Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Pattern Recognition, Automated: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Database Management Systems: Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Psychological Theory: Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Protein Interaction Mapping: Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Pleasure: Sensation of enjoyment or gratification.Altruism: Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Computing Methodologies: Computer-assisted analysis and processing of problems in a particular area.Programming Languages: Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.Goals: The end-result or objective, which may be specified or required in advance.Personnel Loyalty: Dedication or commitment shown by employees to organizations or institutions where they work.Software Validation: The act of testing the software for compliance with a standard.Sequence Analysis, RNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Smoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Drive: A state of internal activity of an organism that is a necessary condition before a given stimulus will elicit a class of responses; e.g., a certain level of hunger (drive) must be present before food will elicit an eating response.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Documentation: Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Numerical Analysis, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted study of methods for obtaining useful quantitative solutions to problems that have been expressed mathematically.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Natural Language Processing: Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Volunteers: Persons who donate their services.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Anhedonia: Inability to experience pleasure due to impairment or dysfunction of normal psychological and neurobiological mechanisms. It is a symptom of many PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., DEPRESSIVE DISORDER, MAJOR; and SCHIZOPHRENIA).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Personal Autonomy: Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Appetitive Behavior: Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Social Control, Informal: Those forms of control which are exerted in less concrete and tangible ways, as through folkways, mores, conventions, and public sentiment.Consummatory Behavior: An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Software Design: Specifications and instructions applied to the software.Systems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Vocabulary, Controlled: A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Programming, Linear: A technique of operations research for solving certain kinds of problems involving many variables where a best value or set of best values is to be found. It is most likely to be feasible when the quantity to be optimized, sometimes called the objective function, can be stated as a mathematical expression in terms of the various activities within the system, and when this expression is simply proportional to the measure of the activities, i.e., is linear, and when all the restrictions are also linear. It is different from computer programming, although problems using linear programming techniques may be programmed on a computer.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Salaries and Fringe Benefits: The remuneration paid or benefits granted to an employee.Employee Incentive Plans: Programs designed by management to motivate employees to work more efficiently with increased productivity, and greater employee satisfaction.Intention: What a person has in mind to do or bring about.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Databases, Nucleic Acid: Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.Achievement: Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Energy Drinks: Beverages consumed as stimulants and tonics. They usually contain a combination of CAFFEINE with other substances such as herbal supplements; VITAMINS; AMINO ACIDS; and sugar or sugar derivatives.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing: Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.Students, Nursing: Individuals enrolled in a school of nursing or a formal educational program leading to a degree in nursing.Data Mining: Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Remuneration: Payment for a service or for a commodity such as a body part.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Sample Size: The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Job Satisfaction: Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Neural Networks (Computer): A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Stochastic Processes: Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Coercion: The use of force or intimidation to obtain compliance.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Temperance: Habitual moderation in the indulgence of a natural appetite, especially but not exclusively the consumption of alcohol.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Apathy: Lack of emotion or emotional expression; a disorder of motivation that persists over time.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Satiation: Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.Systems Biology: Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.Metabolism: The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Factor Analysis, Statistical: A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Education, Premedical: Preparatory education meeting the requirements for admission to medical school.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Dictionaries, ChemicalPhylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Punishment: The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Discriminant Analysis: A statistical analytic technique used with discrete dependent variables, concerned with separating sets of observed values and allocating new values. It is sometimes used instead of regression analysis.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Receptors, Dopamine D2: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Specialties, Dental: Various branches of dental practice limited to specialized areas.Helping Behavior: Behaviors associated with the giving of assistance or aid to individuals.Halfway Houses: Specialized residences for persons who do not require full hospitalization, and are not well enough to function completely within the community without professional supervision, protection and support.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Anticipation, Psychological: The ability to foresee what is likely to happen on the basis of past experience. It is largely a frontal lobe function.Narcissism: A psychoanalytic term meaning self-love.Psychology, Educational: The branch of psychology concerned with psychological aspects of teaching and the formal learning process in school.Hypermedia: Computerized compilations of information units (text, sound, graphics, and/or video) interconnected by logical nonlinear linkages that enable users to follow optimal paths through the material and also the systems used to create and display this information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Frustration: The motivational and/or affective state resulting from being blocked, thwarted, disappointed or defeated.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Tobacco Use Disorder: Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.Fuzzy Logic: Approximate, quantitative reasoning that is concerned with the linguistic ambiguity which exists in natural or synthetic language. At its core are variables such as good, bad, and young as well as modifiers such as more, less, and very. These ordinary terms represent fuzzy sets in a particular problem. Fuzzy logic plays a key role in many medical expert systems.Cell Physiological Phenomena: Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Medical Tourism: Travel to another country for the purpose of medical treatment.Support Vector Machines: Learning algorithms which are a set of related supervised computer learning methods that analyze data and recognize patterns, and used for classification and regression analysis.Behavior Control: Manipulation of the behavior of persons or animals by biomedical, physical, psychological, or social means, including for nontherapeutic reasons.Career Mobility: The upward or downward mobility in an occupation or the change from one occupation to another.Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.United StatesResearch Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Starlings: The family Sturnidae, in the order PASSERIFORMES. The starling family also includes mynahs and oxpeckers.Artifacts: Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Peripartum Period: The period shortly before, during, and immediately after giving birth.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.

Women's interest in vaginal microbicides. (1/5369)

CONTEXT: Each year, an estimated 15 million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV, occur in the United States. Women are not only at a disadvantage because of their biological and social susceptibility, but also because of the methods that are available for prevention. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of 1,000 women aged 18-44 in the continental United States who had had sex with a man in the last 12 months were interviewed by telephone. Analyses identified levels and predictors of women's worry about STDs and interest in vaginal microbicides, as well as their preferences regarding method characteristics. Numbers of potential U.S. microbicide users were estimated. RESULTS: An estimated 21.3 million U.S. women have some potential current interest in using a microbicidal product. Depending upon product specifications and cost, as many as 6.0 million women who are worried about getting an STD would be very interested in current use of a microbicide. These women are most likely to be unmarried and not cohabiting, of low income and less education, and black or Hispanic. They also are more likely to have visited a doctor for STD symptoms or to have reduced their sexual activity because of STDs, to have a partner who had had other partners in the past year, to have no steady partner or to have ever used condoms for STD prevention. CONCLUSIONS: A significant minority of women in the United States are worried about STDs and think they would use vaginal microbicides. The development, testing and marketing of such products should be expedited.  (+info)

Condom use and HIV risk behaviors among U.S. adults: data from a national survey. (2/5369)

CONTEXT: How much condom use among U.S. adults varies by type of partner or by risk behavior is unclear. Knowledge of such differentials would aid in evaluating the progress being made toward goals for levels of condom use as part of the Healthy People 2000 initiative. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the 1996 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse, an annual household-based probability sample of the noninstitutionalized population aged 12 and older that measures the use of illicit drugs, alcohol and tobacco. The personal behaviors module included 25 questions covering sexual activity in the past year, frequency of condom use in the past year, circumstances of the last sexual encounter and HIV testing. RESULTS: Sixty-two percent of adults reported using a condom at last intercourse outside of an ongoing relationship, while only 19% reported using condoms when the most recent intercourse occurred within a steady relationship. Within ongoing relationships, condom use was highest among respondents who were younger, black, of lower income and from large metropolitan areas. Forty percent of unmarried adults used a condom at last sex, compared with the health objective of 50% for the year 2000. Forty percent of injecting drug users used condoms at last intercourse, compared with the 60% condom use objective for high-risk individuals. Significantly, persons at increased risk for HIV because of their sexual behavior or drug use were not more likely to use condoms than were persons not at increased risk; only 22% used condoms during last intercourse within an ongoing relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial progress has been made toward national goals for increasing condom use. The rates of condom use by individuals at high risk of HIV need to be increased, however, particularly condom use with a steady partner.  (+info)

Tay-Sachs screening: motives for participating and knowledge of genetics and probability. (3/5369)

A highly-educated, socially aware group of persons presented themselves for Tay-Sachs screening having learned about it mainly from friends, newspapers, radio, and television but not from physicians or rabbis. After learning that screening was possible and deciding that it is in principle a good idea, and after discussing it with relatives and friends but not with physicians and rabbis, they presented themselves for the test. Although the participants knew that Tay-Sachs is a serious disease and that Jews are vulnerable, few of them knew much about the genetics of the disease, its frequency, or the incidence of the carrier state. This experience of screening for Tay-Sachs carriers suggests the need for physicians to learn the relation of genetics to preventive medicine, and for the public to learn more about the biology of man.  (+info)

The neural consequences of conflict between intention and the senses. (4/5369)

Normal sensorimotor states involve integration of intention, action and sensory feedback. An example is the congruence between motor intention and sensory experience (both proprioceptive and visual) when we move a limb through space. Such goal-directed action necessitates a mechanism that monitors sensorimotor inputs to ensure that motor outputs are congruent with current intentions. Monitoring in this sense is usually implicit and automatic but becomes conscious whenever there is a mismatch between expected and realized sensorimotor states. To investigate how the latter type of monitoring is achieved we conducted three fully factorial functional neuroimaging experiments using PET measures of relative regional cerebral blood flow with healthy volunteers. In the first experiment subjects were asked to perform Luria's bimanual co-ordination task which involves either in-phase (conditions 1 and 3) or out-of-phase (conditions 2 and 4) bimanual movements (factor one), while looking towards their left hand. In half of the conditions (conditions 3 and 4) a mirror was used that altered visual feedback (factor two) by replacing their left hand with the mirror image of their right hand. Hence (in the critical condition 4) subjects saw in-phase movements despite performing out-of-phase movements. This mismatch between intention, proprioception and visual feedback engendered cognitive conflict. The main effect of out-of-phase movements was associated with increased neural activity in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) bilaterally [Brodmann area (BA) 40, extending into BA 7] and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) bilaterally (BA 9/46). The main effect of the mirror showed increased neural activity in right DLPFC (BA 9/ 46) and right superior PPC (BA 7) only. Analysis of the critical interaction revealed that the mismatch condition led to a specific activation in the right DLPFC alone (BA 9/46). Study 2, using an identical experimental set-up but manipulating visual feedback from the right hand (instead of the left), subsequently demonstrated that this right DLPFC activation was independent of the hand attended. Finally, study 3 removed the motor intentional component by moving the subjects' hand passively, thus engendering a mismatch between proprioception and vision only. Activation in the right lateral prefrontal cortex was now more ventral than in studies 1 or 2 (BA 44/45). A direct comparison of studies 1 and 3 (which both manipulated visual feedback from the left hand) confirmed that a ventral right lateral prefrontal region is primarily activated by discrepancies between signals from sensory systems, while a more dorsal area in right lateral prefrontal cortex is activated when actions must be maintained in the face of a conflict between intention and sensory outcome.  (+info)

The impact of face-to-face educational outreach on diarrhoea treatment in pharmacies. (5/5369)

Private pharmacies are an important source of health care in developing countries. A number of studies have documented deficiencies in treatment, but little has been done to improve practices. We conducted two controlled trials to determine the efficacy of face-to-face educational outreach in improving communication and product sales for cases of diarrhoea in children in 194 private pharmacies in two developing countries. A training guide was developed to enable a national diarrhoea control programme to identify problems and their causes in pharmacies, using quantitative and qualitative research methods. The guide also facilitates the design, implementation, and evaluation of an educational intervention, which includes brief one-on-one meetings between diarrhoea programme educators and pharmacists/owners, followed by one small group training session with all counter attendants working in the pharmacies. We evaluated the short-term impact of this intervention using a before-and-after comparison group design in Kenya, and a randomized controlled design in Indonesia, with the pharmacy as unit of analysis in both countries (n = 107 pharmacies in Kenya; n = 87 in Indonesia). Using trained surrogate patients posing as mothers of a child under five with diarrhoea, we measured sales of oral rehydration salts (ORS); sales of antidiarrhoeal agents; and history-taking and advice to continue fluids and food. We also measured knowledge about dehydration and drugs to treat diarrhoea among Kenyan pharmacy employees after training. Major discrepancies were found at baseline between reported and observed behaviour. For example, 66% of pharmacy attendants in Kenya, and 53% in Indonesia, reported selling ORS for the previous case of child diarrhoea, but in only 33% and 5% of surrogate patient visits was ORS actually sold for such cases. After training, there was a significant increase in knowledge about diarrhoea and its treatment among counter attendants in Kenya, where these changes were measured. Sales of ORS in intervention pharmacies increased by an average of 30% in Kenya (almost a two-fold increase) and 21% in Indonesia compared to controls (p < 0.05); antidiarrhoeal sales declined by an average of 15% in Kenya and 20% in Indonesia compared to controls (p < 0.05). There was a trend toward increased communication in both countries, and in Kenya we observed significant increases in discussion of dehydration during pharmacy visits (p < 0.05). We conclude that face-to-face training of pharmacy attendants which targets deficits in knowledge and specific problem behaviours can result in significant short-term improvements in product sales and communication with customers. The positive effects and cost-effectiveness of such programmes need to be tested over a longer period for other health problems and in other countries.  (+info)

Factors associated with screening mammography and breast self-examination intentions. (6/5369)

The factors associated with the use of two methods for the early detection of breast cancer were assessed using a theoretical framework derived from the theory of reasoned action and the Health Belief Model. Telephone interviews were conducted with 170 women aged between 50 and 70 years, randomly selected from the telephone directory of a provincial city in Victoria, Australia. The model explained 47% of the variance in intentions to have a mammogram and 22% of the variance in intentions to practise breast self-examination (BSE). The data supported the prediction that different variables would be associated with each method of early detection of breast cancer. Intentions to have a mammogram were associated with perceived susceptibility to breast cancer, knowing a woman who has had a mammogram, previous mammography history and Pap test history. Intentions to do BSE were associated with self efficacy, knowledge of breast cancer issues, concern about getting breast cancer and employment status. Both screening methods were associated with prior behaviour and concern about getting breast cancer.  (+info)

Is long-term maintenance of health-related physical activity possible? An analysis of concepts and evidence. (7/5369)

The phenomenon of maintenance of health-related physical activity is explored through an analysis of the underlying concepts and of the existing empirical evidence. The following targets were used for the analysis: (1) the concept of health-related physical activity, (2) the concept of maintenance, (3) common manifestations of maintenance in everyday living, (4) the promotional and behavioral characteristics of health-related physical activity, (5) the known determinants of free-living physical activity, and (6) intervention trials on physical activity in free-living groups. The analyses revealed the inherent resistance to adoption and maintenance of physical activity, particularly that of high-intensity and program-centered activities, the persistence, however, of many simple everyday routines and habits, the multiple determinants discovered for free-living physical activity and a few empirical demonstrations of the successful promotion of the maintenance of physical activity over a year or two. The promotion of the maintenance of health-related physical activity seems thus a distinct possibility provided that (1) the promotional situation is analyzed thoroughly, (2) the activity is chosen carefully with an emphasis on moderation in intensity and integration into the participant's life-style, (3) multiple promotional contacts are used, and (4) support from the participant's social and physical environment is provided. There is a need for more research on the maintenance of health-related physical activity using the stages of change models, behavior modification principles, self-control concepts, the concept of intrinsic motivation and the Relapse model. The method of analysis used here could apply to other health-related behaviors as well.  (+info)

Loud, sad or bad: young people's perceptions of peer groups and smoking. (8/5369)

This paper suggests that most 13 year olds and many 11 year olds have a clear and detailed grasp of their own social map, recognize the pecking order which is established amongst their peers and are aware of the different levels of risk-taking behaviour, including smoking, adopted by different peer groups in their school year. Thirty six 11 year olds and 40 13 year olds took part in the study. Their remarkably consistent views about which pupils adopt or reject smoking are closely related to their perceptions of their social map. Their accounts differentiate top girls, top boys, middle pupils, low-status pupils, trouble-makers and loners, associating smoking behaviour consistently with three of the five groups--the top girls, the low-status pupils and the trouble makers. Top boys, although sharing many of the characteristics of top girls, have an added protection factor--their keen interest in football and physical fitness. From their descriptions, it is apparent that different groups of pupils smoke for different reasons which are related to pecking order and group membership. The implications of these young people's views for health education programmes to prevent smoking and other risk-taking behaviours are far reaching.  (+info)

The present study examined the utility of two forms of measurement of intrinsic motivation in increasing the predictive validity of the theory of planned behaviour. Self-report questionnaires were administered to school pupils (n = 174), University students (n = 129) and adults (n = 157). The data were analysed using confirmatory factor analysis and regression analysis. Confirmatory analysis supported discriminant validity between Forms A and B measures of intrinsic motivation. In addition, hierarchical regression analysis demonstrated that Form B measure of intrinsic motivation increased effectiveness of the theory of planned behaviour in predicting intentions and social behaviour. Further, the regression analysis showed that age and past behaviour did not reduce the effects observed for intrinsic motivation. It is recommended that intrinsic motivation could increase the predictive utility of the theory of planned behaviour. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ...
Definition of Intrinsic motivation in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Intrinsic motivation? Meaning of Intrinsic motivation as a legal term. What does Intrinsic motivation mean in law?
Abstract. Reinforcement (trial-and-error) learning in animals is driven by a multitude of processes. Most animals have evolved several sophisticated systems of `extrinsic motivations (EMs) that guide them to acquire behaviours allowing them to maintain their bodies, defend against threat, and reproduce. Animals have also evolved various systems of `intrinsic motivations (IMs) that allow them to acquire actions in the absence of extrinsic rewards. These actions are used later to pursue such rewards when they become available. Intrinsic motivation has been studied in Psychology for many decades and its biological substrate is now being elucidated by neuroscientists. In the last two decades, investigators in computational modelling, robotics and machine learning have proposed various mechanisms that capture certain aspects of Ims. However, we still lack models of IMs that attempt to integrate all key aspects of intrinsically motivated learning and behaviour while taking into account the relevant ...
Downloadable! We consider the interaction of intrinsic motivation and concerns for social approval in a laboratory experiment. We elicit a proxy for Fairtrade preferences before the experiment. In the experiment, we elicit willingness to pay for conventional and Fairtrade chocolate. Treatments vary whether this can be signalled to other participants. Subjects concerned with social approval should state a higher Fairtrade premium when signalling is possible. We find that this is the case, but interestingly only for participants who are not intrinsically motivated to buy Fairtrade. This has important implications both for crowding out of intrinsic motivation through incentives and for producer choices.
Intrinsic motivation can be defined as the inherent desire to engage ones interests and to exercise and develop ones capacities (Reeve, 2009). Put simply, intrinsic motivation is the desire motivation that an individual acquires from within. This form of motivation can develop spontaneously from psychological needs. An individual may experience intrinsic motivation because they have psychological needs within themselves (Reeve, 2009). Psychological needs, when they are supported by the individuals environment and relationships, can result in an experience of psychological need satisfaction. When feeling intrinsically motivated, an individual may express so by saying, "I enjoy doing that" (Reeve, 2009). Intrinsic motivation can lead to benefits within an individual, including persistence and well-being. The higher an individuals intrinsic motivation, the greater their persistence on the task. Intrinsically motivated persistence can be seen in many acts such as adherence to a healthy lifestyle ...
Incentive theory is based on the idea that behavior is primarily extrinsically motivated. It argues that people are more motivated to perform activities if they receive a reward afterward, rather than simply because they enjoy the activities themselves.. There is controversy concerning how and for how long motivators change behavior. For instance, some data suggest that intrinsic motivation is diminished when extrinsic motivation is given-a process known as the overjustification effect. If extrinsic incentives are used to stimulate behaviors that an individual already finds motivating (even without external reinforcement ), intrinsic motivation for that behavior may decrease over time. In those cases, extrinsic motivators can backfire: instead of serving as an incentive for the desired behavior, they undermine a previously held intrinsic motivation. This can lead to extinguishing the intrinsic motivation and creating a dependence on extrinsic rewards for continued performance (Deci et al., ...
Deci, E. L., Eghrari, H., Patrick, B. C., & Leone, D. (1994). Facilitating internalization: The self-determination theory perspective. Journal of Personality, 62(1), 119-142. DOI:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1994.tb00797.x Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The "what" and "why" of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227-268. DOI:10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01 Gillet, N., Vallerand, R. J., & Lafrenière, M. A. K. (2012). Intrinsic and extrinsic school motivation as a function of age: The mediating role of autonomy support. Social Psychology of Education, 15(1), 77-95. DOI: 10.1007/s11218-011-9170-2 Gottfried, A. E., Marcoulides, G. A., Gottfried, A. W., & Oliver, P. H. (2009). A latent curve model of parental motivational practices and developmental decline in math and science academic intrinsic motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(3), 729-739. DOI:10.1037/a0015084 Harackiewicz, J. (1979). The effects of reward contingency and ...
Intrinsic motivation information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues.
In the various teaching scenarios/settings Ive observed or participated in, Ive witnessed lots of forms of extrinsic motivation (using rewards to motivate students). This is especially true in child-learning settings, where it seems all too common to use candy, stickers, or other baubles to psych kids up for the lesson. I dont know whether this is a good idea or not; it works on some level, sure, but isnt it kind of a cop out? Now does this same kind of superficial extrinsic motivation work for adults? Should it? I would rather believe that intrinsic motivation can work for students of all ages. I find that one of the best ways to instill intrinsic motivation is to make students feel like they have a stake in their work, or a sense of ownership/control/mastery over the material they learn. Thats why I dont like to spoon-feed students knowledge. They should make the leap themselves, and be proud of themselves for their accomplishments. That is the best way to keep them motivated to keep on ...
Ive commented on this extensively before - Im a big fan of intrinsic motivation. Sometimes the parent has to figure out what the childs intrinsic motivation is, and then adapt the system to that reward. And yes, for some kids, their intrinsic motivation is getting stuff they want in a material sense, and that can work. What helps for me is identifying what the child WANTS as the reward - not what theyd ask for if you asked them (which is often stuff) but what theyre deep down jonesing for. That can then be used as a problem-solving trade, which, IMHO, is much more above-board than reward charts. Reward charts tend to present the idea that the childs behavior change earns them the reward. What is really going on is that the parent has a problem, the childs behavior change solves the problem, and the parent is willing to make some effort or spend some money to encourage or thank for the change that removes their problem. I prefer to keep it more I have a problem, and you have a ...
This paper presents a formal framework for modeling the effects of economic incentives on motivation. While economic models represent the utilities from monetary incentives and private benefits in an additive form, studies in psychology show that extrinsic and intrinsic motivation are non-additive and that there exists a continuum between the two. To accommodate for possible interaction effects, a non-additive probability model and evidence theory have been used in the principal-agent set-up. The model produces results consistent with prior evidence presented in social psychology studies.
There are two fundamental categories of motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic.. Intrinsic motivation means employees are motivated by the work itself. It comes when employees enjoy the work they are doing, enjoy the people they are working with, and/or are having fun while doing it. It also comes when employees believe the work they are doing is meaningful, and they feel a connection with the desired outcome (such as if they feel their goal is important or, even more so, if they feel they are the only ones able to achieve it). To be intrinsically motivated, employees must also feel that they are empowered with the resources, support, information and aptitude to achieve their goals. Intrinsic motivation is shown to increase job satisfaction.. Extrinsic motivation involves punishment or rewards based on the outcome of an employees work. For example, bonuses or public recognition are seen as extrinsic motivators. Interestingly, the presence of extrinsic motivation tends to have an opposite effect on ...
Motivation is ann important element influencing learning and achievement. It is believed to affect human behaviour in a various situation like; learning, thinking, percep..
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of grit and intrinsic motivation. regarding students propensity to procrastinate. Three specific research questions were. constructed: "How much of the variance in participants procrastination is explained solely. by their degree of grit?" "Does the degree of intrisic motivation contribute with additional. explanatory information for the regression between grit and procrastination?" "Is intrisic. motivation a mediator for the regression between grit and procrastination?". To test this, a hierarchical multiple regression analysis was constructed. To collect. data an electronic questionnaire was constructed. The sample consisted of 271 students who. all studied at Karlstad University. The data was collected through the learning platform. itslearning. Grit was measured with Swedish-Grit Scale. Intrinsic motivation was measured. with a modified version of Task Evaluation Questionnaire and the students propensity to. procrastinate was measured with ...
How to increase employee motivation? Start with finding out what motivates your employees. Play the powerful game of Moving Motivators with your team!
Objective: To examine the motivational process through which increases in aerobic capacity and decreases in total body fat are achieved during high-intensity intermittent training (HIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) interventions. Method: Eighty-seven physically inactive adults (65% women, age = 42 ± 12, BMI = 27.67 ± 4.99 kg/m2) took part in a 10-week randomized intervention testing group-based HIT, operationalized as repeated sprints of 15-60 s interspersed with periods of recovery cycling = 25 min/session, 3 sessions/wk-1, or MICT, operationalized as cycling at constant workload of 65% maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max, 30-45 min/session-1, 5 sessions/wk-1. Assessments of VO2max and total body fat were made pre- and postintervention. Motivation variables were assessed midintervention and class attendance was monitored throughout. Path analysis was employed, controlling for treatment arm and baseline values of VO2max and total body fat. Results: The 2 groups differed in ...
Intrinsic motivation: This is when motivation comes from "internal" factors to meet personal needs. We do things we do because we enjoy them, not because we have to. Intrinsic means internal or inside of yourself; when you are intrinsically motivated, you enjoy an interest, a course of study or skill development solely for the fulfillment of education and having fun. EMS is a career field that really touches our intrinsic motivation. Were not going to retire with mansions or private jets; instead we get our satisfaction from helping others and being the best part of their worst day ...
As a teacher, the constant struggle of "how can we make them want to learn?" haunts us before every lecture. We want our students to be excited to come to class, crave the material, and walk away happy with this epic newfound knowledge in hand. To put it simply, we want them to want it.. Intrinsic motivation, as described in Dan Pinks TedTalk, is what we strive for as educators. A go-getter attitude with an air of excitement is what we hope to see in every student that walks through our doors. Unfortunately, when this doesnt happen, we tend to do one of two things: blame it on them or on ourselves. We may come away believing that they arent a good student, we were never meant to teach, and our material was, even after hours of preparation, lack-luster. The problem with this line of thinking is that, more often than not, this lack of intrinsic motivation is not due to either of the aforementioned individuals. Instead, it is due to the omnipresent extrinsic motivation of the omnipotent ...
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Failure to identify those students that only faintly demonstrate characteristics of giftedness can lead to continual classroom disruptions and the loss of potential for the student. I could not agree more strongly with the author. Having taught several vocational science classes in local high schools, I have met many students that are indeed gifted but are nonconforming holding little regard for those that do not seek to understand them on a personal level. There are many strong young minds lost every year because teachers and other professionals are not adequately trained or equipped to identify and differentiate curriculum for these underground students. According to the author characteristics of the intrinsically motivated student include: students that accept challenges willingly, those that show persistence in difficult tasks, those who exhibit curiosity, remain task-committed, and reflect satisfaction in their own efforts despite the opinion of others. The author sees this motivation as ...
One of the best motivators to learn is personal satisfaction.[1] But where does this internal drive come from? Many believe that students are motivated to learn
Downloadable ! Author(s): Jürgen Bitzer & Wolfram Schrettl & Philipp J.H. Schröder. 2005 Abstract: This papers sheds light on the puzzling evidence that even though open source software (OSS) is a public good, it is developed for free by highly qualified, young and motivated individuals, and evolves at a rapid pace. We show that once OSS development is understood as the private provision of a public good, these features emerge quite naturally. We adapt a dynamic private-provision-of-public-goods model to reflect key aspects of the OSS phenomenon. In particular, instead of relying on extrinsic motives (e.g. signaling) the present model is driven by intrinsic motives of OSS programmers, such as user- programmers, play value or homo ludens payoff, and gift culture benefits. Such intrinsic motives feature extensively in the wider OSS literature and contribute new insights to the economic analysis.
This paper studies mechanisms that produce hierarchical structuring of affordance learning tasks of different levels of complexity. Guided by intrinsic mot
Low standardized test scores are a reflection of being uninspired, not unknowledgeable. Teach your students how to care, lose their fears, and identify and overcome their obstacles.
This studys aim was to investigate whether self-determined behaviour and achievement motivation impact learners academic performance. Convenient geographic sampling was used to select three pnmary schools in Soshanguve. A likert type questionnaire was used to collect data from 120 learners. Item analyses were preformed to investigate the reliability of subscales. Three hypotheses were tested using analysis of variance and Pearson product moment correlations. The first, which predicted that intrinsic motivation is positively related to academic achievement, was not supported. Both intrinsically and extrinsically motivated learners achieved better in academic tasks than amotivated learners. The second, which predicted a negative correlation between extrinsic motivation extrinsic motivation and academic performance, was also not supported. The third, which predicted that there is a negative correlation between amotivation and academic performance, was confirmed. General conclusions, ...
Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation Intrinsic motivation is usually characterized by genuine interest or fascination in the subject while extrinsic motivation is influenced by the expectation of reward or fear of punishment.
... and Motivation to Learn Despite the fact that the exact nature of motivation is much debated, motivation can be viewed as the internal processes that give behavior its energy (i.e., intensity and duration) and direction (Deci & Ryan, 1985; Reeve, 1996). More specifically, motivated behavior is assumed to originate from various sources such as needs, cognitions, and emotions, which in turn energize and direct behavior to be either initiated, sustained, intensified or stopped. In predicting and explaining motivational behavior, theorists often distinguish intrinsic from extrinsic sources of motivation. Intrinsic motivation to engage in an activity arises from internal sources such as curiosity, interest, and innate strivings for personal growth (Meece, 1997). In contrast, extrinsic motivation originates from external contingencies such as tangible rewards or praise.. Thomas Malone and Mark Lepper (Malone & Lepper, 1987; Lepper & Malone, 1987) have identified four major factors, ...
The prospect of reward may provide a motivational incentive for optimizing goal-directed behavior. Animal work demonstrates that reward-processing networks and oculomotor-control networks in the brain are connected through the dorsal striatum, and that reward anticipation can improve oculomotor control via this nexus. Due perhaps to deterioration in dopaminergic striatal circuitry, goal-directed oculomotor control is subject to decline in healthy seniors, and even more in individuals with Parkinsons disease (PD). Here we examine whether healthy seniors and PD patients are able to utilize reward prospects to improve their impaired antisaccade performance. Results confirmed that oculomotor control declined in PD patients compared to healthy seniors, and in healthy seniors compared to young adults. However, the motivational incentive of reward expectation resulted in benefits in antisaccade performance in all groups alike. These findings speak against structural and nonmodifiable decline in
About 5% of women use illicit substances during pregnancy, and approximately 22% of these also report using tobacco or alcohol. While a number of treatment programs have begun to offer treatment specifically designed for pregnant substance abusers, it is difficult to keep these women in treatment. Brief motivational sessions have been found to improve treatment engagement and outcomes in both alcohol- and drug-using women. This study compared one such treatment intervention, Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET), with standard treatment.
What is extrinsic Motivation?. Extrinsic motivation is the term for motivation that emanates from outside your own. The inspiring factors are outside, or external, rewards like cash or grades. These types of incentives offer satisfaction and delight that the particular task itself might not provide.. An extrinsically inspired individual works on a project even when they may have little affinity for it as a result of expected fulfillment they are going to get through some compensation. The reward is something as modest like a smiley face to something significant like recognition or fortune. For instance, an extrinsically motivated individual that dislikes numbers might strive on a mathematics formula because would like the prize for doing it. With regards to a student, the incentive has to be good grade for an assignment as well as in the class.. Is it a good drive?. External motivation does not necessarily mean, however, that the person wont obtain any satisfaction from doing or finishing an ...
SUNNYVALE, Calif., Oct. 4, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- Accuray Incorporated (NASDAQ: ARAY) today reported, as required by NASDAQ Stock Market Rules, an equity inducement award to Shig Hamamatsu, the companys new VP, Finance & Chief Accounting Officer. As a material inducement to Mr. Hamamatsu joining the company, and in accordance with NASDAQ Listing Rule 5635(c)(4), the Compensation Committee of the Board of Directors of the company granted Mr. Hamamatsu 100,000 restricted stock units on September 29, 2017 (the "Inducement Award"). The Inducement Award was made outside of the companys current equity plan, but will be subject to terms and conditions generally consistent with those in the companys 2016 Equity Incentive Plan. 25% of the restricted stock units subject to the Inducement Award will vest on each anniversary of the Inducement Awards grant date, subject to Mr. Hamamatsus continued service through each such date.. About Accuray. Accuray Incorporated (Nasdaq: ARAY) is a radiation oncology ...
While Im not an academic, Ive read some of the literature about fitness psychology, and a recurring theme from studies seems to be that intrinsic motivation is what drives people to the gym.. Intrinsic motivation-that internal push, innate desire, willpower-is the thing that most people find challenging to summon up. Extrinsic motivation-someone telling you you ought to exercise-is easy to get. But its unlikely to change your habits.. The right kind of extrinsic motivation, though, might become something intrinsic over the time. Thats where apps can help.. One app Ive been experimenting with is GymPact, an app which charges you for every workout you miss and pays you for every workout you do, based on a plan you commit to in advance.. The payouts are minimal. GymPact CEO Yifan Zhang says that the company pools the money it collects from users who missed workouts, takes a cut, and then distributes what remains to the people who do work out. That typically amounts to 40 or 50 cents a workout, ...
As mental health professionals know from their course work and experiences in human learning, many factors can facilitate participant learning: Maximize motivation: Whenever possible, the consultant should strive to maximize the intrinsic motivation of the employees. However, extrinsic motivation (e.g., monetary rewards, recognition, praise, Continuing Education credits) can also be useful. Motivation is maximized when […]. ...
If youre a business owner, executive or anyone with direct reports, youve undoubtedly wondered how you can get the most out of your team members. Ill save you the dozens of hours of reading and the thousands of dollars associated with their purchase with this summary: you cant motivate anyone.. Decades of behavioural science have repeatedly proven that for most 21st-century jobs - ones that require creative problem solving and that are non-repetitive - external motivators (things like bonuses or extra vacation days) dont create engagement and certainly dont motivate. And when, according to Gallup, approximately $3,400 of every $10,000 in salary (per employee) is lost to disengagement in 70% of North American companies, not understanding the true ingredients to motivation is a very costly problem.. Intrinsic motivation. After employees are paid a market wage for their services, an extra dollar in salary wont entice them to work any harder (at least those with non-repetitive, ...
How Can We Improve Motivation in Todays Social Studies Classrooms? Alan R. Brandhorst, in A Cognitive Perspective on Motivation: Implications for Social Studies Curriculum, Teaching, and Testing (International Journal of Social Education, Fall/Winte...
Early research in this area in the 1970s found that providing an extrinsic incentive for completing a task could undermine intrinsic motivation and subsequent effort devoted to that task across a broad range of contexts. This research considered the effect of monetary,[9] tangible (e.g. gifts), and symbolic rewards[10] among young children,[11] college students, and adults[12] doing a wide variety of tasks.[13] In a classic study, Deci paid all subjects for participation in a psychological experiment that involved solving multiple puzzles or IQ test questions.[14] Half of the subjects were paid a flat fee just for showing up to the experiment, but the other half of subjects were informed that they would be paid per their completion of the studys tasks. After the presumptive experiment was over, subjects were left with free time during which they could either sit idly or complete more tasks. Deci measured the number of additional IQ questions or puzzles completed during this non-compensated time ...
In this study, we found that resident physicians counseled most of their obese patients about weight. However, they used only a handful of possible 5As skills as part of obesity counseling. Much of the focus of the counseling appeared to involve assessing rather than assisting or arranging. The number of 5As counseling practices reported by the patient to have occurred during the visit was associated with patient motivation to lose weight and intention to change diet and exercise behavior, supporting our hypothesis that higher quality physician counseling may lead to increased motivation and intention to lose weight. An alternative explanation is that patients with higher levels of motivation and intentions are more likely to elicit physician counseling practices and/or report that their physician counseled them. The cross-sectional nature of our study limits our ability to determine the direction of this relationship and future studies are necessary.. If higher quality physician counseling ...
Data management guidelines and procedures for ASOs. To ensure appropriate data management at each ASO, the following data storage, transmission, and destruction guidelines were created and approved by the governing Institutional Review Board (IRB): (1) hard copies of completed project documents will be temporarily stored in a secure location only accessible to project staff, (2) electronic copies of completed project documents and files will be stored in a secure electronic folder or on an encrypted thumb drive that is only accessible to project staff and only long enough to allow the documents to be transmitted to RTI staff, (3) electronic copies of project documents will be transmitted to RTI staff only through RTIs encrypted SharePoint website, (4) audio recordings of brief interventions will not contain any participant-identifying information, (5) audio recordings of brief interventions will be transmitted to RTI staff only through RTIs secure website, (6) electronic copies of project ...
I agree.. Intrinsic motivation by curiosity - and doing things fearlessly, bu,t of course, not unafraid, wanting to find out how things work, go, etc. has always been my motor that brought me to places I have never been before. External factors influenced my path of course, like walls I bump into, and then continue another way with even more energy than before the hit. A bit like Pong, but with the difference knowing that there is always a second or a third wall that bounces you back, unlike the game where you can miss and die. Reality always has a safety net you only learn to know about when you sometimes miss the the first wall, either by accident or choice. When youre little you never think about "failing." Failing is succeeding - you win that you learn. When youve grown up, you have learned that succeeding = "not failing," and with that you learn nothing. Then, repetition = success, not trying something new, but something known = success. Best practises dictate everything and do not allow ...
Despite need for consistent adherence to medical care, youth living with HIV (YLWH) have suboptimal rates of retention in care and adherence to antiretroviral medication (ARV) treatment. There are few adherence studies with YLWH and the results are mixed, so there is a great need for the development of novel interventions. Results of adult HIV adherence studies indicate that participants are interested in using technology-based methods and are most receptive toward interventions that couple technological devices with motivational components. Pill taking monitoring devices have been found to be a sensitive measure of adherence to ARV medications, but do not lead to sustained improvements in adherence or intrinsic motivation when used alone. Building on this knowledge, this study will examine a multi-level technology that integrates a medication monitoring device WITH an interactive smartphone based app/game that is attractive and engaging to YLWH. This multi-level approach will integrate theory ...
Results Four trials (n=618) were included, comparing a brief motivational interview with usual care (2 trials), personalised feedback or an educational brochure. In two studies, motivational interview was significantly associated with a reduction in alcohol-use while two studies showed no effect attributable to the intervention. Successful interventions were either delivered at a distance from the event or included booster sessions. Motivational interview favoured a reduction in alcohol-related problems in all but one study. Benefits were sustained over 12 months.. ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Objective: The aim of the present paper was to analyze factors affecting distal and proximal health behavior within a biopsychosocial model for examining their interactions and associations with respect to health. Methods: Path analysis was based on the nationwide, cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (2003 to 2006). The data was collected from 4,529 participants with an average age of 9.45 years (SD = 4.01). Socio-demographic data, psychosocial factors and health behavior were assessed via questionnaire. Participants also underwent physical fitness tests and a medical examination. Results: Over the five levels of the model analyzed with socioeconomic status, immigration background, and rural-urban differences on the first level; physical activity of relatives and peers, intrinsic motivation, and quality of life on the second level; eating patterns, sedentary behavior, and physical activity on the third level; physical fitness and objective health
To me this follows the five stage model. We first develop competencies , so that we can produce a range of behavioral outcomes. We then acquire knowledge using personal constructs and encoding schemas, and this is done idiosyncratically and subjectively to assess a situation. In the third step, we match situation (stimulus expectancy) and our behavior expectancies (self-efficacy expectancies) to predict how we should behave and what results we will get (outcome expectancies). In the fourth stage having assessed what outcome a behavior is likely to produce we analyze whether we subjectively value the outcome. The subjective valuation of outcome would still be guided by how others in our social circle have valuation for that outcome.In the final fifth stage, we put our individual spins on the outcome achievement by having things like intrinsic motivation and self-regulatory mechanisms. All this flows nicely and I strongly suspect that we develop a capacity to use a person variable only after a ...
The present article provides an overview of the research on motivation for online co-creation. Motivating participants to contribute in online co-creation endeavours is one of the key challenges in online co-creation. Due to this, an array of scholars has faced this question using a variety of research designs. We found that the multitude of motivational factors that the literature provides can be grouped into five distinct classes based on the overview model of motivation by Heckhausen and Heckhausen. We identify several subclasses for each class and provide a detailed overview for each of them. We also find that expectancies, a fundamental building block in work motivation has hardly been touched upon by research on motivation for online co-creation.
Studies show that students who took advantage of such opportunities noted "gains in independence, intrinsic motivation to learn, and active participation in courses taken after the summer undergraduate research experience" (Lopatto, 2007). A 2001 survey of 136 liberal arts colleges reported that the number of students participating in undergraduate research has risen by 70% in the last 10 years (Mervis, 2001), while those students seeking more intensive summer research program (such as the one offered by INBT) has increased by 40 ...
Mobile medical applications (mHealth), music and video games are being developed and tested for their ability to improve pharmacotherapy outcomes and medication adherence. Pleiotropic mechanism of music and gamification engage an intrinsic motivation and the brain reward system, supporting therapies in patients with neurological disorders, including neuropathic pain, depression, anxiety, or neurodegenerative disorders. Based on accumulating results from clinical trials, an innovative combination treatment of epilepsy seizures, comorbidities and the medication non-adherence can be designed, consisting of antiepileptic drugs and disease self-management software delivering clinically beneficial music. Since creative elements and art expressed in games, music and software are copyrighted, therefore clinical and regulatory challenges in developing copyrighted, drug-device therapies may be offset by a value proposition of the exclusivity due to the patent-independent protection which can last for over 70
Fit for Life is an elective class that allows students the opportunity to set long-term and short-term fitness goals and achieve them. This course is designed to help students establish healthy lifestyle habits during the semester/year that as well as the intrinsic motivation to continue those healthy habits for the rest of their lives. Fit for Life provides students with the knowledge to enable the students to maintain their general level of fitness through safe exercise practices and positive nutritional choices. Students enrolled in fit for life will participate in a daily workout routine in order to improve their cardiovascular health and endurance and muscular strength. They will frequently use the resources of the TCMS fitness room, and also have the chance to play in several sports and activities that can be played over the course of a lifetime. In addition, there will be 1-2 field trips planned throughout the year to give students an opportunity to participate in activities not possible ...
Gamification is, in general, becoming much better implemented. The use of narrative, onboarding, intrinsic motivation, well thought out rewards and more. That said strategy does seem to be missing. What do I mean by strategy? Well, the need to plan and consider your actions to create the most desired or best possible outcome. On the surface, it doesnt seem that gamification offers much opportunity to plan or consider what the consequences of certain actions might be. You just do what the system asks of you and get rewarded!. What if we change that a little though? What if the system gives you some choices, each one slightly different and each one offering different potential outcomes? How about, instead of "do this action and get this reward", we say "these are the actions you can do and these are the rewards". Then we say "each reward has a benefit and can potentially unlock new options and benefits". Now the user has to make decisions, work out what the best series of choices might be. If we ...
Setting objectives is the process of establishing a direction to guide learning (Pintrich & Schunk, 2002). When teachers communicate objectives for student learning, students can see more easily the connections between what they are doing in class and what they are supposed to learn. They can gauge their starting point in relation to the learning objectives and determine what they need to pay attention to and where they might need help from the teacher or others. This clarity helps decrease anxiety about their ability to succeed. In addition, students build intrinsic motivation when they set personal learning objectives.. Providing feedback is an ongoing process in which teachers communicate information to students that helps them better understand what they are to learn, what high-quality performance looks like, and what changes are necessary to improve their learning (Hattie & Timperley, 2007; Shute, 2008). Feedback provides information that helps learners confirm, refine, or restructure ...
Geometric motivation[edit]. Points A, B, C, D and A′, B′, C′, D′ are related by a perspectivity, which is a projective ...
Motivation[edit]. In class-based programming, a factory is an abstraction of a constructor of a class, while in prototype-based ...
Motivation[edit]. String interning speeds up string comparisons, which are sometimes a performance bottleneck in applications ( ...
Motivations[edit]. Arebi dedicated this work to her mother and father, Mohamed Al-Soghayyer Arebi, whose firm belief in Allah ...
Hale's motivation[edit]. Hale's father died when she was a baby. This left her mother alone to raise Hale and her four siblings ...
Motivation[edit]. Anarchist communists reject the claim that wage labor is necessary because people are lazy and selfish by " ... argues that motivation in a moneyless society would be found in the satisfaction of work, concern for community, competition ...
Motivations. Many whistleblowers have stated that they were motivated to take action to put an end to unethical practices, ... Over the years, I have learned that the motivations driving guerrillas are diverse. The reasons for acting range from the ... and Whistle-Blowing Attitudes Is This Relationship Mediated by Organizational Commitment and Public Service Motivation?". The ...
Motivation to use a stage name[edit]. A performer will often take a stage name because his/her real name is considered ...
Purpose and motivation. Reasons for traveling include recreation,[5] tourism[5] or vacationing,[5] research travel,[5] the ...
Political motivations[edit]. Queen Anne in 1702, the year she became queen, from the school of John Closterman ...
Motivation[edit]. The motivation behind the concept of logarithmic units is that defining a quantity on a logarithmic scale in ...
Motivation[edit]. The HSL color space was invented[further explanation needed] in 1938 by Georges Valensi as a method to add ...
Motivation[edit]. The reason why someone would be interested in doing online identity management is closely related to the ...
Heider, F. (1960). "The Gestalt Theory of Motivation". In Jones, Marshall R (ed.). Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. 8. Lincoln ... Action-motivation model[edit]. Festinger's original theory did not seek to explain how dissonance works. Why is inconsistency ... Explain their motivations for taking some action that had an extrinsic incentive attached (known as motivational "crowding out" ... The management of cognitive dissonance readily influences the motivation of a student to pursue education.[33] The study ...
History and motivation[edit]. It was originally defined in IEEE 802.1s as an amendment to 802.1Q, 1998 edition and later merged ...
Motivation[edit]. Motivation is a factor that encourages a person to perform and succeed at the task at hand. In an experiment ... Roebers, C.M.; Moga, N.; Schneider, W. (2001). "The Role of Accuracy Motivation on Children's and Adults' Event Recall". ... they had no motivation to provide accurate responses and were forced to respond even when they were unsure of the answer. ...
Motivation[edit]. There is an inherent trade-off between size and speed (given that a larger resource implies greater physical ...
Motivation[edit]. In recent years, genome projects conducted on a variety of organisms generated massive amounts of sequence ... Another motivation for using local alignments is that there is a reliable statistical model (developed by Karlin and Altschul) ... One motivation for local alignment is the difficulty of obtaining correct alignments in regions of low similarity between ...
Motivation[edit]. Finding roots of polynomials has been an important problem since the time of the ancient Greeks. Some ...
Motivations and emotions[edit]. Maslow's hierarchy suggests that people seek to satisfy basic needs such as food and shelter ... a b Rossiter, J.R. and Percy, L.,"Emotions and Motivations in Advertising", in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 18, Rebecca ... The consumer's attitude to a brand (or brand preference) is described as a link between the brand and a purchase motivation.[51 ... Fullerton, R.A. "The Birth of Consumer Behavior: Motivation Research in the 1950s," Journal of Historical Research in Marketing ...
Motivation and preparation[edit]. The bombings are widely believed to have been revenge for U.S. involvement in the extradition ...
Motivation[edit]. The Choosing Wisely campaign presents the following background and narrative to explain its motivation: The ...
Several motivations for building space colonies have been proposed: *Survival of human civilization and the biosphere, in case ...
Motivation[edit]. Normally we define the conditional probability of an event A given an event B as:. P. (. A. ,. B. ). =. P. ( ...
Motivation[edit]. Two types of motivation affect the self-serving bias: self-enhancement and self-presentation.[8] Self- ... Motivation works in conjunction with cognitive factors to produce personally satisfying and self-preserving attributions for ...
What is Intrinsic motivation? Meaning of Intrinsic motivation as a legal term. What does Intrinsic motivation mean in law? ... Definition of Intrinsic motivation in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Table 3 shows the results for the mean scores of academic motivation and intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation in terms ... Related to Intrinsic motivation: Intrinsic value, Extrinsic motivation See: basis, catalyst, cause, determinant, end, impulse, ...
Motivation (10%). *Social-cognitive theories of motivation (e.g., attribution theory, expectancy-value theory, goal orientation ...
a b Steve Hillage - Motivation Radio (Vinyl, LP, Album) at Discogs *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u STEVE HILLAGE ... "Motivation Radio". AllMusic. Retrieved May 23, 2016.. *^ a b Motivation Radio - Steve Hillage , Songs, Reviews, Credits , ... "allmusic ((( Motivation Radio , Overview )))". www.allmusic.com. Retrieved 2009-10-01.. *^ a b Steve Hillage: Motivation Radio ... before the latter album became Motivation Radio.[3] Green builds upon the dance and electronic experiments of Motivation Radio ...
There comes a point in life when you stand dead center at a crossroads, either faced with a career, relationship or personal decision. Standing still for...
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Motivation has an ability to change the mood of a person in a good way especially when it comes to the completion of special ... Some people might say that motivation is just an ordinary word which has a very useless meaning. But such claim is a very big ... Here are the information that you are about to learn: + Motivation Basics + Concentrate On One Goal + Find Inspiration + Get ...
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It also considers how changes in intrinsic motivation relate to changes in attitudes, how people attribute motivation to each ... Affect Attribution behavior development education environment motivation perception research state Authors and affiliations. * ... The book then considers the development of intrinsic motiva- tion, how behaviors are motivated intrinsically, how they relate ... Also considered herein are various approaches to the conceptualizing of intrinsic motivation. The book concentrates on the ...
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What was Kenny Perry thinking? Wasnt the PGA Championship waiting there for someone to step forward and win it and all Perry did was take a seat?It has been seven years since the 1996 PGA
Achievement Motivation: Trends in Theory and Research. * Front Matter Pages 1-1 ... Achievement Motivation and Life Span Human Development. * Front Matter Pages 169-169 ... Achievement Motivation: A Look Toward the Future. * Front Matter Pages 445-445 ... Soon afterward, at a Motivation in Education Conference at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, it became apparent that due to ...
Re: motivation I have read in internet that motivated learners are usually distinguished by their different learning styles and ... Since motivation was a debatable issue for many educational scholars (as I think), I have questioned myself:. If learning ... Since "motivation" was a debatable issue for many educational scholars (as I think), I have asked myself. whether learning ... Whereas others believe that motivation in second language learning is not brought only by adopting these techniques; students ...
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achievement motivation Achievement score aggression Alorese American analysis animals anxiety appear approach-avoidance ... books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Studies_in_motivation.html?id=S5p-AAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-share ... 0 Reviewshttps://books.google.com/books/about/Studies_in_motivation.html?id=S5p-AAAAMAAJ ...
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... Edited by Frank Pajares and Tim Urdan. Table of Contents. Click to read Foreword. Frank ... Self-Efficacy and Adolescents Motivation. Dale H. Schunk and Samuel D. Miller. *Adolescents Expectancies for Success and ... Adolescents Achievement Goals: Situating Motivation in Socio-Cultural Contexts. Avi Kaplan and Martin L. Maehr. *Rewards and ... Studying Motivation to Learn from the Perspective of the Person, the Lifespace, and the Lifespan during Early Adolescence: A ...
For a change I decided to put a piece of mans machinery in the forefront as the star of the painting. Seemingly hard and inanimate yet inextricably connected by molecules, atoms and all that the stars are made from.
There is a little bit of [a struggle for motivation] with nothing happening at the end of the season and the end of a long ... I think in that regard, yes, therell be plenty of respect but motivation-wise we need to get it done - then they can go on ...
The cycle continues... Why do I lose motivation quickly? What should I do? I havent completed even a single book and my dream ... No motivation...?. I write stories, and it seemed so good in ny head. But then I lose interest in it quickly, either cause I ... Why do I lose motivation quickly? What should I do? I havent completed even a single book and my dream is to get one published ...
"The best motivation is self-motivation. The guy says, "I wish someone would come by and turn me on." What if they dont show up ...
... Your Name: Koka Kotia Private number: MA Registration Number: E-mail address: Email removed: PM this user ... Motivation letter, please, look through my letter and check it)). By Irnes in forum CVs, Resumes and Applications ... Motivation Letter. Your Name: Koka Kotia Private number: [Personal info removed by moderator]. MA Registration Number: [ ... Letter of Motivation --, letter straight to hell? help my please :). By ichhassemandarinen in forum Letter Writing ...
If Youre Struggling With Your Gym Motivation, These GIFs Can HelpRead More ...
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Motivation. The last place I expected to receive spiritual inspiration is in the songs of Miley Cyrus. Love her? Hate her? ... Mileys motivation for spiritual change is simple: admit you need forgiveness, seek home, find Love, and stumble upon truth in ...
  • While extrinsic rewards are valuable, a lot of motivation is driven internally -and is often a more effective method of increasing productivity, engagement, and happiness at work. (forbes.com)
  • Various theories of motivation have been propounded by many people, as a part of the ever widening search of man for a better life. (buzzle.com)
  • Many factors influence motivation, and Search Institute focuses particularly on student-teacher relationships as a vital catalyst for enhancing student motivation. (search-institute.org)
  • Using Search Institute's Developmental Relationships Framework as a foundation, the partnership is investigating how students and teachers in a middle school and high school experience their relationships and how these relationships contribute to student motivation and achievement. (search-institute.org)
  • Throughout the project, teams of students and teachers from the two schools, and Search Institute researchers, will meet to interpret findings and generate actions the schools can take to strengthen student-teacher relationships and academic motivation. (search-institute.org)
  • Search Institute is working with two Minnesota schools to design and test strategies for engaging families aligned with the relationship-based approach to student motivation, the REACH System . (search-institute.org)
  • You can also try doing a general search for the term 'spirituality motivation' . (smashwords.com)
  • Section 1: When contemplating the question "what is the best way to motivate your employees"" the idea of achievement motivation is very apparent. (bookrags.com)
  • If we are to explain moral motivation, we will need to understand not only how moral judgments so regularly succeed in motivating, but how they can fail to motivate, sometimes rather spectacularly. (stanford.edu)
  • Achievement theory had by now well surpassed its beginnings in the 1950s and 1960s and was ready for a composite presentation and profile of the recent research and theories of motivation. (springer.com)
  • At lower levels of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, such as Physiological needs, money is a motivator, however it tends to have a motivating effect on staff that lasts only for a short period (in accordance with Herzberg's two-factor model of motivation). (selfgrowth.com)
  • Achievement motivation is a desire for significant accomplishment for mastering skills, ideas, for control, and for rapidly attaining a high standard (Myers 464). (bookrags.com)
  • Perhaps because of the apparent opposition between self-interest and morality, the fact of moral motivation has seemed especially puzzling. (stanford.edu)
  • More precisely, differing views about moral motivation involve commitment to particular theses which have been thought to bear on questions about moral semantics and the nature of morality. (stanford.edu)
  • It also briefly explains how key theses concerning moral motivation have come to inform and structure debates about moral semantics and the nature of morality. (stanford.edu)
  • One area within the study of human motivation that has proved fruitful is research on incentives. (britannica.com)
  • Improving Incentives to Free Motivation," calls for an approach to payment reform that harnesses the inherent motivation that doctors and patients have to make good decisions about health care. (rwjf.org)
  • From financial incentives, to flexible work policies, to community service opportunities-there are many external factors that can encourage motivation. (forbes.com)
  • So-called stoner movies - such as Up in Smoke and Half Baked - have done little to combat popular public opinion that individuals who smoke marijuana lack motivation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • When philosophers talk about moral motivation, this is the basic phenomenon that they seek to understand. (stanford.edu)
  • Moral motivation is an instance of a more general phenomenon-what we might call normative motivation -for our other normative judgments also typically have some motivating force. (stanford.edu)
  • Moral motivation has, in any case, received far greater attention than motivation in connection with other normative judgments. (stanford.edu)
  • Of course, the less puzzling and more mundane moral motivation comes to seem, the more puzzling failures of moral motivation become. (stanford.edu)
  • In answering the foregoing questions, philosophers have been led to sharply differing views about moral motivation, and these views have sometimes been thought to have important implications for foundational issues in ethics. (stanford.edu)
  • This entry provides an overview of the main positions philosophers have taken in their efforts to understand and explain the phenomenon of moral motivation. (stanford.edu)
  • 14. Although they offer the four possible views of moral motivation as caricatures, Schroeder et al. (stanford.edu)
  • The REACH Pilot Project supported the design, testing, and improvement of the resources, professional development, implementation models, and measurement tools to help schools intentionally strengthen student motivation. (search-institute.org)
  • The measures will be integrated into CIS's measurement system for continuous improvement and paired with professional development focused on strengthening relationships and student motivation. (search-institute.org)
  • Families play a vital role in student motivation. (search-institute.org)
  • See published findings from these and other projects on student motivation and achievement . (search-institute.org)
  • Creative writing motivation District of Columbia Rochester-upon-Medway type my thesis proposal for 10 Oklahoma looking for someone to write dissertation methodology on divorce due tomorrow, South Tyneside edit my literature review on statistics for cheap St. Thomas, term papers my worst nightmare, Val-dOr, Leduc Kansas Creative writing motivation Pincourt write an essay on human rights Mississippi an essay length, Brantford. (issuu.com)
  • Human motivations, however, are far more complicated. (sparknotes.com)
  • A new study investigates the short-term effects of marijuana on human motivation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This article refers to human motivation. (authorstream.com)
  • Quinn told attendees at the Society for Human Resource Management's 2015 Talent Management Conference & Exposition that motivation-based interviewing will "ensure that you select the right people who possess the three essential attributes of high performers: passion, can-do attitude and skill. (shrm.org)
  • Motivation has an ability to change the mood of a person in a good way especially when it comes to the completion of special goals. (lulu.com)
  • Recognizing that each team member has different sources of motivation, then linking these back to the overall goals of your organisation is key. (forbes.com)
  • Motivation is the driving force by which humans achieve their goals. (wikipedia.org)
  • I think the context she is using it in is where people use motivation in place of self-discipline and self-determination, and rely solely on fleeting motivation to get them to do things. (reddit.com)
  • And if failure equals motivation it equally means redefining your goal as necessary as you learn along the way. (psychcentral.com)
  • Learn everything you want about Cleaning Motivation with the wikiHow Cleaning Motivation Category. (wikihow.com)
  • Miley's motivation for spiritual change is simple: admit you need forgiveness, seek home, find Love, and stumble upon truth in faith's company. (beliefnet.com)
  • Is there a certain area of your life that you are dissatisfied with but lack the motivation to change? (selfgrowth.com)
  • One of the things we see in this study is that from week to week our motivation can change a lot, and these weekly changes in motivation can be destructive to our resolutions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • We here at Motivation Matters wanted to take this opportunity to say thanks for all the thoughtful comments and suggestions we've received on this blog over the past year. (edweek.org)
  • This story in the Tuscaloosa News hits on a lot of what we talk about here on Motivation Matters. (edweek.org)
  • Apparently this is treat-kids-like-adults week on Motivation Matters because today, I'm going to point your attention to this editorial, "High schools shouldn't treat students like babies," on the Detroit News. (edweek.org)
  • conseils de mise en oeuvre de l'escape game dans une salle de classe, des scénarii clé en main pour niveaux collège et lycée et des ressources à imprimer ou télécharger. (lulu.com)
  • The motivation-based method's main objective is to determine if a person is a high-achiever or simply an average worker by asking a series of questions that are designed to see how a person handles obstacles. (shrm.org)
  • For me it's about relying on self-discipline for the most part, but we all need a bit of a helping hand from time to time which is where motivation comes in, I think anyway. (reddit.com)
  • Our motivation to be physically active changes on a weekly basis because we have so many demands on our time," said Conroy. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Motivation is many a time the reason why we do things and pursue them further. (buzzle.com)
  • A perfect time to write about self motivation, because I badly need it, right now. (buzzle.com)
  • Although cannabis is commonly thought to reduce motivation, this is the first time it has been reliably tested and quantified using an appropriate sample size and methodology," says Lawn. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Some people might say that motivation is just an ordinary word which has a very useless meaning. (lulu.com)
  • For many people, the motivation to exercise fluctuates from week to week, and these fluctuations predict whether they will be physically active, according to researchers at Penn State. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Most of the people who come to me with motivation problems begin by saying they have no idea what caused their plight. (runnersworld.com)
  • Motivation comes from two things: you, and other people. (authorstream.com)
  • What motivation would they have to believe the world's population could go on increasing forever to infinity. (sonic.net)
  • How to use motivation to find clarity in your life and much more. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Who we surround ourselves with matter, and if we are around colleagues that are not productive or working hard, it can be even harder to find motivation. (forbes.com)
  • You will likely find that when you are back in the office, your motivation will have followed you. (forbes.com)