Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Mice, Inbred ASpecies Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Mice, Inbred C57BLMice, Inbred CBAMice, Inbred ICRMice, Inbred BALB CSpleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Mice, 129 Strain: Strains of mice arising from a parental inbred stock that was subsequently used to produce substrains of knockout and other mutant mice with targeted mutations.Mice, Inbred DBAMice, Inbred C3HMice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Mice, Inbred AKRMutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Mice, Congenic: Mouse strains constructed to possess identical genotypes except for a difference at a single gene locus.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Animals, Outbred Strains: Animals that are generated from breeding two genetically dissimilar strains of the same species.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Leukemia Virus, Murine: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Mice, Inbred NOD: A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Mice, Inbred NZBCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Sprains and Strains: A collective term for muscle and ligament injuries without dislocation or fracture. A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibers of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. A strain is an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Mammary Tumor Virus, Mouse: The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Animals, LaboratoryAntibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Animals, Congenic: Animals that are produced through selective breeding to eliminate genetic background differences except for a single or few specific loci. They are used to investigate the contribution of genetic background differences to PHENOTYPE.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.AKR murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Immunogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic basis of the immune response (IMMUNITY).Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Muridae: A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms: Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Animals, Inbred Strains: Animals produced by the mating of progeny over multiple generations. The resultant strain of animals is virtually identical genotypically. Highly inbred animal lines allow the study of certain traits in a relatively pure form. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Integrases: Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Vibrio cholerae: The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Lactobacillus: A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Bacteriophage Typing: A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Chimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Ribotyping: RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Leukemia, Experimental: Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.
A mouse bioassay of the three demonstrated that although the two Anabaena strains were non-toxic, C. raciborskii was highly ... Acutely poisoned mice displayed anorexia, diarrhoea and gasping respiration. Autopsy results revealed haemorrhages in the lungs ... A more recent mouse bioassay of the effects of cylindrospermopsin revealed an increase in liver weight, with both lethal and ... A study of the dam revealed that periodic blooms of algae were caused predominantly by three strains of cyanobacteria: two of ...
... and mouse strains with decreased IGF-1 induced signalling revealed a 19 to 33% increase in life span when compared to control ... telomere length in wild mouse strains is unrelated to lifespan,[94] and mice lacking the enzyme telomerase do not have a ... The studied mouse strains with decreased GH signalling showed between 20% and 68% increased longevity, ... The precise mechanism by which decreased GH/IGF-1 signalling increases longevity is unknown, but various mouse strains with ...
The albino FVB mouse laboratory strain become blind by weaning age due to a mutant allele of the PDE6b gene. There are ... pigmented derivative strains of FVB that lack this trait. Similar to rd1 in mice, Rod-cone dysplasia type 1 (rcd1-PRA) is a ... Following therapy, Pde6β transcripts and enzyme activity were detected, and histologic studies revealed that photoreceptor cell ... The rd1 mouse is a well-characterized animal model of retinitis pigmentosa caused by the mutation of Pde6b gene. The phenotype ...
Experiments with strains of mice engineered to remove (knockout) CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 reveal that CYP1A1 primarily acts to protect ... "Basal and inducible CYP1 mRNA quantitation and protein localization throughout the mouse gastrointestinal tract". Free Radic ...
Further work examining the behavioural response of two other transgenic mouse strains; one lacking Nav1.7 in all DRG neurons ... These transgenic mice specifically lack Nav1.7 in Nav1.8 positive nociceptors and showed reduced behavioural responses, ... "Nociceptor-specific gene deletion reveals a major role for Nav1.7 (PN1) in acute and inflammatory pain". Proceedings of the ... in mice, much more similar to knock-out models.[unreliable medical source] It is possible that channel blockade is maximal only ...
In mice, a dysfunctional MAOA gene is created through insertional mutagenesis (called 'Tg8'). Tg8 is a transgenic mouse strain ... The MAO-A deficient mice that exhibited increased isolation-induced aggression reveals that an MAO-A deficiency may also ... Mice that lacked a functional MAOA gene exhibited increased aggression towards intruder mice. Some types of aggression ... There is research in both humans and mice to support that a nonsense point mutation in the eighth exon of the MAOA gene is ...
... whereas in experiments with immunocompetent mouse strains, the infected animals did not reveal any neurological disorders. The ... and T-cells develops in immunocompetent mice especially around the damaged schistosomula. CD3-deficient mice develop no or just ... To study biology of T. regenti in mammals, C57BL/6, BALB/c a SCID mouse strains are used as accidental hosts. When cercariae of ... In mice, the first schistosomula are found in a lumbar spinal cord as early as 2 DPI and medulla oblongata is invaded the day ...
... of the major urinary protein gene family revealed by genomic and phenotypic comparisons between C57 and 129 strain mice". ... In the house mouse, the major MUP gene cluster provides a highly polymorphic scent signal of genetic identity. Wild mice ... Some inbred laboratory mouse strains, such as BALB/c and C57BL/6, also have different proteins expressed in their urine. ... However, unlike wild mice, different individuals from the same strain express the same protein pattern, an artifact of many ...
Quantitative PCR assays for mouse enteric flora reveal strain-dependent differences in composition that are influenced by the ... ASF mice can maintain the eight bacteria species under normal conditions. However, variations in strains of the bacteria and ... Both species are routinely found in GI tracts of mice and rats. A thorough examination of the two species and strains is ... Germfree mice and specific pathogen free (SPF) mice are helpful in addressing some of the issues, but inadequate in many areas ...
Studies in mice have revealed that Sirt6 is essential for post-natal development and survival. Sirt6 knock-out mice, in which ... The lifespan of Sirt6 knock-out mice is typically one to three months, dependent upon the strain in which the Sirt6 gene has ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Frye RA (July 2000). "Phylogenetic classification of prokaryotic and eukaryotic Sir2-like proteins". ... By contrast, wild type mice, which retain expression of Sirt6, exhibit a maximum lifespan of two to four years. Mice which have ...
The encapsulated strain of P. gingivalis is much more virulent than the nonencapsulated strain in a mouse abscess model. The ... of the Genome Sequence of Porphyromonas gingivalis Strain ATCC 33277 and Genomic Comparison with Strain W83 Revealed Extensive ... In contrast, germ free mice inoculated with a P. gingivalis monoinfection incur no bone loss, indicating that P. gingivalis ... The genome of P. gingivalis has been described in 2003 and revealed 1,990 open reading frames (i.e. protein-coding sequences), ...
doi:10.1016/j.str.2005.09.009. PMID 16407072. Lauble H, Kennedy MC, Beinert H, Stout CD (Apr 1994). "Crystal structures of ... Since these abnormal data were found in diabetic mice, the study concluded that low aconitase activity is likely correlated ... The tertiary structure reveals that the active site is buried in the middle of the enzyme, and, since there is only one subunit ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: Aconitase 2, mitochondrial". Frishman D, Hentze MW (Jul 1996). "Conservation of ...
This mouse strain has been a useful model of Type I tyrosinemia, a human genetic disease caused by inactivating mutations in ... The mice have been used to model diseases such as malaria and to optimize human gene therapy strategies Dr. Grompe has made ... His contributions to the study of this rare hematological deficiency has helped to reveal the contributions of the FANC protein ... Grompe is a specialist in hepatology and stem cell biology, and is known for the development of the "Fah mouse model", a ...
... and strains that modulated mouse adiposity and cecal metabolite concentrations.[26] This combinatorial approach enables a ... When adult germ-free mice are colonized with the gut flora of obese mice, they can gain weight dramatically with an increased ... Shi, Y.; Tyson, G. W.; Delong, E. F. (2009). "Metatranscriptomics reveals unique microbial small RNAs in the ocean's water ... In gnotobiotic mice certain gut bacteria were found to transmit a particular phenotype to recipient germ-free mice, that ...
miR-181a has a relatively broad expression pattern and is present in neurons in numerous parts of the mouse brain. miR-181a is ... Linsen SE, de Wit E, de Bruijn E, Cuppen E (April 2010). "Small RNA expression and strain specificity in the rat". BMC Genomics ... Heimberg AM, Cowper-Sal-lari R, Sémon M, Donoghue PC, Peterson KJ (November 2010). "microRNAs reveal the interrelationships of ... "miRNA in the regulation of skeletal muscle adaptation to acute endurance exercise in C57Bl/6J male mice". PLoS One. 4 (5): ...
Trp53 mutant mice develop glioblastoma with evidence of strain-specific effects". Nature Genetics. 26 (1): 109-113. doi:10.1038 ... Tennant RW, Stasiewicz S, Eastin WC, Mennear JH, Spalding JW (2002). "The Tg.AC (v-Ha-ras) transgenic mouse: nature of the ... Genome-Wide Pattern of DNA Copy-Number Alterations Predicting Astrocytoma Survival and Response to Treatment Revealed by the ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Wong-Staal F, Dalla-Favera R, Franchini G, Gelmann EP, Gallo RC (Jul 1981). "Three distinct genes in ...
Kinetic studies in yeast revealed that the K(m) value of MOT1 for molybdate is approximately 20 nM. Mo uptake by MOT1 in yeast ... For example, the mouse homologue, SLC26A6 (TC# 2.A.53.2.7), can transport sulfate, formate, oxalate, chloride and bicarbonate, ... One member of the SulP family, SLC26A3, has been knocked out in mice. Apical membrane chloride/base exchange activity was ... MOT1 did not complement a sulfate transporter-deficient yeast mutant strain. MOT1 is thus probably specific for molybdate. The ...
... and strains that modulated mouse adiposity and cecal metabolite concentrations.[26] This combinatorial approach enables a ... In gnotobiotic mice certain gut bacteria were found to transmit a particular phenotype to recipient germ-free mice, that ... Shi, Y.; Tyson, G. W.; Delong, E. F. (2009). "Metatranscriptomics reveals unique microbial small RNAs in the ocean's water ... Mice have become the most studied mammalian regarding their microbiomes. The gut microbiota have been studied in relation to ...
The mouse strains are characterized in a broad based phenotyping pipeline that is focused on revealing insights into human ... The initiative is projected to take 10 years (until 2021), and will focus on analysing homozygous mutant mice generated on an ... Mouse strains generated by the IMPC partners are deposited at the KOMP repository and the European Mutant Mouse Archive. In ... IMPReSS was launched in 2011 to help the IMPC achieve its goal of characterizing a knockout mouse strain for every gene and ...
Malformation of the radial glial scaffold in the dentate gyrus of reeler mice, scrambler mice, and ApoER2/VLDLR-deficient mice ... resulting in a phenotype resembling that seen in the reeler mouse. The strain was first described by Sweet et al. in 1996. The ... Further differences were detected on postnatal day 22 and evaluation at the adult age revealed impairments indicative of ... Relative to non-ataxic controls of the same background strain, Dab1-scm mutants were impaired in the Rotarod Performance test ...
"The History of Fancy Mice". American Fancy Rat and Mouse Association. AFRMA.org. Retrieved on 2015-12-25. Royer, Nichole. "The ... "New study reveals how wild rabbits were genetically transformed into tame rabbits". Phys. August 28, 2014. Retrieved 6 July ... "Genetic Diversity within and Among Feral Populations and Domesticated Strains of the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) in Singapore" ... "Genetic analyses reveal independent domestication origins of Eurasian reindeer". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological ...
van der Weyden L, White JK, Adams DJ, Logan DW (2011). "The mouse genetics toolkit: revealing function and mechanism". Genome ... Gerdin AK (2010). "The Sanger Mouse Genetics Programme: High throughput characterisation of knockout mice". Acta ... doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000183616.99139.d3. PMID 16239636. Guclu B, Ozturk AK, Pricola KL, Bilguvar K, Shin D, O'Roak BJ, Gunel M ( ... A conditional knockout mouse line, called Pdcd10tm1a(KOMP)Wtsi was generated as part of the International Knockout Mouse ...
Peto R, Roe FJ, Lee PN, Levy L, Clack J (October 1975). "Cancer and ageing in mice and men". British Journal of Cancer. 32 (4 ... It had been hypothesized to exist before as the target of the SV40 virus, a strain that induced development of tumors. The TP53 ... Its role as a tumor suppressor gene was revealed in 1989 by Bert Vogelstein at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and Arnold ... p53 by regulating LIF has been shown to facilitate implantation in the mouse model and possibly in humans. p53 expression can ...
... and strains that modulated mouse adiposity and cecal metabolite concentrations. This combinatorial approach enables a systems- ... In gnotobiotic mice certain gut bacteria were found to transmit a particular phenotype to recipient germ-free mice, that ... Targeted gene surveys cannot do this as they only reveal the phylogenetic relationship between the same gene from different ... When adult germ-free mice are colonized with the gut flora of obese mice, they can gain weight dramatically with an increased ...
The db/db mouse is a model of obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia wherein leptin receptor activity is deficient because the ... doi:10.1016/j.str.2014.04.012. PMID 24882746. "Entrez Gene: LEPR leptin receptor". Nordström V, Willershäuser M, Herzer S, ... In db/db mice, induced swimming helped to overcome obesity by upregulating uncoupling proteins. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Structural and mechanistic paradigm of leptin receptor activation revealed by complexes with wild-type and antagonist leptins ...
"Meiotic Knockdown and Complementation Reveals Essential Role of RAD51 in Mouse Spermatogenesis". Cell Rep. 18 (6): 1383-1394. ... doi:10.1016/j.str.2006.04.001. PMID 16765891.. *^ a b c Buisson R, Dion-Côté AM, Coulombe Y, Launay H, Cai H, Stasiak AZ, ... In mice and humans, the BRCA2 complex primarily mediates orderly assembly of RAD51 on ssDNA, the form that is active for ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:".. *^ Shinohara A, Ogawa H, Ogawa T (May 1992). "Rad51 protein involved in repair and recombination in ...
Mouse strains. The p55−/− mice used in this study were C57BL/6 inbred. The p75−/− and p55−/−p75−/−mice were maintained as ... mice and IL-1R−/− mice (37) and subsequently intercrossed to derive p55−/−IL-1R−/− and p75−/−IL-1R−/− mice on random C57BL/6 × ... mice, but not p75−/− mice, were protected from a lethal dose of LPS (2.5 ng/g of body weight) plus d-gal. Although the mice ... mice (three mice per group) following intranasal administration of heat-killed M. faeni Ags is shown. BAL cellularity in mice ...
Common heritable immunological variations revealed in genetically diverse inbred mouse strains of the collaborative cross. In: ... Common heritable immunological variations revealed in genetically diverse inbred mouse strains of the collaborative cross. / ... Common heritable immunological variations revealed in genetically diverse inbred mouse strains of the collaborative cross. ... T1 - Common heritable immunological variations revealed in genetically diverse inbred mouse strains of the collaborative cross ...
... is a resource of special strains of mice that are important tools for genetic analysis of complex diseases. They include panels ... of recombinant inbred (RI) and chromosome substitution (CS) strains, also known as consomic strains. ... Revealing Antibody Characteristics with JAX Services. Antibody stability and half-life prediction in humans require appropriate ... The genome of Eve (the mouse). C57BL/6-aka Black 6-is the most widely used mouse strain in research. Its reference genome was ...
Tissue-level coordination of cardiac progenitor cells in the early mouse embryo produces a temporal compartmentalization of ... Mouse strains. Mouse alleles used in the manuscript are listed including bibliographic references and allele identities at the ... Cardiac septal and valvular dysmorphogenesis in mice heterozygous for mutations in the homeobox gene Nkx2-5 * C Biben ... Live imaging of heart tube development in mouse reveals alternating phases of cardiac differentiation and morphogenesis. ...
Dangerous E. coli Strain Reveals Potential New Drug Target. Antibacterials Genome of Flemings Original Penicillium Strain ... When moving the mouse over the close button */ .closebtn:hover { color: black; } .td_module_flex_2 .entry-title { font-size: ... Home Topics Cancer Triple-Negative Breast Cancer in Mice Inhibited by Migraine Drug ... Triple-Negative Breast Cancer in Mice Inhibited by Migraine Drug. November 16, 2018. 0 ...
Mouse strains. Mutant mouse lines have been described previously: floxed HoxA gene cluster (Kmita et al., 2005), HoxAnull ( ... mice, triple mutant embryos can only be generated from crosses between triple heterozygous mice. However, HoxA+/-;HoxD+/-;Gli3 ... with Mox2Cre mice (Tallquist and Soriano, 2000). Mice and embryos were genotyped by PCR or Southern blot analysis, using ... S3). Comparison of HoxAc/c;HoxD-/-;Gli3-/- with HoxAc/c;HoxD-/- buds, at E11.5, reveals an anteriorization of both Grem1 and ...
... str) cell subpopulations in both human (h) and mouse (m) mammary glands. (b) MDS plot after normalization for dimension 1 in (a ... mouse mammary cells isolated from 8-week-old virgin FVB/N mice labeled with CD24, CD29, and CD61 antibodies. The four analogous ... mouse CD29loCD24+CD61+), mature luminal (human CD49f-EpCAM+; mouse CD29loCD24+CD61-), and stromal (human CD49f-EpCAM-; mouse ... Transcriptome analyses of mouse and human mammary cell subpopulations reveal multiple conserved genes and pathways.. Lim E1, Wu ...
... from C57BL/6J mice was substituted for that from A/J mice. In hearts from male C57BL/6J.YA/J and C57BL/6J mice, orchidectomy ( ... We further tested whether: (1) there were strain-specific differences in cardiac circadian rhythms; (2) strain-dependent ... In hearts from the two above strains, we (1) profiled the expression levels of 15 circadian genes at 4-h intervals across a 24 ... Among the 15 tested circadian genes, a subset of them were affected by strain (and thus the genetic origin of MSY), which ...
Additionally, germ-free mice and mice monocolonized with either Lactobacillus plantarum or segmented filamentous bacteria were ... Additionally, germ-free mice and mice monocolonized with either Lactobacillus plantarum or segmented filamentous bacteria were ... Interestingly, compared to germ-free mice, imiquimod induced a higher degree of systemic Th17 activation in mice mono... ... Interestingly, compared to germ-free mice, imiquimod induced a higher degree of systemic Th17 activation in mice monocolonized ...
The three strains were able to survive in the intestinal tract of C57BL/6J mice during the course of the intervention study. ... The three strains were able to survive in the intestinal tract of C57BL/6J mice during the course of the intervention study. ... suggesting a higher ability of this strain to regulate inflammatory responses at mucosal level. Our data indicate that strains ... suggesting a higher ability of this strain to regulate inflammatory responses at mucosal level. Our data indicate that strains ...
Research reveals impact of helpful strain of bacteria on infants digestive tract Some of the first living things to greet a ... Large doses of vitamin A reduce severity of gastrointestinal disease in mice After observing that some gastrointestinal disease ... Precision editing of gut bacteria reduces inflammation in mouse model of colitis UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers ... Researchers reveal link between necrotizing enterocolitis and uropathogenic E. coli Necrotizing enterocolitis is an intestinal ...
Here, we bilaterally injected α-synuclein preformed fibrils into the olfactory bulbs of wild type male and female mice. Six ... α-Synuclein conformational strains spread, seed and target neuronal cells differentially after injection into the olfactory ... Of the n = 14 mice that received zinc sulfate and n = 10 mice that received saline, n = 5 mice (35.7% mortality rate) and n = 1 ... If a mouse was uninterested in the food item, it was excluded from subsequent testing. All mice in our study were motivated by ...
Mice. *Mice, 129 Strain. *Molecular Sequence Data. *Mutation. *Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics ... Sequencing a mouse acute promyelocytic leukemia genome reveals genetic events relevant for disease progression.. Wartman LD1, ... Sequencing of a mouse APL genome revealed 3 somatic, nonsynonymous mutations relevant to APL pathogenesis, of which 1 (Jak1 ... Sequencing a mouse acute promyelocytic leukemia genome reveals genetic events relevant for disease progression ...
This result suggests that genotyping of mouse strains without sufficiently deep resequencing of wild mice of multiple ... Resequencing of other mouse strains revealed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (Wade et al. 2002; Wiltshire et al. 2003; F ... THE sequence of the mouse genome (Waterston et al. 2002) is based on the classical laboratory mouse strain C57BL/6J (henceforth ... Half of the SNPs polymorphic among laboratory strains had a MAF ,15% in wild Mmd mice. In wild Mmd mice from Arizona, one-half ...
2006) Nogo-A-deficient mice reveal strain-dependent differences in axonal regeneration. J Neurosci 26:5591-5603. ... 2007) Genetic manipulation of CD74 in mouse strains of different backgrounds can result in opposite responses to central ... To that end, we created chimeric mice in which the bone marrow cells of the naive mice were replaced by donor bone marrow ... that controlled boosting of T-cell activity in all tested strains of both mice and rats is beneficial for recovery from axonal ...
2006) Nogo-A-deficient mice reveal strain-dependent differences in axonal regeneration. J Neurosci 26:5591-5603. ... Micrographs showing the immunohistochemistry for Nogo-A in thin sections of the P28 mouse hippocampus in WT and nogo-A KO mice ... Nogo-A KO mice revealed a weak dendritic phenotype resembling the effect of the antibody treatment. To discriminate a possible ... Briefly, mouse hippocampi were homogenized and lysed in CHAPS lysis buffer (50 mm NaH2PO4, pH 8.0, 150 mm NaCl, 0.5% CHAPS). ...
No significant change in CRE was seen in either mouse strain at any time after LT treatment, with only 2 of 55 mice falling ... Analysis of peritoneal and pleural fluids from premortem mice revealed cell-free, clear, straw-colored fluids with lower ... Our study investigated the mechanism by which LT kills mice. BALB/cJ "sensitive" and C57BL/6J "resistant" mouse strains ( ... LT toxicity in inbred mice. (a and b) Comparison of four doses of PA plus LF in BALB/cJ (a) and C57BL/6J (b) mice. Mice were ...
Nogo-A-deficient mice reveal strain-dependent differences in axonal regeneration. J Neurosci 2006;26:5591-5603pmid:16723516. ... Neutralizing anti-Nogo-A 11C7 mouse antibody (Novartis) and nonspecific anti-BrdU mouse antibody (AbSerotec) were intravenously ... Mice.. Nogo-A−/− KO mice were described previously by one of us (33). In all experiments, C57BL/6J Nogo-A KO male mice were ... preobese ob/ob mice, high fat-fed mice, and mice subjected to long-term glucose infusion or streptozotocin treatment) (49-54). ...
... gene expression profiling in FVB/N-F4 Tph2-deficient mice using Affymetrix Mouse genome arrays also did not reveal any marked ... 1.04 ± 0.29 in control mice, P , 0.01). In the night, sleeping periods were rarer in both strains and did not significantly ... The Tph1-deficient mice generated by us (2) and others (3, 4) revealed that 95% of peripheral 5-HT is produced by TPH1. They ... Telemetric recordings revealed marked disturbances in sleep of Tph2−/− mice. During the daytime, these animals sleep more ...
Timed histopathological analysis identified bone marrow, spleen, and liver as major affected organs in both mouse strains. LT ... Instead, analyses revealed hepatic dysfunction, hypoalbuminemia, and vascular/oxygenation insufficiency. Of 50 cytokines ... mice. Mice were injected i.p. with 1 ml of toxin in PBS. Results are based on n. = 12, n. = 24, n. = 60, and n. = 12 for 10 μg ... We studied LT toxicity in BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J mice. BALB/cJ mice became terminally ill earlier and with higher frequency than ...
Here we reveal the evolutionary conservation and function of m(6)A by mapping the m(6)A methylome in mouse and human embryonic ... Variable teratogenicity among inbred strains of laboratory mice suggests that genetic factors influence susceptibility. While ... Our work reveals contrasting roles of NLGN4 in human and mouse neurons, suggesting that human evolution has impacted even ... However, serial sectioning of muscle in mdx mice implanted with GFP-labeled bone marrow reveals that only 20% of the donor ...
Following recovery from WNV infection, mice showed presynaptic termini elimination with lack of repair, while for ZIKV, mice ... Using newly established models of viral encephalitis recovery in adult animals, we show that in mice that have recovered from ... A novel Zika virus mouse model reveals strain specific differences in virus pathogenesis and host inflammatory immune responses ... Data are pooled from two independent experiments (d: n=5 (WT), 4 (Ifngr1-/-) mice per group; e: n=6 (WT), 8 (Ifngr1-/-) mice ...
Therefore, the CC will represent an ideal mouse genetic reference population to study the influence of genetic variation on the ... The eight CC founder strains exhibited a large diversity in their response to influenza infections. ... collaborative cross founder strains reveals highly divergent host responses and identifies a unique phenotype in CAST/EiJ mice ... founder mouse strains. Results: We observed highly divergent host responses between the CC founder strains with respect to ...
Knockout of HSD2 was performed in C57/Bl6 mice.. The mouse model established for Liddles syndrome has an altered β-EnaC ... Hanukoglu (Tel Aviv) revealed that these persons do not complain of any specific eye symptoms. An extended ocular examination ... These findings match with findings observed in other DBA strains [50-52]. Specific mineralocorticoid related changes could not ... 4. Can Mouse Eye Models Help Concerning Mineralocorticoid Effects?. A number of mouse models were established to study ...
This strain may be helpful in studies of Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells. ... This X-linked targeted knock-in strain co-marks cells expressing the Foxp3 (forkhead box P3) gene with monomeric red ... "MICE" means mouse strains, their progeny derived by inbreeding or crossbreeding, unmodified derivatives from mouse strains or ... Crossing with cre deleter mice removed the neo. Flow cytometry revealed mRFP expression occurred where Foxp3 is normally ...
  • We have examined the roles of p55 and p75 in mediating and modulating the activity of TNF in vivo by generating and examining mice genetically deficient in these receptors. (jimmunol.org)
  • Experiments using receptor-specific Abs ( 15 , 16 ), receptor-specific ligands ( 17 , 18 ), and mice genetically deficient in either p55 or p75 ( 19 , 20 , 21 ) indicate that p55 is the primary signaling receptor on most cell types through which the majority of inflammatory responses classically attributed to TNF occur. (jimmunol.org)
  • Advances in genetic methods and the completed sequencing of the human and mouse genomes make it feasible to detect, genetically map and identify the genes underlying these complex disorders. (jax.org)
  • The mouse 9500 breeding strategy placed selective pressure to retain the genetically modified Ctsg locus on chromosome 14 (the PML-RARA cDNA was knocked into the 5ι untranslated region of the Ctsg gene). (nih.gov)
  • By genetically ablating TPH2, we created mice ( Tph2 −/− ) that lack serotonin in the central nervous system. (pnas.org)
  • To determine the extent to which the genetic background can modulate severity of an infection, we studied the host responses to influenza infections in the eight genetically highly diverse Collaborative Cross (CC) founder mouse strains. (nih.gov)
  • Recent studies using genetically modified mice have improved our understanding of molecular mechanisms in the neural control of immunity. (springer.com)
  • Together, these show that genetically inbred mouse strains consistently differ in phenotypic robustness against environmental variation, suggesting that genetic factors contribute to variation in robustness. (deepdyve.com)
  • In the Science publication, the researchers found that in mice genetically predisposed to lupus-like autoimmunity and with a reduced Fc receptor capacity, they could artificially coax the Fc receptors back into working order. (innovations-report.com)
  • Isogenic laboratory mouse strains enhance reproducibility because individual animals are genetically identical. (g3journal.org)
  • These ES cells will be useful for testing candidate genes in co-isogenic strain backgrounds, cellular phenotyping, and in vitro modeling of quantitative traits. (jax.org)
  • We used three isogenic strains of B. animalis subsp. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we compared robustness between cohorts of isogenic mice of eight different commonly used strains by analyzing to what extent environmental variation contributed to individuality in each of the eight genotypes, using a previously published dataset. (deepdyve.com)
  • SNP variation data for RI strains and gene expression data for the ILSXISS RI set are also available at Mouse Phenome Database. (jax.org)
  • Here we determined the gene expression signatures of four distinct subpopulations isolated from the mouse mammary gland. (nih.gov)
  • RNA was prepared from freshly sorted mouse mammary cell subpopulations (mammary stem cell (MaSC)-enriched, committed luminal progenitor, mature luminal and stromal cell) and used for gene expression profiling analysis on the Illumina platform. (nih.gov)
  • In depth characterization of gene expression in the mouse hypothalamus will facilitate understanding of the molecular pathways that affect metabolic traits and discovers new genes associated with these pathways. (elifesciences.org)
  • In silico analyses revealed a proxy SNP of rs4654899 had effect on gene expression of two genes, HP1BP3 lying 3' to EIF4G3 and CAPN14 at 2p, which are expressed in moderate-to-high levels throughout the adult human SFG. (nii.ac.jp)
  • GF mice treated with MET did not show milder signs of imiquimod-induced skin inflammation (IISI) which supports the conclusion that the therapeutic effect is mediated by changes in microbiota composition. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recent metagenomic analyses have revealed dysbiosis of the gut microbiota of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because few reports reproduce the microbial composition of the dysbiotic microbiota in colitic mouse models, it is unclear whether decreases or increases in a single anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory species are truly responsible for IBD pathogenesis. (springer.com)
  • Metagenomic analysis of the gut microbiota, particularly 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing-based approaches, cannot identify the composition of the microbiota at the strain level. (springer.com)
  • The conservation of genes and pathways across species further validates the use of the mouse as a model to study mammary gland development and highlights pathways that are likely to govern cell-fate decisions and differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • We resequenced 33 loci from up to 80 chromosomes of five mouse (sub)species. (genetics.org)
  • Here we report that P. leucopus is a reservoir for B. miyamotoi in nature and, in addition, that this mouse is host for a third, hitherto unknown, species of Borrelia . (cdc.gov)
  • results suggested the presence of a third species of Borrelia among the blood samples of the mice. (cdc.gov)
  • Isolation of five strains of herpesviruses from two species of free living small rodents. (semanticscholar.org)
  • However, CYN-producing strain of C. raciborskii has not been identified in Europe, several other cyanobacteria species occurring across the continent are able to synthesize it. (wikipedia.org)
  • The additional determination of the coding sequence of Tlr4 from chimpanzee and baboon showed that variation was evident among both strains and species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mouse models, subjected to fewer nonheritable factors than humans, allow the identification of genetic factors that shape the immune system. (edu.au)
  • As for humans, mouse immunological traits varied as a continuum rather than as discrete immunophenotypes. (edu.au)
  • Therefore, the CC will represent an ideal mouse genetic reference population to study the influence of genetic variation on the susceptibility and resistance to influenza infections which will be important to understand individual variations of disease severity in humans. (nih.gov)
  • It was first described in 1947 in rhesus monkeys in Uganda, but researchers say the twin lineages of Zika - African and Asian - did not cause meaningful infections in humans until 2007, when the Asian strain, carried by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, caused an epidemic on the Pacific island of Yap. (ucsd.edu)
  • Like humans, newborn mouse pups infected via their mothers with the Brazilian Zika virus strain displayed smaller-than-normal heads and stunted body growth. (ucsd.edu)
  • However, while individual mice showed defects ranging from blood abnormalities to reduced grip strength, there was no clear pattern of comorbidities that reflects the syndromes seen in humans. (biotechniques.com)
  • Mice can provide valuable information on human disease because they share many genes with humans. (innovations-report.com)
  • Their modest increases in Fc receptor activity -- the equivalent of effective gene therapy in humans -- was enough to push the mice back to health. (innovations-report.com)
  • In both humans and NOD mice, type 1 diabetes results from T-cell-mediated autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells ( 1 , 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Similar to the case in humans, multiple genetic susceptibility ( Idd ) loci contribute to type 1 diabetes in NOD mice ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Since its discovery in mice and humans 19 years ago, the contribution of alternatively spliced Stat3, Stat3β, to the overall functions of Stat3 has been controversial. (mdpi.com)
  • Genomic sequencing of the Toll-like receptor 4 gene in humans, mice, chimpanzee and baboon has shown that the Tlr4 protein is polymorphic. (biomedcentral.com)
  • address this problem by sequencing the Tlr4 gene in humans and mice, and by also sequencing the coding region and splice junctions of Tlr4 from 35 mouse strains, chimpanzee and baboon. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We observed highly divergent host responses between the CC founder strains with respect to survival, body weight loss, hematological parameters in the blood, relative lung weight and viral load. (nih.gov)
  • The eight CC founder strains exhibited a large diversity in their response to influenza infections. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, exacerbated pulmonary inflammation and dramatically increased endotoxin induced serum TNF levels in mice lacking p75 suggest a dominant role for p75 in suppressing TNF-mediated inflammatory responses. (jimmunol.org)
  • The wild-type strain produced a mucoviscous exopolysaccharide web, actively proliferated in nonimmune human serum, resisted phagocytosis, and caused liver microabscess and meningitis in mice. (rupress.org)
  • However, magA − mutants lost the exopolysaccharide web and became extremely serum sensitive, phagocytosis susceptible, and avirulent to mice. (rupress.org)
  • The sPLA 2 activity in serum was elevated ≈8-fold compared with nontransgenic mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this study, using an experimental mouse model of psoriasis induced by imiquimod (IMQ), we show that oral treatment with a broad spectrum of antibiotics (MIX) or metronidazole (MET) alone mitigates the severity of skin inflammation through downregulation of Th17 immune response in conventional mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers have used precision editing of the bacterial populations in the gut to prevent or reduce the severity of inflammation in a mouse model of colitis. (news-medical.net)
  • Transplantation of feces from UC or CD patients into Il10 −/− mice promotes pathological inflammation and cytokine expression in the mouse colon, although distinct cytokine expression profiles are observed between UC and CD. (springer.com)
  • Subchronic Toxicity Studies of Cortex Dictamni Extracts in Mice and Its Potential Hepatotoxicity Mechanisms in Vitro Cortex Dictamni is a commonly-used traditional Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of skin inflammation, tinea, and eczema. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Ambient urban Baltimore particulate-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in mice. (ecu.edu)
  • Acute inflammation was significantly increased in the uterine horns of C57 mice compared to that of C3H mice. (asm.org)
  • however, studies with mouse strains deficient in one or the other isoform indicated distinct contributions of Stat3 isoforms to inflammation. (mdpi.com)
  • Because sPLA 2 is found in human atherosclerotic lesions 9 10 and a variety of in vitro studies suggest that the enzyme can promote inflammation, 2 we have examined the sPLA 2 transgenic mice for susceptibility to diet-induced atherogenesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • The SMSR imports, cryopreserves and distributes RI and CS strain panels that are vital to discovery of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and ultimately genes responsible for complex diseases. (jax.org)
  • Extensive linkage disequilibrium among classical laboratory strains represents an obstacle in the high-resolution haplotype mapping of mouse quantitative trait loci (QTL). (genetics.org)
  • Quantitative imaging revealed decimation of the mucus barrier during osmotic perturbation, followed by recovery. (stanford.edu)
  • Haplotype mapping and genetic linkage analysis of V 2 O 5 -induced lung collagen content in mice identified several quantitative trait loci (QTL) and candidate susceptibility genes. (ecu.edu)
  • In the present study, we analyzed the extracts of 556 blood samples from 298 mice from the nonvaccine control grids by a multiplex, quantitative real-time PCR for 16S rDNA that discriminated between B. burgdorferi and B. miyamotoi at the site ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Comparative analyses of normal mouse epithelial subsets with murine tumor models have implicated distinct cell types in contributing to tumorigenesis in the different models. (nih.gov)
  • Closely related murine leukemia viruses are known to cause cancers and other diseases in mice. (nih.gov)
  • Half of the SNPs and SN indels but only one of seven longer rearrangements found in classical laboratory strains were useful for haplotype mapping in the wild-derived M. m. domesticus . (genetics.org)
  • Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine, with colleagues in Brazil and Senegal, have described the first "direct experimental proof" that the Brazilian strain of Zika virus can actually cause severe birth defects. (ucsd.edu)
  • Our findings provide direct experimental proof that the Brazilian Zika virus strain causes severe birth defects - and that the full adverse effect upon health, even beyond microcephaly, is not yet fully understood. (ucsd.edu)
  • Interestingly, Muotri noted that not all mouse models tested showed a causal effect when infected by the Zika virus. (ucsd.edu)
  • In at least one strain of mice, the Brazilian Zika virus could not cross the placenta of the mother to infect her unborn pups. (ucsd.edu)
  • These mice were tested with a mouse-adapted strain of Zika virus. (news-medical.net)
  • Results revealed that those mice that received Zika virus and had glioblastoma lived longer than those who did not receive the virus. (news-medical.net)
  • Researcher Dr Michael Diamond explained that the current strains of Zika virus would be tweaked to render them harmless before they are tried for treatment. (news-medical.net)
  • Alterations in human and mouse lungs have been described for fatal virus infections with pandemic virus strains (subtypes H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2 strains of 1918, 1957, and 1968, respectively) or subtype H5N1 strains. (cdc.gov)
  • One possible explanation for the unexpected fatal outcome in this patient is that hemochromatosis-induced iron overload might have provided the infecting KIM D27 strain, which is attenuated as a result of defects in its ability to acquire iron, with sufficient iron to overcome its iron-acquisition defects and become virulent ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Microarray and transcript-specific expression analyses showed markedly decreased Cdkn2a expression, including both p16 INK4a and p19 ARF , but not Cdkn2b ( p15 INK4b ), in macrophages derived from congenic mice compared with controls. (ahajournals.org)
  • Comparison of these signatures with the molecular profiles of different mouse models of mammary tumorigenesis revealed that tumors arising in MMTV-Wnt-1 and p53-/- mice were enriched for MaSC-subset genes, whereas the gene profiles of MMTV-Neu and MMTV-PyMT tumors were most concordant with the luminal progenitor cell signature. (nih.gov)
  • This X-linked targeted knock-in strain co-marks cells expressing the Foxp3 (forkhead box P3) gene with monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP). (jax.org)
  • Bpifb1 mRNA and protein expression were upregulated in parallel to MUC5B after allergen challenge, and Bpifb1 knockout mice exhibited higher MUC5B expression. (genetics.org)
  • We show that rs is a hypomorphic Lrp6 allele by a genetic complementation test with Lrp6 -null mice, and that the mutated protein cannot efficiently transduce signals through the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. (biologists.org)
  • Immunoblotting studies revealed that levels of Stat3β protein, but not Stat3α, in breast cancer cell lines positively correlated with overall pStat3 levels, suggesting that Stat3β may contribute to constitutive Stat3 activation in this tumor system. (mdpi.com)
  • Maurice Swanson's lab at the University of Florida College of Medicine developed a mouse strain that is unable to make the Mbnl1 protein. (redorbit.com)
  • In a final round of experiments the researchers demonstrated that flunarazine therapy reduced the growth of human BLBC tumors in mice. (genengnews.com)
  • At the time of the research, IMPC researchers had completed the hearing test on 3,006 knock-out strains. (biotechniques.com)
  • COLUMBUS, Ohio Cancer researchers have developed a new strain of mice that should help reveal how an unusual change in a certain gene contributes to a particularly deadly form of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). (bio-medicine.org)
  • When studying cancer, researchers often graft human tumors onto mice to create what are called xenografts. (nih.gov)
  • For the study the researchers described the effects of the virus on glioblastoma cells in both human tissue samples and mice. (news-medical.net)
  • In the next stage of the study the researchers tested the virus on mice who were experimentally induced with glioblastomas. (news-medical.net)
  • Researchers should adhere to recommended biosafety practices when handling any live bacterial cultures, even attenuated strains, and institutional biosafety committees should implement and maintain effective surveillance systems to detect and monitor unexpected acute illness in laboratory workers. (cdc.gov)
  • The researchers also found another set of changes that were seen only in the mouse strain that makes the abnormal repeat RNA and not in the mice lacking Mbnl1. (redorbit.com)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS- Adoptive transfer and bone marrow chimerism approaches tested the diabetogenic activity of CD4 and CD8 T-cells from NOR mice and NOD stocks congenic for NOR-derived Idd resistance loci. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, major disease resistance genetic loci on chromosomes (Chr) 1 ( Idd5.2 ), 2 ( Idd13 ), and 4 ( Idd9/11 ) completely protect NOR mice from type 1 diabetes ( 8 - 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Unlike isolates derived from healthy donors, E. faecium isolates from the feces of UC patients, along with E. faecium strain ATCC 19434, promotes colitis and colonic cytokine expression. (springer.com)
  • E. faecium strains derived from UC patients display an inflammatory genotype that causes colitis. (springer.com)
  • While metagenomic analysis can reveal an association between dysbiosis and disease, animal studies can demonstrate a causative association between specific bacteria and the pathogenesis of colitis. (springer.com)
  • We observed that Nogo-A-deficient mice display improved insulin secretion and glucose clearance. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The Tph1 -deficient mice generated by us ( 2 ) and others ( 3 , 4 ) revealed that 95% of peripheral 5-HT is produced by TPH1. (pnas.org)
  • Generation and Basic Characteristics of Tph2 -Deficient Mice. (pnas.org)
  • Serotonin system in the brain of Tph2 -deficient mice. (pnas.org)
  • Homozygous rs mice, many of which are remarkably viable, exhibit a combination of multiple Wnt-deficient phenotypes, including dysmorphologies of the axial skeleton, digits and the neural tube. (biologists.org)
  • In the Nature paper, authors used mouse models to track Brazilian virus infections to birth defects. (ucsd.edu)
  • Most of the mice in the study also exhibited multiple additional behavioral or physiological phenotypes in addition to hearing defects. (biotechniques.com)
  • Ares's lab used splicing-sensitive microarrays developed in collaboration with Affymetrix to show that the RNA splicing defects in muscle cells from these two mouse strains are nearly the same. (redorbit.com)
  • Earlier studies had associated several splicing defects with the disease, but the microarrays revealed effects on a much larger number of genes. (redorbit.com)
  • Tests for some of the newly identified splicing defects in human patients with myotonic dystrophy confirmed that the same changes occur in both mouse and human cells. (redorbit.com)
  • We now report that cells expressing immunoproteasomes display a different peptide repertoire changing the overall cytotoxic T cell--specificity as indicated by the observation that LMP-7(-/-) mice react against cells of LMP-7 wild-type mice. (nih.gov)
  • Stimulation of specific neurons within the hypothalamus triggers a fear-like emotion state and behavioral response in mice, challenging the textbook view that the hypothalamus serves simply as a relay for emotion states encoded in the amygdala. (elifesciences.org)
  • CNGA3 is a cold-potentiated ion channel that confers cold sensitivity to mouse hypothalamic neurons, whereas CNGA3 from hibernating ground squirrels is cold-insensitive. (elifesciences.org)
  • Cell type-specific transcriptomics in energy homeostasis neurons has identified hundreds of genes and multiple signaling pathways that are regulated by weight loss in mice, as well as several previously unexamined genes that can regulate appetite and body weight. (elifesciences.org)
  • N. M. Sawtell, D. K. Poon, C. S. Tansky, and R. L. Thompson, "The latent herpes simplex virus type 1 genome copy number in individual neurons is virus strain specific and correlates with reactivation," Journal of Virology , vol. 72, no. 7, pp. 5343-5350, 1998. (hindawi.com)
  • The virus appears to have infected the human tumor cells while they were in mice. (nih.gov)
  • The team did a genetic search in the strains of mice previously used for xenografting the prostate tumor cells. (nih.gov)
  • The scientists postulate that genetic recombination between these 2 viruses generated XMRV while human prostate tumor cells were being grown in a mouse. (nih.gov)
  • The spatial and temporal control of gene function permitted in these new mouse models can answer questions about tumor cell of origin, the number of mutations required to initiate a tumor, and what secondary changes are required by a cancer for its progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In conclusion, whole genome sequencing of mouse cancer genomes can provide an unbiased and comprehensive approach for discovering functionally relevant mutations that are also present in human leukemias. (nih.gov)