Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Mice, Inbred DBAMice, Inbred C57BLMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Mice, Inbred C3HMuridae: A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Mice, Inbred AKRAmino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mice, Inbred AInbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Mice, Inbred BALB CGenetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Genetics, Behavioral: The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Animals, Outbred Strains: Animals that are generated from breeding two genetically dissimilar strains of the same species.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Mice, Congenic: Mouse strains constructed to possess identical genotypes except for a difference at a single gene locus.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Mice, Inbred CBASequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Flurothyl: A convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Rats, Inbred BNPlasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Leukemia Virus, Murine: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
"Mouse inbred strain differences in ethanol drinking to intoxication". Genes, Brain, and Behavior. 6 (1): 1-18. doi:10.1111/j. ... Rhodes was one of the developers of the Drinking in the Dark model in mice. In this model, a specific mouse strain is found to ... Many drugs used to treat alcoholism in humans have been shown to lead to reduced ethanol consumption in mice used in this model ... A major goal of this research would be to understand the biological organization, from gene and protein expressions, that ...
Digit ratio (2D:4D) and behavioral differences between inbred mouse strains. Genes, Brain & Behavior 4: 318-323. Hurd PL, ... Intrauterine position effects on anogenital distance and digit ratio in male and female mice. Archives of Sexual Behavior (in ... while there is no difference in digit ratio between the sexes in most laboratory mice, that pups which gested next to brothers ...
Gene mapping data sets were incorporated for several mouse recombinant inbred strains. By early 2003, the first large ... experimental crosses of strains of mice and rats, and organisms as diverse as Drosophila melanogaster, Arabidopsis thaliana, ... Williams, RW (1994). "The Portable Dictionary of the Mouse Genome: a personal database for gene mapping and molecular biology ... This resource is used to study gene regulatory networks that link DNA sequence variants to corresponding differences in gene ...
MHC genes were first identified in inbred mice strains. Clarence Little transplanted tumors across differing strains and found ... George Snell selectively bred two mouse strains, attained a new strain nearly identical to one of the progenitor strains, but ... a couple of genes HLA-DQ (DQA1 and DQB1, for α and β chains), one gene HLA-DRα (DRA1), and one or more genes HLA-DRβ (DRB1 and ... MHC molecules were identified and named after their role in transplant rejection between mice of different strains, though it ...
"Variation and genetic control of gene expression in primary immunocytes across inbred mouse strains." J Immunol 193(9): 4485- ... Though most of the transcriptional profiling was done on B6 mice, the effect of genetic variation was also studied. The second ... networks of co-regulated genes, and genes that best distinguish different cell types. Raw data are available at the NCBI's Gene ... "Gene-expression profiles and transcriptional regulatory pathways that underlie the identity and diversity of mouse tissue ...
Wolfer, D. P. (2002). "J.N. Crawley: What's wrong with my mouse? Behavioral phenotyping of transgenic and knockout mice". Genes ... "Sociability and preference for social novelty in five inbred strains: An approach to assess autistic-like behavior in mice". ... especially mice. Early in her career, she developed the dark-light mouse exploration test, and showed that it is a valid test ... Genes, Brain and Behavior. 3 (5): 303-314. doi:10.1111/j.1601-183X.2004.00071.x. PMID 15344923. Crawley, J. N. (2007). "Mouse ...
... his own DBA strain was probably derived from her partially inbred silver fawn mice. Karin Knorr Cetina wrote in 2009 that at ... Eisen, Eugene J. (2005). The Mouse in Animal Genetics and Breeding Research. London: Imperial College Press. p. 3. ISBN 1-86094 ... She bred Japanese waltzing mice as well as fancy mice. The mice had straw bedding and lived in wooden boxes. They were fed a ... Lathrop began developing inbred strains around 1910. Loeb and Lathrop performed experiments at her farm and the pair authored ...
To create a coisogenic strain through breeding, a mouse with the specific mutation on a locus is mated to an inbred strain (e.g ... There are numerous ways to create an inbred strain and each of these strains are unique. Genetically engineered mice can be ... Coisogenic strains can be used to investigate the gene function of a certain locus. Coisogenic strains can be induced ... C57BL/6J) mouse. The offspring of the mutated mouse with the inbred strain has a 50% chance of carrying the mutation. From this ...
The uteroglobulin knockout mice on the inbred C57Bl6 strain develop Goodpasture's syndrome like glomerulopathy due to ... 1998). "A polymorphism of the CC16 gene is associated with an increased risk of asthma". J. Med. Genet. 35 (6): 463-7. doi: ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Wolf M, Klug J, Hackenberg R, Gessler M, Grzeschik KH, Beato M, Suske G (September 1992). "Human CC10 ... human genetic data might suggest that the effect may be indirect Uteroglobin knockout mice on the inbred 129 strain appear to ...
Inbred strains were, however, not suited for determining polymorphism, because assessing it required measuring gene frequencies ... The karyotype of the house mouse normally consists of 40 telocentric chromosomes, but in certain regions in Europe, mice with ... All other histocompatibility genes came to be called minor. Initially, genetic mapping of the mouse class I antigens suggested ... The two genes are thus unrelated to each other and to the class I and class II genes, but they are accidentally hooked together ...
"Sociability and preference for social novelty in five inbred strains: An approach to assess autistic-like behavior in mice". ... Crusio WE, Goldowitz D, Holmes A, Wolfer D (February 2009). "Standards for the publication of mouse mutant studies". Genes, ... Crusio, Wim E. (2004). "Flanking gene and genetic background problems in genetically manipulated mice". Biological Psychiatry. ... Holmes, Andrew (2012). "Genes, Brain and Behavior: At the vanguard of behavioral and genomic neuroscience". Genes, Brain and ...
"Rules for Nomenclature of Inbred Strains". In Green, Margaret C. Genetic Variants and Strains of the Laboratory Mouse. ... A hybrid between two inbred strains can be used to cancel out deleterious recessive genes resulting in an increase in the ... The latter project led to the development of the DBA strain of mice, now widely distributed as the two major sub-strains DBA/1 ... Such strains are useful in the analysis of variance within an inbred strain or between inbred strains because any differences ...
The genetic background, derived from inbred NOD mouse strain NOD/ShiLtJ, contributes reductions in innate immunity that include ... study of human islet alloreactivity based on NOD-scid mice bearing a targeted mutation in the IL-2 receptor gamma chain gene". ... 1.^ Mouse Genome Informatics entry for Prkdcscid 2.^ Mouse Genome Informatics entry for Il2rgtm1Wjl NSG strain datasheet at The ... NOD scid gamma mice (NSG mice) is a brand of immunodeficient laboratory mice developed and marketed by The Jackson Laboratory ...
"BALB/c". Inbred Strains of Mice. Jackson Laboratory. Retrieved 2007-04-16. "BALB/cByJ". Jax Mice Data Sheet. Jackson Laboratory ... The laboratory mouse genome has been sequenced and many mouse genes have human homologues. Other mouse species sometimes used ... inbred mouse strain and initiated the systematic generation of inbred strains. The mouse has since been used extensively as a ... The laboratory is also the world's source for more than 8,000 strains of genetically defined mice and is home of the Mouse ...
The NOD/Shi inbred strain was first discovered by Makino et al. as autoimmune non-obese-type diabetes mice. Lack of functional ... as a candidate gene for the murine SCID defect". Science. 267 (5201): 1178-1183. doi:10.1126/science.7855601. PMID 7855601. ... NOD/Shi inbred strain, 2) SCID, 3) IL-2Rγnull. These include: Reduced innate immunity derived from a NOD inbred strain, which ... Cancer Infectious Diseases Regenerative Medicine Hematology Humanized mouse Nude mouse SCID mouse M. Ito and, et al. (2002). " ...
"Inbred Strains" issue edited by Michael Festing. This replaced Inbred Strains of Mice. The journal was run by a company Mouse ... These included lists and maps of mouse genes and mutants, information on inbred strains, and brief reports of useful results ... On behalf of the Committee for Standardised Genetic Nomenclature for Mice, nomenclature rules for naming mouse genes and mouse ... 1997). A Life Story of Mouse News Letter and Mouse Genome. Mouse Genome 95:818-820. Searle AG. (1974). "The origins of Mouse ...
Humans and mice both have around 30,000 protein-coding genes. The number of mouse genes without a corresponding human homologue ... In 1909, Clarence C. Little developed the first inbred strain, the DBA (Dilute, brown non-Agouti) mouse. In 1915, N.M Haldane ... 40% of both human and mouse genomes can be aligned at the nucleotide level. Mice have relatively short gestation periods. Mice ... To create a more accurate representation of HER2 gene mutations, researchers have fused the mouse gene containing neu and a rat ...
... between inbred mouse strains. Analysis showed Pod-1 to map to a region of mouse chromosome 10 that is syntenic with human ... Since this splenic phenotype resembles that of mice lacking the homeobox genes Hox11 and Bapx1, it is possible that TCF21, ... "Entrez Gene: TCF21 transcription factor 21". "BioGPS - your Gene Portal System". biogps.org. Retrieved 2016-10-11. Acharya A, ... genitourinary and respiratory systems during mouse embryogenesis. Expression patterns of capsulin mRNA in adult mouse tissues ...
Its main activity is the reproduction and maintenance of mice stocks either of inbred strains or genetically engineered mice, ... The Animal House has a capacity to house more than 20,000 mice and is currently the largest Mouse Unit in Greece in terms of ... a Transgenics and gene targeting Unit, and a BioIT Unit, all of which serve internal collaborations, as well as external ... Fleming operates its own Animal House, which can house up to 20,000 mice and has its own complete mouse histopathology unit. ...
Recombinant inbred strains or lines were first developed using inbred strains of mice but are now used to study a wide range of ... In the case of a typical mouse recombinant inbred strain made by crossing maternal strain BALB/cBy (C) with paternal strain ... Recombinant inbred strains are now widely used in systems genetics and to study gene-environment interactions. It is possible ... pairs of the F2 progeny are then mated to establish inbred strains through long-term inbreeding. Families of recombinant inbred ...
... inbred mouse strain and the systematic generation of other inbred strains. The mouse has since been used extensively as a model ... is relatively impressive that the differences between humans and mice can be accounted for in approximately six thousand genes ... The classic model vertebrate is currently the mouse (Mus musculus). Many inbred strains exist, as well as lines selected for ... Mestas, Javier; Hughes, Christopher C. W. (2004-03-01). "Of Mice and Not Men: Differences between Mouse and Human Immunology". ...
The average litter size is 10-12 during optimum production, but is highly strain-dependent. As a general rule, inbred mice tend ... A knockout mouse is a genetically modified mouse that has had one or more of its genes made inoperable through a gene knockout ... The mouse genome has been sequenced, and virtually all mouse genes have human homologs. The mouse has approximately 2.7 billion ... "Mouse Info". Retrieved 15 August 2016. Tembo, Mwizenge S. "Mice as a Delicacy: the Significance of Mice in the Diet of the ...
Inbred strains are also available but are not as commonly used as inbred mice Much of the genome of Rattus norvegicus has been ... ISBN 978-0-89089-333-3. "Rules and Guidelines for Nomenclature of Mouse and Rat Strains". "Outbred Stocks". *Clause, B. T. ( ... "Genomic organization and analysis of the hairless gene in four hypotrichotic rat strains". Mammalian Genome. 15 (12): 975-981. ... is an inbred strain that spontaneously develops autoimmune type 1 diabetes. Like NOD mice, Biobreeding rats are used as an ...
In 2004, Hornig published a controversial paper concluding that, in a highly inbred strain of mice which is unusually ... Hornig M, Chian D, Lipkin WI (September 2004). "Neurotoxic effects of postnatal thimerosal are mouse strain dependent". Mol. ... In 2011, she co-authored another study concluding that autistic children have altered expression of genes involved in digestion ... Davis were unable to reproduce Hornig's results despite using the same strain of mice and ten times the amount of mercury used ...
... and thus came the Ak strain of mice. Further inbreeding was undertaken with Ak mice at the Rockefeller Institute in 1936, ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: AKT1 v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1". Lindhurst MJ, Sapp JC, Teer JK, ... leading to the designation of the AKR mouse strain. In 1977, a transforming retrovirus was isolated from the AKR mouse. This ... AKT - the AKT family of proteins AKT2 - the gene for the second member of the AKT family AKT3 - the gene for the third member ...
... several strains of mice (including BALB/c mice) and in three common monkey species.[4][5] ... in the mouse,[25] and by Hugh Pross and doctoral student Mikael Jondal in the human.[26][27] The mouse and human work was ... "Antigenicity of carcinogen-induced and spontaneous tumours in inbred mice". British Journal of Cancer. 20 (4): 831-7. doi: ... Recent research suggests specific KIR-MHC class I gene interactions might control innate genetic resistance to certain viral ...
... a study in three inbred strains of mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 207, 245-255.. *CrossRef, ... behavioural habituation to novelty and immediate early gene expression in two inbred mouse strains. Genes Brain Behav 9, 1-10. ... Gene expression profiling in the striatum of inbred mouse strains with distinct opioid-related phenotypes. BMC Genomics 7, 146. ... Impaired Pavlovian fear extinction is a common phenotype across genetic lineages of the 129 inbred mouse strain. Genes Brain ...
By contrast, 83/84 inferred NOD IGHV genes had previously been observed in C57BL/6 mice. Variability among the strains examined ... genes in four inbred wild-derived mouse strains (CAST/EiJ, LEWES/EiJ, MSM/MsJ and PWD/PhJ) and a single disease model strain ( ... This suggests a similar level of diversity is likely present in the IGH loci of other classical inbred strains. This must now ... We recently posited that genetic diversity in the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene loci of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice ...
A study of recombinant inbred strains of mice estimated that 1500 genes differed between conditions and 1200 were sensitive to ... Genotype and expression analysis of two inbred mouse strains and two derived congenic strains suggest that most gene expression ... To quantify cis and trans regulation we correlated haplotype data with gene expression in two inbred mouse strains and two ... In the parental mice 30% of all genes were on different haplotypes in the two strains, but 55% of genes that were ...
... in comparisons between inbred strains. We report a detailed analysis of polymorphism distribution in multiple inbred mouse ... Multidisease gene therapy in mice. A single formulation combining two gene therapies treated an array of age-related disorders ... in eight inbred strains.. We do not yet know whether claims for the utility of the mosaic structure of inbred strain sequences ... Unexpected complexity in the haplotypes of commonly used inbred strains of laboratory mice. B. Yalcin, J. Fullerton, S. Miller ...
Mice from eight inbred strains were studied for their acute sensitivity to ethanol as indexed by the degree of hypothermia (HT ... Strain differences in three measures of ethanol intoxication in mice, the screen, dowel and grip strength tests. Genes Brain ... Mice from eight inbred strains were studied for their acute sensitivity to ethanol as indexed by the degree of hypothermia (HT ... Acute tolerance chronic tolerance ethanol hypothermia inbred mouse strains loss of righting reflex pharmacogenetics ...
... www.broadinstitute.org/mouse/hapmap/). A total of 132,285 SNPs for 25 out of the 33 inbred mouse strains with available female ... Mouse model of early pregnancy. A mouse model of early pregnancy was established using CD1 outbred mice. The CD1 mice were ... in 33 inbred mouse strains. The phenotypic data were log transformed. Genotypic data were downloaded from mouse HapMap database ... The 25 inbred mouse strains were: 129P3/J, 129X1/SvJ, A/J, AKR/J, BALB/cByJ, BALB/cJ, C3H/HeJ, C3H/HeOuJ, C3HeB/FeJ, C57BL/10J ...
Inbred Strains of Mice: SWV. SWV Inbr (Bc) 73. Albino: A,c, plus unknown dilution gene. Origin: Outbred animals from Defense ... Mouse Genome Database (MGD), Gene Expression Database (GXD), Mouse Tumor Biology (MTB), Gene Ontology (GO), MouseCyc ... INBRED STRAINS OF MICE. Updated 9 Apr. 1998. Michael FW Festing. MRC Toxicology Unit, Hodgkin Building,. University of ... Hackman R. M. and Hurley L. S. (1983) Interaction of dietary zinc, genetic strain, and acetazolamide in teratogenesis in mice. ...
B) The fold increase in cell number after 12 days of culture for mMSC from 5 different mouse strains. (C) t-CFU assays of the ... One strategy for cell and gene therapy: harnessing the power of adult stem cells to repair tissues. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. ... mMSCs were obtained from 4 inbred strains of mice (Jackson Labs, Bar Harbor, ME): C57Bl/6J (Bl/6), BALB/c, FVB/N, and DBA1. In ... Adult stem cells from bone marrow (MSCs) isolated from different strains of inbred mice vary in surface epitopes, rates of ...
Standardized behavioral assays that measure the preference of mice for initiating social interactions with novel conspecifics ... an approach to assess autistic-like behavior in mice Genes Brain Behav. 2004 Oct;3(5):287-302. doi: 10.1111/j.1601-1848.2004. ... In a secondary test, preference for social novelty was quantitated by presenting the test mouse with a choice between the first ... Five inbred strains of mice were tested, C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, A/J and B6129PF2/J hybrids. Four strains showed significant ...
Recombinant inbred strains: use in gene mapping. In Origins of Inbred Mice, Morse, HC. (eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. ... 4. Strains Made from Multiple Inbred Strains. 4.1 Recombinant Inbred Strains. 4.2 Collaborative Cross Strains. 4.3 Mixed Inbred ... 4.3 Mixed Inbred Strains. Incipient inbred stocks or inbred strains that are derived from up to three parental strains (one of ... 1.1 Mice. 1.2 Rats. 2. Laboratory codes. 3. Inbred Strains and Hybrids. 3.1 Definition 3.2 Nomenclature of Inbred Strains. 3.3 ...
The representative C57BL/6 J and DBA/2 J strains displayed significant differences in social behaviors, DBA/2 J mice being less ... of eight inbred mouse strains with known variations in social behavior and retrieved the differentially expressed immune genes ... A group of immune genes were differentially expressed in the brains of these mouse strains. ... we selected the C57BL/6 J and DBA/2 J strains among the eight inbred strains, compared their social behaviors in resident- ...
... genes are distinct from H-2D or H-2L. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Inbred Strains Mice Medicine & Life Sciences ... In inbred mouse strains, seven Hh-1 alleles representing combinations of five different Hh-1 antigenic determinants are ... In inbred mouse strains, seven Hh-1 alleles representing combinations of five different Hh-1 antigenic determinants are ... In inbred mouse strains, seven Hh-1 alleles representing combinations of five different Hh-1 antigenic determinants are ...
... inbred strains of mice, ethanol has a marked psychostimulant effect. Intercrosses formed from the D2 and B6 strains have been ... Gene coding variant in Cas1 between the C57bl/6J and DBA/2J inbred mouse strains: Linkage to a QTL for ethanol-induced ... title = "Gene coding variant in Cas1 between the C57bl/6J and DBA/2J inbred mouse strains: Linkage to a QTL for ethanol-induced ... Gene coding variant in Cas1 between the C57bl/6J and DBA/2J inbred mouse strains: Linkage to a QTL for ethanol-induced ...
Genotype and expression analysis of two inbred mouse strains and two derived congenic strains suggest that most gene expression ... Genotype and expression analysis of two inbred mouse strains and two derived congenic strains suggest that most gene expression ... GENETICS; MICE Subjects. GENETICS; LIVESTOCK; Collections. * ILRI articles in journals [4966]. * ILRI livestock genetics ... Differences in gene expression may be caused by nearby DNA polymorphisms (cis regulation) or by interactions of gene control ...
HSC compartments in inbred mouse strains. Because an outcross to a non-B6 inbred strain is required to map the causative ENU ... Mice. All 8 wild-type strains, C57BL/6J (B6), C57BL/10SnJ (B10), C57L/J, BALB/b, C3H/HeH, CBA/CaJ, FVB/NJ, and 129/SvEv, and ... Composition of hematopoietic compartments in FL and blood in inbred mouse strains. (A) Percentages of LT-HSC and 5 progenitor ... B) Percentages of primitive RBCs, definitive RBCs, and platelets across inbred mouse strains. E14.5 embryos from C57BL/6J (n = ...
... which is very extensive in mice, using an efficient mixed-model... ... We have developed an association-based approach using classical inbred strains of mice in which we correct for population ... Cervino AC, Darvasi A, Fallahi M, Mader CC, Tsinoremas NF (2007) An integrated in silico gene mapping strategy in inbred mice. ... Hybrid mouse diversity panel: a panel of inbred mouse strains suitable for analysis of complex genetic traits. ...
F1 mice might support the possibility that the interaction of genes from the parental strains develops impaired glucose ... Festing MF: Origins and characteristics of inbred strains of mice. In Genetic Variants and Strains of the Laboratory Mouse. ... Recombinant inbred (RI) strains are derived by inbreeding different sets of F2 progeny from a cross between two inbred strains ... Male mice of parental (SM/J, A/J) strains, (SM/J × A/J)F1 mice, and 19 SMXA RI strains were obtained from The Institute for ...
Mice, Inbred Strains*Mice, Inbred Strains. *Mouse, Inbred Strain. *Inbred Strain of Mouse ... In vivo Firre and Dxz4 deletion elucidates roles for autosomal gene regulation. Elife. 2019 11 18; 8. ... Inbred Strains" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Mice, Inbred Strains" was a major or minor topic ... "Mice, Inbred Strains" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ...
"Ancestral bias in the Hras1 gene and distal Chromosome 7 among inbred mice, Mammalian Genome" on DeepDyve, the largest online ... Segmental phylogenetic relationships of inbred mouse strains revealed by fine-scale analysis of sequence variation across 4.6 ... We sequenced 4.5 kb of the Hras1 gene on distal Chr 7 in a diverse set of 12 commonly used laboratory inbred strains of mice ... We sequenced 4.5 kb of the Hras1 gene on distal Chr 7 in a diverse set of 12 commonly used laboratory inbred strains of mice ...
"Within-strain variation in behavior differs consistently between common inbred strains of mice, Mammalian Genome" on DeepDyve, ... Sheltering behavior and locomotor activity in 11 genetically diverse common inbred mouse strains using home-cage monitoring ... High-throughput phenotyping of avoidance learning in mice discriminates different genotypes and identifies a novel gene ... Within-strain variation in behavior differs consistently between common inbred strains of mice. Within-strain variation in ...
It is important to recognize that inbred strains of mice may contain a sufficient number of SNPs to "tag" nearly every gene in ... Public SNP databases for the mouse, which include variants from all inbred strains, still contain only a small fraction of the ... First, the inbred strains of mice capture a small percentage of the variation seen in nature. The inbred strains were invariant ... We resequenced classical inbred strains for all 29 loci and found that inbred strains contain only a small amount of the ...
We measured telomere lengths of blood leukocytes in several inbred and outbred mammalian species, using a telomere-specific ... the two inbred laboratory mouse strains display significantly different telomere lengths, suggesting the existence of strain- ... mice between parental strains displaying the phenotype of long and short telomeres. In all F(1) mice assayed, peripheral blood ... Two common strains of laboratory mice, C57BL/6J and DBA/2J, have telomeres several times longer than most other mammals ...
Downregulated p53 levels, or mutations within the p53 gene, leading to the loss of p53 activity, are found in many breast ... Mice, Inbred Strains * NFI Transcription Factors * Nuclear Proteins * Oligonucleotides / genetics * Pregnancy * Pregnancy, ... The p53 tumor suppressor gene is regulated in vivo by nuclear factor 1-C2 in the mouse mammary gland during pregnancy Oncogene ... Functional mutation of the NF1-binding site in the mouse p53 promoter resulted in a reduction of the gene expression to less ...
... healthy mice of 9 inbred strains with known differences in their susceptibility to spontaneous pulmonary adenomas when aged. We ... Specific gene expression signatures have been identified in individuals that already developed lung cancer. To identify if gene ... our study shows that expression differences between susceptible and resistant strains can be detected in young and healthy mice ... and Nptx1-genes with known cancer-related functions, and Cd209, Cxcr1 and 7, and Plag2g1b-genes with known inflammatory-related ...
Using whole-genome sequences of the LG/J and SM/J inbred mouse strains to prioritize quantitative trait genes and nucleotides. ... Using whole-genome sequences of the LG/J and SM/J inbred mouse strains to prioritize quantitative trait genes and nucleotides. ... Using whole-genome sequences of the LG/J and SM/J inbred mouse strains to prioritize quantitative trait genes and nucleotides. ... title = "Using whole-genome sequences of the LG/J and SM/J inbred mouse strains to prioritize quantitative trait genes and ...
  • Mice from eight inbred strains were studied for their acute sensitivity to ethanol as indexed by the degree of hypothermia (HT), indexed as the reduction from pre-injection baseline of their body temperature. (springer.com)
  • Mice of the eight inbred strains differing in their susceptibility to radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis, and in the duration of asymptomatic survival, received 18 Gy whole thorax irradiation and were killed 6 h, 24 h, or 7 days later. (physiology.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that chemical mutagenesis of mice combined with advances in hematopoietic stem cell reagents and genome resources can efficiently recover recessive mutations and identify genes essential for generation and proliferation of definitive hematopoietic stem cells and/or their progeny. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Some rare monogenic forms of early-onset subtype, maturity-onset diabetes of the young, and rare mutations in the candidate genes included in glucose metabolism have been identified ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Downregulated p53 levels, or mutations within the p53 gene, leading to the loss of p53 activity, are found in many breast carcinomas. (nih.gov)
  • Transfer of therapeutic genes into the lung epithelium may provide a cure for diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). CF affects 1 in 3,000 Caucasian births and is caused by mutations in a chloride ion channel (CF transmembrane conductance regulator [CFTR]) that result in gradual lung destruction, the major cause of morbidity. (asm.org)
  • However, despite the predicted loss-of-function nature of some of these de novo mutations, the affected individuals are heterozygous carriers, which would suggest that most of these candidate genes are haploinsufficient and/or lead to expression of dominant-negative forms of the protein. (nature.com)
  • Despite strong heritability, less than 10% of syndromes such as ASD can be attributed to dominant mutations in a single gene 1 . (nature.com)
  • Yet their biological significance remains elusive largely because, despite the predicted loss-of-function nature of some of these de novo mutations, the affected individuals are heterozygous carriers, suggesting that most of these candidate genes are either haploinsufficient and/or that these mutations lead to expression of dominant-interfering forms. (nature.com)
  • Several genes belonging to the AMPK-RK family came out of recent unbiased genetic screens for rare de novo mutations associated with neurodevelopmental disorders (Supplementary Table 1 ) 17 , 18 , 19 . (nature.com)
  • The importance of DUB function at the synapse is underscored by the association of specific mutations in DUB genes with several neurological disorders. (hindawi.com)
  • In the case of Legionella, we have shown that mouse strains susceptible to this infection carry mutations in a protein known as Naip5/Birc1e . (mcgill.ca)
  • Initially, functional analysis in the mouse was largely limited to spontaneous mutations and inbred strains. (biologists.org)
  • The production of a collection of embryonic stem (ES) cells with mutations in the majority of the predicted genes will certainly accelerate the process of discovery despite the significant investment of resources and time required to convert the ES cells into mutant animals. (biologists.org)
  • Mutations in the DMD gene result in the absence of dystrophin, a protein required for muscle strength and stability. (iospress.com)
  • Mutations in the DMD gene result in the absence of a protein, dystrophin in the sarcolemma [ 3 ]. (iospress.com)
  • Here, we performed a genome-wide association study of female infertility in 25 inbred mouse strains by using publicly available SNP data. (g3journal.org)
  • Because all mice from an inbred strain are genetically identical and homozygous, these databases in conjunction with phenotypic information on corresponding strains open the opportunity for genome-wide association mapping of quantitative traits in an easy and cost-effective way ( Flint and Eskin 2012 ). (g3journal.org)
  • Whilst pedigree-based linkage analysis and the candidate gene approach led to the discovery of highly penetrant genetic defects which account for the development of diabetes [ 19 - 24 ], it is the advent of large scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) which have led to the accelerated discovery of risk-variants associated with T2D [ 25 - 34 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • More significantly, allowing genome-wide genetic interrogations in the laboratory, will liberate the creativity of individual investigators and transform the mouse as a model for making original discoveries and establishing novel paradigms for understanding human biology and disease. (biologists.org)
  • Centralized Mouse Repositories, Mammalian Genome 23(9-10):559-71. (jax.org)
  • The hope is that phenotyping the mutants will reveal novel and interesting phenotypes that correlate with genes, to define the first functional map of a mammalian genome. (biologists.org)
  • To this end, genetic analysis in the mouse could provide the first functional map for a mammalian genome, allowing us to establish the relevance and causal relationship of genes to human biology and disease. (biologists.org)
  • We also demonstrate that NF1-A1 proteins are produced in the mouse mammary gland. (nih.gov)
  • This paper constitutes the first report demonstrating the importance of NF1 proteins in the p53 gene activation in the mouse mammary gland. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we have explored the use of AAV2 vectors pseudotyped with capsid proteins from AAV serotypes 2, 3, and 6 for readministration in the mouse lung. (asm.org)
  • Our laboratory uses a genetic approach in mouse to discover genes, proteins and pathways that play an important role in complex human diseases. (mcgill.ca)
  • We are currently using transcript profiling with microarrays and a proteomic approach to identify additional genes and proteins which expression and or phosphorylation status is modulated by Naip5/Birc1e signaling in response to Legionella flagellin. (mcgill.ca)
  • The same disease can be induced by injecting mice with heart proteins mixed with adjuvant(s), which indicates that an active infection is not necessary for the development of autoimmune disease. (cdc.gov)
  • It is believed that genes at the clock's core function as autoregulatory feedback loops within individual cells, with oscillating levels of nuclear proteins negatively regulating the transcription of their own mRNAs. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Of the four human MCP proteins identified to date, only two have been identified in the mouse: JE (( 3 ), ( 4 )), the putative orthologue of human MCP-1, and MARC/FIC (( 5 ), ( 6 )), the putative orthologue of human MCP-3. (rupress.org)
  • And now we can think about targeting these genes or the proteins they encode with novel therapeutics. (eurekalert.org)
  • Because of the wealth of data accumulated, we applied integrative analyses such as comprehensive bi-clustering to investigate the structure of the response across the different phenotypes, strains and experimental conditions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This indicates that cardiovascular phenotypes are unlikely to segregate according to global phylogeny, but rather be governed by smaller, local differences in the genetic architecture of the various strains. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Both candidate genes therefore deserve attention in the complex regulation of anxiety-related phenotypes including environment-mediated effects. (frontiersin.org)
  • We recently utilized the services of the OHSU transgenic core to replace a mutated gene with the common form of the same and demonstrated reversal of several methamphetamine-related phenotypes in animals with this single gene change. (ohsu.edu)
  • Type 2 diabetes in humans is not a single gene disorder but a multifactorial disease caused by the interaction of multiple genes and environmental factors. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Humans, non-human primates, and three outbred populations of Peromyscus mice ( Peromyscus leucopus, Peromyscus maniculatus, and Peromyscus polionotus) have short telomeres. (mendeley.com)
  • Many drugs used to treat alcoholism in humans have been shown to lead to reduced ethanol consumption in mice used in this model. (wikipedia.org)
  • While rats and mice are not as similar to humans as are nonhuman primates (monkeys and chimps), they have the advantages of small size and relatively easy husbandry, and they share many genes with all mammals including humans. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Nonhuman primates are very much like humans, sharing perhaps 95 percent of their genes with humans. (encyclopedia.com)
  • But this process, called genetic mapping, is a long and difficult road, made more challenging by the 5% difference between the humans and lab mice. (bio-medicine.org)
  • According to Prof. Iraqi, the fact that humans have many genetic variances for the same gene means that they are "outbred" among individuals from different families. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Analysis of sera obtained from mice and humans showed that AAV6 is less immunogenic than AAV2, which helps explain this finding. (asm.org)
  • It can be used to manipulate both NK T cell and conventional T cell responses in mice ( 19 )( 20 ) and potentially in humans ( 21 )( 22 )( 23 ). (rupress.org)
  • Mouse models, subjected to fewer nonheritable factors than humans, allow the identification of genetic factors that shape the immune system. (edu.au)
  • For example, coxsackievirus B3 (CB3) infection of susceptible mice results in inflammation of the heart (myocarditis) that resembles myocarditis in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Just like in humans suffering from anxiety disorders, the sights and sounds of unfamiliar environments can trigger panic in mice with anxious dispositions, causing them to freeze in place. (innovations-report.com)
  • Innovations in sequencing and mapping technologies have made the once huge effort in identifying disease genes in humans relatively straightforward. (biologists.org)
  • The DMD gene, the largest known gene in humans, consists of 79 exons and a 14 kb long dystrophin mRNA [ 4 ]. (iospress.com)
  • The findings may be clinically relevant, as humans have analogous genes, Palmer said. (eurekalert.org)
  • thus, in the present study, we performed aorta transplantation to determine atherosclerotic lesion formation of aortic grafts from B6 and C3H mice in their F1 hybrids. (ahajournals.org)
  • Of the available models (which include lower organisms such as C. elegans , D. melanogaster, etc.), mice arguably represent the best compromise between ease of genetic manipulation and similarity to man, in terms of both genome structure and physiology. (hindawi.com)
  • Yet, there is a critical gap in our knowledge of how these genes act and what pathways and processes they regulate in the physiological setting, which can be gained mostly, if not only, through experimental and hypothesis-driven approaches in model organisms. (biologists.org)
  • However, the ability to genetically interrogate gene function in mammalian models was slow to advance, in contrast to other lower organisms. (biologists.org)
  • Mice are one of the most commonly used laboratory organisms, widely used to study everything from autism to infectious diseases. (eurekalert.org)
  • Knockdown of Sorbs1 by siRNA attenuates the induction of differentiation marker gene Prl8a2 (decidual prolactin-related protein) in an in vitro model of decidualization using mouse endometrial stromal cells, suggesting that Sorbs1 may be a potential candidate gene for female infertility in mice. (g3journal.org)
  • 2001). A potential candidate gene in this region is Cas1, which codes for catalase. (elsevier.com)
  • Characterization of mice lacking candidate N-acyl ethanolamine biosynthetic enzymes provides evidence for multiple pathways that contribute to endocannabinoid production in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, we identified one OP-glucocorticoid locus and nominated a candidate gene - Spon1 - that may underlie the marked differences in response. (cdc.gov)
  • Candidate genes for Aggr1 and Aggr2 , respectively, include the diacylglycerol kinase α subunit gene ( Dagk1 ) and the glutamate receptor subunit AMPA3 gene ( Gria3 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we tested this hypothesis with the candidate ASD gene Nuak1 that we previously identified for its role in the development of cortical connectivity. (nature.com)
  • A second locus was identified on chromosome 1 (log-likelihood ratio = 9.7) for which no obvious candidate gene has been identified. (aspetjournals.org)
  • George Snell selectively bred two mouse strains, attained a new strain nearly identical to one of the progenitor strains, but differing crucially in histocompatibility-that is, tissue compatibility upon transplantation-and thereupon identified an MHC locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • These studies revealed that indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) 3 activity normally contributes to maintenance of maternal T cell tolerance to fetal alloantigens because pregnant mice exposed to the IDO-specific inhibitor 1-methyl-tryptophan selectively rejected allogeneic fetuses, whereas syngeneic fetuses developed to term. (jimmunol.org)
  • In general, it has been difficult to identify the genes involved in human diabetes because of the heterogeneous cause of this disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To best identify the genes that cause a disease, scientists require a test population with these same variances. (bio-medicine.org)