Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Evoked Potentials, Motor: The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.Gastrointestinal Motility: The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Molecular Motor Proteins: Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Kinesin: A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.Motor Skills Disorders: Marked impairments in the development of motor coordination such that the impairment interferes with activities of daily living. (From DSM-V)Myoelectric Complex, Migrating: A pattern of gastrointestinal muscle contraction and depolarizing myoelectric activity that moves from the stomach to the ILEOCECAL VALVE at regular frequency during the interdigestive period. The complex and its accompanying motor activity periodically cleanse the bowel of interdigestive secretion and debris in preparation for the next meal.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Manometry: Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.Peristalsis: A movement, caused by sequential muscle contraction, that pushes the contents of the intestines or other tubular organs in one direction.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Pyloric Antrum: The region between the sharp indentation at the lower third of the STOMACH (incisura angularis) and the junction of the PYLORUS with the DUODENUM. Pyloric antral glands contain mucus-secreting cells and gastrin-secreting endocrine cells (G CELLS).Gastric Emptying: The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Dyneins: A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Paresis: A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Hyperkinesis: Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.Efferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Periodicity: The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Fetal Movement: Physical activity of the FETUS in utero. Gross or fine fetal body movement can be monitored by the mother, PALPATION, or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Butylscopolammonium Bromide: Antimuscarinic quaternary ammonium derivative of scopolamine used to treat cramps in gastrointestinal, urinary, uterine, and biliary tracts, and to facilitate radiologic visualization of the gastrointestinal tract.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT4: A subtype of G-protein-coupled SEROTONIN receptors that preferentially couple to GS STIMULATORY G-PROTEINS resulting in increased intracellular CYCLIC AMP. Several isoforms of the receptor exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Serotonin 5-HT4 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate SEROTONIN 5-HT4 RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of SEROTONIN or SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Neostigmine: A cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the effects of muscle relaxants such as gallamine and tubocurarine. Neostigmine, unlike PHYSOSTIGMINE, does not cross the blood-brain barrier.Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2B: A serotonin receptor subtype found in the BRAIN; HEART; LUNGS; PLACENTA and DIGESTIVE SYSTEM organs. A number of functions have been attributed to the action of the 5-HT2B receptor including the development of cardiac myocytes (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) and the contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Psychomotor Disorders: Abnormalities of motor function that are associated with organic and non-organic cognitive disorders.Hemiplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.Pylorus: The region of the STOMACH at the junction with the DUODENUM. It is marked by the thickening of circular muscle layers forming the pyloric sphincter to control the opening and closure of the lumen.Transducers, Pressure: Transducers that are activated by pressure changes, e.g., blood pressure.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Myosin Type II: The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.Hypoglossal Nerve: The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.Myosin Type I: A subclass of myosins found generally associated with actin-rich membrane structures such as filopodia. Members of the myosin type I family are ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotes. The heavy chains of myosin type I lack coiled-coil forming sequences in their tails and therefore do not dimerize.Ganglia, Invertebrate: Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.Myosin Type V: A subclass of myosin involved in organelle transport and membrane targeting. It is abundantly found in nervous tissue and neurosecretory cells. The heavy chains of myosin V contain unusually long neck domains that are believed to aid in translocating molecules over large distances.Fingers: Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Rotarod Performance Test: A performance test based on forced MOTOR ACTIVITY on a rotating rod, usually by a rodent. Parameters include the riding time (seconds) or endurance. Test is used to evaluate balance and coordination of the subjects, particular in experimental animal models for neurological disorders and drug effects.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Methyltyrosines: A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Decerebrate State: A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)Kinesis: Locomotor behavior not involving a steering reaction, but in which there may be a turning random in direction. It includes orthokinesis, the rate of movement and klinokinesis, the amount of turning, which are related to the intensity of stimulation.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Sphincter of Oddi: The sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla within the duodenal papilla. The COMMON BILE DUCT and main pancreatic duct pass through this sphincter.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.Upper Extremity: The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Recruitment, Neurophysiological: The spread of response if stimulation is prolonged. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Strychnine: An alkaloid found in the seeds of STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA. It is a competitive antagonist at glycine receptors and thus a convulsant. It has been used as an analeptic, in the treatment of nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sleep apnea, and as a rat poison.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Fluphenazine: A phenothiazine used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES. Its properties and uses are generally similar to those of CHLORPROMAZINE.Proprioception: Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.Gastrointestinal Transit: Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.Antiparkinson Agents: Agents used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the striatum and basal ganglia or are centrally acting muscarinic antagonists.Motilin: A peptide of about 22-amino acids isolated from the DUODENUM. At low pH it inhibits gastric motor activity, whereas at high pH it has a stimulating effect.Esophagus: The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Aminobenzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the benzene ring structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobenzoate structure.Homovanillic AcidVagotomy: The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.Exercise Movement Techniques: Methods or programs of physical activities which can be used to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Hand Strength: Force exerted when gripping or grasping.Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Septal Nuclei: Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Colon, Sigmoid: A segment of the COLON between the RECTUM and the descending colon.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of SEROTONIN or SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTOR AGONISTS. Included under this heading are antagonists for one or more specific 5-HT2 receptor subtypes.Survival of Motor Neuron 2 Protein: A SMN complex protein that is closely-related to SURVIVAL OF MOTOR NEURON 1 PROTEIN. In humans, the protein is encoded by an often duplicated gene found near the inversion centromere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.Defecation: The normal process of elimination of fecal material from the RECTUM.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Surgically-Created Structures: Organs or parts of organs surgically formed from nearby tissue to function as substitutes for diseased or surgically removed tissue.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Catalepsy: A condition characterized by inactivity, decreased responsiveness to stimuli, and a tendency to maintain an immobile posture. The limbs tend to remain in whatever position they are placed (waxy flexibility). Catalepsy may be associated with PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA, CATATONIC), nervous system drug toxicity, and other conditions.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Sleep, REM: A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Nitrergic Neurons: Nerve cells where transmission is mediated by NITRIC OXIDE.Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Deglutition: The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A degenerative disorder affecting upper MOTOR NEURONS in the brain and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and SPINAL CORD. Disease onset is usually after the age of 50 and the process is usually fatal within 3 to 6 years. Clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, atrophy, FASCICULATION, hyperreflexia, DYSARTHRIA, dysphagia, and eventual paralysis of respiratory function. Pathologic features include the replacement of motor neurons with fibrous ASTROCYTES and atrophy of anterior SPINAL NERVE ROOTS and corticospinal tracts. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1089-94)Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Tetralones: A group of TETRAHYDRONAPHTHALENES containing a keto oxygen.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Oxidopamine: A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Dopamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.Dopamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.Benzyl CompoundsLaryngeal Nerves: Branches of the VAGUS NERVE. The superior laryngeal nerves originate near the nodose ganglion and separate into external branches, which supply motor fibers to the cricothyroid muscles, and internal branches, which carry sensory fibers. The RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE originates more caudally and carries efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid. The laryngeal nerves and their various branches also carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Muscle Spindles: Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid: A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Heterocyclic Compounds with 4 or More Rings: A class of organic compounds containing four or more ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced: Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Brachyura: An infraorder of chiefly marine, largely carnivorous CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, including the genera Cancer, Uca, and Callinectes.Perphenazine: An antipsychotic phenothiazine derivative with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROMAZINE.Serotonin Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate serotonin receptors, thereby blocking the actions of serotonin or SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Phenmetrazine: A sympathomimetic drug used primarily as an appetite depressant. Its actions and mechanisms are similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Motor Vehicles: AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Diencephalon: The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.CholinesterasesHereditary Sensory and Motor Neuropathy: A group of slowly progressive inherited disorders affecting motor and sensory peripheral nerves. Subtypes include HMSNs I-VII. HMSN I and II both refer to CHARCOT-MARIE-TOOTH DISEASE. HMSN III refers to hypertrophic neuropathy of infancy. HMSN IV refers to REFSUM DISEASE. HMSN V refers to a condition marked by a hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy associated with spastic paraplegia (see SPASTIC PARAPLEGIA, HEREDITARY). HMSN VI refers to HMSN associated with an inherited optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHIES, HEREDITARY), and HMSN VII refers to HMSN associated with retinitis pigmentosa. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)Mice, Inbred C57BLAdenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Substantia Nigra: The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.Colonic Diseases, Functional: Chronic or recurrent colonic disorders without an identifiable structural or biochemical explanation. The widely recognized IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME falls into this category.Restraint, Physical: Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Monitoring, Ambulatory: The use of electronic equipment to observe or record physiologic processes while the patient undergoes normal daily activities.Muscle Spasticity: A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.Myenteric Plexus: One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)Telemetry: Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Nerve Tissue ProteinsMutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.TurtlesMechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Receptors, Dopamine D2: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.

High-linoleate and high-alpha-linolenate diets affect learning ability and natural behavior in SAMR1 mice. (1/14614)

Semipurified diets incorporating either perilla oil [high in alpha-linolenate, 18:3(n-3)] or safflower oil [high in linoleate, 18:2(n-6)] were fed to senescence-resistant SAMR1 mouse dams and their pups. Male offspring at 15 mo were examined using behavioral tests. In the open field test, locomotor activity during a 5-min period was significantly higher in the safflower oil group than in the perilla oil group. Observations of the circadian rhythm (48 h) of spontaneous motor activity indicated that the safflower oil group was more active than the perilla oil group during the first and second dark periods. The total number of responses to positive and negative stimuli was higher in the safflower oil group than in the perilla oil group in the light and dark discrimination learning test, but the correct response ratio was lower in the safflower oil group. The difference in the (n-6)/(n-3) ratios of the diets reflected the proportions of (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids, rather than those of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the brain total fatty acids, and in the proportions of (n-6) and (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the total polyunsaturated fatty acids of the brain phospholipids. These results suggest that in SAMR1 mice, the dietary alpha-linolenate/linoleate balance affects the (n-6)/(n-3) ratio of brain phospholipids, and this may modify emotional reactivity and learning ability.  (+info)

Viral gene delivery selectively restores feeding and prevents lethality of dopamine-deficient mice. (2/14614)

Dopamine-deficient mice (DA-/- ), lacking tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in dopaminergic neurons, become hypoactive and aphagic and die by 4 weeks of age. They are rescued by daily treatment with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA); each dose restores dopamine (DA) and feeding for less than 24 hr. Recombinant adeno-associated viruses expressing human TH or GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH1) were injected into the striatum of DA-/- mice. Bilateral coinjection of both viruses restored feeding behavior for several months. However, locomotor activity and coordination were partially improved. A virus expressing only TH was less effective, and one expressing GTPCH1 alone was ineffective. TH immunoreactivity and DA were detected in the ventral striatum and adjacent posterior regions of rescued mice, suggesting that these regions mediate a critical DA-dependent aspect of feeding behavior.  (+info)

Modifications of local cerebral metabolic rates for glucose and motor behavior in rats with unilateral lesion of the subthalamic nucleus. (3/14614)

Inactivation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has attracted interest as a therapeutic tool in Parkinson's disease. The functional consequences of the inactivation, however, are uncertain. In this study definition of the pattern of changes of cerebral functional activity associated with lesion of the STN and dopaminergic stimulation, by using the [14C]deoxyglucose method, was sought. Six or 7 days following unilateral lesion of the STN, the animals were divided into two groups: One group (n = 10) was administered apomorphine (1 mg/kg) subcutaneously; the second group (n = 10) received saline. The [14C]deoxyglucose procedure was initiated 10 minutes following the drug or saline injection. The results show that systemic administration of apomorphine to rats with unilateral lesion of the STN causes ipsiversive rotational behavior and asymmetries of glucose utilization of defined brain areas, including the substantia nigra reticulata, globus pallidus, and entopeduncular nucleus. These nuclei are the main targets of the subthalamic excitatory projections. Lesion of the nucleus per se (without challenge with apomorphine) has no significant consequences on glucose utilization. The findings indicate that the STN is involved in the activation of the basal ganglia output nuclei induced by systemic dopaminergic stimulation.  (+info)

Behavioral, toxic, and neurochemical effects of sydnocarb, a novel psychomotor stimulant: comparisons with methamphetamine. (4/14614)

Sydnocarb (3-(beta-phenylisopropyl)-N-phenylcarbamoylsydnonimine) is a psychostimulant in clinical practice in Russia as a primary and adjunct therapy for a host of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and depression. It has been described as a stimulant with an addiction liability and toxicity less than that of amphetamines. The present study undertook to evaluate the psychomotor stimulant effects of sydnocarb in comparison to those of methamphetamine. Sydnocarb increased locomotor activity of mice with reduced potency (approximately 10-fold) and efficacy compared with methamphetamine. Sydnocarb blocked the locomotor depressant effects of haloperidol at doses that were inactive when given alone. The locomotor stimulant effects of both methamphetamine and sydnocarb were dose-dependently blocked by the dopamine D1 and D2 antagonists SCH 39166 and spiperone, respectively; blockade generally occurred at doses of the antagonists that did not depress locomotor activity when given alone. In mice trained to discriminate methamphetamine from saline, sydnocarb fully substituted for methamphetamine with a 9-fold lower potency. When substituted for methamphetamine under self-administration experiments in rats, 10-fold higher concentrations of sydnocarb maintained responding by its i.v. presentation. Sydnocarb engendered stereotypy in high doses with approximately a 2-fold lower potency than methamphetamine. However, sydnocarb was much less efficacious than methamphetamine in inducing stereotyped behavior. Both sydnocarb and methamphetamine increased dialysate levels of dopamine in mouse striatum; however, the potency and efficacy of sydnocarb was less than methamphetamine. The convulsive effects of cocaine were significantly enhanced by the coadministration of nontoxic doses of methamphetamine but not of sydnocarb. Taken together, the present findings indicate that sydnocarb has psychomotor stimulant effects that are shared by methamphetamine while demonstrating a reduced behavioral toxicity.  (+info)

Improvement by nefiracetam of beta-amyloid-(1-42)-induced learning and memory impairments in rats. (5/14614)

1. We have previously demonstrated that continuous i.c.v. infusion of amyloid beta-peptide (A beta), the major constituent of senile plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, results in learning and memory deficits in rats. 2. In the present study, we investigated the effects of nefiracetam [N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl) acetamide, DM-9384] on A beta-(1-42)-induced learning and memory deficits in rats. 3. In the A beta-(1-42)-infused rats, spontaneous alternation behaviour in a Y-maze task, spatial reference and working memory in a water maze task, and retention of passive avoidance learning were significantly impaired as compared with A beta-(40-1)-infused control rats. 4. Nefiracetam, at a dose range of 1-10 mg kg(-1), improved learning and memory deficits in the A beta-(1-42)-infused rats when it was administered p.o. 1 h before the behavioural tests. 5. Nefiracetam at a dose of 3 mg kg(-1) p.o. increased the activity of choline acetyltransferase in the hippocampus of A beta-(1-42)-infused rats. 6. Nefiracetam increased dopamine turnover in the cerebral cortex and striatum of A beta-(1-42)-infused rats, but failed to affect the noradrenaline, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid content. 7. These results suggest that nefiracetam may be useful for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease.  (+info)

In vitro analog of operant conditioning in aplysia. II. Modifications of the functional dynamics of an identified neuron contribute to motor pattern selection. (6/14614)

Previously, an analog of operant conditioning was developed using the buccal ganglia of Aplysia, the probabilistic occurrences of a specific motor pattern (i.e., pattern I), a contingent reinforcement (i.e., stimulation of the esophageal nerve), and monotonic stimulation of a peripheral nerve (i.e., n.2,3). This analog expressed a key feature of operant conditioning (i.e., selective enhancement of the probability of occurrence of a designated motor pattern by contingent reinforcement). In addition, the training induced changes in the dynamical properties of neuron B51, an element of the buccal central pattern generator. To gain insights into the neuronal mechanisms that mediate features of operant conditioning, the present study identified a neuronal element that was critically involved in the selective enhancement of pattern I. We found that bursting activity in cell B51 contributed significantly to the expression of pattern I and that changes in the dynamical properties of this cell were associated with the selective enhancement of pattern I. These changes could be induced by an explicit association of reinforcement with random depolarization of B51. No stimulation of n.2,3 was required. These results indicate that the selection of a designated motor pattern by contingent reinforcement and the underlying neuronal plasticity resulted from the association of reinforcement with a component of central neuronal activity that contributes to a specific motor pattern. The sensory stimulus that allows for occurrences of different motor acts may not be critical for induction of plasticity that mediates the selection of a motor output by contingent reinforcement in operant conditioning.  (+info)

Dissociation in effects of lesions of the nucleus accumbens core and shell on appetitive pavlovian approach behavior and the potentiation of conditioned reinforcement and locomotor activity by D-amphetamine. (7/14614)

Dopamine release within the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) has been associated with both the rewarding and locomotor-stimulant effects of abused drugs. The functions of the NAcc core and shell were investigated in mediating amphetamine-potentiated conditioned reinforcement and locomotion. Rats were initially trained to associate a neutral stimulus (Pavlovian CS) with food reinforcement (US). After excitotoxic lesions that selectively destroyed either the NAcc core or shell, animals underwent additional CS-US training sessions and then were tested for the acquisition of a new instrumental response that produced the CS acting as a conditioned reinforcer (CR). Animals were infused intra-NAcc with D-amphetamine (0, 1, 3, 10, or 20 microg) before each session. Shell lesions affected neither Pavlovian nor instrumental conditioning but completely abolished the potentiative effect of intra-NAcc amphetamine on responding with CR. Core-lesioned animals were impaired during the Pavlovian retraining sessions but showed no deficit in the acquisition of responding with CR. However, the selectivity in stimulant-induced potentiation of the CR lever was reduced, as intra-NAcc amphetamine infusions dose-dependently increased responding on both the CR lever and a nonreinforced (control) lever. Shell lesions produced hypoactivity and attenuated amphetamine-induced activity. In contrast, core lesions resulted in hyperactivity and enhanced the locomotor-stimulating effect of amphetamine. These results indicate a functional dissociation of subregions of the NAcc; the shell is a critical site for stimulant effects underlying the enhancement of responding with CR and locomotion after intra-NAcc injections of amphetamine, whereas the core is implicated in mechanisms underlying the expression of CS-US associations.  (+info)

Regulation of myocardial blood flow by oxygen consumption is maintained in the failing heart during exercise. (8/14614)

The hemodynamic abnormalities and neurohumoral activation that accompany congestive heart failure (CHF) might be expected to impair the increase in coronary blood flow that occurs during exercise. This study was performed to determine the effects of CHF on myocardial oxygen consumption and coronary blood flow during exercise. Coronary blood flow was measured in chronically instrumented dogs at rest, during 2 stages of graded treadmill exercise under control conditions (n=10), and after the development of CHF produced by 3 weeks of rapid ventricular pacing (n=9). In the normal dogs, coronary blood flow increased during exercise in proportion to the increase in the heart rate x the left ventricular systolic blood pressure product (RPP). After the development of CHF, resting myocardial blood flow was 25% lower than normal (P<0.05). Myocardial blood flow increased during the first stage of exercise, but then failed to increase further during the second stage of exercise despite an additional increase in the RPP. Myocardial oxygen consumption during exercise was significantly lower in animals with CHF and paralleled coronary flow. Despite the lower values for coronary blood flow in animals with CHF, there was no evidence for myocardial ischemia. Thus, even during the second level of exercise when coronary flow failed to increase, myocardial lactate consumption continued and coronary venous pH did not fall. In addition, the failure of coronary flow to increase as the exercise level was increased from stage 1 to stage 2 was not associated with a further increase in myocardial oxygen extraction. Thus, cardiac failure was associated with decreased myocardial oxygen consumption and failure of oxygen consumption to increase with an increase in the level of exercise. This abnormality did not appear to result from inadequate oxygen availability, but more likely represented a reduction of myocardial oxygen usage with a secondary decrease in metabolic coronary vasodilation.  (+info)

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is expected to be the third leading cause of premature death and disability in Canada and around the world by the year 2020. The study aims to compare objective physical activity (PA) and sedentary time in a population-based sample of adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and compare a group, and to investigate whether these behaviors differ according to COPD severity. From the 2007-2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey dataset, accelerometer and prebronchodilator spirometry data were available for 6441 participants, aged 35 to 79. Two weighted analyses of covariance were performed with adjustments for age, sex, body mass index, accelerometer wearing time, season, work, smoking (cotinine), education level, and income. A set of sensitivity analyses were carried out to examine the possible effect of COPD and type of control group. A cross-sectional weighted analysis indicated that 14.6% of study participants had a measured airflow ...
The Venezuelan 2018 Report Card updated the information available on the 2016 Report Card6 and compiled the information available for the 10 core physical activity indicators that are common to the Global Matrix 3.0 (Overall Physical Activity, Organized Sport and Physical Activity Participation, Active Play, Active Transportation, Sedentary Behavior, Physical Fitness, Family and Peers, School, Community and Environment, Government). In addition, Cardiometabolic Risk, Physical Activity for Children and Youth with a Disability, and Nongovernment initiatives indicators were included. These indicators were clustered into 1 of 3 categories: Daily Behaviors (Overall Physical Activity, Organized Sport and Physical Activity Participation, Active Play, Active Transportation, Sedentary Behaviors), Settings and Sources of Influence (Family and Peers, School, Community and Environment), and Strategies and Investments (Government, Nongovernment (NGO), Physical Activity Initiatives for Children and Youth with ...
The current study examined objectively measured physical activity data collected on a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults and thus provided a unique opportunity to investigate total physical activity and various levels of physical activity intensity across racial/ethnic and sex groups. The most striking findings were the relatively higher amounts of physical activity among Hispanic men and women compared to their male and female counterparts.. This current effort indentified a pattern of higher physical activity levels in Hispanic men compared to white and black men. The results also indicate that Hispanic women engage in more light physical activity compared to their white and black counterparts. This is in contrast to previous results from national surveys, which have indicated that Hispanic men and women are less active compared to their white and black counterparts. Results from the 1994-2004 BRFSS showed that Hispanic men and women reported greater amounts of inactivity than ...
Background: Evidence suggests that childhood physical activity may play a role in the etiology and prevention of adult chronic diseases. Because researchers must often depend on self-recalled physical activity data many years after the exposure, it is important to understand factors which may influence adult recall of childhood physical activity. This study evaluated the influence of adult characteristics on reported childhood physical activity and the association between adult physical activity and self-recalled childhood physical activity. Methods: 48,066 post-menopausal women from the Womens Health Initiative Observational Study reported their physical activity level during ages 5-9, 10-14, and 15-19. Results: In this cohort, over 65% of the population reported the same category of physical activity over the three childhood age groups. While higher levels of childhood physical activity were significantly associated with higher adult physical activity, this association varied by race/ethnicity,
The purpose of this study was to test the accuracy and reliability of the Physical Activity Assessment Tool (PAAT). This self-administered tool is designed to help physicians determine the level of physical activity of their patients and aid in counseling their patients. Sixty-eight active and underactive volunteers between the ages of 18 and 64 were recruited from a university community in New Orleans. Participants completed the PAAT and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Long Form (IPAQ) twice and wore a Manufacturing Technology Inc. accelerometer for 14 days.. Key Findings:. ...
It is still not known whether overweight men have different patterns and socio-demographic correlates of self-reported physical activity (PA) compared with normal-weight men. Thus, this study examined the perceived PA patterns and associated socio-demographic factors among normal-weight and overweight Japanese men. Data were analyzed for 1,420 men (aged 44.48.3years) who responded to an Internet-based cross-sectional survey relating to socio-demographic variables, BMI status, and a short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Mann-Whitney, chi-square, and binary logistic regression analyses were employed. Normal-weight men were significantly more likely to attain 150 minutes per week of moderate-to-vigorous PA than overweight men (26.6% vs. 21.3%; p=0.035), whereas there were no significant proportional differences in total PA and walking between the two BMI subgroups. With PA, a significant interaction was observed between BMI status and household income (p=0.004 for total PA; p
Background Excess adipose tissue and low physical activity are two major determinants for chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Understanding these relationships requires accurate and precise measures of body composition and physical activity, and most existing observational studies lack such measures. Paper I to III in this thesis addresses the validity of measures of physical activity and abdominal adipose mass. In paper IV and V, we explore the relationships between obesity and physical activity on metabolic health in non-pregnant and pregnant women and their offspring.. Methods and Results Two hundred men and women representative of the Northern Sweden EPIC cohort were recruited for Paper I. A questionnaire on physical activity (PAQ) was validated against objectively measured physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE). A categorical physical activity index (Cambridge index) calculated from PAQ showed strongest correlation with PAEE (r=0.33 p,0.05). In Paper ...
Background: Few studies have investigated the association between physical activity practice and medicine use; data from these studies are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between level of physical activity and medicine use in adults aged 20 years or more. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in the first semester of 2002 in the urban area of Pelotas; a medium-sized Southern Brazilian city. Physical activity was assessed with the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A physical activity score was created as the weekly time spent in moderate-intensity activities plus twice the weekly time spent in vigorous-intensity activities. Medicine use in the 15 days prior to the interview was also assessed. Adjusted analyses taking into account the sampling design was carried out using Poisson regression. Wald tests for heterogeneity and linear trend were used to calculate significance. Results: Out of the 3,182 ...
In 2011, 83% of Australian children aged 4-5 years who did not attend school were attending a preschool, or a preschool programme in an ECEC service and 54% of 2-3 year olds usually attended formal childcare such as long day care.15 In comparison, 93% of children in the UK are enrolled in formal care16 and 26% of children under the age of 6 attend centre-based care in the US.17 ECEC services such as long day care are an important setting for increasing physical activity in the early years, yet international evidence shows that a significant proportion of preschoolers fail to meet physical activity recommendations while attending day care.18 ,19. The day care physical environment has the potential to either positively or negatively influence physical activity and the overall health and development of young children in care.14 ,20-22 A 2010 review identified that more space per child and open play areas were correlated with increased physical activity of children attending day care.20 The presence ...
Background: While socio-economic status has been shown to be an important determinant of health and physical activity in adults, results for children and adolescents are less consistent. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to examine whether physical activity and sedentary behavior differs in children by socio-economic status (SES) independent of body mass index. Methods: Data were from two cohorts including 271 children (117 males; 154 females) in study 1 and 131 children in study 2 (63 males; 68 females). The average age was 9.6 and 8.8 years respectively. Height and body mass were assessed according to standard procedures and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) was calculated. Parent-reported household income was used to determine SES. Habitual, free-living physical activity (PA) was assessed by a pedometer (steps/day) in study 1 and accelerometer (time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA) in study 2. Self-reported time spent watching TV and on the computer was used as measure of sedentary ...
Abstract. Background: The benefits of physical activity in persons with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) are considerable. Knowledge about factors that correlate to physical activity is helpful in order to develop successful strategies to increase physical activity in persons with MS. Previous studies have focused on correlates to physical activity in MS, however falls self-efficacy, social support and enjoyment of physical activity are not much studied, as well as if the correlates differ with regard to disease severity. The aim of the study was to examine associations between physical activity and age, gender, employment, having children living at home, education, disease type, disease severity, fatigue, self-efficacy for physical activity, falls self-efficacy, social support and enjoyment of physical activity in a sample of persons with MS and in subgroups with regard to disease severity.. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey study including Swedish community living adults with MS, 287 persons, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Age-Related Change in Physical Activity in Adolescent Girls. AU - Pate, Russell R.. AU - Stevens, June. AU - Webber, Larry S.. AU - Dowda, Marsha. AU - Murray, David M.. AU - Young, Deborah R.. AU - Going, Scott. PY - 2009/3/1. Y1 - 2009/3/1. N2 - Purpose: To determine the annual rate at which physical activity changes in girls during middle school using both objective and self-report measures of physical activity. Methods: Participants were sixth- and eighth-grade girls from the control schools in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG). Random cross-sectional samples initially were drawn from sixth-grade girls (n = 786) and 2 years later from eighth-grade girls (n = 1545). A cohort of 501 girls was in both the sixth- and the eighth-grade samples. The girls wore an accelerometer for 6 days and completed the 3-Day Physical Activity Recall. Data were summarized using 3.0-, 4.6-, and 6.5-metabolic equivalent cutpoints for accelerometry and self-reported physical activity. ...
The new study involved 80 HIV-positive people in the Successful Aging Seniors With HIV (SASH) study, all between 50 and 70 years old. SASH members undergo a battery of neurocognitive tests encompassing seven domains. Study participants self-reported physical activity on an examiner-administrated International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), which queries people on frequency and duration of walking, moderate physical activity, and vigorous physical activity over the past 7 days. IPAQ yields a continuous score based on minutes/week x intensity for each activity level ...
The purpose of this study was to examine the physical activity patterns of older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) in comparison with younger adults with ID and older adults without ID. A sample of 109 participants was included in the study. Sophisticated data reduction, time stamped technology, and multiple objective measures (i.e., pedometers and accelerometers) were used to determine physical activity intensities and walking patterns of participants. Results indicate that older adults with ID are performing less physical activity than comparison groups. A small proportion of older adults with ID (6%) met national physical activity recommendations of 150 min of moderate or 75 min of vigorous physical activity in bouts greater than ten minutes across the week (USDHHS, 2008). Sedentary behavior was also an observable factor in this study. These findings demonstrate the need for health promotion efforts for adults with ID across the lifespan ...
Physical Activity Assessments for Health-Related Research by Gregory J. Welk Physical Activity Assessments for Health-Related Researchis a comprehensive guide on the use of physical activity instruments in health-related research. Written by internationally known experts in exercise science and physical activity epidemiology, the text provides researchers with practical information about the most effective ways to collect, score, and interpret physical activity data for research purposes. Editor Gregory J. Welk, PhD, expertly compiles the most relevant research on physical activity assessment to help readers understand the history, current trends, and approaches involved in the study of physical activity. Emphasizing instruments for health-related research, the text provides specific resources for analyzing and interpreting data and includes several new assessment techniques. This reference provides the following tools to help you with your research: -Reviews of various techniques, including ...
BACKGROUND: The aim of this position statement was to inform the choice of physical activity tools for use within CF research and clinical settings. METHODS: A systematic review of physical activity tools to explore evidence for reliability, validity, and responsiveness. Narrative answers to "four key questions" on motion sensors, questionnaires ... read more and diaries were drafted by the core writing team and then discussed at the Exercise Working Group in ECFS Lisbon 2013. RESULTS AND SUMMARY: Our current position is that activity monitors such as SenseWear or ActiGraph offer informed choices to facilitate a comprehensive assessment of physical activity, and should as a minimum report on dimensions of physical activity including energy expenditure, step count and time spent in different intensities and sedentary time. The DigiWalker pedometer offers an informed choice of a comparatively inexpensive method of obtaining some measurement of physical activity. The HAES represents an informed ...
Objective: This study examined the prevalence of physical activity of secondary students in Ontario and Alberta, Canada. This study also examined between school variability in physical activity levels, and identified school and student level characteristics that are associated with physical activity. Methods: This cross sectional study used the COMPASS Year 2 data. This data contained information on 79 secondary schools in Ontario and 10 in Alberta, as well as student level information on 45,298 grade 9 to 12 students who attend those schools. Multilevel modeling was used to examine associations between physical activity and school and student level characteristics. Physical activity is measured by three outcome measures: achieving 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) daily, achieving the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiologys (CSEP) guideline for youth physical activity (achieving 60 minutes of MVPA daily as well as achieving at least 3 days per week of vigorous ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Patterns of 12-year change in physical activity levels in community-dwelling older women. T2 - can modest levels of physical activity help older women live longer?. AU - Xue, Qian Li. AU - Bandeen-Roche, Karen. AU - Mielenz, Thelma J.. AU - Seplaki, Christopher L.. AU - Szanton, Sarah L.. AU - Thorpe, Roland J.. AU - Kalyani, Rita R.. AU - Chaves, Paulo H.M.. AU - Dam, Thuy Tien L.. AU - Ornstein, Katherine. AU - RoyChoudhury, Arindam. AU - Varadhan, Ravi. AU - Yao, Wenliang. AU - Fried, Linda P.. PY - 2012/9/15. Y1 - 2012/9/15. N2 - Few studies have addressed changes in physical activity participation over time among the elderly. The authors hypothesized that there were distinct trajectories of physical activity level over time and identifiable predictors of such trajectories, as well as that the maintenance of regular physical activity, even below recommended levels, was associated with lower mortality risk. Using longitudinal data (1994-2009) from 433 initially ...
Background: Physical activity for persons with Parkinson Disease (PD) is recommended yet little is known about the physical activity levels in this patient population. The primary aim was to assess the feasibility of using a direct measurement and self-report measure of physical activity in patients with PD. Methods: Physical activity was recorded in 11 out-patients with mild to moderate PD. An accelerometer based sensor system (SenseWear Pro Armband?) which was worn continuously over 2 days was used to measure physical activity. Minute by minute energy expenditure and steps per day were recorded. Self-report physical activity was measured using the Short QUestionnaire to ASsess Health-enhancing physical activity (SQUASH) which assessed average weekly activity. Results: Using the accelerometer based sensor system, 83% of the day was spent in sedentary activity with the majority active time spent at a light intensity (2.7 [SD 2.0] hrs/day). Self-reported mean number of hours for activities greater than 2
Physical activity has a range of health benefits for older people. The aim of this study was to determine physical activity prevalence and attitudes amongst respondents to a trial screening survey. A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Subjects were community dwelling older people aged ≥ 65 years, recruited via general practices in Victoria, Australia. Participants completed a mailed screening tool containing the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Active Australia survey and the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire. Of 330 participants, 20% were ≥ 80 years. Activity levels were similar to those reported in population studies. The proportion of participants reporting physical activity was greatest for the walking category, but decreased across categories of physical activity intensity. The oldest-old were represented at all physical activity intensity levels. Over half reported exercising at levels that, according to national criteria are, sufficient to attain health benefit. A greater
Molecular genetic studies suggest the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) may be implicated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). As little is known about the potential motor role of D1R in ADHD, animal models may provide important insights into this issue. We investigated the effects of a full and selective D1R agonist, SKF-81297 (0.3, 3 and 10 mg/kg), on motor behaviour and expression of the plasticity-associated gene, c-fos, in habituated young adult male Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR), the most commonly used animal model of ADHD, and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY; the strain from which SHR were derived). SHR rats were more behaviourally active than WKY rats after injection with vehicle. The 0.3 mg/kg dose of SKF-81297 increased motor behaviour (locomotion, sifting, rearing, and sniffing) in both SHR and WKY rats. Total grooming was also stimulated, but only in WKY rats. The same dose increased c-fos mRNA expression in the piriform cortex of both strains. The 3 mg/kg dose increased sifting and
The present study was performed to examine all-cause mortality rate in a cohort of 192 hemodialysis patients. Forty (20.8%) patients died during the observation period lasting up to 7 years, with cardiovascular disease as the leading cause of death. Almost one quarter of the patients showed a decline in physical activity over time, which was significantly related to elevated mortality risk independent of patient characteristics and baseline physical activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an association between change in physical activity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. Our findings suggest that it is important to prevent a decline in physical activity over time in hemodialysis patients to improve their prognosis.. Only a few studies have examined changes in physical activity evaluated with an accelerometer or pedometer and mortality. Yates et al. reported that a decrease and an increase of approximately 25% in steps per day from baseline were noted in 25.2 and 24.9% of ...
Background: The co-occurrence of two or more chronic diseases in one individual, commonly known as multimorbidity, has become a major public health problem among the elderly. Physical activity has proven to be an essential means to mitigate chronic morbidity and disability. Therefore, we hypothesized that physical activity was inversely associated with multimorbidity. Currently, epidemiological studies addressing this research question are lacking.. Methods: Using data from 1,007 men and women aged 65-94 years who participated in the population-based KORA-Age project conducted in Augsburg/Germany and two adjacent counties in 2009, thirteen chronic conditions were identified through a standardized telephone interview and a self-administered questionnaire. Physical activity scores were calculated based on the self-reported physical activity scale for the elderly (PASE), comprised of occupational, household and leisure activity items. Sex-specific logistic regression adjusted for age, BMI, ...
Over the last decade, physical activity has become a key outcome domain in the assessment of rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs). Physical activity can be defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscle that results in energy expenditure. Both physical and mental aspects of health in RMDs have been associated with optimal levels and patterns of physical activity. Also, intervention studies promoting physical activity in people with RMDs have largely confirmed these health benefits. Although there is consensus on its importance, the assessment of physical activity is complex and research in this area is rapidly growing. This lecture will therefore give a narrative overview of the state-of-the-art assessment of physical activity in RMDs considering the perspective of a researcher, a clinician, a patient and (to a lesser extent) the general population.. In a first part, this lecture will discuss the relationship between physical activity and energy expenditure. More ...
PubMed journal article Self-reported physical activity behavior of breast cancer survivors during and after adjuvant therapy: 12 months follow-up of two randomized exercise intervention trial were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
This study aims to examine factors that influence changes in levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviours from the important preschool years, across the transition to school and early school years. It is intended that the findings of this study will make a useful contribution to our ability to effectively prevent the detrimental health outcomes associated with inactivity through enhanced knowledge of factors that influence physical activity and sedentary behaviour participation among young children ...
Given the growing rates of type 2 diabetes and the documented benefits of physical activity in the treatment of this illness, further research is needed to examine methods of targeting this patient group to achieve improvements in physical activity behavior. The primary aim of this planning grant is to implement a pilot study examining the feasibility and efficacy of an individually-targeted, theoretically-based physical activity intervention for patients with type 2 diabetes. The physical activity intervention is compared to usual care, and the primary outcome is weekly physical activity at a one-month follow-up. These pilot data would demonstrate the feasibility of partnering with a community agency for participant recruitment and program implementation, as well as the potential efficacy of this intervention to promote physical activity in this high-risk population ...
On Friday, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) released a new report identifying interventions that can help increase physical activity in youth aged 3-17 years across a variety of settings. The primary audiences for the report are policymakers, health care providers, and public health professionals. APTA submitted comments in December 2012 on the draft report. Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans Midcourse Report: Strategies to Increase Physical Activity Among Youth summarizes intervention strategies based on the evidence from literature reviews and is organized into 5 settings where youth live, learn, and play: school, preschool and childcare, community, family and home, and primary health care.. Key findings of the report suggest that: ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Improving Diet and Physical Activity Assessment (R01) PAR-09-224. NCI
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Improving Diet and Physical Activity Assessment (R01) PAR-06-104. NCI
Physical inactivity is associated with increased cardiovascular disease, obesity, type II diabetes and some types of cancers. Studies have shown that genetics play a significant role in the regulation of voluntary physical activity. However, these studies involve ad libitum access to wheel running, which may cause confounded results due to a training effect, especially in inherently high active animals. This study investigated the levels of gene expression of four potential candidate genes that have been noted to be expressed differentially between high and low active animals: Myostatin (Mstn), Calsequestrin 1 (Casq1), Glucose Transporter member 4 (Slc2a4), and Leptin Receptor (Lepr). These genes where evaluated in previously used high active (C57L/J, n=6) and low active (C3H/HeJ, n=6) inbred mice that were housed with a locked running wheel. The locked wheel eliminated potential training effects on gene expression. Total RNA was isolated from soleus and nucleus accumbens tissue and quantitative real
This unit introduces students to the field of physical activity and health. The unit begins by exploring the benefits of physical activity and risks of sedentary behaviour and then moves on to understand physical activity participation. In this regard, common theories of behaviour change are explored as are key correlates of physical activity participation. An introduction to physical activity interventions is provided as is an introduction to the importance of physical activity in the lives of specific population sub-groups including older adults and underserved populations. Throughout the unit, students are required to source and reflect on high quality evidence in particular to design an appropriate and safe physical activity program that addresses known barriers to participation and fosters adoption and maintenance.. ...
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The aim of this study was to identify relationships between the physical activity and sociodemographic status of respondents aged 18–64 years. The research was conducted in 2014 and 2015 in Wrocław, Poland. The study group comprised 4460 people. The sample selection was random and stratified. The research tool was the International Physical Activity Questionnaire—Short Form. Levels of physical activity declared by respondents were compared with the recommendations of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). Data on respondents’ sociodemographic status was also obtained. The Mann–Whitney U test for samples, Kruskal–Wallis test by ranks, and total and binary logistic regression were used in statistical analysis. Among the respondents, the ACSM health recommendations were met by 43.7% in total (43.2% women and 44.3% men). All analyzed sociodemographic variables differentiated respondents’ physical activity. The youngest respondents were found to be the most
The Active Healthy Kids Canada (AHKC) Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth has been effective in powering the movement to get kids moving by influencing priorities, policies, and practice in Canada. The AHKC Report Card process was replicated in 14 additional countries from 5 continents using 9 common indicators (Overall Physical Activity, Organized Sport Participation, Active Play, Active Transportation, Sedentary Behavior, Family and Peers, School, Community and Built Environment, and Government Strategies and Investments), a harmonized process and a standardized grading framework. The 15 Report Cards were presented at the Global Summit on the Physical Activity of Children in Toronto on May 20, 2014. The consolidated findings are summarized here in the form of a global matrix of grades. There is a large spread in grades across countries for most indicators. Countries that lead in certain indicators lag in others. Overall, the grades for indicators of physical activity (PA) ...
Weak and osteoporotic bones are an increasing cause of mortality and painful physical impairment among the elderly, especially in the Western world. Bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2) accrual during childhood and adolescence is thought to influence an individuals risk of osteoporosis and the related fractures.. A main aim of this thesis is to investigate the effects that various types of weight-bearing physical activity have on bone accretion in young males during their active sports careers and to study the effects that detraining has on BMD. The results suggest that bone is sensitive to loading after puberty in males, and important gains in BMD stemming from physical activity were observed during the 12-year follow-up period (papers I-III). These gains seem to be site-specific and related to the type and amount of physical activity in which individuals participate (papers I-III). For example, badminton, a sport that is characterized by jumps and rapid versatile moments in multiple directions ...
In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the effects of sedentary behaviour on childrens health, defined as sitting behaviours that require low levels of energy expenditure (≤1.5 METs).1 There is some evidence that sedentary behaviours may be detrimental to childrens health, though the majority of associations observed are derived from cross-sectional studies examining television viewing and adiposity.2 This study adds to the literature by examining cross-sectional and prospective associations between objectively measured moderate- to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and … ...
Introduction: In the Southern Cone of Latin America physical inactivity has become the fifth most important determinant of death. There is no published data describing and comparing physical activity (PA) patterns among different cities in this region.. METHODS: CESCAS I is an observational, prospective cohort study entailing a probabilistic sample of 7524 representing the general adult population in four middle-size cities of the Southern Cone of Latin America. PA was assessed through the transcultural adapted questionnaire from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire long form. The indicator of PA intensity was expressed continuously, in metabolic equivalent task (MET) per minutes per week. We expressed the total PA score per week as "Total MET-minutes/week" constituted by the sum of Walking, Moderate and Vigorous MET minutes/week scores. Insufficient PA was defined as , Total 600 MET-minutes/week. Analyses were based on weighted data taking into account individual probabilities of ...
Influence of Diet on Voluntary Physical Activity? Explanations of how high glycemic foods as well as fiber deficiency can directly influence physical activity and exercise habits and lead to a vicious cycle of increased obesity and inactivity. Physical activity is very important to health and longevity and to a certain extent exercise can help lose…
Nixon, Catherine, Moore, H J, Lake, A A, Douthwaite, W, OMalley, C L, Pedley, C L, Summerbell, C D and Rourten, A C The enviroment can explain differences in adolescents daily physical activity levels living in a deprived urban area: Cross-sectional study using accelerometry, GPS and focus groups. Journal of Physical Activity and Health. ISSN 1543-3080 (In Press) Full text not available from this repository ...
View 40 from PFW 101 at Texas State. SECTION 7: INCREASING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVELS OF AMERICANS Taking Action: Increasing Physical Activity Levels of Americans The low level of physical activity
Introduction: Non communicable diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and heart diseases are increasing in India. There is a clear need to study risk factors for NCDs in various population groups in the country. Methods: This community based cross sectional survey was conducted to study the diet and physical activity of women in urban and rural areas in Vellore district. Dietary data was collected using 24 hour dietary recall and physical activity was collected using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Socio demographic variables were collected to assess the risk factors for unfavorable diet and physical activity. Results: The odds of the rural women engaging in high physical activity are 3.61 times greater than urban women (95% CI 2.36-5.54). The mean duration spent on watching television was 222.84 minutes (SD 125.14 mins) during week days and 203.92 minutes (SD 109.32 mins) during weekends. The mean calorie intake was 1755 Kcal (SD 491.58 Kcal). The odds of the rural women
However, these recommendations raise several questions. First, it is possible that physical activity, which is any movement requiring energy (Caspersen et al. 1985), was misinterpreted by the participants as exercise, which is planned physical activity (Caspersen et al. 1985), leading to an underestimation of actual activity levels. Second, physical activity occurs in a range of domains, including household duties, active transport, leisure-time and occupational activity (Hagströmer et al. 2006). The short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) used in this work only captures a summary of all physical activity across a week and, does not separate physical activity into different domains (Hagströmer et al. 2006). The IPAQ also asks individuals to report the amount of walking completed in the last week, which can be misinterpreted as purposeful walking for exercise. Incidental walking that may occur at work (e.g., to and from a patients room; Hagströmer et al. 2006) ...
Cardiovascular disease, arthritis, decreased mobility, and obesity represent some of the most prevalent chronic conditions associated with older adults physical inactivity [1, 2]. Engaging in 150 min of moderate activity per week is associated with marked improvements for older adults reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, functional capacity, and quality of life [3]. Further, those who maintain mobility are more likely to remain in their community of origin for longer [4], which is often associated with higher personal quality of life. In spite of the myriad health benefits associated with physical activity, older adults represent the least active cohort [5, 6], with only 13.1 % of Canadians over the age of 65 (Men = 13.7 %, Women = 12.6 % ) meeting physical activity recommendations [5].. The current prevalence of physical inactivity has been implicated in the high rate of provincial and territorial government health spending in Canada [7]. Similar to other developed countries (e.g., ...
The next questions are about physical activities or exercise you may do in your free time for at least 10 minutes, other than walking. First, think about activities that take moderate physical effort, such as bicycling, dancing, swimming, and gardening. During the last 7 days, did you do any moderate physical activities in your free time for at least 10 minutes, other than walking ...
Physical activity (PA) is associated with improved mental well-being, lower levels of obesity and a reduced prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors among children [1, 2]. Many children in Western countries such as the UK and USA do not engage in sufficient amounts of PA to meet public health guidelines [3] and PA declines during childhood. As such, understanding the factors associated with childrens PA behaviour, particularly before they make the transition to secondary school is a public health priority [4].. Most forms of PA during childhood such as play, and informal and organised sport/exercise [5-7] occur within a social context, with friends and friendship groups. For example, children play active games with their friends, take part in team sports/games both formally and informally in and out of school and just hang out with friends which may offer opportunities to be active (such as walking around town, going out on bikes). Accordingly, understanding factors supporting childrens ...
Scientific knowledge about physical activity and health is of little value if people cannot understand it and apply it to their lives. For the past three decades, there has been a gradual but steady development in the effort to present information on physical activity and health to the general public.
Abstract Background and Objectives Physical activities can make different hematological changes. The aim of this research was to evaluate the response of hematological indices and the changes of iron and ferritin subsequent to 6 months of aerobic exercise.   Materials and Methods In this semi-experimental study, 19 sedentary middle-aged women with ...
Grydeland, May; Bergh, Ingunn Holden; Bjelland, Mona; Lien, Nanna; Andersen, Lene Frost; Ommundsen, Yngvar; Klepp, Knut Inge & Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred (2013). Intervention effects on physical activity: the HEIA study - a cluster randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. ISSN 1479-5868. 10 . doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-10-17 Vis sammendrag Background: Although school-based interventions to promote physical activity in adolescents have been suggested in several recent reviews, questions have been raised regarding the effects of the strategies and the methodology applied and for whom the interventions are effective. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of a school-based intervention program: the HEalth in Adolescents (HEIA) study, on change in physical activity, and furthermore, to explore whether potential effects varied by gender, weight status, initial physical activity level and parental education level. Methods: This was a ...
The results of this study indicate that, at least among Australian high school students, the HBSC physical activity questions had acceptable test-retest reliability among year 8 students and acceptable to good reliability among year 10 students. However, these findings should be viewed with some caution until they are confirmed in other populations. That the reliability of self report physical activity measures generally improves with the age of the students is a further issue which has also been reported by Sallis and his colleagues.15. The data also indicate that the HBSC instrument has at least partial validity, as higher scores on the MFT differentiated the groups by self reported activity level. Aerobic fitness is an indirect measure of validity because other factors, in addition to physical activity, also influence aerobic fitness. That is, a measure of aerobic fitness is, at best, only partially related to the differences between self report physical activity categories. It should also be ...
Intelligence is present; motor activity but no symbols; knowledge is developing yet limited; knowledge is based on experiences ...
Motor activity is nearly non-existent. Individuals in this state make little or no eye contact with others and may be mute and ... Excessive glutamate activity is believed to be involved in catatonia; when first-line treatment options fail, NMDA antagonists ... stupor (i.e., no psychomotor activity; not actively relating to environment). *catalepsy (i.e., passive induction of a posture ... Catatonia is a state of psycho-motor immobility and behavioral abnormality manifested by stupor. It was first described in 1874 ...
BS Motoring. July 25, 2011.. *^ "Smallest Ford Engine Ever! Three-Cylinder EcoBoost (and Two New Transmissions)". Retrieved ... "HR12DDR Engine , NISSAN , TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES". Nissan-global.com. Retrieved 2014-06-20.. ... The Hyundai Motor Group used a 1.5-litre three-cylinder diesel engine (developed by VM Motori) on the second generation of the ... "Motor Mania. Retrieved 2012-07-03. Motivation comes from a 3-cylinder, 650cc petrol engine that kicks out a mere 51bhp (52PS/ ...
Motor development. *Gains greater control over large and fine motor skills; movements are more precise and deliberate, though ... Recognizes seasons and major activities done at certain times.. *Has fun with problem solving and sorting activities like ... Adult-like motor planning. *Motor planning includes an individual's choice of movements and trajectory of such movements. ... Respiration rates vary with activity. *Environmental conditions, weather, activity, and clothing still affect variations in ...
Perceptual and Motor Skills'', ''33''(1), 271-306 *^ a b Glassman, W. E. (1972). Subvocal activity and acoustic confusions in ... a b c d Green, M. F., & Kinsbourne, M. (1990). Subvocal activity and auditory hallucinations: Clues for behavioral treatments ... Greater electrical activity suggests a stronger use of subvocalization.[5][9] In the case of suppression training, the trainee ... Glassman, W.E. (1972). Subvocal activity and acoustic confusions in short-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 96(1 ...
doi:10.3168/jds.s0022-0302(86)80748-2. Mead, Larissa A.; Hargreaves, Eric L.; Galea, Liisa A. M. (1996). Motor Activity and ... Subsequent research showed that a variety of species experience an increase in the frequency of spontaneous activity and motor ... Adams, David B.; Gold, Alice Ross; Burt, Anne D. (1978). "Rise in female-initiated sexual activity at ovulation and Its ... Some of the earliest studies on human ovulatory shifts explored whether women engage in more instances of sexual activity ...
"Factory Activities". The Automobile, Volume 36. May 10, 1917. p. 899. Draft registration card for Paul Hale Bruske, born ... Paul Hale Bruske (May 5, 1912). "FLANDERS CARS ON MOTORDROME: Midget Motors to Vie for Honors on Pie-pan; Manager Plans to Send ... From 1917 to 1919, he was the advertising manager for Ray Harroun's Harroun Motors Corp. In a draft registration card completed ... "Bruske Back To Advertising". Motor Age, Volume 35. 1919. p. 14. "Obituary". The Washington Post. September 28, 1956. p. 26. ...
Early motor skills and development have also shown to be related to physical activity and performance later in life. Children ... Early motor proficiency has a positive correlation to childhood physical activity and fitness levels, while less proficiency in ... "Motor Activity in Aging: An Integrated Approach for Better Quality of Life". Int. Sch. Res. Notices. 2014: 1-9. doi:10.1155/ ... One of the possible mechanisms by which physical activity may benefit cognition is that physical activity maintains brain ...
Several studies of motor learning in cats observed complex spike activity when there was a mismatch between an intended ... They continue to be able to generate motor activity but lose precision, producing erratic, uncoordinated, or incorrectly timed ... Gilbert PF, Thach WT (1977). "Purkinje cell activity during motor learning". Brain Res. 128 (2): 309-28. doi:10.1016/0006-8993( ... If the input and output connections of a module are with motor areas (as many are), then the module will be involved in motor ...
... "limbic-motor integration". Visceral survival activities. Zona incerta controls such activities as water and food intake, ... Sensory-motor activities. At rest sensory input to the higher sensory areas of the cerebral cortex is gated through the ... In monkeys for example neuronal activity in the zona incerta "pauses" before the start of a saccade and resumes at the end of a ... This is sometimes called the motor part of the zona incerta nucleus. This is the area targeted by deep brain stimulation area ...
"Bayesian population decoding of motor cortical activity using a Kalman filter". Neural Computation. 18: 80-118. CiteSeerX 10.1. ... "Probabilistic inference of hand motion from neural activity in motor cortex". Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems ... "Neural control of computer cursor velocity by decoding motor cortical spiking activity in humans with tetraplegia". J. Neural ... to decode motor cortical ensemble activity. With these Bayesian decoding methods, the team demonstrated the successful point- ...
"Required time for motor activities in lucid dreams". Perceptual and Motor Skills. 99 (3 Pt 2): 1239-42. doi:10.2466/PMS.99.7. ... Perceptual and Motor Skills, 57, 1983, pp. 79-90. *^ Tholey, Paul, (1983). Cognitive abilities of dream figures in lucid dreams ... brain wave activity experienced by lucid dreamers, hence there is an increased amount of activity in the parietal lobes making ... Tholey, Paul (1983). "Relation between dream content and eye movements tested by lucid dreams". Perceptual and Motor Skills, 56 ...
doi:10.1007/s00359-004-0568-6. Sirota M. G., Pavlova G. A., Beloozerova I. N. (2006). "Activity of the motor cortex during ... ENG recordings are used to record electrical activity from motor neurons and spinal cord neurons. These techniques have enabled ... or neuromuscular blockers are used to prevent contractions of muscles in response to motor neuron activity; or the spinal cord ... CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Earhart G. M., Stein P. S. G. (2000). "Step, swim, and scratch motor patterns in the ...
Fatt, P.; Katz, B. (1952). "Spontaneous subthreshold activity at motor nerve endings". J Physiol. 117 (1): 109-128. PMC 1392564 ... Neuronal activity at the microscopic level has a stochastic character, with atomic collisions and agitation, that may be termed ... doi:10.1007/s10825-006-0140-4. Ho N, Destexhe A (2000). "Synaptic background activity enhances the responsiveness of ... stochastic noise in a non-linear network shows a positive relationship between the interconnectivity and noise-like activity. ...
Intense Paranormal Experiences Occur during Days of Quiet, Global, Geomagnetic Activity". Perceptual and Motor Skills. ... Perceptual and Motor Skills. Persinger, Michael A. (2012). "Protracted parahippocampal activity associated with Sean Harribance ... Persinger, M. A. (1999). "On the nature of space-time in the observation of physical events in science". Perceptual and Motor ... Increases in numbers of photon counts under hyperdark conditions during cellular activity and certain types of cognition were ...
"Spontaneous subthreshold activity at motor nerve endings". The Journal of Physiology. 117 (1): 109-28. doi:10.1113/jphysiol. ...
"Modification of seizure activity by electrical stimulation. II. Motor seizure". Electroencephalography and clinical ... Rearing and falling with forelimb clonus (generalized motor convulsions) During this final stage, the patient is at the highest ... In this experiment, researchers used implanted electrodes to measure the electrographic activity during the introduction of a ...
It has delegated powers for the following taxes and fees: Property Tax (IBI). Economic Activities Tax (IAE). Motor Vehicle Tax ... It is responsible for the processing of local taxes from the first instance of a taxable activity or property to the receipt of ... This involves a number of activities: updating the various payment lists, communicating with customers by issuing bills, ...
"Timeline of American Motors in Costa Rica". amc.co.cr. Retrieved 15 September 2014. "Activities by RegionLatin America". Toyota ... "Full-Size American Motors". Motor Trend: 90. November 1966. "1967 AMC Data Book". oldcarbrochures.org. p. 73. Retrieved 23 ... General Motors, Ford Motor Company, and Chrysler) automakers did not yet compete. While development of a redesigned 1958 Nash ... Motor Trend. Retrieved 15 September 2014. Isbrandt, Ralph H. (February 1963). "Rambler Engineering". Motor Trend. AMCRC. ...
The main source of employment for the population of Peldon is the repair of motor vehicles and motor cycles, with 47 people ... "Economic Activity in Peldon census data". Retrieved 29 March 2017. "St. Mary's Church history". Retrieved 29 March 2017. " ... "Industry: Wholesale and Retail Trade; Repair of Motor Vehicles and Motor Cycles (Persons)". Retrieved 29 March 2017. "Age ...
As a rail hub, before the Bosnian War, Doboj focused much of its industrial activities around it. Moreover, as a regional ... academic year, they opened new departments: Air Transport; Roads; Informatics in Transport and Motor vehicles. The local ... The town's favourite sports activity, however, is handball. It is being played by the local club Sloga Doboj. Sloga Doboj ranks ...
This helps the continuous adjustment of motor activity. The initiation of the movement is relayed to cerebellum via the ... It shows greatest activity during speech, with a one-sided predominance consistent with a possible linkage (via the thalamus) ... The motor cortex and somatosensory cortex projects onto the ipsilateral inferior and accessory olivary nuclei, then forming the ... with the motor speech area. When lesions occur in the association areas linked to the cerebellum by corticopontocerebellar ...
Fatt, P.; Katz, B. (May 28, 1952). "Spontaneous subthreshold activity at motor nerve endings" (PDF). The Journal of Physiology ... In C. elegans the major motor for synaptic vesicles is UNC-104. There is also evidence that other proteins such as UNC-16/ ... The botulinum toxin has protease activity which degrades the SNAP-25 protein. The SNAP-25 protein is required for vesicle ... Sunday Driver regulate the use of motors for transport of synaptic vesicles. 2. Transmitter loading Once at the synapse, ...
Motor activity alterations are very common in delirium. They have been used to define clinical subtypes (hypoactive, ... including altered motor activity and fragmented sleep-wake cycle. Phenomenology studies suggest that core symptoms occur with ... cytokines pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory activities) and GFAP (marker of astrocyte activity). These results might ... One functional MRI study reported a reversible reduction in activity in brain areas localising with cognition and attention ...
"Movement of activity on the superior colliculus motor map during gaze shifts" (PDF). Science. 251 (4999): 1358-60. doi:10.1126/ ... In 1991, Munoz et al., on the basis of data they collected, argued that, during a saccade, the "hill" of activity in the SC ... Just prior to a saccade, activity rapidly builds up at the target location and decreases in other parts of the SC. The coding ... The output from the motor sector of the SC goes to a set of midbrain and brainstem nuclei, which transform the "place" code ...
Models of working memory, relying on theories of network oscillations and persistent activity, have been built to capture some ... These are the bases for some quantitative modeling of large-scale brain activity.[35] ...
Motor skills usually develop together since many activities depend on the coordination of gross and fine motor skills. Gross ... There are a number of activities parents can have children do to help develop gross motor skills. These include: * playing ... Activities for Gross Motor Skills Development. Westminster, CA: Teacher Created Materials, 2003. ... Developmental coordination disorder -A disorder of motor skills. Fine motor skill -The abilities required to control the ...
... climbing and hoping and fine motor skills like coloring, or playing with Lego make school and social activities uncomfortable. ... Clinical Assessment Tests of Motor Coordination. There are standard motor coordination tests to pinpoint diagnosis: Bruininks- ... the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales (PDMS), and the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD). ... But there are some kids whose struggle to fully participate and learn new skills in daily activities at home, in the playground ...
Recent site activity Jan 9, 2020, 4:27 AM Tiverton Motor Club deleted attachment Tiverton Club Report 04.06.17.pdf from Results ... Tiverton Motor Club edited Home. Mar 10, 2019, 1:29 PM Tiverton Motor Club attached 2019.03.10 TOLLAND TRIAL (2).pdf to Results ... Tiverton Motor Club edited News letter Jun 9, 2019, 2:27 PM Tiverton Motor Club attached 2019.06.09 Rifton Barton Revised.pdf ... Tiverton Motor Club attached 2020 membership info.pdf to News letter Nov 27, 2019, 8:50 AM Tiverton Motor Club deleted ...
... Aka: Motor Activity Abnormality, Akathisia, Bradykinesia, Catatonia *See Also. *Extrapyramidal Side ...
Rhes acts as a kind of brake on the amphetamine-induced locomotion; in order for normal motor activity to occur, the RasGRP1 ... Scripps Florida scientists pinpoint regulator of amphetamine induced motor activity. Published Monday 21 November 2016 ... In the study, the researchers succeeded in using RasGRP1 to inhibit Rhes-mediated control of striatal motor activity in animal ... "Scripps Florida scientists pinpoint regulator of amphetamine induced motor activity." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., ...
To practice our fine and gross motor skills, he ... Comments for Fine Motor Activity. Average Rating Click here to ... Fine Motor Activity. by Jennie H (Brooklyn, OH) My son will be 3 in November, and he was diagnosed with speech delays and ... To practice our fine and gross motor skills, he loves to try to pop bubble wrap. First he pops it with his fingers, and then ... when he gets tired or frustrated with the fine motor aspect, we put the bubble wrap on the floor, and he practices jumping (he ...
Fun fine motor skills activities for tots and easy preschool ... Toddlers like to flutter from activity to activity. ... Toddlers like to flutter from activity to activity. Fun fine motor skills activities for tots and easy preschool science ... Fine motor skills activities and easy preschool science experiments have been published on Kids Activities Blog. Let the kids ... Kids Activities Blog is a great tool for moms and teachers to find kid-friendly activities that create memories and sneak ...
Motor cortical activity during drawing movements: population representation during sinusoid tracing.. Schwartz AB1. ... Activity of individual units in the precentral gyrus contralateral to the moving arm was recorded as the task was performed. ... In each bin, the activity of a particular cell was represented by a vector. The vector ("cell vector") pointed in the direction ...
The relations of ongoing single-cell activity in the arm area of the motor cortex and area 5 to parameters of evolving arm ... Movement parameters and neural activity in motor cortex and area 5.. Ashe J1, Georgopoulos AP. ... A multiple linear regression model was used in which the ongoing impulse activity of cells at time t + tau was expressed as a ... The median R2 was 0.581 and 0.530 for motor cortex and area 5, respectively. The median shift at which the highest R2 was ...
... that a specific signaling circuit in the brain is deeply involved in motor activity. ... Rhes acts as a kind of brake on the amphetamine-induced locomotion; in order for normal motor activity to occur, the RasGRP1 ... In the study, the researchers succeeded in using RasGRP1 to inhibit Rhes-mediated control of striatal motor activity in animal ... Scripps Florida scientists pinpoint regulator of amphetamine induced motor activity. Scripps Research Institute ...
An effective gross motor activity for toddlers is one that requires them to make larger movements that develop the muscles in ... An effective gross motor activity for toddlers is one that requires them to make larger movements that develop the muscles in ... Gross motor activities should allow the toddler to exercise the large muscles in his legs, arms and entire body to further ... Pushing and pulling is a good motor activity for toddlers. This can be practiced by providing the toddler with a wagon or a toy ...
... Daniela Balslev, Finn rup Nielsen, Sally A. Frutiger, John J. ... Neuroimaging studies of learning focus on brain areas where the activity changes as a function of time. To circumvent the ... The results from cluster analysis show practice-related activity in a fronto-parieto-cerebellar network, in agreement with ... previous studies of motor learning. These voxels were separated from a group of voxels showing an unspecific time-effect and ...
Browse stories and reviews on Anobii of Fine Motor Activities written by Adriana Olabi, published by STRATEGIC BOOK PUB in ...
Develop laterality, locomotor skills, and motor planning This is an excerpt from Perceptual-Motor Activities for Children: An ... Learn more about Perceptual-Motor Activities for Children: An Evidence-Based Guide to Building Physical and Cognitive Skills. ... Develop skills through fun bilateral activities * Helping children develop to their full potential through perceptual-motor ... Develop skills through fun bilateral activities * Helping children develop to their full potential through perceptual-motor ...
Sodium Pumps Mediate Activity-Dependent Changes in Mammalian Motor Networks. Laurence D. Picton, Filipe Nascimento, Matthew J. ... Sodium Pumps Mediate Activity-Dependent Changes in Mammalian Motor Networks. Laurence D. Picton, Filipe Nascimento, Matthew J. ... Sodium Pumps Mediate Activity-Dependent Changes in Mammalian Motor Networks Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... Sodium Pumps Mediate Activity-Dependent Changes in Mammalian Motor Networks. Laurence D. Picton, Filipe Nascimento, Matthew J. ...
The antennal motor system is activated by the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine in the American cockroach Periplaneta americana, ... Rhythmic bursting activities of the antennal motor nerves in in vitro preparations were also elicited by bath application of ... Cross-correlation analyses of the bursting spike activities revealed significant couplings among certain motor units, implying ... The pilocarpine-induced rhythmic activity of antennal motor nerves was effectively suppressed by the muscarinic antagonist ...
2009) Childhood motor skill proficiency as a predictor of adolescent physical activity. J Adolesc Health 44(3):252-259. ... Adequate motor function is also a prerequisite for performing physical activity (14), and has been linked to cardiorespiratory ... Compromised motor function had a negative indirect effect on academic achievement via lower levels of physical activity (B = - ... Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents academic achievement. ...
Pull up new fine motor skills with this sets Tri-Grip Tong, which boosts hand strength and pencil grip. Also builds color, ... Pull up new fine motor skills with this sets Tri-Grip Tong, which boosts hand strength and pencil grip. Also builds color, ... Pull up new fine motor skills with this sets Tri-Grip Tong, which boosts hand strength and pencil grip. Also builds color, ...
Bath application of the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 had no effect upon basal CPMC activity whereas application of the synthetic ... Bath application of the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 had no effect upon basal CPMC activity whereas application of the synthetic ... that any potential mechanosensory function of TRPA1 doesnt involve contributing to distension induced colonic motor activity ... that any potential mechanosensory function of TRPA1 doesnt involve contributing to distension induced colonic motor activity ...
Motor Activity Toy Baby from Fishpond.com.au online store. Millions of products all with free shipping Australia wide. Lowest ... Motor Activity Toy Baby , Manhattan Toy Learning Baby , 6 Mth Plus Toys Baby ... Manhattan Toy Winkel Rattle and Sensory Teether Activity Toy, 5L x 3.5H x 4W-Inch By Manhattan Toy ... Ally Toy Wooden Activity Cube & Sand Hammer Educational Toy Gift for Kids By Ally Toy ...
Overall, the results reveal distinctions in the profile of mirror activity across premotor and motor areas. While F5 maintains ... Time-varying population activity was more distinct between execution and observation in M1 than in F5, and M1 activity in the ... modulate their activity during both the execution and observation of motor acts. However, movement is not produced in the ... Relatively reduced activity in M1 during observation may help to suppress movement. Here, we examined the extent to which ...
motoring completed the lessons Welcome! and Tools and Supplies in the class Raspberry Pi Class1 year ago ... motoring favorited How to Make a Spot Welder - for Cheap!! by The King of Random4 years ago ... motoring completed the lesson Tools and Materials for Arduino in the class Arduino Class11 months ago ... motoring favorited Digital Manufacturing - project two desk name plate, Digital Manufacturing - project three 3D printed box ...
We conclude that activity in pontine reticular formation neurons is more closely related to motor output than to sensory input. ... Pontine reticular formation neurons: relationship of discharge to motor activity Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a ... and auditory stimuli showed undiminished discharge rates during motor activity. Discrete sensory stimuli evoked sustained unit ... most unit activity could not be explained by the presence of sensory stimuli. Intense firing occurred in association with ...
Otto Motor reviewed the item Moondrop SSR Super Starship Reference Review. 4.00 star(s) Moondrop SSR "Super Spaceship Reference ... Otto Motor replied to the thread The discovery thread!. The Starfield are good. Here some info on the KBEAR KS2 and Tin Hifi T2 ... Otto Motor replied to the thread The discovery thread!. Easy: the SSR was taken off the shelves because of cable problems and ... Otto Motor replied to the thread The discovery thread!. What I like about the Tin Hifi T2 Plus: tonal accuracy tonal accuracy ...
HomeBusinessOption Activity Alert: Ford Motor, Monster Worldwide, Bank of New York. Option Activity Alert: Ford Motor, Monster ... F - Ford Motor Co. - One big bullish options player appears to be positioning for Fords shares to touch a new 52-week high by ... Option Activity Alert: Tyson Foods, Goldcorp, CVS Caremark October 8, 2010 Andrew Wilkinson ... Ford Motor Co. earlier reported that sales in the main 19 European markets declined 16% last month, which represents the firms ...
  • We investigated neural correlates of visuomotor performance in human motor areas using scalp and intracranial event-related potential measures. (epfl.ch)
  • Significant improvements in motor performance were accompanied by bilateral increased activation in the supplementary motor area. (diva-portal.org)
  • Increased blood oxygenation level-dependent signals were observed bilaterally in the premotor areas and supplementary motor area during performance of both MI and MRot tasks. (springer.com)
  • Studies on mental rotation tasks involving body parts have shown activation of the movement-related region (premotor area and supplementary motor area) (Kosslyn et al. (springer.com)
  • Although this early activity embodies features of visual responses (short latency, stimulus-dependency), its sensory nature has been questioned. (epfl.ch)
  • There was a significant short-latency change in activity in 61/63 single motor units, and in each case this was a decrease or gap in firing, indicating an inhibitory reflex. (uzh.ch)
  • These results indicate that the activation of the antennal motor system is mediated by muscarinic receptors. (springer.com)
  • These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. (pnas.org)
  • Our results show that any potential mechanosensory function of TRPA1 doesn't involve contributing to distension induced colonic motor activity and that a role for TRPA1 in the colon is through regulating motility through exogenous and endogenous agonist induced inhibitory effects. (frontiersin.org)
  • Overall, the results reveal distinctions in the profile of mirror activity across premotor and motor areas. (bl.uk)
  • Results: OFQ/N suppressed motor activity when injected into the VTA and to a lesser extent after direct injection into the nucleus accumbens. (rti.org)
  • The motor-suppressant action of intra-VTA OFQ/N was attenuated by J-113397 (1.5 mug/0.5 muL per side) administered into the VTA 10 minutes before administration of OFQ/N. Conclusion: Our results indicate that OFQ/N suppresses motor activity through activation of the ORL1 receptor primarily through an action in the VTA. (rti.org)
  • Our results demonstrate that multiple UAW motor outputs can be uncoupled from phrenic bursting, and this response is associated with bursting of EI nerve fibers. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The results showed that activity in the motor area exhibited a strong interaction between the subject's supported side (batter or pitcher) and the outcome (a hit or an out). (nih.gov)
  • Results PL activity in mid stance was statistically significant higher (p=.0083, post hoc power =.98) with sensori-motor insoles (18.4±12.17 uV*s) compared to dummy-insoles (10.0±7.6 uV*s). (bmj.com)
  • These results indicate that activation of ventral medullary 5-HT receptor subtypes produces unique effects on cardiorespiratory activity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Track Xplorer visualizes the results of different classifiers as well as the ground truth labels and the video of activities as temporally-aligned linear tracks. (arxiv.org)
  • We report that erratic activity of wild-type Purkinje cells results in ataxia and dystonic postures. (biologists.org)
  • By demonstrating the effectiveness of combined static and dynamic analysis, our results show how static brain maps can be related to the results of brain activity mapping. (yale.edu)
  • The authors used various methods to assess motor activity. (termedia.pl)
  • Methods In a population-based study of people ≥65 years in central Spain (NEDICES), a 37-item version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (37-MMSE) and an 11-item version of the Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) were administered to non-demented ET cases and controls. (bmj.com)
  • Methods For 32 healthy subjects the activity of the peroneus longus and tibialis anterior muscle was recorded by means of surface EMG (Noraxon Telemyo). (bmj.com)
  • Statistical analysis revealed that oral motor activity did not systematically affect golf performance in respect of shot precision or shot length for 60m, 160 m, or driving distance. (frontiersin.org)
  • FMCSA requests approval to revise an ICR entitled, "Motor Carrier Identification Report," which is used to identify FMCSA regulated entities, help prioritize the agency's activities, aid in assessing the safety outcomes of those activities, and for statistical purposes. (federalregister.gov)
  • Sub-tests with sensori-motor insoles and dummy insoles were compared for each subject by statistical means (paired t-test). (bmj.com)
  • In this study, we aimed to investigate the possible application of a mental rotation (MRot) task and used fMRI to compare the brain activity during the MRot task with that during an MI task in healthy volunteers. (springer.com)
  • RIL Property PLC (RIL) announced on the Colombo Stock Exchange that it acquired a 30 percent stake in United Motors Lanka PLC (UML) from the latter's major shareholder, M.A. Yaseen via a crossing on 8th November 2017, for a consideration of Rs.2.36 billion. (dailymirror.lk)
  • Despite many advances, the precise signaling mechanisms that regulate motor function in the striatum, that part of the brain responsible for motor activity, remain unknown. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This protein complex carefully controls that motor function by modulating the effect of Rhes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A multiple linear regression model was used in which the ongoing impulse activity of cells at time t + tau was expressed as a function of the (X, Y) components of the target direction and of position, velocity, and acceleration of the hand at time t, where tau was a time shift (-200 to +200 msec). (nih.gov)
  • The primary symptoms of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy include impaired motor function, loss of sensation and a symmetric weakness in th. (reference.com)
  • Neuroimaging studies of learning focus on brain areas where the activity changes as a function of time. (dtu.dk)
  • This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. (pnas.org)
  • The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. (pnas.org)
  • Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (β) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents' academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = -0.023, 95% confidence interval = -0.031, -0.015) and obesity (B = -0.025, 95% confidence interval = -0.039, -0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. (pnas.org)
  • Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement. (pnas.org)
  • Physical Activity is defined to any activity that makes us move and function in a coordinated manner. (medhelp.org)
  • The aim of the study was to investigate the impact on motor function, quality of movements and everyday activities of three hours of goal-directed activity-focused physiotherapy in a group setting, five days a week for a period of three weeks. (nih.gov)
  • All levels of Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) were represented. (nih.gov)
  • Correlations of construct validity indicate that daily hand use may need to be measured separately from body function and activity capacity, in line with the underlying constructs of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. (diva-portal.org)
  • Rats were habituated to activity chambers for 1 hour and then injected with either artificial cerebrospinal fluid or OFQ/N into one of the brain regions, and motor activity was recorded for a further 1 hour. (rti.org)
  • Neurobiological concepts try to explain hyperactivity in terms of HPA dysregulation and the influence of orexin and leptin imbalance, based mainly on studies in rats - the activity-based anorexia model. (termedia.pl)
  • We recorded Mthal spiking activity in control and unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats performing a skilled forelimb-reaching task. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • People with mobility impairments may have difficulties in everyday life motor activities, and assessing these difficulties is crucial to plan rehabilitation interventions and evaluate their effectiveness. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We will screen the literature for studies which applied inertial sensors to people with mobility impairments in free-living conditions, described the data processing algorithm reproducibly, and calculated everyday life motor activity-related outcome measures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • More than half of the studies concerned students with motor impairments. (diva-portal.org)
  • Objective: Intracerebroventricular administration of orphanin FQ/nociceptin (OFQ/N), the endogenous agonist ligand of the opioid receptor-like (ORL-1) receptor, decreases extracellular levels of dopamine and suppresses motor activity. (rti.org)
  • An effective gross motor activity for toddlers is one that requires them to make larger movements that develop the muscles in their arms, legs, feet or entire body. (reference.com)
  • Background Sensori-motor insoles are supposed to influence muscle activity of the ankle stabilizing muscles during stance phase of human gait by imposing pressure upon tendon structures. (bmj.com)
  • As the ankle joint is sensitive to disturbances (supination) during mid stance an increased activity of pronator muscles might help to stabilize the foot and possibly help to prevent ankle sprains. (bmj.com)
  • By encouraging your little one to try some of these gross motor activities, they aren't just being active and burning off steam, they're working these muscles, and honing them for current and future use. (verywellfamily.com)
  • Technavio has been monitoring the railway traction motor market and it is poised to grow by USD 2.37 billion during 2019-2023, progressing at a CAGR of 4% during the forecast period. (theeagle.com)
  • Technavio has published a new market research report on the railway traction motor market from 2019-2023. (theeagle.com)