movement Civitas]. LeFigaro (in French). 4 October 2023. Retrieved 3 October ...
By seven weeks, movement in the arms and legs can be detected by ultrasound. The parts of the fetal brain that control movement ... Control of movement is limited at birth, and purposeful voluntary movements develop during the long period up until puberty. ... Movements such as kicking continue, and the mother usually feels movement for the first time, an event called quickening, ... Whether a movement is supraspinally determined can be inferred by comparison to movements of an anencephalic fetus. This ...
... the Southside Movement disbanded that year. Southside Movement's tracks, "I've Been Watching You" and "Save the World", ... Southside Movement issued their self-titled debut album on the Wand record label in 1973; it included the Top 20 US Billboard R ... The Southside Movement was an American soul and funk musical group from Chicago, Illinois. Composed of vocalist Melvin Moore, ... Kool G Rap also sampled The Southside Movement's "Love is For Fools" in "It's a Shame" from his 1995 album 4,5,6.[citation ...
The Kino movement was founded in 1999 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada by Christian Laurence and friends. It has since spread ... Kino is a film-making movement that advocates the production of short-films on little to no budget, using small crews, and non- ...
... , or cultural movement marketing, is a marketing model that begins with an idea on the rise in culture. ... StrawberryFrog, the world's first Cultural Movement agency, invented the movement marketing model in 1999 working for such ... "Movements" as a new brand building marketing model begins with an idea on the rise in culture rather than the product itself. ... Cultural movement" requires a radical rethink of the old rules of marketing. Instead of being about "the individual" it is ...
The patriotes movement was a political movement that existed in Lower Canada (present-day Quebec) from the turn of the 19th ... The movement demanded democratic reforms, such as an elected Legislative Council, as opposed to the contemporary council whose ... The partisan embodiment of the movement was the Parti patriote, which held many seats in the Legislative Assembly of Lower ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Patriote movement. Étienne Chartier Declaration of Independence of Lower Canada February ...
The Cosmic Movement was the organisation established by Max Théon around 1900, in Tlemcen, Algeria, at the instigation of his ... Among the most important of Théon's students at this time, who were involved in the Cosmic Movement, in Tlemcen and later in ... According to Pascal Themanlys, other active contributors of the Cosmic Movement included Rene Caillie, the writer Marc Semenoff ...
The Terasem Movement is a group of three organizations based in the United States. The name (Tera-Earth, Sem-Seed) was inspired ... The movement was founded by Martine Rothblatt and Bina Aspen Rothblatt, and is guided by principles called the "Truths of ... Terasem Movement Transreligion, Inc. (TMT), incorporated in 2004, with locations in Melbourne Beach, FL and Bristol, VT, is the ... Terasem Movement Foundation, Inc (TMF), incorporated in 2004, is an educational foundation located in Lincoln, Vermont. Its ...
The movement aimed at improving the share of the peasant engaged as sharecroppers. The movement continued till 1950, when the ... In September 1946 Bangiya Pradeshik Kisan Sabha decided to launch the Tebhaga movement. The peasant movement broke out in ... Tebhaga movement (1946-1947) was significant peasant agitation, initiated in Bengal by the All India Kisan Sabha of peasant ... The movement resulted in clashes between Jotedars and Bargadars (sharecroppers). As a response to the agitation, the Muslim ...
The Evita Movement, like other movements of the unemployed, grants a central role to the organization of its members to work ... The Evita Movement (Spanish: Movimiento Evita) is a social, piquetero and political movement of Argentina, which is defined by ... Other major figures of the movement are National Deputies Leonardo Grosso (former chairman of the Movement's in the lower house ... In its first year, the Evita Movement organized itself as a piquetero unemployed movement (MTD), but later redefined its ...
The Timurite movement or Timur movement (тимуровское движение) was an altruistic youth volunteering movement in the Soviet ... The participants of the movement were called Timurites (тимуровцы, timurovtsy). The idea of the movement was borrowed from the ... The Timurite movement was revived in a number of post-Soviet States: in Russia, in Belarus, in Kazakhstan by Jas Otan, the ... Later the Timurite movement was centralized and organized, with Central Staff and Congresses. Timurite teams were also created ...
The Illyrian movement was the first and most prominent pan-Slavic movement in Croatian history. The Illyrian movement was ... Illyrian movement, Political movements in the Austrian Empire, History of the Serbo-Croatian language, 19th century in Austria- ... The period of the Illyrian movement is today referred to as the "Croatian national revival". The movement formed the basis for ... they were led by the ideological goals of the Illyrian movement, building upon the language supported by the movement's ...
Controlled movement. Controlled movement limits the movement of people. For individuals subject to controlled movement, travel ... may be used to enforce controlled movement. People subject to controlled movement should not use local public transportation (e ... Table 1: Summary of CDC Interim Guidance for Monitoring and Movement of People Exposed to MERS-CoV. Summary of CDC Interim ... Controlled movement consisting of, at a minimum, restrictions on long-distance travel on commercial or public transportation in ...
Movement disorders can be caused by nerve diseases, autoimmune diseases, infections and more. Many movement disorders are ... Movement disorders are neurologic conditions that cause problems with movement, such as:. *Increased movement that can be ... Movement - uncontrollable (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Movement - uncontrolled or slow (Medical Encyclopedia) Also ... Movement - uncoordinated (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Movement - unpredictable or jerky (Medical Encyclopedia) Also ...
The Zeitgeist Movement (TZM) has a vision of A Natural Law/Resource Based Economy as an eventual sustainable solution to these& ... The Zeitgeist Movement (TZM) has a vision of A Natural Law/Resource Based Economy as an eventual sustainable solution to these ... Movement - we work to promote that shift in values from which major social change will emerge. ... Founded in 2008, The Zeitgeist Movement (TZM) is a sustainability advocacy group that operates through a network of regional ...
Altman discussed the Sanctuary movement trial in Arizona and responded to callers questions. ... Altman discussed the Sanctuary movement trial in Arizona and responded to callers questions. ... Sanctuary Movement. 148 Views Program ID:. 59542-1. Category:. Call-In. Format:. Call-In. Location:. Washington, District of ... Altman discussed the Sanctuary movement trial in Arizona and responded to callers questions.. Mr. Altman discussed the ...
Providing the history of nonviolence as applied to the Selma Movement from the unique perspective of the strategist and ... AL Right To Vote Movement. From the shores of Africa to the Americas this book explores the people, through pictures, articles ... She became the family historian and became well versed in the history of the human and civil rights movement. She lectured ... Providing the history of nonviolence as applied to the Selma Movement from the unique perspective of the strategist and ...
A revitalized labor movement-one with real muscle to affect decisions on hiring, wages, and layoffs in the private sector-- ... Why business needs a stronger labor movement. Why do we have a Labor Day and no Capital Day? Because every day is Capital Day, ...
... is unique in that the movements occur during sleep. Most other movement disorders manifest during wakefulness. ... Periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) is unique in that the movements occur during sleep. Most other movement disorders ... Vetrugno R, DAngelo R, Montagna P. Periodic limb movements in sleep and periodic limb movement disorder. Neurol Sci. 2007 Jan ... Ferri R, Gschliesser V, Frauscher B, Poewe W, Högl B. Periodic leg movements during sleep and periodic limb movement disorder ...
What is the cause of this 9-month-old girls abnormal head and eye movements? ... Her examination was remarkable for the following head movements (Video).. This feature requires the newest version of Flash. ... A healthy 9-month-old girl was referred for an ophthalmology evaluation due to abnormal head movements. She was born full-term ...
Re: [cayugabirds-l] HUGE Snow Geese movement. 2012-12-27 Thread Kenneth Victor Rosenberg ... Re: [cayugabirds-l] HUGE Snow Geese movement. 2012-12-27 Thread Geo Kloppel ... RE: [cayugabirds-l] HUGE Snow Geese movement. 2012-12-27 Thread Bill Mcaneny ... Re: [cayugabirds-l] HUGE Snow Geese movement. 2012-12-27 Thread Stephanie Greenwood ...
More than a month ago, AdWeek brought you news that national plush couch chain Ashley Furniture had launched a creative review. Today we heard a couple of things from our sources about that review: Ft. Lauderdales Zimmerman, which served as the companys AOR since 2009, is out At least one party remains standing: Advertisement Atlanta-based 22squared Since this isnt a ...
December 20th, 2015 , International Solidarity Movement, al Khalil team , Al Khalil, occupied Palestine Sunday, 20th December ...
... 25 Jan 2022. • 1 min read My Uncle The Witch Hunter. Rosemary Counter , Walrus , 10th January 2022 ... The Browsers Uri Bram talks to writer and critic Tomiwa Owolade about social and moral movements. ... Tomiwa Owolade On Social And Moral Movements. Uri Bram , The Browser , 22nd January 2022 ...
Donald Trump and the Know-Nothing movement , CBC Radio Loaded. The Sunday Magazine. Donald Trump and the Know-Nothing ... In his xenophobia, bombast and unashamedly unpolished style, Trump also echoes nativist movements from the 19th Century, such ... Sunday Edition26:36Donald Trump - the latest incarnation of the Know-Nothing movement? ... movement. Historian Eric Foner says Trumps anti-immigrant sentiment is a recurring strand of thought in America. ...
The Yellow Prose of Texas? Secession Movement Blooms in Fiction. .css-jiugt2-Dek-Dek{margin:0px;color:var(--secondary-text- ...
This is not really a secularist movement, then?. No, but none of the so-called secularist movements in the Muslim world, except ... The womens movement has more allies on the question of the sharia laws than it does explicitly on many other issues. Most of ... They have the most effective womens movement of any Muslim country that Ive been to. There are a lot of women activists, from ... Pakistans Movement Against Islamization. Joe Stork, Eric Hooglund In: 148 (September/October 1987) ...
The movement traces a path from the mud flats all the way to the Seattle-area restaurants owned by the Taylor family. Much like ... Taylor Shellfish is also expanding its use of GIS to better serve the "table" end of its tide-to-table movement: diners seeking ... Its what drove the first generation of Taylor shell fishers out onto the tidal beds, what fueled the tide-to-table movement ... Its a cornerstone principle for a company thats creating a new twist on the farm-to-table movement. ...
Womens movement mourns death of 3 Haitian leaders. By Jessica Ravitz, CNN. ... And their deaths have left members of the womens movement, Haitian and otherwise, reeling. ... Three leaders in the Haitian womens movement are confirmed dead, victims of quake ... a global movement to end violence against women and girls. ...
While DBS is not a cure for movement disorders, it can successfully treat symptoms by disrupting the abnormal patterns of brain ... A few weeks after surgery, the movement disorders specialist will use a hand-held programmer to test different electrodes and ... These may include any of the above symptoms, but also mood or behavior changes, involuntary movements, worsening of the ... Jankovic J. Treatment of Movement Disorders. Neurol Clin. 2020;38(2):xiii-xiv. Jankovic J, Tan EK. Parkinsons disease: ...
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The New Faces of BCs Labour Movement Sussanne Skidmore and Hermender Singh Kailley win top jobs at the BC Federation of Labour ... The son of Punjabi immigrants, Kailley went to high school in East Vancouver and became involved in the labour movement after a ... And theyre growing the labour movement. Theyre bringing un-unionized workers into unions. For me, thats a big priority," ... The anti-queer rights movement started in the US 50 years ago and has found new life in Canada. ...
Neo-Impressionism Art Movement - History, Artists and Artwork. Uncategorized / By Asja Nastasijevic, M.A. ... The pioneering painting style had a profound impact on Fauvism, an early 20th-century modern art movement that is often seen as ... Neo-impressionism was a movement in painting that appeared in France in the late nineteenth century as a reaction to the ... In terms of the subject matter, artists from the neo-impressionist movement, for the most part, continued to depict the kinds ...
Our films are available for classroom use or with various educational and screening rights - for use in schools, libraries, museums, film societies, non-profits, and other institutions. ...
Boudreault stresses the need to support the transsexual movement, whose members "still have a lot of fights to be fought to ... A spark in pride movement. Alumna photographer to be recognized for vital role in Sexgarage incident ...
1. Selfie Hashtag Movements - The #FeministsareUgly movement showcases the power of selfies in dispelling stereotypes and ... 3. Promoting Gender Equality - The #FeministsareUgly movement highlights the ongoing need to address gender inequality and ... 1. Social Media - The #FeministsareUgly movement demonstrates the influential role of social media platforms in shaping public ... 3. Womens Rights - The #FeministsareUgly movement highlights the ongoing need to prioritize and address gender equality in ...
Elegant theme for your Call to Action (CTA) forms.
Suffrage Movement. Suffrage Movement. Events Suffragettes Centennial Motorcycle Ride Announces Ten Starting Locations for 2020 ...
6 Key Principles for the School-Choice Movements Bold Brand Promise. By Guest Blogger - August 11, 2017 7 min read ... Which leads to a much bigger question: Is the school-choice movement in a holding pattern for a few years, or can we persevere ... Yet, if the school-choice movement is going to come out on the other side stronger, it is imperative to remember some key ... These are very tumultuous times in our movement, and for the country. Old friends have abandoned or modified their longtime ...
Trial Restores Movement to Paralyzed Mans Legs. Clinical trial participant Rob Summers is supported by hand rails and physical ... the 2-part treatment not only activated intact circuits in Summerss spinal cord but also put the power of movement under his ...
60s-era civil rights movement led by Dr. Martin Luther King? According to Randall Terry-the fiery pro-lifer who founded the ... What does the pro-life movement have in common with the ... Pro-Lifer Links Movement to MLK, Damns Slain Abortion Doc. * ... What does the pro-life movement have in common with the 60s-era civil rights movement led by Dr. Martin Luther King? ... "Tillers death poses a great problem for the pro-life movement because there are many political leaders who are going to be ...
  • Our comprehensive care team works together to identify movement disorders that are difficult to diagnose, including rare genetic diseases. (
  • Movement disorders are neurological conditions that involuntarily change the speed, presence, or coordination of movement. (
  • Our specialized Movement Disorders Center is located at Duke Neurology Morreene Road. (
  • Doctors typically diagnose movement disorders based on your symptoms, a complete medical history, and physical and neurological exams. (
  • The Duke Movement Disorders Center offers events to support and educate people with movement disorders and their care partners. (
  • Botulinum toxin ("Botox") injections can help reduce muscle contractions in movement disorders like dystonia. (
  • Our highly trained therapists specialize in treating people with movement disorders and are a highly integrated part of our movement disorder care team. (
  • Our speech-language pathologists help you adapt to changes in speech and communication, as well as swallowing difficulties that may accompany movement disorders. (
  • As designated Centers of Excellence for both Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, Duke Health provides the highest level of testing, diagnosis, and management services for people with these and other movement disorders. (
  • There are many different movement disorders. (
  • There's a great gathering of great minds and movement disorders. (
  • Just to highlight a few key things that came up: I was really excited to see some representation around nonmotor issues in movement disorders and specifically, in Parkinson's disease . (
  • Most other movement disorders manifest during wakefulness. (
  • PLMD may occur with other sleep disorders and is related to, but not synonymous with, restless legs syndrome (RLS), which is a movement disorder with sensory features that manifest during wakefulness. (
  • What's new concerning Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders? (
  • These clinical abstracts are courtesy of the organization WeMove (Worldwide Education and Awareness for Movement Disorders). (
  • WeMove produced these summaries on the basis of the data presented at the 8th International Congress of Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders, held in Rome, Italy, June 14-17, 2004. (
  • Results of search for 'su:{Movement disorders. (
  • Movement disorders / edited by C. David Marsden and Stanley Fahn. (
  • Movement disorders: Is the Feldenkrais method effective? (
  • They have the most effective women's movement of any Muslim country that I've been to. (
  • And their deaths have left members of the women's movement, Haitian and otherwise, reeling. (
  • This is achieved through movement control centers in the brain. (
  • Tremor and essential tremor, which cause involuntary trembling or shaking movements. (
  • Dystonia , in which involuntary contractions of your muscles cause twisting and repetitive movements. (
  • Providing the history of nonviolence as applied to the Selma Movement from the unique perspective of the strategist and nonviolent scientist James L. Bevel. (
  • International Solidarity Movement Nonviolence. (
  • A disruption in how these components communicate with each other can result in a movement disorder. (
  • The Duke movement disorder care team includes providers who specialize in a variety of evidence-supported interventions. (
  • We will be talking on behalf of Medscape about highlights from the recent Movement Disorder Congress in Copenhagen, Denmark. (
  • Periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) is unique in that the movements occur during sleep. (
  • The etiology of the primary form of periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) is uncertain. (
  • They also often occur in narcolepsy, sleep apnea syndrome, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD). (
  • Some patients with otherwise unexplained insomnia or excessive daytime sleepiness exhibit an elevated number of PLMS, a condition defined as periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD). (
  • The idiopathic form of periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) may be chronic. (
  • Picchietti et al suggested that the sleep disruption in periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) could contribute to the inattention and hyperactivity of some children who have ADHD . (
  • Dubbed a 'Vagina Warrior,' she was remembered Tuesday by her friend Eve Ensler, the award-winning playwright and force behind V-Day , a global movement to end violence against women and girls. (
  • Honourable chair, I deliver this statement in my capacity as UN Assistant Secretary-General and Coordinator of the Scaling Up Nutrition Movement, a global movement committed to bring people and sectors together to end malnutrition in all its forms. (
  • It causes tremors, slowness of movement, and trouble walking . (
  • [ 6 ] Voderholzer et al noted an increased incidence of periodic limb movements during sleep in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome . (
  • She lectured about the movement thru out the 80's and later retired from the lecture circuit. (
  • We performed a qualitative research, collecting and analysing narratives of professionals who took part in the Anti-Asylum Movement in Rio Grande do Sul, in the 80's and 90's. (
  • A (H5N1) viruses from Asia across Eurasia ( 8,9 ) demon- of avian diversity and abundance, intercontinental host strated how avian vectors can be involved in the distribu- movements, and genetic analyses, our results suggest that tion of avian and mammalian infections. (
  • 1985-11-12T22:06:00-05:00 Mr. Altman discussed the Sanctuary movement trial in Arizona and responded to callers' questions. (
  • Vertical vergence movements may also occur (ie, one eye moving upward or the other eye moving downward relative to the contralateral eye). (
  • Pyongyang, May 15 (KCNA) -- The national pride of the Koreans is a vitalizer which instills vigor into the ranks of the movement for the independent reunification of the country and braces up their patriotic zeal, says Rodong Sinmun in an article Monday. (
  • Working up the ladder in the army and civil service, Gulen supporters helped other members of the movement join their ranks. (
  • My analysis is, in 2015, there is a WhatsApp movement for finance in India. (
  • That's why it would be good to see more traditional Tory donors diverting a good portion of their generosity to conservative movement organisations. (
  • Businessmen began to donate money and the movement became a political player among conservative and religious groups in Turkey. (
  • Rather than repeating what's already in the description file, I recommend reading it to get clearer understanding of how I want this movement to work. (
  • A photo of the same subject taken while moving slowly will show a suspended movement, but it will be a much clearer image than the fast-moving photo. (
  • Movement' - we work to promote that shift in values from which major social change will emerge. (
  • Children will tinker with cameras to explore movement and to create a digital work of art. (
  • [8] When the civil rights movement took off in the 1960s, disability advocates joined it and the women's rights movements in order to promote equal treatment and challenge stereotypes. (
  • She became the family historian and became well versed in the history of the human and civil rights movement. (
  • Organized by W.E.B. Du Bois and others a year earlier in Erie Beach, Ontario, Canada, the Niagara Movement became the cornerstone of modern civil rights movement and was the forerunner of the NAACP. (
  • CDC has created this interim guidance for state and local health jurisdictions to use to monitor people within the United States (U.S.) potentially exposed to MERS-CoV and evaluate their intended travel, including the application of movement restrictions when indicated ( Table 1 ). (
  • Well, this doozy landed in the tips box last night and comes from someone who apparently works in digital advertising and wants start a movement centered around banners. (
  • You see, apparently to Kent the anti-vaccine movement is just like the oppressed people in Egypt who are currently rising up against an authoritarian ruler after 30 years of being under his thumb. (
  • Here, on August 15-19, 1906, on the Storer College campus, the Niagara Movement held their first open and public meeting on American soil. (
  • This book contains the rich history of a people struggling to attain freedom, justice and equality, which is most defined by the Selma, AL Right To Vote Movement. (
  • A brief look at the history of Gulen's movement helps explain why. (
  • This includes the nerve cells that help to control voluntary movement. (
  • The pride of the Korean nation is the source of the spirit of independence in the whole course of the reunification movement and the main factor of powerful impetus to the process of great national unity. (
  • A strong wall protecting the nation is built and an upswing is brought in the movement for national reunification when a full scope is given to the unswerving spirit of independence for solving all problems from the stand of giving priority to the nation and displaying Korean nation-first spirit. (
  • In 2010, prior to a national exam for entrance into government agencies, exam questions were reportedly communicated among Gulen movement members to ensure their passing the exam. (
  • I recently created a group on called the Evolve Movement - Chicago, and I encourage anyone reading to download the files I've attached to create their own group, in their own area (for if you want to give or receive goods and services through the gift economy), and on the social network of their choosing. (
  • Another great column by Fraser Nelson in this week's Spectator and this seems to be a good time to announce that The Spectator's Political Editor is the Writer of the Year according to the more than 8,000 people who voted in ConservativeHome's 2007/08 movement awards. (
  • Eric Foner , a Pulitzer Prize winner and one of the America's pre-eminent historians, looks back at the anti-immigrant political movements of the 19th Century and The Donald's connection to them. (
  • But analyst Cakir says that directing school graduates to choose positions selected by 'community guides' -- members of the Gulen movement who counsel younger members -- was not something any other political party was doing. (
  • Some research suggests that periodic limb movements with arousals are associated with subsequent nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT). (
  • While some of the original buildings from Storer College have passed with time, several remain that date to the time of the Niagara Movement meeting in 1909. (
  • The canal's instrumentation by using single file in reciprocation movement is gaining popularity due to the reduction of working time and less prone to fractures of the instruments. (
  • Compare the photos of fast movement with the photos of slow movement. (
  • Photos of the movement and the resolutions passed at Harpers Ferry. (
  • They explore the biology of how movement is produced, examining the structure of a muscle down to its microscopic force-generating motors. (
  • Sunday Edition 26:36 Donald Trump - the latest incarnation of the 'Know-Nothing' movement? (