Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Head Movements: Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Plant Viral Movement Proteins: Viral proteins that facilitate the movement of viruses between plant cells by means of PLASMODESMATA, channels that traverse the plant cell walls.Fetal Movement: Physical activity of the FETUS in utero. Gross or fine fetal body movement can be monitored by the mother, PALPATION, or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Saccades: An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Fixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.Eye Movement Measurements: Methods and procedures for recording EYE MOVEMENTS.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Pursuit, Smooth: Eye movements that are slow, continuous, and conjugate and occur when a fixed object is moved slowly.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Fingers: Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Proprioception: Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.Motion Perception: The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Electrooculography: Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.Sleep, REM: A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.Feedback, Sensory: A mechanism of communicating one's own sensory system information about a task, movement or skill.Volition: Voluntary activity without external compulsion.Kinesthesis: Sense of movement of a part of the body, such as movement of fingers, elbows, knees, limbs, or weights.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Wrist: The region of the upper limb between the metacarpus and the FOREARM.Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular: A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Dyskinesias: Abnormal involuntary movements which primarily affect the extremities, trunk, or jaw that occur as a manifestation of an underlying disease process. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of dyskinesia as a primary manifestation of disease may be referred to as dyskinesia syndromes (see MOVEMENT DISORDERS). Dyskinesias are also a relatively common manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Motion: Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Nocturnal Myoclonus Syndrome: Excessive periodic leg movements during sleep that cause micro-arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. This condition induces a state of relative sleep deprivation which manifests as excessive daytime hypersomnolence. The movements are characterized by repetitive contractions of the tibialis anterior muscle, extension of the toe, and intermittent flexion of the hip, knee and ankle. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p387)Acceleration: An increase in the rate of speed.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Elbow Joint: A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Robotics: The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Sleep Stages: Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Kinesis: Locomotor behavior not involving a steering reaction, but in which there may be a turning random in direction. It includes orthokinesis, the rate of movement and klinokinesis, the amount of turning, which are related to the intensity of stimulation.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ocular Motility Disorders: Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Hand Strength: Force exerted when gripping or grasping.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Dystonia: An attitude or posture due to the co-contraction of agonists and antagonist muscles in one region of the body. It most often affects the large axial muscles of the trunk and limb girdles. Conditions which feature persistent or recurrent episodes of dystonia as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as DYSTONIC DISORDERS. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p77)Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Elbow: Region of the body immediately surrounding and including the ELBOW JOINT.Nystagmus, Optokinetic: Normal nystagmus produced by looking at objects moving across the field of vision.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Torque: The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Paresis: A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.Vestibule, Labyrinth: An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Joints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Imagination: A new pattern of perceptual or ideational material derived from past experience.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Facial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Chorea: Involuntary, forcible, rapid, jerky movements that may be subtle or become confluent, markedly altering normal patterns of movement. Hypotonia and pendular reflexes are often associated. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of chorea as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as CHOREATIC DISORDERS. Chorea is also a frequent manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Exercise Movement Techniques: Methods or programs of physical activities which can be used to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Upper Extremity: The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Cytoplasmic Streaming: The movement of CYTOPLASM within a CELL. It serves as an internal transport system for moving essential substances throughout the cell, and in single-celled organisms, such as the AMOEBA, it is responsible for the movement (CELL MOVEMENT) of the entire cell.Plasmodesmata: Membrane-like channels of cytoplasm connecting adjacent plant cells. Plasmodesmata connect through pores in the CELL WALL and associate with the CYTOSKELETON machinery. They are essential for intercellular transport and communication.Gastrulation: A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.Thumb: The first digit on the radial side of the hand which in humans lies opposite the other four.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Periodicity: The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Nystagmus, Physiologic: Involuntary rhythmical movements of the eyes in the normal person. These can be naturally occurring as in end-position (end-point, end-stage, or deviational) nystagmus or induced by the optokinetic drum (NYSTAGMUS, OPTOKINETIC), caloric test, or a rotating chair.Gastrula: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced: Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Superior Colliculi: The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Macaca: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.Vision, Binocular: The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.Efferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.Motion Pictures as Topic: The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Tremor: Cyclical movement of a body part that can represent either a physiologic process or a manifestation of disease. Intention or action tremor, a common manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES, is aggravated by movement. In contrast, resting tremor is maximal when there is no attempt at voluntary movement, and occurs as a relatively frequent manifestation of PARKINSON DISEASE.Mastication: The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.Lip: Either of the two fleshy, full-blooded margins of the mouth.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Illusions: The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.Gravitation: Acceleration produced by the mutual attraction of two masses, and of magnitude inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two centers of mass. It is also the force imparted by the earth, moon, or a planet to an object near its surface. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Hemiplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Oculomotor Nerve: The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.Dystonic Disorders: Acquired and inherited conditions that feature DYSTONIA as a primary manifestation of disease. These disorders are generally divided into generalized dystonias (e.g., dystonia musculorum deformans) and focal dystonias (e.g., writer's cramp). They are also classified by patterns of inheritance and by age of onset.Touch: Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Abducens Nerve: The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.Reflex, Stretch: Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.Dyneins: A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Gait: Manner or style of walking.Pyramidal Tracts: Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Potexvirus: A genus of plant viruses in the family FLEXIVIRIDAE, that cause mosaic and ringspot symptoms. Transmission occurs mechanically. Potato virus X is the type species.Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Hypokinesia: Slow or diminished movement of body musculature. It may be associated with BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; prolonged inactivity due to illness; and other conditions.Blinking: Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Psychophysics: The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.Alveolar Process: The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.Apraxias: A group of cognitive disorders characterized by the inability to perform previously learned skills that cannot be attributed to deficits of motor or sensory function. The two major subtypes of this condition are ideomotor (see APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR) and ideational apraxia, which refers to loss of the ability to mentally formulate the processes involved with performing an action. For example, dressing apraxia may result from an inability to mentally formulate the act of placing clothes on the body. Apraxias are generally associated with lesions of the dominant PARIETAL LOBE and supramarginal gyrus. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp56-7)Muscle Spindles: Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.Eyelids: Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.Athetosis: A dyskinesia characterized by an inability to maintain the fingers, toes, tongue, or other body parts in a stable position, resulting in continuous slow, sinusoidal, and flowing involuntary movements. This condition is frequently accompanied by CHOREA, where it is referred to as choreoathetosis. Athetosis may occur as a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES or DRUG TOXICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p76)Myoclonus: Involuntary shock-like contractions, irregular in rhythm and amplitude, followed by relaxation, of a muscle or a group of muscles. This condition may be a feature of some CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; (e.g., EPILEPSY, MYOCLONIC). Nocturnal myoclonus is the principal feature of the NOCTURNAL MYOCLONUS SYNDROME. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp102-3).Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Shoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Wrist Joint: The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Octopodiformes: A superorder in the class CEPHALOPODA, consisting of the orders Octopoda (octopus) with over 200 species and Vampyromorpha with a single species. The latter is a phylogenetic relic but holds the key to the origins of Octopoda.Periodontal Ligament: The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).Levodopa: The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.Cerebellar Diseases: Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Reticular Formation: A region extending from the PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA through the MESENCEPHALON, characterized by a diversity of neurons of various sizes and shapes, arranged in different aggregations and enmeshed in a complicated fiber network.Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Coriolis Force: The apparent deflection (Coriolis acceleration) of a body in motion with respect to the earth, as seen by an observer on the earth, attributed to a fictitious force (Coriolis force) but actually caused by the rotation of the earth. In a medical context it refers to the physiological effects (nausea, vertigo, dizziness, etc.) felt by a person moving radially in a rotating system, as a rotating space station. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Brain-Computer Interfaces: Instrumentation consisting of hardware and software that communicates with the BRAIN. The hardware component of the interface records brain signals, while the software component analyzes the signals and converts them into a command that controls a device or sends a feedback signal to the brain.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Torso: The central part of the body to which the neck and limbs are attached.Cucumovirus: A genus of plant viruses of the family BROMOVIRIDAE, which infect cucurbits and solanaceous plants. Transmission occurs via aphids in a non-persistent manner, and also via seeds. The type species Cucumber mosaic virus, a CUCUMOVIRUS, should not be confused with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, a TOBAMOVIRUS.Restraint, Physical: Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing: A technique that induces the processing of disturbing memories and experiences, by stimulating neural mechanisms that are similar to those activated during REM sleep. The technique consists of eye movements following side-to-side movements of the index and middle fingers, or the alternate tapping of the hands on the knees. This procedure triggers the processing of information, thus facilitating the connection of neural networks.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Deglutition: The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.Chenopodium quinoa: A species of the Chenopodium genus which is the source of edible seed called quinoa. It contains makisterone A and other STEROIDS, some having ECDYSTEROID activity on insects.HandwritingProtein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Reading
Signal-, set- and movement-related activity in the human brain: an event-related fMRI study. (1/9454)Electrophysiological studies on monkeys have been able to distinguish sensory and motor signals close in time by pseudorandomly delaying the cue that instructs the movement from the stimulus that triggers the movement. We have used a similar experimental design in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), scanning subjects while they performed a visuomotor conditional task with instructed delays. One of four shapes was presented briefly. Two shapes instructed the subjects to flex the index finger; the other two shapes coded the flexion of the middle finger. The subjects were told to perform the movement after a tone. We have exploited a novel use of event-related fMRI. By systematically varying the interval between the visual and acoustic stimuli, it has been possible to estimate the significance of the evoked haemodynamic response (EHR) to each of the stimuli, despite their temporal proximity in relation to the time constant of the EHR. Furthermore, by varying the phase between events and image acquisition, we have been able to achieve high temporal resolution while scanning the whole brain. We dissociated sensory and motor components of the sensorimotor transformations elicited by the task, and assessed sustained activity during the instructed delays. In calcarine and occipitotemporal cortex, the responses were exclusively associated with the visual instruction cues. In temporal auditory cortex and in primary motor cortex, they were exclusively associated with the auditory trigger stimulus. In ventral prefrontal cortex there were movement-related responses preceded by preparatory activity and by signal-related activity. Finally, responses associated with the instruction cue and with sustained activity during the delay period were observed in the dorsal premotor cortex and in the dorsal posterior parietal cortex. Where the association between a visual cue and the appropriate movement is arbitrary, the underlying visuomotor transformations are not achieved exclusively through frontoparietal interactions. Rather, these processes seem to rely on the ventral visual stream, the ventral prefrontal cortex and the anterior part of the dorsal premotor cortex. (+info)
Cerebellar Purkinje cell simple spike discharge encodes movement velocity in primates during visuomotor arm tracking. (2/9454)Pathophysiological, lesion, and electrophysiological studies suggest that the cerebellar cortex is important for controlling the direction and speed of movement. The relationship of cerebellar Purkinje cell discharge to the control of arm movement parameters, however, remains unclear. The goal of this study was to examine how movement direction and speed and their interaction-velocity-modulate Purkinje cell simple spike discharge in an arm movement task in which direction and speed were independently controlled. The simple spike discharge of 154 Purkinje cells was recorded in two monkeys during the performance of two visuomotor tasks that required the animals to track targets that moved in one of eight directions and at one of four speeds. Single-parameter regression analyses revealed that a large proportion of cells had discharge modulation related to movement direction and speed. Most cells with significant directional tuning, however, were modulated at one speed, and most cells with speed-related discharge were modulated along one direction; this suggested that the patterns of simple spike discharge were not adequately described by single-parameter models. Therefore, a regression surface was fitted to the data, which showed that the discharge could be tuned to specific direction-speed combinations (preferred velocities). The overall variability in simple spike discharge was well described by the surface model, and the velocities corresponding to maximal and minimal discharge rates were distributed uniformly throughout the workspace. Simple spike discharge therefore appears to integrate information about both the direction and speed of arm movements, thereby encoding movement velocity. (+info)
Complete compensation in skilled reaching success with associated impairments in limb synergies, after dorsal column lesion in the rat. (3/9454)Each of the dorsal columns of the rat spinal cord conveys primary sensory information, by way of the medullary dorsal column nucleus, to the ventrobasal thalamus on the contralateral side; thus the dorsal columns are an important source of neural input to the sensorimotor cortex. Damage to the dorsal columns causes impairments in synergistic proximal or whole-body movements in cats and distal limb impairments in primates, particularly in multiarticulated finger movements and tactile foviation while handling objects, but the behavioral effects of afferent fiber lesions in the dorsal columns of rodents have not been described. Female Long-Evans rats were trained to reach with a forelimb for food pellets and subsequently received lesions of the dorsomedial spinal cord at the C2 level, ipsilateral to their preferred limb. Reaching success completely recovered within a few days of dorsal column lesion. Nevertheless, a detailed analysis of high-speed video recordings revealed that rotatory limb movements (aiming, pronation, supination, etc.) were irreversibly impaired. Compensation was achieved with whole-body and alternate limb movements. These results indicate the following: (1) in the absence of the dorsal columns, other sensorimotor pathways support endpoint success in reaching; (2) sensory input conveyed by the dorsal columns is important for both proximal and distal limb movements used for skilled reaching; and (3) detailed behavioral analyses in addition to endpoint measures are necessary to completely describe the effects of dorsal column lesions. (+info)
Mechanical stimulation of starfish sperm flagella. (4/9454)1. The responses of starfish sperm flagella to mechanical stimulation with a microneedle were analysed. Flagellar movement was recorded by high-speed microcinematography and by stroboscopic observation. 2. The amplitude of the bending wave of a flagellum was restricted over its entire length when the microneedle was brought near to the flagellum at its proximal region. Beyond the restricted part, the amplitude of the wave, and the bend angle, became smaller than those of a normally beating flagellum, while the curvature was practically unchanged. 3. When the tip of the microneedle was in contact with the flagellum, propagation of the bending wave beyond the microneedle was inhibited. The part of the flagellum between the base and the microneedle continued beating in some cases and stopped beating in other cases. The flagellum beyond the arrested part stopped beating and remained straight. When the microneedle was removed, the bending wave which existed in the part of the flagellum proximal to the microneedle, or the wave which was passively formed de novo at the time of the removal of the microneedle, propagated over the arrested part towards the tip. 4. A flagellum amputated by a microneedle in a medium containing ATP continued beating with a small amplitude, small curvature, small bend angle and low frequency. When the amputated flagellum was passively bent by a microneedle at the region near the point of amputation, this bend propagated towards the tip with a constant bend angle. 5. The beating frequency of the flagellum could be modulated by the application of a rhythmic external force generated by vibrating a microneedle near the flagellum. The beating was completely synchronized with vibration of the microneedle in the frequency range from 23 Hz to 43 Hz. (+info)
Interactions of membrane potential and cations in regulation of ciliary activity in Paramecium. (5/9454)Ciliary activity in Paramecium was investigated in different external solutions using techniques of voltage clamp and high frequency cinematography. An increase in the external concentration of K, Ca or Mg ions decreased the resting potential. It had no effect on ciliary activity. When the membrane potential was fixed, an increase in external Ca or Mg and, to a lesser extent, an increase in K concentration, raised the frequency of normal beating or decreased the frequency of reversed beating of the cilia. Similar effects resulted from membrane hyperpolarization with constant ionic conditions. Increase in concentration of Ca, but not of Mg or K, enhanced hyperpolarization-induced augmentation of ciliary frequency. Increase in Ca concentration also specifically augmented the delayed increase in inward current during rapid hyperpolarizing clamp. The results support the view that [Ca]i regulates the frequency and direction of ciliary beating. It is suggested that the insensitivity of the ciliary motor system to elevations of the external concentrations of ions results from compensation of their effects on [Ca]i. Depolarization itself appears to increase [Ca]i while elevation of the external ion concentrations at a fixed membrane potential appears to decrease [Ca]i. (+info)
Myosin II-independent F-actin flow contributes to cell locomotion in dictyostelium. (6/9454)While the treadmilling and retrograde flow of F-actin are believed to be responsible for the protrusion of leading edges, little is known about the mechanism that brings the posterior cell body forward. To elucidate the mechanism for global cell locomotion, we examined the organizational changes of filamentous (F-) actin in live Dictyostelium discoideum. We labeled F-actin with a trace amount of fluorescent phalloidin and analyzed its dynamics in nearly two-dimensional cells by using a sensitive, high-resolution charge-coupled device. We optically resolved a cyclic mode of tightening and loosening of fibrous cortical F-actin and quantitated its flow by measuring temporal and spatial intensity changes. The rate of F-actin flow was evaluated with respect to migration velocity and morphometric changes. In migrating monopodial cells, the cortical F-actin encircling the posterior cell body gradually accumulated into the tail end at a speed of 0.35 microm/minute. We show qualitatively and quantitatively that the F-actin flow is closely associated with cell migration. Similarly, in dividing cells, the cortical F-actin accumulated into the cleavage furrow. Although five times slower than the wild type, the F-actin also flows rearward in migrating mhcA- cells demonstrating that myosin II ('conventional' myosin) is not absolutely required for the observed dynamics of F-actin. Yet consistent with the reported transportation of ConA-beads, the direction of observed F-actin flow in Dictyostelium is conceptually opposite from a barbed-end binding to the plasma membrane. This study suggests that the posterior end of the cell has a unique motif that tugs the cortical actin layer rearward by means of a mechanism independent from myosin II; this mechanism may be also involved in cleavage furrow formation. (+info)
MST neuronal responses to heading direction during pursuit eye movements. (7/9454)As you move through the environment, you see a radial pattern of visual motion with a focus of expansion (FOE) that indicates your heading direction. When self-movement is combined with smooth pursuit eye movements, the turning of the eye distorts the retinal image of the FOE but somehow you still can perceive heading. We studied neurons in the medial superior temporal area (MST) of monkey visual cortex, recording responses to FOE stimuli presented during fixation and smooth pursuit eye movements. Almost all neurons showed significant changes in their FOE selective responses during pursuit eye movements. However, the vector average of all the neuronal responses indicated the direction of the FOE during both fixation and pursuit. Furthermore, the amplitude of the net vector increased with increasing FOE eccentricity. We conclude that neuronal population encoding in MST might contribute to pursuit-tolerant heading perception. (+info)
Microtubule-dependent plus- and minus end-directed motilities are competing processes for nuclear targeting of adenovirus. (8/9454)Adenovirus (Ad) enters target cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis, escapes to the cytosol, and then delivers its DNA genome into the nucleus. Here we analyzed the trafficking of fluorophore-tagged viruses in HeLa and TC7 cells by time-lapse microscopy. Our results show that native or taxol-stabilized microtubules (MTs) support alternating minus- and plus end-directed movements of cytosolic virus with elementary speeds up to 2.6 micrometer/s. No directed movement was observed in nocodazole-treated cells. Switching between plus- and minus end-directed elementary speeds at frequencies up to 1 Hz was observed in the periphery and near the MT organizing center (MTOC) after recovery from nocodazole treatment. MT-dependent motilities allowed virus accumulation near the MTOC at population speeds of 1-10 micrometer/min, depending on the cell type. Overexpression of p50/dynamitin, which is known to affect dynein-dependent minus end-directed vesicular transport, significantly reduced the extent and the frequency of minus end-directed migration of cytosolic virus, and increased the frequency, but not the extent of plus end-directed motility. The data imply that a single cytosolic Ad particle engages with two types of MT-dependent motor activities, the minus end- directed cytoplasmic dynein and an unknown plus end- directed activity. (+info)
Posture Evaluations, Part 6: Blending Static Posture and Functional Movement Analysis
The overwhelming majority genuinely want people to get better.. Theres also the business side, of course, and Im just like you: I need new patients and I want them to stick around for the care and treatment they need. Posture analysis, movement analysis and anti-aging strategies are methods I focus on in my "rehab" practice to create long-term relationships. As we walk this pathway and journey of chiropractic - engaging the study of posture - we cross the broad terrain of static posture into functional movements. Using functional movement analysis, I see more clearly who patients are and how their individual range of flexibility and strength within a single body segment is connected to the greater whole.. Functional Movement Analysis. In case you are not aware, we have a compass in the functional movement analysis practice, a guidance system to identify, rate and rank movement limitations and asymmetries. It is called the Functional Movement Screen (FMS). [Dr. Robert George reviewed the FMS in ...
Movement Generation with Circuits of Spiking Neurons - CaltechAUTHORS
How can complex movements that take hundreds of milliseconds be generated by stereotypical neural microcircuits consisting of spiking neurons with a much faster dynamics? We show that linear readouts from generic neural microcircuit models can be trained to generate basic arm movements. Such movement generation is independent of the arm model used and the type of feedback that the circuit receives. We demonstrate this by considering two different models of a two-jointed arm, a standard model from robotics and a standard model from biology, that each generates different kinds of feedback. Feedback that arrives with biologically realistic delays of 50 to 280 ms turns out to give rise to the best performance. If a feedback with such desirable delay is not available, the neural microcircuit model also achieves good performance if it uses internally generated estimates of such feedback. Existing methods for movement generation in robotics that take the particular dynamics of sensors and actuators ...
Assessment of movement quality in robot- assisted upper limb rehabilitation after stroke: a review | Journal of...
Studies of stroke patients undergoing robot-assisted rehabilitation have revealed various kinematic parameters describing movement quality of the upper limb. However, due to the different level of stroke impairment and different assessment criteria and interventions, the evaluation of the effectiveness of rehabilitation program is undermined. This paper presents a systematic review of kinematic assessments of movement quality of the upper limb and identifies the suitable parameters describing impairments in stroke patients. A total of 41 different clinical and pilot studies on different phases of stroke recovery utilizing kinematic parameters are evaluated. Kinematic parameters describing movement accuracy are mostly reported for chronic patients with statistically significant outcomes and correlate strongly with clinical assessments. Meanwhile, parameters describing feed-forward sensorimotor control are the most frequently reported in studies on sub-acute patients with significant outcomes albeit
Stability and motor adaptation in human arm movements | [email protected]
In control, stability captures the reproducibility of motions and the robustness to environmental and internal perturbations. This paper examines how stability can be evaluated in human movements, and possible mechanisms by which humans ensure stability. First, a measure of stability is introduced, which is simple to apply to human movements and corresponds to Lyapunov exponents. Its application to real data shows that it is able to distinguish effectively between stable and unstable dynamics. A computational model is then used to investigate stability in human arm movements, which takes into account motor output variability and computes the force to perform a task according to an inverse dynamics model. Simulation results suggest that even a large time delay does not affect movement stability as long as the reflex feedback is small relative to muscle elasticity. Simulations are also used to demonstrate that existing learning schemes, using a monotonic antisymmetric update law, cannot compensate ...
Feature interactions enable decoding of sensorimotor transformations for goal-directed movement | www.icb.ucsb.edu
Neurophysiology and neuroimaging evidence shows that the brain represents multiple environmental and body-related features to compute transformations from sensory input to motor output. However, it is unclear how these features interact during goal-directed movement. To investigate this issue, we examined the representations of sensory and motor features of human hand movements within the left-hemisphere motor network. In a rapid event-related fMRI design, we measured cortical activity as participants performed right-handed movements at the wrist, with either of two postures and two amplitudes, to move a cursor to targets at different locations. Using a multivoxel analysis technique with rigorous generalization tests, we reliably distinguished representations of task-related features (primarily target location, movement direction, and posture) in multiple regions. In particular, we identified an interaction between target location and movement direction in the superior parietal lobule, which may ...
FAST INdiCATE Trial protocol. Clinical efficacy of functional strength training for upper limb motor recovery early after...
RATIONALE: Functional strength training in addition to conventional physical therapy could enhance upper limb recovery early after stroke more than movement performance therapy plus conventional physical therapy. AIMS: To determine (a) the relative clinical efficacy of conventional physical therapy combined with functional strength training and conventional physical therapy combined with movement performance therapy for upper limb recovery; (b) the neural correlates of response to conventional physical therapy combined with functional strength training and conventional physical therapy combined with movement performance therapy; (c) whether any one or combination of baseline measures predict motor improvement in response to conventional physical therapy combined with functional strength training or conventional physical therapy combined with movement performance therapy. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled, observer-blind trial. STUDY: The sample will consist of 288 participants with upper limb paresis
Between- and within-subject variance of motor variability metrics in females performing repetitive upper-extremity precision...
Kinematic motor variability is extensively studied in occupational, clinical and sports biomechanics, but the consistency of most motor variability metrics have never been reported. In this study, fourteen subjects performed a repetitive pipetting task on three separate days. Movements of hand, arm and pipette tip were recorded in 3D and used to compute shoulder elevation, elbow flexion and shoulder-arm coordination angles, as well as pipette-tip endpoint precision. Cycle-to-cycle motor variability was quantified using linear dispersion measures of standard kinematics properties such as peak velocity, range of motion, and inter-segmental relative phase. Between- and within-subject consistencies of these variability metrics were quantified by variance components estimated using a nested random effects model. For most metrics, the variance between subjects was larger than that between days and cycles. Entering the variance components in statistical power equations showed that for most metrics, a ...
brain-machine interface (bmi) - NCCR Robotics
Early detection of movement intention could possibly minimize the delays in the activation of neuroprosthetic devices. As yet, single trial analysis using non-invasive approaches for understanding such movement preparation remains a challenging task. We studied the feasibility of predicting movement directions in self-paced upper limb center-out reaching tasks, i.e., spontaneous movements executed without an external cue that can better reflect natural motor behavior in humans. We reported results of non-invasive electroencephalography (EEG) recorded from mild stroke patients and able-bodied participants. Previous studies have shown that low frequency EEG oscillations are modulated by the intent to move and therefore, can be decoded prior to the movement execution. Motivated by these results, we investigated whether slow cortical potentials (SCPs) preceding movement onset can be used to classify reaching directions and evaluated the performance using 5-fold cross-validation. For able-bodied ...
Development of Movement Coordination in Children : Geert J. P. Savelsbergh : 9780415247375
Individual-to-Resource Landscape Interaction St...
Taking in sufficient quantities of nutrients is vital for all living beings and in doing so, individuals interact with the local resource environment. Here, we focus explicitly on the interactions between feeding individuals and the resource landscape. In particular, we are interested in the emergent movement dynamics resulting from these interactions. We present an individual-based simulation model for the movement of populations in a resource landscape that allows us to vary the strength of the interactions mentioned above. The key assumption and novelty of our model is that individuals can cause the release of additional nutrients, as well as consuming them. Our model produces clear predictions. For example, we expect more tortuous individual movement paths and higher levels of aggregation in populations occupying homogeneous environments where individual movement makes more nutrients available. We also show how observed movement dynamics could change when local nutrient sources are depleted or when
FMS | Dr. Jeffrey Tucker
Description. FMS LEVEL 1 OUTLINE. CORE TRAINING SYSTEMS. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION. The Core Training System is the product of years of research and innovation.. This System develops exercise programs based on individual movement. patterns. It is equally effective in rehabilitation as well as conditioning because it. targets the weak link. The System is made up of:. ? Functional Movement Screen. ? Core Training. ? Reactive Neuromuscular Training.. Specifically, the Functional Movement Screen is a grading system created to. assess and document functional movement patterns. By assessing these. patterns, functional limitations and asymmetries are readily identified. Basic. movement pattern limitations can reduce the effects of functional training and. distort proprioception. The goal of this workshop is to introduce you and your. staff to the benefits of utilizing this orthopedic screening process since functional. movement patterns are the base for Core Training. At the heart of the system are. the ...
Selective Functional Movement Assessment | Pura Vida Therapy
Classification of stand-to-sit and sit-to-stand movement from low frequency EEG with locality preserving dimensionality...
TY - GEN. T1 - Classification of stand-to-sit and sit-to-stand movement from low frequency EEG with locality preserving dimensionality reduction. AU - Bulea, Thomas C.. AU - Prasad, Saurabh. AU - Kilicarslan, Atilla. AU - Contreras-Vidal, Jose L.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Recent studies have demonstrated decoding of lower extremity limb kinematics from noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG), showing feasibility for development of an EEG-based brain-machine interface (BMI) to restore mobility following paralysis. Here, we present a new technique that preserves the statistical richness of EEG data to classify movement state from time-embedded low frequency EEG signals. We tested this new classifier, using cross-validation procedures, during sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit activity in 10 subjects and found decoding accuracy of greater than 95% on average. These results suggest that this classification technique could be used in a BMI system that, when combined with a robotic exoskeleton, can ...
EMG activity and kinematics of human cycling movements at different constant velocities<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - EMG activity and kinematics of human cycling movements at different constant velocities. AU - Suzuki, Shuji. AU - Watanabe, Shiroh. AU - Homma, Saburo. PY - 1982/5/27. Y1 - 1982/5/27. N2 - Surface electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded from the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior in the human lower extremity while subjects performed bicycling movements over a range of constant pedalling velocities. Kinematics of knee and hip cyclical movements were analyzed from 16 mm film. The reciprocal pattern of activation in agonist and antagonist muscles and timing of EMG initiation relative to knee joint were studied. Reciprocal activation of rectus femoris and biceps femoris muscles was generally observed to occur during the mid-extension or mid-flexion phase of knee movements. This timing of activation pattern coincided well the period of peak angular velocity and zero angular acceleration. As pedalling speeds approached maximum, ...
Multiple Sclerosis Center - HealthCare Journey for Multiple Sclerosis
Yes, we work with the Adapt Functional Movement Center in Carlsbad, California who provides a host of virtual therapy options. For 1-on-1 sessions, their team uses a practice called Functional Movement Therapy, which is specifically designed to maintain nervous system activity in order to preserve and strengthen function. The team at Adapt uses the neurodevelopmental sequence in their Functional Movement Therapy, which is the normal movement progression that infants follow as they grow and develop the abilities to roll, crawl, stand, and walk. That same sequence provides direction in the rehabilitation field by giving the team a logical series of postures and movement strategies to follow in order to re-educate the nervous system. Adapt works heavily with MS patients as well as a host of other neurological and neurodegenerative conditions and offers programs onsite at their center in California, as well as virtually over Zoom. They also conduct a series of live classes and activities on a weekly ...
Prosthetic Foot And Ankle Have Amazingly Natural Movement | Hackaday
The natural movement and functional power of the ankle and foot during a step , while appearing fairly simple, are amazingly difficult to replicate with a prosthetic. Usually it requires a fast and fairly powerful motor to provide the forward push and then whip that foot up as we pull our leg forward. However, recent projects have managed to do some amazing jobs at achieving this difficult task. Belgiums Vrije Universiteit Brussel has released the video (below the break) of the "AMP-Foot 2.0" that pulls this off very well.. ...
American Birth Control Movement | Jewish Women's Archive
Continuous Movement by Monophonix | AudioJungle
Dove Flexible Hold Aerosol Hairspray with Natural Movement by Dove, Hairspray + Finishing Spray Review - More Reviews (Page 3)
Sports injury - Wikipedia
One technique used in the process of preseason screening is the functional movement screen (FMS). Functional movement screening is an assessment used to evaluate movement patterns and asymmetries, which can provide insight into mechanical restrictions and potential risk for injury. Functional movement screening contains seven fundamental movement patterns that require a balance of both mobility and stability. These fundamental movement patterns provide an observable performance of basic locomotor, manipulative, and stabilizing movements. The tests place the individual athlete in extreme positions where weaknesses and imbalances become clear if proper stability and mobility is not functioning correctly. The seven fundamental movement patterns are a deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge, shoulder mobility, active straight-leg raise, trunk stability push-up, and rotary stability. For example, the deep squat is a test that challenges total body mechanics. It is used to gauge bilateral, ...
subject:(International Obesity Task Force) - OATD
The relation between movement speed and accuracy is one of the most robust phenomena in human movement performance. The essence of the speed-accuracy relation is that with an increase in movement speed there is concomitant decrease in movement accuracy. Different descriptions and explanations of the speed-accuracy relation have been proposed for characterizing time matching and time minimization movement tasks. Nevertheless, these accounts have emphasized the spatial dimension of the phenomenon providing a limited assessment given that human movement takes place in both space and time. It follows that there is a potential for both spatial error and temporal error in motor task. Hancock and Newell (1985) proposed a space-time framework of the movement speed-accuracy relation that is based on the space-time principle that the spatial component of movement is always measured with respect to time and that the temporal component of movement is always measured with respect to space (Minkowski, 1908). ...
Startle evokes nearly identical movements in multi-jointed, two-dimensional reaching tasks<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Startle evokes nearly identical movements in multi-jointed, two-dimensional reaching tasks. AU - Ossanna, Meilin R.. AU - Zong, Xi. AU - Ravichandran, Vengateswaran J.. AU - Honeycutt, Claire. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - StartReact is the ability of the startle reflex to involuntarily release a planned movement in the presence of a loud acoustic stimulus resulting in muscle activity patterns and kinematics that are tightly regulated and scaled with the intended action. Previous studies demonstrated startReacts robustness during simple single-joint reaching tasks and found no difference between startReact and voluntary movements for movement kinematics and muscle activation patterns. However, startReact has not been evaluated during multi-joint reaching movements with multiple degrees of freedom. It is unclear if startReact would evoke accurate and precise multi-joint reaching movements in an unrestricted workspace. Furthermore, if tested more rigorously, multi-joint ...
Gwangju Student Independence Movement - Wikipedia
The first student movement arisen on November 3, 1929, developed into a nationwide anti-Japanese movement, and lasted about 5 months. Focusing on students, about 54,000 people engaged in this movement. It spread and affected the rally and protests abroad such as in Manchuria, Kando, Kirn, Shanghai, Beijing of China, Japan and USA. After this, the spirit of the student independence movement succeeded to the secret society movement, resistance movement about oppressive draft, the grain exploitation in 1940s, and the second student independence movement in May, 1943, etc. Like this, the Gwangju student independence movement was the opportunity which identified that the students was the inner circle members of the independence movement and the trigger of the national liberation enhancement in the stagnant atmosphere of labor/peasant movement at the end of the 1920s. For these reasons the Gwangju independence movement is evaluated one of the representative racial movements equivalent to the March 1st ...
[email protected]: On the neuronal processing of movement dynamics
The thesis collects five essays on how neurons in four motor areas of the frontal lobe process the movement dynamics. In the experiments described, monkeys executed visually instructed reaching movements while holding the handle of a robotic arm. Motors attached to the robot allowed turning on and off perturbing forces that deviated the hand of the monkeys. After some exposure, the monkeys adapted to the perturbation. The experiments were designed to dissociate the activity related to the desired kinematics from that related to the dynamics. Furthermore, the experiments dissociated the activity related to motor performance (desired kinematics and dynamics) from that related to motor learning (learning a new dynamics). The thesis describes the following results. 1. During motor execution, the movement dynamics is processed across multiple areas. Specifically, dynamics-related activity is found in all areas projecting to the spinal cord under study, namely the primary motor cortex (M1), ...
Movement Intention After Parietal Cortex Stimulation in Humans | Science
Where in the brain are our intentions formed and how do we become aware of these intentions? Desmurget et al. (p. 811; see the Perspective by Haggard) investigated the effect of direct cortical stimulation of parietal and premotor regions in patients undergoing brain surgery for tumor removal. Stimulation of the parietal lobe provoked the conscious experience of wanting to move the upper limb, lips, or tongue without any concomitant motor activity. When stimulation intensity was increased, patients believed that they had actually moved or talked, but again no muscle activity was detected. When, however, the premotor region of the frontal lobes was stimulated, real complex multijoint movements were induced. However, patients did not experience these movements as produced by a conscious internal act of will. Indeed, they were not even aware that they had moved. Increasing stimulation intensity increased the amplitude or complexity of the movement but never made it reach consciousness. ...
Functional Movement and the Squat: Why It's Imperative as We Age
Selective Functional Movement Assessment - Cryotherapy Indianapolis
Anomalous diffusion on the servosphere: A potential tool for detecting inherent organismal movement patterns
Tracking animal movements such as walking is an essential task for understanding how and why animals move in an environment and respond to external stimuli. Different methods that implemented image analysis and a data logger such as GPS have been used in laboratory experiments and in field studies, respectively. Recently, animal movement patterns without stimuli have attracted an increasing attention in search for common innate characteristics underlying all of their movements. However, it is difficult to track the movements in a vast and homogeneous environment without stimuli because of space constraints in laboratories or environmental heterogeneity in the field, hindering our understanding of inherent movement patterns. Here, we applied an omnidirectional treadmill mechanism, or a servosphere, as a tool for tracking two-dimensional movements of small animals that can provide both a homogenous environment and a virtual infinite space for walking. To validate the use of our tracking system for
I have been having some problems with my eye, rapid movements, blurred vision, etc., and was wondering if it was a sign
Structure of joint variability in bimanual pointing tasks<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structure of joint variability in bimanual pointing tasks. AU - Domkin, Dmitry. AU - Laczko, Jozsef. AU - Jaric, Slobodan. AU - Johansson, Hakan. AU - Latash, Mark. PY - 2002/5/23. Y1 - 2002/5/23. N2 - Changes in the structure of motor variability during practicing a bimanual pointing task were investigated using the framework of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis. The subjects performed fast and accurate planar movements with both arms, one moving the pointer and the other moving the target. The UCM hypothesis predicts that joint kinematic variability will be structured to selectively stabilize important task variables. This prediction was tested with respect to selective stabilization of the trajectory of the endpoint of each arm (unimanual control hypotheses) and with respect to selective stabilization of the timecourse of the vectorial distance between the target and the pointer tip (bimanual control hypothesis). Components of joint position variance not affecting and ...
NeuroDojo: January 2012
Higham and Russell argue that the geckos tail the faster movements are more interesting. They think that these flips are not controlled by a set of neurons in the spinal cord that out a rhythm. They marshal a few pieces of evidence for their hypothesis. First, they note that the flips only occur for a couple of minutes after the tails been removed, whereas the slow movements continue for up to half an hour. Second, the flips are extremely variable compared to the slow movements, even after you take into account the fact that theyre shorter. Third, when a flip occurs, the muscles along the tail are active simultaneously, compared to the slow movements, where the muscles along the tail are activated one after another ...
Excessive saliva, palpitations, depression, slow movement of hands. Multivitamin Injection helpful to improve damaged nerve?
USC Robotics Research Labs
This work presents a control and learning architecture for humanoid robots designed for acquiring movement skills in the context of imitation learning. Multiple levels of movement abstraction occur across the hierarchical structure of the architecture, finally leading to the representation of movement sequences within a probabilistic framework. As its substrate, the framework uses the notion of visuo-motor primitives, modules capable of recognizing as well as executing similar movements. This notion is heavily motivated by the neuroscience evidence for motor primitives and mirror neurons. Experimental results from an implementation of the architecture are presented involving learning and representation of demonstrated movement sequences from synthetic as well as real human movement data. ...
Test-Retest Reliability Between Free Weight and Machine-Based Movement Velocities
Miller, RM, Freitas, EDS, Heishman, AD, Koziol, KJ, Galletti, BAR, Kaur, J, and Bemben, MG. Test-retest reliability between free weight and machine-based movement velocities. J Strength Cond Res 34(2): 440-444, 2020-Several devices are available to measure muscular power through velocity measurement, including the Tendo FitroDyne. The ability for such devices to produce consistent resu...
Rapid movements with reversals in direction | SpringerLink
Patente US20090037004 - Method and System to Control Movement of a Body for Nano-Scale Manufacturing - Google Patentes
The present invention is directed towards a method and system of controlling movement of a body coupled to an actuation system that features translating movement of the body in a plane extending by imparting angular motion in the actuation system with respect to two spaced-apart axes. Specifically, rotational motion is generated in two spaced-apart planes, one of which extends parallel to the plane in which the body translates. This facilitates proper orientation of the body with respect to a surface spaced-apart therefrom.
MovNat Combatives - MovNat: Natural Movement Fitness
Q: How does MovNat training prepare me for Combatives?. Generally speaking, good movers make great fighters. Whereas movement abilities are not the only aspect that matters in your ability to defend yourself - situational awareness and raw aggressiveness are actually more important - a better mover learns faster, moves faster, more accurately, more technically, more adaptively. The mental aspect of MovNat practice also supports alertness and responsiveness which are mental qualities essential to defending oneself. A MovNatter is more mindful, knows how to breathe and move in so many diverse ways. Thats definitely a great start and advantage.. Q: How strong do I need to be? How do I need to train ahead of time to get the most out of it?. The short answer is that you dont need any training or to have achieved a certain fitness level to participate in a MovNat Combatives event. One of the reasons for this is because a lot of the strength you need in self-defense is mental. Of course, physical ...
Progress in Movement Analysis
Movement analysis is a theme which has attracted increasing attention in recent years. We are delighted to announce a workshop which seeks to bring together methodological and domain specialists to discuss advances in movement analysis. The workshop will focus heavily on discussion, and intending participants should read the call for participation and submit a 1500 word short paper by 8th September 2012.. A special issue, with the same aims and scope as the workshop, will be published in Computers, Environment and Urban Systems. Submissions to the special issue may be made by either workshop attendees or others interested in the theme.. For further information please contact one of the organisers:. ...
Topic 11.2: Movement - AMAZING WORLD OF SCIENCE WITH MR. GREEN
Movement of the bodys skeleton is made possible by a number of body parts working together including the joints. A hinge joint at the elbow allows the arm to bend and extend. The condylar joint at the knee gives similar movement plus some rotation. Mobile ellipsoid joints between the fingers and palm of the hand allow circular movements but no rotation. Ball-and-socket joints, like the one at the shoulder, give maximum freedom of movement. At the other extreme, plane joints between the toe bones permit only a small degree of gliding movement and the pivot joint between the two cervical vertebrae-the atlas and the axis-merely provides rotation of the head. The saddle joint at the ankle is almost as mobile as the shoulder joint, but rotation is far more limited ...
October, 2016 | HATs Inhibitorhatsinhibitor.com
As a result, the aim of the present study was to use an EEG experiment to evaluate the EEG ERD responses in motor-related brain locations induced by the distinct PI4KIIIbeta-IN-9 movement conditions.In addition to conducting an EEG experiment with a number of motion circumstances, we also employed unbiased element investigation to determine the widespread neural substrates activated by the performance of the 3 movement conditions. In the past, ICA has been utilized to figure out the EEG pursuits that happen in a provided neural substrates when diverse jobs are executed. In principle, ICA can linearly independent unbiased neural routines from muscle mass and eye artifacts, even when these pursuits and artifacts are obtained jointly in the type of multi-channel EEG info. These kinds of ICA decomposition reveals both the temporal exercise and corresponding certain topography of the impartial neural action, indicating its spatial designs on the scalp and around reflecting where in the brain the ...
Multijoint movement without internal models - Ezequiel Di Paolo
Thomas Buhrmann has been working on a model of arm movement that, contrary to widespread assumptions, can compensate for the complex and dynamic inter-joint torques without the need for a central control using internal models. This work has been just published and can be accessed for free: Buhrmann T and Di Paolo EA (2014) Spinal…
ACWGC Forums • View topic - New PDT movement values?
I think you have a point concerning the current PDT, but what I would rather see is an expanded PDT that might include a couple more levels of woods and roads, with different movement and/or combat effects. I dont think I have seen a game where there is any practical difference between a road and a pike, even in bad weather. Given the movement rates I guess a trail could represent a poor road right now, but a separate poor road category that might only cost wheeled vehicles extra movement points is a possibility. I think any improvements in the use of weapons and tactics are better reflected in the unit quality ratings. Also, I think the officer philosophy needs an overhaul. Right now leaders skulk behind the lines and the 10% increase for the leader in melee usually isnt enough incentive to risk him. Maybe if you increased the quality of every unit stacked with a leader a level or two leaders would start behaving like leaders ...
Sensory and Motor Growth in Newborns - WellSpan Health Library
Motor skills develop as your babys muscles and nerves work together.. Reflexes prompt your newborns limb movements. Reflexes are involuntary movements made when another part of the body is stimulated. For example, when the side of a newborns cheek is touched, the baby turns his or her head in that direction, opens his or her mouth, and tries to suck. This is called the rooting reflex. Newborn reflexes disappear in the first months of life as the brain matures. Your newborns spontaneous movements generally affect both sides of the body. In addition, when your babys limbs are extended, he or she will instinctively snap back to a flexed position. When a newborn is alert, his or her hands are tightly fisted.. Newborns often have jittery or jerky movements. These are normal and gradually disappear over the first few weeks. Their arms and fingers sometimes make smooth and graceful movements.. Your baby may become fussy toward the end of the day. This may be a way for the babys immature nervous ...
Re: [O] Slow movement in large buffers
A single gene controls movement in vertebrates | Science Illustrated
Scientists have found that one gene is responsible for variability in locomotion in horses and mice.. Traits such as height are controlled by the interaction of up to 700 genes. So it came as quite a shock to researchers from Uppsala University (UU) and their international collaborators that the mutation of just a single gene is responsible for variability in locomotion in horses and mice. Furthermore, the research team discovered that this gene, DMRT3, is expressed in a previously unknown set of neurons in the spinal cord. These findings provide insight into the neural circuits that coordinate movement in vertebrates.. "The amazing result was that we found one very strong signal on one chromosome which by further work led to the discovery of the DMRT3 mutation," explains Leif Andersson, co-author of the paper published in Nature, from UU and Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. "This was unexpected since we had [anticipated] a much more complex genetic background for a trait like this." ...
Jems Movement Art The Science And Art Of Beautiful Movement - Free PDF
, JEMS Movement ART The Science, and Art of Beautiful Movement. , A Dance of Integrated Factors, Movement is the result of a complex interplay of shifting relationships and its expression involves physical . psychological and emotional factors Each movement requires that we both create and control forces which in. itself involves the coordination and timing of body parts posture proprioception functional mobility balance and. calibration of muscular tension 4 , The diagram below illustrates just a small number of the elements involved in effective movement or Movement. Efficacy The term stability is not featured as stability is not an independent entity but the result of many. inter...
Eye movement trajectories and what they tell us - PDF
Laban Movement Analysis towards Behavior Patterns
This work presents a study about the use of Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) as a robust tool to describe human basic behavior patterns, to be applied in human-machine interaction. LMA is a language used to describe and annotate dancing movements and is divided in components : Body, Space, Shape and Effort. Despite its general framework is widely used in physical and mental therapy , it has found little application in the engineering domain. Rett J.  proposed to implement LMA using Bayesian Networks. However LMA component models have not yet been fully implemented. A study on how to approach behavior using LMA is presented. Behavior is a complex feature and movement chain, but we believe that most basic behavior
Parkinson's - McLaughlin Research Institute for Biomedical Sciences
Parkinsons disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive movement disorder, meaning that symptoms continue and worsen over time. Nearly one million people in the US are living with Parkinsons disease. The cause is unknown, and although there is presently no cure, there are treatment options such as medication and surgery to manage its symptoms.. Parkinsons involves the malfunction and death of vital nerve cells in the brain, called neurons. Parkinsons primarily affects neurons in the an area of the brain called the substantia nigra. Some of these dying neurons produce dopamine, a chemical that sends messages to the part of the brain that controls movement and coordination. As PD progresses, the amount of dopamine produced in the brain decreases, leaving a person unable to control movement normally.. The specific group of symptoms that an individual experiences varies from person to person. Primary motor signs of Parkinsons disease include the following.. ...
Smart Jumpsuit Tracks Infant Movements to Spot Neurodevelopmental Disorders | Medgadget
The suit contains multiple sensors that provide accelerometer and gyroscope data on movement, and a machine-learning algorithm interprets the data to provide information on movement types and posture. Vanhatalo and his colleagues claim that the new system can quantify and track child movements as reliably as a human observer. "This is a revolutionary step forward," said Vanhatalo. "The measurements provide a tool to detect the precise variation in motility from the age of five months, something which medical smart clothes have not been able to do until now.". The researchers hope that the convenience of the jumpsuit could mean that neurodevelopmental disorders are detected earlier, allowing clinicians and parents to begin supporting the child at an early stage. Significant brain plasticity in early childhood means that early intervention could provide long-term benefits. Moreover, the suit could also help researchers to identify whether interventions are working in terms of reducing motor ...
Laban notation symbols
Movement Study such as Labanotation and Laban Movement Analysis for graphically representing human body positions and movements ... First published 1954). Hutchinson-Guest, Ann (1983). Your move: A New Approach to the Study of Movement and Dance. New York: ... In Labanotation the direction symbols are organized as three levels: high, middle, and low (or deep): In Laban Movement ... 1948a). The development of the Laban kinetography (part I). Movement. 1 (1): 28-29. Knust, Albrecht (1948b). The development of ...
Earth First! (magazine)
Nordic Music Days
The spinous process is small so as not to interfere with the movement between the atlas and the skull. On the under surface is ... Movement. The vertebrae also provide the openings, the intervertebral foramina which allow the entry and exit of the spinal ... Working together in the vertebral column their sections provide controlled movement and flexibility. Feeding the Intervertebral ... which serve to restrict the range of movement possible. These facets are joined by a thin portion of the vertebral arch called ...
In 2003, the festival management changed the name to Movement, then Fuse-In (2005), and most recently, Movement: Detroit's ... "Movement". Archived from the original on 8 September 2008. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 March 2002. ... Saunderson, May, and Craig all performed but did not produce the festival in 2006, when it was again called Movement. ... Saunderson returned to perform at the 2007 Movement as well. The initial wave of techno development differed from the Chicago ...
It can be considered an anthem for the Kyoto Now! movement. The writer of "Kyoto Now!", Greg Graffin, is, in fact, an alumnus ... Kyoto Now! (stylized as KyotoNOW!) is a student-led movement at colleges and universities across the United States[citation ... The name of the movement reflects the Kyoto Protocol, which the USA currently is not considering ratifying. Cornell ...
... a movement that is powered by the movements of the user, converting the energy to electricity for the quartz movement. The 9F ... design and glide-motion movement with the watch hands. The movement uses a mainspring as a source of energy and transmits it ... The Spring Drive movement was also used as the basis for the first ever watch designed to be worn by an astronaut during a ... Currently watch movements are made in Shizukuishi, Iwate (SII Morioka Seiko Instruments), Ninohe, Iwate (SII Ninohe Tokei Kogyo ...
The Belleville Three
Saunderson, May, and Craig all performed but did not produce the festival in 2006, when it was again called Movement. ... Saunderson returned to perform at the 2007 Movement as well. In 2017, Juan Atkins, Kevin Saunderson, and Derrick May began ... renamed Movement. He invested his own funds into the festival, and "got severely wounded financially." Kevin Saunderson helmed ... "Movement". Retrieved November 23, 2017. http://www.demf.com/ McCollum, Brian (May 28, 2017). "Detroit techno pioneers come full ...
Movement". USF Contemporary Art Museum/ Museum of African American Art, Tampa; Track 16 Art Gallery,Santa Monica, USA; The ... Movement. Santa Monica: Smart Art Press, 1997, 34-37, 64, 67. Oguibe, Olu, "Beyond Visual Pleasures: A Brief Reflection on the ... Ogbechie, Sylvester, "Zaria Art Society and the Uli Movement, Nigeria," In N'Gone Fall and Jean Loup Pivin (eds.), An Anthology ...
William Hamilton (theologian)
Free Thought University
Multiple system atrophy
The most common first sign of MSA is the appearance of an "akinetic-rigid syndrome" (i.e. slowness of initiation of movement ... The presence of these inclusions (also known as Papp-Lantos bodies) in the movement, balance, and autonomic-control centres of ... Movement Disorder Society MSA Study Group, an administrative framework for global collaborative MSA research Autonomic ... Ongoing care from a neurologist specializing in "movement disorders" is recommended[by whom?] as the complex symptoms of MSA ...
Yuhanon Mar Meletius
Deep brain stimulation
Richter E.O.; Lozano A.M. (2004). "Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease in Movement Disorders". In Markov, Marko; ... Movement Disorders. 21 (8): 1277-9. doi:10.1002/mds.20896. PMID 16637040. Plaha P, Ben-Shlomo Y, Patel NK, Gill SS (July 2006 ... Movement Disorders. 22 (12): 1722-1728. doi:10.1002/mds.21551. PMID 17721929. Gildenberg Philip L (2005). "Evolution of ... for the treatment of movement and neuropsychiatric disorders. DBS in select brain regions has provided therapeutic benefits for ...
London Underground T Stock
... and eye movements. A review of different clinical features among SCA subtypes was recently published describing the frequency ... Movement Disorders. 24 (8): 1111-24. doi:10.1002/mds.22564. PMID 19412936. Miyai, I.; Ito, M.; Hattori, N.; Mihara, M.; ... loss of fine coordination of muscle movements leading to unsteady and clumsy motion, and other symptoms. The symptoms of an ...
Arab Spring Civil resistance List of Occupy movement protest locations Occupy Movement Occupy Wall Street Social movements ... The Occupy Nigeria Movement plans another protest to hold at Eagle Square, Abuja for Friday, 6 January 2012 while another one ... Occupy Nigeria was a socio-political protest movement that began in Nigeria on Monday, 2 January 2012 in response to the fuel ...
Hakim Abdul Hameed
A Look Inside the 'Men's Rights' Movement That Helped Fuel California Alleged Killer Elliot Rodger
A Look Inside the Mens Rights Movement That Helped Fuel California Alleged Killer Elliot Rodger Jaclyn Friedman ... While Pick Up Artists are perfectly plain that all they care about is using women for sex, MRAs claim to be a movement for ... Elam is founder and publisher of A Voice For Men (AVFM), one of the main hubs for the burgeoning "mens rights movement." In a ... Warren Farrell, considered by many to be the father of the modern mens rights movement, has been at it since the 80s. But the ...
Musar movement - Wikipedia
The Musar movement which was Developed by Rabbi Yisrael Salanter (also Mussar movement) is a Jewish ethical, educational and ... Studies of the 19th-century Musar Movement. *Rabbi Israel Salanter and the Musar Movement, Immanuel Etkes (Jewish Publication ... The Musar Movement made significant contributions to Musar literature and Jewish Ethics. The movement has been revived in the ... The movements founding is attributed to Rabbi Yisrael Lipkin Salanter (1810-1883), although the roots of the movements drew on ...
Lawyers' Movement - Wikipedia
The Lawyers Movement, also known as the Movement for the Restoration of Judiciary or the Black Coat Protests, was the popular ... Much like its predecessor movement Adliya Bachao Tehreek, both the camps in the Lawyers Movement lobbied for the reinstatement ... He later distanced himself from the movement when the PML-N joined the movement against PPP, the political party that Khosa was ... These developments gave further traction to the original Adliya Bachao Movement. The stalwarts of the original movement ...
Classroom Music & Movement
Conservative movement - Wikipedia
Bihar Movement - Wikipedia
It was also called Sampoorna Kranti (Total Revolution Movement) and JP Movement. When the Nav Nirman movement resulted in the ... The Bihar Movement was a movement initiated by students in Bihar in 1974 and led by the veteran Gandhian socialist Jayaprakash ... The Bihar Movement turned into a Satyagraha and volunteers kept protesting at the Bihar Legislative Assembly, inviting arrest ... JP opposed such a movement in his letters to Indira Gandhi and called for her to resign. She imposed a nationwide Emergency to ...
... a resistance movement may or may not be labelled a terrorist group based on whether the members of a resistance movement are ... A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country or ... When such a resistance movement uses violence, those favorably disposed to it may also speak of freedom fighters. ... 7 Notable individuals in resistance movements *7.1 World War II (anti-Nazi, anti-Fascist) ...
Peace Movement : NPR
... about the peace movement in the United States. ... Peace Movement. Peace Movement. Only Available in Archive ... Peace Movement Host Tavis Smiley speaks with Rep. Barbara Lee (D-CA) and the Rev. Graylan Hagler, pastor of the Plymouth ... Congregational Church in Washington, D.C, and an organizer for United for Peace and Justice, about the peace movement in the ... about the peace movement in the United States. ... Peace Movement. Only Available in Archive Formats. *Real Media ...
Movement Meditation | Meetup
Labor Movement - HISTORY
The labor movement in the United States grew out of the need to protect the common interest of workers. For those in the ... Civil Rights Movement. The civil rights movement was a struggle for social justice that took place mainly during the 1950s and ... Niagara Movement. The Niagara Movement was a civil-rights group founded in 1905 near Niagara Falls. Scholar and activist W. E. ... Abolitionist Movement. The abolitionist movement was a social and political push for the immediate emancipation of all slaves ...
Movement Disorders | MedlinePlus
Movement disorders can be caused by nerve diseases, autoimmune diseases, infections and more. Many movement disorders are ... Movement - uncontrollable (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Movement - uncontrolled or slow (Medical Encyclopedia) Also ... Movement - uncoordinated (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Movement - unpredictable or jerky (Medical Encyclopedia) Also ... Tremor and essential tremor, which cause involuntary trembling or shaking movements. The movements may be in one or more parts ...
ecumenical movement | Infoplease
... name given to the movement aimed at the unification of the Protestant churches of the world and ultimately of all Christians. ... ecumenical movement ĕk˝yo͞omĕn´ĭkəl, ĕk˝yə- [key], name given to the movement aimed at the unification of the Protestant ... See B. Leeming, The Churches and the Church (1960); N. Goodall, The Ecumenical Movement (3d ed. 1966); J. Desseaux, Twenty ... The movement known as Church Reunion in Great Britain and as Christian Unity (1910) in the United States was active in seeking ...
Indy Yoga Movement - Volunteer Application
Labor's movement - Los Angeles Times
The Movement Center - Combination Classes
Minds & Movements
Welcome to Minds & Movements, a program dedicated to increasing student movement throughout their school day for academic ... Recent brain research has proven that exercise and movement has numerous benefits for the brain and learning. This site is for ... can go for answers and ideas to increase student movement as well as contribute in a way that promotes increased movement. ...
Movement Garage | eBay Stores
Religious movement | Britannica.com
Influencing Action Movement - Idealist
Movement | behaviour | Britannica.com
... the physiology and pathology of movement by the study of reflexes caused a lack of interest in any other concept of movements, ... first showed that many series of movements of invertebrates and… ... the physiology and pathology of movement by the study of reflexes caused a lack of interest in any other concept of movements, ... with a coordinated set of movements-that is, a behaviour. Any particular movement reflects the patterned activity of a specific ...
Aṇuvrata Movement | Encyclopedia.com
Founded in 1948 by Acharya Tul(a)si, head of the Jain Śvetāmbara Terāpantha sect, the movement aims to purge corruption and ... Source for information on Aṇuvrata Movement: The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions dictionary. ... Indian moral revival movement based on the anuvrata vows of Jains. ... Aṇuvrata Movement, (Skt., aṇu, lesser, + vrata, vows). Indian moral revival movement based on the anuvrata vows of Jains. ...
Hyperkinetic Movement Disorders | SpringerLink
Hyperkinetic Movement Disorders is a state-of-the-art resource devoted to disorders characterized by excessive movement. ... Hyperkinetic Movement Disorders is a state-of-the-art resource devoted to disorders characterized by excessive movement. ... Hyperkinetic Movement Disorders is a unique and essential new text written for neurologists, psychiatrists, neurosurgeons, ... Choreas Disorders Drug-induced Dystonia Huntington Disease Hyperkinetic Movement Myoclonus Paroxysmal Dyskinesias Psychogenetic ...
Oxford Movement | Encyclopedia.com
... religious movement begun in 1833 by Anglican clergymen at the Univ. of Oxford to renew the Church of England  (see England, ... OXFORD MOVEMENT. OXFORD MOVEMENT. The Oxford Movement was a religious revival in the Church of England (1833) that emphasized ... Oxford Movement New Catholic Encyclopedia COPYRIGHT 2003 The Gale Group Inc.. OXFORD MOVEMENT. An effort by Anglican clergymen ... Oxford Movement. A movement in the Church of England, beginning in the 19th cent., which had a profound impact on the theology ...
Mask Movement on Behance
We also release futuristic electronic music on Mask Movement music label. We have had support from media brands, including: ... maskmovement.com Mask Movement is a creative studio and music label, owned and operated by Maks Histibe. We are focusing on ... Contact us: [email protected] Mask Movement is a creative studio and music label, owned and operated by Maks Histibe. We ...
Epilogue: The Umbrella Movement
Civil Rights Movement | AMNH
Aesthetic Movement on Behance
Through the creation of relationships, products and environments, Aesthetic Movement endeavors to move hearts and minds by ... Aesthetic Movement is a think tank for smart, creative collaborations and a harbinger of style. We believe that considered ... Aesthetic Movement is a think tank for smart, creative collaborations and a harbinger of style. We believe that considered ... Aesthetic Movement is a think tank for smart, creative collaborations and a harbinger of style. We believe that considered ...
ESA - Accurate movement analysis
Accurate movement analysis. 19/05/2016 1275 views 9 likes ESA / Science & Exploration / Human and Robotic Exploration / Couture ... JOHAN Sports was founded by Jelle Reichert and Robin van Kappel after Jelle submitted the idea of tracking player movements to ... We quickly hired a human movement specialist and started working on a prototype. The JOHAN device is a small electronic pod ... that uses satellite positioning to track a players movement during training or during a match. ...
The u2018Conservative Movement'
We hear a great deal today about the conservative movement. A brief review of its history may be in order. ... Still, within the framework of the conservative movement lived persons who objected to high taxes and the further advance of ... This is the present status of the conservative movement. It is rent by conflicting philosophies. Its major leaders are ...
DisordersMussar Movement20182016MyoclonusFaction within the civil riJudaismRepetitiveTardive DyskinesiaCivil disobedienceInvoluntary19th centuryAmericaMAKER MOVEMENTResistance movementMeTooReflexesMovement'sContentSymptomsMusclesProtestsSupporters1910PathologyNavigationOppositionNorth CarolinaPeopleMainFree MovementVoluntary movementInvolvesConservativeLabor movementPrimarily3200ReformJewish EthicsPracticeDiagnosisAroseSalanterContractionsMedicinesFollowControlPoliticalDonateLegitimateOrganizationCorruptionCoordinationSite
- There are many different movement disorders. (medlineplus.gov)
- Hyperkinetic Movement Disorders is a state-of-the-art resource devoted to disorders characterized by excessive movement. (springer.com)
- Hyperkinetic Movement Disorders is a unique and essential new text written for neurologists, psychiatrists, neurosurgeons, internists, residents and all others interested in movement disorders. (springer.com)
- An invaluable resource, it will lead to a better understanding and recognition of the hyperkinetic movement disorders, and that, in turn, will lead to better care for patients. (springer.com)
- In response to House action ( Management of the Movement System (HOD P06-15-25-24) ) stating that "APTA endorses the development of diagnostic labels and/or classification systems that reflect and contribute to the physical therapists' ability to properly and effectively manage disorders of the movement system," APTA is in the process of developing a diagnostic classification system for movement system diagnoses. (apta.org)
- This was the first step in addressing the 2015 House of Delegates position Management of the Movement System, which states "APTA endorses the development of diagnostic labels and/or classification systems that reflect and contribute to the physical therapists' ability to properly and effectively manage disorders of the movement system. (apta.org)
- Diagnosis and assessment of Parkinson disease and other movement disorders. (medlineplus.gov)
- Psychogenic movement disorders are often florid and bizarre (see Catatonia ). (medscape.com)
- Psychogenic movement disorders generally represent conversion disorders, neurologic symptoms expressed by a patient who believes that the symptoms are present. (medscape.com)
- People with psychogenic movement disorders often have experienced a major life event (eg, failure to attain an expected promotion, death of a loved one). (medscape.com)
- The Musar movement which was Developed by Rabbi Yisrael Salanter (also Mussar movement ) is a Jewish ethical , educational and cultural movement that developed in 19th century Lithuania, particularly among Orthodox Lithuanian Jews . (wikipedia.org)
- The Mussar movement in Judaism is defined as the education of the individual toward strict ethical behavior in the spirit of halakhah . (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)
- the supporters of the Mussar movement turned to the education of the young, and in particular to influencing the students of the yeshivot to form early in life the alertness of moral habit which had proved so difficult to instill at a later age. (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)
- A short movie in which Rabbi Wein teaches about the Mussar movement that appeared in East European yeshivas in the 19th century. (merlot.org)
- You just viewed The Mussar Movement . (merlot.org)
- The following chart shows the Ease of Movement indicator applied to the SPDR S&P 500 ETF (NYSE ARCA: SPY) in late 2017 and early 2018. (investopedia.com)
- Patients may be more likely to enjoy, manage, and continue to practise tai chi, perhaps because it involves gentle, low impact movements with minimal side effects," says Chenchen Wang, one of the researchers, in a BMJ Opinion commentary explaining the study's context ( http://blogs.bmj.com/bmj/2018/03/21/chenchen-wang-time-to-rethink-exercise-for-fibromyalgia-care ). (bmj.com)
- In 2016, the Movement System Summit brought together 100 thought leaders in the physical therapy profession to provide input on recommendations for integrating the movement system concept into physical therapist practice, education, and research. (apta.org)
- Listen to MOVEMENT Detroit 2016 now. (spotify.com)
Faction within the civil ri1
- The arrests signify a new phase of civil disobedience for Chicago's wing of the movement, organizers said Sunday. (thestar.com)
- These initial civil-disobedience movements soon came to be the driving force that ultimately shaped the cultural, religious, and political unity of a then still dis-united nation. (mcgill.ca)
- In the 19th century, trade unionism was mainly a movement of skilled workers. (history.com)
- SHELBY, North Carolina (Reuters) - In a stately 19th century mansion in the middle of this former textile mill town, a local political scion has formed a mortgage foreclosure resistance movement. (reuters.com)
- A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country or the government of a sovereign nation through either the use of physical force, or nonviolence . (princeton.edu)
- When such a resistance movement uses violence, those favorably disposed to it may also speak of freedom fighters . (princeton.edu)
- [ 3 ] Hence depending on the perspective of a state's government, a resistance movement may or may not be labelled a terrorist group based on whether the members of a resistance movement are considered lawful or unlawful combatants and their right to resist occupation is recognized. (princeton.edu)
- Men and women are equally likely to say that the movement will lead to change (54% and 59% respectively), but there are vast divides by party: 55 percent of Republicans say #MeToo is a distraction, while 77 percent of Democrats say the movement will lead to meaningful change. (surveymonkey.com)
- Though 61 percent say it made no difference, over a quarter (28%) of men say they are now more likely to speak up if they witness sexual assault or harassment, as a result of the #MeToo movement. (surveymonkey.com)
- When it comes to reporting sexual assault or harassment at work, a third of women (32%) say they are now more likely to report sexual assault or harassment at work because of the #MeToo movement. (surveymonkey.com)
- In general, do you have a positive or negative opinion of the #MeToo movement?Has the #MeToo movement changed your opinion of what behaviors are considered to be sexual assault or harassment? (surveymonkey.com)
- Beijing (AFP) - Former doctoral student Luo Qianqian was "amazed" that her sexual assault story went viral in China, inspiring other women to denounce rampant harassment on campuses and unleashing a #MeToo movement in the country despite censorship challenges. (yahoo.com)
- As the #MeToo movement gains momentum, authorities have begun to censor online posts to ensure they don't move in the "wrong" direction, observers say. (yahoo.com)
- Yet state-run media has continued to report about the movement, with the Global Times newspaper running a piece last Friday titled, "The #MeToo Hush-up" about harassment victims encountering censorship and threats. (yahoo.com)
- the physiology and pathology of movement by the study of reflexes caused a lack of interest in any other concept of movement s, particularly in English-speaking countries. (britannica.com)
- This is about the voluntary control the brain has on muscles, movements like reflexes are excluded. (forbes.com)
- The movement's founding is attributed to Rabbi Yisrael Lipkin Salanter (1810-1883), although the roots of the movements drew on ideas previously expressed in classical Musar literature . (wikipedia.org)
- The contemporary conservation movement has broadened from the early movement's emphasis on use of sustainable yield of natural resources and preservation of wilderness areas to include preservation of biodiversity . (princeton.edu)
- Any particular movement reflects the patterned activity of a specific set of muscles that work on the skeletal structures to which they are attached. (britannica.com)
- A group of scientists headed by associate professor Dr. Michael Nickel of Friedrich Schiller University Jena (Germany) is looking into movement without muscles. (redorbit.com)
- The Lawyers' Movement , also known as the Movement for the Restoration of Judiciary or the Black Coat Protests , was the popular mass protest movement initiated by the lawyers of Pakistan in response to the former president and army chief Pervez Musharraf 's actions of 9 March 2007 when he unconstitutionally suspended Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry as the chief justice of Pakistan's Supreme Court . (wikipedia.org)
- When the Nav Nirman movement resulted in the forced resignation of the Gujarat government, student protests had already begun in Bihar. (wikipedia.org)
- The street protests and legal challenges mounted by the people of Warren County to fight the landfill are considered by many to be the first major milestone in the national movement for environmental justice. (nrdc.org)
- For Reforms supporters demonstrating in Bishkek in November 2006 (ITAR-TASS) BISHKEK, March 9, 2007 -- Kyrgyzstan's largest opposition movement today threatened to stage massive rallies against President Kurmanbek Bakiyev unless he carries out reforms to strengthen democratic institutions and fight corruption, RFE/RL's Kyrgyz Service reported. (rferl.org)
- Supporters regard the Hizmet movement inspired by US-based Turkish preacher Fethullah Gulen as the benign, modern face of Islam, but critics question its motives. (bbc.co.uk)
- The movement known as Church Reunion in Great Britain and as Christian Unity (1910) in the United States was active in seeking a creed and polity behind which all Christians could unite. (infoplease.com)
- On an international scale the ecumenical movement really began with the World Missionary Conference at Edinburgh in 1910. (infoplease.com)
- Incorporated on February 8, 1910, the movement soon spread throughout the country. (history.com)
- Government tried hard to stop people from reaching Patna for the movement and also lathi charged people. (wikipedia.org)
- In Ireland the movement was led by James Stephens (1825-1901), who founded the party organ, the Irish People, in Dublin in 1863. (infoplease.com)
- Many people with PLMD are unaware of their leg movements unless their bed partner tells them. (webmd.com)
- This project started because I wanted to talk to people I knew who were in the movement, but with the development of the Internet the opportunity came up to present this material to a wider audience. (eskimo.com)
- The AMP Lab seeks to advance our understanding of the dynamics and control of movement to design treatment strategies and assistive technologies that improve function, performance, and quality of life for people in health and disease. (washington.edu)
- Yes, the Internet is a tool for organizing a grassroots movement focused on building communities where people feel safe to engage in civic discourse. (washingtonpost.com)
- We have to sit down with people who identify with the Tea Party movement with the goal of reaching understanding. (washingtonpost.com)
- The anti-fluffy movement attracts a variety of people. (angelfire.com)
- Some -- though not all -- people in the anti-fluffy movement have a very friendly attitude toward Satanists, and are critical of the tendency of many "fluff-bunnies" (and others in the Pagan scene) to scapegoat Satanists. (angelfire.com)
- Championed primarily by African-Americans, Latinos, Asians and Pacific Islanders and Native Americans, the environmental justice movement addresses a statistical fact: people who live, work and play in America's most polluted environments are commonly people of color and the poor. (nrdc.org)
- According to Baykhanov, the reason for the Movement is to extricate the Turkmen people from the legacy of Turkmenistan's first president, Saparmurat Niyazov, or 'Turkmenbashi' (Head of the Turkmen), as Niyazov was commonly called. (rferl.org)
- Gandhi's movement came to encompass people from across India and across all walks of life. (mcgill.ca)
- The Civil Rights Movement of the 1950's and 1960's came about out of the need and desire for equality and freedom for African Americans and other people of color. (adl.org)
- It warns of "climate police" having the right to intrude into people's lives in Australia, and suggests that the global warming "movement" has parallels with Hitler, Stalin and Mao who convinced their people to murder their fellow countrymen. (sourcewatch.org)
- Elam is founder and publisher of A Voice For Men (AVFM), one of the main hubs for the burgeoning "men's rights' movement. (prospect.org)
- For most subjects, though, the best source is to read some of the original articles which set forth the main ideas taught by the movement. (eskimo.com)
- My main occupation today is building the Holstee brand and growing it into a movement around mindful living. (huffingtonpost.com)
- We hear a great deal today about the 'conservative movement. (lewrockwell.com)
- Latimer explained that he meant the conservative movement -- the movement that gave rise to groups like CPAC. (politico.com)
- Bush seemed to equate the conservative movement -- the astonishing growth of conservative political strength that took place in the decades after Barry Goldwater's disastrous defeat in 1964 -- with the fortunes of Bauer, the evangelical Christian activist and former head of the Family Research Council whose 2000 presidential campaign went nowhere. (politico.com)
- The labor movement in the United States grew out of the need to protect the common interest of workers. (history.com)
- The labor movement led efforts to stop child labor, give health benefits and provide aid to workers who were injured or retired. (history.com)
- The origins of the labor movement lay in the formative years of the American nation, when a free wage-labor market emerged in the artisan trades late in the colonial period. (history.com)
- The early labor movement was, however, inspired by more than the immediate job interest of its craft members. (history.com)
- A healthy democratic society needs a healthy democratic labor movement. (latimes.com)
- The mention of names and quotes from men who founded the shepherding movement are included primarily to follow the principles of good scholarship to include accurate source material. (eskimo.com)
- Established in 1996 and led by former Iraqi Brigadier General Najib al-Salihi, the movement primarily comprises former officers who stood opposed to the Hussein regime. (globalsecurity.org)
- had primarily intended to establish the movement for members of the community through their activities. (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)
- On their face, these reform movements might have seemed at odds with trade unionism, aiming as they did at the cooperative commonwealth rather than a higher wage, appealing broadly to all "producers" rather than strictly to wageworkers, and eschewing the trade union reliance on the strike and boycott. (history.com)
- Reform Movement. (encyclopedia.com)
- Some say the conservation movement is part of the broader and more far-reaching environmental movement , while others argue that they differ both in ideology and practice. (princeton.edu)
- After APTA's House of Delegates (House) adopted the vision statement for the physical therapy profession in 2013, the Board of Directors (Board) recognized that, in order for the physical therapy profession to achieve the vision as articulated by its guiding principles , it would be necessary to integrate consistent application of the "movement system" (as mentioned in the guiding principle on "Identity") in physical therapist practice, education, and research. (apta.org)
- The Musar movement arose among the non- Hasidic Orthodox Lithuanian Jews as a response to the social changes brought about by the Enlightenment , and the corresponding Haskalah movement among many European Jews. (wikipedia.org)
- As the movement became stronger and rumors of actual plots arose, the British government took steps to crush it. (infoplease.com)
- How Does The Brain Control Movement? (forbes.com)
- How does the brain control the precision of movement of our body parts? (forbes.com)
- It soon became apparent that these drugs were not only attended by the usually recognized side effects such as cholestatic jaundice, but also had remarkable effect on the control of movement, i.e., on the extrapyramidal system. (springer.com)
- Uncontrollable movements include many types of movements that you cannot control. (medlineplus.gov)
- Call your provider if you have any unexplained movements that you cannot control that do not go away. (medlineplus.gov)
- We certainly agree with the latter clause in that remark, but the fat rights movement shouldn't discourage sensible attempts to control the obesity blamed for heart attacks, diabetes, high blood pressure and approximately 300,000 deaths per year. (sfgate.com)
- Unlike the Nav Nirman movement, political student outfits like Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad (ABVP) connected with the Jana Sangh, Samajwadi Yuvajan Sabha (SYS) connected with Samajwadi Party, and Lok Dal took an active role in the JP movement. (wikipedia.org)
- The conservation movement, also known as nature conservation, is a political, environmental and a social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including plant and animal species as well as their habitat for the future. (princeton.edu)
- The Five Star Movement, Italy's fastest growing political party, is fully anti-establishment. (pbs.org)
- By the late 1930s, however, with growing disenchantments over the delaying tactics of the Raj and the Congress's failure to extract commitment on self-rule and political independence, a faction within the movement turned towards more radical ideas of Subhash Chandra Bose. (mcgill.ca)
- revitalization movement, political-religious movements promising deliverance from deprivation, the elimination of foreign domination, and a new interpretation of the human condition based on traditional cultural values, common in societies undergoing severe stress associated with colonial conquest and intense class or racial exploitation. (factmonster.com)
- The influence of the movement has been in the spotlight again in Mr Gulen's home country, where a feud between his followers and other members of the political class has been blown into the open by a series of arrests. (bbc.co.uk)
- It's a narrative effective enough to snow the mainstream media: Just this past weekend, The Daily Beast ran a profile of MRAs that painted them as a legitimate movement overshadowed by a few extremists. (prospect.org)
- The term resistance is generally used to designate a movement considered legitimate (from the speaker's point of view). (princeton.edu)
- The Bihar Movement was a movement initiated by students in Bihar in 1974 and led by the veteran Gandhian socialist Jayaprakash Narayan, popularly known as JP, against misrule and corruption in the government of Bihar. (wikipedia.org)
- Founded in 1948 by Acharya Tul(a)si, head of the Jain Śvetāmbara Terāpantha sect, the movement aims to purge corruption and uplift the moral tone of the life. (encyclopedia.com)