The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A test to detect non-agglutinating ANTIBODIES against ERYTHROCYTES by use of anti-antibodies (the Coombs' reagent.) The direct test is applied to freshly drawn blood to detect antibody bound to circulating red cells. The indirect test is applied to serum to detect the presence of antibodies that can bind to red blood cells.
A form of cutaneous tuberculosis. It is seen predominantly in women and typically involves the NASAL MUCOSA; BUCCAL MUCOSA; and conjunctival mucosa.
A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Acquired hemolytic anemia due to the presence of AUTOANTIBODIES which agglutinate or lyse the patient's own RED BLOOD CELLS.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.
An educational process that provides information and advice to individuals or families about a genetic condition that may affect them. The purpose is to help individuals make informed decisions about marriage, reproduction, and other health management issues based on information about the genetic disease, the available diagnostic tests, and management programs. Psychosocial support is usually offered.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Organized services to provide diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of genetic disorders.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
Research into the cause, transmission, amelioration, elimination, or enhancement of inherited disorders and traits.
An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The attempt to improve the PHENOTYPES of future generations of the human population by fostering the reproduction of those with favorable phenotypes and GENOTYPES and hampering or preventing BREEDING by those with "undesirable" phenotypes and genotypes. The concept is largely discredited. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Diseases that are caused by genetic mutations present during embryo or fetal development, although they may be observed later in life. The mutations may be inherited from a parent's genome or they may be acquired in utero.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A chronic form of cutaneous lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, CUTANEOUS) in which the skin lesions mimic those of the systemic form but in which systemic signs are rare. It is characterized by the presence of discoid skin plaques showing varying degrees of edema, erythema, scaliness, follicular plugging, and skin atrophy. Lesions are surrounded by an elevated erythematous border. The condition typically involves the face and scalp, but widespread dissemination may occur.
A form of lupus erythematosus in which the skin may be the only organ involved or in which skin involvement precedes the spread into other body systems. It has been classified into three forms - acute (= LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC with skin lesions), subacute, and chronic (= LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, DISCOID).
Central nervous system vasculitis that is associated with SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Clinical manifestations may include DEMENTIA; SEIZURES; CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; HEMIPARESIS; BLINDNESS; DYSPHASIA; and other neurological disorders.
Spontaneous mouse models of lupus have led to identification of numerous susceptibility loci from which several candidate genes ... The study of diverse mouse models of lupus has provided clues to the etiology of SLE. ... Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / genetics * Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / therapy* * Mice* * Mice, Inbred NZB ... The study of diverse mouse models of lupus has provided clues to the etiology of SLE. Spontaneous mouse models of lupus have ...
Recently, we and others have demonstrated the use of an existing set of diverse inbred mice (referred to here as the mouse ... NZB/BlNJ*, NZW/LacJ*, PERA/EiJ, PL/J (n = 2), RIIIS/J*, SEA/GnJ, SJL/J, SM/J*, SPRET/EiJ, SWR/J, and WSB/EiJ (n = 2). RNA from ... Schadt, E. E., S. A. Monks, T. A. Drake, A. J. Lusis, N. Che et al., 2003 Genetics of gene expression surveyed in maize, mouse ... Beck, J. A., S. Lloyd, M. Hafezparast, M. Lennon-Pierce, J. T. Eppig et al., 2000 Genealogies of mouse inbred strains. Nat. ...
NZO inbred mice and strains derived from them develop severe obesity, and are thus useful for studying obesity and Type 2 ... NZO mice share a common origin with New Zealand Black mice (NZB). M. Bielschowsky began inbreeding of outbred mice obtained ... JAX® Mice, Products & Services Conditions of Use. "MICE" means mouse strains, their progeny derived by inbreeding or ... Genetics PctpR120H. Allele Symbol: PctpR120H. Allele Name. R120H. Allele Type. Spontaneous. ...
23.5 Loci in NZB, NZW, and NZBNZW Recombinant Inbred Mice.. 23.6 Loci Identified in Crosses of MRL-FaslprMice. ... 23 Genetics of Autoantibody Production in Mouse Models of Lupus (Dwight H. Kono and Argyrios N. Theofilopoulos). ... major research interests include mechanisms involved in the initiation of autoimmunity and how the interplay between genetics ...
Mouse model of early pregnancy. A mouse model of early pregnancy was established using CD1 outbred mice. The CD1 mice were ... Using an arbitrary cutoff of 20%, 15 strains (P/J, RF/J, 129X1/SvJ, C58/J, NZB/BlNJ, C57BLKS/J, SJL/J, A/J, LP/J, CE/J, SWR/J, ... www.broadinstitute.org/mouse/hapmap/). A total of 132,285 SNPs for 25 out of the 33 inbred mouse strains with available female ... in 33 inbred mouse strains. The phenotypic data were log transformed. Genotypic data were downloaded from mouse HapMap database ...
... analysis of marker-assisted breeding strategies for inbred mouse strains, Mammalian Genome" on DeepDyve, the largest online ... Type-I interferon receptor deficiency reduces lupus-like disease in NZB mice ... Using mouse models to dissect the genetics of obesity. Brockmann, GA; Bevova, MR ... the number of mice produced per generation, and the number of genotypes per mouse required to achieve a quality congenic mouse ...
SM/J mice exhibit a hyperresponsiveness to B cell mitogens. Small in size at birth and through weaning, SM/J mice attain a ... These mice are susceptible to diet-induced obesity and diet-induced atherosclerosis. ... SM/J mice carry a number of rare polymorphic alleles and are often matched to other strains for quantitative trait locus ... JAX® Mice, Products & Services Conditions of Use. "MICE" means mouse strains, their progeny derived by inbreeding or ...
... power of quantitative trait loci detection and mapping resolution in large sets of recombinant inbred strains of mice. Genetics ... 2006 Femur mechanical properties in the F2 progeny of an NZB/B1NJ × RF/J cross are regulated predominantly by genetic loci that ... I. Variation in exchange frequencies among males from inbred mouse strains. Genetics 162: 297-306. ... Broman, K. W., L. B. Rowe, G. A. Churchill and K. Paigen, 2002 Crossover interference in the mouse. Genetics 160: 1123-1131. ...
... behaviors in a cross of NZB/B1NJ and A/J inbred mice (Brodkin et al., 2002). Currently, we are fine-mapping these genetic loci ... and because of the many resources available for mouse genetics. These studies may have relevance to human brain and behavior. ... Social approach-avoidance behavior of inbred mouse strains towards DBA/2 mice. Brain Research, 1002:151-157. ... BALB/cJ inbred mouse strains. Biological Psychiatry, 59:415-423.. Crowley JJ, Brodkin ES, Blendy JA, Berrettini WH, Lucki I ( ...
atherosclerosis through mouse-human comparative genetics. The American Journal of Human Genetics. 77, 1-15. ... 129S1/SvImJ inbred mice. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 21, 105-112. ... intercross between mouse strains NZB and SM. Mammalian Genome 16, 152-163. ... mouse mutant, a multigenic mouse model of neural tube defects. Physiological Genomics 35, 296-304. ...
There are robust differences among inbred mouse strains in levels of aggressive behavior; for example, NZB/B1NJ (NZB) mice are ... 1994) Co-segregation of the pseudoautosomal region of the Y chromosome with aggression in mice. Genetics 135:254-263. ... Additional NZB and A mice, as well as (NZB × A)F1, (A × NZB)F1, and [(NZB × A) × A]N2 mice, were bred at Princeton University ... NZB and A mice differ in body weight at 10 weeks of age (mean ± SEM body weights for NZB and A mice, respectively, were 28.1 ± ...
... inbred strain of mice [73] led to the further discovery by Howie and Helyer [74] of lupus nephritis in (NZB x NZW) F1 mice. ... as the neutralization was done with human thyroid extracts and the test for activity was performed in the mouse. When mouse ... Solution of the genetics of autoimmune disease. The Bielschowskys discovery of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia in their New ... one from the NZB mice and two from the NZW mice. This has been confirmed and extended by Drake et al., [76] and Kono et al., [ ...
Four distinct light chain patterns can be distinguished among the inbred mouse strains. In the present studies inheritance of ... and in the inbred Ly-2a,3a congenic line B6.PL-Ly-2aLy-3a/Cy as well as in individual backcross animals of an incipient Ly-2a, ... 3 locus on mouse Chromosome 6. The locus controlling normal light chain IF-patterns has been designated Ef1. ... the characteristic light chain patterns has been studied in the AKXL recombinant inbred lines (derived from C57L/J and AKR/J ...
Inbred NZB Mouse Congenic Mice B-Cell Antigen Receptors Surface Antigens Natural History ... N2 - Surface immunoglobulin on spleen cells from NZB and NZB/W mice and congenic mice bearing the nude or X-linked immune ... AB - Surface immunoglobulin on spleen cells from NZB and NZB/W mice and congenic mice bearing the nude or X-linked immune ... Surface immunoglobulin on spleen cells from NZB and NZB/W mice and congenic mice bearing the nude or X-linked immune defective ...
Monoclonal anti-erythrocyte auto-antibodies from unimmunized NZB mice. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Inbred NZB ... results suggest that the fusion pattern may represent the range of anti-red cell auto-antibodies found in the intact NZB mouse ... Lewis, D. E. ; Griswold, S. ; Warner, N. L. / Monoclonal anti-erythrocyte auto-antibodies from unimmunized NZB mice. In: ... Lewis, D. E., Griswold, S., & Warner, N. L. (1981). Monoclonal anti-erythrocyte auto-antibodies from unimmunized NZB mice. ...
... production in B6.Sle2c2 mice after induction of chronic graft vs ... Mice. *Mice, Congenic. *Mice, Inbred NZB. *Mice, Mutant Strains ... Introduction: An NZB-derived genetic locus (Sle2c2) that suppresses autoantibody production in a mouse model of induced ... Antibody Formation/genetics/immunology*. *Autoantibodies/immunology*. *Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/genetics/ ... Introduction: An NZB-derived genetic locus (Sle2c2) that suppresses autoantibody production in a mouse model of induced ...
... in B6 and B6.Sle2c2 mice. Percentage of Ly6G+ CD11b+ n ... Mice. *Mice, Congenic. *Mice, Inbred NZB. *Mice, Mutant Strains ... Introduction: An NZB-derived genetic locus (Sle2c2) that suppresses autoantibody production in a mouse model of induced ... Antibody Formation/genetics/immunology*. *Autoantibodies/immunology*. *Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/genetics/ ... Introduction: An NZB-derived genetic locus (Sle2c2) that suppresses autoantibody production in a mouse model of induced ...
5⇓A, the mouse strains could be classified into two groups-early IFN-γ responders and nonresponders. C57BL/6, 129, and NZB mice ... Resistance and susceptibility of mice to bacterial infection: genetics of listeriosis. Infect. Immun. 19: 755-762. ... administration of bacteria in most of the commonly studied inbred strains of mice. However, there is a significant difference ... Mice. BALB/c/By/J, C57BL/6/J (B6), C.B10-H2b/LilMcd/J (C.B10), BALB × B6 F1, 129/3/J, NZB, A/J, and SJL mice were obtained from ...
Clonal elimination was also considered to be responsible for the correction of the autoimmune disease of NZB mice made ... Tetraparental mouse chimaeras formed by aggregation of early embryos have been utilised in the study of immunological ... There are different types of autoimmune diseases, in which there is a complex and unknown interaction between genetics and the ... Serum-mediated immunological non-reactivity between histoincompatible cells in tetraparental mice. Nov 19, 1971·Nature·S M ...
MRL/lpr mice and in the offspring between New Zealand black/New Zealand white mice (NZB/NZW F1 hybrid [B/W])[5-7]; a ... The NZB mouse develops spontaneous hemolytic anemia and a high titer of antierythrocyte antibodies.[5,6] When bred with the ... Even if genetics did play a significant role in some autoimmune disorders, allogeneic stem-cell rescue from an HLA-matched but ... In general, spontaneously occurring autoimmune diseases are restricted to inbred strains and arise from genetic defects in the ...
In this study, we established congenic C57BL/6 mice for NZB-type Fcgr2b allele and found that NZB-type allele down-regulates ... Our data imply that because of the deficient AP-4 binding, the NZB-type Fcgr2b allele polymorphism results in up-regulation of ... EMSA and Southwestern analysis revealed that defect in transcription activity in the NZB-derived segment is likely due to ... We did luciferase reporter assays to determine whether NZB-type deletion polymorphism affects transcriptional regulation of ...
These mice have great importance in evaluating the function of genes. However, their utility depends on the maintenance of this ... To systematically evaluate the apparent non-MHC differences in these mice, we infected all three generations (P0, F1 and F2) ... congenic mice, we conducted the proper F2 controls and discovered significant differences between these F2 animals and MHC- ... Congenic strains of mice are assumed to differ only at a single gene or region of the genome. ...
Motor responses of autoimmune NZB/B1NJ and C57BL/6Nnia mice to arecoline and nicotine. Retz, K. C., Trimmer, C. K., Forster, M ... Nonrandom sampling in human genetics: Skewness and kurtosis. Chakraborty, R. & Hanis, C. L., 1 Jan 1987, In : Genetic ... Pulmonary clearance of Mycoplasma pulmonis in C57BL/6N and C3H/HeN mice. Parker, R. F., Davis, J. K., Blalock, D. K., Thorp, R ... Age-dependent enhancement of diazepam sensitivity is accelerated in New Zealand black mice. Forster, M. J., Retz, K. C., Popper ...
... the F1 hybrid between NZB and NZW, and inbred derivatives of these strains [78]. Over 100 regions in the mouse genome have been ... Morel L: Genetics of SLE: evidence from mouse models. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2010, 6 (6): 348-357. 10.1038/nrrheum.2010.63.PubMed ... Licht R, Dieker JW, Jacobs CW, Tax WJ, Berden JH: Decreased phagocytosis of apoptotic cells in diseased SLE mice. J Autoimmun. ... Xu Z, Morel L: Genetics of systemic lupus erythematosus: contributions of mouse models in the era of human genome-wide ...
"Identification of multiple quantitative trait loci affecting the size and shape of the mandible in mice, Mammalian Genome" on ... Genetics of obesity in KK mouse and effects of A y allele on quantitative regulation ... Morphometric profiles of the mandible of SMXA recombinant inbred strains of mice and strain identification on the basis of ... Single and interacting QTLs for cholesterol gallstones revealed in an intercross between mouse strains NZB and SM ...
Mice, Inbred NOD. *Mice, Inbred NZB. *Mice, Knockout. *Neoplasms/immunology. *Neutrophils/immunology ... Interleukin-10/genetics. *Interleukin-10/physiology*. *Interleukin-10/therapeutic use. *Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/genetics ...
Inbred NZB Mouse Medicine & Life Sciences * Lysine Chemical Compounds View full fingerprint ... Results: L-NMMA reduced both urine NOX and 8-iso-PGF 2α levels in a dose-dependent fashion in NZB/W and MRL/lpr mice. Urine NOX ... Results: L-NMMA reduced both urine NOX and 8-iso-PGF 2α levels in a dose-dependent fashion in NZB/W and MRL/lpr mice. Urine NOX ... Results: L-NMMA reduced both urine NOX and 8-iso-PGF 2α levels in a dose-dependent fashion in NZB/W and MRL/lpr mice. Urine NOX ...
NZB and NZW mice produce endogenous, infectious, replication-competent, but xenotropic MLV (76), which cannot infect mouse ... This even holds for inbred mice, such as the lupus-prone New Zealand Black/New Zealand White F1 mice, which are all genetically ... Genetics of systemic lupus erythematosus: clinical implications. Rheum. Dis. Clin. North Am. 26: 229-256, v-vi. ... Among the spontaneous mouse models, the oldest NZB/NZW F1 (abbreviated B/W) mouse, discovered ,50 y ago, has disease properties ...
In the course of inspection of the biochemical marker genes in inbred strains of mice maintained in our laboratory, a female ... mouse of the NZB strain was found to be heterozygous for the Es-1 locus. ... We show how this general solution can be implemented for a class of clustering models of broad interest in population genetics ... The impaired Tg CD8 T cell response in aged mice is not due to age-associated changes in CD90 expression on Tg CD8 T cells. The ...
Animals, Laboratory , B-Lymphocytes/genetics , Mice , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mice, Inbred NZB , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/ ... The autoimmune NZB mouse has been known as a human malignancy and CLL model, because of the age-dependent onset of clonally ... The Ig heavy chain variable region in hyperdiploid B-1 clones from several NZB mice showed common characteristics in the CDR3 ... Detection of pre - malignant B-1 cells in NZB mice with a restricted CDR3 / DFL 16 region ...
  • 2006). Quantitative trait loci that determine BMD in C57BL/6J and 129S1/SvImJ inbred mice. (mdibl.org)
  • Infection of C57BL/6 mice with an Escherichia coli strain expressing listeriolysin O (LLO), a pore-forming toxin from L. monocytogenes , also resulted in rapid IFN-γ expression by CD8 + T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Interestingly, mouse strains that displayed a rapid CD8 + T cell IFN-γ response (C57BL/6, 129, and NZB) all had lower bacterial burdens in the liver 3 days postinfection compared with mouse strains that did not have an early CD8 + T cell IFN-γ response (BALB/c, A/J, and SJL). (jimmunol.org)
  • For example, in a previous study we showed that 2-5 × 10 4 CFU of L. monocytogenes strain 10403s caused death of all BALB/c mice within 72 h, while C57BL/6 mice, which have an LD 50 that is at least 50-fold higher, all survived infection with this dose of L. monocytogenes ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Suto, Jun-ichi 2008-12-06 00:00:00 A quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was performed on the size and shape of the mandible in F2 mice between KK-A y and C57BL/6 J strains and the effect of the A y allele on the morphology of the mandible was analyzed. (deepdyve.com)
  • A quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was performed on the size and shape of the mandible in F2 mice between KK-A y and C57BL/6 J strains and the effect of the A y allele on the morphology of the mandible was analyzed. (deepdyve.com)
  • We describe an experimental system in which a prerearranged H chain derived from a high-affinity IgG anti-DNA hybridoma (D42) of B/W origin ( 5 , 6 ) was site directed to the mouse germline of the C57BL/6 mouse and subsequently backcrossed onto the genetic background of the original autoimmune strain ( 7 , 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Here we used eight genetically diverse inbred strains (five classical laboratory strains (129S1/SvImJ, NOD/ShiLtJ, A/J, C57BL/6J, and NZO/H1LtJ) and three wild-derived strains (WSB/EiJ, PWK/PhJ, and CAST/EiJ) to investigate the effect of genetic background in establishing ESC-like iPSCs. (nature.com)
  • A comparison of the behavior of C57BL/6 and C57BL/10 mice. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Quantitative trait loci analysis of structural and material skeletal phenotypes in C57BL/6J and DBA/2 second-generation and recombinant inbred mice. (naver.com)
  • Finally, an elevated number of splenic, lymph node and bone marrow background and lipopolysaccharide-induced B cell clones in semi-solid phase agar was found in NZB but not C57BL/6, C3H, BALB/c and DBA/2 controls. (elsevier.com)
  • The AKR6 segment spanning the two substitutions, but not the entire AKR6 env -LTR, exists as an ERV, termed Xmv67 , in AKR, but not in the C57BL/6 mice. (mdpi.com)
  • Another plasma cell malignancy, multiple myeloma (MM), arising spontaneously in the ageing C57BL/KaLwRij mice, was investigated in order to see whether the MM cells contain c-myc abnormalities of the MPC or RIC type. (tudelft.nl)
  • Presently, we examined the presence, source and clinical correlations of IL-22 in human SjS patients and in the C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1R1Aec2 mouse model. (ufl.edu)
  • Interestingly, in the C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1R1Aec2 mouse model (currently considered one of the most phenotypically similar to the human disease) minimal to no IL-22 was present within the salivary or lacrimal glands, and levels present within the spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes were comparable to that of C57BL/6 controls. (ufl.edu)
  • We examined the influence of gender on the collagen content of tissues in C57BL/6J wild type (+/+) and mutant Tight Skin ( Tsk /+) mice employing hydroxyproline assays. (hindawi.com)
  • We previously established a congenic mouse strain with TALLYHO/Jng (TH) donor segment on chromosome 6 in a C57BL/6 (B6) background that harbors an obesity quantitative trait locus, tabw2 . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The New Zealand Obese (NZO) inbred mouse strain was initially selected for polygenic obesity. (jax.org)
  • Because all mice from an inbred strain are genetically identical and homozygous, these databases in conjunction with phenotypic information on corresponding strains open the opportunity for genome-wide association mapping of quantitative traits in an easy and cost-effective way ( Flint and Eskin 2012 ). (g3journal.org)
  • The traditional breeding scheme calls for at least nine consecutive backcrosses before establishing a congenic mouse strain. (deepdyve.com)
  • We used simulation studies to investigate the efficiency of different marker-assisted breeding schemes by examining the trade-off between the number of backcrosses, the number of mice produced per generation, and the number of genotypes per mouse required to achieve a quality congenic mouse strain. (deepdyve.com)
  • Somewhat surprisingly, we found that there is a relatively high probability for undetected gaps in potential breeders for establishing a congenic mouse strain. (deepdyve.com)
  • Our studies indicate that the BALB/cJ inbred strain shows reduced sociability and other behavioral and neurobiological traits relevant to autism (Brodkin, in press). (upenn.edu)
  • Despite the previous development of single-gene knock-out mice that exhibit alterations in aggressive behavior, very little progress has been made toward identifying the natural gene variants (alleles) that contribute to individual or strain differences in aggression. (jneurosci.org)
  • In the present studies inheritance of the characteristic light chain patterns has been studied in the AKXL recombinant inbred lines (derived from C57L/J and AKR/J parental lines) and in the inbred Ly-2a,3a congenic line B6.PL-Ly-2aLy-3a/Cy as well as in individual backcross animals of an incipient Ly-2a,3a congenic strain. (jax.org)
  • Five mice per strain per treatment were used. (nih.gov)
  • Clonal elimination was also considered to be responsible for the 'correction' of the autoimmune disease of NZB mice made chimaeric with a normal strain. (meta.org)
  • In the course of inspection of the biochemical marker genes in inbred strains of mice maintained in our laboratory, a female mouse of the NZB strain was found to be heterozygous for the Es-1 locus. (termsreign.gq)
  • BXSB/long-lived is a recombinant inbred strain containing powerful disease suppressor loci. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Therefore, they should not be referred to by species name, but rather as laboratory mice or by use of a specific strain or stock name. (jax.org)
  • Mouse strain names should be registered through the Mouse Genome Database (MGD) at http://www.informatics.jax.org/mgihome/submissions/amsp_submission.cgi . (jax.org)
  • A key feature of mouse and rat nomenclature is the Laboratory Registration Code or Laboratory code, which is a code of usually three to four letters (first letter uppercase, followed by all lowercase) that identifies a particular institute, laboratory, or investigator that produced, and may hold stocks of, a mouse or rat strain. (jax.org)
  • Strains can be termed inbred if they have been mated brother x sister for 20 or more consecutive generations, and individuals of the strain can be traced to a single ancestral pair at the 20th or subsequent generation. (jax.org)
  • An inbred strain should be designated by a unique brief symbol made up of uppercase, Roman, letters, or a combination of letters and numbers beginning with a letter. (jax.org)
  • e.g. , mouse strain 129P1/J). (jax.org)
  • Care should be taken that mouse and rat strains do not overlap in strain designations. (jax.org)
  • Note: a few historical examples exist of similar mouse and rat strain designations and these are allowed to stand, with their substrain designations identifying them as unique). (jax.org)
  • Thus, this strain of mice may be useful for clarifying whether the tissue distribution of vasculitis is under genetic control. (wiley.com)
  • 2016) Nature , 535 , 561-565), it was shown that mice carrying nuclear DNA from one strain and mitochondrial DNA from another had longer median lifespan and retarded development of various aging traits. (msu.ru)
  • By using correlative analysis between spinal gene expression and mouse strain-dependent intensity of late phase behavior, we hypothesized genes participating in variability of the response could be identified. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Studies using additional strains of mice confirmed that spinal cord mRNA expression levels of Mapk8 followed the pattern predicted by strain-specific levels of formalin behavior. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Tsk mutation occurred spontaneously in the inbred mouse strain B10.D2(58N)/Sn [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • N = 10 mice per strain. (cdc.gov)
  • This strain is commonly used as genetic background for transgenic mouse models. (bvsalud.org)
  • Spontaneous mouse models of lupus have led to identification of numerous susceptibility loci from which several candidate genes have emerged. (nih.gov)
  • Quantitative trait locus mapping of genes that regulate HDL cholesterol in SM/J and NZB/B1NJ inbred mice. (jax.org)
  • Also, we have initiated studies of mice with knockouts of autism candidate genes. (upenn.edu)
  • Using these tests, and variants of them, investigators have clearly demonstrated that genes influence aggressive behavior in mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • These studies suggest that maturational and/or activation states of the B cells in mice bearing the X(id) or nude genes are different from those seen in the parent strains of mice. (elsevier.com)
  • These mice have great importance in evaluating the function of genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An integrative genetics approach to identify candidate genes regulating BMD: combining linkage, gene expression, and association. (naver.com)
  • The chromosomal regions that harbor genes that control this variation are being identified using recombinant inbred strains and intercross-backcross progeny. (nervenet.org)
  • Developmental studies of inbred and recombinant inbred strains are being carried out in parallel to determine whether these genes control rates of neuron production or rates of survival. (nervenet.org)
  • Therefore, congenic mice allow the multiple genes underlying polygenic obesity to be dissected into individual genes for further study. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The novel skin-specific cytochrome P450 Cyp2b19 maps to proximal chromosome 7 in the mouse, near a cluster of Cyp2 family genes. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Previously, in a whole genome scan, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on chromosome 10 and chromosome X that affect intermale aggressive behaviors in a cross of NZB/B1NJ and A/J inbred mice (Brodkin et al. (upenn.edu)
  • Whereas most inbred mouse strains show an intermediate level of inter-male aggression in the resident-intruder or dangler behavioral tests, NZB/B1NJ mice are extremely aggressive and A/J mice are extremely unaggressive. (jneurosci.org)
  • Speed, Terence 2006-04-04 00:00:00 The development of congenic mouse strains is the principal approach for confirming and fine mapping quantitative trait loci, as well as for comparing the phenotypic effect of a transgene or gene-targeted disruption between different inbred mouse strains. (deepdyve.com)
  • To identify genetic factors affecting susceptibility to IPF, we analyzed a murine genetic model of IPF in which a profibrotic cytokine (TGF-β1) was expressed in the lungs of 10 different inbred mouse strains. (stanford.edu)
  • Dr. Leiter's research group at The Jackson Laboratory is currently developing a series of nine recombinant congenic strains (RCS) made by backcrossing the (NZO/Hl x NON/ShiLt)F1 for two generations onto the NON/ShiLt background before inbreeding (~12% NZO/Hl, 88% NON/ShiLt genomes). (jax.org)
  • Surface immunoglobulin on spleen cells from NZB and NZB/W mice and congenic mice bearing the nude or X-linked immune defective (X(id)) gene was examined by flow microfluorometry with regard to both the frequency of positive cells and density expressed on the cell. (elsevier.com)
  • Such alterations in cell-surface antigens correlate with the differences in the natural history of immunopathology of the autoimmune disease in these congenic colonies of New Zealand mice. (elsevier.com)
  • Leukocytes from B6.Sle2c2 and B6 congenic mice, which carry a different allele of the G-CSF receptor, were compared for their responses to G-CSF. (nih.gov)
  • Infection-dependent phenotypes in MHC-congenic mice are not due to MHC: can we trust congenic animals? (biomedcentral.com)
  • Congenic strains of mice are assumed to differ only at a single gene or region of the genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • During coinfection studies with Salmonella typhimurium and Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) in major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-congenic mice, we conducted the proper F 2 controls and discovered significant differences between these F 2 animals and MHC-genotype-matched P 0 and F 1 animals in weight gain and pathogen load. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is assumed that knockout, transgenic or other congenic strains of mice are identical at all loci or genomic regions except the one being studied. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The B6.TH- tabw2 congenic mice developed increased adiposity that became exacerbated upon feeding a high fat-high sucrose (HFS) diet. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For mapping, all the subcongenic mice, along with B6.TH- tabw2 congenic and B6-homozygous control mice were fed either chow or HFS diets, and their post-mortem fat pads were weighed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As previously reported, B6.TH- tabw2 congenic mice showed a significantly larger fat mass than controls on both diets. (biomedcentral.com)
  • On chow, a subcongenic line retaining the distal region of the TH donor congenic interval exhibited significantly larger fat mass than B6-homozygous controls, and comparable that to B6.TH- tabw2 congenic mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • On HFS diets, on the other hand, all the subcongenic mice had significantly larger fat mass than controls without genotype differences, but none of them had fat mass as large as the original congenic mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Significantly reduced locomotor activity was exhibited in B6.TH- tabw2 congenic and subcongenic mice compared to controls when animals were fed HFS diets. (biomedcentral.com)
  • B6.TH- tabw2 congenic mice, but not subcongenic mice, also had significantly increased food intake on HFS diets. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One powerful application available with mouse models is construction of congenic mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • genetic factors are then computationally predicted by identifying genomic regions where the pattern of genetic variation correlates with the distribution of trait values among the inbred strains. (stanford.edu)
  • Haplotype-based computational genetic analysis was used to analyze the area under the survival curve to identify genetic factors affecting survival after AF exposure among the inbred strains. (cdc.gov)
  • Because these mouse strains were derived over the past century from crossing different mouse populations, the MDP has a greater genetic and phenotypic diversity than is found in a typical F 2 population derived from two parental strains. (genetics.org)
  • The genetic lesion appears to be within the islets of Langerhans as transfer of pancreatic islets from normal mice returns body weights and blood glucose levels to within normal range. (jax.org)
  • Development of a SNP genotyping panel for genetic monitoring of the laboratory mouse. (jax.org)
  • We have revisited high-resolution genetic map data from a large heterogeneous mouse population and have constructed a revised genetic map of the mouse genome, incorporating 10,195 single nucleotide polymorphisms using a set of 47 families comprising 3546 meioses. (genetics.org)
  • Until recently mouse genetic maps based on simple sequence length polymorphism (SSLP) markers ( L yon 1976 ) have been sufficient for most experimental purposes since, unlike the hundreds of thousands of markers required in human genetic association studies, a relatively small number of markers is needed to map crosses between inbred mouse strains. (genetics.org)
  • have reawakened the need to develop a high-resolution genetic map in the mouse. (genetics.org)
  • Currently, most of our genetic studies of social behaviors use the mouse as a model organism, because of the experimental control that a model organism provides, and because of the many resources available for mouse genetics. (upenn.edu)
  • An NZB-derived genetic locus (Sle2c2) that suppresses autoantibody production in a mouse model of induced systemic lupus erythematosus contains a polymorphism in the gene encoding the G-CSF receptor. (nih.gov)
  • However, host resistance appears to be a multigenic trait ( 1 ), and further genetic differences between mouse strains have yet to be identified. (jimmunol.org)
  • Defective Fc gamma RII gene expression in macrophages of NOD mice: genetic linkage with up-regulation of IgG1 and IgG2b in serum. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Appreciation of the problem of genetic divergence in strains of inbred mice is not a new one. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The disease in B/W mice is apparently not dominated by a single gene product, such as Fas (as in MRL/lpr/lpr mice) or TLR7 (as in BXSB.Yaa mice), but is controlled by multiple genetic elements ( 4 ), as is the case in human lupus. (jimmunol.org)
  • This data, obtained on significantly inbred X(id)Y NZB mice, suggests that the X(id) gene is dominant over several aspects of polyclonal B cell activation in NZB mice and indicates that seral observation of these mice will be valuable in understanding the interactions of genetic immunologic mutations and cellular function in autoimmunity. (elsevier.com)
  • These advances include (i) a quadrupling of the density of the genetic map of the mouse, (ii) the ease of genotyping large numbers of marker loci distributed across the entire mouse genome by the polymerase chain reaction, (iii) a far more powerful conceptual framework for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that underlie complex genetic traits, and (iv) significantly more reliable and economical ways to estimate numbers of neurons. (nervenet.org)
  • Wide differences in pain behaviors, including those resulting from the injection of formalin, can be observed in inbred strains of mice suggesting strong genetic influences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Computational mouse genetics: To reduce the cost and the time frame for genetic research, we developed a more efficient method for performing genetic analysis in mice. (stanford.edu)
  • We report that host genetic differences influence outcome following establishment of pulmonary aspergillosis in an exogenously immune suppressed mouse model. (cdc.gov)
  • Our laboratory uses methods of genetics and genomics to dissect the neurobiological pathways mediating social behaviors, including aggression and sociability (tendency to seek social interaction). (upenn.edu)
  • Unlike conventional linkage mapping, such as with F2 cross, multiple mice with the same recombination can be analyzed from subcongenic lines, resulting in more accurate estimation of the phenotype conferred by the QTL. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A) 14-day survival phenotype for inbred murine strains following immunosuppression and inhalation of 3.0×10 8 AF293 conidia. (cdc.gov)
  • Systemic infection can be established via i.v. administration of bacteria in most of the commonly studied inbred strains of mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • Atherosclerosis susceptibility differences among progenitors of recombinant inbred strains of mice. (jax.org)
  • Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) will be mapped using both recombinant inbred strains and the maximum likelihood interval method of Lander and Botstein (1989) on intercross progeny. (nervenet.org)
  • To investigate the relationship between self-reactivity and the response to B. burgdorferi , NZB mice, models of autoimmunity, were infected. (asm.org)
  • Mice deficient in FcγRIIb demonstrate hyperactive immune responses ( 3 ) and are prone to autoimmunity ( 2 ), particularly systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE) ( 4 ), but show increased resistance to bacterial infections ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Systemic vasculitis in MRL/lpr mice is genetically controlled with cumulative effects of multiple gene loci, each of which has tissue specificity. (wiley.com)
  • MRL/Mp- lpr/lpr (MRL/lpr) mice are a useful model of systemic vasculitis because they spontaneously develop systemic vasculitis with glomerulonephritis, sialoadenitis, and arthritis ( 3 , 4 ). (wiley.com)
  • Influence of sex and diet on quantitative trait loci for HDL cholesterol levels in an SM/J by NZB/BlNJ intercross population. (jax.org)
  • We report genome sequences of 17 inbred strains of laboratory mice and identify almost ten times more variants than previously known. (sanger.ac.uk)
  • Xenotropic mouse leukemia viruses (X-MLVs) are broadly infectious for mammals except most of the classical strains of laboratory mice. (asm.org)
  • Here, we performed a genome-wide association study of female infertility in 25 inbred mouse strains by using publicly available SNP data. (g3journal.org)
  • Sequence-based characterization of structural variation in the mouse genome. (sanger.ac.uk)
  • Mouse genome. (unipd.it)
  • In 2011, we developed a next generation version of this computational method, which analyzes whole genome sequence data for 20 inbred strains. (stanford.edu)
  • A substantial amount of experimental work has been done in recent years, in both human subjects and mouse models, centering on B cell tolerance mechanisms and their apparent failure in autoimmune disease. (jimmunol.org)
  • Estrogen receptor-alpha deficiency attenuates autoimmune disease in (NZB x NZW)F1 mice. (unipd.it)
  • Effects of estrogen receptor subtype-selective agonists on autoimmune disease in lupus-prone NZB/NZW F1 mouse model. (unipd.it)
  • Moreover, the molecular genetics of other, more prevalent, psychiatric disorders are even less established. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We use these genomes to explore the phylogenetic history of the laboratory mouse and to examine the functional consequences of allele-specific variation on transcript abundance, revealing that at least 12% of transcripts show a significant tissue-specific expression bias. (sanger.ac.uk)
  • Combining experimental with automated analyses, we identified 711,920 SVs at 281,243 sites in the genomes of thirteen classical and four wild-derived inbred mouse strains. (sanger.ac.uk)
  • Endogenous retrovirus (ERV) genomes integrated into the chromosomal DNA of the host were first detected in chickens and mice as Mendelian determinants of Gag and Env proteins and of the release of infectious virus particles. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Quantitative trait loci for body weight in the intercross between SM/J and A/J mice. (jax.org)
  • 2008). Quantitative trait loci affecting phenotypic variation in the vacuolated lens mouse mutant, a multigenic mouse model of neural tube defects. (mdibl.org)
  • To clarify the mode of inheritance of the tissue distribution of vasculitis in MRL/Mp- lpr/lpr (MRL/lpr) lupus-prone mice and to identify the susceptibility loci. (wiley.com)
  • Genomic DNA samples from F 2 intercross mice were examined by simple sequence-length polymorphism analysis, and the polymorphic microsatellite markers highly associated with vasculitis in each tissue were determined as vasculitis susceptibility loci. (wiley.com)
  • Consistent chromosomal translocations involving the c-myc cellular oncogene and one of the three immunoglobulin loci are typical for human Burkitt's lymphoma, induced mouse plasmacytoma (MPC) and spontaneously arising rat immunocytoma (RIC). (tudelft.nl)
  • Evidence for close linkage of a mouse light chain marker with the Ly-" by D M. Gibson, B A. Taylor et al. (jax.org)
  • Evidence for close linkage of a mouse light chain marker with the Ly-2,3 locus. (jax.org)
  • This mouse is characterized by a strong female-to-male bias, fatal immune-mediated glomerulonephritis, and high titers of anti-nuclear autoantibodies, including high-affinity IgG Abs to dsDNA. (jimmunol.org)
  • 4 5 Most of the mouse models of lupus produce autoantibodies and develop immune complex glomerulonephritis and thus provide insight into the mechanisms of loss of tolerance and the development of glomerulonephritis. (bmj.com)
  • Effect of castration and sex hormone treatment on survival, anti-nucleic acid antibodies, and glomerulonephritis in NZB/NZW F1 mice. (unipd.it)
  • 12] Bassi N, Luisetto R, Ghirardello A, Gatto M, Valente M, Della Barbera M, Nalotto L, Punzi L, Doria A. 17-β-estradiol affects BLyS serum levels and the nephritogenic autoantibody network accelerating glomerulonephritis in NZB/WF1 mice. (unipd.it)
  • Phenotypic data were obtained from the Mouse Phenome Database at Jackson Laboratory ( http://phenome.jax.org/ ). (g3journal.org)
  • A new set of studies in our laboratory is aimed at elucidating the brain pathways that underlie this reduced sociability of BALB/cJ mice. (upenn.edu)
  • Mice and rats used in the laboratory derive from a variety of sources. (jax.org)
  • Most laboratory mice have contributions from both Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus . (jax.org)
  • In addition, some recently developed laboratory mouse strains are derived wholly from other Mus species or other subspecies, such as M. spretus ). (jax.org)
  • These gammaretroviruses rely on the XPR1 receptor for entry, and the unique resistance of laboratory mice is due to two mutations in different putative XPR1 extracellular loops. (asm.org)
  • These substitutions align with the two mutations that disable the laboratory mouse XPR1. (asm.org)
  • The xenotropic mouse leukemia viruses (X-MLVs) are gammaretroviruses originally isolated from laboratory mice that are unable to infect the cells of these mice ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • The resistance of laboratory mouse cells to infection is due to mutations that alter two XPR1 residues, K500E in the putative third extracellular loop (ECL3) and T582Δ in the fourth loop (ECL4) ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics. (diva-portal.org)
  • NZO mice share a common origin with New Zealand Black mice (NZB). (jax.org)
  • This even holds for inbred mice, such as the lupus-prone New Zealand Black/New Zealand White F 1 mice, which are all genetically programmed to develop lupus at a predetermined age. (jimmunol.org)
  • Methods: A dose escalation of L-NMMA (0, 20, 100, and 500 mg/kg/day) was performed in New Zealand Black × New Zealand White F1 (NZB/W) mice with active renal disease. (elsevier.com)
  • These monoclonals were prepared by fusion of NZB splenocytes with the P3 X 63.Ag8 myeloma and were screened for activity by indirect immunofluorescence using flow cytometry. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • Flow cytometry was used to further characterize these populations in mice. (ufl.edu)
  • A G to A transition in exon 4 resulted in the arginine to histidine substitution at amino acid 120 in NZO, NZB/BINJ and NZW/LacJ strains. (jax.org)
  • SM/J mice carry a number of rare polymorphic alleles and are often matched to LG/J (Stock No. 000675 ), A/J (Stock No. 000646 ) or NZB/BINJ (Stock No. 000684 ) for quantitative trait locus analysis. (jax.org)
  • In addition to our work on aggressive behaviors, we have demonstrated differences among inbred mouse strains in sociability, using a social choice behavioral paradigm (Brodkin et al. (upenn.edu)
  • The mapping of these QTLs is a step toward the definitive identification of mouse alleles that affect aggression and may lead, ultimately, to the discovery of homologous alleles that affect individual differences in aggression within other mammalian species. (jneurosci.org)
  • Despite the success in creating single-gene mutations that affect mouse aggression, little progress has been made toward identifying the naturally occurring alleles that account for the differences in aggression among inbred mouse strains. (jneurosci.org)
  • To systematically evaluate the apparent non-MHC differences in these mice, we infected all three generations (P 0 , F 1 and F 2 ) for 5 MHC genotypes ( b/b , b/q and q/q as well as d/d , d/q , and q/q ) with Salmonella and TMEV. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Other variants, like xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) ( 12 ) and several wild mouse isolates, have atypical host ranges defined by differences in their abilities to infect cells with variant XPR1 receptors ( 6 , 7 ). (asm.org)
  • These results indicate that comparative studies of collagen content between normal and Tsk /+ mice skin and internal organs must take into account gender differences caused by expression of the androgen receptor. (hindawi.com)
  • 1997). A recent summary of mouse guidelines was published in 2006 (Eppig 2006). (jax.org)
  • This observation indicates that a locus controlling light chain structure and/or expression is closely linked (less than 2.6 map units) to the Ly-2,3 locus on mouse Chromosome 6. (jax.org)
  • Monocytosis in BXSB mice is due to epistasis between Yaa and the telomeric region of chromosome 1 but does not drive the disease process. (bath.ac.uk)
  • NZB mice bearing the CBA/N X chromosome linked defect were generated by repetitive backcrossing and selection of the X(id) gene. (elsevier.com)
  • The Tsk mutation is an autosomal dominant mutation on mouse chromosome 2 [ 5 , 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The Tsk2 mutation is distinct from the original Tsk mutation, since Tsk2 maps to mouse chromosome 1 [ 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Knockdown of Sorbs1 by siRNA attenuates the induction of differentiation marker gene Prl8a2 (decidual prolactin-related protein) in an in vitro model of decidualization using mouse endometrial stromal cells, suggesting that Sorbs1 may be a potential candidate gene for female infertility in mice. (g3journal.org)
  • For virtually every mouse gene, there is a homologous human gene, and vice versa. (upenn.edu)
  • We also are using single-gene mutant mice (e.g. knockouts) to dissect pathways that mediate aggressive behaviors. (upenn.edu)
  • Two distinct regions of the mouse beta Fc gamma R gene control its transcription. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The D42 H chain is encoded by the V H 11 gene of the small S107 V H family of the mouse ( 5 , 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The gene products of V H 11 (S107) represent at least 5% of the H chains expressed in anti-DNA Abs of B/W mice ( 9 , 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • B) Relative II1b gene expression in peritoneal cells of BALB/c mice 18 hrs after i.p. injection. (nih.gov)
  • There are spontaneous models of lupus, inducible models of lupus, transgenic-induced lupus, gene knockout induced lupus and humanised mouse models of lupus. (bmj.com)
  • 2 3 As science and medicine progressed, transgenic techniques, gene knockout techniques, inducible knockouts and humanised mouse models were developed that allowed further insight into the role of a single gene or molecule in lupus pathogenesis. (bmj.com)
  • Mouse genomic variation and its effect on phenotypes and gene regulation. (sanger.ac.uk)
  • Late phase formalin behavior scores among 10 inbred mouse strains were correlated with a spinal cord gene expression database constructed using expression arrays. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Tight Skin mouse is a genetically induced animal model of tissue fibrosis caused by a large in-frame mutation in the gene encoding fibrillin-1 (Fbn-1). (hindawi.com)
  • Molecular analysis of Tsk /+ mice revealed a large, in-frame genomic duplication in the fibrillin-1 gene ( Fbn-1 ) that includes exons 17-40 [ 11 ] and results in a mutant Fbn-1 transcript that is 3 kb larger than the wild type Fbn-1 transcript. (hindawi.com)
  • Organotypic tissue cultures of ventral mesencephalon of gdnf gene-deleted mice were studied. (diva-portal.org)
  • E) BALB/c mice were injected with 300 μg of anti-Ly6G or control rat IgG2a and, then 24 hrs later with control or amyloid i.p. . (nih.gov)
  • NZB mice infected with B. burgdorferi developed higher degrees of joint swelling and higher anti- B. burgdorferi immunoglobulin M cross-reactive responses than other strains with identical major histocompatibility complex (DBA/2 and BALB/c). (asm.org)
  • Since these mice are inbred, genotype data can be collected in community databases and applied to all mapping studies in the MDP. (genetics.org)
  • NZO/Hl mice also show anti-insulin receptor antibodies, a defect in leptin transport, and hypertension. (jax.org)
  • In order to study the heterogeneity of the anti-erythrocyte auto-antibody response in NZB mice, we have developed hybridomas producing monoclonal auto-antibodies with anti-erythrocyte activity. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • Eleven monoclonal antibodies extensively studied thus far react with intact mouse erythrocytes, whereas only two of the eleven also cross react with sheep erythrocytes and bromelain treated mouse erythrocytes. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • These results suggest that the fusion pattern may represent the range of anti-red cell auto-antibodies found in the intact NZB mouse, with the exception of monoclonal auto-antibodies against cryptic red cell auto-antigens, which were not demonstrated in this initial fusion study. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • We found that S. pyogenes M5-specific antibodies and sera from B. burgdorferi -infected mice reacted with both myosin and B. burgdorferi proteins by Western blots and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (asm.org)
  • Evidence from GH-transgenic mice. (labome.org)
  • As some studies have shown, in human APOA-II transgenic mice the capacity of HDL to promote cellular cholesterol efflux decreases [ 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In APOA-II transgenic mice, overexpression of APOA-II can reduce LCAT activity through the displacement of APOA-I from the surface of HDL [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These mouse models of lupus have contributed significantly to our knowledge of the pathogenesis of lupus and served as valuable preclinical models for proof of concept for new therapies. (bmj.com)
  • Finally, the heterogeneous aspects of human lupus, both in clinical presentation, underlying pathogenesis and genetics, are not completely represented in current mouse models. (bmj.com)
  • 6 7 Despite this shortcoming and the growing trend to move more into studying humans rather than mice, murine models of lupus have and continue to provide significant insight into disease pathogenesis and treatment. (bmj.com)
  • Effect of an exogenous trigger on the pathogenesis of lupus in (NZB x NZW)F1 mice. (labome.org)
  • We examined histological properties of soleus muscle fibers in two strains of mice exhibiting a twofold difference in muscle mass, LG/J and SM/J, and their F2 intercross. (frontiersin.org)
  • Vasculitis in individual MRL/lpr, C3H/HeJ- lpr/lpr (C3H/lpr), (MRL/lpr × C3H/lpr)F 1 , and (MRL/lpr × C3H/lpr)F 2 intercross mice was analyzed by histopathologic grading of main branches of the aorta and of medium-sized arteries in the lower limbs. (wiley.com)
  • G-CSF treatment restored the ability of B6.Sle2c2 mice to produce autoantibodies in a dose-dependent manner upon cGVHD induction, which correlated with restored CD4+ T cells activation, as well as dendritic cell and granulocyte expansion. (nih.gov)
  • Mice deficient in NADPH oxidase 2 produced increased amounts of IFN-γ and developed augmented titers of autoantibodies. (nih.gov)
  • Other breeding schemes are acceptable provided that the inbreeding is equivalent to 20 successive generations of sib mating ( Green 1981 ). (jax.org)
  • Pineal peptide preparation epithalamin increases the lifespan of fruit flies, mice and rats // Mech. (medline.ru)
  • Diseases affecting the skin and adnexal structures (e.g., mammary glands) account for many of the clinical abnormalities observed in mice and rats. (nap.edu)
  • skin, are probably the leading causes of skin diseases in mice, while S. aureus alone probably holds that distinction in rats. (nap.edu)
  • However, there is a significant difference among mouse strains in the degree of susceptibility to L. monocytogenes , as measured by both bacterial burden following sublethal infection and LD 50 values. (jimmunol.org)
  • There are functionally distinct XPR1 variants in the genus Mus , but the majority of mouse strains carry Xpr1 n , which allows for the infection of P-MLVs but not X-MLVs [ 8 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Twenty-one B. burgdorferi s.s.-infected (Bb), 21 immune-deviated B. burgdorferi s.s.-infected (BbId), and seven control C3H/HeN mice were sacrificed on days 15, 28 and 43 post-infection (p.i.) with B. burgdorferi s.s. (diva-portal.org)
  • mRNA expression of IL-4 (p=0.018), IL-10 (p=0.018) and EBI-3 (p=0.009) decreased in Bb mice, but not in BbId, over the course of infection. (diva-portal.org)
  • In conclusion, both the clinical signs of infection and the trends for increased expression of pro-inflammatory GM-CSF and T-regulatory marker Foxp3 in BbId mice suggested ongoing inflammation. (diva-portal.org)
  • Susceptible strains had death of all mice by day 6 following infection. (cdc.gov)
  • We report here a QTL analysis of aggressive behavior in NZB and A mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • In this study, we suggest that intrinsic B cell tolerance mechanisms are not grossly impaired in lupus-prone mice, but that an unusually strong positive selection event recruits a small number of autoreactive B cells to the germinal centers. (jimmunol.org)
  • Selective up-regulation of intact, but not defective env RNAs of endogenous modified polytropic retrovirus by the Sgp3 locus of lupus-prone mice. (bath.ac.uk)
  • THE use of modern genetics in model organisms relies heavily on the use of controlled breeding. (genetics.org)
  • Thus, proving a therapy or mechanism of disease in one mouse model is similar to proving a mechanism/therapy in a limited subset of human lupus. (bmj.com)
  • 5 No mouse model is completely representative of human lupus, perhaps due to the fact that human lupus is so heterogeneous that not one inbred mouse model can manifest the broad spectrum of disease present in human lupus. (bmj.com)
  • Overexpressing exogenous MBNL1 in the DM1 mouse model has been shown to rescue the splicing defects and reverse myotonia. (bvsalud.org)
  • The purpose of this study is to explore inter-individual variance of cardiovascular-related traits induced by sustained pharmacological perturbations of the β -adrenergic system, using inbred mouse strains as a model. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Since the mouse 5T MM resembles the human MM very closely, including the absence of consistent structural c-myc oncogene abnormalities, it can serve as a useful experimental model for studies on the aetiopathogenesis of this disease. (tudelft.nl)
  • In order to better understand the in vivo function of IL-22, a mouse model is needed which mimics similar overexpression patterns to human SjS patients. (ufl.edu)
  • We took advantage of this property for use in an in vivo pneumonia mouse model and in patients hospitalized with bacterial pneumonia. (pharmaceuticalintelligence.com)
  • A 2-fold decrease was observed in autofluorescence intensity for cytospined PMNs from broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) in the pneumonia mouse model and a 2.7-fold decrease was observed in patients with pneumonia when compared with control mice or patients without pneumonia, respectively. (pharmaceuticalintelligence.com)
  • In the present study, we analyzed the degree of phenotypic variation in female infertility across 25 inbred mouse strains. (g3journal.org)
  • Spleen cells from these mice were also separated by free-flow electrophoresis and analyzed in a similar manner. (elsevier.com)
  • Such profiles were similar to those obtained for spleen cells from reference control CBA/N mice. (elsevier.com)
  • Early work using nude mice for studying T-cell differentiation and the role of T cells in antibody- and cell-mediated responses was soon overwhelmed by oncologic studies when it was established that many human tumors could be grown in nude mice and that the tumors showed only minor changes in their growth patterns and morphology. (springer.com)
  • Today the use of nude mice in the fields of infectious disease and parasitology is steadily increasing and it remains to be seen how extensive their eventual contribution to biomedical research will be. (springer.com)
  • Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Nude Mice (N. D. Reed, ed.), in press. (springer.com)
  • The Bxs6 locus of BXSB mice is sufficient for high-level expression of gp70 and the production of gp70 immune complexes. (bath.ac.uk)
  • We show how this general solution can be implemented for a class of clustering models of broad interest in population genetics that includes the models underlying the computer programs STRUCTURE, GENELAND and GESTE. (termsreign.gq)
  • SM/J mice carry a number of rare polymorphic alleles and are often matched to other strains for quantitative trait locus analysis. (jax.org)
  • SM/J, created by MacArthur in 1939 from crosses involving 7 inbred strains - among them DBA - followed by inbreeding with selection for small body size, is segregating white-bellied agouti ( A w ) vs. nonagouti ( a ) at the agouti locus. (jax.org)
  • This result was corroborated by the increased anti-dsDNA IgG production in G-CSF-treated B6.TC mice, which also carry the Sle2c2 locus. (nih.gov)
  • The total population of single cell types differ as much as twofold between inbred strains of mice. (nervenet.org)
  • Male NZB/W F1 mice expressed higher levels of superoxide than their female lupus-prone siblings, and depletion of neutrophils resulted in spontaneous NK cell and autoimmune B cell activation. (nih.gov)
  • I. Effect of the activated carbon fiber adsorbent 'Aqualen' on spontaneous carcinogenesis and life-span in mice // Cancer Lett. (medline.ru)
  • Two spontaneous mouse mutations, Tight Skin ( Tsk ) and Tight Skin 2 ( Tsk2 ), recapitulate some, but not all, features of this disease [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)