Kinesin: A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Molecular Motor Proteins: Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).Evoked Potentials, Motor: The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Dyneins: A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.Microtubule Proteins: Proteins found in the microtubules.Adenylyl Imidodiphosphate: 5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with imidodiphosphoric acid. An analog of ATP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It is a potent competitive inhibitor of soluble and membrane-bound mitochondrial ATPase and also inhibits ATP-dependent reactions of oxidative phosphorylation.Motor Skills Disorders: Marked impairments in the development of motor coordination such that the impairment interferes with activities of daily living. (From DSM-V)Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.beta-Hexosaminidase beta Chain: The beta subunit of hexosaminidase A and hexosamininidase B. Mutations in the gene that encodes this protein are linked to SANDHOFF DISEASE and can result in loss of both hexosaminidase A activity and hexosaminidase B activity.Motor Neuron Disease: Diseases characterized by a selective degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, brainstem, or motor cortex. Clinical subtypes are distinguished by the major site of degeneration. In AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS there is involvement of upper, lower, and brainstem motor neurons. In progressive muscular atrophy and related syndromes (see MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL) the motor neurons in the spinal cord are primarily affected. With progressive bulbar palsy (BULBAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE), the initial degeneration occurs in the brainstem. In primary lateral sclerosis, the cortical neurons are affected in isolation. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Anaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.Cryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.PDZ Domains: Protein interaction domains of about 70-90 amino acid residues, named after a common structure found in PSD-95, Discs Large, and Zona Occludens 1 proteins. PDZ domains are involved in the recruitment and interaction of proteins, and aid the formation of protein scaffolds and signaling networks. This is achieved by sequence-specific binding between a PDZ domain in one protein and a PDZ motif in another protein.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter: A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.Nerve Tissue ProteinsAmino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins, Type IIa: An electrogenic sodium-dependent phosphate transporter. It is present primarily in BRUSH BORDER membranes of PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES.Melanesia: The collective name for the islands of the Pacific Ocean northeast of Australia, including NEW CALEDONIA; VANUATU; New Hebrides, Solomon Islands, Admiralty Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, FIJI, etc. Melanesia (from the Greek melas, black + nesos, island) is so called from the black color of the natives who are generally considered to be descended originally from the Negroid Papuans and the Polynesians or Malays. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p748 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p344)Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Russia (Pre-1917)Ketocholesterols: Cholesterol substituted in any position by a keto moiety. The 7-keto isomer inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and inhibits cholesterol uptake in the coronary arteries and aorta in vitro.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Intracranial Hypertension: Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Leishmania donovani: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.Leishmaniasis, Visceral: A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.Leishmania: A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Play Therapy: A treatment technique utilizing play as a medium for expression and communication between patient and therapist.BrazilComputer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Myosin Type V: A subclass of myosin involved in organelle transport and membrane targeting. It is abundantly found in nervous tissue and neurosecretory cells. The heavy chains of myosin V contain unusually long neck domains that are believed to aid in translocating molecules over large distances.
Kinesin-like protein KIF3A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KIF3A gene. KIF3A is one subunit of the heterotrimeric motor protein, kinesin-2, that was initially isolated from sea urchin egg/embryo cytosol using microtubule affinity purification. This motor consists of two kinesin-related subunits (called KIF3A and KIF3B or 3C in vertebrates) and an associated protein (KAP3), and it transports protein complexes, nucleic acids and organelles towards the "plus" ends of microtubule tracks within cells. Work done in a broad range of eukaryotic cells has revealed that heterotrimeric kinesin-2 is the primary motor protein driving the intra-flagellar transport of tubulins and other axonemal building blocks from the base of the ciliary/flagellar axoneme to their site of assembly at the distal tips. This process is required for cilium assembly/maintenance and cilium-based signalling which ...
Ang estrok o istrok (gikan sa Iningles nga stroke) gitawag sa medisina isip cerebrovascular accident (CVA) mao ang paspas nga pagkawala sa gamit sa utok (brain functions) tungod sa disturbo sa mga ugat nga misuplay og dugo sa utok. Puyde nga naggumikan kini sa ischemia (kakulangan sa blad suplay) tungod sa thrombosis o embolism, o kaha tungod sa hemorej (hemorrhage). Sa medisina, ang estrok, fit, o pagkalipong usahay gireper isip ictus [cerebri], gikan sa Latin nga icere ("to strike"), bag-o maghatag og ensaktong diagnosis.. Ang estrok usa ka medikal nga emergensi ug makaresulta sa permanenteng pagguba nga neurolohikal, komplikasyon ug kamatayon kon dili dayon kini nadiyagnos ug natambalan. Kini ang ikatulo nga butang nga ikamatay ug nahiuna nga rason sa adult disability sa Estados Unidos ug sa Uropa. Gipredik nga ang estrok maoy mahimong numero unong sakit nga ikamatay sa tibuok kalibotan. Ang mga risgo niini mao ang katigulangan, alta presyon (high blood pressure), transient ischaemic attack ...
... consists of many pre-existing towns and villages, as well as new infill developments. The designated area outside the four main towns (Bletchley, Newport Pagnell, Stony Stratford, Wolverton) was largely rural farmland but included many picturesque North Buckinghamshire villages and hamlets: Bradwell village and its Abbey, Broughton, Caldecotte, Fenny Stratford, Great Linford, Loughton, Milton Keynes Village, New Bradwell, Shenley Brook End, Shenley Church End, Simpson, Stantonbury, Tattenhoe, Tongwell, Walton, Water Eaton, Wavendon, Willen, Great and Little Woolstone, Woughton on the Green. The historical settlements have been focal points for the modern development of the new town. Every grid square has historical antecedents, if only in the field names. The more obvious ones are listed below and most have more detailed articles. Bletchley was first recorded in the 12th century as Blechelai. Its station was a major Victorian junction (the London and North Western Railway with the ...
... consists of many pre-existing towns and villages, as well as new infill developments. The designated area outside the four main towns (Bletchley, Newport Pagnell, Stony Stratford, Wolverton) was largely rural farmland but included many picturesque North Buckinghamshire villages and hamlets: Bradwell village and its Abbey, Broughton, Caldecotte, Fenny Stratford, Great Linford, Loughton, Milton Keynes Village, New Bradwell, Shenley Brook End, Shenley Church End, Simpson, Stantonbury, Tattenhoe, Tongwell, Walton, Water Eaton, Wavendon, Willen, Great and Little Woolstone, Woughton on the Green. The historical settlements have been focal points for the modern development of the new town. Every grid square has historical antecedents, if only in the field names. The more obvious ones are listed below and most have more detailed articles. Bletchley was first recorded in the 12th century as Blechelai. Its station was a major Victorian junction (the London and North Western Railway with the ...
Espesye sa banaog ang Aaptos niger[1]. Una ning gihulagway ni Kazuo Hoshino ni adtong 1981. Ang Aaptos niger sakop sa kahenera nga Aaptos sa kabanay nga Suberitidae.[2][3]. Kini nga matang hayop na sabwag sa Japanese Exclusive Economic Zone.[2] Pagka karon wala pay siak nga nalista ubos niini niya.[2]. ...
Ranije su jezici tai-kadai, hmong-mijen i vijetnamski uvrštavani u ovu grupu. Iako imaju fonoloških i sintaksičkih sličnosti sa sino-tibetanskim jezicima, od 1950-ih većina lingvista prve dve grupe posmatra kao posebne porodice, dok vijetnamski smatra jednim od austroazijskih jezika. Kineska grana jezika se koristi širom Kine i na Tajvanu, tibeto-burmanski jezici se govore u oblasti Himalaja i obližnjim oblastima Jugoistočne Azije, pre svega na Tibetu, južnoj Kini, Burmi, Nepalu, Butanu, severnoj Indiji i delovima Pakistana, Bangladeša, Laosa, Vijetnama i Tajlanda. Najveći jezik iz ove porodice je mandarinski kineski koji govori 875 miliona ljudi. Slede vu kineski (80 miliona), kantonski kineski (70 miliona), min kineski (60 miliona), đin kineski (45 miliona), sjang kineski (36 miliona), hakka kineski (33 miliona) i gan kineski (21 miliona). Najveći tibetsko-burmanski jezici su burmanski (35 miliona kao prvi jezik i 15 miliona drugih govornika), južnokineski jezik ji (4,2 miliona), ...
Espesye sa balili ang Arberella dressleri[1]. Una ning gihulagway ni Thomas Robert Soderstrom ug C.E.Calderon. Ang Arberella dressleri sakop sa kahenera nga Arberella sa kabanay nga Poaceae.[2][3] Kini nga matang hayop na sabwag sa Panamá.[2] Pagka karon wala pay siak nga nalista ubos niini niya.[2] ...
Oaris will be a non-articulated electric multiple unit with distributed traction, enabling 4-car, 6-car and 8-car configurations.[4] Each car will have one powered bogie, with electric motors on both wheelsets, and one unpowered bogie.[5] Power equipment will be designed to enable adaptation to all four of the main overhead electrification systems in use across Europe. For the train, running gear with 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) (standard gauge), 1,668 mm (5 ft 5 21⁄32 in) (Iberian gauge) and variable gauge options is developed.[5]. Oaris bodyshells will be manufactured from aluminium.[4] The driving end cars will be 26,780 mm (87 ft 10 in) long, middle cars 24,780 mm (81 ft 4 in) long, an 8-car set will be 202.24 m (663 ft 6 in) long.. The train will be fitted with 660 kW (890 hp) motors, giving a total power of 5,280 kW (7,080 hp) in the 4-car, 7,920 kW (10,620 hp) in the 6-car, and 10,560 kW (14,160 hp) in the 8-car configuration. Design speed is 350 km/h (220 mph), planned ...
Cargo | Official Trailer [HD] | Netflix, Cargo | Finalist of Tropfest Australia 2013, Cargo - Daca ploaia s-ar opri (Official Video), Cargo - Ziua Vrajitoarelor (Ziua Vrajitoarelor, 1998), Cargo - Nu ma lasa sa-mi fie dor (Official Video)
In cell biology, the spindle apparatus (or mitotic spindle) refers to the cytoskeletal structure of eukaryotic cells that forms during cell division to separate sister chromatids between daughter cells. It is referred to as the mitotic spindle during mitosis, a process that produces genetically identical daughter cells, or the meiotic spindle during meiosis, a process that produces gametes with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell. Besides chromosomes, the spindle apparatus is composed of hundreds of proteins. Microtubules comprise the most abundant components of the machinery. Attachment of microtubules to chromosomes is mediated by kinetochores, which actively monitor spindle formation and prevent premature anaphase onset. Microtubule polymerization and depolymerization dynamics drive chromosome congression. Depolymerization of microtubules generates tension at kinetochores; bipolar attachment of sister kinetochores to microtubules emanating from opposite cell poles couples ...
A mitotic inhibitor is a drug that inhibits mitosis, or cell division. These drugs disrupt microtubules, which are structures that pull the chromosomes apart when a cell divides. Mitotic inhibitors are used in cancer treatment, because cancer cells are able to grow and eventually spread through the body (metastasize) through continuous mitotic division. Thus, cancer cells are more sensitive to inhibition of mitosis than normal cells. Mitotic inhibitors are also used in cytogenetics (the study of chromosomes), where they stop cell division at a stage where chromosomes can be easily examined. Mitotic inhibitors are derived from natural substances such as plant alkaloids, and prevent cells from undergoing mitosis by disrupting microtubule polymerization, thus preventing cancerous growth. Microtubules are long, ropelike proteins that extend through the cell and move cellular components around. Microtubules are long polymers made of smaller units (monomers) of the protein tubulin. Microtubules are ...
Hartman, J.J., Mahr, J., McNally, K., Okawa, K., Iwamatsu, A., Thomas, S., Cheesman, S., Heuser, J., Vale, R.D. and McNally, F.J. (1998). „Katanin, a microtubule-severing protein, is a novel AAA ATPase that targets to the centrosome using a WD40-containing subunit". Cell. 93: 277-287. PMID 9568719 ...
Lucas FR، Goold RG، Gordon-Weeks PR، Salinas PC (1998). "Inhibition of GSK-3beta leading to the loss of phosphorylated MAP-1B is an early event in axonal remodelling induced by WNT-7a or lithium". J. Cell Sci. 111 ( Pt 10) (10): 1351-61. PMID 9570753. ...
Kinesin motor domain (IPR001752). Short name: Kinesin_motor_dom Overlapping homologous superfamilies *P-loop containing ... Motor proteins 1: kinesins.. null 2 1105-71 1995. Endow SA. The emerging kinesin family of microtubule motor proteins.. Trends ... Motor proteins 1: kinesins.. null 2 1105-71 1995. Vallee RB, Shpetner HS. Motor proteins of cytoplasmic microtubules.. Annu. ... The kinesin motor activity is directed toward the microtubules plus end. Kinesin is an oligomeric complex composed of two ...
Kinesins are molecular motors that transport various cargoes along microtubule tracks using energy derived from ATP hydrolysis ... Although the motor domains of kinesins are structurally similar, the ... ... Although the motor domains of kinesins are structurally similar, the family contains members that move on microtubules in ... Kinesins are molecular motors that transport various cargoes along microtubule tracks using energy derived from ATP hydrolysis ...
Thus we could describe these properties of kinesin-1 (and other transport motors such as kinesin-2, ref. 27, and kinesin-3, ... almost all the motor-binding sites on a microtubule can be occupied if the kinesin-1 (17, 18), kinesin-3 (15), or kinesin-8 (19 ... The slowing provides direct evidence for motor-motor interactions on the microtubule lattice. Further evidence for motor-motor ... To understand how individual motors behave in crowded environments, we used the motor protein Kip3 (in the kinesin-8 family) as ...
Kinesin motor proteins transport vesicles containing intracellular cargo around the cell along microtubules. - Stock Image F009 ... Caption: Kinesin motor protein, molecular model. Kinesin motor proteins transport vesicles containing intracellular cargo ... kinesin, kinesin molecular motor protein, medical, medical illustration, medicine, model, molecular, molecular model, molecular ... structure, molecule, motor protein, no-one, nobody, protein, proteomics, research, strand, structure, tertiary structure ...
Kinesin Mutations Cause Motor Neuron Disease Phenotypes by Disrupting Fast Axonal Transport in Drosophila. Daryl D. Hurd and ... Kinesin Mutations Cause Motor Neuron Disease Phenotypes by Disrupting Fast Axonal Transport in Drosophila. Daryl D. Hurd and ... Kinesin Mutations Cause Motor Neuron Disease Phenotypes by Disrupting Fast Axonal Transport in Drosophila. Daryl D. Hurd and ... Previous work has shown that mutation of the gene that encodes the microtubule motor subunit kinesin heavy chain (Khc) in ...
Kinesin is a motor protein that moves along microtubule filaments in cells. It does so by forming a dimer, the heads of which ... The structure modelled here is based on studies of this kinesin in the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus). - Stock Image C025/2151 ... Caption: Kinesin motor protein, molecular model. Kinesin is a motor protein that moves along microtubule filaments in cells. It ... kinesin, kinesin motor and neck domain, molecular, molecular biology, molecular model, molecular structure, molecule, monomer, ...
kinesin-related motor KIF3A. Kinesins constitute a large family of microtubule motor proteins that convert the energy of ATP ... Differential distribution of kinesin motors in the mammalian retina. To identify kinesins expressed in the retina, we ... Previous studies have shown that the kinesin polypeptide KIF3A, a component of the microtubule motor kinesin II (Scholey, 1996 ... The Kinesin Motor KIF3A Is a Component of the Presynaptic Ribbon in Vertebrate Photoreceptors. Virgil Muresan, Asya Lyass and ...
Kip3p, a kinesin-8,-13/KinI kinesin, synchronizes poleward kinetochore movement during anaphase A. The kinesin-14 motor Kar3p ... kinesin-5 family members), Kip3p (a kinesin-8,-13/KinI motor), and Kar3p (a minus-end directed kinesin-14) have the potential ... Cin8p and Kip1p are members of the kinesin-5 family of plus end-directed motors (BimC motors; Dagenbach and Endow, 2004) that ... Because many kinesin-13 motors play a role in the poleward movement of chromatids, we asked whether KIP3 deletion would alter ...
Previous reports on the single-motor assay of conventional kinesin (4) use mean run-length of the motor as the index of the ... and that a single-headed kinesin could not move processively. Here, a motor-domain construct of KIF1A, a single-headed kinesin ... construct DmK351 made from Drosophilaconventional kinesin (4, 6). The catalytic core of the conventional kinesin motor domain ... A single kinesin molecule has two heads or motor domains (1) and moves processively (2-4), taking more than 100 steps before ...
To see if the motor can be arrested in a particular configuration by the help of a ligand, so that it becomes dysfunctional and ...
Kinesin associated protein (KAP) is identified as the non-motor accessory subunit of Kinesin II, but its role in the ... Drosophila KAP interacts with the kinesin II motor subunit KLP64D to assemble chordotonal sensory cilia, but not sperm tails.. ... Mutations in Klp64D, which codes for a Kinesin II motor subunit in Drosophila, show similar ciliary defects. All these defects ... Kinesin II-mediated anterograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) is essential for the assembly and maintenance of flagella and ...
We have isolated a human homolog of Xenopus Eg5, a kinesin-related motor protein implicated in the assembly and dynamics of the ... Phosphorylation by p34cdc2 regulates spindle association of human Eg5, a kinesin-related motor essential for bipolar spindle ... indicating that phosphorylation controls the association of this motor with the spindle apparatus. These results indicate that ...
Functional Analysis of Mouse Kinesin Motor Kif3C Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Molecular and ... Functional Analysis of Mouse Kinesin Motor Kif3C. Zhaohuai Yang, Elizabeth A. Roberts, Lawrence S. B. Goldstein ... One distinguishing feature of kinesin II is that it generally contains two different motor subunits from the Kif3 family. Three ... Members of the kinesin II family are thought to play essential roles in many types of intracellular transport. ...
Biochemical, genetic, and intracellular localization studies of kinesin motors have suggested that some of these motor proteins ... 1996) Kinesin-II, a membrane traffic motor in axons, axonemes, and spindles. J. Cell Biol. 133:1-4. ... Functional Analysis of Mouse Kinesin Motor Kif3C Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Molecular and ... Functional Analysis of Mouse Kinesin Motor Kif3C. Zhaohuai Yang, Elizabeth A. Roberts, Lawrence S. B. Goldstein ...
Kinesins tail domain is an inhibitory regulator of the motor domain. Coy DL, Hancock WO, Wagenbach M, Howard J. Nat Cell Biol ...
2018). Kinesins and myosins: molecular motors that coordinate cellular functions in plants. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 69: 329-361. ... Nuclear Positioning Requires a Tug-of-War between Kinesin Motors Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Plant ... Nuclear Positioning Requires a Tug-of-War between Kinesin Motors. Robert C. Augustine ... a motor that is absent from land plant lineages. How plants fill this void remains an open question. While the plant kinesin- ...
... docked into the 9.7-angstrom cryo-EM map of microtubule-bound kinesin-5 motor domain in the AMPPPNP state. ... Model of human kinesin-5 motor domain (3HQD) and mammalian tubulin heterodimer (1JFF) ... The Structural Basis of Force Generation by the Mitotic Motor Kinesin-5.. Goulet, A., Behnke-Parks, W.M., Sindelar, C.V., Major ... Model of human kinesin-5 motor domain (3HQD) and mammalian tubulin heterodimer (1JFF) docked into the 9.7-angstrom cryo-EM map ...
... a member of the UNC-104/KIF1 family of kinesin motors (for review, see Bloom, 2001), was originally reported as a motor ... 2000) Kinesin superfamily motor protein KIF17 and mLin-10 in NMDA receptor-containing vesicle transport. Science 288:1796-1802. ... The kinesin superfamily (KIF) motors mediate microtubule-dependent transport of a variety of organelles and vesicles (Goldstein ... Association of the Kinesin Superfamily Motor Protein KIF1Bα with Postsynaptic Density-95 (PSD-95), Synapse-Associated Protein- ...
Putting a bifunctional motor to work: insights into the role of plant KCH kinesins. Authors. *. Ram Dixit. *Department of ... Wilhelm J. Walter, Isabel Machens, Fereshteh Rafieian, Stefan Diez, The non-processive rice kinesin-14 OsKCH1 transports actin ... René Schneider, Staffan Persson, Connecting two arrays: the emerging role of actin-microtubule cross-linking motor proteins, ...
Recent Advances of Kinesin Motor Inhibitors and their Clinical Progress. Author(s): Antiopi Voultsiadou, Vasiliki Sarli. ... This review focuses on the progress of kinesin motor inhibitors that target proteins that function predominantly in mitosis. ... This review focuses on the progress of kinesin motor inhibitors that target proteins that function predominantly in mitosis. ... Antiopi Voultsiadou and Vasiliki Sarli, " Recent Advances of Kinesin Motor Inhibitors and their Clinical Progress", Reviews on ...
Highlights Molecular Motors Molecular Motors: Synthetic DNA-Based Walkers Inspired by Kinesin** T. Ross Kelly* Keywords: ... Molecular Motors Synthetic DNA-Based Walkers Inspired by Kinesin.. код для вставки. код для вставки на сайт или в блог. Ширина ... Kinesin is the prototypical processive biological motor,[18] although others such as DNA polymerases also exist. Fueled by ATP ... kinesin "walks" along a microtubule as illustrated by the cartoons in Figure 1. A key feature of the kinesin system is that the ...
The neck coiled coil may be a site of regulation for other kinesin motors as well. The conventional kinesin tail domain has ... The directional preference of kinesin motors is specified by an element outside of the motor catalytic domain. Cell. 90:959-966 ... Drosophila kinesin motor domain extending to amino acid position 392 is dimeric when expressed in Escherichia coli. J. Biol. ... Distinct conformations of the kinesin Unc104 neck regulate a monomer to dimer motor transition. Jawdat Al-Bassam, Yujia Cui, ...
A neuron-specific kinesin motor protein, KIF1A, has been shown to participate in netrin-1 secretion. This study aimed to ... A neuron-specific kinesin motor protein, KIF1A, has been shown to participate in netrin-1 secretion. This study aimed to ... The kinesin motor, KIF1A, serves as a transporter during netrin-1 secretion. KIF1A binds to netrin-1 and transports it to the ... 2010). The Caenorhabditis elegans Kinesin-3 motor UNC-104/KIF1A is degraded upon loss of specific binding to cargo. PLoS Genet. ...
A candidate screen showed that among the selected motors only kinesin-8 motors Klp5/Klp6 are required for kinetochore centering ... Metaphase kinetochore movements are regulated by kinesin-8 motors and microtubule dynamic instability.. Klemm, Anna H ... Kinetochores congress to the equatorial plane of the spindle and oscillate around it, with kinesin-8 motors restricting these ... Our theoretical model with Langevin description of microtubule dynamic instability shows that kinesin-8 motors are required for ...
Up to now, there are 14 kinesin family proteins known. The MAPK pathway which is composed of multiple proteins constituting a ... Kinesins are essential for the transport and positioning of several biomolecules through moving along the microtubule in ... Kinesin-3, Kinesin-5, Kinesin-8, Kinesin-11 and Kinesin-13 families in mammals and two kinds of kinesin-like proteins in plants ... Studies have indicated that Kinesin-1 light chain KLC1, Kinesin-1 heavy chain KIF5B and Kinesin-11 family motor KIF26B interact ...
  • These phenotypes parallel the pathologies of some vertebrate motor neuron diseases, including some forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and suggest that impaired fast axonal transport is a key element in those diseases. (genetics.org)
  • These observations suggest that as the concentration of maternally provided wild-type KHC decreases, axonal organelles transported by kinesin periodically stall. (genetics.org)
  • Khc mutations also impair the development of larval motor axon terminals, causing dystrophic morphology and marked reductions in synaptic bouton numbers. (genetics.org)
  • These PH domain containing motors include C. elegans Unc104 and its mouse orthologue KIF1A, which transport synaptic vesicle precursors from the cell body to nerve terminals. (rupress.org)
  • A neuron-specific kinesin motor protein, KIF1A, has been shown to participate in netrin-1 secretion. (frontiersin.org)
  • KIF1A/Unc104 is a monomeric kinesin known to dimerize into a processive motor at high protein concentrations. (embopress.org)
  • These results suggest that the intramolecular FHA-CC2 interaction negatively regulates KIF1A activity by inhibiting MT binding and dimerization of KIF1A, and point to a novel role of the FHA domain in the regulation of kinesin motors. (embopress.org)
  • In a similar fashion, the second and third specific aims propose to investigate the non-motor regions of a number of other kinesins (heterotrimeric kinesin II and monomeric KIF1A,B, & C) whose cargoes are known. (elsevier.com)
  • UNC-104/KIF1A is a Kinesin-3 motor that transports synaptic vesicles from the cell body towards the synapse by binding to PI(4,5)P 2 through its PH domain. (prolekarniky.cz)
  • When KIFC3 or the additional kinesins KIFC1, KIF1A, or KIF5A were overexpressed in the breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB231 and MDA-MB 468, the cells became more resistant to docetaxel. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition to KIFC3, we find that overexpression of a second COOH-terminal kinesin, KIFC1, or of the NH 2 -terminal kinesins KIF5A and KIF1A, all mediate the resistance of breast cancer cells to docetaxel. (aacrjournals.org)
  • KIF1A is a motor enriched in neurons, and involved in the anterograde transport of a variety of vesicles that contribute to pre- and post-synaptic assembly, autophagic processes, and neuron survival. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this study, we report subnanometer resolution cryoelectron microscopy reconstructions of microtubule-bound human kinesin-5 before and after nucleotide binding and combine this information with studies of the kinetics of nucleotide-induced neck linker and cover strand movement. (rcsb.org)
  • Our structures indicate that allosteric inhibitors of human kinesin-5, which are being developed as anti-cancer therapeutics, bind to a motor conformation that occurs in the course of normal function. (rcsb.org)
  • Kinesin is a motor protein that moves along microtubule filaments in cells. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Rather than navigating to the center of tip-growing protonemal cells during interphase, KCH KO nuclei instead gravitate to the apex (see figure , panel A). The predictable and uniform orientation of MTs in moss together with KCH fluorescent-tagging experiments suggest that KCH moves processively in vivo as a minus end-directed motor. (plantcell.org)
  • Studies have shown that kinesin moves in discrete steps along the microtubule ( 2 , 6 ) and that it slows down linearly as a function of increasing load until it comes to a stall ( 5 , 7 - 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Thus one of the two motor domains of heterotrimeric kinesin-2 exerts torque as well as axial force as it moves along a MT, which may allow kinesin-2 to control its circumferential position around a MT doublet within the cilium. (elsevier.com)
  • However, due to evolutionarily defined sequence variations in L5, this conformation is not adopted by invertebrate kinesin-5s, explaining their resistance to drug inhibition. (rcsb.org)
  • The neck hinge deletion mutation does not alter motor velocity in vitro but produces a severe uncoordinated phenotype in transgenic C. elegans , suggesting that the folded conformation plays an important role in motor regulation. (rupress.org)
  • Sedimentation velocity experiments also show that addition of a negative charge at Ser-175 favors the autoinhibited conformation of kinesin. (umn.edu)
  • The conformation of the highly extended loop6 insertion characteristic of kinesin-6s is nucleotide-independent and does not contact the MT surface. (elifesciences.org)
  • In fact, most neuronal kinesins have not been definitively localized at the cellular or subcellular level. (jneurosci.org)
  • The vertebrate retina, with its accessibility and simple laminar organization, is suitable for investigating the in vivo functions of neuronal kinesins. (jneurosci.org)
  • Kinesin1 plays a major role in neuronal transport by recruiting many different cargos through its kinesin light chain (KLC). (plos.org)
  • These molecular motors are expected to have fundamental roles in several processes in the brain, including neuronal functioning, development, survival and plasticity, by regulating the anterograde and retrograde transport within the axons, dendrites and synapses of neurons. (bmj.com)
  • Loop L5, the binding site for allosteric inhibitors of kinesin-5, also undergoes a dramatic reorientation when ATP binds, suggesting that it is directly involved in controlling nucleotide binding. (rcsb.org)
  • Antiopi Voultsiadou and Vasiliki Sarli, " Recent Advances of Kinesin Motor Inhibitors and their Clinical Progress", Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials (2011) 6: 271. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The motor domain of various kinesins have been shown to have widely differing sensitivities to ATP analogs and inhibitory compounds such as monastrol, such results lead the way to the identification of therapeutically useful kinesin specific inhibitors. (cytoskeleton.com)
  • Our finding that kinesins can mediate docetaxel resistance might lead to novel therapeutic approaches in which kinesin inhibitors are paired with taxanes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The structural studies have involved cryo electron microscopy which has given a 3D model of the motor domain of kinesin 5 bound to a microtubule, both binding ATP and without ATP present. (blogspot.com)
  • have now used a technique called cryo-electron microscopy - which is uniquely suited to looking at large and complicated samples in three dimensions - to observe how the motor in MKLP2 changes shape as it works. (elifesciences.org)
  • Kinesin [ PMID: 8542443 , PMID: 2142876 , PMID: 14732151 ] is a microtubule-associated force-producing protein that may play a role in organelle transport. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The kinesin motor domain comprises five motifs, namely N1 (P-loop), N2 (Switch I), N3 (Switch II), N4 and L2 (KVD finger) [ PMID: 20587735 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Recent biochemical and biophysical studies of several kinesins make it possible to identify structural elements responsible for the different directionality, suggesting that reversal of the motor movement can be achieved through small, local changes in the protein structure. (mendeley.com)
  • Structural studies of kinesin 1 bound to a microtubule show that a small linker region of each kinesin reacts with the polarity of the track to point and presumably inform the direction of travel. (blogspot.com)
  • There are also advanced methods for the study of kinesins at the structural level. (springer.com)
  • Structural measurements on kinesin. (worldcat.org)
  • Because molecular motors are much, much smaller than our car engine, they need to be studied using sophisticated structural and biophysical methodologies, hence the use of the NSLS X6A beamline at Brookhaven National Laboratory for X-ray diffraction studies," Cochran said. (bnl.gov)
  • In vitro studies reveal that Kif18A possesses a non-motor MT binding site located within its C-proximal 121 residues. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • We find that constructs containing the motor and the conserved short stretches of putative coiled-coil-forming regions are predominantly monomeric in vitro, but that dimerization allows for fast, processive movement and high force production (7 piconewtons). (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • In vitro , individual Cin8 motors could be switched by ionic conditions from rapid (380 nm/s) and processive minus‐end to slow plus‐end motion on single MTs. (bgu.ac.il)
  • The unc-104(e1265) allele carries a point mutation (D1497N) in the PI(4,5)P 2 binding pocket of the PH domain, resulting in greatly reduced preferential binding to PI(4,5)P 2 in vitro and presence of very few motors on pre-synaptic vesicles in vivo . (prolekarniky.cz)
  • These show partial restoration of in vitro preferential PI(4,5)P 2 binding and presence of more motors on pre-synaptic vesicles in vivo . (prolekarniky.cz)
  • The PH domain in this triple mutant lacked in vitro PI(4,5)P 2 binding specificity, and the animals again showed locomotory defects and reduced motor levels. (prolekarniky.cz)
  • Here, we show that UNC-83 also interacts with the kinesin-1 light chain KLC-2, as identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen and confirmed by in vitro assays. (biologists.org)
  • Kinesin motors are presumed to transport various membrane compartments within neurons, but their specific in vivo functions, cargoes, and expression patterns in the brain are unclear. (jneurosci.org)
  • their in vivo functions and cargoes are still unclear, as is the question of whether specific types of neurons express particular kinesins and not others. (jneurosci.org)
  • In Chlamydomonas , kinesin II appears to transport a large protein complex, termed a raft, possibly with protein cargoes attached, from the sites of synthesis in the cell body to the sites of utilization at the tip of the flagellum ( 4 , 10 , 16 ). (asm.org)
  • To address this problem, we must explain the molecular basis and the overall logic for how different kinesin motors are mobilized to carry specific cargoes. (elsevier.com)
  • To his end, we will substantiate our hypothesis that processive kinesin motors, which are primarily soluble in the cell, are in an inhibited ground state until they are bound and activated by their cargoes. (elsevier.com)
  • There is significant evidence that cargoes in-vivo are transported by multiple motors. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new study by Yamada and Goshima (2018) uses the powerful genetics of the moss Physcomitrella patens to define novel functions for these plant kinesins. (plantcell.org)
  • During each mechanochemical cycle, a motor proceeds via several nucleotide states, characterized by different affinities for the 'track' filament and different nucleotide (ATP or ADP) binding kinetics, which is crucial for a motor to efficiently perform its cellular functions. (elsevier.com)
  • Its motor domain contains conserved nucleotide binding motifs, but is divergent in sequence (~35% identity) and size (~40% larger) compared to other kinesins. (elifesciences.org)
  • He added, "The 3D structure we produced allows us to understand where almost every atom in the protein is positioned relative to the bound nucleotide and metal, which provides insight into how the motor works. (bnl.gov)
  • The challenge of controlling directionality is perhaps best illustrated by considering the situation halfway between Figure 1 b and 1 c: If the kinesin is attached by only the turquoise-colored foot, and the nearest binding sites for a pink foot are identical (one to the left, to give Figure 1 a, and one to the right, to give Figure 1 d), how is unidirectional movement accomplished? (docme.ru)
  • Nature has clearly found a solution with kinesin, but to solve the issue of directionality in a synthetic device is probably the most challenging part of [*] Prof. T. R. Kelly Department of Chemistry Merkert Chemistry Center Boston College Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (USA) Fax: (+ 1) 617-552-2705 E-mail: [email protected] [**] We thank the National Institutes of Health (grant GM56262) for support of our work on molecular motors. (docme.ru)
  • Whereas some theories of kinesin function predict a reversal of directionality under high loads, we found that kinesin does not walk backwards under loads of up to 13 pN, probably because of an irreversible transition in the mechanical cycle. (pnas.org)
  • The Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinesin‐5 Cin8 was found, surprisingly, to switch directionality. (bgu.ac.il)
  • Individual capsids simultaneously accommodated motors of opposing directionality as well as several copies of the same motor. (nih.gov)
  • Genetic and localization experiments in Chlamydomonas, Tetrahymena thermophila ( 4 , 22 ), Caenorhabditis elegans ( 19 ), sea urchins ( 5 ), and mice ( 9 , 23 , 24 ) suggest that kinesin II in many cases is essential for the construction and maintenance of motile and nonmotile cilia and flagella ( 11 , 18 ). (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, the footprint of the MKLP2 motor domain on the MT surface is altered compared to motile kinesins, and enhanced by kinesin-6-specific sequences. (elifesciences.org)
  • We have developed a mechanistic model that describes, deterministically, the average motion of kinesin under time and space varying loads. (springer.com)
  • Thus, it appears that nuclear positioning involves a tug-of-war between the ARK and KCH kinesins, an imbalance of which results in deformed nuclear invaginations and nuclear distribution skewed toward the cell periphery (see figure , panels A and B). (plantcell.org)
  • We are studying the molecular properties of individual kinesins to understand how they have evolved and adapted to their particular functions during cell division. (bbk.ac.uk)
  • More than half of the human kinesins are involved in cell division including one called MKLP2. (elifesciences.org)
  • In further essential functioning, kinesin is necessary during cell division for the assembly of spindles, separation of centrosomes and attachment of chromosomes to spindles. (news-medical.net)
  • Further studies postulate that kinesin may play a further role in providing tension inside the cell for kinetochore fibers, as well as disassembling kinetochores and driving the movement of poleward chromosomes via microtubule de-polymerization in anaphase. (news-medical.net)
  • This certainly diminishes cell function, and may be contributing to the outcomes of the anesthesia," said Susan Gilbert , professor and head of the Department of Biological Sciences at Rensselaer and a leading expert on kinesins. (rpi.edu)