Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
The "mouth floor" refers to the inferior aspect of the oral cavity, which is formed by the muscular floor of the mouth, consisting primarily of the mylohyoid muscle, and contains the opening of the sublingual and submandibular glands.
'Mouth diseases' is a broad term referring to various conditions that cause inflammation, infection, or structural changes in any part of the mouth, including the lips, gums, tongue, palate, cheeks, and teeth, which can lead to symptoms such as pain, discomfort, difficulty in chewing or speaking, and altered aesthetics.
Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.
Solutions for rinsing the mouth, possessing cleansing, germicidal, or palliative properties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Total lack of teeth through disease or extraction.
The mucous lining of the LARYNX, consisting of various types of epithelial cells ranging from stratified squamous EPITHELIUM in the upper larynx to ciliated columnar epithelium in the rest of the larynx, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Decreased salivary flow.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 10 serotypes, mostly coxsackieviruses.
Devices or pieces of equipment placed in or around the mouth or attached to instruments to protect the external or internal tissues of the mouth and the teeth.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.
The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
Spasmodic contraction of the masseter muscle resulting in forceful jaw closure. This may be seen with a variety of diseases, including TETANUS, as a complication of radiation therapy, trauma, or in association with neoplastic conditions.
The part of the face that is below the eye and to the side of the nose and mouth.
A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.
An offensive, foul breath odor resulting from a variety of causes such as poor oral hygiene, dental or oral infections, or the ingestion of certain foods.
The region between the sharp indentation at the lower third of the STOMACH (incisura angularis) and the junction of the PYLORUS with the DUODENUM. Pyloric antral glands contain mucus-secreting cells and gastrin-secreting endocrine cells (G CELLS).
The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Either of the two fleshy, full-blooded margins of the mouth.
Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.
An appliance used as an artificial or prosthetic replacement for missing teeth and adjacent tissues. It does not include CROWNS; DENTAL ABUTMENTS; nor TOOTH, ARTIFICIAL.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.

Explanations for the clinical and microscopic localization of lesions in pemphigus foliaceus and vulgaris. (1/2113)

Patients with pemphigus foliaceus (PF) have blisters on skin, but not mucous membranes, whereas patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV) develop blisters on mucous membranes and/or skin. PF and PV blisters are due to loss of keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion in the superficial and deep epidermis, respectively. PF autoantibodies are directed against desmoglein (Dsg) 1; PV autoantibodies bind Dsg3 or both Dsg3 and Dsg1. In this study, we test the hypothesis that coexpression of Dsg1 and Dsg3 in keratinocytes protects against pathology due to antibody-induced dysfunction of either one alone. Using passive transfer of pemphigus IgG to normal and DSG3(null) neonatal mice, we show that in the areas of epidermis and mucous membrane that coexpress Dsg1 and Dsg3, antibodies against either desmoglein alone do not cause spontaneous blisters, but antibodies against both do. In areas (such as superficial epidermis of normal mice) where Dsg1 without Dsg3 is expressed, anti-Dsg1 antibodies alone can cause blisters. Thus, the anti-desmoglein antibody profiles in pemphigus sera and the normal tissue distributions of Dsg1 and Dsg3 determine the sites of blister formation. These studies suggest that pemphigus autoantibodies inhibit the adhesive function of desmoglein proteins, and demonstrate that either Dsg1 or Dsg3 alone is sufficient to maintain keratinocyte adhesion.  (+info)

Circadian variation in the expression of cell-cycle proteins in human oral epithelium. (2/2113)

At the tissue level, there is experimental and clinical data to suggest a cytokinetic coordination of the cell cycle with a greater proportion of cycling cells entering S-phase and mitosis at specific times of the day. The association of certain cell-cycle proteins with defined events in the cell cycle is well established and may be used to study the timing of cell-cycle phases over 24 hours. In this study oral mucosal biopsies were obtained from six normal human volunteers at 4-hour intervals, six times over 24 hours. Using immunohistochemistry, the number of positive cells expressing the proteins p53, cyclin-E, cyclin-A, cyclin-B1, and Ki-67 was determined for each biopsy and expressed as the number of positive cells per mm of basement membrane. We found a statistically significant circadian variation in the nuclear expression of all of these proteins with the high point of expression for p53 at 10:56 hours, cyclin-E at 14:59 hours, cyclin-A at 16:09 hours, cyclin-B1 at 21:13 hours, and Ki-67 at 02:50 hours. The circadian variation in the nuclear expression of cyclins-E (G1/S phase), -A (G2-phase), and -B1 (M-phase) with a normal physiological progression over time suggests a statistically significant circadian variation in oral epithelial cell proliferation. The finding of a circadian variation in the nuclear expression of p53 protein corresponding to late G1 is novel. This information has clinical implications regarding the timing of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.  (+info)

Adhesive and mammalian transglutaminase substrate properties of Candida albicans Hwp1. (3/2113)

The pathogenesis of candidiasis involves invasion of host tissues by filamentous forms of the opportunistic yeast Candida albicans. Morphology-specific gene products may confer proinvasive properties. A hypha-specific surface protein, Hwp1, with similarities to mammalian small proline-rich proteins was shown to serve as a substrate for mammalian transglutaminases. Candida albicans strains lacking Hwp1 were unable to form stable attachments to human buccal epithelial cells and had a reduced capacity to cause systemic candidiasis in mice. This represents a paradigm for microbial adhesion that implicates essential host enzymes.  (+info)

Cyclooxygenase-2 expression is up-regulated in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. (4/2113)

The purpose of this study was to determine whether cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was overexpressed in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC). Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry were used to assess the expression of COX-2 in head and neck tissue. Mean levels of COX-2 mRNA were increased by nearly 150-fold in HNSCC (n = 24) compared with normal oral mucosa from healthy volunteers (n = 17). Additionally, there was about a 50-fold increase in amounts of COX-2 mRNA in normal-appearing epithelium adjacent to HNSCC (n = 10) compared with normal oral mucosa from healthy volunteers. Immunoblotting demonstrated that COX-2 protein was present in six of six cases of HNSCC but was undetectable in normal oral mucosa from healthy subjects. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that COX-2 was expressed in both HNSCC and adjacent normal-appearing epithelium. Taken together, these results suggest that COX-2 may be a target for the prevention or treatment of HNSCC.  (+info)

Nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoreticular tissue (NALT) immunity: fimbriae-specific Th1 and Th2 cell-regulated IgA responses for the inhibition of bacterial attachment to epithelial cells and subsequent inflammatory cytokine production. (5/2113)

To investigate the antibacterial activity of mucosal Th1 and Th2 immune responses induced nasally and orally, mice were immunized with mucosal vaccine containing fimbrial protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis, a causative agent for a destructive chronic inflammation in the periodontium, and cholera toxin (CT) as mucosal adjuvant. Nasal vaccine containing low doses of fimbriae (10 micrograms) and CT (1 microgram) induced Ag-specific Th1/Th2-type response in CD4+ T cells in mucosal effector tissues, including nasal passage and submandibular glands, which accounted for the generation of Ag-specific IgA-producing cells. In contrast, oral immunization required higher amounts of fimbriae and CT for the induction of Ag-specific IgA responses. Fimbriae-specific IgA mAbs generated from submandibular glands of nasally immunized mice inhibited P. gingivalis attachment to and reduced subsequent inflammatory cytokine production from epithelial cells. These findings suggest that nasal vaccination is an effective immunization regimen for the induction of Ag-specific Th1 and Th2 cell-driven IgA immune responses that possess the ability to inhibit bacterial attachment to epithelial cells and subsequent inflammatory cytokine production.  (+info)

Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 through breast-feeding: how can it be prevented? (6/2113)

One-third to two-thirds of maternal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection to breast-fed infants can be attributed to ingestion of breast milk. The presence of HIV-1 as cell-free and as cell-associated virus in milk has been documented. Several substances in breast milk may be protective against transmission, including maternal anti-HIV antibodies, vitamin A, lactoferrin, and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor. The portal of virus entry in the infant's gastrointestinal tract is unknown but may involve breaches in mucosal surfaces, transport across M cells, or direct infection of other epithelial cells, such as enterocytes. Timing of transmission of HIV-1 during lactation should be further clarified. An early rebound of plasma viremia after withdrawal of antiretrovirals was recently detected. This rebound may reduce the benefit of antiretroviral prophylaxis when women breast-feed their infants. Interventions should be viewed from the public health perspective of risks of infant morbidity and mortality associated with breast-feeding versus risks from formula-feeding.  (+info)

Oral transmission of primate lentiviruses. (7/2113)

Oral transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is well documented in children who become infected postnatally through breast milk. In contrast, epidemiologic surveys have yielded conflicting data regarding oral HIV-1 transmission among adults, even though case reports have described seroconversion and the development of AIDS in adults whose only risk was oral-genital contact. To study oral virus transmission in primate models, we exposed rhesus macaques of various ages to cell-free simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), including uncloned and molecularly cloned viruses. In neonates, viremia and AIDS developed after nontraumatic oral exposure to several SIV strains. Furthermore, chimeric simian human immunodeficiency viruses containing the HIV-1 envelope can also cross intact upper gastrointestinal mucosal surfaces in neonates. In adult macaques, infection and AIDS have resulted from well-controlled, nontraumatic, experimental oral exposure to different strains of SIV. These findings have implications for the risks of HIV-1 transmission during oral-genital contact.  (+info)

Mucosal dendritic cells and immunodeficiency viruses. (8/2113)

Dendritic cells [DCs] have been implicated in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). When skin was used as a model for mucosae, the cutaneous DC-T cell milieu allowed the growth of HIV-1 and much of the newly produced virus could be detected in multinucleated DC-T cell syncytia. Such virus replication occurs irrespective of the genetic subtype, the syncytium- and non-syncytium-inducing capacities of the viruses, and whether they are classified as T cell- or macrophage-tropic. Similar DC-syncytia have been identified within the mucosal surfaces of the tonsillar tissue of HIV-1-infected persons. More recently, it was demonstrated that DC-T cell mixtures from the skin, mucosae, and blood of healthy macaques similarly support the replication of simian immunodeficiency virus. In both the human and monkey systems, active virus replication requires the presence of both DCs and T cells. Further studies using the macaque model are underway to elucidate the role of DCs in the transmission and spread of HIV infection.  (+info)

The mouth mucosa refers to the mucous membrane that lines the inside of the mouth, also known as the oral mucosa. It covers the tongue, gums, inner cheeks, palate, and floor of the mouth. This moist tissue is made up of epithelial cells, connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerve endings. Its functions include protecting the underlying tissues from physical trauma, chemical irritation, and microbial infections; aiding in food digestion by producing enzymes; and providing sensory information about taste, temperature, and texture.

In medical terms, the mouth is officially referred to as the oral cavity. It is the first part of the digestive tract and includes several structures: the lips, vestibule (the space enclosed by the lips and teeth), teeth, gingiva (gums), hard and soft palate, tongue, floor of the mouth, and salivary glands. The mouth is responsible for several functions including speaking, swallowing, breathing, and eating, as it is the initial point of ingestion where food is broken down through mechanical and chemical processes, beginning the digestive process.

The intestinal mucosa is the innermost layer of the intestines, which comes into direct contact with digested food and microbes. It is a specialized epithelial tissue that plays crucial roles in nutrient absorption, barrier function, and immune defense. The intestinal mucosa is composed of several cell types, including absorptive enterocytes, mucus-secreting goblet cells, hormone-producing enteroendocrine cells, and immune cells such as lymphocytes and macrophages.

The surface of the intestinal mucosa is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells, which are joined together by tight junctions to form a protective barrier against harmful substances and microorganisms. This barrier also allows for the selective absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. The intestinal mucosa also contains numerous lymphoid follicles, known as Peyer's patches, which are involved in immune surveillance and defense against pathogens.

In addition to its role in absorption and immunity, the intestinal mucosa is also capable of producing hormones that regulate digestion and metabolism. Dysfunction of the intestinal mucosa can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and food allergies.

Gastric mucosa refers to the innermost lining of the stomach, which is in contact with the gastric lumen. It is a specialized mucous membrane that consists of epithelial cells, lamina propria, and a thin layer of smooth muscle. The surface epithelium is primarily made up of mucus-secreting cells (goblet cells) and parietal cells, which secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor, and chief cells, which produce pepsinogen.

The gastric mucosa has several important functions, including protection against self-digestion by the stomach's own digestive enzymes and hydrochloric acid. The mucus layer secreted by the epithelial cells forms a physical barrier that prevents the acidic contents of the stomach from damaging the underlying tissues. Additionally, the bicarbonate ions secreted by the surface epithelial cells help neutralize the acidity in the immediate vicinity of the mucosa.

The gastric mucosa is also responsible for the initial digestion of food through the action of hydrochloric acid and pepsin, an enzyme that breaks down proteins into smaller peptides. The intrinsic factor secreted by parietal cells plays a crucial role in the absorption of vitamin B12 in the small intestine.

The gastric mucosa is constantly exposed to potential damage from various factors, including acid, pepsin, and other digestive enzymes, as well as mechanical stress due to muscle contractions during digestion. To maintain its integrity, the gastric mucosa has a remarkable capacity for self-repair and regeneration. However, chronic exposure to noxious stimuli or certain medical conditions can lead to inflammation, erosions, ulcers, or even cancer of the gastric mucosa.

Nasal mucosa refers to the mucous membrane that lines the nasal cavity. It is a delicate, moist, and specialized tissue that contains various types of cells including epithelial cells, goblet cells, and glands. The primary function of the nasal mucosa is to warm, humidify, and filter incoming air before it reaches the lungs.

The nasal mucosa produces mucus, which traps dust, allergens, and microorganisms, preventing them from entering the respiratory system. The cilia, tiny hair-like structures on the surface of the epithelial cells, help move the mucus towards the back of the throat, where it can be swallowed or expelled.

The nasal mucosa also contains a rich supply of blood vessels and immune cells that help protect against infections and inflammation. It plays an essential role in the body's defense system by producing antibodies, secreting antimicrobial substances, and initiating local immune responses.

The term "mouth floor" is not a standard medical terminology. However, it might refer to the floor of the mouth, which is the part of the oral cavity located beneath the tongue and above the hyoid bone, which is a U-shaped bone in the front of the neck that helps support the tongue. The mouth floor contains several salivary glands, muscles, and nerves that are important for functions such as swallowing and speaking.

Mouth diseases refer to a variety of conditions that affect the oral cavity, including the lips, gums, teeth, tongue, palate, and lining of the mouth. These diseases can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or other organisms. They can also result from injuries, chronic illnesses, or genetic factors.

Some common examples of mouth diseases include dental caries (cavities), periodontal disease (gum disease), oral herpes, candidiasis (thrush), lichen planus, and oral cancer. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, redness, bleeding, bad breath, difficulty swallowing or speaking, and changes in the appearance of the mouth or teeth. Treatment depends on the specific diagnosis and may involve medications, dental procedures, or lifestyle changes.

A mouth neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth or tumor in the oral cavity, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant mouth neoplasms are also known as oral cancer. They can develop on the lips, gums, tongue, roof and floor of the mouth, inside the cheeks, and in the oropharynx (the middle part of the throat at the back of the mouth).

Mouth neoplasms can have various causes, including genetic factors, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). Symptoms may include a lump or thickening in the oral soft tissues, white or red patches, persistent mouth sores, difficulty swallowing or speaking, and numbness in the mouth. Early detection and treatment of mouth neoplasms are crucial for improving outcomes and preventing complications.

A mucous membrane is a type of moist, protective lining that covers various body surfaces inside the body, including the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tracts, as well as the inner surface of the eyelids and the nasal cavity. These membranes are composed of epithelial cells that produce mucus, a slippery secretion that helps trap particles, microorganisms, and other foreign substances, preventing them from entering the body or causing damage to tissues. The mucous membrane functions as a barrier against infection and irritation while also facilitating the exchange of gases, nutrients, and waste products between the body and its environment.

The olfactory mucosa is a specialized mucous membrane that is located in the upper part of the nasal cavity, near the septum and the superior turbinate. It contains the olfactory receptor neurons, which are responsible for the sense of smell. These neurons have hair-like projections called cilia that are covered in a mucus layer, which helps to trap and identify odor molecules present in the air we breathe. The olfactory mucosa also contains supporting cells, blood vessels, and nerve fibers that help to maintain the health and function of the olfactory receptor neurons. Damage to the olfactory mucosa can result in a loss of smell or anosmia.

A mouthwash is an antiseptic or therapeutic solution that is held in the mouth and then spit out, rather than swallowed. It is used to improve oral hygiene, to freshen breath, and to help prevent dental cavities, gingivitis, and other periodontal diseases.

Mouthwashes can contain a variety of ingredients, including water, alcohol, fluoride, chlorhexidine, essential oils, and other antimicrobial agents. Some mouthwashes are available over-the-counter, while others require a prescription. It is important to follow the instructions for use provided by the manufacturer or your dentist to ensure the safe and effective use of mouthwash.

"Edentulous mouth" is a medical term used to describe a condition where an individual has no remaining natural teeth in either their upper or lower jaw, or both. This situation can occur due to various reasons such as tooth decay, gum disease, trauma, or aging. Dentists often recommend dental prosthetics like dentures to restore oral function and aesthetics for individuals with edentulous mouths.

The colon, also known as the large intestine, is a part of the digestive system in humans and other vertebrates. It is an organ that eliminates waste from the body and is located between the small intestine and the rectum. The main function of the colon is to absorb water and electrolytes from digested food, forming and storing feces until they are eliminated through the anus.

The colon is divided into several regions, including the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, and anus. The walls of the colon contain a layer of muscle that helps to move waste material through the organ by a process called peristalsis.

The inner surface of the colon is lined with mucous membrane, which secretes mucus to lubricate the passage of feces. The colon also contains a large population of bacteria, known as the gut microbiota, which play an important role in digestion and immunity.

The laryngeal mucosa is the mucous membrane that lines the interior surface of the larynx, also known as the voice box. This mucous membrane is composed of epithelial cells and underlying connective tissue, and it plays a crucial role in protecting the underlying tissues of the larynx from damage, infection, and other environmental insults.

The laryngeal mucosa is continuous with the respiratory mucosa that lines the trachea and bronchi, and it contains numerous mucus-secreting glands and cilia that help to trap and remove inhaled particles and microorganisms. Additionally, the laryngeal mucosa is richly innervated with sensory nerve endings that detect changes in temperature, pressure, and other stimuli, allowing for the regulation of breathing, swallowing, and voice production.

Damage to the laryngeal mucosa can occur as a result of various factors, including irritants, infection, inflammation, and trauma, and may lead to symptoms such as pain, swelling, difficulty swallowing, and changes in voice quality.

Xerostomia is a medical term that describes the subjective feeling of dryness in the mouth due to decreased or absent saliva flow. It's also commonly referred to as "dry mouth." This condition can result from various factors, including medications, dehydration, radiation therapy, Sjögren's syndrome, and other medical disorders. Prolonged xerostomia may lead to oral health issues such as dental caries, oral candidiasis, and difficulty with speaking, chewing, and swallowing.

Enterovirus A, Human is a type of enterovirus that infects humans. Enteroviruses are small, single-stranded RNA viruses that belong to the Picornaviridae family. There are over 100 different types of enteroviruses, and they are divided into several species, including Enterovirus A, B, C, D, and Rhinovirus.

Enterovirus A includes several important human pathogens, such as polioviruses (which have been largely eradicated thanks to vaccination efforts), coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and enterovirus 71. These viruses are typically transmitted through the fecal-oral route or respiratory droplets and can cause a range of illnesses, from mild symptoms like fever, rash, and sore throat to more severe diseases such as meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, and paralysis.

Poliovirus, which is the most well-known member of Enterovirus A, was responsible for causing poliomyelitis, a highly infectious disease that can lead to irreversible paralysis. However, due to widespread vaccination programs, wild poliovirus transmission has been eliminated in many parts of the world, and only a few countries still report cases of polio caused by vaccine-derived viruses.

Coxsackieviruses and echoviruses can cause various symptoms, including fever, rash, mouth sores, muscle aches, and respiratory illnesses. In some cases, they can also lead to more severe diseases such as meningitis or myocarditis. Enterovirus 71 is a significant pathogen that can cause hand, foot, and mouth disease, which is a common childhood illness characterized by fever, sore throat, and rash on the hands, feet, and mouth. In rare cases, enterovirus 71 can also lead to severe neurological complications such as encephalitis and polio-like paralysis.

Prevention measures for enterovirus A infections include good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and practicing safe food handling. Vaccination is available for poliovirus and can help prevent the spread of vaccine-derived viruses. No vaccines are currently available for other enterovirus A infections, but research is ongoing to develop effective vaccines against these viruses.

Mouth protectors, also known as mouthguards, are devices worn to protect the mouth, teeth, and gums from injury during physical activities or sports that involve body contact or the risk of falling. They typically cover the upper teeth and are designed to absorb and distribute the force of an impact, preventing damage to the teeth, jaw, and soft tissues of the mouth. Mouth protectors can be custom-made by dental professionals, or they can be purchased as prefabricated or boil-and-bite models in sports stores. Using a properly fitted mouth protector is essential for athletes participating in contact sports like football, hockey, basketball, and boxing, as well as non-contact activities such as skateboarding, rollerblading, and bicycling, where accidents or falls can still result in oral injuries.

The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine, immediately following the stomach. It is a C-shaped structure that is about 10-12 inches long and is responsible for continuing the digestion process that begins in the stomach. The duodenum receives partially digested food from the stomach through the pyloric valve and mixes it with digestive enzymes and bile produced by the pancreas and liver, respectively. These enzymes help break down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates into smaller molecules, allowing for efficient absorption in the remaining sections of the small intestine.

The small intestine is the portion of the gastrointestinal tract that extends from the pylorus of the stomach to the beginning of the large intestine (cecum). It plays a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients from food. The small intestine is divided into three parts: the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.

1. Duodenum: This is the shortest and widest part of the small intestine, approximately 10 inches long. It receives chyme (partially digested food) from the stomach and begins the process of further digestion with the help of various enzymes and bile from the liver and pancreas.
2. Jejunum: The jejunum is the middle section, which measures about 8 feet in length. It has a large surface area due to the presence of circular folds (plicae circulares), finger-like projections called villi, and microvilli on the surface of the absorptive cells (enterocytes). These structures increase the intestinal surface area for efficient absorption of nutrients, electrolytes, and water.
3. Ileum: The ileum is the longest and final section of the small intestine, spanning about 12 feet. It continues the absorption process, mainly of vitamin B12, bile salts, and any remaining nutrients. At the end of the ileum, there is a valve called the ileocecal valve that prevents backflow of contents from the large intestine into the small intestine.

The primary function of the small intestine is to absorb the majority of nutrients, electrolytes, and water from ingested food. The mucosal lining of the small intestine contains numerous goblet cells that secrete mucus, which protects the epithelial surface and facilitates the movement of chyme through peristalsis. Additionally, the small intestine hosts a diverse community of microbiota, which contributes to various physiological functions, including digestion, immunity, and protection against pathogens.

Gastritis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the lining of the stomach. It can be caused by various factors, including bacterial infections (such as Helicobacter pylori), regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), excessive alcohol consumption, and stress.

Gastritis can present with a range of symptoms, such as abdominal pain or discomfort, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and bloating. In some cases, gastritis may not cause any noticeable symptoms. Depending on the severity and duration of inflammation, gastritis can lead to complications like stomach ulcers or even stomach cancer if left untreated.

There are two main types of gastritis: acute and chronic. Acute gastritis develops suddenly and may last for a short period, while chronic gastritis persists over time, often leading to atrophy of the stomach lining. Diagnosis typically involves endoscopy and tissue biopsy to assess the extent of inflammation and rule out other potential causes of symptoms. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause but may include antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors, or lifestyle modifications.

The esophagus is the muscular tube that connects the throat (pharynx) to the stomach. It is located in the midline of the neck and chest, passing through the diaphragm to enter the abdomen and join the stomach. The main function of the esophagus is to transport food and liquids from the mouth to the stomach for digestion.

The esophagus has a few distinct parts: the upper esophageal sphincter (a ring of muscle that separates the esophagus from the throat), the middle esophagus, and the lower esophageal sphincter (another ring of muscle that separates the esophagus from the stomach). The lower esophageal sphincter relaxes to allow food and liquids to enter the stomach and then contracts to prevent stomach contents from flowing back into the esophagus.

The walls of the esophagus are made up of several layers, including mucosa (a moist tissue that lines the inside of the tube), submucosa (a layer of connective tissue), muscle (both voluntary and involuntary types), and adventitia (an outer layer of connective tissue).

Common conditions affecting the esophagus include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Barrett's esophagus, esophageal cancer, esophageal strictures, and eosinophilic esophagitis.

In medical terms, the tongue is a muscular organ in the oral cavity that plays a crucial role in various functions such as taste, swallowing, and speech. It's covered with a mucous membrane and contains papillae, which are tiny projections that contain taste buds to help us perceive different tastes - sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. The tongue also assists in the initial process of digestion by moving food around in the mouth for chewing and mixing with saliva. Additionally, it helps in forming words and speaking clearly by shaping the sounds produced in the mouth.

In anatomical terms, the stomach is a muscular, J-shaped organ located in the upper left portion of the abdomen. It is part of the gastrointestinal tract and plays a crucial role in digestion. The stomach's primary functions include storing food, mixing it with digestive enzymes and hydrochloric acid to break down proteins, and slowly emptying the partially digested food into the small intestine for further absorption of nutrients.

The stomach is divided into several regions, including the cardia (the area nearest the esophagus), the fundus (the upper portion on the left side), the body (the main central part), and the pylorus (the narrowed region leading to the small intestine). The inner lining of the stomach, called the mucosa, is protected by a layer of mucus that prevents the digestive juices from damaging the stomach tissue itself.

In medical contexts, various conditions can affect the stomach, such as gastritis (inflammation of the stomach lining), peptic ulcers (sores in the stomach or duodenum), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and stomach cancer. Symptoms related to the stomach may include abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, and difficulty swallowing.

A stomach ulcer, also known as a gastric ulcer, is a sore that forms in the lining of the stomach. It's caused by a breakdown in the mucous layer that protects the stomach from digestive juices, allowing acid to come into contact with the stomach lining and cause an ulcer. The most common causes are bacterial infection (usually by Helicobacter pylori) and long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Stomach ulcers may cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, heartburn, and nausea. If left untreated, they can lead to more serious complications like internal bleeding, perforation, or obstruction.

The ileum is the third and final segment of the small intestine, located between the jejunum and the cecum (the beginning of the large intestine). It plays a crucial role in nutrient absorption, particularly for vitamin B12 and bile salts. The ileum is characterized by its thin, lined walls and the presence of Peyer's patches, which are part of the immune system and help surveil for pathogens.

Saliva is a complex mixture of primarily water, but also electrolytes, enzymes, antibacterial compounds, and various other substances. It is produced by the salivary glands located in the mouth. Saliva plays an essential role in maintaining oral health by moistening the mouth, helping to digest food, and protecting the teeth from decay by neutralizing acids produced by bacteria.

The medical definition of saliva can be stated as:

"A clear, watery, slightly alkaline fluid secreted by the salivary glands, consisting mainly of water, with small amounts of electrolytes, enzymes (such as amylase), mucus, and antibacterial compounds. Saliva aids in digestion, lubrication of oral tissues, and provides an oral barrier against microorganisms."

Trismus is a term used in medicine to describe the inability to open the mouth fully due to spasm or prolonged stiffness of the muscles involved in jaw movement, specifically the masseter and temporalis muscles. This condition can result from various causes such as dental procedures, infections, tetanus, radiation therapy to the head and neck region, or trauma. In some cases, trismus can lead to complications like difficulty eating, speaking, and maintaining oral hygiene, which can negatively impact a person's quality of life. Treatment typically involves physical therapy, stretching exercises, medication, or in severe cases, surgery.

A "cheek" is the fleshy, muscular area of the face that forms the side of the face below the eye and above the jaw. It contains the buccinator muscle, which helps with chewing by moving food to the back teeth for grinding and also assists in speaking and forming facial expressions. The cheek also contains several sensory receptors that allow us to perceive touch, temperature, and pain in this area of the face. Additionally, there is a mucous membrane lining inside the mouth cavity called the buccal mucosa which covers the inner surface of the cheek.

Metaplasia is a term used in pathology to describe the replacement of one differentiated cell type with another differentiated cell type within a tissue or organ. It is an adaptive response of epithelial cells to chronic irritation, inflammation, or injury and can be reversible if the damaging stimulus is removed. Metaplastic changes are often associated with an increased risk of cancer development in the affected area.

For example, in the case of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), chronic exposure to stomach acid can lead to metaplasia of the esophageal squamous epithelium into columnar epithelium, a condition known as Barrett's esophagus. This metaplastic change is associated with an increased risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma.

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that colonizes the stomach of approximately 50% of the global population. It is closely associated with gastritis and peptic ulcer disease, and is implicated in the pathogenesis of gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. H. pylori infection is usually acquired in childhood and can persist for life if not treated. The bacterium's spiral shape and flagella allow it to penetrate the mucus layer and adhere to the gastric epithelium, where it releases virulence factors that cause inflammation and tissue damage. Diagnosis of H. pylori infection can be made through various tests, including urea breath test, stool antigen test, or histological examination of a gastric biopsy. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors to eradicate the bacteria and promote healing of the stomach lining.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

Ulcerative colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that affects the lining of the large intestine (colon) and rectum. In ulcerative colitis, the lining of the colon becomes inflamed and develops ulcers or open sores that produce pus and mucous. The symptoms of ulcerative colitis include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding.

The exact cause of ulcerative colitis is not known, but it is thought to be related to an abnormal immune response in which the body's immune system attacks the cells in the digestive tract. The inflammation can be triggered by environmental factors such as diet, stress, and infections.

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic condition that can cause symptoms ranging from mild to severe. It can also lead to complications such as anemia, malnutrition, and colon cancer. There is no cure for ulcerative colitis, but treatment options such as medications, lifestyle changes, and surgery can help manage the symptoms and prevent complications.

Halitosis is a medical term that refers to noticeably unpleasant breath. It's also commonly known as bad breath. This condition can result from several factors, including poor oral hygiene, certain foods, smoking, alcohol use, dry mouth, and various medical conditions (such as gastrointestinal issues, respiratory infections, or liver and kidney problems). Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices, like brushing twice a day and flossing daily, can help prevent halitosis. In some cases, mouthwashes, sugar-free gums, or mints may provide temporary relief. However, if bad breath persists, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional or dentist for further evaluation and appropriate treatment.

The pyloric antrum is the distal part of the stomach, which is the last portion that precedes the pylorus and the beginning of the duodenum. It is a thickened, muscular area responsible for grinding and mixing food with gastric juices during digestion. The pyloric antrum also helps regulate the passage of chyme (partially digested food) into the small intestine through the pyloric sphincter, which controls the opening and closing of the pylorus. This region is crucial in the gastrointestinal tract's motor functions and overall digestive process.

Respiratory mucosa refers to the mucous membrane that lines the respiratory tract, including the nose, throat, bronchi, and lungs. It is a specialized type of tissue that is composed of epithelial cells, goblet cells, and glands that produce mucus, which helps to trap inhaled particles such as dust, allergens, and pathogens.

The respiratory mucosa also contains cilia, tiny hair-like structures that move rhythmically to help propel the mucus and trapped particles out of the airways and into the upper part of the throat, where they can be swallowed or coughed up. This defense mechanism is known as the mucociliary clearance system.

In addition to its role in protecting the respiratory tract from harmful substances, the respiratory mucosa also plays a crucial role in immune function by containing various types of immune cells that help to detect and respond to pathogens and other threats.

In medical terms, a "lip" refers to the thin edge or border of an organ or other biological structure. However, when people commonly refer to "the lip," they are usually talking about the lips on the face, which are part of the oral cavity. The lips are a pair of soft, fleshy tissues that surround the mouth and play a crucial role in various functions such as speaking, eating, drinking, and expressing emotions.

The lips are made up of several layers, including skin, muscle, blood vessels, nerves, and mucous membrane. The outer surface of the lips is covered by skin, while the inner surface is lined with a moist mucous membrane. The muscles that make up the lips allow for movements such as pursing, puckering, and smiling.

The lips also contain numerous sensory receptors that help detect touch, temperature, pain, and other stimuli. Additionally, they play a vital role in protecting the oral cavity from external irritants and pathogens, helping to keep the mouth clean and healthy.

Helicobacter infections are caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which colonizes the stomach lining and is associated with various gastrointestinal diseases. The infection can lead to chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, and gastric cancer.

The spiral-shaped H. pylori bacteria are able to survive in the harsh acidic environment of the stomach by producing urease, an enzyme that neutralizes gastric acid in their immediate vicinity. This allows them to adhere to and colonize the epithelial lining of the stomach, where they can cause inflammation (gastritis) and disrupt the normal functioning of the stomach.

Transmission of H. pylori typically occurs through oral-oral or fecal-oral routes, and infection is more common in developing countries and in populations with lower socioeconomic status. The diagnosis of Helicobacter infections can be confirmed through various tests, including urea breath tests, stool antigen tests, or gastric biopsy with histology and culture. Treatment usually involves a combination of antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors to eradicate the bacteria and reduce stomach acidity.

Dentures are defined as a removable dental appliance that replaces missing teeth and surrounding tissues. They are made to resemble your natural teeth and may even enhance your smile. There are two types of dentures - complete and partial. Complete dentures are used when all the teeth are missing, while partial dentures are used when some natural teeth remain.

Complete dentures cover the entire upper or lower jaw, while partial dentures replace one or more missing teeth by attaching to the remaining teeth. Dentures improve chewing ability, speech, and support the facial muscles and structure, preventing sagging of the cheeks and jowls that can occur with missing teeth.

The process of getting dentures usually involves several appointments with a dental professional, who will take impressions and measurements of your mouth to ensure a proper fit and comfortable bite. It may take some time to get used to wearing dentures, but they are an effective solution for restoring a natural-looking smile and improving oral function in people who have lost their teeth.

Epithelium is the tissue that covers the outer surface of the body, lines the internal cavities and organs, and forms various glands. It is composed of one or more layers of tightly packed cells that have a uniform shape and size, and rest on a basement membrane. Epithelial tissues are avascular, meaning they do not contain blood vessels, and are supplied with nutrients by diffusion from the underlying connective tissue.

Epithelial cells perform a variety of functions, including protection, secretion, absorption, excretion, and sensation. They can be classified based on their shape and the number of cell layers they contain. The main types of epithelium are:

1. Squamous epithelium: composed of flat, scalelike cells that fit together like tiles on a roof. It forms the lining of blood vessels, air sacs in the lungs, and the outermost layer of the skin.
2. Cuboidal epithelium: composed of cube-shaped cells with equal height and width. It is found in glands, tubules, and ducts.
3. Columnar epithelium: composed of tall, rectangular cells that are taller than they are wide. It lines the respiratory, digestive, and reproductive tracts.
4. Pseudostratified epithelium: appears stratified or layered but is actually made up of a single layer of cells that vary in height. The nuclei of these cells appear at different levels, giving the tissue a stratified appearance. It lines the respiratory and reproductive tracts.
5. Transitional epithelium: composed of several layers of cells that can stretch and change shape to accommodate changes in volume. It is found in the urinary bladder and ureters.

Epithelial tissue provides a barrier between the internal and external environments, protecting the body from physical, chemical, and biological damage. It also plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis by regulating the exchange of substances between the body and its environment.

A nose, in a medical context, refers to the external part of the human body that is located on the face and serves as the primary organ for the sense of smell. It is composed of bone and cartilage, with a thin layer of skin covering it. The nose also contains nasal passages that are lined with mucous membranes and tiny hairs known as cilia. These structures help to filter, warm, and moisturize the air we breathe in before it reaches our lungs. Additionally, the nose plays an essential role in the process of verbal communication by shaping the sounds we make when we speak.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

A precancerous condition, also known as a premalignant condition, is a state of abnormal cellular growth and development that has a higher-than-normal potential to progress into cancer. These conditions are characterized by the presence of certain anomalies in the cells, such as dysplasia (abnormal changes in cell shape or size), which can indicate an increased risk for malignant transformation.

It is important to note that not all precancerous conditions will eventually develop into cancer, and some may even regress on their own. However, individuals with precancerous conditions are often at a higher risk of developing cancer compared to the general population. Regular monitoring and appropriate medical interventions, if necessary, can help manage this risk and potentially prevent or detect cancer at an early stage when it is more treatable.

Examples of precancerous conditions include:

1. Dysplasia in the cervix (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or CIN)
2. Atypical ductal hyperplasia or lobular hyperplasia in the breast
3. Actinic keratosis on the skin
4. Leukoplakia in the mouth
5. Barrett's esophagus in the digestive tract

Regular medical check-ups, screenings, and lifestyle modifications are crucial for individuals with precancerous conditions to monitor their health and reduce the risk of cancer development.

Stomach neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the stomach that can be benign or malignant. They include a wide range of conditions such as:

1. Gastric adenomas: These are benign tumors that develop from glandular cells in the stomach lining.
2. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs): These are rare tumors that can be found in the stomach and other parts of the digestive tract. They originate from the stem cells in the wall of the digestive tract.
3. Leiomyomas: These are benign tumors that develop from smooth muscle cells in the stomach wall.
4. Lipomas: These are benign tumors that develop from fat cells in the stomach wall.
5. Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs): These are tumors that develop from the neuroendocrine cells in the stomach lining. They can be benign or malignant.
6. Gastric carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that develop from the glandular cells in the stomach lining. They are the most common type of stomach neoplasm and include adenocarcinomas, signet ring cell carcinomas, and others.
7. Lymphomas: These are malignant tumors that develop from the immune cells in the stomach wall.

Stomach neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and difficulty swallowing. The diagnosis of stomach neoplasms usually involves a combination of imaging tests, endoscopy, and biopsy. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or targeted therapy.

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This frog has green coloring on the mucosa of its mouth. Scientists place it in the same species group as the northern New ...
The early lesions in the mouth are small, yellowish, circumscribed plaques on the mucosa. More velogenic (highly virulent) ... Greenish fluid or cheesy material may accumulate in the mouth and crop, and this material may exude from the beak. A pendulous ... In young birds, the early lesions appear as small white to yellowish areas in the mouth cavity, especially the soft palate. The ... Birds may have difficulty swallowing and breathing due to the cheese like deposits in the mouth lining and down the esophagus ...
Less often, the labial mucosa, the palate or the floor of mouth may be affected. The surface of the area is folded, creating a ... Leukoedema is a blue, grey or white appearance of mucosae, particularly the buccal mucosa (the inside of the cheeks); it may ... This darker mucosa may make the edematous changes more noticeable, whereas in the mucosa of people with lighter skin types ... milky opalescent appearance of the mucosa which usually occurs bilaterally on the buccal mucosa. ...
There are also about 800-1,000 minor salivary glands in the mucosa of the mouth. The parotid glands are in front of the ears, ... The sublingual gland is below the tongue, on the floor of the mouth; it drains its mostly mucous saliva into the mouth via ... which protects the mucosa of the mouth during eating and speaking. Saliva also contains digestive enzymes (e.g. salivary ... into the mouth, usually opening in a punctum in the floor of mouth. ...
Most commonly affecting the mouth, including the buccal mucosa, gingiva, tongue, vermillion lips, and palate. Desquamative ... Oral mucosa is the most common site being affected in mucous membrane pemphigoid. For the mild oral mucosa lesion, high potency ... Patients are instructed to apply the ointment or gel 2-3 times a day after drying the oral mucosa to enhance the adherence of ... Any mucous membrane can be involved, but the most commonly involved site is the oral mucosa, followed by conjunctiva, skin, ...
The animal opens its mouth widely when startled, exposing its whitish-colored oral mucosa; this is the reason it is commonly ... cotton-mouthed snake, Congo snake, trap-jaw, gapper. Found in the United States, from southern Alabama along coast of the Gulf ...
... rex favours the mucosae of mouth, nose and throat in humans. Other leeches that also settle in mucosae have been ... The finding of Tyrannobdella rex and genetic comparisons of its genome to other leeches that infest the mucosae of mammals has ... mucosae) of its host and feed on their blood. In contrast to other leeches, T. rex does not drop off its host after feeding but ...
... of the mouth and nose. Fetid breath persists. The child may feel pain or soreness in their mouth and cheeks. High fever is ... Ulceration of the gums worsens during this stage; ulceration may spread to the mucosa (soft, mucus-producing tissue) ... The gangrene may affect the cheeks, lips, nose, mouth, and nasal and oral cavities. The lesions have well-defined borders and a ... Noma (also known as gangrenous stomatitis or cancrum oris) is a rapidly progressive and often fatal infection of the mouth and ...
The mouth is lined by a black mucosa, although the large and heavy tongue is pink. The palate is wrinkled in texture, and the ...
The bacterium also colonizes the human mouth, mucosae, oropharynx and upper respiratory tract. Micrococcus luteus is generally ...
Lining mucosa in the cheeks, lips and floor of mouth is mobile to create space when chewing and talking. During mastication, it ... part of the lining mucosa. Labial mucosa, the inside lining of the lips; part of the lining mucosa. Masticatory mucosa, ... The oral mucosa is the mucous membrane lining the inside of the mouth. It comprises stratified squamous epithelium, termed " ... The mouth is also subject to sudden changes in temperature and pH meaning it must be able to adapt to change quickly. The mouth ...
Diagnosis is first done through the inspection of the swollen mucosa in the mouth and visible airways. Any inspection of the ...
It was also observed that the buccal mucosa, palate, and floor of the mouth were considered normal. The patient proceeded with ...
This is because the bone and mucosa of the mouth are living tissues, which are dynamic over decades. Bone remodeling never ... Mouth ulceration is the most common lesion in people with dentures. It can be caused by repetitive minor trauma like poorly ... Mucosa reacts to being chronically rubbed by the dentures. Poorly fitting dentures hasten both of those processes compared to ... Dentures should not be worn continuously, but rather taken out of the mouth during sleep. This is to give the tissues a chance ...
Within the oral mucosa, and also on the tongue, palates, and floor of the mouth, are the minor salivary glands; their ... The palate is hard at the front of the mouth since the overlying mucosa is covering a plate of bone; it is softer and more ... The mucous membrane in the mouth continues as the thin mucosa which lines the bases of the teeth. The main component of mucus ... Mouth diseases can also be caused by pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi and as a side effect of some medications. Mouth ...
Mudskippers breathe through their skin and through the lining of the mouth (the mucosa) and throat (the pharynx). This requires ... Swamp eels, which are not true eels, can absorb oxygen through their highly vascularized mouths and pharynges, and in some ...
The location 'other mouth' refers to the buccal mucosa, the vestibule and other unspecified parts of the mouth. The data ... Oral cancer, also known as mouth cancer, is a cancer of the lining of the lips, mouth, or upper throat. In the mouth, it most ... Due to tumors developing in hidden spots such as beneath the tongue, when the tumors in the cats mouth are caught it is often ... For small lesions (T1-2), access to the oral cavity is through the mouth. When the lesion is larger, involves the bone of the ...
It is this movement through the mucosa of the mouth and lips that causes patients to complain of symptoms. Gongylonema pulchrum ... in her cheek mucosa. Six months earlier, she had noted an irregular patch of mucosa on her cheek, but thought nothing of it. ... The buccal mucosa, which is the ideal environment for the parasite, is the mucous membrane of the inside of the cheek. It is ... The most common symptom is the complaint of sensation of a worm moving around the mouth, near the lips, and in the soft palate ...
The inflammation may include the perioral skin (the skin around the mouth), the vermilion border, or the labial mucosa. The ... A lesion caused by recurrence of a latent herpes simplex infection can occur in the corner of the mouth, and be mistaken for ... Bork, Konrad (1996). Diseases of the oral mucosa and the lips (English ed.). Philadelphia, Pa. [u.a.]: Saunders. p. 10. ISBN ... Counterintuitively, constant licking of the lips causes drying and irritation, and eventually the mucosa splits or cracks. The ...
The oral mucosa is the mucous membrane epithelium lining the inside of the mouth. In addition to its primary role as the ... A male mouth can hold, on average, 71.2 ml (2.51 imp fl oz; 2.41 US fl oz), while a female mouth holds 55.4 ml (1.95 imp fl oz ... A down-turned mouth means a mouth line forming a down-turned parabola, and when permanent can be normal. Also, a down-turned ... The mouth consists of two regions, the vestibule and the oral cavity proper. The mouth, normally moist, is lined with a mucous ...
The mouth for hygiene. The mucosa for hydration and pallor or central cyanosis. The ear lobes for Frank's sign. Then inspect ...
Most usually, the lesions are on the buccal mucosa, but sometimes on the labial mucosa, alveolar ridge, floor of the mouth, ... White sponge nevus (WSN) is an autosomal dominant condition of the oral mucosa (the mucous membrane lining of the mouth). It is ... Less commonly, sites outside the mouth are affected, including the nasal, esophageal, laryngeal, anal and genital mucosae. It ... This results in lesions which are thick, white and velvety on the inside of the cheeks within the mouth. Usually, these lesions ...
The autoimmune reaction most commonly affects the oral mucosa in the mouth, causing lesions in the gums (gingiva), known as ... For example, where there are lesions in the mouth alone, systemic drugs are less likely to be used. Where the condition is not ... Nikolsky's sign (gentle lateral pressure) on unaffected mucosa or skin raises a bulla. If no lesions are present on examination ... limited to the mouth, or where there is poor response to Topical treatments, systemic drugs are more likely to be used. Simple ...
Besides the characteristic brown lesions of the dermis, ulcerative lesions can form in the mucosa of the mouth and on the ... It can be found on asymptomatic carrier pigs at sites such as the skin, mucosa of nasal cavity, conjunctiva, and genitals ( ... Head, neck, feet, general body, mouth and tongue Kidneys and ureters may become distended with mucous and debris collection; ...
Common infection of the skin or mucosa may affect the face and mouth (orofacial herpes), genitalia (genital herpes), or hands ( ... Common mouth ulcers (aphthous ulcer) also resemble intraoral herpes, but do not present a vesicular stage. Genital herpes can ... The use of condoms or dental dams also limits the transmission of herpes from the genitals of one partner to the mouth of the ... To infect a new individual, HSV travels through tiny breaks in the skin or mucous membranes in the mouth or genital areas. Even ...
Nonkeratinized tissue also lines the cheeks (buccal mucosa), underside of the tongue and floor of the mouth. The lips contain ... A free gingival graft is a dental procedure where a small layer of tissue is removed from the palate of the patient's mouth and ... Alveolar mucosa is non keratinized oral epithelium and is located apical to the keratinized tissue, delineated by the ... Traditional gum grafting will have a piece of the gums harvested from the roof of the mouth and sutured facing the exposed root ...
... and can extend to the inner lip mucosa and corners of the mouth. The linea alba is a common finding and most likely associated ... The linea alba (Latin for white line), in dentistry, is a horizontal streak on the buccal mucosa (inner surface of the cheek), ... "Epidemiological study of oral mucosa pathology in patients of the Oviedo School of Stomatology" (PDF). Med Oral. 7 (1): 4-9, 10 ...
... alveolar mucosa, and the lower labial mucosa. Leukoplakia of the floor of the mouth and tongue accounts for over 90% of ... The most common sites affected are the buccal mucosa, the labial mucosa and the alveolar mucosa, although any mucosal surface ... Dyskeratosis congenita may be associated with leukoplakia of the oral mucosa and of the anal mucosa. Within the mouth, ... Excessive use of a high alcohol-containing mouth wash (> 25%) may cause a grey plaque to form on the buccal mucosa, but these ...
The most common site of involvement is the commissural region of the buccal mucosa, usually on both sides of the mouth. Another ... Pseudomembraneous candidiasis can involve any part of the mouth, but usually it appears on the tongue, buccal mucosae or palate ... Mucosa covered by an oral appliance such as a denture harbors significantly more candida species than uncovered mucosa. When ... and leaving them out of the mouth during sleep. This gives the mucosa a chance to recover, while wearing a denture during sleep ...
... human gingival mucosa explants were infected with either HSV-1 or HSV-2 in vitro and the expression of virus specific antigen ... To examine the sensitivity of human oral mucosa to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) infection, ... Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 infection in human oral mucosa in culture J Oral Pathol Med. 1991 Feb;20(2):68-73. doi: ... Mouth Mucosa / microbiology* * Simplexvirus / ultrastructure * Stomatitis, Herpetic / microbiology* * Virion / ultrastructure ...
Mouth, lips, or oral mucosa. 7/160 (4.4). 400/4,140 (9.7)**. 0.43 (0.20-0.92). ...
Once the toothpaste enters the mouth, the proteins bind to mucosa. Langerhans cells then pull the protein into the lymph system ... on the mouth and the buccal mucosa," said Berger. ...
These nevi most often occur on the mouth (oral) mucosa (plural: mucosae). Rarely, white sponge nevus occurs on the mucosae of ... Keratin 13 is found in the moist lining (mucosae) of the mouth, nose, esophagus, genitals, and anus. ... Fragile intermediate filaments in the oral mucosa might be damaged when eating or brushing ones teeth. Damage to intermediate ... These filaments assemble into strong networks that provide strength and resilience to the different mucosae. Networks of ...
Floor of mouth, oral tongue, retromolar trigone, gingiva, hard palate, buccal mucosa ... Floor of mouth, oral tongue, retromolar trigone, gingiva, hard palate, buccal mucosa ... Floor of mouth, oral tongue, retromolar trigone, gingiva, hard palate, buccal mucosa ... Floor of mouth, oral tongue, retromolar trigone, gingiva, hard palate, buccal mucosa ...
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Cicatricial pemphigoid of the mouth mucosa]. Sakovich LV, Rekhachev VM, Zelenkova TM. Sakovich LV, et al. Vestn Dermatol ...
Categories: Mouth Mucosa Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 1 ...
The existence that superspreaders may exist in the early stage has been postulated [44]. Generally, the mouth, nose, and ocular ... Transmission of CoVs is usually via airborne droplets to the nasal mucosa in closed environments and through close contact ... the virions first invade the respiratory mucosa and then trigger a powerful immune response in the lungs with the production of ... mucosa appear to be the major way of transmission. In the eye, ACE2 receptor is not expressed in the conjunctival or corneal ...
Mouth - Oral mucosa cyst. Mouth - Oral mucosa. 0. 0. References: Sundberg JP, Pathobiol Aging Age Relat Dis 2011;1(): ...
But the nicotine is absorbed by the mucosa of the mouth and pharynx. Because of this there are attendant chemical changes, as ... The constant irritation of the oral mucosa produces changes either precancerous or cancerous in the mouth. Slugs of tobacco ...
The oral spray, called Oral-lyn, delivers liquid bubbles containing insulin to the lining of the mouth, also called the buccal ... mucosa. "It goes right into the bloodstream; theres no place to hang out," Bernstein says. "The advantage is that [its ...
This seems to be a conjugated insulin that is absorbed from the mucosa of the mouth. The nebuliser is quite small rather like ...
1Includes stomatitis, aphthous stomatitis, mucosal inflammation, mouth ulceration, oral mucosa erosion, mucosal erosion, ... 1Includes stomatitis, aphthous stomatitis, mucosal inflammation, mouth ulceration, oral mucosa erosion, mucosal erosion, ...
Mucosal lesions are found on the mucosa of the eyes, nose, mouth, and genitals; they are more widespread and severe than in the ... Mouth ulcers can be quite painful and interfere with eating, drinking, and talking. Topical anesthetics containing lidocaine or ... mouth (lips), buttocks, genitals, abdominal organs, and larynx.26 Histamine, which also leaks out of the blood vessels, is ... 3-7 Lesions may affect only the skin or the skin and mucous membranes in the mouth, nose, or genital areas.2 Usually, an ...
Water may be used to moisten the buccal mucosa in patients with a dry mouth. ... Meloxicam Orodispersible Tablets should be placed in the mouth on the tongue and allowed to dissolve slowly for five minutes ( ... Considerably increased risk of bleeding, via inhibition of platelet function and damage to the gastroduodenal mucosa. NSAIDs ... Increased risk of bleeding, via inhibition of platelet function and damage to the gastroduodenal mucosa. ...
Check the eyes (lids, conjunctiva, cornea) and mouth (lips, tongue, buccal mucosa) for findings linked with malnutrition and ... The lips are swollen or puffy and appear as if the buccal mucosa extends out onto the lip. There may be desquamation. This ... Angular lesions are recorded only when there is definite break in continuity of epithelium at the angles of the mouth. p. ... Sitting Blood pressure and pulse HEENT Hair, skin, skull, glands Ears Nose Eyes Mouth Neck Nodes and trachea Chest (including ...
... individuals with malignancy-associated Sweet syndrome may have lesions affecting the mucous membranes of the mouth (oral mucosa ... Bleeding lesions on the lips and the mucous membranes in the mouth may also occur. The skin lesions are usually distributed on ... mucosa). (For more information on this disorder, choose "pyoderma gangrenosum" as your search term in the Rare Disease Database ...
Rapid absorption takes place by mouth (buccal mucosa, and then the stomach). Ease of access is assured in a convenient moisture ... Fast absorption through buccal mucosa (tissue in mouth). - Each serving (2 tablets) contains: 100 mg sodium, 30 mg potassium, ...
Rapid absorption takes place by mouth (buccal mucosa, and then the stomach). Ease of access is assured in a convenient moisture ... Fast absorption through buccal mucosa (tissue in mouth) - Each serving (2 tablets) contains: 100 mg sodium, 30 mg potassium, 10 ...
5.2 Potential for Irritation to Oral Mucosa. Care should be taken to ensure that no drug is retained in the mouth. CREON should ... To avoid irritation of oral mucosa, do not chew CREON or retain in the mouth. ( ) 5.2 ... Crushing, chewing or holding the CREON capsules in your mouth may cause irritation in your mouth or change the way CREON works ... 5.2 Potential for Irritation to Oral Mucosa 5.3 Potential for Risk of Hyperuricemia 5.4 Potential Viral Exposure from the ...
Rapid absorption takes place by mouth (buccal mucosa, and then the stomach). Ease of access is assured in a convenient moisture ... Fast absorption through buccal mucosa (tissue in mouth) - Each serving (2 tablets) contains: 100 mg sodium, 30 mg potassium, 10 ...
Ulcerative oral mucositis lesions on the labial mucosa and the floor of the mouth. ... Chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis causes the mucosal lining of the mouth to atrophy and break down, forming ulcers. See the ... Patients should keep the mouth moist with frequent sips of water, ice chips, or popsicles. Patients with severe oral mucositis ... The epithelium then proliferates so that the thickness of the mucosa returns to normal. Reconstitution of the WBCs in ...
... mouth cancer, mucosa inflammation, phagocytosis, radiation dose, radiation exposure ...
Glossalgia, Halitosis, Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Serology, Oral Medicine, Mouth Mucosa, Diagnosis, Therapeutics, Biopsy ...
... which is basically soap that strips the necessary oral mucosa from the mouth. ...
Rapid absorption takes place by mouth (buccal mucosa, and then the stomach). Ease of access is assured in a convenient moisture ... Fast absorption through buccal mucosa (tissue in mouth) - Each serving (2 tablets) contains: 100 mg sodium, 30 mg potassium, 10 ...
  • The toothpaste "leverages the Langerhans cells in the entire oral cavity, not just under the tongue but on the palate, on the mouth and the buccal mucosa," said Berger. (
  • The oral spray, called Oral-lyn, delivers liquid bubbles containing insulin to the lining of the mouth, also called the buccal mucosa. (
  • Water may be used to moisten the buccal mucosa in patients with a dry mouth. (
  • Rapid absorption takes place by mouth (buccal mucosa, and then the stomach). (
  • Erythematous oral mucositis lesion on the buccal mucosa. (
  • Aphthous ulcers (canker sores) occur on areas of the mouth in which the mucosa is nonkeratinized and loosely attached, particularly the buccal mucosa, the labial mucosa, the floor of the mouth, the ventral surface of the tongue, and the soft palate. (
  • Study design The prevalence of HPV infection in oral buccal mucosa cell scrapes collected between 2000 and 2002 from a cohort of 668 healthy volunteers was determined. (
  • Buccal midazolam can be easily administered during on-going seizure activities, and the large surface area of the buccal mucosa allows the drug to be well absorbed into the systemic circulation, thus avoiding high first-pass metabolism. (
  • Although it occurs in other anatomic sites, most intraoral cases involve buccal mucosa, alveolar mucosa and gingiva. (
  • During clinical examination an exophytic reddish white growth was seen intra orally involving the right buccal mucosa and extending extra orally to the corner of mouth. (
  • The other 80 percent consists of the tongue, buccal mucosa and gingivae. (
  • The antimicrobial effects of Colgate Total SF versus a control toothpaste were measured by taking samples from the plaque, saliva, buccal mucosa, gingivae and tongue. (
  • Performance of neck dissection may decrease the risk of recurrence in primary SCCA of the buccal mucosa. (
  • 3-7 Lesions may affect only the skin or the skin and mucous membranes in the mouth, nose, or genital areas. (
  • Patients with a history of major recurrent aphthous ulcers (canker sores) often have residual scarring in the oral mucosa from previous lesions. (
  • We recently identified mutations in iRHOM2 as the underlying cause of Tylosis, an inherited condition in which affected individuals exhibit thickened skin on palms and soles in combination with lesions of the mucosa in the mouth and oesophagus and an increased lifetime risk for oesophageal cancer. (
  • This entity should be distinguished from several other diseases that cause white lesions in the mouth including white sponge nevus. (
  • The submucosa of the mouth and pharynx (including the lips, gums, palate, tongue, salivary glands, tonsils, and throat) consists of intestinal cylinder epithelium , originates from the endoderm and is therefore controlled from the brainstem. (
  • With respect to the upper aero digestive tract, where the verrucous carcinoma most often arises, the oral cavity, particularly the cheek mucosa, gingivae and retromolar areas, remains the most common site of origin 4 . (
  • Dry mouth and receding gums increase the likelihood of cavities. (
  • Despite dry mouth and receding gums, many older people retain their teeth, especially people who do not develop cavities or periodontal disease. (
  • While many people are aware of HPV, both the benign and dangerous variations, they don't necessarily know or understand how this virus can affect the gums and the mouth. (
  • However, they may cause benign-like growths in parts of the mouth, namely on the gums. (
  • Dry Mouth Dry mouth is caused by a reduced or absent flow of saliva. (
  • The main reason behind xerostomia is a lower amount of saliva in the mouth. (
  • Because of the dryness, they can suffer from ruptures inside the oral cavity, or around the mouth on the corners, Saliva is a very important protecting factor in the oral cavity. (
  • Ebola can be transmitted in postmortem care settings by direct handl ing of human remains without recommended personal protective equipment (PPE), and through splashes of blood or other body fluids such as urine, saliva, feces, or vomit to unprotected mucosa such as eyes, nose, or mouth during postmortem care. (
  • Chemotherapy, either at conventional levels or in the higher-dosed myeloablative protocols used in conditioning regimens (with or without total body radiation in preparation for hematopoietic cell transplantation [HCT]), often results in erythema, edema, atrophy, and ulceration of the oral mucosa, a condition generally referred to as oral mucositis. (
  • A 1983 study of 43 chrome-plating plants in Sweden, where workers were exposed almost exclusively to Cr(VI) acid, revealed that all workers with nasal mucosa ulceration or perforation were periodically exposed to at least 20 micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m³) when working near the plating baths (The newest U.S. permissible exposure level in the workplace for chromates and chromic acid is 5 µg/m³ as a ceiling). (
  • It affects the mucosa, thus preventing the virus from entering the eyes, nose and mouth, as well as through a cut in the skin. (
  • The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations. (
  • Patients should keep the mouth moist with frequent sips of water, ice chips, or popsicles. (
  • Mucosa is moist tissue that lines certain parts of the inside of your body. (
  • These findings indicate that human gingival mucosa is sensitive to infection with HSV-2, as well as HSV-1, and that the virus may replicate in the undifferentiated epithelial cells of mucosal epithelium. (
  • Damage to intermediate filaments leads to inflammation and promotes the abnormal growth and division (proliferation) of epithelial cells, causing the mucosae to thicken and resulting in white sponge nevus. (
  • To evaluate the association between oral health status, socio-demographic and behavioral factors with the pattern of maturity of normal epithelial oral mucosa. (
  • Meloxicam Orodispersible Tablets should be placed in the mouth on the tongue and allowed to dissolve slowly for five minutes (the tablet should not be chewed and should not be swallowed undissolved), before swallowing with a drink of 240 ml of water. (
  • Exfoliative cytology specimens were collected from 117 men from the border of the tongue and floor of the mouth on opposite sides. (
  • Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is an idiopathic condition characterized by a continuous burning sensation of the mucosa of the mouth, typically involving the tongue, with or without extension to the lips and oral mucosa. (
  • Pertinent to burning mouth syndrome (BMS), the lingual branch of the mandibular nerve (V3) supplies the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. (
  • The salivary glands are located in several parts of the mouth. (
  • But the nicotine is absorbed by the mucosa of the mouth and pharynx. (
  • In the brainstem , the control centers of the organs of the digestive system and its descendants are positioned in a ring-form order , starting on the right brain hemisphere with the brain relays of the mouth and pharynx (incl. (
  • In the brainstem , the organs of the mouth and pharynx have two control centers that are orderly positioned within the ring form of the brain relays that control the organs of the alimentary canal . (
  • These observations are consistent with other findings of significantly increased p53 protein expression in the oral mucosa and other tissues of smokers and suggests that p53 mutations may be an early event in smoking-induced oral cancers. (
  • At a medicinal level, it is a source of tannins, astringent and antioxidant components, which act by coagulating the proteins of the mucosa or the mouth, contracting the tissues and drying secretions (rough sensation, as after eating an apple or persimmon). (
  • Once the toothpaste enters the mouth, the proteins bind to mucosa. (
  • The macroscopic appearance of Ackerman's trumour depends on several factors like duration of lesion, degree of keratinization and the changes in adjacent mucosa. (
  • Some experts also believe that dry mouth may make the lining of the esophagus more susceptible to injury. (
  • Many cases of nasal mucosa injury (inflamed mucosa, ulcerated septum, and perforated septum) have been reported in workers exposed to Cr(VI) in chrome-plating plants and tanneries [ATSDR 2000]. (
  • Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a clinical diagnosis made via the exclusion of all other causes. (
  • Patients typically describe a prodromal stage of a burning or pricking sensation of the oral mucosa 1-2 days before the ulcer appears. (
  • Patients usually experience a burning or tingling sensation in their mouth, change of the taste function, difficulty while chewing and swallowing, sore throat, lips and more. (
  • The inside of the mouth is lined with mucous membranes. (
  • The constant irritation of the oral mucosa produces changes either precancerous or cancerous in the mouth. (
  • To avoid irritation of oral mucosa, do not chew CREON or retain in the mouth. (
  • To examine the sensitivity of human oral mucosa to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) infection, human gingival mucosa explants were infected with either HSV-1 or HSV-2 in vitro and the expression of virus specific antigen was examined by the immunofluorescent antibody technique. (
  • The mucosa of the mouth is very thin and may therefore permit unroofing of the alveolar bone immediately beneath it when trauma or infection occurs. (
  • As potent inhibitors of osteoclast activity, the nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates might retard skeletal repair processes associated with trauma to or infection of the oral mucosa that involves the underlying bone. (
  • Objective To investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in normal oral mucosa, and to observe the natural history in the oral cavity in oral swab samples collected from healthy volunteers on Miyako Island, Okinawa, Japan. (
  • Keywords: Oral mucosa, Oral health, Quality of life. (
  • To help people achieve a higher standard of oral health, the concept of "whole mouth health" has been developed to encourage management of biofilm on all oral surfaces. (
  • The virus can be transferred by the warts on the hands to the mouth through oral mucosa, which is the mucus that the body naturally produces. (
  • Networks of intermediate filaments protect the mucosae from being damaged by friction or other everyday physical stresses. (
  • Fragile intermediate filaments in the oral mucosa might be damaged when eating or brushing one's teeth. (
  • Because of the dry mucosa, patients will experience difficulties in chewing and swallowing the food. (
  • Type 1 burning mouth syndrome (BMS): Patients have no symptoms upon waking, with progression throughout the day. (
  • Type 2 burning mouth syndrome (BMS): Patients have continuous symptoms throughout the day and are frequently asymptomatic at night. (
  • Type 3 burning mouth syndrome (BMS): Patients have intermittent symptoms throughout the day and symptom-free days. (
  • Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) occurs most frequently, but not exclusively, in peri-menopausal and postmenopausal women. (
  • The normal oral mucosa from 77 individuals of known smoking and alcohol-intake history was cultured. (
  • The rest of the mouth should appear normal. (
  • In this cohort, HPV71 and HPV12 were persistent, while HPV16 and HPV53 were transient in normal oral mucosa. (
  • Chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis causes the mucosal lining of the mouth to atrophy and break down, forming ulcers. (
  • Xerostomia is the syndrome of dry mouth. (
  • Classically, burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is accompanied by gustatory disturbances (dysgeusia, parageusia) and subjective xerostomia. (
  • to a more patient-centered oral individuals, and the oral mucosa among other health delivery systems that focus on a person's functions, serves as a protective barrier against social, emotional and physical experience. (
  • A 65 year old male patient reported with a chief complaint of growth on the right corner of the mouth for the last 2 years. (
  • Most cases of monkeypox will have a rash which can be located in the mouth or the body including the anorectal mucosa. (
  • No universally accepted diagnostic criteria, laboratory tests, imaging studies or other modalities definitively diagnose or exclude burning mouth syndrome (BMS). (
  • Various attempts to classify burning mouth syndrome (BMS) based on etiology and symptoms have been made. (
  • In a classification by etiology or cause, idiopathic burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is considered "primary BMS" (or "true BMS"), whereas "secondary BMS" has an identifiable cause. (
  • Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is likely more than one disease process, and the etiology may be multifactorial. (
  • The ambiguous definition of burning mouth syndrome (BMS) makes evaluation of prognosis and treatment difficult. (
  • To demonstrate that Colgate Total SF has implications for whole mouth health, an eight-week clinical study was undertaken. (
  • Expression of the stable, non-functional form of p53 protein as detected by the p53-240 antibody was found to be significantly elevated in the cultured oral mucosa of smokers. (
  • Biology of the Mouth The mouth is the entrance to both the digestive and the respiratory systems. (