The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
The "mouth floor" refers to the inferior aspect of the oral cavity, which is formed by the muscular floor of the mouth, consisting primarily of the mylohyoid muscle, and contains the opening of the sublingual and submandibular glands.
'Mouth diseases' is a broad term referring to various conditions that cause inflammation, infection, or structural changes in any part of the mouth, including the lips, gums, tongue, palate, cheeks, and teeth, which can lead to symptoms such as pain, discomfort, difficulty in chewing or speaking, and altered aesthetics.
Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.
Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.
Solutions for rinsing the mouth, possessing cleansing, germicidal, or palliative properties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Total lack of teeth through disease or extraction.
Decreased salivary flow.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 10 serotypes, mostly coxsackieviruses.
Devices or pieces of equipment placed in or around the mouth or attached to instruments to protect the external or internal tissues of the mouth and the teeth.
Spasmodic contraction of the masseter muscle resulting in forceful jaw closure. This may be seen with a variety of diseases, including TETANUS, as a complication of radiation therapy, trauma, or in association with neoplastic conditions.
An offensive, foul breath odor resulting from a variety of causes such as poor oral hygiene, dental or oral infections, or the ingestion of certain foods.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.
Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.
A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
Either of the two fleshy, full-blooded margins of the mouth.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.
The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
An appliance used as an artificial or prosthetic replacement for missing teeth and adjacent tissues. It does not include CROWNS; DENTAL ABUTMENTS; nor TOOTH, ARTIFICIAL.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
Fixation and immobility of a joint.
An articulation between the condyle of the mandible and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone.
A solution used for irrigating the mouth in xerostomia and as a substitute for saliva.
Enterovirus Infections are acute viral illnesses caused by various Enterovirus serotypes, primarily transmitted through the fecal-oral route, manifesting as a wide range of clinical symptoms, from asymptomatic or mild self-limiting fever to severe and potentially life-threatening conditions, such as meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, and neonatal sepsis-like illness, depending on the age, immune status, and serotype of the infected individual.
An involuntary deep INHALATION with the MOUTH open, often accompanied by the act of stretching.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.
The discharge of saliva from the SALIVARY GLANDS that keeps the mouth tissues moist and aids in digestion.
A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.
Conditions characterized by an alteration in gustatory function or perception. Taste disorders are frequently associated with OLFACTION DISORDERS. Additional potential etiologies include METABOLIC DISEASES; DRUG TOXICITY; and taste pathway disorders (e.g., TASTE BUD diseases; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE DISEASES; and BRAIN STEM diseases).
An unnaturally deep or rough quality of voice.
A loss of mucous substance of the mouth showing local excavation of the surface, resulting from the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue. It is the result of a variety of causes, e.g., denture irritation, aphthous stomatitis (STOMATITIS, APHTHOUS); NOMA; necrotizing gingivitis (GINGIVITIS, NECROTIZING ULCERATIVE); TOOTHBRUSHING; and various irritants. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p842)
The act of BREATHING in.
A form of retention cyst of the floor of the mouth, usually due to obstruction of the ducts of the submaxillary or sublingual glands, presenting a slowly enlarging painless deep burrowing mucocele of one side of the mouth. It is also called sublingual cyst and sublingual ptyalocele.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Mechanical devices that simulate the temporomandibular joints and jaws to which maxillary and mandibular casts are attached. The entire assembly attempts to reproduce the movements of the mandible and the various tooth-to-tooth relationships that accompany those movements.
Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)
The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.
The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE infecting mainly cloven-hoofed animals. They cause vesicular lesions and upper respiratory tract infections. FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE VIRUS is the type species.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
The maximum volume of air that can be inspired after reaching the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the TIDAL VOLUME and the INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is IC.
Mental disorders related to feeding and eating usually diagnosed in infancy or early childhood.
The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.
Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.
Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A recurrent disease of the oral mucosa of unknown etiology. It is characterized by small white ulcerative lesions, single or multiple, round or oval. Two to eight crops of lesions occur per year, lasting for 7 to 14 days and then heal without scarring. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p742)
The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)
The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.
'Oral Submucous Fibrosis' is a chronic, insidious, and potentially disabling condition, characterized by progressive stiffness and loss of elasticity of the oral mucosa, due to fibrotic changes in the lamina propria, often associated with juxta-epithelial inflammation and epithelial atrophy.
A mobile U-shaped bone that lies in the anterior part of the neck at the level of the third CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. The hyoid bone is suspended from the processes of the TEMPORAL BONES by ligaments, and is firmly bound to the THYROID CARTILAGE by muscles.
The part of the face that is below the eye and to the side of the nose and mouth.
The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.
INFLAMMATION of the soft tissues of the MOUTH, such as MUCOSA; PALATE; GINGIVA; and LIP.
Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
A salivary gland on each side of the mouth below the TONGUE.
'Tongue diseases' is a broad term referring to various medical conditions that primarily affect the structure, function, or appearance of the tongue, including but not limited to infections, inflammatory conditions, autoimmune disorders, congenital abnormalities, and malignancies.
An iodinated polyvinyl polymer used as topical antiseptic in surgery and for skin and mucous membrane infections, also as aerosol. The iodine may be radiolabeled for research purposes.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.
A plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. Members are trees and shrubs of temperate regions that have watery sap and alternate leaves which are lopsided at the base. The flowers lack petals.
Common form of habitual body manipulation which is an expression of tension.
The posterior process on the ramus of the mandible composed of two parts: a superior part, the articular portion, and an inferior part, the condylar neck.
The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A skin crease on each side of the face that runs from the outer corners of the nose to the corner of the mouth. It is a common site of PLASTIC SURGERY.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)
Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The anatomical frontal portion of the mandible, also known as the mentum, that contains the line of fusion of the two separate halves of the mandible (symphysis menti). This line of fusion divides inferiorly to enclose a triangular area called the mental protuberance. On each side, inferior to the second premolar tooth, is the mental foramen for the passage of blood vessels and a nerve.
Tumors or cancer of the PHARYNX.
A heterogeneous group of infections produced by coxsackieviruses, including HERPANGINA, aseptic meningitis (MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC), a common-cold-like syndrome, a non-paralytic poliomyelitis-like syndrome, epidemic pleurodynia (PLEURODYNIA, EPIDEMIC) and a serious MYOCARDITIS.
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
Traumatic or other damage to teeth including fractures (TOOTH FRACTURES) or displacements (TOOTH LUXATION).
The anteriorly located rigid section of the PALATE.
An index which scores the degree of dental plaque accumulation.
A preparation of chicle, sometimes mixed with other plastic substances, sweetened and flavored. It is masticated usually for pleasure as a candy substitute but it sometimes acts as a vehicle for the administration of medication.
Acquired responses regularly manifested by tongue movement or positioning.
Phylum in the domain Eukarya, comprised of animals either with fully developed backbones (VERTEBRATES), or those with notochords only during some developmental stage (CHORDATA, NONVERTEBRATE).
Sucking of the finger. This is one of the most common manipulations of the body found in young children.
Process of restoring damaged or decayed teeth using various restorative and non-cosmetic materials so that oral health is improved.
The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Dentifrices that are formulated into a paste form. They typically contain abrasives, HUMECTANTS; DETERGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; and CARIOSTATIC AGENTS.
The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.
Inflammation of gum tissue (GINGIVA) without loss of connective tissue.
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
The mouth, teeth, jaws, pharynx, and related structures as they relate to mastication, deglutition, and speech.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A flat, flexible strip of material used to cover or fasten together damaged tissue.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
Wires of various dimensions and grades made of stainless steel or precious metal. They are used in orthodontic treatment.
Pathological processes of the ear, the nose, and the throat, also known as the ENT diseases.
A numerical rating scale for classifying the periodontal status of a person or population with a single figure which takes into consideration prevalence as well as severity of the condition. It is based upon probe measurement of periodontal pockets and on gingival tissue status.
The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.
A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.
Drugs and their metabolites which are found in the edible tissues and milk of animals after their medication with specific drugs. This term can also apply to drugs found in adipose tissue of humans after drug treatment.
Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
Lip diseases refer to various medical conditions that primarily affect the lips, causing symptoms such as inflammation, pain, dryness, discoloration, or abnormal growths, which may result from infectious, autoimmune, genetic, traumatic, or neoplastic causes.
A symptom complex consisting of pain, muscle tenderness, clicking in the joint, and limitation or alteration of mandibular movement. The symptoms are subjective and manifested primarily in the masticatory muscles rather than the temporomandibular joint itself. Etiologic factors are uncertain but include occlusal dysharmony and psychophysiologic factors.
A plate of fibrous tissue that divides the temporomandibular joint into an upper and lower cavity. The disc is attached to the articular capsule and moves forward with the condyle in free opening and protrusion. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p92)
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth by a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
Curved rows of HAIR located on the upper edges of the eye sockets.
A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Absence of teeth from a portion of the mandible and/or maxilla.
The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)
General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.

A new tool for measuring the suckling stimulus during breastfeeding in humans: the orokinetogram and the Fourier series. (1/1930)

The Fourier series was used to analyse the oral movements recorded by the orokinetogram during breastfeeding in human babies. This is a new method that allows recording of oral movements without introducing any extrinsic element between the nipple and the mouth of the baby. The advantage of displaying suckling activity after fast Fourier transform (FFT) is that this algorithm allows storage, quantification and frequency analysis of the oral movements throughout a suckling bout, which enables the total oral activity to be measured. Two types of oral movements are found: slow high amplitude (SHA) and fast low amplitude (FLA). FLA movements may be derived from peristaltic movements of the tongue that result in tickling stimuli to the mechanoreceptors of the nipple and milk expression. The frequency bandwidth of oral movements is wider (0-8 Hz) than has been described previously (0-3 Hz) and this is due to the presence of the FLA oral movements. An indirect measurement of the energy of oral movements during suckling is obtained by the pattern of energy distribution used in each individual frequency band by oral movements. This pattern changes in relation to the periods of continuous and intermittent suckling activity. SHA and FLA oral movements are more intense during continuous suckling. Statistical analysis showed a correlation between the energy of SHA and FLA waves throughout the suckling bout, and also that the highest level of energy during suckling activity is displayed during the first 2 min. The novel tools described in this paper allow investigation of the role of suckling stimulus in reflex hormone release and other mother-infant interactions.  (+info)

Fungal prophylaxis by reduction of fungal colonization by oral administration of bovine anti-Candida antibodies in bone marrow transplant recipients. (2/1930)

Candida overgrowth and invasion constitute a serious threat with a high mortality in BMT recipients. Currently available topical antifungal prophylaxis is largely ineffective, and as resistance to existing, absorbable drugs for systemic use is rapidly developing, new forms of therapy are needed. We investigated the effect of oral treatment of BMT recipients with a bovine immunoglobulin product derived from animals immunized against several Candida species. The natural Candida colonization was first followed in 19 patients to establish the colonization pattern. Half of the patients were found to be colonized prior to transplantation and altogether 72% were colonized at some point during follow-up. Those with a high pre-transplant concentration of Candida in saliva (>100 CFU/ml) remained colonized throughout the BMT treatment period. The therapeutic effect was monitored in two other patient groups. The first group consisted of nine patients, where, due to a low number of primary colonized patients, response in colonized patients was suggestive of a therapeutic effect. In the second group, 10 patients with a high level of colonization (>100 CFU/ml) were given 10 g daily of the product in three divided doses. The results suggest a treatment-related reduction in Candida colonization in a majority (7/10) of patients and one patient became completely negative. As no adverse effects were noted, our findings encourage additional studies in immunocompromised, transplant patients.  (+info)

Humoral immunity to commensal oral bacteria in human infants: salivary secretory immunoglobulin A antibodies reactive with Streptococcus mitis biovar 1, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mutans, and Enterococcus faecalis during the first two years of life. (3/1930)

Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) antibodies reactive with the pioneer oral streptococci Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 and Streptococcus oralis, the late oral colonizer Streptococcus mutans, and the pioneer enteric bacterium Enterococcus faecalis in saliva samples from 10 human infants from birth to age 2 years were analyzed. Low levels of salivary SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with whole cells of all four species were detected within the first month after birth, even though S. mutans and E. faecalis were not recovered from the mouths of the infants during the study period. Although there was a fivefold increase in the concentration of SIgA between birth and age 2 years, there were no differences between the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with the four species over this time period. When the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with all four species were normalized to the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 in saliva, SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with these bacteria showed a significant decrease from birth to 2 years of age. Adsorption of each infant's saliva with cells of one species produced a dramatic reduction of antibodies recognizing the other three species. Sequential adsorption of saliva samples removed all SIgA antibody to the bacteria, indicating that the SIgA antibodies were directed to antigens shared by all four species. The induction by the host of a limited immune response to common antigens that are likely not involved in adherence may be among the mechanisms that commensal streptococci employ to persist in the oral cavity.  (+info)

Inhalation exposure of animals. (4/1930)

Relative advantages and disadvantages and important design criteria for various exposure methods are presented. Five types of exposures are discussed: whole-body chambers, head-only exposures, nose or mouth-only methods, lung-only exposures, and partial-lung exposures. Design considerations covered include: air cleaning and conditioning; construction materials; losses of exposure materials; evenness of exposure; sampling biases; animal observation and care; noise and vibration control, safe exhausts, chamber loading, reliability, pressure fluctuations; neck seals, masks, animal restraint methods; and animal comfort. Ethical considerations in use of animals in inhalation experiments are also discussed.  (+info)

Dopaminergic synapses mediate neuronal changes in an analogue of operant conditioning. (5/1930)

Feeding behavior in Aplysia can be modified by operant conditioning in which contingent reinforcement is conveyed by the esophageal nerve (E n.). A neuronal analogue of this conditioning in the isolated buccal ganglia was developed by using stimulation of E n. as an analogue of contingent reinforcement. Previous studies indicated that E n. may release dopamine. We used a dopamine antagonist (methylergonovine) to investigate whether dopamine mediated the enhancement of motor patterns in the analogue of operant conditioning. Methylergonovine blocked synaptic connections from the reinforcement pathway and the contingent-dependent enhancement of the reinforced pattern. These results suggest that dopamine mediates at least part of the neuronal modifications induced by contingent reinforcement.  (+info)

Coaggregation of Candida dubliniensis with Fusobacterium nucleatum. (6/1930)

The binding of microorganisms to each other and oral surfaces contributes to the progression of microbial infections in the oral cavity. Candida dubliniensis, a newly characterized species, has been identified in human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patients and other immunocompromised individuals. C. dubliniensis phenotypically resembles Candida albicans in many respects yet can be identified and differentiated as a unique Candida species by phenotypic and genetic profiles. The purpose of this study was to determine oral coaggregation (CoAg) partners of C. dubliniensis and to compare these findings with CoAg of C. albicans under the same environmental conditions. Fifteen isolates of C. dubliniensis and 40 isolates of C. albicans were tested for their ability to coaggregate with strains of Fusobacterium nucleatum, Peptostreptococcus micros, Peptostreptococcus magnus, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia. When C. dubliniensis and C. albicans strains were grown at 37 degrees C on Sabouraud dextrose agar, only C. dubliniensis strains coaggregated with F. nucleatum ATCC 49256 and no C. albicans strains showed CoAg. However, when the C. dubliniensis and C. albicans strains were grown at 25 or 45 degrees C, both C. dubliniensis and C. albicans strains demonstrated CoAg with F. nucleatum. Heating the C. albicans strains (grown at 37 degrees C) at 85 degrees C for 30 min or treating them with dithiothreitol allowed the C. albicans strains grown at 37 degrees C to coaggregate with F. nucleatum. CoAg at all growth temperatures was inhibited by mannose and alpha-methyl mannoside but not by EDTA or arginine. The CoAg reaction between F. nucleatum and the Candida species involved a heat-labile component on F. nucleatum and a mannan-containing heat-stable receptor on the Candida species. The CoAg reactions between F. nucleatum and the Candida species may be important in the colonization of the yeast in the oral cavity, and the CoAg of C. dubliniensis by F. nucleatum when grown at 37 degrees C provides a rapid, specific, and inexpensive means to differentiate C. dubliniensis from C. albicans isolates in the clinical laboratory.  (+info)

Strains of Actinomyces naeslundii and Actinomyces viscosus exhibit structurally variant fimbrial subunit proteins and bind to different peptide motifs in salivary proteins. (7/1930)

Oral strains of Actinomyces spp. express type 1 fimbriae, which are composed of major FimP subunits, and bind preferentially to salivary acidic proline-rich proteins (APRPs) or to statherin. We have mapped genetic differences in the fimP subunit genes and the peptide recognition motifs within the host proteins associated with these differential binding specificities. The fimP genes were amplified by PCR from Actinomyces viscosus ATCC 19246, with preferential binding to statherin, and from Actinomyces naeslundii LY7, P-1-K, and B-1-K, with preferential binding to APRPs. The fimP gene from the statherin-binding strain 19246 is novel and has about 80% nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity to the highly conserved fimP genes of the APRP-binding strains (about 98 to 99% sequence identity). The novel FimP protein contains an amino-terminal signal peptide, randomly distributed single-amino-acid substitutions, and structurally different segments and ends with a cell wall-anchoring and a membrane-spanning region. When agarose beads with CNBr-linked host determinant-specific decapeptides were used, A. viscosus 19246 bound to the Thr42Phe43 terminus of statherin and A. naeslundii LY7 bound to the Pro149Gln150 termini of APRPs. Furthermore, while the APRP-binding A. naeslundii strains originate from the human mouth, A. viscosus strains isolated from the oral cavity of rat and hamster hosts showed preferential binding to statherin and contained the novel fimP gene. Thus, A. viscosus and A. naeslundii display structurally variant fimP genes whose protein products are likely to interact with different peptide motifs and to determine animal host tropism.  (+info)

Bacterium-dependent induction of cytokines in mononuclear cells and their pathologic consequences in vivo. (8/1930)

Viridans streptococci are a heterogeneous group of gram-positive bacteria that are normal inhabitants of the mouth. These organisms are thought to contribute significantly to the etiology of infective endocarditis, although recently they have been implicated in serious infections in other settings. Another group of oral bacteria, gram-negative anaerobes, is associated with chronic dental infections, such as periodontal diseases or endodontic lesion formation. We evaluated the ability of the oral pathogens Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas endodontalis to induce a pathogenic response in vivo, with the goal of quantifying the inflammatory response in soft tissue by measuring leukocyte recruitment and hard tissues by measuring osteoclastogenesis. S. mutans induced a strong inflammatory response and was a potent inducer of osteoclast formation, while P. endodontalis was not. To further study the mechanisms by which P. endodontalis and S. mutans elicit significantly different levels of inflammatory responses in vivo, we tested the capacity of each to induce production of cytokines by mononuclear cells in vitro. S. mutans stimulated high levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12), gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), all of which are associated with inflammation, enhanced monocyte function, and generation of a Th1 response. In contrast, P. endodontalis stimulated production of IL-10 but not of TNF-alpha, IL-12, or IFN-gamma. These results demonstrate that oral pathogens differ dramatically in their abilities to induce inflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines. Moreover, there is a high degree of correlation between the cytokine profile induced by these bacteria in vitro and their pathogenic capacity in vivo.  (+info)

In medical terms, the mouth is officially referred to as the oral cavity. It is the first part of the digestive tract and includes several structures: the lips, vestibule (the space enclosed by the lips and teeth), teeth, gingiva (gums), hard and soft palate, tongue, floor of the mouth, and salivary glands. The mouth is responsible for several functions including speaking, swallowing, breathing, and eating, as it is the initial point of ingestion where food is broken down through mechanical and chemical processes, beginning the digestive process.

The term "mouth floor" is not a standard medical terminology. However, it might refer to the floor of the mouth, which is the part of the oral cavity located beneath the tongue and above the hyoid bone, which is a U-shaped bone in the front of the neck that helps support the tongue. The mouth floor contains several salivary glands, muscles, and nerves that are important for functions such as swallowing and speaking.

Mouth diseases refer to a variety of conditions that affect the oral cavity, including the lips, gums, teeth, tongue, palate, and lining of the mouth. These diseases can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or other organisms. They can also result from injuries, chronic illnesses, or genetic factors.

Some common examples of mouth diseases include dental caries (cavities), periodontal disease (gum disease), oral herpes, candidiasis (thrush), lichen planus, and oral cancer. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, redness, bleeding, bad breath, difficulty swallowing or speaking, and changes in the appearance of the mouth or teeth. Treatment depends on the specific diagnosis and may involve medications, dental procedures, or lifestyle changes.

The mouth mucosa refers to the mucous membrane that lines the inside of the mouth, also known as the oral mucosa. It covers the tongue, gums, inner cheeks, palate, and floor of the mouth. This moist tissue is made up of epithelial cells, connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerve endings. Its functions include protecting the underlying tissues from physical trauma, chemical irritation, and microbial infections; aiding in food digestion by producing enzymes; and providing sensory information about taste, temperature, and texture.

A mouth neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth or tumor in the oral cavity, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant mouth neoplasms are also known as oral cancer. They can develop on the lips, gums, tongue, roof and floor of the mouth, inside the cheeks, and in the oropharynx (the middle part of the throat at the back of the mouth).

Mouth neoplasms can have various causes, including genetic factors, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). Symptoms may include a lump or thickening in the oral soft tissues, white or red patches, persistent mouth sores, difficulty swallowing or speaking, and numbness in the mouth. Early detection and treatment of mouth neoplasms are crucial for improving outcomes and preventing complications.

A mouthwash is an antiseptic or therapeutic solution that is held in the mouth and then spit out, rather than swallowed. It is used to improve oral hygiene, to freshen breath, and to help prevent dental cavities, gingivitis, and other periodontal diseases.

Mouthwashes can contain a variety of ingredients, including water, alcohol, fluoride, chlorhexidine, essential oils, and other antimicrobial agents. Some mouthwashes are available over-the-counter, while others require a prescription. It is important to follow the instructions for use provided by the manufacturer or your dentist to ensure the safe and effective use of mouthwash.

"Edentulous mouth" is a medical term used to describe a condition where an individual has no remaining natural teeth in either their upper or lower jaw, or both. This situation can occur due to various reasons such as tooth decay, gum disease, trauma, or aging. Dentists often recommend dental prosthetics like dentures to restore oral function and aesthetics for individuals with edentulous mouths.

Xerostomia is a medical term that describes the subjective feeling of dryness in the mouth due to decreased or absent saliva flow. It's also commonly referred to as "dry mouth." This condition can result from various factors, including medications, dehydration, radiation therapy, Sjögren's syndrome, and other medical disorders. Prolonged xerostomia may lead to oral health issues such as dental caries, oral candidiasis, and difficulty with speaking, chewing, and swallowing.

Enterovirus A, Human is a type of enterovirus that infects humans. Enteroviruses are small, single-stranded RNA viruses that belong to the Picornaviridae family. There are over 100 different types of enteroviruses, and they are divided into several species, including Enterovirus A, B, C, D, and Rhinovirus.

Enterovirus A includes several important human pathogens, such as polioviruses (which have been largely eradicated thanks to vaccination efforts), coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and enterovirus 71. These viruses are typically transmitted through the fecal-oral route or respiratory droplets and can cause a range of illnesses, from mild symptoms like fever, rash, and sore throat to more severe diseases such as meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, and paralysis.

Poliovirus, which is the most well-known member of Enterovirus A, was responsible for causing poliomyelitis, a highly infectious disease that can lead to irreversible paralysis. However, due to widespread vaccination programs, wild poliovirus transmission has been eliminated in many parts of the world, and only a few countries still report cases of polio caused by vaccine-derived viruses.

Coxsackieviruses and echoviruses can cause various symptoms, including fever, rash, mouth sores, muscle aches, and respiratory illnesses. In some cases, they can also lead to more severe diseases such as meningitis or myocarditis. Enterovirus 71 is a significant pathogen that can cause hand, foot, and mouth disease, which is a common childhood illness characterized by fever, sore throat, and rash on the hands, feet, and mouth. In rare cases, enterovirus 71 can also lead to severe neurological complications such as encephalitis and polio-like paralysis.

Prevention measures for enterovirus A infections include good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and practicing safe food handling. Vaccination is available for poliovirus and can help prevent the spread of vaccine-derived viruses. No vaccines are currently available for other enterovirus A infections, but research is ongoing to develop effective vaccines against these viruses.

Mouth protectors, also known as mouthguards, are devices worn to protect the mouth, teeth, and gums from injury during physical activities or sports that involve body contact or the risk of falling. They typically cover the upper teeth and are designed to absorb and distribute the force of an impact, preventing damage to the teeth, jaw, and soft tissues of the mouth. Mouth protectors can be custom-made by dental professionals, or they can be purchased as prefabricated or boil-and-bite models in sports stores. Using a properly fitted mouth protector is essential for athletes participating in contact sports like football, hockey, basketball, and boxing, as well as non-contact activities such as skateboarding, rollerblading, and bicycling, where accidents or falls can still result in oral injuries.

Trismus is a term used in medicine to describe the inability to open the mouth fully due to spasm or prolonged stiffness of the muscles involved in jaw movement, specifically the masseter and temporalis muscles. This condition can result from various causes such as dental procedures, infections, tetanus, radiation therapy to the head and neck region, or trauma. In some cases, trismus can lead to complications like difficulty eating, speaking, and maintaining oral hygiene, which can negatively impact a person's quality of life. Treatment typically involves physical therapy, stretching exercises, medication, or in severe cases, surgery.

Halitosis is a medical term that refers to noticeably unpleasant breath. It's also commonly known as bad breath. This condition can result from several factors, including poor oral hygiene, certain foods, smoking, alcohol use, dry mouth, and various medical conditions (such as gastrointestinal issues, respiratory infections, or liver and kidney problems). Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices, like brushing twice a day and flossing daily, can help prevent halitosis. In some cases, mouthwashes, sugar-free gums, or mints may provide temporary relief. However, if bad breath persists, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional or dentist for further evaluation and appropriate treatment.

Saliva is a complex mixture of primarily water, but also electrolytes, enzymes, antibacterial compounds, and various other substances. It is produced by the salivary glands located in the mouth. Saliva plays an essential role in maintaining oral health by moistening the mouth, helping to digest food, and protecting the teeth from decay by neutralizing acids produced by bacteria.

The medical definition of saliva can be stated as:

"A clear, watery, slightly alkaline fluid secreted by the salivary glands, consisting mainly of water, with small amounts of electrolytes, enzymes (such as amylase), mucus, and antibacterial compounds. Saliva aids in digestion, lubrication of oral tissues, and provides an oral barrier against microorganisms."

In medical terms, the tongue is a muscular organ in the oral cavity that plays a crucial role in various functions such as taste, swallowing, and speech. It's covered with a mucous membrane and contains papillae, which are tiny projections that contain taste buds to help us perceive different tastes - sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. The tongue also assists in the initial process of digestion by moving food around in the mouth for chewing and mixing with saliva. Additionally, it helps in forming words and speaking clearly by shaping the sounds produced in the mouth.

"Sucking behavior" is not a term typically used in medical terminology. However, in the context of early childhood development and behavior, "non-nutritive sucking" is a term that may be used to describe an infant or young child's habitual sucking on their thumb, fingers, or pacifiers, beyond what is necessary for feeding. This type of sucking behavior can provide a sense of security, comfort, or help to self-soothe and manage stress or anxiety.

It's important to note that while non-nutritive sucking is generally considered a normal part of early childhood development, persistent sucking habits beyond the age of 2-4 years may lead to dental or orthodontic problems such as an overbite or open bite. Therefore, it's recommended to monitor and address these behaviors if they persist beyond this age range.

Temporomandibular Joint Disorders (TMD) refer to a group of conditions that cause pain and dysfunction in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the muscles that control jaw movement. The TMJ is the hinge joint that connects the lower jaw (mandible) to the skull (temporal bone) in front of the ear. It allows for movements required for activities such as eating, speaking, and yawning.

TMD can result from various causes, including:

1. Muscle tension or spasm due to clenching or grinding teeth (bruxism), stress, or jaw misalignment
2. Dislocation or injury of the TMJ disc, which is a small piece of cartilage that acts as a cushion between the bones in the joint
3. Arthritis or other degenerative conditions affecting the TMJ
4. Bite problems (malocclusion) leading to abnormal stress on the TMJ and its surrounding muscles
5. Stress, which can exacerbate existing TMD symptoms by causing muscle tension

Symptoms of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders may include:
- Pain or tenderness in the jaw, face, neck, or shoulders
- Limited jaw movement or locking of the jaw
- Clicking, popping, or grating sounds when moving the jaw
- Headaches, earaches, or dizziness
- Difficulty chewing or biting
- Swelling on the side of the face

Treatment for TMD varies depending on the severity and cause of the condition. It may include self-care measures (like eating soft foods, avoiding extreme jaw movements, and applying heat or cold packs), physical therapy, medications (such as muscle relaxants, pain relievers, or anti-inflammatory drugs), dental work (including bite adjustments or orthodontic treatment), or even surgery in severe cases.

An enterovirus is a type of virus that primarily infects the gastrointestinal tract. There are over 100 different types of enteroviruses, including polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and newer enteroviruses such as EV-D68 and EV-A71. These viruses are typically spread through close contact with an infected person, or by consuming food or water contaminated with the virus.

While many people infected with enteroviruses may not experience any symptoms, some may develop mild to severe illnesses such as hand, foot and mouth disease, herpangina, meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, and paralysis (in case of poliovirus). Infection can occur in people of all ages, but young children are more susceptible to infection and severe illness.

Prevention measures include practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently with soap and water, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and not sharing food or drinks with someone who is ill. There are also vaccines available to prevent poliovirus infection.

Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that accumulates on the surface of the teeth, restorative materials, and prosthetic devices such as dentures. It is initiated when bacterial colonizers attach to the smooth surfaces of teeth through van der Waals forces and specific molecular adhesion mechanisms.

The microorganisms within the dental plaque produce extracellular polysaccharides that help to stabilize and strengthen the biofilm, making it resistant to removal by simple brushing or rinsing. Over time, if not regularly removed through oral hygiene practices such as brushing and flossing, dental plaque can mineralize and harden into tartar or calculus.

The bacteria in dental plaque can cause tooth decay (dental caries) by metabolizing sugars and producing acid that demineralizes the tooth enamel. Additionally, certain types of bacteria in dental plaque can cause periodontal disease, an inflammation of the gums that can lead to tissue damage and bone loss around the teeth. Regular professional dental cleanings and good oral hygiene practices are essential for preventing the buildup of dental plaque and maintaining good oral health.

In medical terms, a "lip" refers to the thin edge or border of an organ or other biological structure. However, when people commonly refer to "the lip," they are usually talking about the lips on the face, which are part of the oral cavity. The lips are a pair of soft, fleshy tissues that surround the mouth and play a crucial role in various functions such as speaking, eating, drinking, and expressing emotions.

The lips are made up of several layers, including skin, muscle, blood vessels, nerves, and mucous membrane. The outer surface of the lips is covered by skin, while the inner surface is lined with a moist mucous membrane. The muscles that make up the lips allow for movements such as pursing, puckering, and smiling.

The lips also contain numerous sensory receptors that help detect touch, temperature, pain, and other stimuli. Additionally, they play a vital role in protecting the oral cavity from external irritants and pathogens, helping to keep the mouth clean and healthy.

Respiratory muscles are a group of muscles involved in the process of breathing. They include the diaphragm, intercostal muscles (located between the ribs), scalene muscles (located in the neck), and abdominal muscles. These muscles work together to allow the chest cavity to expand or contract, which draws air into or pushes it out of the lungs. The diaphragm is the primary muscle responsible for breathing, contracting to increase the volume of the chest cavity and draw air into the lungs during inhalation. The intercostal muscles help to further expand the ribcage, while the abdominal muscles assist in exhaling by compressing the abdomen and pushing up on the diaphragm.

A nose, in a medical context, refers to the external part of the human body that is located on the face and serves as the primary organ for the sense of smell. It is composed of bone and cartilage, with a thin layer of skin covering it. The nose also contains nasal passages that are lined with mucous membranes and tiny hairs known as cilia. These structures help to filter, warm, and moisturize the air we breathe in before it reaches our lungs. Additionally, the nose plays an essential role in the process of verbal communication by shaping the sounds we make when we speak.

In medical terms, the face refers to the front part of the head that is distinguished by the presence of the eyes, nose, and mouth. It includes the bones of the skull (frontal bone, maxilla, zygoma, nasal bones, lacrimal bones, palatine bones, inferior nasal conchae, and mandible), muscles, nerves, blood vessels, skin, and other soft tissues. The face plays a crucial role in various functions such as breathing, eating, drinking, speaking, seeing, smelling, and expressing emotions. It also serves as an important identifier for individuals, allowing them to be recognized by others.

The pharynx is a part of the digestive and respiratory systems that serves as a conduit for food and air. It is a musculo-membranous tube extending from the base of the skull to the level of the sixth cervical vertebra where it becomes continuous with the esophagus.

The pharynx has three regions: the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx. The nasopharynx is the uppermost region, which lies above the soft palate and is connected to the nasal cavity. The oropharynx is the middle region, which includes the area between the soft palate and the hyoid bone, including the tonsils and base of the tongue. The laryngopharynx is the lowest region, which lies below the hyoid bone and connects to the larynx.

The primary function of the pharynx is to convey food from the oral cavity to the esophagus during swallowing and to allow air to pass from the nasal cavity to the larynx during breathing. It also plays a role in speech, taste, and immune defense.

Dentures are defined as a removable dental appliance that replaces missing teeth and surrounding tissues. They are made to resemble your natural teeth and may even enhance your smile. There are two types of dentures - complete and partial. Complete dentures are used when all the teeth are missing, while partial dentures are used when some natural teeth remain.

Complete dentures cover the entire upper or lower jaw, while partial dentures replace one or more missing teeth by attaching to the remaining teeth. Dentures improve chewing ability, speech, and support the facial muscles and structure, preventing sagging of the cheeks and jowls that can occur with missing teeth.

The process of getting dentures usually involves several appointments with a dental professional, who will take impressions and measurements of your mouth to ensure a proper fit and comfortable bite. It may take some time to get used to wearing dentures, but they are an effective solution for restoring a natural-looking smile and improving oral function in people who have lost their teeth.

The mandible, also known as the lower jaw, is the largest and strongest bone in the human face. It forms the lower portion of the oral cavity and plays a crucial role in various functions such as mastication (chewing), speaking, and swallowing. The mandible is a U-shaped bone that consists of a horizontal part called the body and two vertical parts called rami.

The mandible articulates with the skull at the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) located in front of each ear, allowing for movements like opening and closing the mouth, protrusion, retraction, and side-to-side movement. The mandible contains the lower teeth sockets called alveolar processes, which hold the lower teeth in place.

In medical terminology, the term "mandible" refers specifically to this bone and its associated structures.

Ankylosis is a medical term that refers to the abnormal joining or fusion of bones, typically in a joint. This can occur as a result of various conditions such as injury, infection, or inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis. The fusion of bones can restrict movement and cause stiffness in the affected joint. In some cases, ankylosis can lead to deformity and disability if not treated promptly and effectively.

There are different types of ankylosis depending on the location and extent of bone fusion. For instance, when it affects the spine, it is called "ankylosing spondylitis," which is a chronic inflammatory disease that can cause stiffness and pain in the joints between the vertebrae.

Treatment for ankylosis depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, physical therapy or surgery may be necessary to restore mobility and function to the affected joint.

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is the articulation between the mandible (lower jaw) and the temporal bone of the skull. It's a complex joint that involves the movement of two bones, several muscles, and various ligaments. The TMJ allows for movements like rotation and translation, enabling us to open and close our mouth, chew, speak, and yawn. Dysfunction in this joint can lead to temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD), which can cause pain, discomfort, and limited jaw movement.

Artificial saliva is a synthetic solution that mimics the chemical composition and properties of natural saliva. It is often used for patients with dry mouth (xerostomia) caused by conditions such as Sjögren's syndrome, radiation therapy, or certain medications that reduce saliva production. Artificial saliva may contain ingredients like carboxymethylcellulose, mucin, and electrolytes to provide lubrication, moisture, and pH buffering capacity similar to natural saliva. It can help alleviate symptoms associated with dry mouth, such as difficulty speaking, swallowing, and chewing, as well as protect oral tissues from irritation and infection.

Enterovirus infections are viral illnesses caused by enteroviruses, which are a type of picornavirus. These viruses commonly infect the gastrointestinal tract and can cause a variety of symptoms depending on the specific type of enterovirus and the age and overall health of the infected individual.

There are over 100 different types of enteroviruses, including polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and newer enteroviruses such as EV-D68 and EV-A71. Some enterovirus infections may be asymptomatic or cause only mild symptoms, while others can lead to more severe illnesses.

Common symptoms of enterovirus infections include fever, sore throat, runny nose, cough, muscle aches, and skin rashes. In some cases, enteroviruses can cause more serious complications such as meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle), and paralysis.

Enterovirus infections are typically spread through close contact with an infected person, such as through respiratory droplets or fecal-oral transmission. They can also be spread through contaminated surfaces or objects. Preventive measures include good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close contact with sick individuals.

There are no specific antiviral treatments for enterovirus infections, and most cases resolve on their own within a few days to a week. However, severe cases may require hospitalization and supportive care, such as fluids and medication to manage symptoms. Prevention efforts include vaccination against poliovirus and surveillance for emerging enteroviruses.

Yawning is a reflex characterized by the involuntary opening of the mouth and deep inhalation of air, often followed by a long exhalation. While the exact purpose and mechanism of yawning are not fully understood, it's believed to be associated with regulating brain temperature, promoting arousal, or stretching the muscles of the jaw and face. Yawning is contagious in humans and can also be observed in various animal species. It usually occurs when an individual is tired, bored, or during transitions between sleep stages, but its underlying causes remain a subject of ongoing scientific research.

Feeding behavior refers to the various actions and mechanisms involved in the intake of food and nutrition for the purpose of sustaining life, growth, and health. This complex process encompasses a coordinated series of activities, including:

1. Food selection: The identification, pursuit, and acquisition of appropriate food sources based on sensory cues (smell, taste, appearance) and individual preferences.
2. Preparation: The manipulation and processing of food to make it suitable for consumption, such as chewing, grinding, or chopping.
3. Ingestion: The act of transferring food from the oral cavity into the digestive system through swallowing.
4. Digestion: The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food within the gastrointestinal tract to facilitate nutrient absorption and eliminate waste products.
5. Assimilation: The uptake and utilization of absorbed nutrients by cells and tissues for energy production, growth, repair, and maintenance.
6. Elimination: The removal of undigested material and waste products from the body through defecation.

Feeding behavior is regulated by a complex interplay between neural, hormonal, and psychological factors that help maintain energy balance and ensure adequate nutrient intake. Disruptions in feeding behavior can lead to various medical conditions, such as malnutrition, obesity, eating disorders, and gastrointestinal motility disorders.

In medical terms, the jaw is referred to as the mandible (in humans and some other animals), which is the lower part of the face that holds the lower teeth in place. It's a large, horseshoe-shaped bone that forms the lower jaw and serves as a attachment point for several muscles that are involved in chewing and moving the lower jaw.

In addition to the mandible, the upper jaw is composed of two bones known as the maxillae, which fuse together at the midline of the face to form the upper jaw. The upper jaw holds the upper teeth in place and forms the roof of the mouth, as well as a portion of the eye sockets and nasal cavity.

Together, the mandible and maxillae allow for various functions such as speaking, eating, and breathing.

Salivation is the process of producing and secreting saliva by the salivary glands in the mouth. It is primarily a reflex response to various stimuli such as thinking about or tasting food, chewing, and speaking. Saliva plays a crucial role in digestion by moistening food and helping to create a food bolus that can be swallowed easily. Additionally, saliva contains enzymes like amylase which begin the process of digesting carbohydrates even before food enters the stomach. Excessive salivation is known as hypersalivation or ptyalism, while reduced salivation is called xerostomia.

Chlorhexidine is an antimicrobial agent used for its broad-spectrum germicidal properties. It is effective against bacteria, viruses, and fungi. It is commonly used as a surgical scrub, hand sanitizer, and healthcare disinfectant. Chlorhexidine is available in various forms, including solutions, gels, and sprays. It works by disrupting the microbial cell membrane, leading to the death of the organism. It is also used in mouthwashes and skin cleansers for its antimicrobial effects.

Taste disorders, also known as dysgeusia, refer to conditions that affect a person's ability to taste or distinguish between different tastes. These tastes include sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami (savory). Taste disorders can result from damage to the taste buds, nerves that transmit taste signals to the brain, or areas of the brain responsible for processing taste information.

Taste disorders can manifest in several ways, including:

1. Hypogeusia: Reduced ability to taste
2. Ageusia: Complete loss of taste
3. Dysgeusia: Distorted or altered taste perception
4. Phantogeusia: Tasting something that is not present
5. Parageusia: Unpleasant or metallic tastes in the mouth

Taste disorders can be caused by various factors, including damage to the tongue or other areas of the mouth, certain medications, infections, exposure to chemicals or radiation, and neurological conditions such as Bell's palsy or multiple sclerosis. In some cases, taste disorders may be a symptom of an underlying medical condition, such as diabetes or kidney disease.

Treatment for taste disorders depends on the underlying cause. If a medication is causing the disorder, adjusting the dosage or switching to a different medication may help. In other cases, treating the underlying medical condition may resolve the taste disorder. If the cause cannot be identified or treated, various therapies and strategies can be used to manage the symptoms of taste disorders.

Hoarseness is a condition characterized by an abnormal change in the quality of voice, making it sound rough, breathy, strained, or weak. Medically, it's described as a disorder of phonation, which is the process of producing sound by vibrating the vocal cords in the larynx (voice box). Hoarseness can be caused by various factors, such as inflammation, irritation, or injury to the vocal cords, and may result in symptoms like altered voice pitch, volume, and clarity. It's essential to consult a healthcare professional if hoarseness persists for more than two weeks, especially if it's accompanied by other concerning symptoms like difficulty swallowing or breathing.

An oral ulcer is a defect or break in the continuity of the epithelium, the tissue that lines the inner surface of the mouth, leading to an inflamed, painful, and sometimes bleeding lesion. They can be classified as primary (e.g., aphthous ulcers, traumatic ulcers) or secondary (e.g., those caused by infections, underlying systemic conditions, or reactions to medications). Oral ulcers may cause discomfort, impacting speech and food consumption, and their presence might indicate an underlying medical issue that requires further evaluation.

Inhalation is the act or process of breathing in where air or other gases are drawn into the lungs. It's also known as inspiration. This process involves several muscles, including the diaphragm and intercostal muscles between the ribs, working together to expand the chest cavity and decrease the pressure within the thorax, which then causes air to flow into the lungs.

In a medical context, inhalation can also refer to the administration of medications or therapeutic gases through the respiratory tract, typically using an inhaler or nebulizer. This route of administration allows for direct delivery of the medication to the lungs, where it can be quickly absorbed into the bloodstream and exert its effects.

A ranula is a type of mucocele, which is a mucus-containing cyst that forms in the mouth. Specifically, a ranula is a mucocele that develops in the floor of the mouth, usually as a result of a blocked salivary gland duct. It appears as a smooth, dome-shaped swelling that is bluish or transparent in color. Ranulas can cause discomfort, particularly when speaking, eating, or swallowing, and they may interfere with normal oral function if they become large enough. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the cyst, along with any affected salivary gland tissue.

Medical Definition of Respiration:

Respiration, in physiology, is the process by which an organism takes in oxygen and gives out carbon dioxide. It's also known as breathing. This process is essential for most forms of life because it provides the necessary oxygen for cellular respiration, where the cells convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and releases waste products, primarily carbon dioxide.

In humans and other mammals, respiration is a two-stage process:

1. Breathing (or external respiration): This involves the exchange of gases with the environment. Air enters the lungs through the mouth or nose, then passes through the pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi, finally reaching the alveoli where the actual gas exchange occurs. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses into the blood, while carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism, diffuses from the blood into the alveoli to be exhaled.

2. Cellular respiration (or internal respiration): This is the process by which cells convert glucose and other nutrients into ATP, water, and carbon dioxide in the presence of oxygen. The carbon dioxide produced during this process then diffuses out of the cells and into the bloodstream to be exhaled during breathing.

In summary, respiration is a vital physiological function that enables organisms to obtain the necessary oxygen for cellular metabolism while eliminating waste products like carbon dioxide.

A dental articulator is a mechanical device that is used in dentistry to simulate the movement and relationship of the upper and lower jaws (maxilla and mandible). It is essentially a hinge-like instrument that helps dental professionals replicate the patient's unique jaw movements and create dental restorations, such as crowns, bridges, or dentures, which fit accurately and comfortably.

Dental articulators come in various designs and complexities, but they generally consist of an upper and lower portion that represent the maxilla and mandible, respectively. These portions are connected by an adjustable arm, called a condylar element, which mimics the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) movement. This allows for the simulation of different jaw movements, such as opening, closing, protrusion, and lateral excursions.

By using a dental articulator, dentists can precisely design, adjust, and verify the fit, form, and function of dental restorations before placing them in the patient's mouth. This helps ensure optimal occlusal (bite) relationships, improved aesthetics, and increased patient comfort and satisfaction.

In a medical context, masks are typically used as personal protective equipment (PPE) to protect the wearer from inhaling airborne particles and contaminants. They can also help prevent the spread of respiratory droplets from the wearer to others, which is particularly important in clinical settings where patients may have infectious diseases.

There are several types of masks used in medical settings, including:

1. Medical Masks: These are loose-fitting, disposable masks that create a physical barrier between the mouth and nose of the wearer and potential contaminants in the immediate environment. They are commonly used by healthcare professionals during medical procedures to protect themselves and patients from respiratory droplets and aerosols.
2. N95 Respirators: These are tight-fitting masks that can filter out both large droplets and small aerosol particles, including those containing viruses. They offer a higher level of protection than medical masks and are recommended for use in healthcare settings where there is a risk of exposure to airborne contaminants, such as during certain medical procedures or when caring for patients with infectious diseases like tuberculosis or COVID-19.
3. Surgical N95 Respirators: These are a specialized type of N95 respirator designed for use in surgical settings. They have a clear plastic window that allows the wearer's mouth and nose to be visible, which is useful during surgery where clear communication and identification of the wearer's facial features are important.
4. Powered Air-Purifying Respirators (PAPRs): These are motorized masks that use a fan to draw air through a filter, providing a continuous supply of clean air to the wearer. They offer a high level of protection and are often used in healthcare settings where there is a risk of exposure to highly infectious diseases or hazardous substances.

It's important to note that masks should be used in conjunction with other infection prevention measures, such as hand hygiene and social distancing, to provide the best possible protection against respiratory illnesses.

In a medical context, taste is the sensation produced when a substance in the mouth reacts with taste buds, which are specialized sensory cells found primarily on the tongue. The tongue's surface contains papillae, which house the taste buds. These taste buds can identify five basic tastes: salty, sour, bitter, sweet, and umami (savory). Different areas of the tongue are more sensitive to certain tastes, but all taste buds can detect each of the five tastes, although not necessarily equally.

Taste is a crucial part of our sensory experience, helping us identify and differentiate between various types of food and drinks, and playing an essential role in appetite regulation and enjoyment of meals. Abnormalities in taste sensation can be associated with several medical conditions or side effects of certain medications.

Oral health is the scientific term used to describe the overall health status of the oral and related tissues, including the teeth, gums, palate, tongue, and mucosal lining. It involves the absence of chronic mouth and facial pain, oral and pharyngeal (throat) cancers, oral soft tissue lesions, birth defects such as cleft lip and palate, and other diseases and disorders that affect the oral cavity.

Good oral health also means being free of decay, gum disease, and other oral infections that can damage the teeth, gums, and bones of the mouth. It is essential to maintain good oral hygiene through regular brushing, flossing, and dental check-ups to prevent dental caries (cavities) and periodontal disease (gum disease).

Additionally, oral health is closely linked to overall health and well-being. Poor oral health has been associated with various systemic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, respiratory infections, and stroke. Therefore, maintaining good oral health can contribute to improved general health and quality of life.

Aphthovirus is a genus of viruses in the family Picornaviridae, order Picornavirales. This genus includes several species of viruses that are primarily associated with causing oral and foot lesions in cloven-hoofed animals, such as cattle, sheep, and pigs. The most well-known member of this genus is foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which causes a highly contagious and economically significant disease in livestock. Other species in the Aphthovirus genus include equine rhinitis A virus, bovine rhinitis virus, and porcine teschovirus. These viruses are typically transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or their secretions and excretions, and they can cause a range of clinical signs including fever, loss of appetite, lameness, and lesions in the mouth and feet. There are currently no vaccines available for all serotypes of FMDV, and control measures typically involve quarantine, slaughter of infected animals, and strict biosecurity practices to prevent spread of the virus.

Respiratory mechanics refers to the biomechanical properties and processes that involve the movement of air through the respiratory system during breathing. It encompasses the mechanical behavior of the lungs, chest wall, and the muscles of respiration, including the diaphragm and intercostal muscles.

Respiratory mechanics includes several key components:

1. **Compliance**: The ability of the lungs and chest wall to expand and recoil during breathing. High compliance means that the structures can easily expand and recoil, while low compliance indicates greater resistance to expansion and recoil.
2. **Resistance**: The opposition to airflow within the respiratory system, primarily due to the friction between the air and the airway walls. Airway resistance is influenced by factors such as airway diameter, length, and the viscosity of the air.
3. **Lung volumes and capacities**: These are the amounts of air present in the lungs during different phases of the breathing cycle. They include tidal volume (the amount of air inspired or expired during normal breathing), inspiratory reserve volume (additional air that can be inspired beyond the tidal volume), expiratory reserve volume (additional air that can be exhaled beyond the tidal volume), and residual volume (the air remaining in the lungs after a forced maximum exhalation).
4. **Work of breathing**: The energy required to overcome the resistance and elastic forces during breathing. This work is primarily performed by the respiratory muscles, which contract to generate negative intrathoracic pressure and expand the chest wall, allowing air to flow into the lungs.
5. **Pressure-volume relationships**: These describe how changes in lung volume are associated with changes in pressure within the respiratory system. Important pressure components include alveolar pressure (the pressure inside the alveoli), pleural pressure (the pressure between the lungs and the chest wall), and transpulmonary pressure (the difference between alveolar and pleural pressures).

Understanding respiratory mechanics is crucial for diagnosing and managing various respiratory disorders, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and restrictive lung diseases.

Dental caries, also known as tooth decay or cavities, refers to the damage or breakdown of the hard tissues of the teeth (enamel, dentin, and cementum) due to the activity of acid-producing bacteria. These bacteria ferment sugars from food and drinks, producing acids that dissolve and weaken the tooth structure, leading to cavities.

The process of dental caries development involves several stages:

1. Demineralization: The acidic environment created by bacterial activity causes minerals (calcium and phosphate) to be lost from the tooth surface, making it weaker and more susceptible to decay.
2. Formation of a white spot lesion: As demineralization progresses, a chalky white area appears on the tooth surface, indicating early caries development.
3. Cavity formation: If left untreated, the demineralization process continues, leading to the breakdown and loss of tooth structure, resulting in a cavity or hole in the tooth.
4. Infection and pulp involvement: As the decay progresses deeper into the tooth, it can reach the dental pulp (the soft tissue containing nerves and blood vessels), causing infection, inflammation, and potentially leading to toothache, abscess, or even tooth loss.

Preventing dental caries involves maintaining good oral hygiene, reducing sugar intake, using fluoride toothpaste and mouthwash, and having regular dental check-ups and cleanings. Early detection and treatment of dental caries can help prevent further progression and more severe complications.

I apologize, but "video recording" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to the process of capturing and storing moving visual images on electronic media, which is used in various medical fields for different purposes such as surgical training, telemedicine consultations, or monitoring patient conditions. However, there is no unique medical meaning associated with this term.

Inspiratory Capacity (IC) is the maximum volume of air that can be breathed in after a normal expiration. It is the sum of the tidal volume (the amount of air displaced between normal inspiration and expiration during quiet breathing) and the inspiratory reserve volume (the additional amount of air that can be inspired over and above the tidal volume). IC is an important parameter used in pulmonary function testing to assess lung volumes and capacities in patients with respiratory disorders.

"Feeding and Eating Disorders of Childhood" is a diagnostic category in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental disorders. This category includes several specific feeding and eating disorders that typically first occur during childhood or infancy. They are:

1. Pica: The persistent eating of non-nutritive, non-food substances for a period of at least one month.
2. Rumination Disorder: The repeated regurgitation of food for a period of at least one month.
3. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID): The avoidance or restriction of food intake that leads to significant nutritional deficiency or failure to gain weight, but it's not due to lack of available food or a cultural practice.
4. Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorders: This includes disorders that don't meet the criteria for any specific feeding or eating disorder, such as a child who eats only a very limited range of foods and has significant distress about it.
5. Unspecified Feeding and Eating Disorders: This is used when the clinician chooses not to specify the reason for not meeting the criteria for any specific feeding or eating disorder.

These disorders can lead to significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning. It's important to note that children with these disorders should receive comprehensive evaluation and treatment from a mental health professional who specializes in eating disorders.

The nasal cavity is the air-filled space located behind the nose, which is divided into two halves by the nasal septum. It is lined with mucous membrane and is responsible for several functions including respiration, filtration, humidification, and olfaction (smell). The nasal cavity serves as an important part of the upper respiratory tract, extending from the nares (nostrils) to the choanae (posterior openings of the nasal cavity that lead into the pharynx). It contains specialized structures such as turbinate bones, which help to warm, humidify and filter incoming air.

Oral surgical procedures refer to various types of surgeries performed in the oral cavity and maxillofacial region, which includes the mouth, jaws, face, and skull. These procedures are typically performed by oral and maxillofacial surgeons, who are dental specialists with extensive training in surgical procedures involving the mouth, jaws, and face.

Some common examples of oral surgical procedures include:

1. Tooth extractions: This involves removing a tooth that is damaged beyond repair or causing problems for the surrounding teeth. Wisdom tooth removal is a common type of tooth extraction.
2. Dental implant placement: This procedure involves placing a small titanium post in the jawbone to serve as a replacement root for a missing tooth. A dental crown is then attached to the implant, creating a natural-looking and functional replacement tooth.
3. Jaw surgery: Also known as orthognathic surgery, this procedure involves repositioning the jaws to correct bite problems or facial asymmetry.
4. Biopsy: This procedure involves removing a small sample of tissue from the oral cavity for laboratory analysis, often to diagnose suspicious lesions or growths.
5. Lesion removal: This procedure involves removing benign or malignant growths from the oral cavity, such as tumors or cysts.
6. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) surgery: This procedure involves treating disorders of the TMJ, which connects the jawbone to the skull and allows for movement when eating, speaking, and yawning.
7. Facial reconstruction: This procedure involves rebuilding or reshaping the facial bones after trauma, cancer surgery, or other conditions that affect the face.

Overall, oral surgical procedures are an important part of dental and medical care, helping to diagnose and treat a wide range of conditions affecting the mouth, jaws, and face.

Sjögren's syndrome is a chronic autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own moisture-producing glands, particularly the tear and salivary glands. This can lead to symptoms such as dry eyes, dry mouth, and dryness in other areas of the body. In some cases, it may also affect other organs, leading to a variety of complications.

There are two types of Sjögren's syndrome: primary and secondary. Primary Sjögren's syndrome occurs when the condition develops on its own, while secondary Sjögren's syndrome occurs when it develops in conjunction with another autoimmune disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus.

The exact cause of Sjögren's syndrome is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Treatment typically focuses on relieving symptoms and may include artificial tears, saliva substitutes, medications to stimulate saliva production, and immunosuppressive drugs in more severe cases.

In medical terms, pressure is defined as the force applied per unit area on an object or body surface. It is often measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) in clinical settings. For example, blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the arteries and is recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (when the heart beats and pushes blood out) and diastolic pressure (when the heart rests between beats).

Pressure can also refer to the pressure exerted on a wound or incision to help control bleeding, or the pressure inside the skull or spinal canal. High or low pressure in different body systems can indicate various medical conditions and require appropriate treatment.

Aphthous stomatitis, also known simply as canker sores, is a medical condition that involves the development of small, painful ulcers in the mouth. These ulcers typically appear on the inside of the lips or cheeks, under the tongue, or on the gums. They are usually round or oval with a white or yellow center and a red border.

Aphthous stomatitis is not contagious and is thought to be caused by a variety of factors, including stress, hormonal changes, nutritional deficiencies, and injury to the mouth. The ulcers typically heal on their own within one to two weeks, although larger or more severe sores may take longer to heal.

Treatment for aphthous stomatitis is generally focused on relieving symptoms, as there is no cure for the condition. This may include using over-the-counter mouth rinses or topical gels to numb the area and reduce pain, as well as avoiding spicy, acidic, or hard foods that can irritate the ulcers. In some cases, prescription medications may be necessary to help manage more severe or persistent cases of aphthous stomatitis.

The facial bones, also known as the facial skeleton, are a series of bones that make up the framework of the face. They include:

1. Frontal bone: This bone forms the forehead and the upper part of the eye sockets.
2. Nasal bones: These two thin bones form the bridge of the nose.
3. Maxilla bones: These are the largest bones in the facial skeleton, forming the upper jaw, the bottom of the eye sockets, and the sides of the nose. They also contain the upper teeth.
4. Zygomatic bones (cheekbones): These bones form the cheekbones and the outer part of the eye sockets.
5. Palatine bones: These bones form the back part of the roof of the mouth, the side walls of the nasal cavity, and contribute to the formation of the eye socket.
6. Inferior nasal conchae: These are thin, curved bones that form the lateral walls of the nasal cavity and help to filter and humidify air as it passes through the nose.
7. Lacrimal bones: These are the smallest bones in the skull, located at the inner corner of the eye socket, and help to form the tear duct.
8. Mandible (lower jaw): This is the only bone in the facial skeleton that can move. It holds the lower teeth and forms the chin.

These bones work together to protect vital structures such as the eyes, brain, and nasal passages, while also providing attachment points for muscles that control chewing, expression, and other facial movements.

Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping the mouth and teeth clean to prevent dental issues such as cavities, gum disease, bad breath, and other oral health problems. It involves regular brushing, flossing, and using mouthwash to remove plaque and food particles that can lead to tooth decay and gum disease. Regular dental check-ups and cleanings are also an essential part of maintaining good oral hygiene. Poor oral hygiene can lead to a range of health problems, including heart disease, diabetes, and respiratory infections, so it is important to prioritize oral health as part of overall health and wellbeing.

Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSF) is a chronic, progressive, and potentially disabling disease that affects the oral soft tissues. It is characterized by inflammation and fibrosis (excessive deposition of collagen) of the submucosal tissues, leading to stiffness and limitation of mouth opening, tongue movement, and occasionally swallowing or speaking difficulties. The condition primarily affects individuals with a history of areca nut (betel nut) chewing, although other factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and genetic predisposition may also contribute to its development. Symptoms can include burning sensation in the mouth, dryness, and pain during speaking, eating, or swallowing. In severe cases, OSF can lead to significant functional impairment and require surgical intervention.

The hyoid bone is a U-shaped bone located in the anterior neck, superior to the thyroid cartilage. It does not articulate with any other bones and serves as an attachment point for various muscles, including those involved in swallowing, breathing, and speaking. The unique structure of the hyoid bone allows it to support the tongue and contribute to the stability of the airway.

A "cheek" is the fleshy, muscular area of the face that forms the side of the face below the eye and above the jaw. It contains the buccinator muscle, which helps with chewing by moving food to the back teeth for grinding and also assists in speaking and forming facial expressions. The cheek also contains several sensory receptors that allow us to perceive touch, temperature, and pain in this area of the face. Additionally, there is a mucous membrane lining inside the mouth cavity called the buccal mucosa which covers the inner surface of the cheek.

Deglutition is the medical term for swallowing. It refers to the process by which food or liquid is transferred from the mouth to the stomach through a series of coordinated muscle movements and neural responses. The deglutition process involves several stages, including oral preparatory, oral transit, pharyngeal, and esophageal phases, each of which plays a critical role in ensuring safe and efficient swallowing.

Dysphagia is the medical term for difficulty with swallowing, which can result from various underlying conditions such as neurological disorders, structural abnormalities, or muscular weakness. Proper evaluation and management of deglutition disorders are essential to prevent complications such as aspiration pneumonia, malnutrition, and dehydration.

Oral administration is a route of giving medications or other substances by mouth. This can be in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, pastes, or other forms that can be swallowed. Once ingested, the substance is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and enters the bloodstream to reach its intended target site in the body. Oral administration is a common and convenient route of medication delivery, but it may not be appropriate for all substances or in certain situations, such as when rapid onset of action is required or when the patient has difficulty swallowing.

Mastication is the medical term for the process of chewing food. It's the first step in digestion, where food is broken down into smaller pieces by the teeth, making it easier to swallow and further digest. The act of mastication involves not only the physical grinding and tearing of food by the teeth but also the mixing of the food with saliva, which contains enzymes that begin to break down carbohydrates. This process helps to enhance the efficiency of digestion and nutrient absorption in the subsequent stages of the digestive process.

Stomatitis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the mucous membrane of any of the soft tissues in the mouth, including the lips, gums, tongue, palate, and cheek lining. It can cause discomfort, pain, and sores or lesions in the mouth. Stomatitis may result from a variety of causes, such as infection, injury, allergic reaction, or systemic diseases. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, mouth rinses, or changes in oral hygiene practices.

Anti-infective agents, local, are medications that are applied directly to a specific area of the body to prevent or treat infections caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites. These agents include topical antibiotics, antifungals, antivirals, and anti-parasitic drugs. They work by killing or inhibiting the growth of the infectious organisms, thereby preventing their spread and reducing the risk of infection. Local anti-infective agents are often used to treat skin infections, eye infections, and other localized infections, and can be administered as creams, ointments, gels, solutions, or drops.

Sulfur compounds refer to chemical substances that contain sulfur atoms. Sulfur can form bonds with many other elements, including carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, among others. As a result, there is a wide variety of sulfur compounds with different structures and properties. Some common examples of sulfur compounds include hydrogen sulfide (H2S), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and sulfonic acids (R-SO3H).

In the medical field, sulfur compounds have various applications. For instance, some are used as drugs or drug precursors, while others are used in the production of medical devices or as disinfectants. Sulfur-containing amino acids, such as methionine and cysteine, are essential components of proteins and play crucial roles in many biological processes.

However, some sulfur compounds can also be harmful to human health. For example, exposure to high levels of hydrogen sulfide or sulfur dioxide can cause respiratory problems, while certain organosulfur compounds found in crude oil and coal tar have been linked to an increased risk of cancer. Therefore, it is essential to handle and dispose of sulfur compounds properly to minimize potential health hazards.

Facial pain is a condition characterized by discomfort or pain felt in any part of the face. It can result from various causes, including nerve damage or irritation, injuries, infections, dental problems, migraines, or sinus congestion. The pain can range from mild to severe and may be sharp, dull, constant, or intermittent. In some cases, facial pain can also be associated with other symptoms such as headaches, redness, swelling, or changes in sensation. Accurate diagnosis and treatment of the underlying cause are essential for effective management of facial pain.

Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the family Picornaviridae and the genus Aphthovirus. It is the causative agent of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD), a highly contagious and severe viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including cattle, swine, sheep, goats, and buffalo. The virus can be transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids, as well as through aerosolized particles in the air. FMDV has seven distinct serotypes (O, A, C, Asia 1, and South African Territories [SAT] 1, 2, and 3), and infection with one serotype does not provide cross-protection against other serotypes. The virus primarily targets the animal's epithelial tissues, causing lesions and blisters in and around the mouth, feet, and mammary glands. FMD is not a direct threat to human health but poses significant economic consequences for the global livestock industry due to its high infectivity and morbidity rates.

The sublingual glands are a pair of salivary glands located in the floor of the mouth, beneath the tongue. They are the smallest of the major salivary glands and produce around 5-10% of the total saliva in the mouth. The sublingual glands secrete saliva containing electrolytes, enzymes (such as amylase), and antibacterial compounds that help in digestion, lubrication, and protection against microorganisms.

The sublingual glands' secretions are released through multiple small ducts called the ducts of Rivinus or minor sublingual ducts, as well as a larger duct called the duct of Wharton, which is a common excretory duct for both sublingual and submandibular glands.

Sublingual gland dysfunction can lead to conditions such as dry mouth (xerostomia), dental caries, or oral infections.

Tongue diseases refer to various medical conditions that affect the structure, function, or appearance of the tongue. These conditions can be categorized into several types, including:

1. Infections: Bacterial, viral, or fungal infections can cause tongue inflammation (glossitis), pain, and ulcers. Common causes include streptococcus, herpes simplex, and candida albicans.
2. Traumatic injuries: These can result from accidental bites, burns, or irritation caused by sharp teeth, dental appliances, or habitual habits like tongue thrusting or chewing.
3. Neoplasms: Both benign and malignant growths can occur on the tongue, such as papillomas, fibromas, and squamous cell carcinoma.
4. Congenital disorders: Some individuals may be born with abnormalities of the tongue, like ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) or macroglossia (enlarged tongue).
5. Neurological conditions: Certain neurological disorders can affect tongue movement and sensation, such as Bell's palsy, stroke, or multiple sclerosis.
6. Systemic diseases: Various systemic conditions can have symptoms that manifest on the tongue, like diabetes mellitus (which can cause dryness and furring), iron deficiency anemia (which may lead to atrophic glossitis), or Sjögren's syndrome (which can result in xerostomia).
7. Idiopathic: In some cases, the cause of tongue symptoms remains unknown, leading to a diagnosis of idiopathic glossitis or burning mouth syndrome.

Proper diagnosis and treatment of tongue diseases require a thorough examination by a healthcare professional, often involving a dental or medical specialist such as an oral pathologist, otolaryngologist, or dermatologist.

Povidone-Iodine is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, which is a complex of iodine with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). This complex allows for sustained release of iodine, providing persistent antimicrobial activity. It has been widely used in various clinical settings, including as a surgical scrub, wound disinfection, and skin preparation before invasive procedures. Povidone-Iodine is effective against bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. The mechanism of action involves the release of iodine ions, which oxidize cellular components and disrupt microbial membranes, leading to cell death.

Airway resistance is a measure of the opposition to airflow during breathing, which is caused by the friction between the air and the walls of the respiratory tract. It is an important parameter in respiratory physiology because it can affect the work of breathing and gas exchange.

Airway resistance is usually expressed in units of cm H2O/L/s or Pa·s/m, and it can be measured during spontaneous breathing or during forced expiratory maneuvers, such as those used in pulmonary function testing. Increased airway resistance can result from a variety of conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchitis, and bronchiectasis. Decreased airway resistance can be seen in conditions such as emphysema or after a successful bronchodilator treatment.

Masticatory muscles are a group of skeletal muscles responsible for the mastication (chewing) process in humans and other animals. They include:

1. Masseter muscle: This is the primary muscle for chewing and is located on the sides of the face, running from the lower jawbone (mandible) to the cheekbone (zygomatic arch). It helps close the mouth and elevate the mandible during chewing.

2. Temporalis muscle: This muscle is situated in the temporal region of the skull, covering the temple area. It assists in closing the jaw, retracting the mandible, and moving it sideways during chewing.

3. Medial pterygoid muscle: Located deep within the cheek, near the angle of the lower jaw, this muscle helps move the mandible forward and grind food during chewing. It also contributes to closing the mouth.

4. Lateral pterygoid muscle: Found inside the ramus (the vertical part) of the mandible, this muscle has two heads - superior and inferior. The superior head helps open the mouth by pulling the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) downwards, while the inferior head assists in moving the mandible sideways during chewing.

These muscles work together to enable efficient chewing and food breakdown, preparing it for swallowing and digestion.

A facial expression is a result of the contraction or relaxation of muscles in the face that change the physical appearance of an individual's face to convey various emotions, intentions, or physical sensations. Facial expressions can be voluntary or involuntary and are a form of non-verbal communication that plays a crucial role in social interaction and conveying a person's state of mind.

The seven basic facial expressions of emotion, as proposed by Paul Ekman, include happiness, sadness, fear, disgust, surprise, anger, and contempt. These facial expressions are universally recognized across cultures and can be detected through the interpretation of specific muscle movements in the face, known as action units, which are measured and analyzed in fields such as psychology, neurology, and computer vision.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Ulmaceae" is not a medical term. It is actually the botanical name of a family of flowering plants known as the elm family. This family includes trees and shrubs with simple, alternate leaves and small, apetalous flowers arranged in clusters. Examples of genera within this family include Ulmus (elm), Planera (sycamore), and Celtis (hackberry).

The medical term for nail biting is "Onychophagia." It's classified as a type of body-focused repetitive behavior, which is a category of mental health disorders characterized by the repeated compulsion to engage in certain self-grooming behaviors that cause physical damage. In the case of onychophagia, the individual repeatedly bites their nails, often until they bleed or become severely damaged. This can lead to various complications, such as infection and dental issues. It's important to note that while nail biting is a common habit, when it becomes repetitive, compulsive, and causes significant distress or impairment, it may be indicative of a broader mental health condition.

The mandibular condyle is a part of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in the human body. It is a rounded eminence at the end of the mandible (lower jawbone) that articulates with the glenoid fossa of the temporal bone in the skull, allowing for movements such as opening and closing the mouth, chewing, speaking, and swallowing. The mandibular condyle has both a fibrocartilaginous articular surface and a synovial joint capsule surrounding it, which provides protection and lubrication during these movements.

Toothbrushing is the act of cleaning teeth and gums using a toothbrush to remove plaque, food debris, and dental calculus (tartar) from the surfaces of the teeth and gums. It is typically performed using a soft-bristled toothbrush and fluoride toothpaste, with gentle circular or back-and-forth motions along the gumline and on all surfaces of the teeth. Toothbrushing should be done at least twice a day, preferably after every meal and before bedtime, for two minutes each time, to maintain good oral hygiene and prevent dental diseases such as tooth decay and gum disease. It is also recommended to brush the tongue to remove bacteria and freshen breath.

A nasolabial fold is a medically recognized term that refers to the crease or line that runs from the side of the nose down to the corner of the mouth. This fold becomes more prominent with age as the skin loses elasticity and fat padding, leading to a sagging appearance. It is also known as "laugh lines" or "smile lines." While it is a natural part of human anatomy, some people may seek cosmetic treatments to reduce their appearance.

The masseter muscle is a strong chewing muscle in the jaw. It is a broad, thick, quadrilateral muscle that extends from the zygomatic arch (cheekbone) to the lower jaw (mandible). The masseter muscle has two distinct parts: the superficial part and the deep part.

The superficial part of the masseter muscle originates from the lower border of the zygomatic process of the maxilla and the anterior two-thirds of the inferior border of the zygomatic arch. The fibers of this part run almost vertically downward to insert on the lateral surface of the ramus of the mandible and the coronoid process.

The deep part of the masseter muscle originates from the deep surface of the zygomatic arch and inserts on the medial surface of the ramus of the mandible, blending with the temporalis tendon.

The primary function of the masseter muscle is to elevate the mandible, helping to close the mouth and clench the teeth together during mastication (chewing). It also plays a role in stabilizing the jaw during biting and speaking. The masseter muscle is one of the most powerful muscles in the human body relative to its size.

Salivary glands are exocrine glands that produce saliva, which is secreted into the oral cavity to keep the mouth and throat moist, aid in digestion by initiating food breakdown, and help maintain dental health. There are three major pairs of salivary glands: the parotid glands located in the cheeks, the submandibular glands found beneath the jaw, and the sublingual glands situated under the tongue. Additionally, there are numerous minor salivary glands distributed throughout the oral cavity lining. These glands release their secretions through a system of ducts into the mouth.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

A tooth is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (upper and lower) of many vertebrates and used for biting and chewing food. In humans, a typical tooth has a crown, one or more roots, and three layers: the enamel (the outermost layer, hardest substance in the body), the dentin (the layer beneath the enamel), and the pulp (the innermost layer, containing nerves and blood vessels). Teeth are essential for proper nutrition, speech, and aesthetics. There are different types of teeth, including incisors, canines, premolars, and molars, each designed for specific functions in the mouth.

Tooth discoloration, also known as tooth staining or tooth color change, refers to the darkening or staining of teeth. It can be categorized into two main types: extrinsic and intrinsic. Extrinsic discoloration occurs when the outer layer of the tooth (enamel) becomes stained due to exposure to colored substances such as coffee, tea, wine, tobacco, and certain foods. Intrinsic discoloration, on the other hand, occurs when the inner structure of the tooth (dentin) darkens or gets a yellowish tint due to factors like genetics, aging, trauma, or exposure to certain medications during tooth development. Tooth discoloration can also be caused by dental diseases or decay. It is important to note that while some forms of tooth discoloration are cosmetic concerns, others may indicate underlying oral health issues and should be evaluated by a dental professional.

Cariostatic agents are substances or medications that are used to prevent or inhibit the development and progression of dental caries, also known as tooth decay or cavities. These agents work by reducing the ability of bacteria in the mouth to produce acid, which can erode the enamel and dentin of the teeth and lead to cavities.

There are several types of cariostatic agents that are commonly used in dental care, including:

1. Fluorides: These are the most widely used and well-studied cariostatic agents. They work by promoting the remineralization of tooth enamel and making it more resistant to acid attacks. Fluoride can be found in toothpaste, mouthwashes, gels, varnishes, and fluoridated water supplies.
2. Antimicrobial agents: These substances work by reducing the population of bacteria in the mouth that contribute to tooth decay. Examples include chlorhexidine, triclosan, and xylitol.
3. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP): This is a complex protein that has been shown to help remineralize tooth enamel and reduce the risk of dental caries. It can be found in some toothpastes and mouthwashes.
4. Silver diamine fluoride: This is a topical fluoride compound that contains silver ions, which have antimicrobial properties. It has been shown to be effective in preventing and arresting dental caries, particularly in high-risk populations such as young children and older adults with dry mouth.

It's important to note that while cariostatic agents can help reduce the risk of tooth decay, they are not a substitute for good oral hygiene practices such as brushing twice a day, flossing daily, and visiting the dentist regularly.

A disease outbreak is defined as the occurrence of cases of a disease in excess of what would normally be expected in a given time and place. It may affect a small and localized group or a large number of people spread over a wide area, even internationally. An outbreak may be caused by a new agent, a change in the agent's virulence or host susceptibility, or an increase in the size or density of the host population.

Outbreaks can have significant public health and economic impacts, and require prompt investigation and control measures to prevent further spread of the disease. The investigation typically involves identifying the source of the outbreak, determining the mode of transmission, and implementing measures to interrupt the chain of infection. This may include vaccination, isolation or quarantine, and education of the public about the risks and prevention strategies.

Examples of disease outbreaks include foodborne illnesses linked to contaminated food or water, respiratory infections spread through coughing and sneezing, and mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika virus and West Nile virus. Outbreaks can also occur in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and nursing homes, where vulnerable populations may be at increased risk of infection.

The "chin" is the lower, prominent part of the front portion of the jaw in humans and other animals. In medical terms, it is often referred to as the mentum or the symphysis of the mandible. The chin helps in protecting the soft tissues of the mouth and throat during activities such as eating, speaking, and swallowing. It also plays a role in shaping the overall appearance of the face. Anatomically, the chin is formed by the fusion of the two halves of the mandible (lower jawbone) at the symphysis menti.

Pharyngeal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the pharynx, which is the part of the throat that lies behind the nasal cavity and mouth, and above the esophagus and larynx. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Pharyngeal neoplasms can occur in any part of the pharynx, which is divided into three regions: the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and hypopharynx. The most common type of pharyngeal cancer is squamous cell carcinoma, which arises from the flat cells that line the mucosal surface of the pharynx.

Risk factors for developing pharyngeal neoplasms include tobacco use, heavy alcohol consumption, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). Symptoms may include sore throat, difficulty swallowing, ear pain, neck masses, and changes in voice or speech. Treatment options depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the neoplasm, and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Coxsackievirus infections are a type of viral illness caused by Coxsackie A and B viruses, which belong to the family Picornaviridae. These viruses can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the specific strain and the age and overall health of the infected individual.

The most common types of Coxsackievirus infections are hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina. HFMD is characterized by fever, sore throat, and a rash that typically appears on the hands, feet, and mouth. Herpangina is similar but is usually marked by painful sores in the back of the mouth or throat.

Other possible symptoms of Coxsackievirus infections include:

* Fever
* Headache
* Muscle aches
* Fatigue
* Nausea and vomiting
* Abdominal pain

In some cases, Coxsackievirus infections can lead to more serious complications, such as meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle), or pleurodynia (also known as "devil's grip," a painful inflammation of the chest and abdominal muscles).

Coxsackievirus infections are typically spread through close contact with an infected person, such as through respiratory droplets or by touching contaminated surfaces. The viruses can also be spread through fecal-oral transmission.

There is no specific treatment for Coxsackievirus infections, and most people recover on their own within a week or two. However, severe cases may require hospitalization and supportive care, such as fluids and pain relief. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close contact with sick individuals.

Air pressure, also known as atmospheric pressure, is the force exerted by the weight of air in the atmosphere on a surface. It is measured in units such as pounds per square inch (psi), hectopascals (hPa), or inches of mercury (inHg). The standard atmospheric pressure at sea level is defined as 101,325 Pa (14.7 psi/1013 hPa/29.92 inHg). Changes in air pressure can be used to predict weather patterns and are an important factor in the study of aerodynamics and respiratory physiology.

Tooth injuries are damages or traumas that affect the teeth's structure and integrity. These injuries can occur due to various reasons, such as accidents, sports-related impacts, falls, fights, or biting on hard objects. The severity of tooth injuries may range from minor chips and cracks to more severe fractures, luxations (displacement), or avulsions (complete tooth loss).

Tooth injuries are typically classified into two main categories:

1. Crown injuries: These involve damages to the visible part of the tooth, including chipping, cracking, or fracturing. Crown injuries may be further categorized as:
* Uncomplicated crown fracture: When only the enamel and dentin are affected without pulp exposure.
* Complicated crown fracture: When the enamel, dentin, and pulp are all exposed.
2. Root injuries: These involve damages to the tooth root or the supporting structures, such as the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Root injuries may include luxations (displacements), intrusions (teeth pushed into the socket), extrusions (teeth partially out of the socket), or avulsions (complete tooth loss).

Immediate medical attention is necessary for severe tooth injuries, as they can lead to complications like infection, tooth decay, or even tooth loss if not treated promptly and appropriately. Treatment options may include dental fillings, crowns, root canal therapy, splinting, or reimplantation in the case of avulsions. Preventive measures, such as wearing mouthguards during sports activities, can help reduce the risk of tooth injuries.

The hard palate is the anterior, bony part of the roof of the mouth, forming a vertical partition between the oral and nasal cavities. It is composed of the maxilla and palatine bones, and provides attachment for the muscles of the soft palate, which functions in swallowing, speaking, and breathing. The hard palate also contains taste buds that contribute to our ability to taste food.

The dental plaque index (DPI) is a clinical measurement used in dentistry to assess the amount of dental plaque accumulation on a person's teeth. It was first introduced by Silness and Löe in 1964 as a method to standardize the assessment of oral hygiene and the effectiveness of oral hygiene interventions.

The DPI is based on a visual examination of the amount of plaque present on four surfaces of the teeth, including the buccal (cheek-facing) and lingual (tongue-facing) surfaces of both upper and lower first molars and upper and lower incisors. The examiner assigns a score from 0 to 3 for each surface, with higher scores indicating greater plaque accumulation:

* Score 0: No plaque detected, even after probing the area with a dental explorer.
* Score 1: Plaque detected by visual examination and/or probing but is not visible when the area is gently dried with air.
* Score 2: Moderate accumulation of soft deposits that are visible upon visual examination before air drying, but which can be removed by scraping with a dental explorer.
* Score 3: Abundant soft matter, visible upon visual examination before air drying and not easily removable with a dental explorer.

The DPI is calculated as the average score of all surfaces examined, providing an overall measure of plaque accumulation in the mouth. It can be used to monitor changes in oral hygiene over time or to evaluate the effectiveness of different oral hygiene interventions. However, it should be noted that the DPI has limitations and may not accurately reflect the presence of bacterial biofilms or the risk of dental caries and gum disease.

Chewing gum is not a medical term, but rather a common consumer product. It is a type of soft, cohesive substance designed to be chewed without being swallowed. The basic ingredients of chewing gum include a gum base, sweeteners, flavorings, and softeners. The gum base gives it its chewy texture, while sweeteners provide the taste. Flavorings are added to give the gum its particular taste, such as mint, fruit, or bubblegum. Softeners are added to keep the gum from hardening over time.

While chewing gum is not a medical treatment or therapy, it does have some potential health benefits and drawbacks. Chewing sugar-free gum, for example, has been shown to increase saliva production, which can help neutralize acid in the mouth and reduce the risk of tooth decay. However, excessive gum chewing can lead to jaw pain or headaches in some individuals. It is also important to choose sugar-free gum, as sugary gum can contribute to tooth decay.

Tongue habits refer to the specific and repetitive ways in which an individual's tongue moves or rests inside their mouth. These habits can include things like tongue thrusting, where the tongue presses against the front teeth during speech or swallowing; tongue sucking, where the tongue is placed against the roof of the mouth; or improper tongue positioning during rest, where the tongue may be positioned too far forward in the mouth or rest against the bottom teeth.

Tongue habits can have an impact on dental and oral health, as well as speech development and clarity. For example, persistent tongue thrusting can lead to an open bite, where the front teeth do not come together when the mouth is closed. Improper tongue positioning during rest can also contribute to the development of a deep overbite or an anterior open bite.

In some cases, tongue habits may be related to underlying conditions such as muscle weakness or sensory integration disorders. Speech-language pathologists and orthodontists may work together to assess and address tongue habits in order to improve oral function and overall health.

Chordata is a phylum in the animal kingdom that contains animals with notochords, dorsal hollow nerve cords, pharyngeal gill slits, and post-anal tails at some point during their development. This phylum includes organisms that are bilaterally symmetrical, have a coelom (a body cavity), and are triploblastic (having three germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm).

The Chordata phylum is divided into three subphyla: Urochordata (tunicates or sea squirts), Cephalochordata (lancelets or amphioxi), and Vertebrata (animals with backbones, including fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals). The presence of the notochord, a flexible, rod-like structure that runs along the length of the body, is a key characteristic that unites these diverse groups.

In vertebrates, the notochord is replaced during development by the spinal column or backbone, which provides support and protection for the central nervous system. The dorsal hollow nerve cord develops into the brain and spinal cord in vertebrates, while pharyngeal gill slits are modified into various structures such as the tonsils, thymus, and middle ear bones in different vertebrate groups.

Overall, Chordata represents a diverse group of organisms with shared developmental features that have evolved to adapt to various ecological niches throughout history.

I could not find a specific medical definition for "fingersucking" as it is more of a behavior rather than a medical condition. However, fingersucking can sometimes be associated with certain medical or developmental issues in children. For example, persistent fingering sucking beyond the age of 5 years may indicate a developmental issue such as a sensory processing disorder or a behavioral problem like attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Prolonged fingersucking can also lead to dental problems such as malocclusion and dental caries.

Mouth rehabilitation, also known as oral rehabilitation or dental rehabilitation, is a process aimed at restoring the functionality, health, and aesthetics of the oral cavity. It involves various procedures such as fillings, extractions, root canal treatments, periodontal therapy, prosthodontic treatments (dentures, crowns, bridges, implants), orthodontic treatments, or a combination thereof. The primary goal is to improve mastication (chewing), speech, and oral hygiene while also enhancing the patient's smile and self-confidence. This process often requires a multidisciplinary team of dental professionals including general dentists, endodontists, periodontists, oral surgeons, orthodontists, and prosthodontists.

Tooth extraction is a dental procedure in which a tooth that is damaged or poses a threat to oral health is removed from its socket in the jawbone. This may be necessary due to various reasons such as severe tooth decay, gum disease, fractured teeth, crowded teeth, or for orthodontic treatment purposes. The procedure is performed by a dentist or an oral surgeon, under local anesthesia to numb the area around the tooth, ensuring minimal discomfort during the extraction process.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "toothpastes" is the plural form of "toothpaste," which is not a medical condition or procedure that requires a definition. However, I can provide you with some information about toothpaste.

Toothpaste is a dental hygiene product used to clean and maintain the health of teeth and gums. It generally contains mild abrasives, flavoring, and fluoride to help remove plaque, prevent tooth decay, and freshen breath. There are various types of toothpastes available on the market, including those formulated for sensitive teeth, whitening, gum health, and tartar control. It is essential to choose a toothpaste that meets your specific dental needs and has the American Dental Association (ADA) Seal of Acceptance, ensuring its safety and effectiveness.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Perciformes" is not a medical term. It is a term used in the field of biology, specifically in taxonomy and ichthyology (the study of fish). Perciformes is an order of ray-finned bony fishes that includes over 10,000 species, making it the largest order of vertebrates. Examples of fish within this order include perch, sea bass, sunfish, and tuna.

Gingivitis is a mild form of gum disease (periodontal disease) that causes irritation, redness, swelling and bleeding of the gingiva, or gums. It's important to note that it is reversible with good oral hygiene and professional dental treatment. If left untreated, however, gingivitis can progress to a more severe form of gum disease known as periodontitis, which can result in tissue damage and eventual tooth loss.

Gingivitis is most commonly caused by the buildup of plaque, a sticky film of bacteria that constantly forms on our teeth. When not removed regularly through brushing and flossing, this plaque can harden into tartar, which is more difficult to remove and contributes to gum inflammation. Other factors like hormonal changes, poor nutrition, certain medications, smoking or a weakened immune system may also increase the risk of developing gingivitis.

Intubation, intratracheal is a medical procedure in which a flexible plastic or rubber tube called an endotracheal tube (ETT) is inserted through the mouth or nose, passing through the vocal cords and into the trachea (windpipe). This procedure is performed to establish and maintain a patent airway, allowing for the delivery of oxygen and the removal of carbon dioxide during mechanical ventilation in various clinical scenarios, such as:

1. Respiratory failure or arrest
2. Procedural sedation
3. Surgery under general anesthesia
4. Neuromuscular disorders
5. Ingestion of toxic substances
6. Head and neck trauma
7. Critical illness or injury affecting the airway

The process of intubation is typically performed by trained medical professionals, such as anesthesiologists, emergency medicine physicians, or critical care specialists, using direct laryngoscopy or video laryngoscopy to visualize the vocal cords and guide the ETT into the correct position. Once placed, the ETT is secured to prevent dislodgement, and the patient's respiratory status is continuously monitored to ensure proper ventilation and oxygenation.

Aerosols are defined in the medical field as suspensions of fine solid or liquid particles in a gas. In the context of public health and medicine, aerosols often refer to particles that can remain suspended in air for long periods of time and can be inhaled. They can contain various substances, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or chemicals, and can play a role in the transmission of respiratory infections or other health effects.

For example, when an infected person coughs or sneezes, they may produce respiratory droplets that can contain viruses like influenza or SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). Some of these droplets can evaporate quickly and leave behind smaller particles called aerosols, which can remain suspended in the air for hours and potentially be inhaled by others. This is one way that respiratory viruses can spread between people in close proximity to each other.

Aerosols can also be generated through medical procedures such as bronchoscopy, suctioning, or nebulizer treatments, which can produce aerosols containing bacteria, viruses, or other particles that may pose an infection risk to healthcare workers or other patients. Therefore, appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) and airborne precautions are often necessary to reduce the risk of transmission in these settings.

The stomatognathic system is a term used in medicine and dentistry to refer to the coordinated functions of the mouth, jaw, and related structures. It includes the teeth, gums, tongue, palate, lips, cheeks, salivary glands, as well as the muscles of mastication (chewing), swallowing, and speech. The stomatognathic system also involves the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and associated structures that allow for movement of the jaw. This complex system works together to enable functions such as eating, speaking, and breathing. Dysfunction in the stomatognathic system can lead to various oral health issues, including temporomandibular disorders, occlusal problems, and orofacial pain.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, "movement" refers to the act or process of changing physical location or position. It involves the contraction and relaxation of muscles, which allows for the joints to move and the body to be in motion. Movement can also refer to the ability of a patient to move a specific body part or limb, which is assessed during physical examinations. Additionally, "movement" can describe the progression or spread of a disease within the body.

Speech is the vocalized form of communication using sounds and words to express thoughts, ideas, and feelings. It involves the articulation of sounds through the movement of muscles in the mouth, tongue, and throat, which are controlled by nerves. Speech also requires respiratory support, phonation (vocal cord vibration), and prosody (rhythm, stress, and intonation).

Speech is a complex process that develops over time in children, typically beginning with cooing and babbling sounds in infancy and progressing to the use of words and sentences by around 18-24 months. Speech disorders can affect any aspect of this process, including articulation, fluency, voice, and language.

In a medical context, speech is often evaluated and treated by speech-language pathologists who specialize in diagnosing and managing communication disorders.

Facial muscles, also known as facial nerves or cranial nerve VII, are a group of muscles responsible for various expressions and movements of the face. These muscles include:

1. Orbicularis oculi: muscle that closes the eyelid and raises the upper eyelid
2. Corrugator supercilii: muscle that pulls the eyebrows down and inward, forming wrinkles on the forehead
3. Frontalis: muscle that raises the eyebrows and forms horizontal wrinkles on the forehead
4. Procerus: muscle that pulls the medial ends of the eyebrows downward, forming vertical wrinkles between the eyebrows
5. Nasalis: muscle that compresses or dilates the nostrils
6. Depressor septi: muscle that pulls down the tip of the nose
7. Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi: muscle that raises the upper lip and flares the nostrils
8. Levator labii superioris: muscle that raises the upper lip
9. Zygomaticus major: muscle that raises the corner of the mouth, producing a smile
10. Zygomaticus minor: muscle that raises the nasolabial fold and corner of the mouth
11. Risorius: muscle that pulls the angle of the mouth laterally, producing a smile
12. Depressor anguli oris: muscle that pulls down the angle of the mouth
13. Mentalis: muscle that raises the lower lip and forms wrinkles on the chin
14. Buccinator: muscle that retracts the cheek and helps with chewing
15. Platysma: muscle that depresses the corner of the mouth and wrinkles the skin of the neck.

These muscles are innervated by the facial nerve, which arises from the brainstem and exits the skull through the stylomastoid foramen. Damage to the facial nerve can result in facial paralysis or weakness on one or both sides of the face.

Surgical tape, also known as surgical adhesive tape or hypoallergenic tape, is a type of adhesive tape that is specifically designed for use in surgical settings. It is typically made from a thin, porous material such as rayon, cotton, or polyester, which allows air to circulate and moisture to escape. The adhesive used in surgical tape is designed to be gentle on the skin and to minimize the risk of allergic reactions or irritation.

Surgical tape is used to hold dressings or bandages in place, to close wounds or incisions, or to secure IV lines or other medical devices to the skin. It is available in a variety of sizes, shapes, and colors, and can be cut or shaped to fit the specific needs of the patient.

When applied properly, surgical tape can provide a secure and comfortable hold, while also minimizing the risk of damage to the skin or infection. It is important to follow proper technique when applying and removing surgical tape, as improper use can lead to discomfort, irritation, or other complications.

In the context of mental health and psychology, "predatory behavior" is not a term that is commonly used as a medical diagnosis or condition. However, it generally refers to aggressive or exploitative behavior towards others with the intention of taking advantage of them for personal gain or pleasure. This could include various types of harmful behaviors such as sexual harassment, assault, stalking, bullying, or financial exploitation.

In some cases, predatory behavior may be associated with certain mental health conditions, such as antisocial personality disorder or psychopathy, which are characterized by a disregard for the rights and feelings of others. However, it's important to note that not all individuals who engage in predatory behavior have a mental health condition, and many people who do may not necessarily exhibit these behaviors.

If you or someone else is experiencing harm or exploitation, it's important to seek help from a trusted authority figure, such as a healthcare provider, law enforcement officer, or social worker.

Orthodontic wires are typically made of stainless steel, nickel-titanium alloy, or other shape memory alloys, and are used in orthodontics to move teeth into the desired position. They are attached to brackets bonded to the teeth and exert a continuous force to align the teeth and correct malocclusions (bites that do not fit together correctly). The wires come in various sizes, shapes, and materials, each with specific properties that make them suitable for different stages of treatment. Some wires are flexible and used during the initial alignment phase, while others are more rigid and used during the finishing phase to achieve precise tooth movements.

Otorhinolaryngologic diseases, also known as ear, nose, and throat (ENT) diseases, refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the ears, nose, and/or throat. These specialized areas are closely related both anatomically and functionally, and disorders in one area can often have impacts on the others.

Here are some examples of otorhinolaryngologic diseases categorized by the affected area:

1. Otologic diseases - affecting the ear:
* Otitis media (ear infection)
* Otitis externa (swimmer's ear)
* Tinnitus (ringing in the ears)
* Hearing loss
* Meniere's disease (inner ear disorder causing vertigo, tinnitus, and hearing loss)
* Acoustic neuroma (noncancerous tumor on the vestibular nerve)
2. Rhinologic diseases - affecting the nose:
* Allergic rhinitis (hay fever)
* Non-allergic rhinitis
* Sinusitis (sinus infection)
* Deviated septum
* Nasal polyps
* Epistaxis (nosebleed)
3. Laryngologic diseases - affecting the throat and voice box:
* Laryngitis (inflammation of the larynx, causing hoarseness or voice loss)
* Vocal cord nodules or polyps
* Reflux laryngitis (acid reflux irritating the throat)
* Subglottic stenosis (narrowing of the airway below the vocal cords)
* Laryngeal cancer
4. Common otorhinolaryngologic diseases:
* Tonsillitis (inflammation of the tonsils, often causing sore throat and difficulty swallowing)
* Adenoiditis (inflammation of the adenoids, commonly seen in children)
* Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, a disorder characterized by pauses in breathing during sleep)
* Pharyngitis (inflammation of the pharynx or throat)

Otorhinolaryngologists, also known as ENT specialists, diagnose and treat these conditions. They may use various methods such as physical examination, imaging studies, endoscopy, and laboratory tests to determine the best course of treatment for each individual patient.

The Periodontal Index (PI) is not a current or widely used medical/dental term. However, in the past, it was used to describe a method for assessing and measuring the severity of periodontal disease, also known as gum disease.

Developed by Henry H. Klein and colleagues in 1978, the Periodontal Index was a scoring system that evaluated four parameters: gingival inflammation, gingival bleeding, calculus (tartar) presence, and periodontal pocket depths. The scores for each parameter ranged from 0 to 3, with higher scores indicating worse periodontal health. The overall PI score was the sum of the individual parameter scores, ranging from 0 to 12.

However, due to its limited ability to predict future disease progression and the introduction of more comprehensive assessment methods like the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and the Basic Periodontal Examination (BPE), the use of the Periodontal Index has become less common in dental practice and research.

Cephalometry is a medical term that refers to the measurement and analysis of the skull, particularly the head face relations. It is commonly used in orthodontics and maxillofacial surgery to assess and plan treatment for abnormalities related to the teeth, jaws, and facial structures. The process typically involves taking X-ray images called cephalograms, which provide a lateral view of the head, and then using various landmarks and reference lines to make measurements and evaluate skeletal and dental relationships. This information can help clinicians diagnose problems, plan treatment, and assess treatment outcomes.

Cnidaria is a phylum of aquatic animals that includes jellyfish, sea anemones, hydra, and corals. They are characterized by the presence of specialized stinging cells called cnidocytes, which they use for defense and capturing prey. Cnidarians have a simple body organization with two basic forms: polyps, which are typically cylindrical and attached to a substrate; and medusae, which are free-swimming and bell-shaped. Some species can exist in both forms during their life cycle.

Cnidarians have no true organs or organ systems, but they do have a unique tissue arrangement with two main layers: an outer epidermis and an inner gastrodermis, separated by a jelly-like mesoglea. They have a digestive cavity called the coelenteron, where they absorb nutrients after capturing and digesting prey. Cnidarians reproduce both sexually and asexually, with some species exhibiting complex life cycles involving multiple forms and reproductive strategies.

The temporalis muscle is a fan-shaped muscle located in the lateral aspect of the head, in the temporal fossa region. It belongs to the group of muscles known as muscles of mastication, responsible for chewing movements. The temporalis muscle has its origin at the temporal fossa and inserts into the coronoid process and ramus of the mandible. Its main function is to retract the mandible and assist in closing the jaw.

Drug residues refer to the remaining amount of a medication or drug that remains in an animal or its products after the treatment period has ended. This can occur when drugs are not properly metabolized and eliminated by the animal's body, or when withdrawal times (the recommended length of time to wait before consuming or selling the animal or its products) are not followed.

Drug residues in animals can pose a risk to human health if consumed through the consumption of animal products such as meat, milk, or eggs. For this reason, regulatory bodies set maximum residue limits (MRLs) for drug residues in animal products to ensure that they do not exceed safe levels for human consumption.

It is important for farmers and veterinarians to follow label instructions and recommended withdrawal times to prevent the accumulation of drug residues in animals and their products, and to protect public health.

Lung volume measurements are clinical tests that determine the amount of air inhaled, exhaled, and present in the lungs at different times during the breathing cycle. These measurements include:

1. Tidal Volume (TV): The amount of air inhaled or exhaled during normal breathing, usually around 500 mL in resting adults.
2. Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV): The additional air that can be inhaled after a normal inspiration, approximately 3,000 mL in adults.
3. Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV): The extra air that can be exhaled after a normal expiration, about 1,000-1,200 mL in adults.
4. Residual Volume (RV): The air remaining in the lungs after a maximal exhalation, approximately 1,100-1,500 mL in adults.
5. Total Lung Capacity (TLC): The total amount of air the lungs can hold at full inflation, calculated as TV + IRV + ERV + RV, around 6,000 mL in adults.
6. Functional Residual Capacity (FRC): The volume of air remaining in the lungs after a normal expiration, equal to ERV + RV, about 2,100-2,700 mL in adults.
7. Inspiratory Capacity (IC): The maximum amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal expiration, equal to TV + IRV, around 3,500 mL in adults.
8. Vital Capacity (VC): The total volume of air that can be exhaled after a maximal inspiration, calculated as IC + ERV, approximately 4,200-5,600 mL in adults.

These measurements help assess lung function and identify various respiratory disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and restrictive lung diseases.

Lip diseases refer to various medical conditions that affect the lips, which can be caused by different factors such as infections, inflammation, allergies, or autoimmune disorders. Some examples of lip diseases include:

1. Cheilitis: It is an inflammation of the lips, which can cause dryness, cracking, and soreness. It can be caused by various factors, including irritants, allergies, or infections.
2. Angular cheilitis: It is a condition that causes inflammation and redness at the corners of the mouth. It can be caused by fungal or bacterial infections, ill-fitting dentures, or vitamin deficiencies.
3. Herpes simplex labialis: Also known as cold sores, it is a viral infection that causes painful blisters on the lips and around the mouth. The virus can be spread through close contact with an infected person.
4. Actinic cheilitis: It is a precancerous condition caused by excessive exposure to the sun, which leads to dry, scaly, or thickened patches on the lips.
5. Fordyce spots: These are small, painless, white or yellowish bumps that appear on the lips and inside the mouth. They are harmless and do not require treatment.
6. Lip cancer: It is a type of skin cancer that affects the lips, usually caused by excessive exposure to the sun. The symptoms include a sore or lump on the lip that does not heal, bleeding, pain, or numbness.

If you experience any symptoms related to lip diseases, it is recommended to consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Syndrome, often abbreviated as TMJD or TMD, is a group of conditions that cause pain and dysfunction in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) - the joint that connects the jawbone to the skull. Here's a more detailed medical definition:

Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Syndrome is a complex disorder characterized by pain, clicking, popping, or grating sounds in the TMJ; limited movement or locking of the jaw; and/or painful chewing movements. The condition may be caused by a variety of factors, including muscle tension, joint inflammation, structural problems with the joint itself, or injury to the head, neck, or jaw.

Symptoms of TMJD can include:
- Pain or tenderness in the face, jaw joint area, neck, and/or shoulders
- Limited ability to open the mouth wide
- Jaw locking, making it difficult to close or open the mouth
- Clicking, popping, or grating sounds in the TMJ when opening or closing the mouth
- A significant change in the way the upper and lower teeth fit together
- Headaches, earaches, dizziness, and hearing problems

Treatment for TMJD can vary depending on the severity of the condition and its underlying cause. It may include self-care practices such as eating soft foods, avoiding extreme jaw movements, and practicing relaxation techniques; physical therapy; medication to reduce pain and inflammation; dental treatments such as mouthguards or bite adjustments; and, in rare cases, surgery.

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc is a small, thin piece of fibrocartilaginous tissue located within the TMJ, which is the joint that connects the mandible (jawbone) to the temporal bone of the skull. The disc acts as a cushion and allows for smooth movement of the jaw during activities such as eating, speaking, and yawning. It divides the joint into two compartments: the upper and lower compartments.

The TMJ disc is composed of several types of tissue, including collagen fibers, elastin fibers, and a small number of cells called fibroblasts. The disc's unique structure allows it to withstand the forces generated during jaw movement and helps to distribute these forces evenly across the joint.

The TMJ disc can become damaged or displaced due to various factors such as trauma, teeth grinding (bruxism), or degenerative joint diseases like osteoarthritis. This can lead to temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) characterized by pain, stiffness, and limited jaw movement.

Respiratory Function Tests (RFTs) are a group of medical tests that measure how well your lungs take in and exhale air, and how well they transfer oxygen and carbon dioxide into and out of your blood. They can help diagnose certain lung disorders, measure the severity of lung disease, and monitor response to treatment.

RFTs include several types of tests, such as:

1. Spirometry: This test measures how much air you can exhale and how quickly you can do it. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other lung diseases.
2. Lung volume testing: This test measures the total amount of air in your lungs. It can help diagnose restrictive lung diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis or sarcoidosis.
3. Diffusion capacity testing: This test measures how well oxygen moves from your lungs into your bloodstream. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung disease, and other lung diseases that affect the ability of the lungs to transfer oxygen to the blood.
4. Bronchoprovocation testing: This test involves inhaling a substance that can cause your airways to narrow, such as methacholine or histamine. It's often used to diagnose and monitor asthma.
5. Exercise stress testing: This test measures how well your lungs and heart work together during exercise. It's often used to diagnose lung or heart disease.

Overall, Respiratory Function Tests are an important tool for diagnosing and managing a wide range of lung conditions.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

Nonparametric statistics is a branch of statistics that does not rely on assumptions about the distribution of variables in the population from which the sample is drawn. In contrast to parametric methods, nonparametric techniques make fewer assumptions about the data and are therefore more flexible in their application. Nonparametric tests are often used when the data do not meet the assumptions required for parametric tests, such as normality or equal variances.

Nonparametric statistical methods include tests such as the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (also known as the Mann-Whitney U test) for comparing two independent groups, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for comparing two related groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparing more than two independent groups. These tests use the ranks of the data rather than the actual values to make comparisons, which allows them to be used with ordinal or continuous data that do not meet the assumptions of parametric tests.

Overall, nonparametric statistics provide a useful set of tools for analyzing data in situations where the assumptions of parametric methods are not met, and can help researchers draw valid conclusions from their data even when the data are not normally distributed or have other characteristics that violate the assumptions of parametric tests.

Oral candidiasis is a medical condition characterized by an infection of the oral mucous membranes caused by the Candida fungus species, most commonly Candida albicans. It is also known as thrush or oral thrush. The infection typically appears as white, creamy, or yellowish patches or plaques on the tongue, inner cheeks, roof of the mouth, gums, and sometimes on the tonsils or back of the throat. These lesions can be painful, causing soreness, burning sensations, and difficulty swallowing. Oral candidiasis can affect people of all ages; however, it is more commonly seen in infants, elderly individuals, and those with weakened immune systems due to illness or medication use. Various factors such as poor oral hygiene, dentures, smoking, dry mouth, and certain medical conditions like diabetes or HIV/AIDS can increase the risk of developing oral candidiasis. Treatment usually involves antifungal medications in the form of topical creams, lozenges, or oral solutions, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the infection.

Streptococcus mutans is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, beta-hemolytic species of bacteria that's part of the normal microbiota of the oral cavity in humans. It's one of the primary etiological agents associated with dental caries, or tooth decay, due to its ability to produce large amounts of acid as a byproduct of sugar metabolism, which can lead to demineralization of tooth enamel and dentin. The bacterium can also adhere to tooth surfaces and form biofilms, further contributing to the development of dental caries.

Airway obstruction is a medical condition that occurs when the normal flow of air into and out of the lungs is partially or completely blocked. This blockage can be caused by a variety of factors, including swelling of the tissues in the airway, the presence of foreign objects or substances, or abnormal growths such as tumors.

When the airway becomes obstructed, it can make it difficult for a person to breathe normally. They may experience symptoms such as shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing, and chest tightness. In severe cases, airway obstruction can lead to respiratory failure and other life-threatening complications.

There are several types of airway obstruction, including:

1. Upper airway obstruction: This occurs when the blockage is located in the upper part of the airway, such as the nose, throat, or voice box.
2. Lower airway obstruction: This occurs when the blockage is located in the lower part of the airway, such as the trachea or bronchi.
3. Partial airway obstruction: This occurs when the airway is partially blocked, allowing some air to flow in and out of the lungs.
4. Complete airway obstruction: This occurs when the airway is completely blocked, preventing any air from flowing into or out of the lungs.

Treatment for airway obstruction depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, removing the obstruction may be as simple as clearing the airway of foreign objects or mucus. In other cases, more invasive treatments such as surgery may be necessary.

The eyebrows are a set of hairs that grow above the eyes on the forehead. They are an important feature of human facial anatomy, and play several roles in non-verbal communication and self-expression. Eyebrows help to prevent sweat and other moisture from dripping into the eyes, and also serve as a protective barrier against dirt, dust, and other foreign particles that might otherwise irritate or damage the eyes.

In addition, eyebrows play an important role in human social interaction and communication. They can convey a range of emotions and facial expressions, such as surprise, anger, fear, happiness, and sadness. Eyebrows can also help to frame the eyes and enhance their appearance, making them an important aspect of personal grooming and beauty.

The eyebrows are made up of several components, including hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and muscles that control their movement. The hairs themselves are composed of a protein called keratin, which also makes up the hair on the head, as well as nails and skin. The color and thickness of eyebrow hair can vary widely from person to person, and may be influenced by factors such as age, genetics, and hormonal changes.

In medical terms, changes in the appearance or condition of the eyebrows can sometimes be a sign of underlying health issues. For example, thinning or loss of eyebrows can be associated with conditions such as alopecia, thyroid disorders, or nutritional deficiencies. Changes in eyebrow shape or position can also be a symptom of certain neurological conditions, such as Bell's palsy or stroke. As such, any significant changes in the appearance or condition of the eyebrows should be evaluated by a healthcare professional to rule out any underlying medical causes.

A dental restoration, permanent, is a type of dental treatment that involves the use of materials such as gold, silver amalgam, porcelain, or composite resin to repair and restore the function, form, and aesthetics of a damaged or decayed tooth. Unlike temporary restorations, which are meant to be replaced with a permanent solution, permanent restorations are designed to last for many years, if not a lifetime.

Examples of permanent dental restorations include:

1. Dental fillings: These are used to fill cavities caused by tooth decay. The decayed portion of the tooth is removed, and the resulting space is filled with a material such as amalgam, composite resin, or gold.
2. Inlays and onlays: These are similar to dental fillings but are made in a laboratory and then bonded to the tooth. They are used when there is not enough tooth structure left to support a filling.
3. Dental crowns: Also known as caps, these are used to cover and protect a tooth that has been damaged or weakened by decay, injury, or wear. The crown fits over the entire tooth, restoring its shape, size, and strength.
4. Dental bridges: These are used to replace one or more missing teeth. A bridge consists of one or more artificial teeth (pontics) that are held in place by crowns on either side.
5. Dental implants: These are used to replace missing teeth. An implant is a small titanium post that is surgically placed in the jawbone, where it functions as an anchor for a replacement tooth or bridge.

Permanent dental restorations are custom-made for each patient and require careful planning and preparation. They are designed to blend in with the surrounding teeth and provide a natural-looking appearance. With proper care and maintenance, these restorations can last for many years and help preserve the health and function of the teeth and mouth.

Edentulous partially refers to a condition where some teeth are missing in the jaw but not all. In other words, it is a state of having fewer teeth than normal for that particular dental arch. A dental arch can be either the upper or lower jaw.

In medical terms, "edentulous" means lacking teeth. So, when we say "jaw, edentulous, partially," it indicates a jaw that has some missing teeth. This condition is different from being completely edentulous, which refers to having no teeth at all in the dental arch.

Being edentulous or partially edentulous can impact an individual's ability to eat, speak, and affect their overall quality of life. Dental professionals often recommend various treatment options, such as dentures, bridges, or implants, to restore functionality and aesthetics for those who are partially edentulous.

Dental occlusion refers to the alignment and contact between the upper and lower teeth when the jaws are closed. It is the relationship between the maxillary (upper) and mandibular (lower) teeth when they approach each other, as occurs during chewing or biting.

A proper dental occlusion, also known as a balanced occlusion, ensures that the teeth and jaw joints function harmoniously, reducing the risk of tooth wear, damage, and temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Malocclusion, on the other hand, refers to improper alignment or contact between the upper and lower teeth, which may require orthodontic treatment or dental restorations to correct.

Facial injuries refer to any damage or trauma caused to the face, which may include the bones of the skull that form the face, teeth, salivary glands, muscles, nerves, and skin. Facial injuries can range from minor cuts and bruises to severe fractures and disfigurement. They can be caused by a variety of factors such as accidents, falls, sports-related injuries, physical assaults, or animal attacks.

Facial injuries can affect one or more areas of the face, including the forehead, eyes, nose, cheeks, ears, mouth, and jaw. Common types of facial injuries include lacerations (cuts), contusions (bruises), abrasions (scrapes), fractures (broken bones), and burns.

Facial injuries can have significant psychological and emotional impacts on individuals, in addition to physical effects. Treatment for facial injuries may involve simple first aid, suturing of wounds, splinting or wiring of broken bones, reconstructive surgery, or other medical interventions. It is essential to seek prompt medical attention for any facial injury to ensure proper healing and minimize the risk of complications.

The dictionary definition of mouth at Wiktionary Quotations related to Mouths at Wikiquote Media related to Mouths at Wikimedia ... The mouth is the body orifice through which many animals ingest food and vocalize. The body cavity immediately behind the mouth ... In many amphibians, there are also vomerine teeth attached to the bone in the roof of the mouth. The mouths of reptiles are ... Human mouth Oral manifestations of systemic disease Gray, Henry (1918). "2a. The Mouth". Gray's Anatomy. Archived from the ...
... mouth of the Plym River), Sidmouth (i.e. mouth of the Sid River), and Great Yarmouth (i.e. mouth of the Yare River); in Celtic ... However, damming of rivers can starve the river of sand and nutrients, creating a deficit at the river mouth. As river mouths ... "Dynamics of river mouth deposits: DYNAMICS OF RIVER MOUTH DEPOSITS". Reviews of Geophysics. 53 (3): 642-672. doi:10.1002/ ... A river mouth is where a river flows into a larger body of water, such as another river, a lake/reservoir, a bay/gulf, a sea, ...
Other areas of the mouth can be viewed more readily with the mouth mirror, even though it would be possible to see them if the ... Mouth mirror sizes German, English (pdf) Archived 2015-12-10 at the Wayback Machine Page 247, 248 ff. Mouth mirror thread ... Other areas of the mouth are difficult to light, even with overhead dentists' lights. The mouth mirror is used in these cases ... A mouth mirror or dentist's mirror is an instrument used in dentistry. The head of the mirror is usually round, and the most ...
... may refer to: Harmonica Jaw harp or Jew's harp Morsing Temir komuz This disambiguation page lists articles ... associated with the title Mouth harp. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to ...
... is a bay horse bred in Ireland by the Italian breeding company Azienda Agricola Mariano. Dylan Mouth was sent into ... Dylan Mouth made his racecourse debut in a maiden race over 1700 metres at the Capannelle Racecourse in Rome in October and won ... Dylan Mouth remained in Mack's ownership for the 2018 season. On his seasonal debut he came home last of the six runners behind ... In September, Dylan Mouth returned to Italy and won the Group Two Premio Federico Tesio, beating Biz The Nurse by three lengths ...
... is a concept album that was conceived as the soundtrack to an art exhibit of the same name by frontman Wayne Coyne ... King's Mouth: Music and Songs is the fifteenth studio album by experimental rock band The Flaming Lips. It was released on ... On Metacritic, King's Mouth received a score of 74 out of 100 based on 22 reviews, indicating "generally favorable" reception. ... "King's Mouth: Music and Songs by The Flaming Lips". Metacritic. Retrieved June 20, 2019. Phares, Heather (July 19, 2019). " ...
A male mouth can hold, on average, 71.2 ml (2.51 imp fl oz; 2.41 US fl oz), while a female mouth holds 55.4 ml (1.95 imp fl oz ... A down-turned mouth means a mouth line forming a down-turned parabola, and when permanent can be normal. Also, a down-turned ... The mouth consists of two regions, the vestibule and the oral cavity proper. The mouth, normally moist, is lined with a mucous ... Mouth breathing refers to the act of breathing through the mouth (as a temporary backup system) if there is an obstruction to ...
... the inability to completely open one's mouth, will also be present.[citation needed] Severe mouth infections become dangerous ... Mouth infections are usually diagnosed on history and physical exam in the dental office or at a clinic visit with an ... Mouth infections that persist for months have the potential to cause a chronic infection of the surrounding bone, also known as ... Mouth infections spread from the root of the infected tooth through the jaw bones and into potential spaces between the fascial ...
... website Smash Mouth at Curlie Smash Mouth at AllMusic Smash Mouth discography at Discogs Smash Mouth at IMDb Smash Mouth ... "Smash Mouth". Childers, Chad (March 2, 2022). "Smash Mouth Debut New Singer With Rick Astley Cover 'Never Gonna Give You Up'". ... SMASH MOUTH Never Gonna Give You Up, retrieved September 4, 2023 Wiggins, Keavin. "Smash Mouth Share New Song '4th Of July'". ... In May 2016, Smash Mouth released their first live album titled Playlist: The Very Best of Smash Mouth through Sony Music. The ...
... is the point at which the River Murray meets the Southern Ocean. The Murray Mouth's location is changeable. ... The mouth is an opening in the coastal dune system which separates the river system from the ocean and which extends from near ... The Murray Mouth is adjoined on its northern and eastern sides by the boundary of the Coorong Important Bird Area which is an ... The mouth of the Murray River is about 10 kilometres (6.2 miles) south east of Goolwa and about 75 kilometres (47 miles) south- ...
2006 The Name of the Band Is Cowboy Mouth • 2007 Cowboy Mouth biography. Billboard.com. Accessed May 12, 2016. "Cowboy Mouth ... Word of Mouth • 1992 It Means Escape • 1994 Are You with Me? • 1996 Word of Mouth (Remix) • 1996 Mercyland • 1998 Easy • 2000 ... Billboard.com Cowboy Mouth: Mainstream Rock charts. Billboard.com. Accessed May 12, 2016. Billboard.com Cowboy Mouth: ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cowboy Mouth. Cowboy Mouth official site (Webarchive template wayback links, Articles ...
The bell-mouth shape allows the maximum amount of air to be drawn into the duct with minimum loss. A bell-mouth inlet duct is a ... A bell-mouth inlet duct is extremely efficient and is used where there is little ram pressure available to force the air into ... Bell-mouth ducts are used in engine test cells and on engines installed in helicopters. Examples of the effects of different ... In building services engineering and HVAC, a bell mouth is a tapered expanding or reducing opening in the end of a ventilation ...
... on river mouths are significant on the mouth bar evolution. Waves have a double effect on mouth bar growth; while small and ... While mouth bar morphology is shaped and affected by flow and sediment dynamics or wave and current patterns, mouth bars also ... Bifurcation of the channel flow due to initial mouth bar formation forms new distributary channels and they extend as the mouth ... in the mouth of the river causing the channel to bifurcate. As progradation continues, new bars develop at the mouths of the ...
... or Hells Mouth may refer to: Hell's Mouth, Cornwall, part of a group of cliff faces in Cornwall, England Boca do ... Wales RAF Hell's Mouth, a former Royal Air Force Emergency Landing Ground Hells Mouth Grits, a geologic formation in Wales ... Hells' Mouth, a play by Nick Darke Helmond, (literal translation: Hell Mouth) a municipality and a city in the Netherlands ... Hells Canyon, a canyon in Oregon, US This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Hell's Mouth. If an ...
... is a village in the Cayo District of central interior Belize. It is situated north of San Ignacio and named for ... At the time of the 2010 census, Branch Mouth had a population of 127. This represents roughly 0.2% of the district's total ...
A mouth assessment is performed as part of a patient's health assessment. The mouth is the beginning of the digestive system ... To assess the tonsils, a patient opens their mouth and a tongue blade is used to depress the tongue. A penlight is used to ... If cranial nerve 10 is injured, the soft palate does not rise when the mouth is opened. All sides of the tongue are assessed. ... Diseases of the teeth include baby-bottle tooth decay, epulis, meth mouth and Hutchinson's teeth. To assess the gums, a tongue ...
Arethusa bulbosa, commonly called dragon's mouth orchid, is the only species in the orchid genus Arethusa. The genus is named ...
... (Chinese: 大嘴巴; pinyin: dà zuǐbā; lit. 'Big Mouth') was a Taiwanese hip hop band made up of MC40, DJ Chung Hua, male ... Retrieved 2011-05-10 Wikimedia Commons has media related to Da Mouth. (in Chinese) Da Mouth@Universal Music Taiwan (Articles ... He writes most of Da Mouth's lyrics on the album and is considered one of the best and fastest rappers in Taiwan with his multi ... They released their self-titled debut album Da Mouth on 16 November 2007. The group won Best Singing Group at the 19th Golden ...
Qeej, free reed gourd mouth organ of the Hmong people Gourd mouth organ Miller, Terry. "Mouth Organ". Grove Music Online. ... a Chinese mouth organ Sho, a Japanese mouth organ Sompoton of Sabah, Malaysia Khene, used in Mainland Southeast Asia Lusheng, ... A mouth organ is any free reed aerophone with one or more air chambers fitted with a free reed. Though it spans many traditions ... The mouth organ can be found all around the world and is known by many different names and seen in many different traditions. ...
Wikiquote has quotations related to "Sailor Mouth". "Sailor Mouth" at IMDb (CS1 errors: missing periodical, Good articles, Use ... "Sailor Mouth" is the first segment of the 18th episode of the second season, and the 38th overall episode of the American ... "Sailor Mouth" was released on the DVD compilation called SpongeBob SquarePants: Sea Stories on November 5, 2002. It was also ... In a later report, several members of the PTC listed "Sailor Mouth" as an example of how levels of profane, sexual, and violent ...
A mouth prop (also bite block) is a wedge-shaped implement used in dentistry for dentists working with children and other ... patients who have difficulty keeping their mouths open wide and steady during a procedure, or during procedures where the ...
A mouth ulcer (aphtha) is an ulcer that occurs on the mucous membrane of the oral cavity. Mouth ulcers are very common, ... Either the tumor arises in the mouth, or it may grow to involve the mouth, e.g. from the maxillary sinus, salivary glands, ... "Mouth ulcers". NHS. 18 October 2017. do not use toothpaste containing sodium lauryl sulphate "Common Mouth Ulcer Causes and ... Rarely, a persistent, non-healing mouth ulcer may be a cancerous lesion. Malignancies in the mouth are usually carcinomas, but ...
... has had many alleged incidents of paranormal activity over the years. It may even be considered one of the most ... Mouth Cemetery is a historic cemetery located in Muskegon County, Michigan, near the city of Montague. The cemetery is located ... The cemetery is open to the public from dawn to dusk, with access from Sunset Lane, a dirt road behind the old Mouth elementary ... Many were buried at the Mouth Cemetery, however most gravestone markings have been lost, with the wooden crosses having since ...
Ray calls Stella "lemonade mouth" and thus, the group takes "Lemonade Mouth" as their band name. Before the Bash, the lemonade ... Lemonade Mouth is a young adult novel by Mark Peter Hughes, published in 2007 by Delacorte Press. It follows five teenagers who ... Ray Beech - Ray is a bully who hates Lemonade Mouth. He is part of the local popular rock band, Mudslide Crush. He mocks Stella ... At the Bash, many of the students are surprised at Lemonade Mouth's music when they take the stage because the band uses ...
... may refer to: Puirt a beul, a Scottish traditional music style Mouth Music (band), a band who sings in that style A ... capella singing Scat singing Vocal percussion This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Mouth music. If ...
... (EP), EP by the band Potty Mouth Potty Mouth (song), by Tyga featuring Busta Rhymes This disambiguation page lists ... Look up potty mouth in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Potty Mouth may refer to: Profanity Potty Mouth (Codename: Kids Next ... first studio album by the American punk rock band Bratmobile Potty Mouth (band), a Los Angeles-based punk rock band. ... articles associated with the title Potty mouth. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point ...
A superior mouth is a mouth that opens upward, with the lower jaw more anterior than the upper jaw. This is an effect typically ... A superior mouth is associated with fish in more stationary waters, such as those in lake ecosystems. Foster, Kimberly; Bower, ...
... is a literary festival in Hull, England, that started in 1992. "Humber Mouth Literature Festival, 6-16 November ...
Look up big mouth in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Big Mouth may refer to: Big Mouth (American TV series), an animated ... "Big Mouth" (Nikki Yanofsky song), 2018 "Big Mouth", a song by Nikki Lane from the album Highway Queen "Big Mouth", a song by ... Mouth All pages with titles containing Big Mouth This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Big Mouth. ... a song by Whodini from the album Escape Big Mouth (chief) (1822-1869), Native American Brulé Sioux leader Big Mouth House, ...
"Mouth Breather" is a 1990 song by American rock band The Jesus Lizard from the album Goat. "Mouth Breather" (Denison, McNeilly ...
Candidiasis that develops in the mouth or throat. ... Candidiasis in the mouth and throat is also called thrush or ... Rinse your mouth or brush your teeth after using inhaled corticosteroids. Sources. Candida normally lives in the mouth, throat ... How can I prevent candidiasis in the mouth or throat?. Ways to help prevent candidiasis in the mouth and throat include:. * ... Who gets candidiasis in the mouth or throat?. Candidiasis in the mouth, throat, or esophagus is uncommon in healthy adults. ...
The dictionary definition of mouth at Wiktionary Quotations related to Mouths at Wikiquote Media related to Mouths at Wikimedia ... The mouth is the body orifice through which many animals ingest food and vocalize. The body cavity immediately behind the mouth ... In many amphibians, there are also vomerine teeth attached to the bone in the roof of the mouth. The mouths of reptiles are ... Human mouth Oral manifestations of systemic disease Gray, Henry (1918). "2a. The Mouth". Grays Anatomy. Archived from the ...
Discover Northcott Mouth in Cornwall, a small rocky beach that opens up to expansive sand and rock pools as the tide drops. ... About Northcott Mouth. Northcott Mouth remains fairly unchanged since the nineteenth century becoming popular amongst visitors ... Northcott Mouth. This small rocky beach opens up to expansive sand and rock pools as the tide drops. ... Visitors on the beach at Northcott Mouth , © National Trust Images/Rhodri Davies. ...
Word of Mouth Marketing - Download as a PDF or view online for free ... Word of Mouth Marketing. *1. BIZ BOOK MONEY QUOTES WORD of MOUTH MARKETING How Smart Companies Get People Talking ANDY ... 2. WORD of MOUTH MARKETING How Smart Companies Get People Talking ANDY SERNOVITZ BIZ BOOK MONEY QUOTES " Word of mouth is a ... 3. WORD of MOUTH MARKETING How Smart Companies Get People Talking ANDY SERNOVITZ BIZ BOOK MONEY QUOTES Word of mouth … "its ...
A solid-state MP3/AAC device with all the quality and cool (a word I am beginning to think should have a use-by date) of iPod at flash-player price could sell in truckloads and give Apple more than 75 per cent of the entire music player market.. Steve Jack, who writes in the MacDailyNews webzine, guessing that the Apple infoleak police are looking for the spiller of this particular bean, takes the rumour seriously.. An iPod micro would be impossibly thin, light and inexpensive, he says. Think of a couple of credit cards stuck together and thats about the size of it. He suggests a US retail price of $US99 ($A140). Cheaper than a decent dinner for two. ...
... used Mouth books online including bestsellers & rare titles at the best prices. Shop Mouth books at Alibris. ... Watch Your Mouth:... Dr. Tony Evans Buy from $1.99 Oral Pathology for the Dental... Olga A C Ibsen Buy from $1.82 eBook from $ ... Mouth Care Comes Clean:... Ellie Phillips, Dds Buy from $13.63 ... Word of Mouth Marketing: How... Andy Sernovitz Buy from $1.16 ... Its All in Your Mouth:... Dominik Nischwitz Buy from $14.36 eBook from $24.95 ...
Everyone has a dry mouth (Xerostomia) once in a while. But if its frequent, it can lead to serious health problems. Find a ... What is dry mouth?. Having dry mouth, also called xerostomia, means that you dont have enough saliva to keep your mouth wet. ... What causes dry mouth?. There are many possible causes of dry mouth, including:. *Side effects of certain medicines, such as ... Dry Mouth Treatment: Tips for Controlling Dry Mouth (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Also in Spanish ...
By giving an example of when a dog (human-being) mouth, when food enters the mouth it instantly causes the salivary glands to ... While at this wonderful family feast she was eating with her mouth open. I had to tell her to stop because it was annoying and ... How can someone have the audacity to put a person through so much torture? Chewing gum with your mouth open is one of the ... than you probably find it annoying when people chew with their mouth open. A great example of this would be a family dinner. In ...
In my last blog we established the importance of Word of Mouth in building your brand. You can have a great product or service ... Successful Word of Mouth requires strategic thinking and serious work. Here are the most important steps to take when carving ... Imagine the WOM new Pope Francis is generating! If you cant be a Pope, remember that Word of Mouth should be a real aspect of ... ALWAYS be honest-The success of Word of Mouth marketing depends on customers trust of the brand. You have to earn enough merit ...
"I think Potty Mouths music would be described very differently if people spoke about us using a similar degree of non-gendered ... Potty Mouth really enabled me to push myself and take more risks precisely because I felt more comfortable with Victoria, Abby ... "I had been in two other bands before Potty Mouth and they did not have entirely female members. In my other bands, I wasnt ... At that show, I couldnt help but think back to Ladyfest Easthampton, and about the ways in which bands like Potty Mouth are ...
What does mouth texter actually mean? Find out inside PCMags comprehensive tech and computer-related encyclopedia. ...
Our crossword solver found 10 results for the crossword clue by mouth.
Heres a course on the basics - including common problems of the mouth and teeth. ... Our mouth and teeth play an important role in our daily lives. ... What Do the Parts of the Mouth Do?. The mouth is lined with ... Why Are the Mouth and Teeth Important?. Every time we smile, frown, talk, or eat, we use our mouths and teeth. Our mouths and ... The mouth is essential for speech. With the lips and tongue, teeth help form words by controlling airflow out of the mouth. The ...
If youre a cartoon connoisseur, youll know that Big Mouth is up there in the hall of fame. ... If youre like me and cant get enough of Keke, youll be pleased to know that Rochelle will be a character in Big Mouths ... These Are All The Characters On "Big Mouth" Next To The Actors Who Voice Them. Who knew Keke Palmer would be so good at playing ... Whos your favourite addition to Big Mouth? Tell us in the comments below! ...
Mouth (. 5. ×. File. , MP3. , 320 kbps). Classic Music Company. CMC065RMXD. UK. 2011. ... Mouth (. 12, 33 ⅓ RPM, Single, Test Pressing. ). Classic. CMC65RMX. UK. 2002. ...
Liberal Democrat party leader Vlad Filat tells RFE/RLs Moldovan Service that he discovered when he went to cast his ballot this morning that two strangers live with him in the Chisinau home that he and his family built for themselves.
You can learn more about the project on the Whole Mouth Health project page, or by watching a webinar on the first stage of the ... Whole mouth health. Oral diseases affect approximately half of the global population (3.58 billion people), and they are the ... The Whole Mouth Health project was launched in 2019 to promote oral health literacy as important for everyday prevention, and ... The Whole Mouth Health project is focused on promoting oral health literacy and building understanding of the principles of ...
Mouth - Your mouth was a torment to me ... Your mouth was a torment to me and I came within a hair of ... Your laughing mouth, on that video you sent me. Specifically, your delight, in a glittering wave, singing karaoke Honky Tonk ...
It can cause a painful, blistering rash on the hands and feet and inside the mouth, and the condition is contagious. In this ... and mouth disease is a viral disease that mainly affects children. ... Fast facts on hand, foot, and mouth disease. *Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a viral infection caused by enteroviruses ... All you need to know about hand, foot, and mouth disease. Medically reviewed by Daniel Murrell, M.D. - By Brandon May on ...
Why travellers should know about foot and mouth disease ... Foot and mouth disease is costing billions. Broadcast. Mon 23 ...
5 after the fish jumped in his mouth, blocking his throat, the Daily Echo reported. Paramedics were able to clear his airway ... The Dover sole then wiggled free and fell into the mans mouth and blocked his windpipe, the Daily Echo reported. ... told Harrison that the victim had jokingly placed a fish he had just caught over his mouth. ...
Foul mouth. Black Cuff Bracelet. Features All-Over Fuck Print. Silver Snap Button Closure. Unisex. One Size Fits Most [ ... ":"Foul Mouth Cuff Bracelet","public_title":null,"options":["Default Title"],"price":1700,"weight":142,"compare_at_price":null ...
You said mouth so I thought, is that a tongue? Like..a pierced tongue? Which is weird enough as it is. And then there was talk ...
Shop SmartMouth Original Mouth Wash - 16oz at Target. Choose from Same Day Delivery, Drive Up or Order Pickup. Free standard ... Q: hi, is the regular Smart Mouth Mouth wash also good for dry mouth?. ... No harsh taste left in your mouth and it makes your fresh breath last longer without having to worry. My mouth has never felt ... SmartMouth Dry Mouth Mouthwash Re-hydrating Oral Rinse for Dry Mouth and Bad Breath - Mint Flavor - 16 fl oz ...
What mouth and dental health issues can people with Parkinsons experience and how can you look after your mouth? ... Burning mouth. Some people with Parkinsons complain of a burning mouth feeling. This can be due to a dry mouth or taking ... Without enough saliva you may experience a dry mouth. A dry mouth can lead to higher rates of tooth decay and gum disease. It ... Drooling happens if you swallow less because saliva pools in your mouth and may overflow from the corners of your mouth. ...
This condition is typically caused by dehydration or dry mouth. ... A sticky substance causing white around your mouth with ... Dry mouth occurs when your salivary glands dont produce enough saliva to keep your mouth moist and protect it from bacteria. ... Another cause of white around the mouth with exercise is a condition known as dry mouth. ... White Around Mouth With Exercise By Jessica McCahon Updated Feb 14, 2020 Reviewed by Jody Braverman, CPT, FNS, RYT ...
In this one I go over my process for creating a simple mouth rig.. Here is what I cover:. *Modeling the head, mouth, and teeth ... Adding shape keys for different mouth shapes. *And setting up control bones and drivers so everything can be controlled in pose ...
Heres why your baby puts everything in their mouth and how to keep them safe as they explore. ... Mouthing can help your baby answer questions about themself like What is my mouth for? and What does my tongue do? ... While developmentally typical, mouthing poses a real risk of choking on items that are too small to safely mouth. Reduce ... When do babies start putting things in their mouths?. Your baby might start putting things in their mouth as soon as theyre ...
  • Having dry mouth, also called xerostomia, means that you don't have enough saliva to keep your mouth wet. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Dry mouth occurs when your salivary glands don't produce enough saliva to keep your mouth moist and protect it from bacteria. (livestrong.com)
  • By giving an example of when a dog (human-being) mouth, when food enters the mouth it instantly causes the salivary glands to produce saliva. (bartleby.com)
  • During chewing, salivary glands in the walls and floor of the mouth secrete saliva (spit), which moistens the food and helps break it down even more. (kidshealth.org)
  • These viruses normally spread via the mouth and anus and are usually found in the saliva, mucus, feces, and blister fluid of a person with HFMD. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Without enough saliva you may experience a dry mouth. (parkinsons.org.uk)
  • Some Parkinson's drugs can reduce the flow of saliva to your mouth. (parkinsons.org.uk)
  • Drooling happens if you swallow less because saliva pools in your mouth and may overflow from the corners of your mouth. (parkinsons.org.uk)
  • This can make it harder to control saliva flowing from the mouth. (parkinsons.org.uk)
  • Intense exercise can cause dehydration and thick, white saliva around your mouth. (livestrong.com)
  • One of the symptoms of dehydration is thick, stringy saliva, which can form a white, sticky substance around your mouth. (livestrong.com)
  • One of the most common symptoms of dry mouth, also known as xerostomia, is sticky saliva, reports the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research . (livestrong.com)
  • This includes the dry, thick saliva that can form in the corners of your mouth. (livestrong.com)
  • To help prevent dry mouth during exercise, sip water frequently or suck on sugar-free candy to increase saliva production, as recommended by the Cleveland Clinic . (livestrong.com)
  • In tetrapod vertebrates, the mouth is bounded on the outside by the lips and cheeks - thus the oral cavity is also known as the buccal cavity (from Latin bucca, meaning "cheek") - and contains the tongue on the inside. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many catch their prey by flicking out an elongated tongue with a sticky tip and drawing it back into the mouth, where they hold the prey with their jaws. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the lips and tongue, teeth help form words by controlling airflow out of the mouth. (kidshealth.org)
  • The tongue strikes the teeth or the roof of the mouth as some sounds are made. (kidshealth.org)
  • A bundle of muscles extends from the floor of the mouth to form the tongue . (kidshealth.org)
  • You said mouth so I thought, is that a tongue? (blogspot.com)
  • Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is an idiopathic condition characterized by a continuous burning sensation of the mucosa of the mouth, typically involving the tongue, with or without extension to the lips and oral mucosa. (medscape.com)
  • Burning mouth syndrome is mouth pain, usually involving the tongue, in people who do not have any visible sores or abnormalities in their mouth. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Pertinent to burning mouth syndrome (BMS), the lingual branch of the mandibular nerve (V3) supplies the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. (medscape.com)
  • Except for some groups like birds and lissamphibians, vertebrates usually have teeth in their mouths, although some fish species have pharyngeal teeth instead of oral teeth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The food may be held or chewed by teeth located in the jaws, on the roof of the mouth, on the pharynx or on the gill arches. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since dry mouth can raise your risk of tooth decay, it's important to brush and floss your teeth regularly and see your dentist at least twice a year. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Why Are the Mouth and Teeth Important? (kidshealth.org)
  • Our mouths and teeth let us make different facial expressions, form words, eat, drink, and begin the process of digestion . (kidshealth.org)
  • Incisors are the squarish, sharp-edged teeth in the front of the mouth that cut foods when we bite into them. (kidshealth.org)
  • How Can I Help Keep My Child's Mouth and Teeth Healthy? (kidshealth.org)
  • A dry mouth can also increase the damaging effects of sugar on your teeth. (parkinsons.org.uk)
  • Classically, burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is accompanied by gustatory disturbances (dysgeusia, parageusia) and subjective xerostomia. (medscape.com)
  • Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) occurs most frequently, but not exclusively, in peri-menopausal and postmenopausal women. (medscape.com)
  • Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a clinical diagnosis made via the exclusion of all other causes. (medscape.com)
  • No universally accepted diagnostic criteria, laboratory tests, imaging studies or other modalities definitively diagnose or exclude burning mouth syndrome (BMS). (medscape.com)
  • Various attempts to classify burning mouth syndrome (BMS) based on etiology and symptoms have been made. (medscape.com)
  • In a classification by etiology or cause, idiopathic burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is considered "primary BMS" (or "true BMS"), whereas "secondary BMS" has an identifiable cause. (medscape.com)
  • Type 1 burning mouth syndrome (BMS): Patients have no symptoms upon waking, with progression throughout the day. (medscape.com)
  • Type 2 burning mouth syndrome (BMS): Patients have continuous symptoms throughout the day and are frequently asymptomatic at night. (medscape.com)
  • Type 3 burning mouth syndrome (BMS): Patients have intermittent symptoms throughout the day and symptom-free days. (medscape.com)
  • Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is likely more than one disease process, and the etiology may be multifactorial. (medscape.com)
  • The ambiguous definition of burning mouth syndrome (BMS) makes evaluation of prognosis and treatment difficult. (medscape.com)
  • Candida normally lives on the skin and inside the body, in places such as the mouth, throat, gut, and vagina, without causing any problems. (cdc.gov)
  • 1 Sometimes, Candida can multiply and cause an infection if the environment inside the mouth, throat, or esophagus changes in a way that encourages fungal growth. (cdc.gov)
  • Candidiasis in the mouth and throat is also called thrush or oropharyngeal candidiasis. (cdc.gov)
  • Contact your healthcare provider if you have symptoms that you think are related to candidiasis in the mouth, throat, or esophagus. (cdc.gov)
  • Who gets candidiasis in the mouth or throat? (cdc.gov)
  • Candidiasis in the mouth, throat, or esophagus is uncommon in healthy adults. (cdc.gov)
  • People who get candidiasis in the esophagus often also have candidiasis in the mouth and throat. (cdc.gov)
  • How can I prevent candidiasis in the mouth or throat? (cdc.gov)
  • Candida normally lives in the mouth, throat, and the rest of the digestive tract without causing any problems. (cdc.gov)
  • Healthcare providers can usually diagnose candidiasis in the mouth or throat simply by looking inside. (cdc.gov)
  • 8 Sometimes a healthcare provider will take a small sample from the mouth or throat. (cdc.gov)
  • Candidiasis in the mouth, throat, or esophagus is usually treated with antifungal medicine. (cdc.gov)
  • 6 The treatment for mild to moderate infections in the mouth or throat is usually an antifungal medicine applied to the inside of the mouth for 7 to 14 days. (cdc.gov)
  • The exact number of cases of candidiasis in the mouth, throat, and esophagus in the United States is difficult to determine. (cdc.gov)
  • It contains antibodies that can fight against infections of the mouth and throat. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The soft palate forms a curtain between the mouth and the throat, or pharynx, to the rear. (kidshealth.org)
  • Once food is a soft, moist mass, it's pushed to the back of the mouth and the throat to be swallowed. (kidshealth.org)
  • The 28-year-old, who was not named, went into cardiac arrest during a fishing trip in Boscombe on Oct. 5 after the fish jumped in his mouth, blocking his throat, the Daily Echo reported. (ajc.com)
  • HFMD treatment mainly involves supportive care to treat symptoms of fever or pain caused by mouth sores, and to prevent dehydration, especially in young children. (cdc.gov)
  • The body cavity immediately behind the mouth opening, known as the oral cavity (or cavum oris in Latin), is also the first part of the alimentary canal which leads to the pharynx and the gullet. (wikipedia.org)
  • What are the symptoms of dry mouth? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Symptoms include rashes on the feet and hands and painful blisters around the nose and mouth. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Its symptoms include a painful rash on the feet and hands, as well as ulcers in the mouth. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Parkinson's symptoms and Parkinson's medication might cause some problems with your dental and mouth health (sometimes called oral health). (parkinsons.org.uk)
  • As this is something you tend to do when exercising, you may find that if you have dry mouth, your symptoms are worse during a workout. (livestrong.com)
  • I think we will recognize early symptoms prior to the development of dry eyes and dry mouth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • than you probably find it annoying when people chew with their mouth open. (bartleby.com)
  • A healthy mouth will help you to chew, taste, swallow and speak properly. (parkinsons.org.uk)
  • Breathing through your mouth can also exacerbate the problem, according to the Mayo Clinic . (livestrong.com)
  • Breathing through the mouth in childhood is a habit that can bring a series of harms, among them the difficulty of learning, due to the lack of attention and concentration, characteristic also of children with ADHD. (bvsalud.org)
  • The aim of the article is to increase the knowledge about what is the "Mouth Breathing Syndrome" and the consequences of habit in the school stage, especially in reading and writing. (bvsalud.org)
  • As a discussion it is important to know more about the characteristics of the child breathing through the mouth, as well as the possible consequences of incorrect breathing. (bvsalud.org)
  • With this in-depth knowledge we will be able to analyze more effectively if the child has characteristics of ADHD or of the "Mouth Breathing Syndrome" and from there to properly guide the families and school staff in the search of a specific treatment the needs of the child. (bvsalud.org)
  • In vertebrates, the first part of the digestive system is the buccal cavity, commonly known as the mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also raises your risk for tooth decay or infections in the mouth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If mouth ulcers become too painful, drinking cold water or sucking on ice cubes can help to relieve discomfort. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A suspected case was defined as any student or staff member with mouth ulcers and papulovesicular or maculopapular rash on the palms, fingers, soles of the feet or buttocks occurring from 1 September to 5 October 2022. (who.int)
  • Drooling can lead to a sore mouth and your posture might make it worse. (parkinsons.org.uk)
  • The hard palate divides the mouth and the nasal cavity above. (kidshealth.org)
  • Severe cases of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) may require medical attention, but the condition usually clears up without intervention. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a viral infection caused by enteroviruses. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by nonpolio enteroviruses, a genus of the Picornaviridae family of nonenveloped RNA viruses (e.g., coxsackievirus A6, coxsackievirus A16, enterovirus A71). (cdc.gov)
  • On 24 September 2022, the Regional Public Health Unit in Ilocos received a report of a cluster of suspected hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in one school in Balungao, Pangasinan Province, the Philippines. (who.int)
  • The mouth is lined with moist mucous (MYOO-kus) membranes. (kidshealth.org)
  • The inside of the mouth is lined with mucous membranes. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Most bilaterian phyla, including arthropods, molluscs and chordates, have a two-opening gut tube with a mouth at one end and an anus at the other. (wikipedia.org)
  • In deuterostomes, the blastopore becomes the anus while the gut eventually tunnels through to make another opening, which forms the mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the protostomes, it used to be thought that the blastopore formed the mouth (proto- meaning "first") while the anus formed later as an opening made by the other end of the gut. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recent research, however, shows that in protostomes the edges of the slit-like blastopore close up in the middle, leaving openings at both ends that become the mouth and anus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In less advanced invertebrates such as the sea anemone, the mouth also acts as an anus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain dental problems require prompt treatment to relieve discomfort and minimize damage to the structures of the mouth. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Apart from feeling thirsty, a dry mouth is one of the first signs of dehydration during a workout. (livestrong.com)
  • Numbing mouthwashes or sprays may help reduce mouth pain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Laser vaporization offers a precise means of treating mouth lesions that reduces the potential for pain and scarring. (medscape.com)
  • Pain and temperature in the mouth are sensed by both simple free nerve endings and by more organized nonmyelinated endings. (medscape.com)
  • Search for live volunteering opportunities, or register your interest with Northcott Mouth. (nationaltrust.org.uk)
  • However, if you're in the growth stage of your business and word of mouth is your top source of new customers, it probably means you're not investing enough in other marketing vehicles - especially search. (forbes.com)
  • The child who breathes through the mouth may have facial and postural changes, speech problems, interference in sleep, impaired eating, poor school performance, poor sportsmanship and low self-esteem. (bvsalud.org)
  • A dry mouth can lead to higher rates of tooth decay and gum disease. (parkinsons.org.uk)
  • When healthy, the lining of the mouth (oral mucosa) ranges in color from reddish pink to gradations of brown or black. (msdmanuals.com)
  • To do that, your health care provider or dentist will review your medical history, examine your mouth, and ask about any medicines you take. (medlineplus.gov)
  • For example, if a medicine is causing dry mouth, your provider or dentist may suggest adjusting the dosage or switching medicines. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The mouth is the body orifice through which many animals ingest food and vocalize. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the first multicellular animals, there was probably no mouth or gut and food particles were engulfed by the cells on the exterior surface by a process known as endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This form of digestion is used nowadays by simple organisms such as Amoeba and Paramecium and also by sponges which, despite their large size, have no mouth or gut and capture their food by endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some modern invertebrates still have such a system: food being ingested through the mouth, partially broken down by enzymes secreted in the gut, and the resulting particles engulfed by the other cells in the gut lining. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mirjam Mitternacht developed the exhibition "From Mouth to Rectum - A Pedagogical Exploration of the Digestive System" as a degree project on the Master's programme in Industrial Design, in collaboration with Vattenhallen Science Center and the Department of Food Technology. (lu.se)
  • Five of those things are at the top of my list, which include, chewing on ice, chewing with mouths open, obnoxiously loud talking, slow drivers, and smacking of gum. (bartleby.com)
  • This presentation shares 'money quotes' from Andy Sernovitz's book, 'WORD OF MOUTH MARKETING: How Smart Companies Get People Talking. (slideshare.net)
  • Some people with Parkinson's may have problems with their mouth and dental health. (parkinsons.org.uk)
  • What mouth and dental issues are common for people with Parkinson's? (parkinsons.org.uk)
  • Some people with Parkinson's complain of a burning mouth feeling. (parkinsons.org.uk)
  • Circular muscles around the mouth are able to relax or contract in order to open or close it. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mouth is the entrance to both the digestive and the respiratory systems. (msdmanuals.com)
  • From Mouth To Rectum - a Pedagogical Exploration of the Digestive System (new tab). (lu.se)
  • However, most animals have a mouth and a gut, the lining of which is continuous with the epithelial cells on the surface of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • For severe infections, the most common treatment is fluconazole (an antifungal medication) taken by mouth or through a vein. (cdc.gov)
  • Treatment for dry mouth depends on the cause. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The soft palate contains the uvula (YOO-vyoo-luh), the dangling flesh at the back of the mouth. (kidshealth.org)
  • Have your child use a mouthguard during sports where there is a risk of mouth injury. (kidshealth.org)
  • I often hear attorneys and other small business owners, especially in service industries, proclaim that word-of-mouth is still their top source for new client acquisition, despite the rest of the world moving toward this new "digital marketing" trend. (forbes.com)
  • Word-of-mouth plays an important role in most business marketing strategies. (forbes.com)
  • If you rely on word-of-mouth advertising, you're really only scratching the surface of a much larger pool of potential customers. (forbes.com)
  • When businesses claim that word of mouth is their "best" or "top" marketing vehicles, here's what they really mean: It's easy. (forbes.com)
  • If you have dry mouth, it's important to find out the cause. (medlineplus.gov)