Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Sensation of enjoyment or gratification.
Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
Computer-assisted analysis and processing of problems in a particular area.
Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.
The end-result or objective, which may be specified or required in advance.
Dedication or commitment shown by employees to organizations or institutions where they work.
The act of testing the software for compliance with a standard.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A state of internal activity of an organism that is a necessary condition before a given stimulus will elicit a class of responses; e.g., a certain level of hunger (drive) must be present before food will elicit an eating response.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Computer-assisted study of methods for obtaining useful quantitative solutions to problems that have been expressed mathematically.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Persons who donate their services.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Inability to experience pleasure due to impairment or dysfunction of normal psychological and neurobiological mechanisms. It is a symptom of many PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., DEPRESSIVE DISORDER, MAJOR; and SCHIZOPHRENIA).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.
Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
Those forms of control which are exerted in less concrete and tangible ways, as through folkways, mores, conventions, and public sentiment.
An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Specifications and instructions applied to the software.
The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Disorders related to substance abuse.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)
A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.
A technique of operations research for solving certain kinds of problems involving many variables where a best value or set of best values is to be found. It is most likely to be feasible when the quantity to be optimized, sometimes called the objective function, can be stated as a mathematical expression in terms of the various activities within the system, and when this expression is simply proportional to the measure of the activities, i.e., is linear, and when all the restrictions are also linear. It is different from computer programming, although problems using linear programming techniques may be programmed on a computer.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
The remuneration paid or benefits granted to an employee.
Programs designed by management to motivate employees to work more efficiently with increased productivity, and greater employee satisfaction.
What a person has in mind to do or bring about.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
Sexual activities of animals.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
Selection of a type of occupation or profession.
The selection of one food over another.
Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.
Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Beverages consumed as stimulants and tonics. They usually contain a combination of CAFFEINE with other substances such as herbal supplements; VITAMINS; AMINO ACIDS; and sugar or sugar derivatives.
Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.
Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.
Individuals enrolled in a school of nursing or a formal educational program leading to a degree in nursing.
Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
Payment for a service or for a commodity such as a body part.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.
The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.
Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.
A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
The use of force or intimidation to obtain compliance.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Habitual moderation in the indulgence of a natural appetite, especially but not exclusively the consumption of alcohol.
Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Lack of emotion or emotional expression; a disorder of motivation that persists over time.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
The consumption of edible substances.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.
Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.
The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.
A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
Preparatory education meeting the requirements for admission to medical school.
Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
A person's view of himself.
Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
A statistical analytic technique used with discrete dependent variables, concerned with separating sets of observed values and allocating new values. It is sometimes used instead of regression analysis.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Various branches of dental practice limited to specialized areas.
Behaviors associated with the giving of assistance or aid to individuals.
Specialized residences for persons who do not require full hospitalization, and are not well enough to function completely within the community without professional supervision, protection and support.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.
The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.
The educational process of instructing.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
The ability to foresee what is likely to happen on the basis of past experience. It is largely a frontal lobe function.
A psychoanalytic term meaning self-love.
The branch of psychology concerned with psychological aspects of teaching and the formal learning process in school.
Computerized compilations of information units (text, sound, graphics, and/or video) interconnected by logical nonlinear linkages that enable users to follow optimal paths through the material and also the systems used to create and display this information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)
The motivational and/or affective state resulting from being blocked, thwarted, disappointed or defeated.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.
Approximate, quantitative reasoning that is concerned with the linguistic ambiguity which exists in natural or synthetic language. At its core are variables such as good, bad, and young as well as modifiers such as more, less, and very. These ordinary terms represent fuzzy sets in a particular problem. Fuzzy logic plays a key role in many medical expert systems.
Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Travel to another country for the purpose of medical treatment.
Learning algorithms which are a set of related supervised computer learning methods that analyze data and recognize patterns, and used for classification and regression analysis.
Manipulation of the behavior of persons or animals by biomedical, physical, psychological, or social means, including for nontherapeutic reasons.
The upward or downward mobility in an occupation or the change from one occupation to another.
A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).
The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
The family Sturnidae, in the order PASSERIFORMES. The starling family also includes mynahs and oxpeckers.
Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.
Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
The period shortly before, during, and immediately after giving birth.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.

Women's interest in vaginal microbicides. (1/5369)

CONTEXT: Each year, an estimated 15 million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV, occur in the United States. Women are not only at a disadvantage because of their biological and social susceptibility, but also because of the methods that are available for prevention. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of 1,000 women aged 18-44 in the continental United States who had had sex with a man in the last 12 months were interviewed by telephone. Analyses identified levels and predictors of women's worry about STDs and interest in vaginal microbicides, as well as their preferences regarding method characteristics. Numbers of potential U.S. microbicide users were estimated. RESULTS: An estimated 21.3 million U.S. women have some potential current interest in using a microbicidal product. Depending upon product specifications and cost, as many as 6.0 million women who are worried about getting an STD would be very interested in current use of a microbicide. These women are most likely to be unmarried and not cohabiting, of low income and less education, and black or Hispanic. They also are more likely to have visited a doctor for STD symptoms or to have reduced their sexual activity because of STDs, to have a partner who had had other partners in the past year, to have no steady partner or to have ever used condoms for STD prevention. CONCLUSIONS: A significant minority of women in the United States are worried about STDs and think they would use vaginal microbicides. The development, testing and marketing of such products should be expedited.  (+info)

Condom use and HIV risk behaviors among U.S. adults: data from a national survey. (2/5369)

CONTEXT: How much condom use among U.S. adults varies by type of partner or by risk behavior is unclear. Knowledge of such differentials would aid in evaluating the progress being made toward goals for levels of condom use as part of the Healthy People 2000 initiative. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the 1996 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse, an annual household-based probability sample of the noninstitutionalized population aged 12 and older that measures the use of illicit drugs, alcohol and tobacco. The personal behaviors module included 25 questions covering sexual activity in the past year, frequency of condom use in the past year, circumstances of the last sexual encounter and HIV testing. RESULTS: Sixty-two percent of adults reported using a condom at last intercourse outside of an ongoing relationship, while only 19% reported using condoms when the most recent intercourse occurred within a steady relationship. Within ongoing relationships, condom use was highest among respondents who were younger, black, of lower income and from large metropolitan areas. Forty percent of unmarried adults used a condom at last sex, compared with the health objective of 50% for the year 2000. Forty percent of injecting drug users used condoms at last intercourse, compared with the 60% condom use objective for high-risk individuals. Significantly, persons at increased risk for HIV because of their sexual behavior or drug use were not more likely to use condoms than were persons not at increased risk; only 22% used condoms during last intercourse within an ongoing relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial progress has been made toward national goals for increasing condom use. The rates of condom use by individuals at high risk of HIV need to be increased, however, particularly condom use with a steady partner.  (+info)

Tay-Sachs screening: motives for participating and knowledge of genetics and probability. (3/5369)

A highly-educated, socially aware group of persons presented themselves for Tay-Sachs screening having learned about it mainly from friends, newspapers, radio, and television but not from physicians or rabbis. After learning that screening was possible and deciding that it is in principle a good idea, and after discussing it with relatives and friends but not with physicians and rabbis, they presented themselves for the test. Although the participants knew that Tay-Sachs is a serious disease and that Jews are vulnerable, few of them knew much about the genetics of the disease, its frequency, or the incidence of the carrier state. This experience of screening for Tay-Sachs carriers suggests the need for physicians to learn the relation of genetics to preventive medicine, and for the public to learn more about the biology of man.  (+info)

The neural consequences of conflict between intention and the senses. (4/5369)

Normal sensorimotor states involve integration of intention, action and sensory feedback. An example is the congruence between motor intention and sensory experience (both proprioceptive and visual) when we move a limb through space. Such goal-directed action necessitates a mechanism that monitors sensorimotor inputs to ensure that motor outputs are congruent with current intentions. Monitoring in this sense is usually implicit and automatic but becomes conscious whenever there is a mismatch between expected and realized sensorimotor states. To investigate how the latter type of monitoring is achieved we conducted three fully factorial functional neuroimaging experiments using PET measures of relative regional cerebral blood flow with healthy volunteers. In the first experiment subjects were asked to perform Luria's bimanual co-ordination task which involves either in-phase (conditions 1 and 3) or out-of-phase (conditions 2 and 4) bimanual movements (factor one), while looking towards their left hand. In half of the conditions (conditions 3 and 4) a mirror was used that altered visual feedback (factor two) by replacing their left hand with the mirror image of their right hand. Hence (in the critical condition 4) subjects saw in-phase movements despite performing out-of-phase movements. This mismatch between intention, proprioception and visual feedback engendered cognitive conflict. The main effect of out-of-phase movements was associated with increased neural activity in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) bilaterally [Brodmann area (BA) 40, extending into BA 7] and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) bilaterally (BA 9/46). The main effect of the mirror showed increased neural activity in right DLPFC (BA 9/ 46) and right superior PPC (BA 7) only. Analysis of the critical interaction revealed that the mismatch condition led to a specific activation in the right DLPFC alone (BA 9/46). Study 2, using an identical experimental set-up but manipulating visual feedback from the right hand (instead of the left), subsequently demonstrated that this right DLPFC activation was independent of the hand attended. Finally, study 3 removed the motor intentional component by moving the subjects' hand passively, thus engendering a mismatch between proprioception and vision only. Activation in the right lateral prefrontal cortex was now more ventral than in studies 1 or 2 (BA 44/45). A direct comparison of studies 1 and 3 (which both manipulated visual feedback from the left hand) confirmed that a ventral right lateral prefrontal region is primarily activated by discrepancies between signals from sensory systems, while a more dorsal area in right lateral prefrontal cortex is activated when actions must be maintained in the face of a conflict between intention and sensory outcome.  (+info)

The impact of face-to-face educational outreach on diarrhoea treatment in pharmacies. (5/5369)

Private pharmacies are an important source of health care in developing countries. A number of studies have documented deficiencies in treatment, but little has been done to improve practices. We conducted two controlled trials to determine the efficacy of face-to-face educational outreach in improving communication and product sales for cases of diarrhoea in children in 194 private pharmacies in two developing countries. A training guide was developed to enable a national diarrhoea control programme to identify problems and their causes in pharmacies, using quantitative and qualitative research methods. The guide also facilitates the design, implementation, and evaluation of an educational intervention, which includes brief one-on-one meetings between diarrhoea programme educators and pharmacists/owners, followed by one small group training session with all counter attendants working in the pharmacies. We evaluated the short-term impact of this intervention using a before-and-after comparison group design in Kenya, and a randomized controlled design in Indonesia, with the pharmacy as unit of analysis in both countries (n = 107 pharmacies in Kenya; n = 87 in Indonesia). Using trained surrogate patients posing as mothers of a child under five with diarrhoea, we measured sales of oral rehydration salts (ORS); sales of antidiarrhoeal agents; and history-taking and advice to continue fluids and food. We also measured knowledge about dehydration and drugs to treat diarrhoea among Kenyan pharmacy employees after training. Major discrepancies were found at baseline between reported and observed behaviour. For example, 66% of pharmacy attendants in Kenya, and 53% in Indonesia, reported selling ORS for the previous case of child diarrhoea, but in only 33% and 5% of surrogate patient visits was ORS actually sold for such cases. After training, there was a significant increase in knowledge about diarrhoea and its treatment among counter attendants in Kenya, where these changes were measured. Sales of ORS in intervention pharmacies increased by an average of 30% in Kenya (almost a two-fold increase) and 21% in Indonesia compared to controls (p < 0.05); antidiarrhoeal sales declined by an average of 15% in Kenya and 20% in Indonesia compared to controls (p < 0.05). There was a trend toward increased communication in both countries, and in Kenya we observed significant increases in discussion of dehydration during pharmacy visits (p < 0.05). We conclude that face-to-face training of pharmacy attendants which targets deficits in knowledge and specific problem behaviours can result in significant short-term improvements in product sales and communication with customers. The positive effects and cost-effectiveness of such programmes need to be tested over a longer period for other health problems and in other countries.  (+info)

Factors associated with screening mammography and breast self-examination intentions. (6/5369)

The factors associated with the use of two methods for the early detection of breast cancer were assessed using a theoretical framework derived from the theory of reasoned action and the Health Belief Model. Telephone interviews were conducted with 170 women aged between 50 and 70 years, randomly selected from the telephone directory of a provincial city in Victoria, Australia. The model explained 47% of the variance in intentions to have a mammogram and 22% of the variance in intentions to practise breast self-examination (BSE). The data supported the prediction that different variables would be associated with each method of early detection of breast cancer. Intentions to have a mammogram were associated with perceived susceptibility to breast cancer, knowing a woman who has had a mammogram, previous mammography history and Pap test history. Intentions to do BSE were associated with self efficacy, knowledge of breast cancer issues, concern about getting breast cancer and employment status. Both screening methods were associated with prior behaviour and concern about getting breast cancer.  (+info)

Is long-term maintenance of health-related physical activity possible? An analysis of concepts and evidence. (7/5369)

The phenomenon of maintenance of health-related physical activity is explored through an analysis of the underlying concepts and of the existing empirical evidence. The following targets were used for the analysis: (1) the concept of health-related physical activity, (2) the concept of maintenance, (3) common manifestations of maintenance in everyday living, (4) the promotional and behavioral characteristics of health-related physical activity, (5) the known determinants of free-living physical activity, and (6) intervention trials on physical activity in free-living groups. The analyses revealed the inherent resistance to adoption and maintenance of physical activity, particularly that of high-intensity and program-centered activities, the persistence, however, of many simple everyday routines and habits, the multiple determinants discovered for free-living physical activity and a few empirical demonstrations of the successful promotion of the maintenance of physical activity over a year or two. The promotion of the maintenance of health-related physical activity seems thus a distinct possibility provided that (1) the promotional situation is analyzed thoroughly, (2) the activity is chosen carefully with an emphasis on moderation in intensity and integration into the participant's life-style, (3) multiple promotional contacts are used, and (4) support from the participant's social and physical environment is provided. There is a need for more research on the maintenance of health-related physical activity using the stages of change models, behavior modification principles, self-control concepts, the concept of intrinsic motivation and the Relapse model. The method of analysis used here could apply to other health-related behaviors as well.  (+info)

Loud, sad or bad: young people's perceptions of peer groups and smoking. (8/5369)

This paper suggests that most 13 year olds and many 11 year olds have a clear and detailed grasp of their own social map, recognize the pecking order which is established amongst their peers and are aware of the different levels of risk-taking behaviour, including smoking, adopted by different peer groups in their school year. Thirty six 11 year olds and 40 13 year olds took part in the study. Their remarkably consistent views about which pupils adopt or reject smoking are closely related to their perceptions of their social map. Their accounts differentiate top girls, top boys, middle pupils, low-status pupils, trouble-makers and loners, associating smoking behaviour consistently with three of the five groups--the top girls, the low-status pupils and the trouble makers. Top boys, although sharing many of the characteristics of top girls, have an added protection factor--their keen interest in football and physical fitness. From their descriptions, it is apparent that different groups of pupils smoke for different reasons which are related to pecking order and group membership. The implications of these young people's views for health education programmes to prevent smoking and other risk-taking behaviours are far reaching.  (+info)

The present study examined the utility of two forms of measurement of intrinsic motivation in increasing the predictive validity of the theory of planned behaviour. Self-report questionnaires were administered to school pupils (n = 174), University students (n = 129) and adults (n = 157). The data were analysed using confirmatory factor analysis and regression analysis. Confirmatory analysis supported discriminant validity between Forms A and B measures of intrinsic motivation. In addition, hierarchical regression analysis demonstrated that Form B measure of intrinsic motivation increased effectiveness of the theory of planned behaviour in predicting intentions and social behaviour. Further, the regression analysis showed that age and past behaviour did not reduce the effects observed for intrinsic motivation. It is recommended that intrinsic motivation could increase the predictive utility of the theory of planned behaviour. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ...
Definition of Intrinsic motivation in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Intrinsic motivation? Meaning of Intrinsic motivation as a legal term. What does Intrinsic motivation mean in law?
I have been thinking a lot about intrinsic motivation lately, coupled with the idea of emotional involvement in learning as I posted earlier. I think about it in relation to my own teaching, my learning, my interaction with colleagues, and also very importantly, the way I motivate my own child (this one is EXTREMELY tricky).. I thought I needed to go back to the literature on intrinsic motivation, and what drives informal learning to flourish for some people with some things but not others, and I think there is definitely an emotional connection there. I thought Steve Wheeler might have something to say about this in a concise way, and he does, here. He mentions how in PLE (Personal Learning Environments) and informal learning, we learn because we are interested. We persist because of the intrinsic motivation (although apparently there are elements of extrinsic motivation there, too), and he seems to be suggesting that what we need to attempt to do in formal learning situations is to bring this ...
Abstract. Reinforcement (trial-and-error) learning in animals is driven by a multitude of processes. Most animals have evolved several sophisticated systems of `extrinsic motivations (EMs) that guide them to acquire behaviours allowing them to maintain their bodies, defend against threat, and reproduce. Animals have also evolved various systems of `intrinsic motivations (IMs) that allow them to acquire actions in the absence of extrinsic rewards. These actions are used later to pursue such rewards when they become available. Intrinsic motivation has been studied in Psychology for many decades and its biological substrate is now being elucidated by neuroscientists. In the last two decades, investigators in computational modelling, robotics and machine learning have proposed various mechanisms that capture certain aspects of Ims. However, we still lack models of IMs that attempt to integrate all key aspects of intrinsically motivated learning and behaviour while taking into account the relevant ...
Downloadable! We consider the interaction of intrinsic motivation and concerns for social approval in a laboratory experiment. We elicit a proxy for Fairtrade preferences before the experiment. In the experiment, we elicit willingness to pay for conventional and Fairtrade chocolate. Treatments vary whether this can be signalled to other participants. Subjects concerned with social approval should state a higher Fairtrade premium when signalling is possible. We find that this is the case, but interestingly only for participants who are not intrinsically motivated to buy Fairtrade. This has important implications both for crowding out of intrinsic motivation through incentives and for producer choices.
Intrinsic motivation can be defined as the inherent desire to engage ones interests and to exercise and develop ones capacities (Reeve, 2009). Put simply, intrinsic motivation is the desire motivation that an individual acquires from within. This form of motivation can develop spontaneously from psychological needs. An individual may experience intrinsic motivation because they have psychological needs within themselves (Reeve, 2009). Psychological needs, when they are supported by the individuals environment and relationships, can result in an experience of psychological need satisfaction. When feeling intrinsically motivated, an individual may express so by saying, I enjoy doing that (Reeve, 2009). Intrinsic motivation can lead to benefits within an individual, including persistence and well-being. The higher an individuals intrinsic motivation, the greater their persistence on the task. Intrinsically motivated persistence can be seen in many acts such as adherence to a healthy lifestyle ...
Incentive theory is based on the idea that behavior is primarily extrinsically motivated. It argues that people are more motivated to perform activities if they receive a reward afterward, rather than simply because they enjoy the activities themselves.. There is controversy concerning how and for how long motivators change behavior. For instance, some data suggest that intrinsic motivation is diminished when extrinsic motivation is given-a process known as the overjustification effect. If extrinsic incentives are used to stimulate behaviors that an individual already finds motivating (even without external reinforcement ), intrinsic motivation for that behavior may decrease over time. In those cases, extrinsic motivators can backfire: instead of serving as an incentive for the desired behavior, they undermine a previously held intrinsic motivation. This can lead to extinguishing the intrinsic motivation and creating a dependence on extrinsic rewards for continued performance (Deci et al., ...
Deci, E. L., Eghrari, H., Patrick, B. C., & Leone, D. (1994). Facilitating internalization: The self-determination theory perspective. Journal of Personality, 62(1), 119-142. DOI:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1994.tb00797.x Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The what and why of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227-268. DOI:10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01 Gillet, N., Vallerand, R. J., & Lafrenière, M. A. K. (2012). Intrinsic and extrinsic school motivation as a function of age: The mediating role of autonomy support. Social Psychology of Education, 15(1), 77-95. DOI: 10.1007/s11218-011-9170-2 Gottfried, A. E., Marcoulides, G. A., Gottfried, A. W., & Oliver, P. H. (2009). A latent curve model of parental motivational practices and developmental decline in math and science academic intrinsic motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(3), 729-739. DOI:10.1037/a0015084 Harackiewicz, J. (1979). The effects of reward contingency and ...
Its very easy to see how gamification inspires extrinsic motivation. But does gamification inspire intrinsic motivation? We think so...
CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: Approach and avoidance achievement goals and intrinsic motivation: a mediational analysis.
A person with intrinsic motivation is motivated to do something solely because it satisfies their conscious, ego, or self-esteem in a positive way.
Intrinsic motivation information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues.
In the various teaching scenarios/settings Ive observed or participated in, Ive witnessed lots of forms of extrinsic motivation (using rewards to motivate students). This is especially true in child-learning settings, where it seems all too common to use candy, stickers, or other baubles to psych kids up for the lesson. I dont know whether this is a good idea or not; it works on some level, sure, but isnt it kind of a cop out? Now does this same kind of superficial extrinsic motivation work for adults? Should it? I would rather believe that intrinsic motivation can work for students of all ages. I find that one of the best ways to instill intrinsic motivation is to make students feel like they have a stake in their work, or a sense of ownership/control/mastery over the material they learn. Thats why I dont like to spoon-feed students knowledge. They should make the leap themselves, and be proud of themselves for their accomplishments. That is the best way to keep them motivated to keep on ...
Ive commented on this extensively before - Im a big fan of intrinsic motivation. Sometimes the parent has to figure out what the childs intrinsic motivation is, and then adapt the system to that reward. And yes, for some kids, their intrinsic motivation is getting stuff they want in a material sense, and that can work. What helps for me is identifying what the child WANTS as the reward - not what theyd ask for if you asked them (which is often stuff) but what theyre deep down jonesing for. That can then be used as a problem-solving trade, which, IMHO, is much more above-board than reward charts. Reward charts tend to present the idea that the childs behavior change earns them the reward. What is really going on is that the parent has a problem, the childs behavior change solves the problem, and the parent is willing to make some effort or spend some money to encourage or thank for the change that removes their problem. I prefer to keep it more I have a problem, and you have a ...
This paper presents a formal framework for modeling the effects of economic incentives on motivation. While economic models represent the utilities from monetary incentives and private benefits in an additive form, studies in psychology show that extrinsic and intrinsic motivation are non-additive and that there exists a continuum between the two. To accommodate for possible interaction effects, a non-additive probability model and evidence theory have been used in the principal-agent set-up. The model produces results consistent with prior evidence presented in social psychology studies.
Simulation based learning environments are designed to improve the quality of medical education by allowing students to interact with patients, diagnostic laboratory procedures, and patient data in a virtual environment. However, few studies have evaluated whether simulation based learning environments increase students knowledge, intrinsic motivation, and self-efficacy, and help them generalize from laboratory analyses to clinical practice and health decision-making. An entire class of 300 University of Copenhagen first-year undergraduate students, most with a major in medicine, received a 2-h training session in a simulation based learning environment. The main outcomes were pre- to post- changes in knowledge, intrinsic motivation, and self-efficacy, together with post-intervention evaluation of the effect of the simulation on student understanding of everyday clinical practice were demonstrated. Knowledge (Cohens d = 0.73), intrinsic motivation (d = 0.24), and self-efficacy (d = 0.46) significantly
NOTE: Refresh your browser if you are unable to download the scale.. Scale Description. The Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) is a multidimensional measurement device intended to assess participants subjective experience related to a target activity in laboratory experiments. It has been used in several experiments related to intrinsic motivation and self-regulation (e.g., Ryan, 1982; Ryan, Mims & Koestner, 1983; Plant & Ryan, 1985; Ryan, Connell, & Plant, 1990; Ryan, Koestner & Deci, 1991; Deci, Eghrari, Patrick, & Leone, 1994). The instrument assesses participants interest/enjoyment, perceived competence, effort, value/usefulness, felt pressure and tension, and perceived choice while performing a given activity, thus yielding six subscale scores. Recently, a seventh subscale has been added to tap the experiences of relatedness, although the validity of this subscale has yet to be established. The interest/enjoyment subscale is considered the self-report measure of intrinsic motivation; ...
There are two fundamental categories of motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic.. Intrinsic motivation means employees are motivated by the work itself. It comes when employees enjoy the work they are doing, enjoy the people they are working with, and/or are having fun while doing it. It also comes when employees believe the work they are doing is meaningful, and they feel a connection with the desired outcome (such as if they feel their goal is important or, even more so, if they feel they are the only ones able to achieve it). To be intrinsically motivated, employees must also feel that they are empowered with the resources, support, information and aptitude to achieve their goals. Intrinsic motivation is shown to increase job satisfaction.. Extrinsic motivation involves punishment or rewards based on the outcome of an employees work. For example, bonuses or public recognition are seen as extrinsic motivators. Interestingly, the presence of extrinsic motivation tends to have an opposite effect on ...
Motivation is ann important element influencing learning and achievement. It is believed to affect human behaviour in a various situation like; learning, thinking, percep..
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of grit and intrinsic motivation. regarding students propensity to procrastinate. Three specific research questions were. constructed: How much of the variance in participants procrastination is explained solely. by their degree of grit? Does the degree of intrisic motivation contribute with additional. explanatory information for the regression between grit and procrastination? Is intrisic. motivation a mediator for the regression between grit and procrastination?. To test this, a hierarchical multiple regression analysis was constructed. To collect. data an electronic questionnaire was constructed. The sample consisted of 271 students who. all studied at Karlstad University. The data was collected through the learning platform. itslearning. Grit was measured with Swedish-Grit Scale. Intrinsic motivation was measured. with a modified version of Task Evaluation Questionnaire and the students propensity to. procrastinate was measured with ...
How to increase employee motivation? Start with finding out what motivates your employees. Play the powerful game of Moving Motivators with your team!
Objective: To examine the motivational process through which increases in aerobic capacity and decreases in total body fat are achieved during high-intensity intermittent training (HIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) interventions. Method: Eighty-seven physically inactive adults (65% women, age = 42 ± 12, BMI = 27.67 ± 4.99 kg/m2) took part in a 10-week randomized intervention testing group-based HIT, operationalized as repeated sprints of 15-60 s interspersed with periods of recovery cycling = 25 min/session, 3 sessions/wk-1, or MICT, operationalized as cycling at constant workload of 65% maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max, 30-45 min/session-1, 5 sessions/wk-1. Assessments of VO2max and total body fat were made pre- and postintervention. Motivation variables were assessed midintervention and class attendance was monitored throughout. Path analysis was employed, controlling for treatment arm and baseline values of VO2max and total body fat. Results: The 2 groups differed in ...
Intrinsic motivation: This is when motivation comes from internal factors to meet personal needs. We do things we do because we enjoy them, not because we have to. Intrinsic means internal or inside of yourself; when you are intrinsically motivated, you enjoy an interest, a course of study or skill development solely for the fulfillment of education and having fun. EMS is a career field that really touches our intrinsic motivation. Were not going to retire with mansions or private jets; instead we get our satisfaction from helping others and being the best part of their worst day ...
As a teacher, the constant struggle of how can we make them want to learn? haunts us before every lecture. We want our students to be excited to come to class, crave the material, and walk away happy with this epic newfound knowledge in hand. To put it simply, we want them to want it.. Intrinsic motivation, as described in Dan Pinks TedTalk, is what we strive for as educators. A go-getter attitude with an air of excitement is what we hope to see in every student that walks through our doors. Unfortunately, when this doesnt happen, we tend to do one of two things: blame it on them or on ourselves. We may come away believing that they arent a good student, we were never meant to teach, and our material was, even after hours of preparation, lack-luster. The problem with this line of thinking is that, more often than not, this lack of intrinsic motivation is not due to either of the aforementioned individuals. Instead, it is due to the omnipresent extrinsic motivation of the omnipotent ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of a motivational interviewing-based health coaching on quality of life in subjects with COPD. AU - Rehman, Hamid. AU - Karpman, Craig. AU - Douglas, Kristin Vickers. AU - Benzo, Roberto P.. N1 - Funding Information: This research was supported by the National Institutes of Health research grant R HL114162-02A1.. PY - 2018/8. Y1 - 2018/8. N2 - BACKGROUND: Improving quality of life (QOL) is a key goal in the care of patients with COPD. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) has clearly been shown to improve QOL, but is not accessible to many eligible patients. There is a need for alternative programs designed to improve patient well-being that are accessible to all patients with COPD. Our goal was to pilot test a simple, telephone-based health-coaching intervention that was recently shown to decrease readmission among hospitalized COPD patients and stable COPD patients eligible for PR. METHODS: Subjects received a 3-month intervention consisting of 10 health-coaching telephone calls ...
Failure to identify those students that only faintly demonstrate characteristics of giftedness can lead to continual classroom disruptions and the loss of potential for the student. I could not agree more strongly with the author. Having taught several vocational science classes in local high schools, I have met many students that are indeed gifted but are nonconforming holding little regard for those that do not seek to understand them on a personal level. There are many strong young minds lost every year because teachers and other professionals are not adequately trained or equipped to identify and differentiate curriculum for these underground students. According to the author characteristics of the intrinsically motivated student include: students that accept challenges willingly, those that show persistence in difficult tasks, those who exhibit curiosity, remain task-committed, and reflect satisfaction in their own efforts despite the opinion of others. The author sees this motivation as ...
One of the best motivators to learn is personal satisfaction.[1] But where does this internal drive come from? Many believe that students are motivated to learn
Downloadable ! Author(s): Jürgen Bitzer & Wolfram Schrettl & Philipp J.H. Schröder. 2005 Abstract: This papers sheds light on the puzzling evidence that even though open source software (OSS) is a public good, it is developed for free by highly qualified, young and motivated individuals, and evolves at a rapid pace. We show that once OSS development is understood as the private provision of a public good, these features emerge quite naturally. We adapt a dynamic private-provision-of-public-goods model to reflect key aspects of the OSS phenomenon. In particular, instead of relying on extrinsic motives (e.g. signaling) the present model is driven by intrinsic motives of OSS programmers, such as user- programmers, play value or homo ludens payoff, and gift culture benefits. Such intrinsic motives feature extensively in the wider OSS literature and contribute new insights to the economic analysis.
This book examines the eight-year development of the Reading Orienteering Club after-school program, showing how to develop, test, change, and adapt an after-school program to fit the needs of the children who attend. It includes case studies and data reports for each year.
Yes, organizations need profits, but as De Geus is cited [they] need profits the same way as any living being needs oxygen. It is a necessity to stay alive, but it is not the purpose of life. People suffer when they lack purpose. Yet what is presented at every all-associate meeting? Market share, profitability? The CFO (Chief Financial Officer) gets the stage, when really it should be the CPO (Chief Purpose Officer). Workers are rarely inspired by economic purposes involving profit.. Meaningfulness is about the energy or passion you have for the purpose. This may change over time. Having a university-aged daughter who insists that everyone in her business class is driven by money alone, I was intrigued when Thomas talked about this changing over time. Younger workers, he says, are focused on proving they can handle things: work and life. So at this stage, their passion is simply showing their competence. But as they begin to realize they can do it, they commonly suffer a crisis of meaning. The ...
This paper studies mechanisms that produce hierarchical structuring of affordance learning tasks of different levels of complexity. Guided by intrinsic mot
Low standardized test scores are a reflection of being uninspired, not unknowledgeable. Teach your students how to care, lose their fears, and identify and overcome their obstacles.
In todays organizations engagement is vital-more is being required of workers than ever. In this new edition of his classic book, Kenneth...
This studys aim was to investigate whether self-determined behaviour and achievement motivation impact learners academic performance. Convenient geographic sampling was used to select three pnmary schools in Soshanguve. A likert type questionnaire was used to collect data from 120 learners. Item analyses were preformed to investigate the reliability of subscales. Three hypotheses were tested using analysis of variance and Pearson product moment correlations. The first, which predicted that intrinsic motivation is positively related to academic achievement, was not supported. Both intrinsically and extrinsically motivated learners achieved better in academic tasks than amotivated learners. The second, which predicted a negative correlation between extrinsic motivation extrinsic motivation and academic performance, was also not supported. The third, which predicted that there is a negative correlation between amotivation and academic performance, was confirmed. General conclusions, ...
Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation Intrinsic motivation is usually characterized by genuine interest or fascination in the subject while extrinsic motivation is influenced by the expectation of reward or fear of punishment.
Motivation and Motivation to Learn Despite the fact that the exact nature of motivation is much debated, motivation can be viewed as the internal processes that give behavior its energy (i.e., intensity and duration) and direction (Deci & Ryan, 1985; Reeve, 1996). More specifically, motivated behavior is assumed to originate from various sources such as needs, cognitions, and emotions, which in turn energize and direct behavior to be either initiated, sustained, intensified or stopped. In predicting and explaining motivational behavior, theorists often distinguish intrinsic from extrinsic sources of motivation. Intrinsic motivation to engage in an activity arises from internal sources such as curiosity, interest, and innate strivings for personal growth (Meece, 1997). In contrast, extrinsic motivation originates from external contingencies such as tangible rewards or praise.. Thomas Malone and Mark Lepper (Malone & Lepper, 1987; Lepper & Malone, 1987) have identified four major factors, ...
Finding the Motivation to Start Again. The hardest part of starting up your fitness and healthy eating again after a setback is finding the motivation to get back on track. We have all struggled with this at some point or another. We are working out consistently and eating right, and then something happens that takes us out of that routine and we have a hard time getting started again. Here are a few tips to get your fitness motivation back on track:. Determine your why- If you know exactly why you are working toward a goal it is much easier to get back into your healthy routine. It must be personal to you in order for it to increase motivation.. Create a motivation board- One thing I find motivating is to have my goals posted where I can see them daily. I also like motivational quotes or mantras that help to keep me on track. You can even use a virtual motivation board on Pinterest where you can pin different workouts, recipes, and motivation quotes to keep you inspired.. Find a fitness ...
The prospect of reward may provide a motivational incentive for optimizing goal-directed behavior. Animal work demonstrates that reward-processing networks and oculomotor-control networks in the brain are connected through the dorsal striatum, and that reward anticipation can improve oculomotor control via this nexus. Due perhaps to deterioration in dopaminergic striatal circuitry, goal-directed oculomotor control is subject to decline in healthy seniors, and even more in individuals with Parkinsons disease (PD). Here we examine whether healthy seniors and PD patients are able to utilize reward prospects to improve their impaired antisaccade performance. Results confirmed that oculomotor control declined in PD patients compared to healthy seniors, and in healthy seniors compared to young adults. However, the motivational incentive of reward expectation resulted in benefits in antisaccade performance in all groups alike. These findings speak against structural and nonmodifiable decline in
About 5% of women use illicit substances during pregnancy, and approximately 22% of these also report using tobacco or alcohol. While a number of treatment programs have begun to offer treatment specifically designed for pregnant substance abusers, it is difficult to keep these women in treatment. Brief motivational sessions have been found to improve treatment engagement and outcomes in both alcohol- and drug-using women. This study compared one such treatment intervention, Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET), with standard treatment.
What is extrinsic Motivation?. Extrinsic motivation is the term for motivation that emanates from outside your own. The inspiring factors are outside, or external, rewards like cash or grades. These types of incentives offer satisfaction and delight that the particular task itself might not provide.. An extrinsically inspired individual works on a project even when they may have little affinity for it as a result of expected fulfillment they are going to get through some compensation. The reward is something as modest like a smiley face to something significant like recognition or fortune. For instance, an extrinsically motivated individual that dislikes numbers might strive on a mathematics formula because would like the prize for doing it. With regards to a student, the incentive has to be good grade for an assignment as well as in the class.. Is it a good drive?. External motivation does not necessarily mean, however, that the person wont obtain any satisfaction from doing or finishing an ...
SUNNYVALE, Calif., Oct. 4, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- Accuray Incorporated (NASDAQ: ARAY) today reported, as required by NASDAQ Stock Market Rules, an equity inducement award to Shig Hamamatsu, the companys new VP, Finance & Chief Accounting Officer. As a material inducement to Mr. Hamamatsu joining the company, and in accordance with NASDAQ Listing Rule 5635(c)(4), the Compensation Committee of the Board of Directors of the company granted Mr. Hamamatsu 100,000 restricted stock units on September 29, 2017 (the Inducement Award). The Inducement Award was made outside of the companys current equity plan, but will be subject to terms and conditions generally consistent with those in the companys 2016 Equity Incentive Plan. 25% of the restricted stock units subject to the Inducement Award will vest on each anniversary of the Inducement Awards grant date, subject to Mr. Hamamatsus continued service through each such date.. About Accuray. Accuray Incorporated (Nasdaq: ARAY) is a radiation oncology ...
NOTE: Refresh your browser a few times if you are unable to download the scale.. Scale Description. The Concepts of Self-Regulation. SDT differentiates types of behavioral regulation in terms of the degree to which they represent autonomous or self-determined (versus controlled) functioning. Intrinsic motivation is the prototype of autonomous activity; when people are intrinsically motivated, they are by definition self-determined. Extrinsically motivated activity, in contrast, is often more controlled (i.e., less autonomous). However, SDT differentiates types of extrinsic motivation in terms of the degree to which it has been internalized, suggesting that the more fully it is internalized and integrated with ones self, the more it will be the basis for autonomous behavior. There are four different types of behavioral regulation, defined in terms of the degree to which the regulation of an extrinsically motivated activity has been internalized and integrated. They are external regulation, ...
While Im not an academic, Ive read some of the literature about fitness psychology, and a recurring theme from studies seems to be that intrinsic motivation is what drives people to the gym.. Intrinsic motivation-that internal push, innate desire, willpower-is the thing that most people find challenging to summon up. Extrinsic motivation-someone telling you you ought to exercise-is easy to get. But its unlikely to change your habits.. The right kind of extrinsic motivation, though, might become something intrinsic over the time. Thats where apps can help.. One app Ive been experimenting with is GymPact, an app which charges you for every workout you miss and pays you for every workout you do, based on a plan you commit to in advance.. The payouts are minimal. GymPact CEO Yifan Zhang says that the company pools the money it collects from users who missed workouts, takes a cut, and then distributes what remains to the people who do work out. That typically amounts to 40 or 50 cents a workout, ...
As mental health professionals know from their course work and experiences in human learning, many factors can facilitate participant learning: Maximize motivation: Whenever possible, the consultant should strive to maximize the intrinsic motivation of the employees. However, extrinsic motivation (e.g., monetary rewards, recognition, praise, Continuing Education credits) can also be useful. Motivation is maximized when […]. ...
If youre a business owner, executive or anyone with direct reports, youve undoubtedly wondered how you can get the most out of your team members. Ill save you the dozens of hours of reading and the thousands of dollars associated with their purchase with this summary: you cant motivate anyone.. Decades of behavioural science have repeatedly proven that for most 21st-century jobs - ones that require creative problem solving and that are non-repetitive - external motivators (things like bonuses or extra vacation days) dont create engagement and certainly dont motivate. And when, according to Gallup, approximately $3,400 of every $10,000 in salary (per employee) is lost to disengagement in 70% of North American companies, not understanding the true ingredients to motivation is a very costly problem.. Intrinsic motivation. After employees are paid a market wage for their services, an extra dollar in salary wont entice them to work any harder (at least those with non-repetitive, ...
How Can We Improve Motivation in Todays Social Studies Classrooms? Alan R. Brandhorst, in A Cognitive Perspective on Motivation: Implications for Social Studies Curriculum, Teaching, and Testing (International Journal of Social Education, Fall/Winte...
Coherence, purpose, and significance have emerged as the three contributors to meaning in life. Current theories have primarily emphasized coherence as key to meaning, neglecting purpose and significance. A theoretical perspective is posited which argues that approach motivation integrates all three contributors and gives rise to meaning through feelings of self-regulatory success. The present thesis therefore tested whether approach motivation uniquely contributes to meaning over and above the previously emphasized coherence, which acts to maintain meaning by preventing inhibition. Studies 1a, 2a, and 3a found that measures of approach motivation better predicted meaning compared to inhibition. Study 1b found that variants of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene associated with increased approach motivation predicted meaning and that this relationship was mediated by approach motivation, but not inhibition. In Study 1c, a between-subjects manipulation of approach motivation led to increased ...
This volume marks the fiftieth anniversary of the Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, the longest continuously running symposium in the field of psychology.. The motivational processes involved in drug abuse, the largest health problem in the United States, are the subject of eight thought-provoking essays that probe behavioral, cognitive, evolutionary, and physiological perspectives. George F. Koob discusses the implications of an allostatic view of motivation in psychopathology. Harriet de Witt considers the dual determinants of drug use in humans, reward and impulsivity, while R. D. Spealman and his research team assess the triggers of relapse in nonhuman primates. Jaak Panksepp and associates elucidate the role of emotional systems in addiction via a neuroethological perspective, while Michael T. Bardo and Linda Dwoskin describe the biological connection between novelty and drug-seeking motivational systems. Drive, incentive, and reinforcement, along with factors controlling the reinitiation ...
Instinct theories of motivation are often criticized because: LO 9.2 Instinct theories of motivation are often criticized because: They provide circular explanations of behavior (e.g., a person is aggressive because they have an aggressive instinct). (p. 337) They do not take into account biological factors involved in motivation. They were only used to account for motivation in animals. They were limited in the types of motivations that they attempted to explain (e.g., sexual, aggressive). They provide a parsimonious explanation of motivating factors behind a wide variety of behaviors.
autonomous motivation (5) autonomy support (16) basic needs (26) beliefs (34) book review (19) Carol Dweck (77) circle technique (9) Daniel Kahneman (5) Deliberate practice (40) democracy (8) Doing what works (28) Dunning-Kruger effect (9) Ed Deci (14) education (27) effort (25) Exercises (15) Feedback (15) genes (9) Goals (44) inequality (16) Interview (21) intrinsic motivation (22) Keith Stanovich (13) knowledge (10) meta-analysis (12) mindset (95) motivation (72) neuroplasticity (18) neuroscience (19) Progress (88) progress-focused (51) Questions (64) rationality (27) reason (9) reciprocity (9) replication (9) Richard Nisbett (9) Richard Ryan (16) science (42) Self-determination theory (50) Self-Regulation (17) skepticism (21) Small steps (27) stereotype threat (12) Steven Pinker (15) well-being (23) wisdom (13) work engagement (5) ...
This presentation focuses on the use of student motivation and reflection as indicators of short-term MSP program impact. With evidence and data from the RITES evaluation study the presentation will share; (1) the challenges of informing stakeholders of the research on student motivation and reflection and the importance of these outcomes as a means to student achievement, (2) the statistical success of adapting student motivation surveys from the literature to a particular content (i.e., science) and the qualitative successes of analyzing student reflections, (3) the process at which teachers easily integrated the student survey and reflection with the school day, and (4) the interpretation and dissemination of evaluation findings on students motivation and reflection to inform MSP program decisions ...
This is a slightly expanded version of the published article, which was titled Science Confirms It: People Are Not Pets.]. The field of social psychology is sometimes accused of doing no more than ratifying common sense, so its worth paying attention when its findings are genuinely surprising. Experimental results that challenge entrenched beliefs and practices are even more noteworthy. Case in point: the discovery that when we are rewarded for doing something, we tend to lose interest in whatever we had to do to get the reward. This outcome has been confirmed scores of times with all sorts of rewards and tasks, and across cultures, ages, and genders.. Does this mean that rewards dont actually motivate people? That depends on how you define the word. Psychologists point out that there are different kinds of motivation, and the kind matters more than the amount. Extrinsic motivation (for example, doing something in order to snag a goodie) can be contrasted with intrinsic motivation (wanting ...
What helps determine whether people pursue their sense of calling? The advice I always got was, Work hard, get a respectable job in a stable industry and then pursue your passion on the side. This shaped my extrinsic motivation, or the type of motivation that comes from outside a person, when pursuing a career. Others take to heart advice from notable public figures like the late Steve Jobs who said, The only way to do great work is to love what you do. If you havent found it yet, keep looking. Dont settle. This kind of advice fosters intrinsic motivation, or the type that comes from within a person, when pursuing a career. The pursuit of a career that meets at the intersection of these two approaches would be ideal, but often economic realities deter many. Recently, two researchers sought to understand what influences career decisions when these approaches clash.. INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC VALUES. Career theory posits that intrinsic and extrinsic values are both important in understanding ...
High-performance organizations and economies work on the basis not only of material interests but also of Adam Smiths moral sentiments. Well-designed laws and public policies can harness self-interest for the common good. However, incentives that appeal to self-interest may fail when they undermine the moral values that lead people to act altruistically or in other public-spirited ways. Behavioral experiments reviewed here suggest that economic incentives may be counterproductive when they signal that selfishness is an appropriate response; constitute a learning environment through which over time people come to adopt more self-interested motivations; compromise the individuals sense of self-determination and thereby degrade intrinsic motivations; or convey a message of distrust, disrespect, and unfair intent. Many of these unintended effects of incentives occur because people act not only to acquire economic goods and services but also to constitute themselves as dignified, autonomous, and ...
The present study investigated whether motivation and augmented feedback processing explain the effect of an incidental choice on motor learning, and examined whether motivation and feedback processing generally predict learning. Accordingly, participants were assigned to one of two groups, choice or yoked, then asked to practice a nondominant arm beanbag toss. The choice group was allowed to choose the color of the beanbag with which they made the toss, whereas the yoked group was not. Motor learning was determined by delayed-posttest accuracy and precision. Motivation and augmented feedback processing were indexed via the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory and electroencephalography, respectively. We predicted the choice group would exhibit greater motor learning, motivation, and augmented feedback processing, and that the latter two variables would predict learning. Results showed that an incidental choice failed to enhance motor learning, motivation, or augmented feedback processing. In ...
Impact Of Employee Motivation On Customer Satisfaction: Study Of Airline Industry In Pakistan . . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
JC Heera Waghmare, President, JCI Nagpur Lady Legend organized training program on Motivation by soft skills trainer Jc Rashmi Priya and Black matching competition on 15th January 2012 on the occasion of Makar Sankranti. Jc Vandana Khati, secretary JCI Nagpur Lady Legend was also present. The event was organized at pragati colony, Sahakar nagar, near Sonegaon Talao, Nagpur . JC Pratibha Kadu, past zone officer and founder president of JCI Nagpur Lady Legend, Asha Pandey graced the occasion by their presence. All the members enjoyed the activity and celebrated Makar Sankranti by eating Til Gur.. ...
Phd thesis on motivation - Org coalition go crazy. How does the verb including perfect and future purposes. Enquire about I am not alone among seasoned environmental activists in changing my mind she evolved from a series of events or circumstances in your everyday life peoples faces, photos in the box.
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Treating Dissociative and Personality Disorders (Routledge, 2016) draws on major theorists and the very latest research to help formulate and introduce the Relational/Multi-Motivational Therapeutic Approach (REMOTA), a new model for treating such patients within a clinical setting. It forms the clinical reverberation of the common factors model, promoting a perspective of integration of different theories and approaches, and introducing the question of the relationship between traumatic structure and personality disorders. REMOTA constitutes an integrative and comparative new approach that will be indispensable for combining relational clinical knowing and Lichtenbergs and Liottis motivational system theories, which identify the universal invariants that govern human relatedness, starting from evolutionism and infant research.. Supported by her contributors, Antonella Ivaldi provides an overview of existing theories and evidence for their effectiveness in practice, and sets out her own theory ...
How does previous entrepreneurial failure influence future entrepreneurship? More specifically, under what conditions do entrepreneurs who rebound from failure do better in the next round? Drawing on the cognitive literature in attribution and motivation, we focus on entrepreneurs reaction to failure and the growth of their subsequent ventures. Leveraging a survey database of new-venture founders with failure experiences, we investigate how their internal attribution of the cause of failure, their intrinsic motivation to start up another business after failure, and the extent of their failure experiences impact the growth of their subsequent ventures. ...
Description: The studys purpose was to identify demographics, educational background, finances, formal and informal education and experiences, reading habits, external environmental factors, psychological factors, and computer efficacy factors that predict a students ability to successful complete an online (Web-based) distance learning community college course. Major student retention theories and student attrition and persistence research guided the study. Distance learners (N = 926) completed four surveys, which collected data for 26 predictor variables that included age, gender, marital status, ethnicity, support others, course load, first-time student, last semester attended, student type and location, financial stability, tuition payment, prior learning experiences, reading habits, family support, enrollment encouragement, study encouragement, time management, study environment, employment, extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, locus of control, self-efficacy, computer confidence and ...
The Vocation Identity Questionnaire (VIQ), a 9-item scale, was developed to measure people's sense of calling, the extent to which they find joy and meaning in their life's work, including both paid and unpaid occupations. Criteria were based on Reformation descriptions of vocation supported by studies on intrinsic motivation, flow, perceived significance, and work satisfaction. The VIQ and the Work-Life Questionnaire were administered to 86 faculty and staff at a private California university. Preliminary findings indicate high internal consistency and validity for the VIQ. Implications for future research are discussed in this chapter. Vocation in the Reformation meant more than paid employment within an occupational structure, a category that excludes much of the daily work that sustains a culture. The Vocation Identity Questionnaire (VIQ) was designed to measure this sense of vocation.Keywords: California university; Vocation Identity Questionnaire (VIQ); Work-Life Questionnaire
Though economists have long argued the contrary, a growing body of evidence suggests that, at our core, both animals and human beings have what APS Fellow Dacher Keltner at the University of California, Berkeley, coins a compassionate instinct. In other words, compassion is a natural and automatic response that has ensured our survival. Research by APS Fellow Jean Decety, at the University of Chicago, showed that even rats are driven to empathize with another suffering rat and to go out of their way to help it out of its quandary. Studies with chimpanzees and human infants too young to have learned the rules of politeness, also back up these claims. Michael Tomasello and other scientists at the Max Planck Institute, in Germany, have found that infants and chimpanzees spontaneously engage in helpful behavior and will even overcome obstacles to do so. They apparently do so from intrinsic motivation without expectation of reward. A recent study they ran indicated that infants pupil diameters (a ...
Solowij et al. also discovered that hashish-related experiences decreased after remedy , which is in accordance with previous research that indicate that CBD counteracts the results induced by THC . Intrinsic motivation for therapy seems an important side as nicely, as it could enhance treatment adherence . Conversely, patients that do not search remedy are much less inclined to observe strict study protocols .. Generally, these merchandise pose a threat to human well being, especially in mild of the German steering value for THC in these sort of products29,31. The German steering value of 150 μg THC/kg for foods generally together with meals dietary supplements is an order of magnitude under the actual contents in the CBD merchandise.. Currently CBD users must be conscious that they may be participating in one of many largest uncontrolled scientific trials in history33. The danger additionally includes positive cannabis urine checks for several days, which can be expected from every day oral ...
Social media is a kind of online platform which used by people to share contents and contact each other via virtual communities and networks. With the development of information technology, it becomes neoteric and multifunctional. In order to examine what factors affecting individuals usage intentions for the various functions of social media, we proposed a model based on the uses and gratifications theory, this theory indicates there are three types of motivations, named as social motivation, utilitarian motivation and hedonic motivation, then six factors derived from the three motivations are presented. We collected 404 samples from the QQ users from 77 cities in China, with statistical analysis, the result shows that four of them can significantly affect individuals usage intentions of QQ various functions beyond as an instant messenger. This study extends current understanding about the usage motivations of social media and it can be a reference for future research in this field.
Researchers studied the effect of acute New Zealand Blackcurrant juice consumption on motivation to exercise. Background: Consumption of a blackcurrant polyphenolic extract in healthy individuals prior to a cognitive challenge improved cognitive performance and mood. Although the underlying causes are unknown, a chan
A system and method for allowing a customer to motivate a participant. From a motivation website, the customer selects and customizes a motivation document and a motivation award to be printed and presented to the participant as an integrated motivation package. In one embodiment, the motivation document and motivation award are printed on a single sheet of paper for presentation to the participant. The customer selects the motivation document from a library of motivation documents or other communications templates. The customer selects the motivation award from a collection of motivation awards including multiple vendor services.
This research study will test the effects of CHRP, a community-friendly risk reduction intervention, which is based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills model of health behavior change (IMB; Fisher & Fisher, 1992), and, thus, is designed to enhance knowledge, motivation, and behavior skills for reducing drug- and sex-related HIV risk behaviors. Outcomes assessed will include urine toxicology screens, self-reported HIV drug- and sex-related HIV risk behavior, HIV/AIDS knowledge, risk reduction motivation, and risk reduction behavioral skills.. To measure the effects of CHRP, the investigators are proposing a two-condition (standard of care plus the CHRP intervention vs. standard of care plus a time-and-attention matched control condition) randomized design, balancing for participant gender. The investigators will assess participants at baseline, immediately post-intervention (i.e., at 4 weeks), and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month measurement points following the intervention. This assessment ...
This research study will test the effects of CHRP, a community-friendly risk reduction intervention, which is based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills model of health behavior change (IMB; Fisher & Fisher, 1992), and, thus, is designed to enhance knowledge, motivation, and behavior skills for reducing drug- and sex-related HIV risk behaviors. Outcomes assessed will include urine toxicology screens, self-reported HIV drug- and sex-related HIV risk behavior, HIV/AIDS knowledge, risk reduction motivation, and risk reduction behavioral skills.. To measure the effects of CHRP, the investigators are proposing a two-condition (standard of care plus the CHRP intervention vs. standard of care plus a time-and-attention matched control condition) randomized design, balancing for participant gender. The investigators will assess participants at baseline, immediately post-intervention (i.e., at 4 weeks), and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month measurement points following the intervention. This assessment ...
Here I discuss how mesocorticolimbic mechanisms generate the motivation component of incentive salience. Incentive salience takes Pavlovian learning and memory as one input and as an equally important input takes neurobiological state factors (e.g. drug states, appetite states, satiety states) that can vary independently of learning. Neurobiological state changes can produce unlearned fluctuations or even reversals in the ability of a previously learned reward cue to trigger motivation. Such fluctuations in cue-triggered motivation can dramatically depart from all previously learned values about the associated reward outcome. ... Associative learning and prediction are important contributors to motivation for rewards. Learning gives incentive value to arbitrary cues such as a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS) that is associated with a reward (unconditioned stimulus or UCS). Learned cues for reward are often potent triggers of desires. For example, learned cues can trigger normal appetites in ...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between motivation, goal-setting and self-regulated learning (SRL), and how these variables interact with sports-related performance and development. The study included 43 snowboarders and freeskiers aged 15-23 years (M = 17.5), which answered 3 self-assessment question-naires regarding motivation, goal-setting and SRL on three occasions. Coaches estimated riders performance based on riding skills and development during the season in terms of technical-, strategic/tactical-, mental- and physical ability in the specific sport. Results of regression analyzes showed a statistical relationship between autonomous motivation and SRL and development. Further there was a tendency that SRL had a positive impact on performance. Goal-setting was not related to any other variable. A simple mediation analysis showed no indirect effects of autonomous motivation on achieve-ment or development through SRL as s mediating variable. Conclusions are that ...
What I think is the really clever bit is that literarily fruitful means that we can play with the text quite freely, albeit in a somewhat restricted manner. We have room to ask, as I did earlier (and rejected our ability to answer with any certainty) why Boaz waited to reach out to Naomi and Ruth. We are free to speculate as to why Ruth went with Naomi back to Bethlehem in the first place. Could it be that Ruth was not being altruistic, but that she had a horrible home that she left when she married into Naomis family and that she knew that no matter how bad Bethlehem might be it could not be worse than returning to a family who had rejected her for marrying an Israelite? Tod is quite right, the possibilities are wide open and quite ripe for our creativity.. But just in case some readers have forgotten, my complaint about such approaches is that we often do not show restraint and have a tendency to argue with a certainty that my reading of Boazs motivations is the correct one. When in fact, ...
This is a somewhat challenging book to review for Sociological Research Online because it is not sociological. The book, an edited collection, reflects the work of a cluster of educational and developmental psychologists with a particular interest in the influence of peers and teachers on pupil motivation. Engagement with related social factors promises to lead towards better understanding of childrens adjustment in school.. In principle I would argue, greater exploration of overlaps in psychological and sociological disciplines is to be greatly welcomed, for far too many issues have been colonised by particular disciplines only to be doomed to a lack of holistic validity. A book on social motivation thus generates very positive expectations. Indeed, for Bernard Weiner, writing the Forward, it is a landmark volume for the way in which it gives affiliative motivation its proper role and respect and for signalling the potential for a general theory of motivation.. In structure the ...
Decades of research indicate the important connections among academic motivation and achievement, social relationships, and school culture. However, much of this research has been conducted in homogenous American schools serving middle class, average achieving, Anglo-student populations. This book argues that school culture is a reflection of the society in which the school is embedded and comprises various aspects, including individualism, competition, cultural stereotypes, and extrinsically guided values and rewards. Chapters address three specific conceptual questions: How do differences in academic motivation for diverse groups of students change over time? How do students social cognitions influence their motivational processes and outcomes in school? And what has been done to enhance academic motivation? To answer this last question, the chapters describe empirically validated intervention programs for improving academic motivation in students from elementary school through college.
Besides being this blog author, Katherine McDolly has been a full-time certified nutritionist, distributor and beautician in both networking company Nuskin Pharmanex and beauty salon dealing with health and beauty products especially for women.. ...
Sundays we like to take a break from the hard news of the day for a motivational minute from Melissa Dawn Johnson. Join TJ Holmes weekend mornings in the CNN Newsroom, 6am ET/ 3am PT...
Motivation is what drives our actions. This course is specifically aimed at anyone who wants to improve employee morale, increase engagement and learn what motivates employees to do what it is they do.. This course examines both extrinsic and intrinsic factors for what motivates employees to do what it is they do and what drives their engagement.. Use this course among your human resources and other key leadership staff in order to understand employee behavior, help determine more authentic methods of employee engagement and boost morale within your organization.. ...
1 Answer - Posted in: prozac, fluoxetine, weight, dosage, sex, sex drive - Answer: I am a female and have been taking fluoxetine 10 mg every am for a ...
The Zilber School of Public Health was well represented on the 2015 program of the American Public Health Association held earlier this week in Chicago. Kudos to our faculty, students and community collaborators! Here are the 15 presentations: Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills… Read More. ...
How extrinsic motivational drivers work and dont work in the context of museum engagement and what you can do about museums and motivation.
An essay or paper on Motivation and Law Enforcement Supervision. Motivation and Law Enforcement Supervision Motivation is one of the most critically important tasks that supervisors and leaders in any and all organizational settings must address if they are to succeed (Ivancevich, 1998). Generall
Reviews the book, The Physiological Basis of Motivation by Jack E. Hokanson (1969). The book is readable, and the extensive use of summaries and reviews should make it a good text. Its principal strength is the breadth of coverage it provides. The scope of the book, relative to its size, is also its principal weakness. Of necessity, all of the topics are discussed superficially; controversial issues are largely avoided; and interpretational problems oversimplified. The book should serve well as a text for a specialized course in the physiological basis of motivation which does not require prior exposure to a general course in physiological psychology or as supplementary regarding in a general course on motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved) ...
I am often asked about my motivation to lose weight. People want to know where my motivation comes from and most importantly, what they can do to get some motivation. I wish I had a simple answer. Last week I mentioned that one of my motivations was my son. I want to be his mother forever and I want to be the best mother I can be. While this may have been part of the motivation for me to start my weight loss journey, the motivation to continue has come from other areas.
Hello PMP buds I came across question about Maslow Motivation Theory mentioning that a person getting a salary increase will effect which of the Maslows 5...
CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: What should we do about motivation theory? Six recommendations for the twenty-first century,
Improving Student Motivation and Learning through Classroom Experiments and Games. John Sloman. Tell me and I will forget Show me and I will remember Involve me and I will understand Step back and I will act (Chinese proverb). Games, experiments and role playing in PBL. Strengths Slideshow...
Understanding student motivation, and its relationship to learning outcomes, is a central task for both researchers and practitioners. The expectancy-value framework offers a multidimensional...
In her review of Larry Ferlazzos Self-Driven Learning: Teaching Strategies for Student Motivation, Julie Dermody says, Educators who read this book will become more effective teachers…better equipped to deal with daily challenges of motivating our students. ...
Students motivation has been discussed as an important factor for successful school learning (Ryan & Connell, 1989) and second/foreign language learning...
Geometric motivation[edit]. Points A, B, C, D and A′, B′, C′, D′ are related by a perspectivity, which is a projective ...
Motivation[edit]. In class-based programming, a factory is an abstraction of a constructor of a class, while in prototype-based ...
Motivation[edit]. String interning speeds up string comparisons, which are sometimes a performance bottleneck in applications ( ...
Motivations[edit]. Arebi dedicated this work to her mother and father, Mohamed Al-Soghayyer Arebi, whose firm belief in Allah ...
Motivations[edit]. Common reasons for adopting a semi-vegetarian diet include religious restrictions, weight management,[12] ... De Backer, Charlotte J.S.; Hudders, Liselot (30 October 2014). "From meatless Mondays to meatless Sundays: motivations for meat ... De Backer, Charlotte J. S.; Hudders, Liselot (2014). "From meatless Mondays to meatless Sundays: motivations for meat reduction ... "Towards a reduced meat diet: Mindset and motivation of young vegetarians, low, medium and high meat-eaters". Appetite. 113 ...
Motivations of soldiers[edit]. Perman (2010) says historians are of two minds on why millions of men seemed so eager to fight, ... Failure was perceived to indicate evil motivations or personal failures. The committee distrusted graduates of the US Military ...
Hale's motivation[edit]. Hale's father died when she was a baby. This left her mother alone to raise Hale and her four siblings ...
Motivation[edit]. Anarchist communists reject the claim that wage labor is necessary because people are lazy and selfish by " ... argues that motivation in a moneyless society would be found in the satisfaction of work, concern for community, competition ...
Motivations. Many whistleblowers have stated that they were motivated to take action to put an end to unethical practices, ... Over the years, I have learned that the motivations driving guerrillas are diverse. The reasons for acting range from the ... and Whistle-Blowing Attitudes Is This Relationship Mediated by Organizational Commitment and Public Service Motivation?". The ...
Motivation to use a stage name[edit]. A performer will often take a stage name because his/her real name is considered ...
Purpose and motivation. Reasons for traveling include recreation,[5] tourism[5] or vacationing,[5] research travel,[5] the ...
Political motivations[edit]. Queen Anne in 1702, the year she became queen, from the school of John Closterman ...
Motivations[edit]. Multiple motivations lead organisations to undertake KM.[35] Typical considerations include:[30] ...
Motivation[edit]. The motivation behind the concept of logarithmic units is that defining a quantity on a logarithmic scale in ...
altruism in motivation[edit]. The purest forms of prosocial behavior are motivated by altruism, an unselfish interest in ... Batson (1987). Prosocial motivation: Is it ever truly altruistic?. Advanced Experimental Social Psychology. Advances in ... Prosocial behavior in the classroom can have a significant impact on a student's motivation for learning and contributions to ... Ariely, Dan; Bracha, Anat; Meier, Stephan (2009). "Doing Good or Doing Well? Image Motivation and Monetary Incentives in ...
Motivation[edit]. The HSL color space was invented[further explanation needed] in 1938 by Georges Valensi as a method to add ...
Motivation[edit]. The reason why someone would be interested in doing online identity management is closely related to the ...
Heider, F. (1960). "The Gestalt Theory of Motivation". In Jones, Marshall R (ed.). Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. 8. Lincoln ... Action-motivation model[edit]. Festinger's original theory did not seek to explain how dissonance works. Why is inconsistency ... Explain their motivations for taking some action that had an extrinsic incentive attached (known as motivational "crowding out" ... The management of cognitive dissonance readily influences the motivation of a student to pursue education.[33] The study ...
Causes and motivations. Choice of terrorism as a tactic. Individuals and groups choose terrorism as a tactic because it can: * ... Spaaij, Ramon (2012). Understanding Lone Wolf Terrorism: Global Patterns, Motivations and Prevention.. ... Janeczko, Matthew (June 19, 2014). "'Faced with death, even a mouse bites': Social and religious motivations behind terrorism ... "Bombing Alone: Tracing the Motivations and Antecedent Behaviors of Lone-Actor Terrorists". Journal of Forensic Sciences. 59 (2 ...
History and motivation[edit]. It was originally defined in IEEE 802.1s as an amendment to 802.1Q, 1998 edition and later merged ...
Motivation[edit]. Motivation is a factor that encourages a person to perform and succeed at the task at hand. In an experiment ... Roebers, C.M.; Moga, N.; Schneider, W. (2001). "The Role of Accuracy Motivation on Children's and Adults' Event Recall". ... they had no motivation to provide accurate responses and were forced to respond even when they were unsure of the answer. ...
Motivation[edit]. There is an inherent trade-off between size and speed (given that a larger resource implies greater physical ...
Motivation[edit]. Motives behind the narcissist's support group can be multiple. Service providers may be seduced by the ...
Motivation[edit]. In recent years, genome projects conducted on a variety of organisms generated massive amounts of sequence ... Another motivation for using local alignments is that there is a reliable statistical model (developed by Karlin and Altschul) ... One motivation for local alignment is the difficulty of obtaining correct alignments in regions of low similarity between ...
Motivation[edit]. Finding roots of polynomials has been an important problem since the time of the ancient Greeks. Some ...
Motivations and emotions[edit]. Maslow's hierarchy suggests that people seek to satisfy basic needs such as food and shelter ... a b Rossiter, J.R. and Percy, L.,"Emotions and Motivations in Advertising", in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 18, Rebecca ... The consumer's attitude to a brand (or brand preference) is described as a link between the brand and a purchase motivation.[51 ... Fullerton, R.A. "The Birth of Consumer Behavior: Motivation Research in the 1950s," Journal of Historical Research in Marketing ...
Motivation and preparation[edit]. The bombings are widely believed to have been revenge for U.S. involvement in the extradition ...
Motivation[edit]. The Choosing Wisely campaign presents the following background and narrative to explain its motivation: The ...
Several motivations for building space colonies have been proposed: *Survival of human civilization and the biosphere, in case ...
Motivations[edit]. To summarize the motivations for underage drinking, cultural norms allow underage drinking while social ... In addition to cultural motivations, students are socially expected to drink. Often if not always, social gatherings are ...
a b Steve Hillage - Motivation Radio (Vinyl, LP, Album) at Discogs *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u STEVE HILLAGE ... "Motivation Radio". AllMusic. Retrieved May 23, 2016.. *^ a b Motivation Radio - Steve Hillage , Songs, Reviews, Credits , ... "allmusic ((( Motivation Radio , Overview )))". www.allmusic.com. Retrieved 2009-10-01.. *^ a b Steve Hillage: Motivation Radio ... before the latter album became Motivation Radio.[3] Green builds upon the dance and electronic experiments of Motivation Radio ...
Motivation can be construed as a set of processes that identify goals and translate them into action. A goal can be reduced to ... We are looking for a post-doctoral fellow to join our team (Motivation, Brain and Behavior lab) in the Paris Brain Institute. ... as well as human pathological conditions where motivation is either deficient (apathy) or difficult to control (impulsivity), ...
... Says Goodbye. When Kevin started Motivation Matters. , it was with the idea that this blog would be a ... whether or not incentives lead to higher student motivation. , how grades and GPA factor into students desire to achieve. , ... One of the first entries I ever wrote for Motivation Matters. was about a report that said students, and people in general, ... Musical Motivation. A group of kindergarteners in Schuylkill Valley Elementary School in Pennsylvania are doing something ...
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... intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and image-signaling concerns.[22] ... While intrinsic motivation for doing the activity might be a cause, the presence of an extrinsic reward could also be ... Motivation crowding theory is included in the JEL classification codes as JEL: J2. ... Motivation crowding theory is the theory from psychology and microeconomics suggesting that providing extrinsic incentives for ...
Motivation has an ability to change the mood of a person in a good way especially when it comes to the completion of special ... Some people might say that motivation is just an ordinary word which has a very useless meaning. But such claim is a very big ... Here are the information that you are about to learn: + Motivation Basics + Concentrate On One Goal + Find Inspiration + Get ...
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It also considers how changes in intrinsic motivation relate to changes in attitudes, how people attribute motivation to each ... Affect Attribution behavior development education environment motivation perception research state Authors and affiliations. * ... The book then considers the development of intrinsic motiva- tion, how behaviors are motivated intrinsically, how they relate ... Also considered herein are various approaches to the conceptualizing of intrinsic motivation. The book concentrates on the ...
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What was Kenny Perry thinking? Wasnt the PGA Championship waiting there for someone to step forward and win it and all Perry did was take a seat?It has been seven years since the 1996 PGA
Achievement Motivation: Trends in Theory and Research. * Front Matter Pages 1-1 ... Achievement Motivation and Life Span Human Development. * Front Matter Pages 169-169 ... Achievement Motivation: A Look Toward the Future. * Front Matter Pages 445-445 ... Soon afterward, at a Motivation in Education Conference at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, it became apparent that due to ...
Re: motivation I have read in internet that motivated learners are usually distinguished by their different learning styles and ... Since motivation was a debatable issue for many educational scholars (as I think), I have questioned myself:. If learning ... Since "motivation" was a debatable issue for many educational scholars (as I think), I have asked myself. whether learning ... Whereas others believe that motivation in second language learning is not brought only by adopting these techniques; students ...
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Student Motivation "Revisiting the Marshmallow Test: A Conceptual Replication Investigating Links Between Early Delay of ...
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... Edited by Frank Pajares and Tim Urdan. Table of Contents. Click to read Foreword. Frank ... Self-Efficacy and Adolescents Motivation. Dale H. Schunk and Samuel D. Miller. *Adolescents Expectancies for Success and ... Adolescents Achievement Goals: Situating Motivation in Socio-Cultural Contexts. Avi Kaplan and Martin L. Maehr. *Rewards and ... Studying Motivation to Learn from the Perspective of the Person, the Lifespace, and the Lifespan during Early Adolescence: A ...
92 CHAPTER 4 Consumer Motivation LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter students should be able to: 1. Understand the ... Consumer motivation summary notes * 1. 92 CHAPTER 4 Consumer Motivation LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter ... Use Key Terms rational motives and emotional motives Here***** THE DYNAMICS OF MOTIVATION 1. Motivation is a highly dynamic ... Use Discussion Question #1 Here; Use Figure #4-1 Here***** MOTIVATION AS A PSYCHOLOGICAL FORCE 1. Motivation can be described ...
For a change I decided to put a piece of mans machinery in the forefront as the star of the painting. Seemingly hard and inanimate yet inextricably connected by molecules, atoms and all that the stars are made from.
Motivation is one of the driving forces behind human behavior. It fuels competition and sparks social connection. Its absence ... Motivation encompasses the desire to continue striving toward meaning, purpose, and a life worth living. ... Motivation is the desire to act in service of a goal. Its the crucial element in setting and attaining our objectives. ... Sources of Motivation People often have multiple motives for engaging in any one behavior. Motivation might be extrinsic, ...
The cycle continues... Why do I lose motivation quickly? What should I do? I havent completed even a single book and my dream ... No motivation...?. I write stories, and it seemed so good in ny head. But then I lose interest in it quickly, either cause I ... Why do I lose motivation quickly? What should I do? I havent completed even a single book and my dream is to get one published ...
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10 Ways to Find Learning Motivation Even If Youve Graduated Long Ago. Carl Pullein ...
And if failure equals motivation it equally means redefining your goal as necessary as you learn along the way. ... Ashmore, A. (2018). Failure = Motivation. Psych Central. Retrieved on August 8, 2020, from https://psychcentral.com/blog/ ...
Maintaining motivation in your people is an ongoing task filled with opportunities to experiment and learn what works (and what ... Maintaining motivation in your people is an ongoing task filled with opportunities to experiment and learn what works (and what ... If an employees hard work is met without the promised reward, its not just motivation that suffers. It can also lead to ... If an employees hard work is met without the promised reward, its not just motivation that suffers. It can also lead to ...
Are your employees excited about their work? And do they feel motivated to perform at their best every day? A companys performance ultimately depends on its employees engagement. Use this 6-question survey template to proactively find out how employees feel about their job, and learn what you, as an employer, can do to improve the employee experience.
  • Motivation crowding theory is the theory from psychology and microeconomics suggesting that providing extrinsic incentives for certain kinds of behavior-such as promising monetary rewards for accomplishing some task-can sometimes undermine intrinsic motivation for performing that behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • These observations led researchers to ask how providing extrinsic rewards for a given activity would influence intrinsic motivation toward that activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • It reviews an enormous amount of research which establishes unequivocally that intrinsic motivation exists. (springer.com)
  • Also considered herein are various approaches to the conceptualizing of intrinsic motivation. (springer.com)
  • The book then considers the development of intrinsic motiva- tion, how behaviors are motivated intrinsically, how they relate to and how intrinsic motivation is extrinsically motivated behaviors, affected by extrinsic rewards and controls. (springer.com)
  • It also considers how changes in intrinsic motivation relate to changes in attitudes, how people attribute motivation to each other, how the attribution process is motivated, and how the process of perceiving motivation (and other internal states) in oneself relates to perceiving them in others. (springer.com)
  • Motivation can also be intrinsic, whereby the inspiration comes from within-the desire to improve at a certain activity. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Intrinsic motivation tends to push people more forcefully, and the accomplishments are more fulfilling. (psychologytoday.com)
  • What is intrinsic motivation? (psychologytoday.com)
  • By contrast, intrinsic motivation is powerful because it is integrated into identity and serves as a continuous source of motivation. (psychologytoday.com)
  • In essence scientific management bases human motivation wholly on extrinsic rewards and discards the idea of intrinsic rewards. (selfgrowth.com)
  • In contrast, David McClelland believed that workers could not be motivated by the mere need for money-- in fact, extrinsic motivation (e.g., money) could extinguish intrinsic motivation such as achievement motivation, though money could be used as an indicator of success for various motives, e.g., keeping score. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Intrinsic motivation is what brings inner satisfaction and eternal joy to human beings. (buzzle.com)
  • Many "high achievers" or driven achievers have intrinsic motivation this is the desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective, and for enjoyment, interest, or challenge (Myers 466). (bookrags.com)
  • In contrast to our normative judgments, our mathematical and empirical judgments, for example, seem to have no intrinsic connection to motivation and action. (stanford.edu)
  • The trick to motivation, then, is to find the intrinsic reward in our work and to enjoy it. (lifehack.org)
  • But there's a reason why so many painters are willing to suffer for their art while so few people are willing to become hobby investment bankers - one kind of work has its own intrinsic motivation while the other, except for a very rare few of us, does not. (lifehack.org)
  • There is extrinsic motivation, which comes from others, and intrinsic motivation, which comes from within you. (authorstream.com)
  • Some authors distinguish between two forms of intrinsic motivation: one based on enjoyment, the other on obligation. (authorstream.com)
  • Intrinsic motivation occurs when people engage in an activity, such as a hobby, without obvious external incentives. (authorstream.com)
  • Intrinsic motivation has been explained by Fritz Heider's attribution theory, Bandura's work on self-efficacy, and Ryan and Deci's cognitive evaluation theory. (authorstream.com)
  • In work environments, money may provide a more powerful extrinsic factor than the intrinsic motivation provided by an enjoyable workplace. (authorstream.com)
  • In terms of sports, intrinsic motivation is the motivation that comes from inside the performer. (authorstream.com)
  • An individual's motivation may be inspired by outside forces (extrinsic motivation) or by themselves (intrinsic motivation). (wikipedia.org)
  • The difference between intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation depends on the actions behind it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intrinsic motivation has to do with having an internal desire to perform a task and extrinsic motivation has to do with performing a task in order to receive some kind of reward. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to research, intrinsic motivation has more beneficial outcomes than extrinsic motivation. (wikipedia.org)
  • We are looking for a post-doctoral fellow to join our team ('Motivation, Brain and Behavior lab) in the Paris Brain Institute. (google.com)
  • Motivation is one of the driving forces behind human behavior. (psychologytoday.com)
  • In an effort to understand how the motivation to exercise is linked to behavior, the researchers examined college students' intentions to be physically active as well as their actual activity levels. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The team found that for many of the participants, the motivation to exercise fluctuated on a weekly basis, and these fluctuations were linked to their behavior. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Our results suggest that people with consistently strong intentions to exercise have the best chance of actually following through on their intentions, while people with the greatest fluctuations in their motivation have the hardest time using that motivation to regulate their behavior. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Motivation is the reason or reasons for engaging in a particular behavior, especially human behavior as studied in economics, psychology and neuropsychology. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The motivation for a behavior may also be attributed to less-apparent reasons such as altruism or morality. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Motivation refers to the initiation, direction, intensity and persistence of human behavior . (selfgrowth.com)
  • Any motivation theory specifying internal goals, wants, desires, objectives and purposes as causes of present behavior is teleological and violates the scientifically established law that causes be antecedent to their effects. (everything2.com)
  • Motivation is the set of reasons that determines one to engage in a particular behavior. (authorstream.com)
  • The term is generally used for human motivation but, theoretically, it can be used to describe the causes for animal behavior as well. (authorstream.com)
  • Various theories of motivation have been propounded by many people, as a part of the ever widening search of man for a better life. (buzzle.com)
  • Section 1: When contemplating the question "what is the best way to motivate your employees"" the idea of achievement motivation is very apparent. (bookrags.com)
  • If we are to explain moral motivation, we will need to understand not only how moral judgments so regularly succeed in motivating, but how they can fail to motivate, sometimes rather spectacularly. (stanford.edu)
  • At higher levels of the hierarchy, praise, respect, recognition, empowerment and a sense of belonging are far more powerful motivators than money, as both Abraham Maslow's theory of motivation and Douglas McGregor's Theory X and theory Y (pertaining to the theory of leadership) demonstrate. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Content theory of human motivation includes both Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Herzberg's two-factor theory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fearless Motivation is the number one destination for Motivational Speeches and Epic Self-Development Music. (spotify.com)
  • Listen to Fearless Motivation now. (spotify.com)
  • Although the universality of Maslow's theory has been challenged, many believe it captures fundamental truths about human motivation. (psychologytoday.com)
  • At lower levels of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, such as Physiological needs, money is a motivator, however it tends to have a motivating effect on staff that lasts only for a short period (in accordance with Herzberg's two-factor model of motivation). (selfgrowth.com)
  • Maslow's theory is one of the most widely discussed theories of motivation. (wikipedia.org)
  • We've talked at length here about the importance of creativity and innovation , whether or not incentives lead to higher student motivation , how grades and GPA factor into students' desire to achieve , and much more. (edweek.org)
  • People may be motivated by external incentives, such as the motivation to work for compensation, or internal enjoyment, such as the motivation to create artwork in one's spare time. (psychologytoday.com)
  • One area within the study of human motivation that has proved fruitful is research on incentives. (britannica.com)
  • Improving Incentives to Free Motivation," calls for an approach to payment reform that harnesses the inherent motivation that doctors and patients have to make good decisions about health care. (rwjf.org)
  • Incentive motivation is concerned with the way goals influence behaviour. (britannica.com)
  • Motivation might be extrinsic, whereby a person is inspired by outside forces-other people or rewards. (psychologytoday.com)
  • An outside motivator is extrinsic motivation, such as a deal for a student to get 5 dollars for every A he gets which is seeking external rewards. (bookrags.com)
  • Motivation is a psychological factor that helps a person realize his/her goals. (buzzle.com)
  • The problem is that determining motivation -- the X- factor of employee success -- can be extremely difficult. (forbes.com)
  • Motivation is a driving factor for actions, willingness, and goals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers, from University College London (UCL) in the United Kingdom, say that anecdotally, cannabis use has been associated with apathy, lack of motivation, and other reward processing deficiencies. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This definition is part of a series that covers the topic of Employee Motivation . (selfgrowth.com)
  • The Official Guide to Employee Motivation is Doris Helge . (selfgrowth.com)
  • Employee motivation. (worldcat.org)
  • For McClelland, satisfaction lay in aligning a person's life with their fundamental motivations. (selfgrowth.com)
  • A 2020 study which reviewed more than a 100 tests of motivation crowding theory and conducted its own field experiments found that paying individuals for intrinsically enjoyable tasks boosts their performance, but that taking payment away after it is expected may lead individuals to perform worse than if they were not paid at first. (wikipedia.org)
  • The subsequent response to that symposium indicated a "coming of age" for motivation theory in terms of education. (springer.com)
  • Soon afterward, at a Motivation in Education Conference at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, it became apparent that due to this emergence of motivation what was needed was a comprehensive perspective as to the state of the art of achievement theory. (springer.com)
  • Achievement theory had by now well surpassed its beginnings in the 1950s and 1960s and was ready for a composite presentation and profile of the recent research and theories of motivation. (springer.com)
  • In 1978, (Harter, 1978) (Harter S. , 1981)Susan Harter expanded on this idea in the paper "Effectance motivation reconsidered: Toward a developmental model" developing the Competence Motivation Theory. (google.com)
  • One such principle is the interactionist theory of motivation. (buzzle.com)
  • Learn about finding and auditioning actors for different roles and get a deep dive into the theory of acting: being vs. pretending, understanding character motivation, and interpreting the script. (lynda.com)
  • According to this theory, hunger motivation would serve to keep individuals close to this set point, even though the fat level maintained may not be what the individual desires nor what society dictates as beautiful or healthy. (britannica.com)
  • Motivation can be construed as a set of processes that identify goals and translate them into action. (google.com)
  • Motivation has an ability to change the mood of a person in a good way especially when it comes to the completion of special goals. (lulu.com)
  • 2. Understand the dynamics of motivation, arousal of needs, setting of goals, and interrelationship between needs and goals. (slideshare.net)
  • Recognizing that each team member has different sources of motivation, then linking these back to the overall goals of your organisation is key. (forbes.com)
  • Creative writing motivation District of Columbia Rochester-upon-Medway type my thesis proposal for 10 Oklahoma looking for someone to write dissertation methodology on divorce due tomorrow, South Tyneside edit my literature review on statistics for cheap St. Thomas, term papers my worst nightmare, Val-dOr, Leduc Kansas Creative writing motivation Pincourt write an essay on human rights Mississippi an essay length, Brantford. (issuu.com)
  • Human motivations, however, are far more complicated. (sparknotes.com)
  • A new study investigates the short-term effects of marijuana on human motivation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This article refers to human motivation. (authorstream.com)
  • Quinn told attendees at the Society for Human Resource Management's 2015 Talent Management Conference & Exposition that motivation-based interviewing will "ensure that you select the right people who possess the three essential attributes of high performers: passion, can-do attitude and skill. (shrm.org)
  • Other sources of motivation include curiosity, autonomy, validation of one's identity and beliefs, creating a positive self-image , and the desire to avoid potential losses. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Brighten up your bathroom with unique Motivation Shower Curtains from CafePress! (cafepress.com)
  • Perhaps because of the apparent opposition between self-interest and morality, the fact of moral motivation has seemed especially puzzling. (stanford.edu)
  • More precisely, differing views about moral motivation involve commitment to particular theses which have been thought to bear on questions about moral semantics and the nature of morality. (stanford.edu)
  • It also briefly explains how key theses concerning moral motivation have come to inform and structure debates about moral semantics and the nature of morality. (stanford.edu)
  • Motivation Matters ceased publishing in February 2009. (edweek.org)
  • When Kevin started Motivation Matters , it was with the idea that this blog would be a helpful resource for educators, parents, and community members interested in how to spark the interest of students and improve education-something I hope we've been able to accomplish over the past two and a half years. (edweek.org)
  • One of the first entries I ever wrote for Motivation Matters was about a report that said students, and people in general, were reading less. (edweek.org)
  • This program, Citizen Schools , combines a lot of factors we talk about here on Motivation Matters to help boost education in communities across the country. (edweek.org)
  • We here at Motivation Matters wanted to take this opportunity to say thanks for all the thoughtful comments and suggestions we've received on this blog over the past year. (edweek.org)
  • He held that competence motivation was different from biological driven motivation, such as hunger, thirst or sleep, It serves to enhance the abilities of the person, rather than regulate a biological process. (google.com)
  • A basic construct of competence motivation is the degree of approval or disapproval attached to the result of the child's mastery attempts which relates directly to one's sense of competence. (google.com)
  • Self-motivation and deriving inspiration from others are two probable ways of motivating yourself for achieving a purpose. (buzzle.com)
  • The best motivation is self-motivation. (menshealth.com)
  • Self motivation is the stimulus that drives you to act, and leads to success. (buzzle.com)
  • Believe it or not, but, self motivation is the best motivation. (buzzle.com)
  • This article has some tips and techniques on self motivation for students. (buzzle.com)
  • A perfect time to write about self motivation, because I badly need it, right now. (buzzle.com)
  • Self motivation tests can help you to understand how excited and passionate you are about your work. (buzzle.com)
  • So-called stoner movies - such as Up in Smoke and Half Baked - have done little to combat popular public opinion that individuals who smoke marijuana lack motivation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If I had to pick someone with a perfect background and low motivation versus a so-so history and high motivation, there's no question I'd take the latter. (forbes.com)
  • When philosophers talk about moral motivation, this is the basic phenomenon that they seek to understand. (stanford.edu)
  • Moral motivation is an instance of a more general phenomenon-what we might call normative motivation -for our other normative judgments also typically have some motivating force. (stanford.edu)
  • Moral motivation has, in any case, received far greater attention than motivation in connection with other normative judgments. (stanford.edu)
  • Of course, the less puzzling and more mundane moral motivation comes to seem, the more puzzling failures of moral motivation become. (stanford.edu)
  • In answering the foregoing questions, philosophers have been led to sharply differing views about moral motivation, and these views have sometimes been thought to have important implications for foundational issues in ethics. (stanford.edu)
  • This entry provides an overview of the main positions philosophers have taken in their efforts to understand and explain the phenomenon of moral motivation. (stanford.edu)
  • 14. Although they offer the four possible views of moral motivation as caricatures, Schroeder et al. (stanford.edu)
  • One framework used for understanding motivation is the hierarchy of needs proposed by American psychologist Abraham Maslow in 1943. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The American motivation psychologist Abraham H. Maslow (1954) developed the hierarchy of needs consisting of five hierarchic classes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The one who believes that knowledge and ignorance are equal or who is content with his or her status does not have any motivation. (gulf-times.com)
  • Theories articulating the content of motivation: what kinds of things people find motivating are among the earliest theories in motivation research history. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fundamental premise has been that such basic motives are homeostatically regulated-that is, the nervous system monitors levels of energy, fluid balance, and hormone production (in the case of sex) and alters motivation when these levels deviate too far from some optimum level. (britannica.com)
  • Extrinsic motivation is any reason someone does work other than the joy of doing the work itself. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Iowa Creative writing motivation Red Deer chase online shopping cash back Idaho bbc shop cashback, West Yorkshire, Independence, buy essay fort wayne, Gedling make my course work on love please. (issuu.com)
  • Maybe the way to get these people to be more physical active isn't necessarily by increasing their motivation" she said, " but rather by changing the way they do things in their lives so exercise automatically fits within their schedule, like walking to work rather than driving or taking the stairs rather than the elevator. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • According to the system of scientific management developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor, a worker's motivation is solely determined by pay, and therefore management need not consider psychological or social aspects of work. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Jennifer Haupt discusses why it's sometimes beneficial to stop writing-that is, to step back from your work-in-progress in order to maintain your motivation and find a more productive path forward. (writersdigest.com)
  • Some scientists say that lab work can be really boring (even if boredom is interesting), and, when facing deadlines and lots of work with not enough time, motivation can be in short supply for scientists - especially as we all retreat from once-fresh new year resolutions. (nature.com)
  • Here's what I've seen work to determine a candidate's motivation. (forbes.com)
  • Long-time marijuana smokers have a lack of motivation to work or pursue normal interests, according to a new study. (redorbit.com)
  • As psychologists who study how youth of color navigate race and ethnicity , we know the far-reaching implications of the use of racial slurs and imagery on the psychological well-being, academic motivation and achievement, and mental health of American Indians, in particular, among Native youth. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Most psychological theories claim that motivation exists purely within the individual, but socio-cultural theories express motivation as an outcome of participation in actions and activities within the cultural context of social groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extrinsic motivation can increase motivation in the short term, but over time it can wear down or even backfire. (psychologytoday.com)
  • For me it's about relying on self-discipline for the most part, but we all need a bit of a helping hand from time to time which is where motivation comes in, I think anyway. (reddit.com)
  • Our motivation to be physically active changes on a weekly basis because we have so many demands on our time," said Conroy. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Motivation is many a time the reason why we do things and pursue them further. (buzzle.com)
  • Although cannabis is commonly thought to reduce motivation, this is the first time it has been reliably tested and quantified using an appropriate sample size and methodology," says Lawn. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Achievement motivation is a desire for significant accomplishment for mastering skills, ideas, for control, and for rapidly attaining a high standard (Myers 464). (bookrags.com)
  • Mastering motivation to allow sustained and deliberate practice is central to high levels of achievement, e.g. in elite sport, medicine, or music. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was assumed that these two areas share in the control of hunger motivation by activating and deactivating hunger as glucose levels within the blood change. (britannica.com)
  • Last month, we called for our readers to share the motivations behind their wondrous words and reasons behind their love of writing. (writersdigest.com)
  • The problem with that is when you're low on the necessary energy and willpower needed to start a particular task, your motivation is generally re-routed to indulge in something effortless like food or entertainment. (lifehacker.com)
  • Some people might say that motivation is just an ordinary word which has a very useless meaning. (lulu.com)
  • I think the context she is using it in is where people use motivation in place of self-discipline and self-determination, and rely solely on fleeting motivation to get them to do things. (reddit.com)
  • For many people, the motivation to exercise fluctuates from week to week, and these fluctuations predict whether they will be physically active, according to researchers at Penn State. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Most of the people who come to me with motivation problems begin by saying they have no idea what caused their plight. (runnersworld.com)
  • Motivation comes from two things: you, and other people. (authorstream.com)
  • Miley's motivation for spiritual change is simple: admit you need forgiveness, seek home, find Love, and stumble upon truth in faith's company. (beliefnet.com)
  • Is there a certain area of your life that you are dissatisfied with but lack the motivation to change? (selfgrowth.com)
  • One of the things we see in this study is that from week to week our motivation can change a lot, and these weekly changes in motivation can be destructive to our resolutions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Need motivation to change the status quo? (fastcompany.com)
  • Do we need more motivation to change the status quo than being told that the status quo isn't going to change? (fastcompany.com)
  • Motivation is a process in which thoughts influence behaviors. (wikipedia.org)
  • How to use motivation to find clarity in your life and much more. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Find folks who have worked with the candidate before and ask them specifically about motivation. (forbes.com)
  • First, we need to pinpoint what's causing your lack of motivation and then we need to find ways you can trick yourself into getting it back. (lifehacker.com)
  • conseils de mise en oeuvre de l'escape game dans une salle de classe, des scénarii clé en main pour niveaux collège et lycée et des ressources à imprimer ou télécharger. (lulu.com)
  • The motivation-based method's main objective is to determine if a person is a high-achiever or simply an average worker by asking a series of questions that are designed to see how a person handles obstacles. (shrm.org)
  • And if failure equals motivation it equally means redefining your goal as necessary as you learn along the way. (psychcentral.com)
  • Throughout the discussion, concerns were raised about the federal education law's impact on students' motivation to learn and teachers' motivation to teach. (edweek.org)
  • Learn everything you want about Cleaning Motivation with the wikiHow Cleaning Motivation Category. (wikihow.com)
  • In this context, obligation refers to motivation based on what an individual thinks ought to be done. (authorstream.com)
  • To circumvent some of the threats to American Indian identities in the context of STEM, in particular, Adam has begun to develop brief interventions to promote motivation in STEM domains among American Indian middle school students. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Immediately after, the participants completed a task that measured their motivation to earn money. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Explanations of short-term regulation of hunger motivation have revolved around two basic ideas. (britannica.com)
  • Considerable research has shown that such an analysis is inadequate to explain hunger motivation. (britannica.com)
  • For example, it is known that much of the stomach can be removed without the loss of hunger motivation. (britannica.com)
  • Less is known about the long-term regulation of hunger motivation, but one suggestion has been that there exists in each individual a genetically programmed body-weight set point that determines how much energy is stored away as fat within the fat cells. (britannica.com)
  • I have social anxiety but recently i am getting into a depression and my motivation , concentration and energy are very low. (drugs.com)
  • What motivation would they have to believe the world's population could go on increasing forever to infinity. (sonic.net)
  • The result of lowered motivation, in contrast with the predictions of neoclassical economics , can be an overall decrease in the total performance. (wikipedia.org)