Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Amacrine Cells: INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA. They integrate, modulate, and interpose a temporal domain in the visual message presented to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS, with which they synapse in the inner plexiform layer.Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate: Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Retinal Rod Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.Retinal Degeneration: A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)Retinal Bipolar Cells: INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA containing two processes. They receive inputs from the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and send outputs to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS. The bipolar cells also make lateral connections in the retina with the RETINAL HORIZONTAL CELLS and with the AMACRINE CELLS.Eye ProteinsElectroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Mice, Inbred C57BLPhotoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.Dark Adaptation: Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.Rod Opsins: Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.Retinal Neurons: Nerve cells of the RETINA in the pathway of transmitting light signals to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include the outer layer of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS, the intermediate layer of RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS and AMACRINE CELLS, and the internal layer of RETINAL GANGLION CELLS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Retinal Vessels: The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.Retinal DiseasesLight: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Retinal Horizontal Cells: NEURONS in the inner nuclear layer of the RETINA that synapse with both the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and the RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS, as well as other horizontal cells. The horizontal cells modulate the sensory signal.Retinal Pigment Epithelium: The single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. These epithelial cells are macroglia that perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.Opsins: Photosensitive proteins in the membranes of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS such as the rods and the cones. Opsins have varied light absorption properties and are members of the G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS family. Their ligands are VITAMIN A-based chromophores.Pigment Epithelium of Eye: The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.Rhodopsin: A purplish-red, light-sensitive pigment found in RETINAL ROD CELLS of most vertebrates. It is a complex consisting of a molecule of ROD OPSIN and a molecule of 11-cis retinal (RETINALDEHYDE). Rhodopsin exhibits peak absorption wavelength at about 500 nm.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Retinal Neovascularization: Formation of new blood vessels originating from the retinal veins and extending along the inner (vitreal) surface of the retina.Retinitis Pigmentosa: Hereditary, progressive degeneration of the neuroepithelium of the retina characterized by night blindness and progressive contraction of the visual field.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Arrestin: A 48-Kd protein of the outer segment of the retinal rods and a component of the phototransduction cascade. Arrestin quenches G-protein activation by binding to phosphorylated photolyzed rhodopsin. Arrestin causes experimental autoimmune uveitis when injected into laboratory animals.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.S100 Calcium Binding Protein G: A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Rod Cell Outer Segment: The portion of a retinal rod cell situated between the ROD INNER SEGMENT and the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. It contains a stack of photosensitive disk membranes laden with RHODOPSIN.Adaptation, Ocular: The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Calbindin 2: A calbindin protein that is differentially expressed in distinct populations of NEURONS throughout the vertebrate and invertebrate NERVOUS SYSTEM, and modulates intrinsic neuronal excitability and influences LONG-TERM POTENTIATION. It is also found in LUNG, TESTIS, OVARY, KIDNEY, and BREAST, and is expressed in many tumor types found in these tissues. It is often used as an immunohistochemical marker for MESOTHELIOMA.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Choroid: The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.Light Signal Transduction: The conversion of absorbed light energy into molecular signals.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Recoverin: A neuronal calcium-sensor protein that is found in ROD PHOTORECEPTORS and CONE PHOTORECEPTORS. It interacts with G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTOR KINASE 1 in a Ca2+ dependent manner and plays an important role in PHOTOTRANSDUCTION.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Radiation Injuries, Experimental: Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.Cone Opsins: Photosensitive proteins expressed in the CONE PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of cone photopigments. Cone opsins are classified by their peak absorption wavelengths.Darkness: The absence of light.Glycine Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on glycinergic systems. Glycinergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Nerve Tissue ProteinsRNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Calbindins: Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.Retinal Pigments: Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 1: A PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASE that is found in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. It mediates light-dependent PHOSPHORYLATION of RHODOPSIN and plays an important role in PHOTOTRANSDUCTION.Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Blood-Retinal Barrier: A specialized transport barrier, in the EYE, formed by the retinal pigment EPITHELIUM, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the RETINA. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Albinism: General term for a number of inherited defects of amino acid metabolism in which there is a deficiency or absence of pigment in the eyes, skin, or hair.Diabetic Retinopathy: Disease of the RETINA as a complication of DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the progressive microvascular complications, such as ANEURYSM, interretinal EDEMA, and intraocular PATHOLOGIC NEOVASCULARIZATION.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Connexins: A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.Ependymoglial Cells: The macroglial cells of EPENDYMA. They are characterized by bipolar cell body shape and processes that contact BASAL LAMINA around blood vessels and/or the PIA MATER and the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Aminobutyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).cis-trans-Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze the rearrangement of geometry about double bonds. EC 5.2.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Electrical Synapses: Specialized junctions between NEURONS which connect the cytoplasm of one neuron to another allowing direct passage of an ion current.Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor: A neurotrophic factor that promotes the survival of various neuronal cell types and may play an important role in the injury response in the nervous system.Receptors, Neurokinin-3: A class of cell surface receptors for tachykinins that prefers neurokinin B (neurokinin beta, neuromedin K) over other tachykinins. Neurokinin-3 (NK-3) receptors have been cloned and are members of the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily. They have been found in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Dependovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Receptors, GABA: Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.Fluorescein Angiography: Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.Intravitreal Injections: The administration of substances into the VITREOUS BODY of the eye with a hypodermic syringe.Gap Junctions: Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.Retinaldehyde: A carotenoid constituent of visual pigments. It is the oxidized form of retinol which functions as the active component of the visual cycle. It is bound to the protein opsin forming the complex rhodopsin. When stimulated by visible light, the retinal component of the rhodopsin complex undergoes isomerization at the 11-position of the double bond to the cis-form; this is reversed in "dark" reactions to return to the native trans-configuration.Vitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.Choline O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 126.96.36.199.Retinoscopes: Instruments for RETINOSCOPY that determines the refractive state of the EYE, such as the degree of NEARSIGHTEDNESS; FARSIGHTEDNESS; or ASTIGMATISM. In principle, a retinoscope provides a light source to illuminate the RETINA, and then locates the aerial image of the retina in space to obtain an index of the refractive quality of the patient's lens system.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Mice, Inbred C3HStrychnine: An alkaloid found in the seeds of STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA. It is a competitive antagonist at glycine receptors and thus a convulsant. It has been used as an analeptic, in the treatment of nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sleep apnea, and as a rat poison.Retinal Dehydrogenase: A metalloflavoprotein enzyme involved the metabolism of VITAMIN A, this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of RETINAL to RETINOIC ACID, using both NAD+ and FAD coenzymes. It also acts on both the 11-trans- and 13-cis-forms of RETINAL.Receptor, Melatonin, MT1: A melatonin receptor subtype that is primarily found in the HYPOTHALAMUS and in the KIDNEY.Mesopic Vision: The function of the eye that is used in the intermediate level of illumination (mesopic intensities) where both the RETINAL ROD PHOTORECEPTORS and the RETINAL CONE PHOTORECEPTORS are active in processing light input simultaneously.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 6: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in the outer segment PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS of the RETINA. It is comprised of two catalytic subunits, referred to as alpha and beta, that form a dimer. In addition two regulatory subunits, referred to as gamma and delta, modulate the activity and localization of the enzyme.Transcription Factor Brn-3B: A POU domain factor that represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES encoding NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS, alpha internexin, and SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.Goldfish: Common name for Carassius auratus, a type of carp (CARPS).Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Biotin: A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Cation Channels: A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Retinal Detachment: Separation of the inner layers of the retina (neural retina) from the pigment epithelium. Retinal detachment occurs more commonly in men than in women, in eyes with degenerative myopia, in aging and in aphakia. It may occur after an uncomplicated cataract extraction, but it is seen more often if vitreous humor has been lost during surgery. (Dorland, 27th ed; Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p310-12).Mice, Inbred BALB CGene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Mice, 129 Strain: Strains of mice arising from a parental inbred stock that was subsequently used to produce substrains of knockout and other mutant mice with targeted mutations.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Macular Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Mice, Inbred ICRFluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.LIM-Homeodomain Proteins: A subclass of LIM domain proteins that include an additional centrally-located homeodomain region that binds AT-rich sites on DNA. Many LIM-homeodomain proteins play a role as transcriptional regulators that direct cell fate.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Ambystoma: A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 188.8.131.52.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Retinitis: Inflammation of the RETINA. It is rarely limited to the retina, but is commonly associated with diseases of the choroid (CHORIORETINITIS) and of the OPTIC DISK (neuroretinitis).GABA Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Urodela: An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.N-Methylaspartate: An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).Ophthalmoscopy: Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta: High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRB gene (also known as NR1A2, THRB1, or ERBA2 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing. Mutations in the THRB gene cause THYROID HORMONE RESISTANCE SYNDROME.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Uveal Diseases: Diseases of the uvea.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Mice, Inbred DBABlotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Superior Colliculi: The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.
PNR is exclusively expressed in the retina. The main target genes of PNR are rhodopsin and several opsins which are essential ... Rendtorff ND, Vissing H, Tümer Z, Silahtaroglu A, Tommerup N (2000). "Assignment of the NR2E3 gene to mouse chromosome 9 and to ... Chen F, Figueroa DJ, Marmorstein AD, Zhang Q, Petrukhin K, Caskey CT, Austin CP (Dec 1999). "Retina-specific nuclear receptor: ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Kobayashi M, Takezawa S, Hara K, Yu RT, Umesono Y, Agata K, Taniwaki M, Yasuda K, Umesono K (Apr 1999 ...
"Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: Retina and anterior neural fold homeobox". Muranishi Y, Terada K, Furukawa T (Apr 2012 ... Rax (Retina and Anterior Neural Fold Homeobox) is a gene in the OAR (Otx, Arx,& Rax) subgroup of the paired-like homeodomain ... Retinal homeobox protein Rx also known as retina and anterior neural fold homeobox is a protein that in humans is encoded by ... Also, RAX knockout mice have no eyes and abnormal forebrain formation. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000134438 - Ensembl, ...
ISBN 0-262-03308-9. Chalupa, Leo M; Robert Williams (2008). Eye, Retina, and Visual System of the Mouse. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0- ... 1&2 (2004) , Eye, Retina, and Visual System of the Mouse (2008) , and Cerebral Plasticity: New Perspectives (2011) He is a ... This involved performing the first ever recordings from the primate fetal retina and the manufacture of a novel neurotoxin that ... He is a co-editor of Development and Organization of the Retina: From Molecules to Function (1998) , The Visual Neurosciences ...
"Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: Guanylate cyclase 2D, membrane (retina-specific)". Perrault I, Rozet JM, Calvas P, ... This gene encodes a retina-specific guanylate cyclase, which is a member of the membrane guanylyl cyclase family. Like other ...
In the human retina, its function is unknown. In the mouse, it photo-entrains the retina and cornea at least ex vivo. These ... They are found in the brain, testes, skin, and retina of humans and rodents, as well as in the brain and retina of birds. In ... Opsins are a group proteins, made light-sensitive, via the chromophore retinal found in photoreceptor cells of the retina. Five ... Another opsin found in the mammalian retina, melanopsin, is involved in circadian rhythms and pupillary reflex but not in image ...
... cells and intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in a non-image-forming visual circuit of the mouse retina". ... and cone-based arising from the outer retina, the other a rudimentary visual brightness detector arising from the inner retina ... The identity of the non-rod, non-cone photoreceptor in humans was found to be a ganglion cell in the inner retina as shown ... In 1923, Clyde E. Keeler observed that the pupils in the eyes of blind mice he had accidentally bred still responded to light. ...
... tested the ability of an electronic retina to replace a retina that has become damaged, a development common in patients with ... "Totally blind mice get sight back - BBC News". BBC. Retrieved 30 December 2016. "Gene Therapy Breakthrough Could 'Cure' ... The delicate operation required passing a needle through the eye, to lift the retina and insert the new gene-copy in the ... "Electronic Retina - Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences". University of Oxford. 8 June 2015. doi:10.1016/j.visres. ...
In mouse, Maf1 may play an early role in axial patterning. Defects in these proteins are a cause of autosomal dominant ... Neural retina-specific leucine zipper proteins belong to this family. Kurokawa, H.; Motohashi, H.; Sueno, S.; Kimura, M.; ...
By using specific connexin knockout mice, studies revealed that cell coupling is essential for visual signaling. In the retina ... "Prolonged dark adaptation changes connexin expression in the mouse retina". J Neurosci Res. 83 (7): 1331-41. doi:10.1002/jnr. ... and twenty in the mouse (nineteen of which are orthologous pairs). They usually weigh between 25 and 60 kDa, and have an ... "Regulation of connexin 43-mediated gap junctional intercellular communication by Ca2+ in mouse epidermal cells is controlled by ...
Kawakami K, Ohto H, Takizawa T, Saito T (1996). "Identification and expression of six family genes in mouse retina". FEBS Lett ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: SIX2 sine oculis homeobox homolog 2 (Drosophila)". Oliver, Guillermo (1995). "Homeobox ...
2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... "Dual-substrate Specificity Short Chain Retinol Dehydrogenases from the Vertebrate Retina". J Biol Chem. 277 (47): 45537-46. doi ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Haeseleer F, Jang GF, Imanishi Y, Driessen CA, Matsumura M, Nelson PS, Palczewski K (Nov 2002). " ...
2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... Roni V, Carpio R, Wissinger B (2007). "Mapping of transcription start sites of human retina expressed genes". BMC Genomics. 8: ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Haeseleer F, Jang GF, Imanishi Y, Driessen CA, Matsumura M, Nelson PS, Palczewski K (Nov 2002). "Dual ... Specificity Short Chain Retinol Dehydrogenases from the Vertebrate Retina". J Biol Chem. 277 (47): 45537-46. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
... blue-cone color system of the mouse retina" (PDF). Journal of Neuroscience. 25 (22): 5438-5445. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1117- ... true mice and rats, gerbils, spiny mice, crested rat Family Nesomyidae: climbing mice, rock mice, white-tailed rat, Malagasy ... The grasshopper mouse from dry regions of North America feeds on insects, scorpions, and other small mice, and only a small ... Because laboratory mice (house mice) and rats (brown rats) are widely used as scientific models to further our understanding of ...
In mouse retina the majority of ganglion cells are born at E17 (embryonic stage/day 17). At this age the retina has reached 25 ... DSCAM and DSCAML1 Function in Self-Avoidance in Multiple Cell Types in the Developing Mouse Retina. Neuron 64:484-497 Lin B, ... Neurite arborization and mosaic spacing in the mouse retina require DSCAM. Nature 451:470-74 Li HS, Chen JH, WuW, Fagaly T, ... Perry and Linden (1982) were the first to present clear evidence of the dendritic "competition" in mice retina. Destruction of ...
"Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: SLC4A7 solute carrier family 4, sodium bicarbonate cotransporter, member 7". Ishibashi ... K, Sasaki S, Marumo F (1998). "Molecular cloning of a new sodium bicarbonate cotransporter cDNA from human retina". Biochem. ...
2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... "A cysteine-string protein is expressed in retina and brain of Drosophila". J. Neurogenet. 7 (1): 15-29. doi:10.3109/ ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: DNAJC5 DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily C, member 5". Zinsmaier KE, Hofbauer A, Heimbeck ...
This protein, and a homologous mouse sequence, are very similar to the Drosophila sidekick gene product but the specific ... synaptic adhesion molecules that promote lamina-specific connectivity in the retina". Cell. 110 (5): 649-60. doi:10.1016/S0092- ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Yamagata M, Weiner JA, Sanes JR (Sep 2002). "Sidekicks: ...
"Presynaptic inhibition differentially shapes transmission in distinct circuits in the mouse retina". The Journal of Physiology ... The spatial and color contrast systems of the retina operate in a similar manner. Dendrodendritic homologous gap junctions have ... The development of presynaptic dendrites forming dendrodendritic synapses in the Cerebellar Cortex of mice has also been found ... occur without axonal stimulation Dendrodendritic synapses have been found and studied in both the olfactory bulb and the retina ...
Godbout R, Andison R, Katyal S, Bisgrove DA (2003). "Isolation of a novel cDNA enriched in the undifferentiated chick retina ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: Chromosome 21 open reading frame 91". Retrieved 2017-06-01. ...
... is located in the cilia of spermatids, retina, and bronchial epithelium cells. Mutations in the TTC8 gene is one of 14 ... 2002). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... 2010). "A splice-site mutation in a retina-specific exon of BBS8 causes nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa". Am. J. Hum. Genet. ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Ansley SJ, Badano JL, Blacque OE, Hill J, Hoskins BE, Leitch CC, Kim JC, Ross AJ, Eichers ER, ...
... expression in Mus musculus brain and neural retina has also been reported. However, the physiological role of ... Côté PD, Moukhles H, Lindenbaum M, Carbonetto S (Nov 1999). "Chimaeric mice deficient in dystroglycans develop muscular ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Skynner MJ, Gangadharan U, Coulton GR, Mason RM, Nikitopoulou A, Brown SD, Blanco G (Jan 1995). " ... "Genetic mapping of the mouse neuromuscular mutation kyphoscoliosis". Genomics. 25 (1): 207-13. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(95)80127-8 ...
It is expressed in the retina and the pineal gland and inhibits coupling of rhodopsin to transducin in vitro. Additionally, S- ... 2002). "Mouse cone arrestin expression pattern: light induced translocation in cone photoreceptors". Mol. Vis. 8: 462-71. PMID ... "Entrez Gene: SAG S-antigen; retina and pineal gland (arrestin)". Ghalayini AJ, Anderson RE (1992). "Activation of bovine rod ... cDNA, amino acid, intron, exon, promoter, in vitro transcription, retina, and pineal gland". J Biol Chem. 265 (34): 20757-62. ...
Farber DB, Lolley RN (1976). "Enzymic basis for cyclic GMP accumulation in degenerative photoreceptor cells of mouse retina". ... elevation in degenerating photoreceptor cells of the C3H mouse retina". Science. 186 (4162): 449-51. doi:10.1126/science. ... The albino FVB mouse laboratory strain become blind by weaning age due to a mutant allele of the PDE6b gene. There are ... The rd1 mouse is a well-characterized animal model of retinitis pigmentosa caused by the mutation of Pde6b gene. The phenotype ...
"Mouse PubMed Reference:". Yang-Feng TL, Swaroop A (Oct 1992). "Neural retina-specific leucine zipper gene NRL (D14S46E) maps to ... Neural retina-specific leucine zipper protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NRL gene. This gene encodes a basic ... "Entrez Gene: NRL neural retina leucine zipper". Swaroop A, Xu JZ, Pawar H, Jackson A, Skolnick C, Agarwal N (Jan 1992). "A ... "Expressed sequence tag analysis of human retina for the NEIBank Project: retbindin, an abundant, novel retinal cDNA and ...
"Normal retina releases a diffusible factor stimulating cone survival in the retinal degeneration mouse". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S ... Retina 2012, Rome (2012) Lecture Jules Gonin, Prix de la Retina Research Foundation, Reykjavik (2012) Médaille de l'innovation ... He is a pioneer in the field of artificial retina and eye regenerative therapies. He is a member of the French Academy of ... In 1992 he founded in the Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Physiopathology of the Retina in Strasbourg, that specialized in ...
The process of phototransduction occurs in the retina. The retina has many layers of various cell types. The best-known ... A non-rod non-cone photoreceptor in the eyes of mice, which was shown to mediate circadian rhythms, was discovered in 1991 by ... About 120 million rods distributed around the retina. About 6 million cones distributed in each retina. ... See retina for information on the retinal layer structure. *^ Provencio, I.; et al. (2000-01-15). "A human opsin in the inner ...
Novel organotypic culture model of adult mammalian neurosensory retina in co-culture with retinal pigment epithelium. ... Reactivation of uveitogenic T cells by retinal astrocytes derived from experimental autoimmune uveitis-prone B10RIII mice. ...
Transgenic mice provide a new approach for studying the structure and function of the mammalian retina. In the past, the ... Immunocytochemical analysis of the mouse retina.. Haverkamp S1, Wässle H.. Author information. 1. Max-Planck-Institut für ... In the current study, the authors applied 42 different immunocytochemical markers to sections of the mouse retina and studied ... cellular organization of the mammalian retina was investigated preferentially in primates, cats, and rats but rarely in mice. ...
3-D observation of contact between host bipolar cells (green) and graft retina (red). ... This image shows synaptic integration of graft retina into host mice. ... This image shows synaptic integration of graft retina into host mice. 3-D observation of contact between host bipolar cells ( ...
Choose from: Magic Keyboard - International English,Magic Keyboard with Numeric Keypad - US English - Silver,Magic Mouse 2 - Silver
In establishing circuits in the retina, retinal neurons form complex patterns depending on repulsion or attraction to their own ... Neurite arborization and mosaic spacing in the mouse retina require DSCAM. *Peter G. Fuerst1. *, Amane Koizumi2. n3*, Richard H ... c-f, Haematoxylin and eosin stained sections of Dscam-/- and wild-type retinas from P0 and adult mice. The Dscam-/- retina is ... mice, three Dscam+/- mice and three Dscam+/+ mice at ten days of age. ...
Choose from: Magic Keyboard - US English,Magic Keyboard with Numeric Keypad - US English - Silver,Magic Mouse 2 - Silver,Magic Trackpad 2 - Silver
Dendritic contacts of bipolar cell types at M- and S-cones in the mouse retina. A1-A4, Whole-mounted Gus-GFP mouse retina ... Mouse cone pedicles. A, B, Double labeling of GFP (green) and glypho (red) in the whole-mounted CLM1 mouse retina. Projections ... in Gus-GFP mice, type 1 OFF bipolar cells (E-G) in mito-P mice, and type 2 OFF bipolar cells in CLM12 mice. For the OFF cells, ... and M-cones in mouse. We performed these stainings in whole-mounted retina of CLM1 mice (Table 1) (Berglund et al., 2006), in ...
Development of the mouse retina: emerging morphological diversity of the ganglion cells.. Diao L1, Sun W, Deng Q, He S. ... Because mouse is the most popular mammalian model for genetic manipulation, this study provided a foundation for further ...
Radial and tangential dispersion patterns in the mouse retina are cell-class specific.. B E Reese, A R Harvey, and S S Tan ... Radial and tangential dispersion patterns in the mouse retina are cell-class specific. ... Radial and tangential dispersion patterns in the mouse retina are cell-class specific. ... Radial and tangential dispersion patterns in the mouse retina are cell-class specific. ...
... markedly reduced loss of neurons and optic nerve axons in a mouse model of glaucoma. Further, functional parameters that are ...
... according to a new study in mice from scientists at the National Eye Institute. ... Immune cells called microglia can completely repopulate themselves in the retina after being nearly eliminated, ... Immune cells can repopulate in the retina after elimination, mice study shows. *Download PDF Copy ... the cable-like bundle of nerve fibers that carries signals from the retina to the brain-;in the mouse retinas. Since loss of ...
Apple is adding Retina displays to its iMacs, which will enhance the text and the image quality of photos and videos. The ... apple imac upgradeapple imac upgrade retinaapple imac upgrade retina displayBusinessbusiness videoimaciMac Retinaimac retina ... NEW YORK - Apple is adding Retina displays to its iMacs, which will enhance the text and the image quality of photos and videos ... The Cupertino, California-based company said its 21.5-inch iMac will have a Retina 4K display, while every 27-inch iMac will ...
Ding Q., Gan L. (2012) Conditional Control of Gene Expression in the Mouse Retina. In: Wang SZ. (eds) Retinal Development. ... Ivanova E, Hwang GS, Pan ZH (2010) Characterization of transgenic mouse lines expressing Cre recombinase in the retina. ... Ptf1a is essential for the differentiation of GABAergic and glycinergic amacrine cells and horizontal cells in the mouse retina ... Genetic analysis of the homeodomain transcription factor Chx10 in the retina using a novel multifunctional BAC transgenic mouse ...
Transgenic mice express the human phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene in adrenal medulla and retina. E E Baetge, R R ... Transgenic mice express the human phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene in adrenal medulla and retina ... Transgenic mice express the human phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene in adrenal medulla and retina ... Transgenic mice express the human phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene in adrenal medulla and retina ...
Cells within an injured mouse eye can be coaxed into regenerating neurons and those new neurons appear to integrate themselves ... Researchers unlock regenerative potential of cells in the mouse retina. NEI-funded researchers use a clue from zebrafish to ... "Importantly, the investigation also demonstrates that newly generated cells in the mouse retina not only look and behave like ... In this engineered mouse, the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene is inserted next to Ascl1, so that all cells expressing ...
Conformal retina interfacing allows stable chronic in vivo recording of retinal ganglion cells in awake mice. ... Conformal retina interfacing allows stable chronic in vivo recording of retinal ganglion cells in awake mice. ... A method for single-neuron chronic recording from the retina in awake mice ... A method for single-neuron chronic recording from the retina in awake mice ...
S. Remtulla, P. Hallett, A schematic eye for the mouse, and comparisons with the rat. Vis. Res. 25, 21-31 (1985)CrossRefGoogle ... capable of examing the migratory behavior of retinal lineage cells within biomimetic geometries of the human and mouse retina. ... B. Schlosshauer, A. Hoff, E. Guenther, E. Zrenner, H. Ha, Towards a retina prosthesis model: neurons on microphotodiode arrays ... Live imaging and analysis of postnatal mouse retinal development. BMC Dev. Biol. 13, 24 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
... to G-protein coupled receptors named melatonin receptor type 1 and type 2 and both receptors are present in the mouse retina. … ... Melatonin Signaling Modulates Clock Genes Expression in the Mouse Retina PLoS One. 2014 Sep 9;9(9):e106819. doi: 10.1371/ ... Earlier studies have shown that clock genes are rhythmically expressed in the mouse retina and melatonin signaling may be ... to G-protein coupled receptors named melatonin receptor type 1 and type 2 and both receptors are present in the mouse retina. ...
We have found two immunologically distinguishable cone types in the retina of the mouse, each localized to two opposite halves ... Unique topographic separation of two spectral classes of cones in the mouse retina J Comp Neurol. 1992 Nov 15;325(3):327-42. ... As a result of the uneven distribution of the two cone types the mouse retina is divided into two fields separated by an ... We have found two immunologically distinguishable cone types in the retina of the mouse, each localized to two opposite halves ...
Oktober 2012): Visualization of Endothelial Actin Cytoskeleton in the Mouse Retina. In: PLOS ONE 7(10), e47488 ... Here, we use transgenic mice expressing Lifeact-EGFP to visualize F-actin in ECs. We show that in the retina, Lifeact-EGFP ... In summary, our results indicate that the Lifeact-EGFP transgenic mouse in combination with the postnatal retinal angiogenic ...
THE mRNA distribution of the two cloned GABAB receptor variants, GABABR1a and −R1b, was analysed in the retina by non- ... Together with a recent immunohistochemical localization of GABABR1 in the retina, this indicates a differential targeting of ...
... By AppleInsider Staff ... In addition, the Magic Mouse and Magic Trackpad may be updated to include the biometric functionality.. That could be a prelude ... The forthcoming 12-inch MacBook Air -which is widely believed to include a high-resolution Retina display and vastly-reduced I/ ...
We report horizontal and vertical ON OS RGCs in the mouse, but remain agnostic about whether the mouse retina also contains OFF ... 2009) Tracer coupling patterns of the ganglion cell subtypes in the mouse retina. J Comp Neurol 512:664-687, doi:10.1002/cne. ... 2000) Response characteristics and receptive field widths of on-bipolar cells in the mouse retina. J Physiol 524:879-889, doi: ... 2009) Cone contacts, mosaics, and territories of bipolar cells in the mouse retina. J Neurosci 29:106-117, doi:10.1523/ ...
Cell Fusion in Functional Regeneration of the Mouse Retina. Permalink Read 1 Comment Add a Comment Posted by Reason ... Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Triggers Neuron Reprogramming and Regeneration in the Mouse Retina ... Here, we show that upon activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, mouse retinal neurons can be transiently reprogrammed in vivo ... Researchers from the Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG) in Barcelona have managed to regenerate the retina thanks to neuronal ...
... mouse retina, the Bst+/− mouse retina exhibited delayed hyaloid regression and defective retinal angiogenesis, suggesting that ... Bst+/− mouse retina has apparently normal ipRGCs. It has been previously reported that Bst+/− mice have a significant RGCs loss ... mouse retina, suggesting these as potential underlying molecular mechanisms of RGC damage. This mouse model thus provides ... mice, indicating that PLR in Bst+/− mice is impaired. (B) Mice actograms were used to record circadian rhythm wheel-running ...
MammalianNeuronsDevelopment of the retina2019Gene ExpressionNeuronalRetinasIMac Retina 5K21.5-inch iMacOriginate in the retinaAmacrine cellsDorsal retinaMorphologicalIPadVentral retinaVertebrate retinaNeural retinaHealthy retinaSuperior retinaSynapticPhotoreceptor layerCharacterizationPostnatal dayTrackpadAppleRetinal degenerationMelanopsinCone opsinWild-type and rd1 miceOpticAdult miceTransductionMutant miceMacBookModelProgenitorKeyboard
- Transgenic mice provide a new approach for studying the structure and function of the mammalian retina. (nih.gov)
- In the past, the cellular organization of the mammalian retina was investigated preferentially in primates, cats, and rats but rarely in mice. (nih.gov)
- Demonstrating the presence of a blue/green circuitry in rod-dominated animals specialized in low light-intensity vision would support the idea of a common blueprint for the mammalian retina. (jneurosci.org)
- Because mouse is the most popular mammalian model for genetic manipulation, this study provided a foundation for further exploring regulatory mechanisms of RGC dendritic development. (nih.gov)
- The findings are significant because they suggest the feasibility of a novel approach for encouraging regeneration in the mammalian retina, the light sensitive tissue at the back of the eye that dies in many blinding diseases," said Tom Greenwell, Ph.D., program director at NEI. (nih.gov)
- In addition, it shows that the ventral retina, containing exclusively S-cones in a relatively high density, is a unique retinal field not present in other mammalian species studied so far. (nih.gov)
- Development of mammalian retina is characterized by progressive changes in chromatin status and accumulation of heterochromatin inside rod nuclei. (arvojournals.org)
- As such, this study provides the first evidence for a population of melanopsin interneurons in the mammalian retina. (ucl.ac.uk)
- The peptide somatostatin-14 (SRIF) acts in the mammalian retina through its distinct receptors (sst1-5). (unitus.it)
- Laboratory mice derived from the house mouse are by far the most common mammalian species used in genetically engineered models for scientific research. (wikipedia.org)
- Here we have shown that pharmacological blockade of GJs or genetic ablation of connexin 36 (Cx36) subunits, which are highly expressed by retinal neurons, markedly reduced loss of neurons and optic nerve axons in a mouse model of glaucoma. (jci.org)
- The retina is a thin layer of cells in the back of the eye that includes light-sensing photoreceptor cells and other neurons involved in transmitting visual information to the brain. (news-medical.net)
- Mixed in with these cells are microglia, specialized immune cells that help maintain the health of the retina and the function of retinal neurons. (news-medical.net)
- In a healthy retina, communication between neurons and microglia is important for maintaining the neuron's ability to send signals to the brain. (news-medical.net)
- Since loss of microglia for a short time doesn't affect the function of neurons, removing microglia temporarily-;in order to reduce inflammation for example-;could potentially be useful as a therapeutic intervention for degenerative or inflammatory disorders of the retina. (news-medical.net)
- They found that the microglia were able to communicate with and fully maintain the function of neurons in the retina, especially when the depletion was short-lived. (news-medical.net)
- Cells within an injured mouse eye can be coaxed into regenerating neurons and those new neurons appear to integrate themselves into the eye's circuitry, new research shows. (nih.gov)
- Importantly, the investigation also demonstrates that newly generated cells in the mouse retina not only look and behave like neurons, they also wire correctly to the existing neural circuitry at the back of the eye. (nih.gov)
- Earlier research from Reh's lab showed that in newborn mice, Müller glia can be directed to become retinal neurons by activating a transcription factor called Ascl1, which in turn activates a suite of genes involved in regeneration. (nih.gov)
- Ascl1 could then bind to those regions, which stimulated the regeneration of neurons in the adult mice," Jorstad said. (nih.gov)
- Here, we show that upon activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling , mouse retinal neurons can be transiently reprogrammed in vivo back to a precursor stage. (fightaging.org)
- We show that upon [induced] retinal damage, transplanted stem and progenitor cells (SPCs), such as mouse hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (mHSPCs), human (h)HSPCs, retinal (R)SPCs, and embryonic stem cells, can fuse with retinal neurons in vivo with high efficiency. (fightaging.org)
- Here, we found that, in mouse retina, the bHLH gene Hes5 was specifically expressed by differentiating Muller glial cells and that misexpression of Hes5 with recombinant retrovirus significantly increased the population of glial cells at the expense of neurons. (biologists.org)
- We're showing for the first time that Müller glia in the adult mouse can give rise to new neurons after injury, and these neurons have the gene expression pattern, the morphology, the electrophysiology, and the epigenetic program to look like interneurons instead of glia," Reh said. (mindzilla.com)
- Distribution of melanopsin positive neurons in pigmented and albino mice: evidence for melanopsin interneurons in the mouse retina. (ucl.ac.uk)
- When Garrett changes one small part of the DSCAM molecule in the retina, some neurons show huge defects in self-avoidance whereas others show no defects. (jax.org)
- The development of the retina involves multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors, many are required for embryonic development or expressed in multiple tissue or cell types. (springer.com)
- This chapter describes the methodology of conditional knockout approach in studying the development of the retina, using LIM homeobox gene Isl1 as an example. (springer.com)
- Discovered in 1997, the Rax gene is known to contribute to the development of the retina, hypothalamus, pineal gland and pituitary gland. (wikipedia.org)
- 2019. Activation of rod input in a model of retinal degeneration reverses retinal remodeling and induces formation of functional synapses and recovery of visual signaling in the adult retina. (technologynetworks.com)
- Apple weds high-res 5K visuals into its sleek 27" iMac with Retina 5K Display (Early 2019) . (bhphotovideo.com)
- Apple's 27" iMac with Retina 5K Display (Early 2019) operates using 100-240 VAC at 50-60 Hz and includes an Apple Magic Keyboard , an Apple Magic Mouse 2, a Lightning to USB Type-A cable, and a power cord. (bhphotovideo.com)
- Lewandoski M (2001) Conditional control of gene expression in the mouse. (springer.com)
- Earlier studies have shown that clock genes are rhythmically expressed in the mouse retina and melatonin signaling may be implicated in the modulation of clock gene expression in this tissue. (nih.gov)
- To identify gene expression differences that might underlie this variability in vulnerability, we have used microarray techniques to describe regional (superior-inferior) variations in gene expression in the retina. (molvis.org)
- Six individual gene expression clusters were identified based on expression patterns of transcripts through retina development. (elsevier.com)
- A correlation coefficient analysis of gene expression during retina development between previous SAGE studies and this study was also carried out. (elsevier.com)
- In contrast, gene expression profiling and histological data suggest an increased survival of amacrine cells in the postischemic retina of P2Y1R-KO mice. (uni-regensburg.de)
- We have developed alternative splicing catalog of the transcriptome (ASCOT), a resource that allows users to query alternative splicing and gene expression across a wide range of cell types and tissues from mouse and human. (nature.com)
- Researchers from the Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG) in Barcelona have managed to regenerate the retina thanks to neuronal reprogramming. (fightaging.org)
- Background: Between embryonic day 12 and postnatal day 21, six major neuronal and one glia cell type are generated from multipotential progenitors in a characteristic sequence during mouse retina development. (elsevier.com)
- In the end, the differential effects of a disrupted P2Y1 signaling onto neuronal survival in the ischemic retina call the putative therapeutical use of P2Y1-antagonists into question. (uni-regensburg.de)
- Here, we address whether Hedgehog (Hh) signals independently regulate progenitor proliferation and neuronal fate decisions in the embryonic mouse retina. (elsevier.com)
- Sakagami, K , Gan, L & Yang, XJ 2009, ' Distinct effects of hedgehog signaling on neuronal fate specification and cell cycle progression in the embryonic mouse retina ', Journal of Neuroscience , vol. 29, no. 21, pp. 6932-6944. (elsevier.com)
- c - f , Haematoxylin and eosin stained sections of Dscam -/- and wild-type retinas from P0 and adult mice. (nature.com)
- To test this, they depleted the microglia in the retinas of mice using the drug PLX5622 (Plexxikon), which blocks the microglial CSF-1 receptor. (news-medical.net)
- Interruption of this signaling for several days caused the microglia to nearly disappear, leaving just a few cells clustered around the optic nerve-;the cable-like bundle of nerve fibers that carries signals from the retina to the brain-;in the mouse retinas. (news-medical.net)
- They began the process by injecting nerve cells into the retinas of mice with a genetically engineered virus, which was designed to insert a gene that causes the cells to produce a light-sensitive protein normally found in algae. (scitechdaily.com)
- The TRPM1 protein was trafficked to discrete postsynaptic puncta in wild type retinas whereas in adult Pde6b rd1 mouse retinas, TRPM1 translocated to bipolar perikarya and bar-like structures in the distal inner nuclear layer. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- GABAaR was upregulated in rd1 mouse retina.A) Representative blots of GABAaR-α1 and β-tubulin in adult wild-type and rd1 mouse retinas. (nih.gov)
- C, D) Representative images of retinal sections of wild-type (C) and rd1 (D) mouse retinas immunostained for GABAaR-α1. (nih.gov)
- Retinal ganglion cell responses to voltage and current stimulation in wild-type and rd1 mouse retinas. (semanticscholar.org)
- Retinas of mutant and wild-type mice from 3 weeks up to 12 months of age were studied by confocal light and electron microscopy. (tcd.ie)
- The Cupertino, California-based company said its 21.5-inch iMac will have a Retina 4K display, while every 27-inch iMac will have a Retina 5K display. (huffingtonpost.ca)
- And the 21.5-inch iMac with Retina 4K display ignites with up to 4GB. (euronics.ee)
- This 21.5-inch iMac AIO Desktop is bundled with Magic Mouse 2 Apple and Magic Keyboard that lets you take your computing experience to a higher level. (macmall.com)
- In dorsal retina, where coexpression is low, most type 2 cells were green biased, with a fraction of cells (≈14%) displaying strongly blue-biased responses, likely reflecting S-cone input. (jneurosci.org)
- The overwhelming majority of the shortwave sensitive cones occupied the ventral half (S-field), and only a small number was scattered among the middlewave sensitive cones in the dorsal retina. (nih.gov)
- No evidence of morphological retinal changes were observed in CaBP1/caldendrin KO and CaBP2 KO mice compared with wild-type mice. (arvojournals.org)
- To evaluate feasibility, a Raman system was built on a custom SLO/OCT platform allowing mouse positioning and morphological data acquisition along with the Raman signal from a desired retinal eccentricity. (spie.org)
- Retinal organization in the retinal degeneration 10 (rd10) mutant mouse: a morphological and ERG study. (semanticscholar.org)
- Claes E, Seeliger M, Michalakis S, Biel M, Humphries P and Haverkamp S, `Morphological characterization of the retina of the CNGA3(-/-)Rho(-/-) mutant mouse lacking functional cones and rods? (tcd.ie)
- Morphological Characterization of the Retina of the CNGA3? (tcd.ie)
- This protocol could establish a standardized method for evaluating morphological changes, with this commercial SDOCT device, when assessing longitudinal disease pathophysiology and treatment response in mouse models for future vision science research. (biomedcentral.com)
- Apple's next-generation iPad Air and iPad Retina mini are both expected to come with updated processors and support for Touch ID , the fingerprint first sensor introduced with the iPhone 5s. (macrumors.com)
- If you want a Retina screen iPad, the cheapest way to go is the iPad 3. (i4u.com)
- Today's Deal of the Day at CowBoom gives you the 32GB iPad 3 Retina preowned for far cheaper than you'll find anywhere else. (i4u.com)
- As you'll hear me recount on the upcoming episode of Let's Talk iOS, I had to go through quite a lot to get my hands on the iPad mini with Retina display that I desired. (idownloadblog.com)
- The iPad Air's thinness and weight loss makes the mini feel like less of a game changer than its first non-Retina iteration. (idownloadblog.com)
- If there was ever a so-called "must upgrade" the original iPad mini to the iPad mini with Retina display is it. (idownloadblog.com)
- My cellular requirement was one of the primary reasons that I had so much trouble tracking down an iPad mini with Retina display. (idownloadblog.com)
- Among the latter, short-wave-sensitive cone opsin ( Opn1sw ) was more strongly expressed in the inferior retina and medium-wave-sensitive cone opsin ( Opn1mw ) in the superior retina. (molvis.org)
- After hyperoxia-induced photoreceptor degeneration had begun, the number of genes that showed significant expression differences between the inferior and superior retina more than quadrupled, with genes related to immune processes, defense processes, and inflammation being numerically dominant. (molvis.org)
- In the current study, the authors applied 42 different immunocytochemical markers to sections of the mouse retina and studied their cellular and synaptic localization by using confocal microscopy. (nih.gov)
- This image shows synaptic integration of graft retina into host mice. (eurekalert.org)
- We show the relationship between dendritic morphology and OS for each RGC type and reveal new synaptic mechanisms of OS computation in the retina. (jneurosci.org)
- The normal structural and synaptic organization of the mutant retina at Pw3 suggests that photoreceptor light responses are not essential for the development of the retinal circuitry. (tcd.ie)
- Our data indicated that clock and clock-controlled genes are rhythmically expressed in the retina and in the photoreceptor layer. (nih.gov)
- Removal of melatonin signaling significantly affected the pattern of expression in the retina whereas in the photoreceptor layer only the Bmal1 circadian pattern of expression was affected by melatonin signaling removal. (nih.gov)
- A) Evidence of ciliogenesis in the photoreceptor layer of Crx-/- retina. (biomedcentral.com)
- The technology giant redesigned Magic devices including the Magic keyboard, Magic Mouse 2 and Magic Trackpad 2. (huffingtonpost.ca)
- The forthcoming 12-inch MacBook Air -which is widely believed to include a high-resolution Retina display and vastly-reduced I/O -could also sport a Touch ID sensor positioned above its trackpad, Taiwanese Apple blog AppleCorner believes , citing supply chain sources. (appleinsider.com)
- In addition, the Magic Mouse and Magic Trackpad may be updated to include the biometric functionality. (appleinsider.com)
- Noul MacBook Air beneficiaza de un afisaj Retina stralucitor, Touch ID, tastatura din noua generatie si trackpad Force Touch. (mediagalaxy.ro)
- The 27-inch Apple Inc. iMac computer with 5K retina display is displayed after a product announcement in Cupertino, California, U.S., on Thursday, Oct. 16, 2014. (huffingtonpost.ca)
- NEW YORK - Apple is adding Retina displays to its iMacs, which will enhance the text and the image quality of photos and videos. (huffingtonpost.ca)
- Apple MD831LL/A 15' MacBook Pro Retina (2012). (macsales.com)
- Save 5% & Lease this Apple iMac 27″Retina 5K Bundle for £ 17.12 per week! (hardsoftcomputers.co.uk)
- Mouse retina stained for melanopsin (red) and ChAT (green). (ucsf.edu)
- Tracing from both superior colliculli shows that 98% (pigmented) and 97% (albino) of the total ipRGCs, become retrogradely labeled, while double immunodetection of melanopsin and Brn3a confirms that few ipRGCs express this transcription factor in mice. (ucl.ac.uk)
- Rather surprisingly, application of a retrograde tracer to the optic nerve (ON) labels all ipRGCs, except for a sub-population of the d-ipRGCs (14% in pigmented and 28% in albino, respectively) and melanopsin positive cells residing in the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ) of the retina. (ucl.ac.uk)
- Using a novel method for visually tracking microglial movements in the retina, they determined that the returning microglia initially grew in clusters near where the optic nerve leaves the eye. (news-medical.net)
- Nickells R, Schmitt H, Maes ME, Schlamp C. AAV2 mediated transduction of the mouse retina after optic nerve injury. (ist.ac.at)
- Anatomically, this represents sections of greater thickness fluctuations as the retina begins to bottleneck with the emergence of the optic disc at the posterior pole. (biomedcentral.com)
- Transduction efficiency appeared lower in the Abca4(-/-) mouse compared to wild type with all vectors tested, suggesting an effect of specific retinal diseases on the efficiency of gene delivery. (auckland.ac.nz)
- Scarce information is available on SRIF function in the retina, including the elucidation of transduction pathways mediating SRIF action. (unitus.it)
- In light of their results, the authors offer a list of immunocytochemical markers that can be used to detect possible changes in the retinal organization of mutant mice. (nih.gov)
- There is a wide spectrum of cerebellar mutant mice which are used as models of hereditary cerebellar degenerations. (frontiersin.org)
- This 2012 MacBook Pro features a 15-inch Retina display. (macsales.com)
- The MacBook Air with Retina Display will give you up to 12 hours of web browsing, or up to 13 hours of the content you love on iTunes. (pcworld.co.uk)
- Predám Macbook pro Retina Late 13", Late 2013 s komplet balením v 100% stave. (letemsvetemapplem.eu)
- The researchers used an adult mouse model genetically engineered to express Ascl1 in Müller glia in response to tamoxifen, a commonly used breast cancer drug. (nih.gov)
- In summary, our results indicate that the Lifeact-EGFP transgenic mouse in combination with the postnatal retinal angiogenic model constitutes an excellent system for vascular cell biology research. (uni-muenchen.de)
- Substantial evidence has supported this model, including studies in mice ( Lien and Scanziani, 2013 ). (jneurosci.org)
- proposed a model in which direction-selective (DS) RGCs, long known to exist in mouse retina, converge to form orientation-selective LGN cells. (jneurosci.org)
- Drusen, choroidal neovascularization, and retinal pigment epithelium dysfunction in SOD1-deficient mice: a model of age-related macular degeneration," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 103, no. 30, pp. 11282-11287, 2006. (hindawi.com)
- The performance of the Raman system was first assessed with a model eye consisting of polystyrene in the image plane (retina), using excitation wavelengths of 488 nm, 561 nm, and 785 nm to determine whether auto-fluorescence would be reduced at longer wavelengths. (spie.org)
- Improved dual AAV vectors with reduced expression of truncated proteins are safe and effective in the retina of a mouse model of Stargardt disease. (tigem.it)
- Retinal Cell Line cytospins compatible with standard gliosis prevents neovascular growth in the mouse model of oxygen -induced retinopathy. (drug-shop.bid)
- Researchers have created a line of model mice that naturally express Cas9, paving the way for rapid precision gene-editing. (the-scientist.com)
- Exercise-induced muscle metabolites protect the brain from stress-induced depression in a mouse model. (the-scientist.com)
- A comprehensive guide to current research, reflecting recent technical breakthroughs that have established the usefulness of the mouse model as part of a bilateral exchange between experimental and clinical research. (bibliocommons.com)
- The house mouse has been domesticated as the pet or fancy mouse, and as the laboratory mouse, which is one of the most important model organisms in biology and medicine. (wikipedia.org)
- The 21-inch iMac, which starts at $1,099, and 27-inch iMac, which starts at $1,799, are available in three models and come standard with a new Magic Keyboard and Magic Mouse 2. (huffingtonpost.ca)
- Additionally, this iMac Core i5 AIO desktop comes complete with the necessary ports like RJ-45 (LAN), USB 3 and Thunderbolt 3 ports that you can use for connecting peripherals like printer, keyboard, mouse and more. (macmall.com)
- All new iMacs ship with new Magic Keyboard and Magic Mouse 2 which are now rechargeable, charged directly via the iMac. (hardsoftcomputers.co.uk)
- The iconic iMac 27″ with 5K Retina Display, Magic Mouse & Keyboard 2 Available to Lease from HardSoft. (hardsoftcomputers.co.uk)