Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.
The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.
Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Performance of complex motor acts.
The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Stiff hairs projecting from the face around the nose of most mammals, acting as touch receptors.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
Cerebral cortex region on the medial aspect of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS, immediately caudal to the OLFACTORY CORTEX of the uncus. The entorhinal cortex is the origin of the major neural fiber system afferent to the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the so-called PERFORANT PATHWAY.
Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.
Force exerted when gripping or grasping.
The region of the upper limb between the metacarpus and the FOREARM.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.
Marked impairments in the development of motor coordination such that the impairment interferes with activities of daily living. (From DSM-V)
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
The superficial GRAY MATTER of the CEREBELLUM. It consists of two main layers, the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulosum.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Methods used to label and follow the course of NEURAL PATHWAYS by AXONAL TRANSPORT of injected NEURONAL TRACT-TRACERS.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
Voluntary activity without external compulsion.
The spread of response if stimulation is prolonged. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.
One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The first digit on the radial side of the hand which in humans lies opposite the other four.
The lectin wheatgerm agglutinin conjugated to the enzyme HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE. It is widely used for tracing neural pathways.
A species of the genus MACACA which inhabits Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo. It is one of the most arboreal species of Macaca. The tail is short and untwisted.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A new pattern of perceptual or ideational material derived from past experience.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
A degenerative disorder affecting upper MOTOR NEURONS in the brain and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and SPINAL CORD. Disease onset is usually after the age of 50 and the process is usually fatal within 3 to 6 years. Clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, atrophy, FASCICULATION, hyperreflexia, DYSARTHRIA, dysphagia, and eventual paralysis of respiratory function. Pathologic features include the replacement of motor neurons with fibrous ASTROCYTES and atrophy of anterior SPINAL NERVE ROOTS and corticospinal tracts. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1089-94)
A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.
The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
Acquired and inherited conditions that feature DYSTONIA as a primary manifestation of disease. These disorders are generally divided into generalized dystonias (e.g., dystonia musculorum deformans) and focal dystonias (e.g., writer's cramp). They are also classified by patterns of inheritance and by age of onset.
Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.
Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
EEG phase synchronization of the cortical brain region (CEREBRAL CORTEX).
Region of the body immediately surrounding and including the ELBOW JOINT.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
A monosynaptic reflex elicited by stimulating a nerve, particularly the tibial nerve, with an electric shock.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.
Intraoperative computer-assisted 3D navigation and guidance system generally used in neurosurgery for tracking surgical tools and localize them with respect to the patient's 3D anatomy. The pre-operative diagnostic scan is used as a reference and is transferred onto the operative field during surgery.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
Slow or diminished movement of body musculature. It may be associated with BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; prolonged inactivity due to illness; and other conditions.
Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
A transition zone in the anterior part of the diencephalon interposed between the thalamus, hypothalamus, and tegmentum of the mesencephalon. Components of the subthalamus include the SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, zona incerta, nucleus of field H, and the nucleus of ansa lenticularis. The latter contains the ENTOPEDUNCULAR NUCLEUS.
Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
Freedom from activity.
A mechanism of communicating one's own sensory system information about a task, movement or skill.
A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.
Brain waves with frequency between 15-30 Hz seen on EEG during wakefulness and mental activity.
Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
Sense of movement of a part of the body, such as movement of fingers, elbows, knees, limbs, or weights.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.
Involuntary shock-like contractions, irregular in rhythm and amplitude, followed by relaxation, of a muscle or a group of muscles. This condition may be a feature of some CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; (e.g., EPILEPSY, MYOCLONIC). Nocturnal myoclonus is the principal feature of the NOCTURNAL MYOCLONUS SYNDROME. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp102-3).
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Brain waves characterized by a frequency of 4-7 Hz, usually observed in the temporal lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed and sleepy.
Performance of an act one or more times, with a view to its fixation or improvement; any performance of an act or behavior that leads to learning.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A genus of the family CEBIDAE, subfamily CEBINAE, consisting of four species which are divided into two groups, the tufted and untufted. C. apella has tufts of hair over the eyes and sides of the head. The remaining species are without tufts - C. capucinus, C. nigrivultatus, and C. albifrons. Cebus inhabits the forests of Central and South America.
The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
Characteristics of ELECTRICITY and magnetism such as charged particles and the properties and behavior of charged particles, and other phenomena related to or associated with electromagnetism.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
Instrumentation consisting of hardware and software that communicates with the BRAIN. The hardware component of the interface records brain signals, while the software component analyzes the signals and converts them into a command that controls a device or sends a feedback signal to the brain.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
A benzodiazepine used as an anti-anxiety agent with few side effects. It also has hypnotic, anticonvulsant, and considerable sedative properties and has been proposed as a preanesthetic agent.
The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.
The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.
The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.
A system in which the functions of the man and the machine are interrelated and necessary for the operation of the system.
Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.
The outer covering of the calvaria. It is composed of several layers: SKIN; subcutaneous connective tissue; the occipitofrontal muscle which includes the tendinous galea aponeurotica; loose connective tissue; and the pericranium (the PERIOSTEUM of the SKULL).
The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.
A disorder characterized by recurrent localized paroxysmal discharges of cerebral neurons that give rise to seizures that have motor manifestations. The majority of partial motor seizures originate in the FRONTAL LOBE (see also EPILEPSY, FRONTAL LOBE). Motor seizures may manifest as tonic or clonic movements involving the face, one limb or one side of the body. A variety of more complex patterns of movement, including abnormal posturing of extremities, may also occur.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.
Agents used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the striatum and basal ganglia or are centrally acting muscarinic antagonists.
Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The smallest difference which can be discriminated between two stimuli or one which is barely above the threshold.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.
Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.
A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
An attitude or posture due to the co-contraction of agonists and antagonist muscles in one region of the body. It most often affects the large axial muscles of the trunk and limb girdles. Conditions which feature persistent or recurrent episodes of dystonia as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as DYSTONIC DISORDERS. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p77)
A pinkish-yellow portion of the midbrain situated in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. It receives a large projection from the contralateral half of the CEREBELLUM via the superior cerebellar peduncle and a projection from the ipsilateral MOTOR CORTEX.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
A negative shift of the cortical electrical potentials that increases over time. It is associated with an anticipated response to an expected stimulus and is an electrical event indicative of a state of readiness or expectancy.
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Neurons that fire when an animal acts or observes the same action of another thus coding the motor response. They were originally discovered in the premotor and parietal cortex of the monkey and studies have shown that neurons that have a similar mechanism are present in humans. Mirror neurons are theorized to be related to social cognition.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Neuralgic syndromes which feature chronic or recurrent FACIAL PAIN as the primary manifestation of disease. Disorders of the trigeminal and facial nerves are frequently associated with these conditions.
A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
Substances used to identify the location and to characterize the types of NEURAL PATHWAYS.
A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, (September 2, 1998)).
A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.
A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.
The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.
Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.
A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.
The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.
Partial or total removal, ablation, or destruction of the cerebral cortex; may be chemical. It is not used with animals that do not possess a cortex, i.e., it is used only with mammals.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.

Trans-synaptically induced bursts in regular spiking non-pyramidal cells in deep layers of the cat motor cortex. (1/3174)

In deep layers of the cat motor cortex, we have investigated the properties of neurons displaying trans-synaptically induced bursts. In in vivo experiments, extracellularly recorded burst neurons were separated into two subtypes based on their dependence on stimulation sites, the medullary pyramid or the ventrolateral (VL) thalamic nucleus, from which bursts of 10-20 spikes were triggered. The spike amplitude attenuation and frequency adaptation during a burst were more prominent in pyramid-dependent burst neurons than in VL-dependent burst neurons. Intracellular recordings in in vivo experiments revealed that pyramid-dependent bursts emerged from a long-lasting depolarization, while each spike during a VL-dependent burst was narrow in half-width and was followed by a fast AHP, similar to fast spiking neurons. In in vitro slice experiments, intracellular recordings were obtained from neurons that displayed a burst of attenuated spikes emerging from a long-lasting depolarization, and were also obtained from fast spiking neurons. They were morphologically recovered to be multipolar cells with sparsely spiny dendrites and local axonal networks, suggesting that they are inhibitory interneurons. The multipolar neurons displaying bursts of attenuated spikes may mediate the recurrent inhibition of pyramidal tract cells.  (+info)

Developmental synaptic changes increase the range of integrative capabilities of an identified excitatory neocortical connection. (2/3174)

Excitatory synaptic transmission between pyramidal cells and fast-spiking (FS) interneurons of layer V of the motor cortex was investigated in acute slices by using paired recordings at 30 degrees C combined with morphological analysis. The presynaptic and postsynaptic properties at these identified central synapses were compared between 3- and 5-week-old rats. At these two postnatal developmental stages, unitary EPSCs were mediated by the activation of AMPA receptors with fast kinetics at a holding potential of -72 mV. The amplitude distribution analysis of the EPSCs indicates that, at both stages, pyramidal-FS connections consisted of multiple functional release sites. The apparent quantal size obtained by decreasing the external calcium ([Ca2+]e) varied from 11 to 29 pA near resting membrane potential. In young rats, pairs of presynaptic action potentials elicited unitary synaptic responses that displayed paired-pulse depression at all tested frequencies. In older animals, inputs from different pyramidal cells onto the same FS interneuron had different paired-pulse response characteristics and, at most of these connections, a switch from depression to facilitation occurred when decreasing the rate of presynaptic stimulation. The balance between facilitation and depression endows pyramidal-FS connections from 5-week-old animals with wide integrative capabilities and confers unique functional properties to each synapse.  (+info)

Visuomotor processing as reflected in the directional discharge of premotor and primary motor cortex neurons. (3/3174)

Premotor and primary motor cortical neuronal firing was studied in two monkeys during an instructed delay, pursuit tracking task. The task included a premovement "cue period," during which the target was presented at the periphery of the workspace and moved to the center of the workspace along one of eight directions at one of four constant speeds. The "track period" consisted of a visually guided, error-constrained arm movement during which the animal tracked the target as it moved from the central start box along a line to the opposite periphery of the workspace. Behaviorally, the animals tracked the required directions and speeds with highly constrained trajectories. The eye movements consisted of saccades to the target at the onset of the cue period, followed by smooth pursuit intermingled with saccades throughout the cue and track periods. Initially, an analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for direction and period effects in the firing. Subsequently, a linear regression analysis was used to fit the average firing from the cue and track periods to a cosine model. Directional tuning as determined by a significant fit to the cosine model was a prominent feature of the discharge during both the cue and track periods. However, the directional tuning of the firing of a single cell was not always constant across the cue and track periods. Approximately one-half of the neurons had differences in their preferred directions (PDs) of >45 degrees between cue and track periods. The PD in the cue or track period was not dependent on the target speed. A second linear regression analysis based on calculation of the preferred direction in 20-ms bins (i.e., the PD trajectory) was used to examine on a finer time scale the temporal evolution of this change in directional tuning. The PD trajectories in the cue period were not straight but instead rotated over the workspace to align with the track period PD. Both clockwise and counterclockwise rotations occurred. The PD trajectories were relatively straight during most of the track period. The rotation and eventual convergence of the PD trajectories in the cue period to the preferred direction of the track period may reflect the transformation of visual information into motor commands. The widely dispersed PD trajectories in the cue period would allow targets to be detected over a wide spatial aperture. The convergence of the PD trajectories occurring at the cue-track transition may serve as a "Go" signal to move that was not explicitly supplied by the paradigm. Furthermore, the rotation and convergence of the PD trajectories may provide a mechanism for nonstandard mapping. Standard mapping refers to a sensorimotor transformation in which the stimulus is the object of the reach. Nonstandard mapping is the mapping of an arbitrary stimulus into an arbitrary movement. The shifts in the PD may allow relevant visual information from any direction to be transformed into an appropriate movement direction, providing a neural substrate for nonstandard stimulus-response mappings.  (+info)

The role of ventral medial wall motor areas in bimanual co-ordination. A combined lesion and activation study. (4/3174)

Two patients with midline tumours and disturbances of bimanual co-ordination as the presenting symptoms were examined. Both reported difficulties whenever the two hands had to act together simultaneously, whereas they had no problems with unimanual dexterity or the use of both hands sequentially. In the first patient the lesion was confined to the cingulate gyrus; in the second it also invaded the corpus callosum and the supplementary motor area. Kinematic analysis of bimanual in-phase and anti-phase movements revealed an impairment of both the temporal adjustment between the hands and the independence of movements between the two hands. A functional imaging study in six volunteers, who performed the same bimanual in-phase and anti-phase tasks, showed strong activations of midline areas including the cingulate and ventral supplementary motor area. The prominent activation of the ventral medial wall motor areas in the volunteers in conjunction with the bimanual co-ordination disorder in the two patients with lesions compromising their function is evidence for their pivotal role in bimanual co-ordination.  (+info)

Motor cortical encoding of serial order in a context-recall task. (5/3174)

The neural encoding of serial order was studied in the motor cortex of monkeys performing a context-recall memory scanning task. Up to five visual stimuli were presented successively on a circle (list presentation phase), and then one of them (test stimulus) changed color; the monkeys had to make a single motor response toward the stimulus that immediately followed the test stimulus in the list. Correct performance in this task depends on memorization of the serial order of the stimuli during their presentation. It was found that changes in neural activity during the list presentation phase reflected the serial order of the stimuli; the effect on cell activity of the serial order of stimuli during their presentation was at least as strong as the effect of motor direction on cell activity during the execution of the motor response. This establishes the serial order of stimuli in a motor task as an important determinant of motor cortical activity during stimulus presentation and in the absence of changes in peripheral motor events, in contrast to the commonly held view of the motor cortex as just an "upper motor neuron."  (+info)

Development in the absence of skeletal muscle results in the sequential ablation of motor neurons from the spinal cord to the brain. (6/3174)

Mice lacking the transcription factors Myf-5 and MyoD lack all skeletal muscle and therefore present a unique opportunity to investigate the dependence of nervous system development on myogenesis. Motor neurons arose normally in the spinal cord of mutant embryos and by birth all somatic motor neurons were eliminated by apoptosis. By contrast, interneurons were not affected. Proprioceptive sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia underwent apoptosis. The facial motor nucleus was ablated of motor neurons and contained large numbers of apoptotic bodies. Surprisingly, giant pyramidal neurons were absent in the motor cortex without any corresponding evidence of apoptosis. The epaxial and cutaneous component of dorsal ramus failed to form in the absence of the myotome. Therefore, we conclude that nervous development is more intimately coupled to skeletal myogenesis than has previously been understood.  (+info)

Oligodendroglial vacuolar degeneration in the bilateral motor cortices and astrocytosis in epileptic beagle dogs. (7/3174)

We performed a pathologic examination of the brains of three dogs in an epileptic beagle colony. Histologically, all the cases had diffuse astrocytosis in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia as well as the hippocampus, whereas they showed acute nerve cell change in the hippocampus and some other areas of the cerebrum. One of these animals showed laminar myelin pallor associated with the presence of many vacuoles in the IV to VI layers of the bilateral motor cortices. Most of the vacuoles contained fine granules stained with luxol-fast-blue stain. Ultrastructural examination revealed that some oligodendrocytes and perineuronal satellite oligodendrocytes in the bilateral cerebral motor cortices of the two affected dogs had many vacuoles surrounded by myelin-like lamellar structures. These findings suggest a possibility that astrocytosis in the cerebrum and vacuolar degeneration of oligodendrocytes in the cerebral motor cortex may be, at least in part, related to the occurrence or development of seizures.  (+info)

Cortical visuomotor integration during eye pursuit and eye-finger pursuit. (8/3174)

To elucidate cortical mechanisms of visuomotor integration, we recorded whole-scalp neuromagnetic signals from six normal volunteers while they were viewing a black dot moving linearly at the speed of 4 degrees /sec within a virtual rectangle. The dot changed its direction randomly once every 0.3-2 sec. The subject either (1) fixated a cross in the center of the screen (eye fixation task), (2) followed the moving dot with the eyes (eye pursuit task), or (3) followed the dot with both the eyes and the right index finger (eye-finger pursuit task). Prominent magnetic signals, triggered by the changes of the direction of the dot, were seen in all conditions, but they were clearly enhanced by the tasks and were strongest during the eye-finger pursuit task and over the anterior inferior parietal lobule (aIPL). Source modeling indicated activation of aIPL [Brodmann's area (BA) 40], the posterosuperior parietal lobule (SPL; BA 7), the dorsolateral frontal cortex (DLF; BA 6), and the occipital cortex (BA 18/19). The activation first peaked in the occipital areas, then in the aIPL and DLF, and some 50 msec later in the SPL. Our results suggest that all these areas are involved in visuomotor transformation, with aIPL playing a crucial role in this process.  (+info)

Author: Maudrich, Tom et al.; Genre: Poster; Title: Anodal tDCS of the ipsilateral primary motor cortex prolongs the latency of physiological mirror activity during unilateral isometric contractions of intrinsic hand muscles
It is well known that the motor area of one hemisphere of the brain (motor cortex) controls the movement of the opposite of the body. However, it is not clear whether as the movement becomes more complicated, the motor cortex of both hemispheres of the brain are involved. Currently the role of the motor cortex on the same side of the body (referred to as ipsilateral motor cortex) in hand performance remains controversial. The investigators demonstrated previously in healthy subjects that transiently lowering the activity of ipsilateral motor cortex improved the performance of the opposite hand. What is not know are the mechanisms involved in these changes of behavior. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a device that allows the non- invasive stimulation of the brain. When brain is stimulated repetitively at a very low rate and low intensity for about 15 minutes, the stimulated brain area becomes less active. This effect lasts 10 minutes and is called a transient artificial lesion as it ...
It is well known that the motor area of one hemisphere of the brain (motor cortex) controls the movement of the opposite of the body. However, it is not clear whether as the movement becomes more complicated, the motor cortex of both hemispheres of the brain are involved. Currently the role of the motor cortex on the same side of the body (referred to as ipsilateral motor cortex) in hand performance remains controversial. The investigators demonstrated previously in healthy subjects that transiently lowering the activity of ipsilateral motor cortex improved the performance of the opposite hand. What is not know are the mechanisms involved in these changes of behavior. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a device that allows the non- invasive stimulation of the brain. When brain is stimulated repetitively at a very low rate and low intensity for about 15 minutes, the stimulated brain area becomes less active. This effect lasts 10 minutes and is called a transient artificial lesion as it ...
Perceiving speech engages parts of the motor system involved in speech production. The role of the motor cortex in speech perception has been demonstrated using low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to suppress motor excitability in the lip representation and disrupt discrimination of lip-articulated speech sounds (Möttönen and Watkins, 2009). Another form of rTMS, continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS), can produce longer-lasting disruptive effects following a brief train of stimulation. We investigated the effects of cTBS on motor excitability and discrimination of speech and non-speech sounds. cTBS was applied for 40 s over either the hand or the lip representation of motor cortex. Motor-evoked potentials recorded from the lip and hand muscles in response to single pulses of TMS revealed no measurable change in motor excitability due to cTBS. This failure to replicate previous findings may reflect the unreliability of measurements of motor excitability related to
TY - JOUR. T1 - Motor cortex stimulation and neuropathic pain. T2 - How does motor cortex stimulation affect pain-signaling pathways?. AU - Kim, Jinhyung. AU - Ryu, Sang Baek. AU - Lee, Sung Eun. AU - Shin, Jaewoo. AU - Jung, Hyun Ho. AU - Kim, Sung June. AU - Kim, Kyung Hwan. AU - Chang, Jin Woo. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © AANS, 2016.. PY - 2016/3. Y1 - 2016/3. N2 - Objective Neuropathic pain is often severe. Motor cortex stimulation (MCS) is used for alleviating neuropathic pain, but the mechanism of action is still unclear. This study aimed to understand the mechanism of action of MCS by investigating pain-signaling pathways, with the expectation that MCS would regulate both descending and ascending pathways. Methods Neuropathic pain was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats. Surface electrodes for MCS were implanted in the rats. Tactile allodynia was measured by behavioral testing to determine the effect of MCS. For the pathway study, immunohistochemistry was performed to investigate changes in ...
It is possible to comprehend speech and discriminate languages by viewing a speakers articulatory movements. Transcranial magnetic stimulation studies have shown that viewing speech enhances excitability in the articulatory motor cortex. Here, we investigated the specificity of this enhanced motor excitability in native and non-native speakers of English. Both groups were able to discriminate between speech movements related to a known (i.e., English) and unknown (i.e., Hebrew) language. The motor excitability was higher during observation of a known language than an unknown language or non-speech mouth movements, suggesting that motor resonance is enhanced specifically during observation of mouth movements that convey linguistic information. Surprisingly, however, the excitability was equally high during observation of a static face. Moreover, the motor excitability did not differ between native and non-native speakers. These findings suggest that the articulatory motor cortex processes several kinds
It was not before the development of the figure of eight coil, which induces a more focal electrical field at the junction of the loops than the standard flat circular coil, that made somatotopic mapping of the praecentral gyrus without opening of the skull in awake patients possible.16 The correlation of focused TMS with MR imaging, functional MR imaging, and direct electrical motor cortex stimulation showed, that focused TMS reliably permits the detection of the motor cortex gyral sites of distinct muscles of the arm and leg.17 The stimulation site that allows to elicit muscle action potentials with peak amplitudes indicates the representation of the tested muscle in the primary motor cortex with an inaccuracy of only 0.5 cm.18,19 The threshold for a muscle response is lowest if the stimulation site directly overlies the cortical representation.12,13. MEP after TMS are largely suppressed by most anaesthetics,14,20-22 which might explain that the technique of TMS seldomly has been transferred ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - On the Nature of the Intrinsic Connectivity of the Cat Motor Cortex: Evidence for a Recurrent Neural Network Topology. AU - Capaday, Charles. AU - Ethier, C. AU - Brizzi, L. AU - Sik, A. AU - van Vreeswijk, C. AU - Gingras, D. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - Capaday C, Ethier C, Brizzi L, Sik A, van Vreeswijk C, Gingras D. On the nature of the intrinsic connectivity of the cat motor cortex: evidence for a recurrent neural network topology. J Neurophysiol 102: 2131-2141, 2009. First published July 22, 2009; doi: 10.1152/jn.91319.2008. The details and functional significance of the intrinsic horizontal connections between neurons in the motor cortex (MCx) remain to be clarified. To further elucidate the nature of this intracortical connectivity pattern, experiments were done on the MCx of three cats. The anterograde tracer biocytin was ejected iontophoretically in layers II, III, and V. Some 30-50 neurons within a radius of similar to 250 mu m were thus stained. The functional output of ...
To test an idea that neurons in the motor cortex encodes a future state of the arm, we constructed a plausible model using arm state-related variables to explain neuronal activity, and applied a multiple linear regression analysis. We found that the model fit was fairly good with a mean determination coefficient of 0.57 for analyzed 231 neurons and that neuronal activity preceded the actual movement of the arm with 66 ms on average. Presuming that the brain follows optimal feed back control theory, these findings suggest that the motor cortex may contain a forward model of the arm.
Motor Cortex Neurons Directly Influence Motor Output. Science 6 November 2015: Vol. 350 no. 6261 pp. 667-670. Corticomotoneuronal cells are functionally tuned Darcy M. Griffin, University of Pittsburgh Brain Institute, Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition and Systems Neuroscience Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Department of Neurobiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. [paraphrase]. Corticomotoneuronal (CM) cells in the primary motor cortex (M1) have monosynaptic connections with motoneurons. They are one of the few sources of descending commands that directly influence motor output. We examined the contribution of CM cells to the generation of activity in their target muscles. The preferred direction of many CM cells differed from that of their target muscles. Some CM cells were selectively active when a muscle was used as an agonist. Others were selectively ...
Features of virtually all voluntary movements are represented in the primary motor cortex. The movements can be ongoing, imminent, delayed, or imagined. Our goal was to investigate the dynamics of movement representation in the motor cortex. To do this we trained a fully recurrent neural network to continually output the direction and magnitude of movements required to reach randomly changing targets. Model neurons developed preferred directions and other properties similar to real motor cortical neurons. The key finding is that when the target for a reaching movement changes location, the ensemble representation of the movement changes nearly monotonically, and the individual neurons comprising the representation exhibit strong, nonmonotonic transients. These transients serve as internal recurrent signals that force the ensemble representation to change more rapidly than if it were limited by the time constants of individual neurons. These transients, if they exist, could be observed in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A sliced inverse regression (SIR) decoding the forelimb movement from neuronal spikes in the rat motor cortex. AU - Yang, Shih-Hung. AU - Chen, You Yin. AU - Lin, Sheng Huang. AU - Liao, Lun De. AU - Lu, Henry Horng Shing. AU - Wang, Ching Fu. AU - Chen, Po Chuan. AU - Lo, Yu Chun. AU - Phan, Thanh Dat. AU - Chao, Hsiang Ya. AU - Lin, Ching Hui. AU - Lai, Hsin Yi. AU - Huang, Wei Chen. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - Several neural decoding algorithms have successfully converted brain signals into commands to control a computer cursor and prosthetic devices. A majority of decoding methods, such as population vector algorithms (PVA), optimal linear estimators (OLE), and neural networks (NN), are effective in predicting movement kinematics, including movement direction, speed and trajectory but usually require a large number of neurons to achieve desirable performance. This study proposed a novel decoding algorithm even with signals obtained from a smaller numbers of neurons. We adopted ...
The dysfunction of cholinergic neurons is a typical hallmark in Alzheimers disease (AD). Previous findings demonstrated that high density of cholinergic receptors is found in the thalamus and the cerebellum compared with the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. We aimed at investigating whether activation of the cerebello-thalamo-cortical pathway by means of cerebellar theta burst stimulation (TBS) could modulate central cholinergic functions evaluated in vivo by using the neurophysiological determination of Short-Latency Afferent Inhibition (SLAI). We tested the SLAI circuit before and after administration of cerebellar continuous TBS (cTBS) in 12 AD patients and in 12 healthy age-matched control subjects (HS). We also investigated potential changes of intracortical circuits of the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1) by assessing short intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF). SLAI was decreased in AD patients compared to HS. Cerebellar cTBS partially restored ...
We determined the origin of corticospinal neurons in the frontal lobe. These neurons were labeled by retrograde transport of tracers after injections into either the dorsolateral funiculus at the second cervical segment or the gray matter of the spinal cord throughout the cervical enlargement. Using retrograde transport of tracer from the arm area of the primary motor cortex, we defined the arm representation in each premotor area in another set of animals. We found that corticospinal projections to cervical segments of the spinal cord originate from the primary motor cortex and from the 6 premotor areas in the frontal lobe. These are the same premotor areas that project directly to the arm area of the primary motor cortex. The premotor areas are located in parts of cytoarchitectonic area 6 on the lateral surface and medial wall of the hemisphere, as well as in subfields of areas 23 and 24 in the cingulate sulcus. The total number of corticospinal neurons in the arm representations of the ...
Background and Purpose-Aside from the primary motor cortex, the corticospinal tract (CST) also receives fibers from dorsal and ventral premotor cortices and supplementary motor area, all of which might potentially contribute to motor function after stroke. We sought to quantify the microstructural integrity of CST originating from the hand representations in these 4 motor cortices separately and examined how these values related to hand motor impairment.. ...
article{e2cbad86-6bda-4ec2-8a69-1ef840be27b9, abstract = {,p,Evidence for experience-dependent structural brain change in adult humans is accumulating. However, its time course is not well understood, as intervention studies typically consist of only 2 imaging sessions (before vs. after training).We acquired up to 18 structural magnetic resonance images over a 7-week period while 15 right-handed participants practiced left-hand writing and drawing. After 4 weeks, we observed increases in gray matter of both left and right primary motor cortices relative to a control group; 3 weeks later, these differences were no longer reliable. Time-series analyses revealed that gray matter in the primary motor cortices expanded during the first 4weeks and then partially renormalized, in particular in the right hemisphere, despite continued practice and increasing task proficiency. Similar patterns of expansion followed by partial renormalization are also found in synaptogenesis, cortical map plasticity, and ...
Stroke is the third leading cause of death and survivors suffer motor impairments. The rodent sensorimotor system is similar to the humans, making rodents a good model to study the effects of stroke. Transgenic technology makes the mouse a desirable stroke model, however, there are few behavioural tests to assess behavioural outcome. This thesis evaluates mice subjected to permanent or temporary occlusion focal motor cortex strokes in a skilled reaching task. The first experiment documents changes in skilled movements in mice with a permanent occlusion focal motor cortex stroke. The second experiment is identical but uses a temporary occlusion focal motor cortex stroke. The third experiment compares the two strokes. The results indicate permanent occlusion mice suffer great impairments, and a larger injury, than temporarily occluded animals. The mice with the largest insults were most impaired. Mice make an excellent behavioural and genetic model for studying motor system stroke ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Time in the motor cortex. T2 - motor evoked potentials track foreperiod duration without concurrent movement. AU - Wehrman, Jordan J.. AU - Sowman, Paul. PY - 2019/4/17. Y1 - 2019/4/17. N2 - Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) allows for the monitoring of motor cortex dynamics in preparation for response. Using this method, it has previously been shown that motor evoked potentials (MEPs) are suppressed as a response approaches. In the current article, we applied TMS while participants either relaxed or contracted their first dorsal interosseous muscle. We varied the time at which TMS was applied, however, unlike previous studies, no participant response was required. Using this method, we provide evidence that MEPs systematically decrease with the duration of the trial, while inhibition is not similarly affected. Further, we found some evidence that MEPs are inversely proportional to the duration of the prior trial. These findings have ramifications for other research ...
Bergmann TO, Mölle M, Schmidt M, Lindner C, Marshall L, Born J, Siebner HR (2012). EEGguided TMS reveals rapid shifts in motor cortical excitability during the human sleep slow oscillation. J Neurosci. 32:243-53. Groppa S, Werner-Petroll N, Münchau A, Deuschl G, Ruschworth MF, Siebner HR (2012) Novel dual-site transcranial magnetic stimulation paradigm to prob fast facilitatory inputs from ipsilateral dorsal premotor cortex to primary motor cortex Neuroimage 62 500-9. Hartwigsen G, Bestmann S, Ward NS, Woerbel S, Mastroeni C, Granert O, Siebner HR (2012) Left dorsal premotor cortex and supramarginal gyrus complement each other during rapid action reprogramming. J Neurosci 32:16162-71. van Nuenen BFL, Kuhtz-Buschbeck J, Schulz C, Bloem BR, Siebner HR (2012) Weight-specific anticipatory coding of grip force in human dorsal premotor cortex. J Neurosci 32:5272-83. Hartwigsen G, Saur D, Price CJ, Baumgaertner A, Ulmer S, Siebner HR (2013) Perturbation of left posterior inferior frontal gyrus ...
Stroke is the leading cause of long-lasting disability in the United States and disproportionately affects adults in later life. Age-related decreases in dexterity and neural plasticity may contribute to the poorer prognosis of older stroke survivors, even following rehabilitative physical therapy. The goal of these dissertation studies is to determine how the cortical plasticity underlying motor skill learning, both before and after brain injury, changes in the aged brain. The general hypothesis of these studies is that age-related changes in motor performance and the limited ability to regain function following brain injury are associated with dysfunctional plasticity of the forelimb representation in the motor cortex. This hypothesis was tested in intact C57BL/6 mice by training them on a skilled reaching task and deriving intracortical microstimulation evoked motor cortical representations of the forelimb to determine training-induced changes in the function of the motor cortex. After ...
The foundation of our work has been for many years, the study of the brains representation of reaching and grasping movements. Begun using single electrodes in several brainstem areas, the cerebellum, and the motor cortex, it has evolved in the past decade to the use of multi-electrode arrays, chronically implanted in the primary and premotor cortices. We are interested in the relation of this activity to muscle activation, forces, and movement, how the cortical activity is affected by context, how it changes during learning, and how networks of neurons interact to generate the signals underlying movement.. ...
Unilateral movements are mainly controlled by the contralateral hemisphere, even though the primary motor cortex ipsilateral (M1ipsi) to the moving body side can undergo task-related changes of activity as well. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate whether representations of the wrist flexor (FCR) and extensor (ECR) in M1ipsi would be modulated when unilateral rhythmical wrist movements were executed in isolation or in the context of a simple or difficult hand-foot coordination pattern, and whether this modulation would differ for the left versus right hemisphere. We found that M1ipsi facilitation of the resting ECR and FCR mirrored the activation of the moving wrist such that facilitation was higher when the homologous muscle was activated during the cyclical movement. We showed that this ipsilateral facilitation increased significantly when the wrist movements were performed in the context of demanding hand-foot coordination tasks whereas foot movements alone influenced
A time-consuming preparatory stage is hypothesized to precede voluntary movement. A putative neural substrate of motor preparation occurs when a delay separates instruction and execution cues. When readiness is sustained during the delay, sustained neural activity is observed in motor and premotor areas. Yet whether delay-period activity reflects an essential preparatory stage is controversial. In particular, it has remained ambiguous whether delay-period-like activity appears before non-delayed movements. To overcome that ambiguity, we leveraged a recently developed analysis method that parses population responses into putatively preparatory and movement-related components. We examined cortical responses when reaches were initiated after an imposed delay, at a self-chosen time, or reactively with low latency and no delay. Putatively preparatory events were conserved across all contexts. Our findings support the hypothesis that an appropriate preparatory state is consistently achieved before ...
This study has begun to test the hypothesis that aspects of hand/object shape are represented in the discharge of primary motor cortex (M1) neurons. Two monkeys were trained in a visually cued reach-to-grasp task, in which object properties and grasp forces were systematically varied. Behavioral ana …
Although regions within the medial frontal cortex are known to be active during voluntary movements their precise role remains unclear. Here we combine functional imaging localisation with psychophysics to demonstrate a strikingly selective contralesional impairment in the ability to inhibit ongoing movement plans in a patient with a rare lesion involving the right pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), but sparing the supplementary motor area (SMA). We find no corresponding delay in simple reaction times, and show that the inhibitory deficit is sensitive to the presence of competition between responses. The findings demonstrate that the pre-SMA plays a critical role in exerting control over voluntary actions in situations of response conflict. We discuss these findings in the context of a unified framework of pre-SMA function, and explore the degree to which extant data on this region can be explained by this function alone.
✅ The primary motor cortex is the main motor area of the brain that manages all the actions involved in controlling voluntary movements. It is responsible for t
The ipsilateral motor pathway from the unaffected motor cortex to the affected extremity is one of the motor recovery mechanisms following stroke.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of cognitive demands on postmovement motor cortical deactivation. AU - Wu, Yu Zu. AU - Niddam, David M.. AU - Chen, Chun Chuan. AU - Liao, Kwong Kum. AU - Cheng, Chou Ming. AU - Chen, Li Fen. AU - Lee, Po Lei. AU - Chen, Shyan Shiou. AU - Yeh, Tzu Chen. AU - Hsieh, Jen Chuen. PY - 2006/6/21. Y1 - 2006/6/21. N2 - Postmovement β-rebounds induced by different intermovement intervals were investigated using magnetoencephalography in 14 healthy participants to test the hypothesis that postmovement motor cortical deactivation over the primary motor cortex depends on movement-related cognitive demands. Shorter latency and lower amplitude in postmovement β-rebounds over the contralateral primary motor cortex were noted in the short-movement interval movement (repetitive finger lifting). Greater latency span of postmovement β-rebounds jittering using single-trial analysis in the long-movement interval movement (discrete finger lifting) was observed. The study elucidates that ...
Salameh, Johnny S.; Patel, N.; Zheng, Shaokuan; and Cauley, Keith A., Focal absence of diffusion tensor tracts from primary motor cortex in primary lateral sclerosis (2013). Radiology Publications and Presentations. 279 ...
An essential step toward understanding brain function is to establish a cellular-resolution structural framework upon which multi-scale and multi-modal information spanning molecules, cells, circuits and systems can be integrated and interpreted. Here, through a collaborative effort from the Brain Initiative Cell Census Network (BICCN), we derive a comprehensive cell type-based description of one brain structure - the primary motor cortex upper limb area (MOp-ul) of the mouse. Applying state-of-the-art labeling, imaging, computational, and neuroinformatics tools, we delineated the MOp-ul within the Mouse Brain 3D Common Coordinate Framework (CCF). We defined over two dozen MOp-ul projection neuron (PN) types by their anterograde targets; the spatial distribution of their somata defines 11 cortical sublayers, a significant refinement of the classic notion of cortical laminar organization. We further combine multiple complementary tracing methods (classic tract tracing, cell type-based ...
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The long-term goal of the present project is to understand factors that influence throughput from single neurons in the primary motor cortex to the motoneurons...
Tests at the University of Washington have shown its possible to reroute brain signals to move paralysed limbs. The results could eventually lead to treatment for spinal injury victims. The study works on the idea that, although spinal injuries ... damage the connections which carry nerve signals, victims usually retain both the muscles in the affected limb and the use of the motor cortex, the part of the brain which controls movement. Unlike some parts of the brain, which work on a use it or lose it basis, studies have shown people can retain full control over the motor cortex even after ... (view more) ...
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Skillful control of movement is central to our ability to sense and manipulate the world. A large body of work in nonhuman primates has demonstrated that motor cortex provides flexible, time-varying activity patterns that control the arm during reaching and grasping. Previous studies have suggested that these patterns are generated by strong local recurrent dynamics operating autonomously from inputs during movement execution. An alternative possibility is that motor cortex requires coordination with upstream brain regions throughout the entire movement in order to yield these patterns. Here, we developed an experimental preparation in the mouse to directly test these possibilities using optogenetics and electrophysiology during a skilled reach-to-grab-to-eat task. To validate this preparation, we first established that a specific, time-varying pattern of motor cortical activity was required to produce coordinated movement. Next, in order to disentangle the contribution of local recurrent motor ...
In this paper we outline a grasp planning system designed to augment the cortical control of a prosthetic arm and hand. A key aspect of this system it the ability to combine online user input and autonomous planning to enable the execution of stable grasping tasks. While user input can ultimately be of any modality, the system is being designed to adapt to partial or noisy information obtained from grasp-related activity in the primate motor cortex. First, principal component analysis is applied to the observed kinematics of physiologic grasping to reduce the dimensionality of hand posture space and simplify the planning task for on-line use. The planner then accepts control input in this reduced-dimensionality space, and uses it as a seed for a hand posture optimization algorithm based on simulated annealing. We present two applications of this algorithm, using data collected from both primate and human subjects during grasping, to demonstrate its ability to synthesize stable grasps using partial
Previous fMRI observations have suggested increased task-related activation of the ipsilateral cerebral motor cortex in patients recovering from stroke. This is generally taken to infer an increased output from this area, although the functional relevance of this has been questioned. Here, we use directed EEG coherence to reveal whether there is increased informational flow from the ipsilateral motor cortex following motor stroke, and through correlation with degree of recovery, establish that this pattern of activity is associated with limited functional improvement. Unrecovered (n = 14), recovered (n = 11) patients and healthy subjects (n = 16) performed an isometric grip task with either hand that corresponded to 25% of individual maximum force, while EEG was recorded. For unrecovered stroke patients, most task-related information flow between the sensorimotor cortices in the low beta band of the EEG came from the ipsilateral (undamaged) hemisphere during grip with the affected hand. This was not the
The motor cortex itself is divided into three subareas, each of which has its own topographical representation of muscle groups and specific motor fun
✔️Precentral gyrus contains the primary motor cortex ✔️Premotor cortex lies immediately anterior to Primary motor cortex ( Brodmanns area 6 on the lateral surface of the frontal lobe.) ✔️Premotor cortex is active in response to EXTERNAL visual or somatic sensory cues (e.g. reaching for an object in full view, or identifying an object by touch…
In addition to this temporal difference, movement-type information in the various neurophysiological signals also differed in spatial distribution down the anterior bank of the central sulcus. For LFP amplitude (Fig. 8A) and 1-4 Hz power (Fig. 8B), decoding accuracy curves for the shallow and deep groups rose and fell quite close together, although short epochs of separation were observed in some instances. Moreover, decoding accuracies obtained using either the shallow or the deep group attained values almost as high as those obtained using all available recordings. Movement-type information contained in LFP amplitude and in 1-4 Hz power thus was distributed quite similarly in both shallow and deep locations in the anterior bank of the central sulcus.. In contrast, decoding accuracies obtained with either 100-170 Hz LFP power (Fig. 8C) or spike recordings (Fig. 8D) rapidly became higher for the shallow than the deep groups and remained higher throughout the movement period. In monkey X, ...
The motor cortex is the part of the brain that controls voluntary movement, learning movements, and coordination. The way it works...
The frontal lobes are part of the Cerebral Cortex and are the largest of the brains structures and contain a number of important substructures, including the prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, motor and premotor cortices, and Brocas area. They control the higher cognitive functions (attention and conscious thought, voluntary movement, decision-making, and language); they determine personality and contain the motor cortex that controls movement of the muscles of the body (the motor cortex on the right half of the brain controls the left side of the body and vice versa).. Functions of the Frontal Lobes. ...
Anatomical, stimulation and lesion data implicate vibrissa motor cortex in whisker motor control. Work on motor cortex has focused on movement generation, but correlations between vibrissa motor cortex activity and whisking are weak. The exact role of vibrissa motor cortex remains unknown. We recorded vibrissa motor cortex neurons during various forms of vibrissal touch, which were invariably associated with whisker protraction and movement. Free whisking, object palpation and social touch all resulted in decreased cortical activity. To understand this activity decrease, we performed juxtacellular recordings, nanostimulation and in vivo whole-cell recordings. Social touch resulted in decreased spiking activity, decreased cell excitability and membrane hyperpolarization. Activation of vibrissa motor cortex by intracortical microstimulation elicited whisker retraction, as if to abort vibrissal touch. Various vibrissa motor cortex inactivation protocols resulted in contralateral protraction and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhancement of pinch force in the lower leg by anodal transcranial direct current stimulation. AU - Tanaka, Satoshi. AU - Hanakawa, Takashi. AU - Honda, Manabu. AU - Watanabe, Katsumi. PY - 2009/7/1. Y1 - 2009/7/1. N2 - Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a procedure to polarize human brain. It has been reported that tDCS over the hand motor cortex transiently improves the performance of hand motor tasks. Here, we investigated whether tDCS could also improve leg motor functions. Ten healthy subjects performed pinch force (PF) and reaction time (RT) tasks using the left leg before, during and after anodal, cathodal or sham tDCS over the leg motor cortex. The anodal tDCS transiently enhanced the maximal leg PF but not RT during its application. Neither cathodal nor sham stimulation changed the performance. None of the interventions affected hand PF or RT, showing the spatial specificity of the effect of tDCS. These results indicate that motor performance of not only ...
The cerebellum is crucially important for motor control and adaptation. Recent non-invasive brain stimulation studies have indicated the possibility to alter the excitability of the cerebellum and its projections to the contralateral motor cortex, with behavioral consequences on motor control and adaptation. Here we sought to induce bidirectional spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP)-like modifications of motor cortex (M1) excitability by application of paired associative stimulation (PAS) in healthy subjects. Conditioning stimulation over the right lateral cerebellum (CB) preceded focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the left M1 hand area at an interstimulus interval of 2 ms (CB→M1 PAS2 ms), 6 ms (CB→M1 PAS6 ms) or 10 ms (CB→M1 PAS10 ms) or randomly alternating intervals of 2 and 10 ms (CB→M1 PASControl). Effects of PAS on M1 excitability were assessed by the motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitude, short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), intracortical facilitation (ICF)
BACKGROUND: The relative timing of plasticity-induction protocols is known to be crucial. For example, anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), which increases cortical excitability and typically enhances plasticity, can impair performance if it is applied before a motor learning task. Such timing-dependent effects have been ascribed to homeostatic plasticity, but the specific synaptic site of this interaction remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: We wished to investigate the synaptic substrate, and in particular the role of inhibitory signaling, underpinning the behavioral effects of anodal tDCS in homeostatic interactions between anodal tDCS and motor learning. METHODS: We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate cortical excitability and inhibitory signaling following tDCS and motor learning. Each subject participated in four experimental sessions and data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVAs and post-hoc t-tests as appropriate. RESULTS: As predicted, we found that
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has proven to be a useful tool in investigating the role of the articulatory motor cortex in speech perception. Researchers have used single-pulse and repetitive TMS to stimulate the lip representation in the motor cortex. The excitability of the lip motor representation can be investigated by applying single TMS pulses over this cortical area and recording TMS-induced motor evoked potentials (MEPs) via electrodes attached to the lip muscles (electromyography; EMG). Larger MEPs reflect increased cortical excitability. Studies have shown that excitability increases during listening to speech as well as during viewing speech-related movements. TMS can be used also to disrupt the lip motor representation. A 15-min train of low-frequency sub-threshold repetitive stimulation has been shown to suppress motor excitability for a further 15-20 min. This TMS-induced disruption of the motor lip representation impairs subsequent performance in demanding speech perception
Objectives Recent cellular work in TDP-43 models of ALS convincingly demonstrated the importance of somatostatin interneuronal circuits in mediating corticomotoneuronal hyperexcitability, previously indirectly measured by short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI). Somatostatin interneurons reside in layers 2-3 of the primary motor cortex, with their output projecting directly onto and modulating pyramidal tract neurons. These circuits can be non-invasively interrogated using TMS. As such, the present study developed a novel threshold tracking TMS technique of this excitatory output, termed short interval intracortical facilitation (or SICF), and postulated that it would be increased in ALS patients when compared with healthy controls. ...
As a pertinent addition to the literature, the study highlights several concerns currently facing those in the transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) community. Standing out from the crowdTremblay et al. (2016) investigated modulations of corticospinal excitability within motor cortex as induced by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Having delivered 1 and 2 mA stimulation for durations of 10 or 20 minutes, they assessed the outcomes by means of motor evoked potentials (MEPs). This may be regarded as business as usual by many researchers. Indeed, there is nothing ground-breaking about the paradigm but therein lies its appeal. The article represents a systematic account of tDCS effects resulting from some of the most commonly used protocols, which in an increasingly discordant field was well overdue.tDCS has become increasingly popular as a result of research by Nitsche and Paulus (2001), which documented the existence of sustained after-effects in humans. However, the explosion of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neural population dynamics in human motor cortex during movements in people with ALS. AU - Pandarinath, Chethan. AU - Gilja, Vikash. AU - Blabe, Christine H.. AU - Nuyujukian, Paul. AU - Sarma, Anish A.. AU - Sorice, Brittany L.. AU - Eskandar, Emad N.. AU - Hochberg, Leigh R.. AU - Henderson, Jaimie M.. AU - Shenoy, Krishna V.. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2015, eLife Sciences Publications Ltd. All rights reserved.. PY - 2015/6/23. Y1 - 2015/6/23. N2 - The prevailing view of motor cortex holds that motor cortical neural activity represents muscle or movement parameters. However, recent studies in non-human primates have shown that neural activity does not simply represent muscle or movement parameters; instead, its temporal structure is well-described by a dynamical system where activity during movement evolves lawfully from an initial pre-movement state. In this study, we analyze neuronal ensemble activity in motor cortex in two clinical trial participants diagnosed with ...
We present the long-term course of motor cortex stimulation to relieve a case of severe burning phantom arm pain after brachial plexus injury and amputation. During 16-year follow-up the device continued to provide efficacious analgesia. However, several adjustments of stimulation parameters were required, as were multiple pulse generator changes, antibiotics for infection and one electrode revision due to lead migration. Steady increases in stimulation parameters over time were required. One of the longest follow-ups of motor cortex stimulation is described; the case illustrates challenges and pitfalls in neuromodulation for chronic pain, demonstrating strategies for maintaining analgesia and overcoming tolerance.
Three articles in Medical sciences (Physics): Progressive plastic changes in the hand representation of the primary motor cortex parallel incomplete recovery from unilateral section of the corticospinal tract at cervical level in monkeys  in Brain Research 1017 :172 (2004) ; Reduction of the hand representation in the ipsilateral primary motor cortex following unilateral section of the corticospinal tract at cervical level in monkeys in BMC Neurosciences 6 56 (2005) ; A unilateral Section of the Corticospinal Tract at Cervical Level in Primate Does Not Lead to Measurable Cell Loss in Motor Cortex in Journal of Neurotrauma 6 22 (2005 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The changes in spinal reciprocal inhibition during motor imagery in lower extremity. AU - Nakayama, Hideto. AU - Kawakami, Michiyuki. AU - Takahashi, Yoko. AU - Kondo, Kunitsugu. AU - Shimizu, Eiji. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2021, Fondazione Società Italiana di Neurologia.. PY - 2021. Y1 - 2021. N2 - Motor imagery (MI) is known to improve motor function through enhancement of motor cortex activity. Spinal reciprocal inhibition (RI) is modulated by motor cortex activity, and, therefore, MI may change RI. The aim of this study was to examine the changes in RI during MI involving the lower extremity. Spinal RI was measured from the tibialis anterior (TA) to the soleus (SOL). Eleven healthy adults participated in experiment 1. All participants performed the following three conditions, and RI was assessed during each condition: (1) resting condition; (2) MI of ankle dorsiflexion condition (MI-DF); and (3) MI of ankle plantarflexion condition (MI-PF). Twelve healthy adults ...
Optimal motor performance requires the monitoring of sensorimotor input to ensure that the motor output matches current intentions. The brain is thought to be equipped with a comparator system, which monitors and detects the congruence between intended and actual movement; results of such a comparison can reach awareness. This study explored in healthy participants whether the cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the right premotor cortex (PM) and right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) can disrupt performance monitoring in a skilled motor task. Before and after tDCS, participants underwent a two-digit sequence motor task; in post-tDCS session, single-pulse TMS (sTMS) was applied to the right motor cortex, contralateral to the performing hand, with the aim of interfering with motor execution. Then, participants rated on a five-item questionnaire their performance at the motor task. Cathodal tDCS of PM (but not sham or PPC tDCS) impaired the participants ability to evaluate ...
Although initial studies suggested that the MEP in the rat arises from activation of the spinal pyramidal pathway, subsequent studies have raised doubts concerning the pyramidal origin of the MEP and have proposed that the spread of stimulation current in some of these studies resulted in activation of the extrapyramidal system. [18-24] Ryder and colleagues [24] showed that monopolar stimulation of the sensorimotor cortex activates the extrapyramidal and pyramidal tracts, and bipolar stimulation restricted to the motor cortex using low stimulus current activates only the pyramidal tract. They concluded that early and late latency spinal-evoked responses were considered to be induced by activation of extrapyramidal and pyramidal tracts, respectively. Although we used bipolar stimulation of the motor cortex in the present study, stimulus current was higher than that reported by Ryder and colleagues. [24] Both extrapyramidal and pyramidal tracts must be activated in the present study. However, it ...
Consideration was given to means of increasing the reliability and muscle specificity of paired associative stimulation (PAS) by utilising the phenomenon of crossed-facilitation. Eight participants completed three separate sessions: isometric flexor contractions of the left wrist at 20% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) simultaneously with PAS (20 s intervals; 14 min duration) delivered at the right median nerve and left primary motor cortex (M1); isometric contractions at 20% of MVC; and PAS only (14 min). Eight further participants completed two sessions of longer duration PAS (28 min): either alone or in conjunction with flexion contractions of the left wrist. Thirty motor potentials (MEPs) were evoked in the right flexor (rFCR) and extensor (rECR) carpi radialis muscles by magnetic stimulation of left M1 prior to the interventions, immediately post-intervention, and 10 min post-intervention. Both 14 and 28 min of combined PAS and (left wrist flexion) contractions resulted in reliable ...
In the rodent motor cortex, two distinct forelimb motor areas have been identified: caudal forelimb area (CFA) and rostral forelimb area (RFA). The CFA and RFA are thought to be equivalent to the hand area in primary motor area and premotor/supplementary motor area in primates, respectively. Although anatomical connectivity and firing property of neurons are different between these forelimb motor areas, one of the major difference is responsiveness to the somatosensory input. Sievert et al., (1986) performed single-unit recording in the forelimb areas in awake rats, and showed that almost no neurons in the RFA responded to sensory stimulus (1 / 117 neurons) while 30% of the CFA neurons (n=114) received somatosensory input. In contrast to the rodent, somatosensory stimulus evoked neural firing in both premotor and supplementary motor areas in primate (Wiesendanger et al., 1985). It is still unknown whether the above difference reflects species difference between rats and primates. In the present ...
Previous findings indicate that facilitation of primary motor cortex (PMC) activity using trans-cranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could improve resistance to physical fatigue. However, studies have failed to consistently replicate these results. Using non-focal-tDCS during a fatiguing task, recent work showed no enhancement of corticospinal excitability of the PMC despite a longer endurance time and suggested that contamination in other brain regions involved in motor command may have occurred. In accordance with recent evidence supporting the role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in exercise maintenance, this double-blind sham-controlled crossover study (N = 22) compared the effect of high definition (HD)-tDCS of the PMC or the PFC on endurance time of a sustained contraction task of the elbow flexor ...
Of the estimated 225,000-296,000 people in the United States with a spinal cord injury and/or disorder (SCI&D), more than 25,000 receive care through the VA hea...
Greg Hickok is Professor of Cognitive Sciences at UC Irvine, Editor-in-Chief of Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, and author of The Myth of Mirror Neurons. David Poeppel, after several years as Professor of Linguistics and Biology at the University of Maryland, College Park, is now Professor of Psychology at NYU. Hickok and Poeppel first crossed paths in 1991 at MIT in the McDonnell-Pew Center for Cognitive Neuroscience where Hickok was a post doc, and Poeppel a grad student. Meeting up again a few years later at a Cognitive Neuroscience Society Meeting in San Francisco, they began a collaboration aimed at developing an integrated model of the functional anatomy of language. Research in both the Hickok and Poeppel labs is supported by NIDCD ...
en] In 7 normal subjects we compared the facilitatory effect of isometric contraction of the tibialis anterior on the size of electromyographic responses evoked in this muscle by electric stimuli applied over the cervical column and by electric and magnetic percutaneous stimulation of the motor cortex. No significant difference was found between the degrees of facilitation of the responses to any of the stimuli. Using collision techniques, we also showed that the pyramidal fibers activated by spinal and cortical stimuli are the same. Facilitation induced by isometric contraction (20% maximum) was of similar or greater magnitude than that found with constant vibration of the tendon of the target muscle. In cases where vibration and contraction had equal facilitatory effects, there was no further facilitation of the responses when both conditions were applied together. These findings indicate that the facilitatory effect of isometric contraction of the target muscle essentially originates at a ...
Author(s): Peters, Andrew J; Lee, Jun; Hedrick, Nathan G; ONeil, Keelin; Komiyama, Takaki | Abstract: Motor learning is accompanied by widespread changes within the motor cortex, but it is unknown whether these changes are ultimately funneled through a stable corticospinal output channel or whether the corticospinal output itself is plastic. We investigated the consistency of the relationship between corticospinal neuron activity and movement through in vivo two-photon calcium imaging in mice learning a lever-press task. Corticospinal neurons exhibited heterogeneous correlations with movement, with the majority of movement-modulated neurons decreasing activity during movement. Individual cells changed their activity across days, which led to changed associations between corticospinal activity and movement. Unlike previous observations in layer 2/3, activity accompanying learned movements did not become more consistent with learning; instead, the activity of dissimilar movements became more decorrelated
TY - JOUR. T1 - Low frequency rTMS of the SMA transiently ameliorates peak-dose LID in Parkinsons disease. AU - Brusa, Livia. AU - Versace, Viviana. AU - Koch, Giacomo. AU - Iani, Cesare. AU - Stanzione, Paolo. AU - Bernardi, Giorgio. AU - Centonze, Diego. PY - 2006/9. Y1 - 2006/9. N2 - Objective: To determine whether low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) may modulate l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) in dyskinetic Parkinsons disease (PD) patients. LID is a severe motor complication in advanced PD patients. The neural mechanisms involved in LID are not clear, and it is apparent that both an excessive decrease in internal pallidus firing and a modification and overactivation of cortical motor and premotor areas are involved in its pathogenesis. Methods: Using low frequency 1 Hz repetitive rTMS we investigated whether decrease of excitability of the supplementary motor area (SMA) may result in modification of LID in PD patients. Furthermore we tested whether it was ...
We examined the effect of priming the ipsilateral motor cortex (M1) using anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) prior to a single bout of s
direct: 1° (Motor cortex → Striatum) → 2° (GPi) → 3° (Lenticular fasciculus/Ansa lenticularis → Thalamic fasciculus → VL of Thalamus) → 4° (Thalamocortical radiations → Supplementary motor area) → 5° (Motor cortex) indirect: 1° (Motor cortex → Striatum) → 2° (GPe) → 3° (Subthalamic fasciculus → Subthalamic nucleus) → 4° (Subthalamic fasciculus → GPi) → 5° (Lenticular fasciculus/Ansa lenticularis → Thalamic fasciculus → VL of Thalamus) → 6° (Thalamocortical radiations → Supplementary motor area) → 7° (Motor cortex) nigrostriatal pathway: Pars compacta → Striatum ...
The cerebral cortex is typically described as comprising three parts: the sensory, motor, and association areas. These sensory areas receive and process information from the senses. The senses of vision, audition, and touch are served by the primary visual cortex, primary auditory cortex and primary somatosensory cortex. The cerebellar cortex is the thin gray surface layer of the cerebellum, consisting of an outer molecular layer or stratum moleculare, a single layer of Purkinje cells (the ganglionic layer), and an inner granular layer or stratum granulosum. The cortex is the outer surface of the cerebrum and is composed of gray matter.[1] The motor areas are located in both hemispheres of the cerebral cortex. Two areas of the cortex are commonly referred to as motor: the primary motor cortex, which executes voluntary movements, and; the supplementary motor areas and premotor cortex, which select voluntary movements. In addition, motor functions have been attributed to: the posterior parietal ...
Mirror neurons (MirNs) within ventral premotor cortex (PMv) and primary motor cortex (M1), including pyramidal tract neurons (PTNs) projecting to the spinal cord, modulate their activity during both the execution and observation of motor acts. However, movement is not produced in the latter condition, and mirror responses cannot be explained by lowlevel muscle activity. Relatively reduced activity in M1 during observation may help to suppress movement. Here, we examined the extent to which activity at different stages of action observation reflects grasp representation and suppression of movement across multiple levels of the mirror system in monkeys and humans. We recorded MirNs in M1 and F5 (rostral PMv), including identified PTNs, in two macaque monkeys as they performed, observed, and withheld reach-to-grasp actions. Time-varying population activity was more distinct between execution and observation in M1 than in F5, and M1 activity in the lead-up to the observation of movement onset shared ...
The mammalian neocortex is parcellated into anatomically and functionally distinct areas. The establishment of area-specific neuronal diversity and circuit connectivity enables distinct neocortical regions to control diverse and specialized functional outputs, yet underlying molecular controls remain largely unknown. Here, we identify a central role for the transcriptional regulator Lim-only 4 (Lmo4) in establishing the diversity of neuronal subtypes within rostral mouse motor cortex, where projection neurons have particularly diverse and multi-projection connectivity compared with caudal motor cortex. In rostral motor cortex, we report that both subcerebral projection neurons (SCPN), which send projections away from the cerebrum, and callosal projection neurons (CPN), which send projections to contralateral cortex, express Lmo4, whereas more caudal SCPN and CPN do not. Lmo4-expressing SCPN and CPN populations are comprised of multiple hodologically distinct subtypes. SCPN in rostral layer Va ...
In 2002 Will McWhinney was writing his never finished book Grammers of Engagement.. One of the scientists he was communicating with was Rodney Michael John Cotterill (1933-2007).. Will send me an article of John Cotterill called Cooperation of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, sensory cerebrum and hippocampus: possible implications for cognition, consciousness, intelligence and creativity .. The article contains a systematic exploration of the Sensory-Motor System of all the organisms on earth noting that the underlying behavioral strategy of Earths creatures does not appear to have changed in the four billion or so years since they sprang from their last common ancestor.. In the body the motor output is supported by the underlying anatomy. The various signaling routes appear to converge on the frontal lobes movement-mediating areas, that is to say the primary motor cortex (M1), the premotor and supplementary motor cortices, and the prefrontal cortex (PFC).. The anatomical details show that ...
We developed a multiscale model of primary motor cortex, ranging from molecular, up to cellular, and network levels, containing 1715 compartmental model neurons with multiple ion channels and intracellular molecular dynamics. We wired the model based on electrophysiological data obtained from mouse motor cortex circuit mapping experiments. We used the model to reproduce patterns of heightened activity seen in dystonia by applying independent random variations in parameters to identify pathological parameter sets ...
We developed a multiscale model of primary motor cortex, ranging from molecular, up to cellular, and network levels, containing 1715 compartmental model neurons with multiple ion channels and intracellular molecular dynamics. We wired the model based on electrophysiological data obtained from mouse motor cortex circuit mapping experiments. We used the model to reproduce patterns of heightened activity seen in dystonia by applying independent random variations in parameters to identify pathological parameter sets ...
A study has been made of the neuronal somata in the motor and somatic sensory cortices of the monkey. Pyramidal cells in the motor cortex are very similar to those described previously in sensory and parietal cortical areas. The largest pyramidal cells in area 4, the Betz cells of layer V, are up to 50 μm in transverse diameter. Although basically resembling smaller pyramidal cells, the nucleus of a Betz cell often has a complex indentation and is smaller in relation to the overall size of the cell soma than is that of a smaller pyramid and the cytoplasm of Betz cells contains discrete clumps of endoplasmic reticulum. As with other pyramidal cells, the synapses on to Betz cell somata are all of the symmetrical type. Previous descriptions of stellate cells have been of cells receiving a high density of axosomatic synapses of both the asymmetric and symmetrical type. Cells like this are found in both the motor and somatic sensory cortices and have been termed here large stellate cells. In ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Insula of the old world monkey. III. T2 - Efferent cortical output and comments on function. AU - Mesulam, M. ‐Marsel. AU - Mufson, Elliott J.. PY - 1982/11/20. Y1 - 1982/11/20. N2 - The insula sends neural efferents to cortical areas from which it receives reciprocal afferent projections. A collective consideration of afferents and efferents indicates that the insula has connections with principal sensory areas in the olfactory, gustatory, somesthetic (SI and SII), and auditory AI and AII) modalities. There are additional connections with association areas for the visual (TEm), auditory (supratemporal plane), and somesthetic (posterior parietal cortex) modalities; with parameter cortex (area 6 and perhaps MII); with polymodal association cortex; and with a wide range of paralimbic areas in the orbital, temporopolar, and cingulate areas. The topographic distribution of these connections suggests that the posterodorsal insula is specialized for ...
Trying to learn two different things one after another is challenging. Almost always some of the information from the first topic or task gets lost. Why does this happen? A new study suggests the problem occurs when the two information-sets interact, and demonstrates that disrupting that interaction prevents interference. (The study is a little complicated, but bear with me, or skip to the bottom for my conclusions.). In the study, young adults learned two memory tasks back-to-back: a list of words, and a finger-tapping motor skills task. Immediately afterwards, they received either sham stimulation or real transcranial magnetic stimulation to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or the primary motor cortex. Twelve hours later the same day, they were re-tested.. As expected from previous research, word recall (being the first-learned task) declined in the control condition (sham stimulation), and this decline correlated with initial skill in the motor task. That is, the better they were at the ...
Trying to learn two different things one after another is challenging. Almost always some of the information from the first topic or task gets lost. Why does this happen? A new study suggests the problem occurs when the two information-sets interact, and demonstrates that disrupting that interaction prevents interference. (The study is a little complicated, but bear with me, or skip to the bottom for my conclusions.). In the study, young adults learned two memory tasks back-to-back: a list of words, and a finger-tapping motor skills task. Immediately afterwards, they received either sham stimulation or real transcranial magnetic stimulation to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or the primary motor cortex. Twelve hours later the same day, they were re-tested.. As expected from previous research, word recall (being the first-learned task) declined in the control condition (sham stimulation), and this decline correlated with initial skill in the motor task. That is, the better they were at the ...
in my three weeks of interaction with him he only cracked a smile once. yes, once. as i was being released from the hospital after a series of MRIs, a cage screwed into my head, more MRIs, an awake bioppsy of the right motor cortex of my brain and an extended stay in the iCU, i asked Dr. Keith about the hole in my head. he had told me that the hole they had drilled in my skull would not grow back, it would remain a hole ...
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View Notes - Motor System from NEUROSCIEN 70 at Johns Hopkins. Neural Representation: Examples from the motor system Motor System Motor System Motor System Georgopoulos et al. 19861990 Central light
47. M. Panko, S. Brincat, J. Brumberg, A. Salazar-gomez, J. Roy, S. Overduin, P. Kennedy, E. K. Miller, F. Guenther. Signal stability in chronic invasive brain-machine interfaces. 46. T. H. Sanders, T. Wichmann, M. A. Clements, P. R. Kennedy. Speech phoneme detection and recognition from chronically recorded human motor cortex neurons.. 45. Using cross correlation analysis of recorded units to detect phonemes in human speech cortex. Phil Kennedy, Neural Signals Inc, Duluth, GA, Thomas Wichmann, Emory Univ. Dept Neurology, Atlanta GA, Joe Wright, Neural Signals Inc, Duluth, GA. SFN Abstr. 2010.. 44. Modular Software Architecture for Neural Prosthetic Control. Velliste, M 1., Brumberg J2 and Kennedy P1 Neural Signals Inc., Duluth, GA 3Department of Cognitive and Neural Systems, Boston University, Boston, MA SFN 2009. 43. Human speech cortex [1]: Stability, variability, emotionality and multimodality of units recorded via the Neurotrophic Electrode. PR Kennedy1 D Andreasen1,2 J Brumberg3 J Bartels ...
A neural network model that produces many of the directional and spatial response properties that have been observed for cortical neurons in monkeys moving toward targets in space is described. These include motor cortex units with broad tuning in a single preferred direction, approximately linear variation in activity for different hold positions, and approximate invariance in preferred direction for different starting points in space. Association cortex units in the model are sometimes irregular and reminiscent of neurons observed in visually responsive brain areas such as the posterior parietal cortex. The model is also compatible with population analyses performed on motor cortical neurons. Across network units, the distribution of preferred directions is uniformly distributed in directional space, and the degree of tuning and response magnitude vary from unit to unit. A population code used to predict accurately the direction of arm movements from a large population of coarsely tuned ...
The motor cortex can be divided into three areas: 1. The primary motor cortex is the main contributor to generating neural ... Further, this motor cortex was necessary for the arboreal lifestyles of our primate ancestors. Enhancements to the motor cortex ... The greater the activity in the motor cortex, the stronger the muscle force. Each point in the motor cortex controls a muscle ... New York: Nova Science, 2009 Motor Cortex Wikimedia Commons has media related to Motor cortex. (CS1 maint: multiple names: ...
Ventrally the primary motor cortex is bordered by the insular cortex in the lateral sulcus. The primary motor cortex extends ... The rodent motor cortex, like the monkey motor cortex, may contain subregions that emphasize different common types of actions ... Precentral sulcus Central sulcus The motor tract. Corticospinal tract Motor cortex Cortical homunculus Upper motor neuron ... see the main article on the motor cortex. The human primary motor cortex is located on the anterior wall of the central sulcus ...
The nonprimary motor cortex exerts its motor control at a higher neural level than the primary motor cortex by commanding the ... This is carried out by afferent nerves from the nonprimary motor cortex synapsing at the primary motor cortex. Both divisions ... The thalamic nuclei supplying the supplementary motor cortex are distinct from those enervating the primary motor cortex. ( ... Like the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts begin in the premotor area. Wise SP (1985). "The primate premotor cortex: ...
Neuronal correlates of motor performance and motor learning in the primary motor cortex of monkeys adapting to an external ... Memory cells are found in the primary motor cortex (M1), a region located in the posterior portion of the frontal lobe of the ... For a quick review see Also Motor control: Forcing neurons to change Current Biology, Volume 11, Issue 17, Pages R708-R709 A. ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Somatic motor system). ...
Memory related motor planning activity in posterior parietal cortex of macaque. Experimental Brain Research, 70(1), 216-220. ... The lateral intraparietal cortex (area LIP) is found in the intraparietal sulcus of the brain. This area is most likely ... Platt, Michael L.; Paul W. Glimcher (1999-07-15). "Neural correlates of decision variables in parietal cortex". Nature. 400 ( ... this area of the cortex shows modality-specific working memory. Areas showing specificity for other modalities have been ...
Narayanan NS, Laubach M (December 2006). "Top-down control of motor cortex ensembles by dorsomedial prefrontal cortex". Neuron ... The dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC or DMPFC is a section of the prefrontal cortex in some species' brain anatomy. It ... and top-down motor cortex inhibition The dmPFC also modulates or regulates emotional responses and heart rate in situations of ... the prelimbic cortex, and the infralimbic cortex. Evidence shows that the dmPFC plays several roles in humans. The dmPFC is ...
Levy, BJ; Wagner, AD (2004). "Cognitive control and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex: reflexive reorienting, motor ... The ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) is a section of the prefrontal cortex located on the inferior frontal gyrus, ... the VLPFC activates to stop or override the motor activity in the cortex. The right posterior VLPFC (BA 44) is active during ... Attention versus memory in prefrontal cortex Attentional shift Cognitive control Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex Mesocortical ...
... cortex is an area of the motor cortex lying within the frontal lobe of the brain just anterior to the primary motor cortex. It ... motor cortex. His reasons were largely based on cytoarchitectonics. The primary motor cortex contains cells with giant cell ... Vogt and Vogt in 1919 also suggested that motor cortex was divided into a primary motor cortex (area 4) and a higher-order ... At least three representations of the hand were reported in the motor cortex, one in the primary motor cortex, one in the ...
Spastic cerebral palsy affects the motor cortex of the brain, a specific portion of the cerebral cortex responsible for the ... Knierim, James (2020). "Chapter 3: The motor cortex". Neuroscience online: An electronic textbook of the neurosciences from the ... motor capacity is easier to assess. CP is classified by the types of motor impairment of the limbs or organs, and by ... The Gross Motor Function Classification System-Expanded and Revised and the Manual Ability Classification System are used to ...
Graziano and colleagues used electrical microstimulation on the motor cortex of monkeys. Most previous protocols in the motor ... Instead, the motor cortex may contain a mapping of coordinated, behaviorally useful actions that make up a typical movement ... The method was not commonly used in the study of motor cortex although it had been used in the study of other brain regions. ... Notably he has suggested that the classical map of the body in motor cortex, the homunculus, is not correct and is better ...
... and motor) cortex; M, S=Decussating pathways; R, G: Sensory nerves, motor ganglia. Purkinje cell of the human cerebellum. Golgi ... Ramón y Cajal, Santiago (1899). Comparative study of the sensory areas of the human cortex. Clark University. p. 85. Ramón y ... mediating neurotransmission from motor neurons to smooth muscle cells. In his 1894 Croonian Lecture, Ramón y Cajal suggested ( ... "Comparative study of the sensory areas of the human cortex" schema of the visual map theory (1898). O=Optic chiasm; C=Visual ( ...
and the primary motor cortex. In a study which enrolled patients in a speech therapy program, an increase in AF fibers and ... People with transcortical motor aphasia typically have intact comprehension and awareness of their errors, but poor word ... Aphasia is not caused by damage to the brain that results in motor or sensory deficits, which produces abnormal speech; that is ... Transcortical motor aphasia and transcortical sensory aphasia, which are similar to Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia respectively ...
... affects the motor cortex of the brain, a specific portion of the cerebral cortex responsible for the ... Knierim, James (2020). "Chapter 3: The motor cortex". Neuroscience online: An electronic textbook of the neurosciences from the ... Continuous loss of motor skills likely indicates a condition other than spastic CP such as a genetic muscle disease Some ... The main indicator of spastic cerebral palsy is a delay in reaching motor milestones. The following are some common early signs ...
Cortical areas have specific functions such as movement in the motor cortex, and sight in the visual cortex. Visual cortex is ... The neocortex is separable into different regions of cortex known in the plural as cortices, and include the motor cortex and ... Two areas of the cortex are commonly referred to as motor: Primary motor cortex, which executes voluntary movements[citation ... The motor areas are located in both hemispheres of the cortex. The motor areas are very closely related to the control of ...
The primary motor cortex sends projections to the subcortical motor areas, but also sends a massive projection directly to the ... At a higher level yet is the primary motor cortex, a strip of tissue located at the posterior edge of the frontal lobe. ... "Motor Cortex (Section 3, Chapter 3)". Neuroscience Online. Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy at The University of Texas ... Among the most important secondary areas are the premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. In ...
"Corticocortical inhibition in human motor cortex". The Journal of Physiology. 471 (1): 501-519. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1993. ... His main area of interest is transcranial magnetic stimulation and motor control. Rothwell was educated at the University of ... J. Rothwell: Physiology and Pathophysiology of Human Motor Control". London: University College London. Archived ...
Motor cortex excitability in vascular depression. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 82(3), 248-253. Dufouil, C.; de ...
Motor Cortex Stimulation Pain Medicine 2006; 7:S140. Osenbach, R. Neurostimulation for the Treatment of Intractable Facial Pain ... Stimulation of the primary motor cortex through electrodes placed within the skull but outside the thick meningeal membrane ( ... The level of stimulation is below that for motor stimulation. As compared with spinal stimulation, which is associated with ... and up the spinothalamic tract to the thalamus and then the cortex. Broadly speaking in neuropathic pain, neurons are ...
"Corticocortical inhibition in human motor cortex". The Journal of Physiology. 471 (1): 501-519. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1993. ... His later contributions include the complications of levodopa; the motor control physiology of dystonia, myoclonus, and ...
Sirota M. G., Pavlova G. A., Beloozerova I. N. (2006). "Activity of the motor cortex during scratching". Journal of ... While the scratch reflex can be produced without supraspinal structures, research indicates that neurons in the motor cortex ... In preparations with movement-related sensory inputs, the muscles and the motor neuron outputs to muscles are left intact, ... These signals then modulate the activity of the cerebellar cortex and nuclei, which in turn regulate descending tract neurons ...
"Does intrinsic motivation enhance motor cortex excitability?". Psychophysiology. 53 (11): 1732-1738. doi:10.1111/psyp.12732. ... A classic study at Vauxhall Motors' UK manufacturing plant challenged the assumptions of Maslow and Herzberg were by. ...
Premotor cortex and Supplementary Motor Cortex (Secondary Motor Cortex) (Supplementary motor area) Area 7 - Visuo-Motor ... Insular cortex Area 17 - Primary visual cortex (V1) Area 18 - Secondary visual cortex (V2) Area 19 - Associative visual cortex ... For example, Brodmann areas 3, 1 and 2 are the primary somatosensory cortex; area 4 is the primary motor cortex; area 17 is the ... Dorsal Posterior cingulate cortex Area 32 - Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex Area 33 - Part of anterior cingulate cortex Area ...
Motor learning Motor skill Motor coordination Motor cortex Multisensory integration Proprioception Sensory processing Sensory- ... Motor units within a motor pool are recruited in a stereotypical order, from motor units that produce small amounts of force ... The gradient of motor unit force is correlated with a gradient in motor neuron soma size and motor neuron electrical ... and motor units of multiple types make up a given muscle. Motor units of a given muscle are collectively referred to as a motor ...
Eisen A, Weber M (2001). "The Motor Cortex and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis". Muscle & Nerve. 24 (4): 564-573. doi:10.1002/mus ... Transneuronal degeneration of lower motor neurons is not present after upper motor neuron lesions in stroke patients. In ... If this exocitotoxic process occurs rapidly, it results in a more rapid death of anterior horn cells resulting in lower motor ... Secondary neuronal loss occurs as a result in areas that are strongly connected with the severed tracts or restricted cortex ...
Priori, A., Berardelli, A., Rona, S., Accornero, N., & Manfredi, M. (1998). Polarization of the human motor cortex through the ... "Interhemispheric inhibition of the human motor cortex". The Journal of Physiology. 453 (1): 525-546. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1992. ... "Polarization of the human motor cortex through the scalp". NeuroReport. 9 (10): 2257-2260. doi:10.1097/00001756-199807130-00020 ... In 2021, he conducted a comparative analysis of the impacts occurred on motor symptoms as a result of conventional deep brain ...
Language and the motor system". Cortex. 48 (7): 785-787. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2012.04.010. PMID 22579224. S2CID 33954008. Katja ... ISBN 9781317716907.[page needed] Cappa, Stefano F.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann (July 2012). "Cortex special issue: ...
... the site of the primary motor cortex. An area of cortex that is only slightly granulated is termed dysgranular. Brodmann K ( ... Agranular cortex is a cytoarchitecturally defined term denoting the type of heterotypic cortex that is distinguished by its ... Kapitel in Vergleichende Lokalisationslehre der Grosshirnrinde [Localisation in the cerebral cortex : the principles of ... comparative localisation in the cerebral cortex based on the cytoarchitectonics] (in German). Leipzig: Verlag von Johann ...
Supplementary motor cortex highlighted in green on coronal T1 MRI images Supplementary motor cortex highlighted in green on ... The supplementary motor area (SMA) is a part of the motor cortex of primates that contributes to the control of movement. It is ... For the discovery of the SMA and its relationship to other motor cortical areas, see the main article on the motor cortex. At ... Cortex. 13 (9): 977-986. doi:10.1093/cercor/13.9.977. PMID 12902397. Deecke L, Kornhuber (1978). "supplementary" motor cortex ...
A selection of works is listed below: Timothy Lillicrap (2014). Modelling Motor Cortex using Neural Network Controls Laws. Ph.D ... Timothy Lillicrap (2014). Modelling Motor Cortex using Neural Network Controls Laws. Ph.D. Systems Neuroscience Thesis, Centre ...
... overlapping representation in the supplementary motor area and primary motor area. The somatosensory cortex representation of ... Kleinschmidt A, Nitschke MF, Frahm J (1997). "Somatotopy in the human motor cortex hand area. A high-resolution functional MRI ... Each finger has an orderly somatotopic representation on the cerebral cortex in the somatosensory cortex area 3b, part of area ... Nelson AJ, Chen R (2008). "Digit somatotopy within cortical areas of the postcentral gyrus in humans". Cereb Cortex. 18 (10): ...
The cerebral cortex and striatum are more susceptible than the thalamus, and the thalamus in turn is more sensitive than the ... and a decrease in motor coordination. Potential causes of brain hypoxia are suffocation, carbon monoxide poisoning, severe ... Partial cerebral cortex infarction from global brain ischemia typically manifests as watershed stroke. Use of biomarker is one ...
Furthermore, the null mutant mice display delayed motor skill acquisition in the accelerating rotorod task. In in vivo ... and primary visual cortex (V1) and to the superior colliculus (SC). Ten-m3 facilitates the retinotopic mapping of ipsilateral ... thus critical for motor skill acquisition. Ten-m3 molecule is the first to be reported to regulate connectivity in the ... Cerebral Cortex. 18 (1): 53-66. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhm031. PMID 17478416. Tran H, Sawatari A, Leamey CA (January 2015). "The ...
Spoken words are sequences of motor movements organized around motor targets. The motor cortex is involved in such compensatory ... A motor goal is a neurally planned motor outcome that is used to organize motor control. Motor goals are experimentally shown ... ISBN 978-0-86377-005-0 Ito, T.; Kimura, T.; Gomi, H. (2005). "The motor cortex is involved in reflexive compensatory adjustment ... 1984). Motor programming in language production. In H. Bouma & D. G. Bouwhuis, (Eds), Attention and performance, X. (pp. (17-41 ...
"Rafael Nadal and Kia Motors double up for another five years". Hyundai Motor Group. Archived from the original on 25 May 2015. ... As of the 2010 season[update], Nadal's racquets are painted to resemble the new Babolat AeroPro Drive with Cortex GT racquet in ... Nadal has been sponsored by Kia Motors since 2006. He has appeared in advertising campaigns for Kia as a global ambassador for ...
Thus oxidative damage to mtDNA of motor neurons may be a significant factor in the etiology of ALS. Over the past decade, an ... As demonstrated by the effect of the trophic hormone ACTH on adrenal cortex cells, the expression of the mitochondrial genes ... For example, dietary restriction prevented age-related accumulation of mtDNA damage in the cortex and decreased it in the lung ... "Impairment of mitochondrial DNA repair enzymes against accumulation of 8-oxo-guanine in the spinal motor neurons of amyotrophic ...
It plays an important role in fine motor coordination, specifically in the inhibition of involuntary movement via inhibitory ... and cerebral cortex. It also has activation linked to happiness. Animation. Posterior lobe shown in red. Close up animation. ...
The development of gross and fine motor skills, as well as fluent and receptive language skills are shown to be delayed in ... Characteristic abnormalities include cerebral cortex malformations, vision difficulties, musculoskeletal abnormalities and ... from affected individuals with ZTTK syndrome confirmed the downregulation of genes essential for neuronal migration and cortex ...
He also received an NIH Director's Pioneer Award in 2017 The Macklis lab studies neural development in the cerebral cortex, ... Specific cell types of interest include the following: Corticospinal motor neurons (CSMN), which are lost in spinal cord injury ... and motor neuron diseases (e.g. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, hereditary spastic paraplegias, primary lateral sclerosis) ...
... strengths are inversely related to fMRI-BOLD signal in primary somatosensory and motor cortex". Human Brain Mapping. 30 (4): ...
These structural abnormalities in the motor cortex might explain why the hands, requiring great motor dexterity and therefore ... Kanouchi, T.; Yokota, T.; Isa, F.; Ishii, K.; Senda, M. (June 1997). "Role of the ipsilateral motor cortex in mirror movements ... This claim is supported by evidence of structural abnormalities in the primary motor cortex (M1) in CMM patients. ... "Bilateral motor cortex output with intended unimanual contraction in congenital mirror movements". Neurology. 58 (8): 1290-1293 ...
The corticospinal tract serves as the motor pathway for upper motor neuronal signals coming from the cerebral cortex and from ... The midbrain nuclei include four motor tracts that send upper motor neuronal axons down the spinal cord to lower motor neurons ... and lower motor neuron (LMN). A nerve signal travels down the upper motor neuron until it synapses with the lower motor neuron ... The spinal cord functions primarily in the transmission of nerve signals from the motor cortex to the body, and from the ...
The reverse is true for the left hand, the processing of visual, tactile information, and motor command - all of that takes ... The kinesthetic sensations of the contracting and relaxing ciliary muscles (intraocular muscles) is sent to the visual cortex ... Having the primate type of OC means that motor neurons controlling/executing let us say right hand movement, neurons receiving ... and their associations with vertebrate motor behavior. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 2015 - DOI: 10.3389/fevo.2015.00089 " ...
The processing largely takes place in the visual cortex. Children who are blind miss out on fundamental parts of early and ... braille were already literate in print before vision loss and so instruction focuses more on developing the tactile and motor ...
This area links auditory and motor representations of speech through a pathway that starts in the superior temporal cortex, ... Shadowing speech during a positron emission tomography finds greater stimulation of the temporal cortex and motor-function ... extends to the inferior parietal cortex and ends with the posterior and inferior frontal cortexes, specifically in Broca's area ... The short delay of response occurs as the motor regions of the brain have recorded cues that are related to consonants. The ...
Here they wind up carefully placed in six distinct layers of the cerebral cortex. Throughout the brain, the placement of these ... Epilepsia partialis continua is a rare type of brain disorder in which a patient experiences recurrent motor epileptic seizures ...
... pre-motor or attentional biases?. Cortex, 38(2), 113-136, Nicholls, M. E., Thomas ... doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2013.02.002. PMID 23498655. S2CID 4986724. "Flinders experts join ARC college". Flinders University. " ... Cortex, 49(10), 2914-2926, Nicholls, M. E., Clode, D., Wood, S. J., & Wood, A. G ... Nicholls, M. E. (2013). "The Flinders Handedness survey (FLANDERS): a brief measure of skilled hand preference". Cortex. 49 (10 ...
In extreme cases, permanent impairment of motor or sensory function of the lower limbs may occur. In European children, the ... Images produced using SPECT show numerous areas where an insufficient amount of blood is being delivered to the cortex and ... impaired motor planning, or shaking. In North America, facial palsy is the typical early neuroborreliosis presentation, ...
The basis of this work takes place in the visual cortex of the brain. The visual cortex is located in the occipital lobe of the ... At this age, toddlers are using their newly developed sensory-motor skills quite often and fusing them with their improved ... Brain areas involved in recognition are the inferior temporal cortex, the superior parietal cortex, and the cerebellum. During ... The primary visual cortex is located within the occipital lobe in the back of infant's brain and is responsible for processing ...
Areas of the brain and functions affected: cerebral cortex - thought, perception and language; limbic cortex - emotions and ... Presentation of motor symptoms is variable, but they are usually symmetric, presenting on both sides of the body. Only one of ... Motor symptoms in DLB appear to respond somewhat less to medications used to treat Parkinson's disease, like levodopa, and ... "Motor symptoms". Gomperts 2016, p. 447. Tousi 2017, sec. "Parkinsonism". Hansen et al. 2019, p. 635. Burghaus et al. 2012, pp. ...
Cortical grey matter development peaks at ~12 years of age in the frontal and parietal cortices, and 14-16 years in the ... In terms of grey matter loss, the sensory and motor regions mature first, followed by other cortical regions. Human brain ... most notably in the frontal and parietal cortices. ... temporal lobes (with the superior temporal cortex being last to ...
The cerebral cortex is thinner, and the brain cells are larger and more densely packed and organised in the echidna than the ... Over a decade-long period, around one-third of echidna deaths reported to wildlife authorities in Victoria were due to motor ... The short-beaked echidna has the largest prefrontal cortex relative to body size of any mammal, taking up 50% of the volume in ... The most common threats to the animal in Australia are motor vehicles and habitat destruction, which have led to localized ...
The orbitofrontal cortex being important in the processing of social cues leads researchers to believe that it works with the ... nonfunctional routines or rituals stereotyped and continuous motor mannerisms (e.g. hand or finger twisting, or whole body ... When people focus on things in a social context, the medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus areas of the brain are activated, ... Ross, LoPresti and Schon offer that the orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus are a part of both working memory and long-term ...
... motor area on the medial surface of the frontal lobe and progressing to the primary motor cortex and then to parietal cortex ... the supplementary motor complex on the medial surface of the frontal lobe appears to activate prior to primary motor cortex ... The objection is that the time scales involved in motor control are very short, and motor control involves a great deal of ... with this orderly sequential network activation incorporating premotor association cortices together with primary motor cortex ...
... temporal cortex, parietal cortex (size knowledge), and premotor cortex (manipulation knowledge). Other areas, such as more ... Category-specific impairments might indicate that knowledge may rely differentially upon sensory and motor properties encoded ... and the perirhinal cortex. These latter two make up the "parahippocampal cortices". Amnesics with damage to the hippocampus but ... the left lateral temporal cortex in knowledge of motion, and the parietal cortex in knowledge of size. Neuroimaging studies ...
Cortex. 77: 1-12. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2016.01.002. PMC 5357080. PMID 26889603. Jones, Simon R.; Fernyhough, Charles (2007). " ... A motor signal from the central nervous system (CNS) to the periphery is called an efference, and a copy of this signal is ... When an efferent signal is produced and sent to the motor system, it has been suggested that a copy of the signal, known as an ... He argued that the brain needed to create an efference copy for the motor commands that controlled eye muscles so as to aid the ...
Rizzolatti and Fabbri found that there were specific neurons in the motor cortex of macaque monkeys which were activated when ... Mirror neurons fire when observing an action and performing an action, indicating that these neurons found in the motor cortex ... There is no clear understanding of speech perception currently, but it is generally accepted that the motor cortex is activated ... Fogassi and Ferrari (2014)[citation needed] monitored motor cortex activity in monkeys, specifically area F5 in the Broca's ...
Perceptual and Motor Skills. 70 (2): 531-539. doi:10.2466/pms.1990.70.2.531. PMID 2342851. S2CID 44523478. (Orphaned articles ... "Tilt Aftereffect and Adaptation-Induced Changes in Orientation Tuning in Visual Cortex". Journal of Neurophysiology. 94 (6): ...
This auditory (or tonotopic) map is similar to the homunculus map of the primary motor cortex. Some areas of the superior ... The superior temporal gyrus contains the auditory cortex, which is responsible for processing sounds. Specific sound ... marking the location of the auditory cortex, the cortical region responsible for the sensation of sound; Wernicke's area, ... temporal gyrus has been discovered to be an important structure in the pathway consisting of the amygdala and prefrontal cortex ...
... influences on the primary motor cortex along with immediate post-motor re-afferent activation of the posterior parietal cortex ... primary motor cortex in the intact hemisphere activates in concert with frontal premotor cortex and posterior parietal cortex ... temporal gradient of activity from supplemental motor area through premotor and motor cortices to the posterior parietal cortex ... including the supplementary motor area) prior to activation of the primary motor cortex in the pre-central gyrus on the lateral ...
Prior studies have used TDCS to stimulate regions of the brain that control movement (e.g., the motor cortex) in individuals ... The effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on motor cortex excitability *Towards a personalized approach to stroke ... The effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on motor cortex excitability. Transcranial direct current stimulation ( ... healthy individuals will receive TDCS and we will quantify how excitability in both the left and right motor cortex changes ...
In the motor learning tasks, hooded rats were required to traverse an obstacle course requiring balanc … ... Rats trained on motor-skill learning tasks for 30 days were previously found to have more synapses in the volume of tissue ... Motor-skill learning: changes in synaptic organization of the rat cerebellar cortex Neurobiol Learn Mem. 1996 Sep;66(2):221-9. ... Rats trained on motor-skill learning tasks for 30 days were previously found to have more synapses in the volume of tissue ...
Motor Cortex: Control From Scholarpedia. This article has not yet been published; it may contain inaccuracies, unapproved ... Retrieved from "" ...
The primary motor cortex (M1) is thought to control movements of different body parts from somatotopically organized cortical ... The primary motor cortex (M1) is thought to control movements of different body parts from somatotopically organized cortical ...
... Hicks, Samuel P.; DAmato, Constance J ... Hicks, Samuel P.; DAmato, Constance J. (1975)."Motor-sensory cortex-corticospinal system and developing locomotion and placing ... Normal and abnormal development of movement in the rat were studied by investigating the growth and organization of the motor- ...
... cortex (Aim 1), cortex→thalamus (Aim 2), and cortexcortex (Aim 3) communication in this sensorimotor circuit. Overall, the ... Synaptic Circuit Organization of Motor Cortex. *Shepherd, Gordon M G (PD/PI) ... progress in the previous grant period has helped to elucidate many aspects of the circuit organization of primary motor cortex ... loop would be a major step toward elucidating how tactile information is communicated to and integrated by motor cortex neurons ...
Second, the relative change in spiking was context-dependent and largest when motor output had contextual value. Third, the ... Integration depends on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but how mPFC neurons encode information necessary for appropriate ... Integration depends on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but how mPFC neurons encode information necessary for appropriate ... Narayanan, N. S., and Laubach, M. (2006). Top-down control of motor cortex ensembles by dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Neuron ...
2011) The representation of visual and motor aspects of reaching movements in the human motor cortex. J Neurosci 31:12377-12384 ... What is the nature of representations within the human primary motor cortex (M1)? Early primate studies proposed that M1 is ... 2011) Making mirrors: premotor cortex stimulation enhances mirror and counter-mirror motor facilitation. J Cogn Neurosci 23: ... 2008) Emergence of novel representations in primary motor cortex and premotor neurons during associative learning. J Neurosci ...
... reduced FC between the right and left motor cortices,25 altered FC of the motor cortex with other motor regions (superior ... due to the degeneration of upper motor neurons (UMNs) in the primary motor cortex (PMC) and lower motor neurons in the ... and adjacent motor (T=4.60) regions. In the primary motor cortex, N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, a neuronal marker) ratios and ... 26 and altered FC of the motor cortex with extramotor regions (superior frontal and temporal cortices)14 have been reported. ...
The present results support a specific involvement of hand motor circuits in counting because no CS changes were found in arm ... This finding suggests that hand motor circuits are involved whenever items have to be put in correspondence with the elements ... However, the contribution of hand motor areas is not exclusively related to number processing because an increase in CS ... However, increased activity in hand motor circuits during counting may unveil unspecific processes, such as shifting attention ...
... carrying out dexterous movements like grasping requires patterned input into the motor cortex throughout the whole movement. ... But not the motor cortex, it turns out.. "What we show is the motor cortex is fundamentally different from that," says ... and sending it to your motor cortex. Then, the motor cortex plans the upcoming movement and tells your muscles to make it ... He and his colleagues trained mice to reach for and grasp a food pellet, a behavior that depends on the motor cortex. In some ...
It is now known that the motor cortex of rodents and primates are densely innervated by DA, but its detailed circuitry and role ... Numerous pyramidal-shaped neuronal somata in layers II-VI of rodent motor cortex were immunoreactive for the D1a, D2, and D5 ... The findings indicate that DA may have profound effects on motor cortex activity, through its influence on PTNs. ... or D5 receptors in motor cortex neurons. DARPP-32 was co-localized with D1a and D2 receptors in pyramidal-shaped neurons in ...
The role of the primary motor cortex in motor learning has been well established over the last few decades, with converging ... An investigation into the role of the motor cortex during early motor learning in adults with Developmental Coordination ... While the motor task was able to successfully produce changes in motor performance; neither of the latter two experiments found ... whether the aforementioned variability in the changes occurring in the motor cortex during the early stages of motor learning ...
By means of linear and nonlinear statistics, we analyzed the synchrony between the motor cortex and the PPN and the delay in ... Here, we recorded local field potentials in the motor cortex and the PPN in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rat model ... We observed the presence of coherent activity between the cortex and the PPN in low (5-15 Hz)- and high (25-35 Hz)-frequency ... In each case, the cortex led the PPN. Dopamine depletion strengthened the interaction of the low-frequency activities by ...
There is growing interest in recording neural activity in the motor cortex of the brain on a long-term basis. In cases of ... A Wireless Integrated Microsystem for Single-Unit Recording in Primate Motor Cortex. Professor Ken Wise and Dr. Amir Sodagar ... the signals needed to control movement may still be present in the cortex but are no longer being transmitted to the peripheral ...
Thalamus-driven functional populations in frontal cortex activity supports decision-making. Yang et al (2022) Nat Neurosci. ... You are here: Home → Data Sets → Motor cortex → alm-8 (anterior lateral motor cortex 8) ... anterior lateral motor cortex 8) Data and simulations related to: Thalamus-driven functional populations in frontal cortex ...
Motor and emotional behaviours elicited by electrical stimulation of the human cingulate cortex med. app. By: Caruana F, ...
Post-lesion administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 does not impair motor recovery after unilateral sensorimotor ... If re-learning is involved in motor recovery after cortex injury, the present results suggest that the process is not ... Because NMDA receptor antagonists impede certain kinds of learning, and because motor recovery after sensorimotor cortex injury ... In a second experiment, rats were given 3 doses of MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg) at 24 h intervals beginning 24 h after cortex injury. In ...
Pulse width modulation-based TMS: Primary motor cortex responses compared to conventional monophasic stimuli. ... Pulse width modulation-based TMS: Primary motor cortex responses compared to conventional monophasic stimuli. ...
Extending the limits of force endurance: stimulation of the motor or the frontal cortex?. In: Cortex. 2017 ; Vol. 97. pp. 96- ... keywords = "exercise, endurance, prefrontal cortex, motor cortex, tDCS, NIRS",. author = "Remi Radel and Gavin Tempest and ... stimulation of the motor or the frontal cortex? Cortex, 97, 96-108. ... stimulation of the motor or the frontal cortex?, Cortex, vol. 97, pp. 96-108. ...
... motor-evoked potentials, MEPs) and muscle twitches (TMS-evoked movements). Participants may also report various hand sensations ... is applied over the primary motor cortex (M1) with sufficient intensity, it evokes muscular contractions ( ...
Speech Perception Does Not Rely on Motor Cortex: Response to DAusilio et al. ... The motor theory was an interesting idea, it just happens to be wrong -- still. In a subsequent post, Ill pick apart DAusilio ... Essentially all Ive done here is reiterate why the motor theory of speech perception was abandoned by speech scientists ... DAusilio, A., Pulvermüller, F., Salmas, P., Bufalari, I., Begliomini, C., & Fadiga, L. (2009). The Motor Somatotopy of Speech ...
... pre-supplementary and premotor cortex during externally and internally instructed sequential movements by U. Halsband et al. ... Neuronal activity in the primate supplementary motor area and the primary motor cortex in relation to spatio-temporal bimanual ... A motor area rostral to the supplementary motor area (presupplementary motor area) in the monkey: neuronal activity during a ... FMRI Studies of the Supplementary Motor Area and the Premotor Cortex. *S. V. Oostende, P. Hecke, S. Sunaert, B. Nuttin, G. ...
Frontal-Motor Cortex Disconnection Syndrome, Methylphenidate How to Cite: Millichap, J.G., 1997. ADHD and Frontal-Motor Cortex ... ADHD and Frontal-Motor Cortex Disconnection. Author: J Gordon Millichap Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, US ... A frontal-motor cortex disconnection syndrome, or "lazy" frontal lobe, in ADHD is hypothesized on the basis of cerebral blood ... Millichap, J G. "ADHD and Frontal-Motor Cortex Disconnection". Pediatric Neurology Briefs, vol. 11, no. 7, 1997, pp. 49-50. DOI ...
... cortex cerebri; Cortex cerebri; мозочна обвивка; hjernebark; cerebral cortex; cerebral korteks; hjernebork; cerebral cortex; ... cerebral cortex; قشر مغز; 大脑皮质; storhjernebark; Cortex cerebral; 大脳皮質; mozgová kôra; 대뇌 피질; קליפת המוח; Cortex cerebri; بئیین ... Cortex serebral; توێکڵی مێشک; cerebral cortex; قشرة مخية; Εγκεφαλικός φλοιός; cerebral cortex; parte più esterna dellencefalo ... cerebral cortex outer layer of the vertebrate cerebrum, part of which is the forebrain ...
In the rearmost portion of each frontal lobe is a motor cortex, which helps plan, control, and execute voluntary movement, or ... The forward parts of these lobes, just behind the motor areas, is the somatosensory cortex. These areas receive information ... The Cerebral Cortex. Coating the surface of the cerebrum and the cerebellum is a vital layer of tissue the thickness of a stack ... The cortex is gray because nerves in this area lack the insulation that makes most other parts of the brain appear to be white ...
This video gives more information on the visual cortex. ... The visual cortex is the part that receives messages from the ... Motor cortex stimulation for Chronic pain .... 05:07 , 6088 views Watch VIDEO. 1765 views ... Visual Cortex The visual cortex is the part that receives messages from the optic nerve. This video gives more information on ...
  • Integration depends on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but how mPFC neurons encode information necessary for appropriate behavioral adaptation is poorly understood. (
  • In accordance with recent evidence supporting the role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in exercise maintenance, this double-blind sham-controlled crossover study (N = 22) compared the effect of high definition (HD)-tDCS of the PMC or the PFC on endurance time of a sustained contraction task of the elbow flexor. (
  • Frontal RF and whisker representations in the premotor/prefrontal cortex (PMPF) are little investigated. (
  • In recent years TBS has been increasingly used as a neuroscientific investigative tool and therapeutic intervention for psychiatric disorders, in which the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is often the primary target. (
  • Indeed, iTBS delivered to the prefrontal cortex produces non-inferior antidepressant effects compared to standard rTMS treatments 11 . (
  • Here we provide a rich EEG dataset containing both resting-state recordings and concurrent single-pulse TMS-EEG to explore changes in cortical activity induced by iTBS and cTBS applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in healthy subjects. (
  • Experiment 2 examined whether, when using different types of recognition memory information, the hippocampus interacts with either the perirhinal or prefrontal cortex. (
  • Thus, groups of rats were prepared with a unilateral cytotoxic lesion in the hippocampus combined with a lesion in either the contralateral perirhinal or prefrontal cortex. (
  • and second, that the hippocampus functionally interacts with either the perirhinal or medial prefrontal cortex during these recognition memory tasks. (
  • To test the first hypothesis, animals with bilateral lesions in the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, and perirhinal cortex were compared in a battery of recognition memory tasks. (
  • The second hypothesis was tested by disconnecting the hippocampus from either the perirhinal or medial prefrontal cortex in the same or opposite hemisphere. (
  • Next, we found significant effects on specific stimulation protocols (e.g., offline measures, P = 0.002), as well as specific tasks and electrode montages (e.g., verbal fluency measures and left prefrontal cortex, P = 0.035). (
  • The basal ganglia, particularly the caudate nucleus and the inferior prefrontal cortex, are implicated in the pathogenesis of TS. (
  • Functional neuroimaging studies implicate abnormalities within dopaminergic systems within the striatum and prefrontal cortex. (
  • Upregulation of the dopamine receptors has led some investigators to propose another hypothesis about increased sensitivity to dopamine within the striatum, prefrontal cortex, and motor region, leading to the phenotype of tics and other behaviors associated with TS. (
  • A failure in the task (visual grasp) may reflect dysfunction in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or a lesion interrupting the pathway between this frontal region and the superior colliculus. (
  • As expected, the prefrontal cortex, which issues high-level commands to other parts of the brain, was crucial. (
  • The frequency of the stimulation affected the motor cortex output, with fast pulses disrupting mice's grasping skills. (
  • Motor and emotional behaviours elicited by electrical stimulation of the human cingulate cortex med. (
  • Extending the limits of force endurance: stimulation of the motor or the frontal cortex? (
  • Previous findings indicate that facilitation of primary motor cortex (PMC) activity using trans-cranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could improve resistance to physical fatigue. (
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Extending the limits of force endurance: stimulation of the motor or the frontal cortex? (
  • Hand perceptions induced by single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation over the primary motor cortex. (
  • Single- or repetitive-pulse stimulation of the brain causes the spinal cord and peripheral muscles to produce neuroelectrical signals known as motor evoked potentials (MEPs). (
  • [ 2 ] From 1950-1970, several other studies of electrical stimulation of the exposed motor cortex (ie, during neurosurgical procedures) were performed in animals and humans to study the pyramidal pathway and other corticospinal connections. (
  • Motor cortex stimulation (MCS) is a promising clinical technique for treatment of chronic pain. (
  • The MEPs and phosphenes were induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation to the primary motor cortex and V1, respectively. (
  • In the current study, we determined the potential of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation delivered over the primary motor cortex to promote the acquisition of sequential movement in a large sample of patients with idiopathic PD and matched controls. (
  • Both groups received anodal and sham transcranial direct current stimulation delivered over the primary motor cortex during the acquisition of a novel sequence movement in the Serial Reaction Time task. (
  • Compared to sham stimulation, anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of the primary motor cortex did not significantly improve motor sequence learning in patients, nor controls. (
  • Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation delivered over the primary motor cortex did not exert a positive effect on the acquisition of sequential movement in patients with Parkinson's disease. (
  • Transcranial ultrasound stimulation modulates the interhemispheric balance of excitability in human motor cortex. (
  • Excitability changes induced in the human motor cortex by weak transcranial direct current stimulation. (
  • High frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) suppresses parkinsonian motor symptoms and modulates cortical activity. (
  • Cortical evoked potentials (cEP) generated by STN DBS reflect the response of cortex to subcortical stimulation, and the goal was to determine the neural origin of cEP using a two-step approach. (
  • Concerning invasive stimulation techniques, occipital nerve stimulation (ONS), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), epidural motor cortex stimulation (EMCS), spinal cord stimulation (SCS) and deep brain stimulation (DBS) are presented. (
  • But electrode-based neural stimulation devices, especially those that target the cortex, have several significant limitations. (
  • The ability to avoid activation of passing nerve fibers prevents the spread of activation that typically occurs with electrodes, which can lead, for example, to the blurring of a visual image generated in response to stimulation of the visual cortex. (
  • Stimulation of coils inserted into the portion of the motor cortex that controls the animals' whiskers resulted in whisker motion, with the direction depending on the frequency of the signal. (
  • Our next steps will be to continue improving coil design to reduce power and enhance selectivity, to confirm that the enhanced effectiveness of these coils will persist over time, and to determine whether stimulation of the visual cortex does elicit a visual signal," says Fried, who is an associate professor of Neurosurgery at Harvard Medical School. (
  • Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) applied in the periphery can elicit strong sensory input that could modulate the excitability of contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex. (
  • Greater gamma-band coherence after repetitive electrical stimulation might indicate enhanced cortical activity level and sensorimotor integration during voluntary motor task. (
  • For the secondary outcome, it is expected to find a better motor evoked potential response in individuals with multiple sclerosis after the application of the high-frequency protocol with transcranial magnetic stimulation. (
  • a weak recommendation for use and proposal as a third-line treatment for high-frequency rTMS of the motor cortex, spinal cord stimulation (failed back surgery syndrome and painful diabetic polyneuropathy) and strong opioids (in the absence of an alternative). (
  • Our progress in the previous grant period has helped to elucidate many aspects of the circuit organization of primary motor cortex (M1) neurons in the forelimb area of mouse neocortex. (
  • However, a fundamental question remains poorly understood: how are forelimb M1 neurons integrated into functional synaptic circuits with the cells and circuits of primary somatosensory cortex (S1)? (
  • Our working hypothesis is that the forelimb S1-M1 circuit is configured by the cell-type-specific connections of its cortical and thalamic projection neurons to support feedforward somatosensory→motor signaling along complex yet highly specific polysynaptic pathways, leading to excitation of corticospinal neurons. (
  • Defining the cellular components of this transcortical loop would be a major step toward elucidating how tactile information is communicated to and integrated by motor cortex neurons to influence cortical output to the spinal cord, in the service of fluid volitional forelimb movements. (
  • In another experiment, they stimulated neurons carrying signals from the thalamus to the cortex with different patterns of incoming signals. (
  • Numerous pyramidal-shaped neuronal somata in layers II-VI of rodent motor cortex were immunoreactive for the D1a, D2, and D5 receptors, and sparse nonpyramidal-shaped neurons in layers V-VI were immunoreactive for the D1a receptor. (
  • Double label immunohistochemistry was used to determine if DARPP-32, a phosphoprotein that acts as part of the D1 receptor signal transduction cascade, co-localized D1a, D2, or D5 receptors in motor cortex neurons. (
  • Tract tracing and immunohistochemical techniques were used to determine if pyramidal tract neurons PTNs, output neurons from the motor cortex to the spinal cord, possess D1a, D2, or D5 receptors. (
  • If you read the original article in the context of the authors' (specifically Fadiga's and Pulvermuller's) work on mirror neurons and embodied semantics it is clear that they are arguing for a motor theory of speech perception. (
  • It is rich in pyramidal neurons, which provide the anatomical substrates for the motor output function of area 4. (
  • However, the reality is that this phenomenon is the result of neurons in the somatosensory cortex for that limb which continue to fire and thus create the sensation of a false reality. (
  • But it had been believed that magnetic coils strong enough to activate neurons would be too large to be implanted within the brain's cortex. (
  • One of the better ways of understanding the impact of a handedness reversal is to view a proportional map of the neurons dedicated to motor control and sensory cortex in the human brain. (
  • To this end, in vivo labeling and ex vivo optogenetic-electrophysiological methods will be used to systematically delineate the cell-type-specific connections mediating thalamus→cortex (Aim 1), cortex→thalamus (Aim 2), and cortex→cortex (Aim 3) communication in this sensorimotor circuit. (
  • Such findings indicate that M1 might be involved in sensorimotor transformations that translate muscle-extrinsic parameters into an intrinsic coordinate framework to guide movement, as well as in sensorimotor learning that creates new associations between a cue and a motor command. (
  • Post-lesion administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 does not impair motor recovery after unilateral sensorimotor cortex injury in the rat. (
  • Because NMDA receptor antagonists impede certain kinds of learning, and because motor recovery after sensorimotor cortex injury in the rat is dependent on post-lesion experience, we hypothesized that treatment with MK-801 after focal brain injury would be detrimental. (
  • Groups of rats were first trained to traverse a narrow elevated beam and then subjected a right sensorimotor cortex suction-ablation lesion. (
  • Functional maps resulting from comparison of the motor tasks with REST reveal activation in primary sensorimotor cortex, medial and lateral premotor areas, cingulate cortex, and parietal cortex, reflecting the functional heterogeneity of these areas suggested by previous studies. (
  • Fibers of the corticospinal tract and corticobulbar tract originate from the sensorimotor cortex around the central sulcus. (
  • An understanding of such simple motor behaviors should follow from a broader theory of sensorimotor control, while being consistent with the anatomical structure of the underlying system. (
  • A. A surface map of the rat sensorimotor cortex. (
  • The researchers found the rate of sleep spindles in the infant subjects increased beginning around three months to seven months of age and were concentrated along the sensorimotor strip, where the cortex processes sensory and motor information. (
  • There is usually preserved metabolism in the sensorimotor cortices, basal ganglia, occipital lobes, and cerebellum. (
  • The visual cortex is the part that receives messages from the optic nerve. (
  • This video gives more information on the visual cortex. (
  • S2 secondary somatosensory cortex, AGm houses the head and whisker representations while AGl houses trunk and limb representations (indicated by arrows), PV, PL, PM posterior ventral, lateral and medial cortex, Aud auditory cortex, Vis visual cortex. (
  • In the present study, we investigated excitability in the corticospinal tract and primary visual cortex (V1) during kinesthetic and visual motor imagery. (
  • DeltaCBF=63%+/-12%, DeltaCBV=17%+/-7%, and DeltaCMRO(2)=13%+/-11% in the visual cortex, and DeltaCBF=46%+/-11%, DeltaCBV=8%+/-3%, and DeltaCMRO(2)=12%+/-13% in the motor cortex. (
  • Following the visual and motor tasks, the BOLD signal became more negative (P=0.003) and persisted longer (P=0.006) in the visual cortex compared with the motor cortex, whereas CBV and CBF returned to baseline earlier and equivalently. (
  • In DLBD, hypometabolism involves the occipital (mainly primary visual cortex) lobes unilaterally or bilaterally ( Fig. 2 ). (
  • The primary motor cortex (M1) is thought to control movements of different body parts from somatotopically organized cortical territories. (
  • neither of the latter two experiments found motor cortical changes associated with practice of the task. (
  • We observed the presence of coherent activity between the cortex and the PPN in low (5-15 Hz)- and high (25-35 Hz)-frequency bands during episodes of cortical activation. (
  • The results suggest that both the SMA and M1 may contribute to the control of sequential bimanual coordinated movements, but the contribution of other cortical and subcortical areas such as cingulate motor cortex and basal ganglia remains to be investigated. (
  • The main motor cortical area is located on the anterior wall of the central sulcus and the adjacent portion of the precentral gyrus. (
  • Furthermore, multiple neural elements are present in the motor cortex such as cell bodies, dendrites and axons which are parallel or perpendicular to the cortical layers. (
  • These results imply that modulation of cortical excitability during kinesthetic and visual motor imagery is task dependent. (
  • Our finding could reflect something important about the cortical contributions to motor control," Blumberg says. (
  • Antidromic activation of the hyperdirect pathway and subsequent intracortical and cortico-thalamo-cortical synaptic interactions were sufficient to generate cEP by STN DBS, and orthodromic activation through basal ganglia-thalamus-cortex pathways was not required. (
  • The neurological concept involving the frontal lobe in the mechanism of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is reemphasized by neurologists and geneticists at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. A frontal-motor cortex disconnection syndrome, or "lazy" frontal lobe, in ADHD is hypothesized on the basis of cerebral blood flow and EEG studies, and MRI findings. (
  • Most of the actual information processing in the brain takes place in the cerebral cortex. (
  • Cerebral blood flow, blood volume, and oxygen metabolism dynamics in human visual and motor cortex as measured by whole-brain multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging. (
  • CP affects the cerebral motor cortex. (
  • As stated earlier, the rubrospinal tract is more important in non-primate species: in primates , because of the well-developed cerebral cortex, the corticospinal tract has taken over the role of the rubrospinal. (
  • Planning and programming are the functions of the precortical centers (cerebral cortex. (
  • This helps in monitoring the acoustic nerve , brainstem and cerebral cortex. (
  • Cerebral palsy (CP) is a general term that includes very different clinical manifestations that have in common motor difficulty due to a brain injury. (
  • [9] The majority of red nucleus axons do not project to the spinal cord but, via its parvocellular part, relay information from the motor cortex to the cerebellum through the inferior olivary complex , an important relay center in the medulla . (
  • The red nucleus receives many inputs from the cerebellum ( interposed nucleus and the lateral cerebellar nucleus) of the opposite side and an input from the motor cortex of the same side. (
  • Best answer: What is the difference between cerebellum and motor cortex? (
  • Does It Exist a Link between Performance and Parietal Cortex Activity in Surgical Tasks? (
  • The present data show that orienting attention and motor attention processes are temporally, functionally, and spatially separated in the posterior parietal cortex, and both contribute to prime motor response during spatial conflict. (
  • The primary somatosensory cortex (S1) and tactile, partly multimodal, association areas are depicted in light red. (
  • This information comes in to the primary somatosensory cortex- a strip of the neocortex that runs roughly from the top of your ear to the apex of your skull on both sides. (
  • Directly in front of the primary somatosensory cortex is the primary motor cortex- it gets the information about where your body is in space from the primary somatosensory cortex and then uses that information to decide which motor pattern to use. (
  • ACd dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, AGm medial agranular cortex, AGl lateral agranular cortex. (
  • There is preserved metabolism in the posterior cingulate cortex (cingulate island sign) ( 13 ). (
  • [ 3 , 4 ] They designed a high-voltage transcranial electrical stimulator that excited the motor cortex using cutaneous electrodes, which were placed over the scalp. (
  • The overall aim is to determine the cellular basis for key long-range excitatory circuit connections that mediate communication between forelimb S1 and M1, and between these areas and somatosensory and motor nuclei in the thalamus, particularly the ventral posterior, posterior, and ventrolateral nuclei. (
  • In some animals, they turned off the thalamus, a switchboard in the brain that directs sensory information and other kinds of feedback to and from the cortex. (
  • The signals entering the motor cortex via the thalamus come from all over, and it's not yet clear which ones are most important for directing movement, says Adam Hantman, a group leader at Janelia and the paper's senior author. (
  • Inputs to the thalamus include sensory information about the position of the arm, visual information, motor commands from other brain regions, and predictions about the upcoming movement. (
  • Data and simulations related to: Thalamus-driven functional populations in frontal cortex activity supports decision-making. (
  • A major departure from that line of thinking came in 1984 , when Francis Crick, known for his work on the structure of DNA, proposed that the attentional searchlight was controlled by a region deep in the brain called the thalamus, parts of which receive input from sensory domains and feed information to the cortex. (
  • The primary motor cortex contributes more fibers to the corticospinal tract than any other region. (
  • Asymmetry of the corticospinal tract in congenital lesions is a good prognostic marker for preserved motor function after hemispherectomy. (
  • Three patients underwent functional hemispherectomy with postsurgical stable motor function, all showing marked corticospinal tract asymmetry preoperatively. (
  • Following the DTI-based corticospinal tract trajectories allowed identifying the presumed primary motor region within the dysplastic cortex in 9/9 patients, confirmed by functional MR imaging in 3/3 cases. (
  • Visual assessment of corticospinal tract asymmetry in unilateral polymicrogyria involving the motor cortex is most reliable with T1WI and color-coded DTI maps at the level of the midbrain. (
  • [4] However, in primates , where the corticospinal tract is dominant, the rubrospinal tract may be regarded as vestigial in motor function. (
  • The concept develops from the function of the frontal lobe as an inhibitor of excessive motor activity, and children with ADHD having disinhibited motor activity. (
  • The calming effect of methylphenidate stems from its stimulatory effect on the frontal lobe causing motor inhibition. (
  • In the rearmost portion of each frontal lobe is a motor cortex , which helps plan, control, and execute voluntary movement, or intentional movement, like moving your arm or kicking a ball. (
  • Area of the frontal lobe concerned with primary motor control. (
  • Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. (
  • Neuronal activity in the primate supplementary motor area and the primary motor cortex in relation to spatio-temporal bimanual coordination. (
  • The role of the Supplementary Motor Area during internally and externally triggered movement sequences: a TMS study. (
  • Neuronal activity in the supplementary motor area of monkeys adapting to a new dynamic environment. (
  • Activation of the supplementary motor area (SMA) during performance of visually guided movements. (
  • Analyses of classifier weights further identified contributions of the primary motor cortex to the intrinsic coordinate frame and the ventral and dorsal premotor cortex and supplementary motor area proper to the extrinsic coordinate frame. (
  • Activation in supplementary motor area was also observed. (
  • and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex. (
  • The experiments reported examine the neural correlates of the early stages of motor learning in adults with and without DCD. (
  • There is growing interest in recording neural activity in the motor cortex of the brain on a long-term basis. (
  • To explore the human brain areas representing intrinsic and extrinsic coordinate frames, this fMRI study examined neural representation of motor cortices while human participants performed isometric wrist flexions and extensions in different forearm postures, thereby applying the same wrist actions (representing the intrinsic coordinate frame) to different movement directions (representing the extrinsic coordinate frame). (
  • However, optimization of the therapeutic efficacy is hampered since it is not known how electrically activated neural structures in the motor cortex can induce pain relief. (
  • The present finding aids in the understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying motor imagery and provides useful information for the use of motor imagery in rehabilitation or motor imagery training. (
  • This phenomenon yields compact neural representations, emphasizes fine spatial detail, and might enable a temporal multiplexing of visual information from the retina to the cortex. (
  • The split of the neural real estate in this area is roughly 1/3LH, 1/3Body and 1/3RH, so roughly 2/3 of the cortex in those areas of the brain is dedicated to sensation and control of the hands. (
  • Normal and abnormal development of movement in the rat were studied by investigating the growth and organization of the motor-sensory cortexcorticospinal tract system (MSC-CST) and the functional and morphologic effects of ablating the MSC or quadrants of it at different ages. (
  • Objective To identify structural and neurochemical properties that underlie functional connectivity impairments of the primary motor cortex (PMC) and how these relate to clinical findings in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). (
  • Results Compared with healthy controls, the primary motor cortex in ALS showed reduced functional connectivity with sensory (T=5.21), frontal (T=3.70), temporal (T=3.80), putaminal (T=4.03) and adjacent motor (T=4.60) regions. (
  • NAA levels showed associations with disturbed functional connectivity of the motor cortex. (
  • Conclusion In vivo neurochemistry may represent an effective imaging marker of impaired motor cortex functional connectivity in ALS. (
  • Abnormal functional connectivity between motor cortex and pedunculopontine nucleus following chronic dopamine depletion. (
  • The results suggest that although the two areas share functional properties, they also participate in different aspects of motor behaviour, which give them the potential to integrate external stimuli and internal states during motor planning. (
  • The 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) technique was used to measure functional activation in the motor areas on the medial wall of the hemisphere in monkeys trained to perform visually guided reaching movements to randomly presented targets and found that the SMA was strongly activated during reaching to different visual targets. (
  • The vibrissal primary motor cortex (vM1) reflects these functional divisions by displaying a distinct set of sub-areas with different functions. (
  • DTI tractography was used to determine the motor cortex within polymicrogyria, with task-based functional MR imaging available in 3/9 cases. (
  • Experiment 2 revealed that object-in-place and recency recognition memory performance depended on a functional interaction between the hippocampus and either the perirhinal or medial prefrontal cortices. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the primary motor cortex in humans: response to increased functional demands. (
  • Khushu S, Kumaran SS, Tripathi RP, Gupta A, Jain PC, Jain V. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the primary motor cortex in humans: response to increased functional demands. (
  • Prior studies have used TDCS to stimulate regions of the brain that control movement (e.g., the motor cortex) in individuals who have had a stroke. (
  • Using non-focal-tDCS during a fatiguing task, recent work showed no enhancement of corticospinal excitability of the PMC despite a longer endurance time and suggested that contamination in other brain regions involved in motor command may have occurred. (
  • The cortex is gray because nerves in this area lack the insulation that makes most other parts of the brain appear to be white. (
  • There is a growing interest in how the brain transforms body part positioning in the extrinsic environment into an intrinsic coordinate frame during motor control. (
  • According to the DNA Learning Center , a small study in 16 children and adolescents with ADHD found that medications that increase the availability of dopamine in the brain lead to the inhibition of the motor cortex, the brain region that controls voluntary movement. (
  • The researchers found that the children with ADHD had a thinner cortex in the areas of the brain responsible for attention control. (
  • Just like epilepsy of the motor cortex that results in spasmodic activation of the muscles, temporal lobe epilepsy causes the same repetitive firing of neuronal circuits but in a region of the brain central for our concept of space and time. (
  • Primary motor cortex is a part of brain from which abnormality in electrical impulses is initiated. (
  • This part of brain (primary motor cortex) have a special characteristic that these electrical impulses pass from this region quickly and effecting all corresponding muscles present in that region. (
  • Here we want to understand the immediate effects of 1-session NMES on the coherence between brain and muscles and motor performance in patients with stroke. (
  • Electrocorticography monitoring is performed by placing the electrodes inside the cortex region of the brain. (
  • Val66Met in brain-derived neurotrophic factor affects stimulus-induced plasticity in the human pharyngeal motor cortex. (
  • For decades, their studies have revolved around the cortex, the folded structure on the outside of the brain commonly associated with intelligence and higher-order cognition. (
  • Although no modulation was observed for the left hand muscles, an increase in amplitude of motor-evoked potentials was found for the right hand muscles. (
  • To accomplish this, we measured motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and probability of phosphene occurrence during the two types of motor imageries of finger tapping. (
  • Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) at bilateral M1 were measured at 15 min and 0 min before a 15 min active or sham rTUS intervention on left M1 and at 0 min, 15 min and 30 min after the intervention, and the Chinese version of brief neurocognitive test battery (C-BCT) was conducted before and after the intervention respectively. (
  • Using sparse logistic regression, critical voxels involving pattern information that specifically discriminates wrist action (flexion vs. extension) and movement direction (upward vs. downward) were identified within the primary motor and premotor cortices. (
  • There was a marked reduction in 5-HT uptake sites in the external and middle laminae of the anterior cingulate, frontal cortex, and posterior cingulate, and no changes were observed in the motor cortex, temporal cortex, or hippocampus. (
  • Increased numbers of 5-HTia receptors were found in the posterior cingulate, motor cortex, and hippocampus. (
  • Serotonin receptors were substantially elevated in the posterior cingulate, temporal cortex, and hippocampus, but not in the frontal, anterior cingulate, or motor cortices. (
  • Examination of the temporal lobe and hippocampus of a group of nonschizophrenic suicides (n "" 8) indicated the alterations in 5-HT system in the limbic regions of the striatum, the limbic cortex, and hippocampus of the schizophrenic cases may be disease specific. (
  • Listening to or playing music can activate the motor cortex (touching a piano key or guitar string), the auditory cortex (hearing the notes you make), and the emotional centre, or limbic system (feeling moved by a beautiful passage). (
  • Rats trained on motor-skill learning tasks for 30 days were previously found to have more synapses in the volume of tissue proportional to a Purkinje cell than rats that exercised or were inactive. (
  • In the motor learning tasks, hooded rats were required to traverse an obstacle course requiring balance and coordination. (
  • In a second experiment, rats were given 3 doses of MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg) at 24 h intervals beginning 24 h after cortex injury. (
  • rats with lesions in the motor cortex can still move in stable, predictable, non-perturbing environments, but not if the environment is rapidly changing ( Lopes, 2016 ). (
  • First, we recorded cEP over ipsilateral primary motor cortex during different frequencies of STN DBS in awake healthy and unilateral 6-OHDA lesioned parkinsonian rats. (
  • The purpose of this study was to repeat the experimental design used in Suess' study, i.e., the attempt to influence the handedness of ambidextrous rats by application of Ach and glumatic acid to the motor cortex. (
  • The mechanism that underlies this improvement may be related to the ability of TDCS to modulate interactions between the affected and unaffected motor cortex. (
  • In this project, healthy individuals will receive TDCS and we will quantify how excitability in both the left and right motor cortex changes after treatment. (
  • Here, a novel, noninvasive CBV-weighted MRI approach (VASO-FLAIR with 3D GRASE (GRadient-And-Spin-Echo)) is used in conjunction with CBF-weighted and BOLD fMRI in healthy volunteers (n=7) performing simultaneous visual (8 Hz flashing-checkerboard) and motor (1 Hz unilateral joystick) tasks. (
  • In AD, hypometabolism involves the parietal (lateral and medial/precuneus) and temporal lobes and the posterior cingulate cortices either unilaterally or bilaterally ( Fig. 1 ). (
  • Do bimanual motor actions involve the dorsal premotor (PMd), cingulate (CMA) and posterior parietal (PPC) cortices? (
  • Chen X, Mohr K, Galea JM (2017).Predicting explorative motor learning using decision-making and motor noise. (
  • The amplitudes of MEPs and probability of phosphene occurrence during motor imagery were normalized based on the values obtained at rest. (
  • Increased tapping rate resulted in increase in the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal intensity as well as the volume/area of activation (pixels) in the contralateral primary motor area up to tapping rate of 120 taps/min (2 Hz), beyond which it saturates. (
  • Our preliminary results from 8 stroke subjects (3 in sham-ES group) showed that coherence between contralateral primary motor cortex (hand area) and flexor pollicis brevis muscle increased in lower gamma-band after using NMES. (
  • Área del LÓBULO FRONTAL involucrada en el control motor primario y localizada en la CIRCUNVOLUCIÓN PRECENTRAL dorsal, inmediatamente por delante del surco central. (
  • Until recently, motor areas of the neocortex were thought to receive only sparse DA innervation. (
  • The barrel cortex recipient zone, also known as the TZ (transitional zone) from cytoarchitectonic markers, is located on the dorsal surface of the neocortex, a new module defined which was part of the previously described retraction face (RF) module. (
  • However, the contribution of hand motor areas is not exclusively related to number processing because an increase in CS excitability was also found when letters were used to enumerate items. (
  • Corticospinal excitability increased during both kinesthetic and visual motor imagery, while excitability in V1 was increased only during visual motor imagery. (
  • This study aims to explore whether repetitive TUS (rTUS) intervention can modulate the interhemispheric balance of excitability between bilateral motor cortex (M1) in healthy subjects .Approach. (
  • [1] The red nucleus and substantia nigra are subcortical centers of the extrapyramidal motor system . (
  • These comparisons allowed the authors to assess the activity induced by the motor condition (hand movement direction) alone or by the visual condition (target location and cursor displacement) alone. (
  • The analysis indicated that patterns of activity were correlated across both motor and visual conditions, strongly suggesting that in addition to the expected motor representation, specific visual aspects associated with motor commands were also represented within M1. (
  • This would mean that activity in M1 did not reflect the visual aspects of the task, but rather, aspects of the motor commands the visual cues were paired with. (
  • However, increased activity in hand motor circuits during counting may unveil unspecific processes, such as shifting attention, reciting number names, or matching items with a number name. (
  • The findings indicate that DA may have profound effects on motor cortex activity, through its influence on PTNs. (
  • Differential roles of neuronal activity in the supplementary and presupplementary motor areas: from information retrieval to motor planning and execution. (
  • Neuronal activity in medial frontal cortex during learning of sequential procedures. (
  • May act in motor cortex where may inhibit spread of seizure activity. (
  • It's become clear that activity in the cortex boosts sensory processing to enhance features of interest. (
  • abstract = "Motor imagery can be divided into kinesthetic and visual aspects. (
  • At the same time, the literature reports a neurodevelopmental disorder called Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) that has a significant negative impact upon motor control and learning. (
  • In cases of paralysis due to spinal cord injury (paraplegics and quadriplegics), the signals needed to control movement may still be present in the cortex but are no longer being transmitted to the peripheral limbs to facilitate muscle control, and the hope is to be able to restore at least limited mobility to paralyzed individuals by literally wiring around the break in the spinal cord. (
  • However, some findings in spinalized preparations blur the line between the capabilities of different levels in motor control. (
  • Perception and motor control are often regarded as two separate branches of neuroscience. (
  • Infineon is a trusted one-stop shop for motor control designers, covering the full spectrum from sensors and microcontrollers through power ICs to security products. (
  • Key success factors for all motor control designs are the motor drivers and their controllers at the heart of the system. (
  • These ICs reduce the footprint, complexity and power losses of motor control designs. (
  • They also come with advanced diagnostic and protection functions for overcurrent and overtemperature, for instance, to ensure high reliability and efficient motor control under all circumstances. (
  • Cost-efficient hardware, free software and simulation examples enable developers to easily evaluate Infineon's motor control solutions, also supporting fast, cost-effective design prototyping. (
  • The (BL)DC Motor Control Shield with IFX007T for Arduino is equipped with three smart IFX007T half-bridges and capable to drive two uni-directional (BL)DC motors or one bi-directional DC motor. (
  • The IFX9201SG is a general purpose 6A integrated H-bridge designed for the control of small DC motors and inductive loads. (
  • The Stepper Motor Control Shield for Arduino based on Infineon's H-bridge IFX9201 and XMC1300 microcontroller is capable of driving the two coils in a stepper motor featuring dual-h-bridge configuration. (
  • In the primary motor cortex, N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, a neuronal marker) ratios and diffusion metrics (mean, axial and radial diffusivity, fractional anisotropy (FA)) were altered. (
  • this allows stereotactic mapping of the motor cortex. (
  • In mice, carrying out dexterous movements like grasping requires patterned input into the motor cortex throughout the whole movement. (
  • New research in mice is examining the role of those feedback signals entering the motor cortex, untangling how and when they're necessary to guide dexterous movements like grasping. (
  • Researchers induced arm movements in macaque monkeys by using optogenetics to target the motor cortex. (