Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
Peptide Nucleic Acids
DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.
National Academy of Sciences (U.S.)
A United States organization of distinguished scientists and engineers established for the purpose of investigating and reporting upon any subject of art or science as requested by any department of government. The National Research Council organized by NAS serves as the principal operating agency to stimulate and support research.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Biological Science Disciplines
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Transient and permanent deficits in motion perception after lesions of cortical areas MT and MST in the macaque monkey. (1/3995)We examined the nature and the selectivity of the motion deficits produced by lesions of extrastriate areas MT and MST. Lesions were made by injecting ibotenic acid into the representation of the left visual field in two macaque monkeys. The monkeys discriminated two stimuli that differed either in stimulus direction or orientation. Direction and orientation discrimination were assessed by measuring thresholds with gratings and random-dots placed in the intact or lesioned visual fields. At the start of behavioral testing, we found pronounced, motion-specific deficits in thresholds for all types of moving stimuli, including pronounced elevations in contrast thresholds and in signal-to-noise thresholds measured with moving gratings, as well as deficits in direction range thresholds and motion coherence measured with random-dot stimuli. In addition, the accuracy of direction discrimination was reduced at smaller spatial displacements (i.e. step sizes), suggesting an increase in spatial scale of the residual directional mechanism. Subsequent improvements in thresholds were seen with all motion stimuli, as behavioral training progressed, and these improvements occurred only with extensive behavioral testing in the lesioned visual field. These improvements were particularly pronounced for stimuli not masked by noise. On the other hand, deficits in the ability to extract motion from noisy stimuli and in the accuracy of direction discrimination persisted despite extensive behavioral training. These results demonstrate the importance of areas MT and MST for the perception of motion direction, particularly in the presence of noise. In addition, they provide evidence for the importance of behavioral training for functional recovery after cortical lesions. The data also strongly support the idea of functional specialization of areas MT and MST for motion processing. (+info)
The neuronal basis of a sensory analyser, the acridid movement detector system. I. Effects of simple incremental and decremental stimuli in light and dark adapted animals. (2/3995)1. The response of the movement detector (MD) system to proportionally constant incremental and decremental stimuli has been studied at various degrees of light and dark adaptation. Action potentials in the descending contralateral movement detector neurone were taken as the indicator of response. 2. Over a range of at least six log10 units of adapting luminance, the MD system behaves as an ON/OFF unit, giving responses to both incremental and decremental changes in the illumination of a 5 degrees target. 3. With increasing amplitudes of stimuli, both the ON and OFF responses saturate rapidly. Saturation is reached sooner at higher levels of light adaptation. At all levels of light adaptation, the OFF response is greater than the ON. The ratio for saturating stimuli is approximately constant at around 3:2. 4. At the brightest adapting luminances used (20 000 cd/m2) the ON response is reduced but not lost. At the lowest (0-004 cd/m2) the OFF response to a 5 degrees disc fails, but can be regained by increasing the test area to 10 degrees. 5. From what is known of the retina of locusts and other insects, it is thought that light and dark adaptation in the MD system can be adequately explained by events at the retinula cell. (+info)
Visual motion analysis for pursuit eye movements in area MT of macaque monkeys. (3/3995)We asked whether the dynamics of target motion are represented in visual area MT and how information about image velocity and acceleration might be extracted from the population responses in area MT for use in motor control. The time course of MT neuron responses was recorded in anesthetized macaque monkeys during target motions that covered the range of dynamics normally seen during smooth pursuit eye movements. When the target motion provided steps of target speed, MT neurons showed a continuum from purely tonic responses to those with large transient pulses of firing at the onset of motion. Cells with large transient responses for steps of target speed also had larger responses for smooth accelerations than for decelerations through the same range of target speeds. Condition-test experiments with pairs of 64 msec pulses of target speed revealed response attenuation at short interpulse intervals in cells with large transient responses. For sinusoidal modulation of target speed, MT neuron responses were strongly modulated for frequencies up to, but not higher than, 8 Hz. The phase of the responses was consistent with a 90 msec time delay between target velocity and firing rate. We created a model that reproduced the dynamic responses of MT cells using divisive gain control, used the model to visualize the population response in MT to individual stimuli, and devised weighted-averaging computations to reconstruct target speed and acceleration from the population response. Target speed could be reconstructed if each neuron's output was weighted according to its preferred speed. Target acceleration could be reconstructed if each neuron's output was weighted according to the product of preferred speed and a measure of the size of its transient response. (+info)
Common 3 and 10 Hz oscillations modulate human eye and finger movements while they simultaneously track a visual target. (4/3995)1. A 10 Hz range centrally originating oscillation has been found to modulate slow finger movements and anticipatory smooth eye movements. To determine if an interaction or linkage occurs between these two central oscillations during combined visuo-manual tracking, frequency and coherence analysis were performed on finger and eye movements while they simultaneously tracked a visual target moving in intermittently visible sinusoidal patterns. 2. Two different frequencies of common or linked oscillation were found. The first, at 2-3 Hz, was dependent on visual feedback of target and finger tracking positions. The second, at around 10 Hz, still occurred when both target and finger positions were largely obscured, indicating that this common oscillation was generated internally by the motor system independent of visual feedback. Both 3 and 10 Hz oscillation frequencies were also shared by the right and left fingers if subjects used these together to track a visual target. 3. The linking of the 10 Hz range oscillations between the eyes and finger was task specific; it never occurred when eye and finger movements were made simultaneously and independently, but only when they moved simultaneously and followed the target together. However, although specific for tracking by the eyes and fingers together, the linking behaviour did not appear to be a prerequisite for such tracking, since significant coherence in the 10 Hz range was only present in a proportion of trials where these combined movements were made. 4. The experiments show that common oscillations may modulate anatomically very distinct structures, indicating that single central oscillations may have a widespread distribution in the central nervous system. The task-specific manifestation of the common oscillation in the eye and finger suggests that such mechanisms may have a functional role in hand-eye co-ordination. (+info)
Variability in spike trains during constant and dynamic stimulation. (5/3995)In a recent study, it was concluded that natural time-varying stimuli are represented more reliably in the brain than constant stimuli are. The results presented here disagree with this conclusion, although they were obtained from the same identified neuron (H1) in the fly's visual system. For large parts of the neuron's activity range, the variability of the responses was very similar for constant and time-varying stimuli and was considerably smaller than that in many visual interneurons of vertebrates. (+info)
Shift in speed selectivity of visual cortical neurons: a neural basis of perceived motion contrast. (6/3995)The perceived speed of motion in one part of the visual field is influenced by the speed of motion in its surrounding fields. Little is known about the cellular mechanisms causing this phenomenon. Recordings from mammalian visual cortex revealed that speed preference of the cortical cells could be changed by displaying a contrast speed in the field surrounding the cell's classical receptive field. The neuron's selectivity shifted to prefer faster speed if the contextual surround motion was set at a relatively lower speed, and vice versa. These specific center-surround interactions may underlie the perceptual enhancement of speed contrast between adjacent fields. (+info)
Neuronal basis of a sensory analyser, the acridid movement detector system. III. Control of response amplitude by tonic lateral inhibition. (7/3995)1. The Lobular Giant Movement Detector neurone (LGMD) of Schistocerca responds with spikes when small areas of the visual field change in luminance. Previous work has shown that changes of +/- 1 log 10 unit are enough to produce maximal ON and OFF responses. 2. Using a 5 degree test area, it is shown that the number of spikes generated by such a stimulus depends on the luminance of the surrounding area. When the surround is dark, the response is maximal; when it is brightly lit, the response is minimal. Intermediate intensities produce intermediate values of response. A X 2 change in response is produced by about 3 log 10 units change in surround intensity. 3. A bright annulus, with diameters of 10-5 degrees and 25-8 degrees, inhibits both ON and OFF responses when concentric with the 5 degree test area, but not when it is 30 degrees eccentric to the test area. The inhibitory effect shows no decrease after 4 min. 4. These results are interpreted to indicate a tonic lateral inhibitory network, sited peripherally in the optic lobe prior to the divergence of the separate ON and OFF channels found in the projection from the medulla to the LGMD. It is probably identical with that described for the lamina by previous workers. (+info)
A theory of geometric constraints on neural activity for natural three-dimensional movement. (8/3995)Although the orientation of an arm in space or the static view of an object may be represented by a population of neurons in complex ways, how these variables change with movement often follows simple linear rules, reflecting the underlying geometric constraints in the physical world. A theoretical analysis is presented for how such constraints affect the average firing rates of sensory and motor neurons during natural movements with low degrees of freedom, such as a limb movement and rigid object motion. When applied to nonrigid reaching arm movements, the linear theory accounts for cosine directional tuning with linear speed modulation, predicts a curl-free spatial distribution of preferred directions, and also explains why the instantaneous motion of the hand can be recovered from the neural population activity. For three-dimensional motion of a rigid object, the theory predicts that, to a first approximation, the response of a sensory neuron should have a preferred translational direction and a preferred rotation axis in space, both with cosine tuning functions modulated multiplicatively by speed and angular speed, respectively. Some known tuning properties of motion-sensitive neurons follow as special cases. Acceleration tuning and nonlinear speed modulation are considered in an extension of the linear theory. This general approach provides a principled method to derive mechanism-insensitive neuronal properties by exploiting the inherently low dimensionality of natural movements. (+info)
Patent US5647049 - Video recording/reproducing apparatus which uses a differential motion ... - Google Patents
A video recording/reproducing apparatus having an encoder for encoding a video signal, and a recording unit for recording encoded information from the encoder on a digital recording medium, the encoder comprising a memory for storing at least first and second reference pictures, a prediction circuit for forming a prediction signal for an input signal, using a first reference signal from the first reference picture designated by a first motion vector, and a second reference signal from the second reference picture designated by a second motion vector, a first motion vector detector for determining a third motion vector from a point of intersection of the first motion vector and the second motion vector to a point in the second reference picture where the first motion vector intersects the second reference picture, a second motion vector detector for determining a differential motion vector by subtracting the third motion vector from the second motion vector, and an encoding circuit for encoding the first
Speed perception across variations in spatiotemporal frequencies in apparent motion stimuli | JOV | ARVO Journals
Many pairs of spatial and temporal frequencies in a motion display that result in the same stimulus speed for a moving object can produce different speed percepts (Priebe NJ et al., J Neurosci. 2003, 23(13): 5650-61). We previously reported that judgments of the speed of an object depend on the spatiotemporal frequency of the moving pattern in an inverted-U function, peaking at a specific spatial and temporal frequency combination [http://www.journalofvision.org/4/8/84/]. The location of this peak is largely independent of the size and shape of the object. In the present series of experiments, with the use of high coherence dot motion stimuli, we investigated the dependence of perceived speed on both spatial and temporal frequencies. The perceived speed of the stimulus was estimated using a 2AFC paradigm with interleaved QUEST staircases; subjects were asked to pick the faster of the two spatially separated [6 deg eccentricity] patches of dots moving in opposite directions. We systematically ...
Auditory motion affects visual motion perception in a speeded discrimination task. - Oxford Neuroscience
Transient auditory stimuli have been shown to influence the perception of ambiguous 2D visual motion displays (the bouncing-disks effect; e.g. Sekuler et al. in Nature 385:308, 1997). The question addressed here was whether continuous moving auditory stimuli can also influence visual motion perception under the same experimental conditions. In Experiment 1, we used a modification of Sanabria et al.s (Exp Brain Res 157:537-541, 2004) paradigm (involving an indirect behavioural measure of the bouncing-disks effect), in which the 2D visual display was presented together with either a brief tone, a continuous moving sound, or in the absence of any form of auditory stimulation. Crucially, the results showed that, together with the effect of the brief tone on bouncing trials, the presence of the continuous moving sound speeded-up participants responses on streaming trials as compared to the brief tone or no sound conditions. The results of a second experiment revealed that the effect of the continuous
Direct evidence that speedlines aid perception of motion direction | JOV | ARVO Journals
Geisler (Nature, 1999) proposed that streaks left in the wake of a moving object may be detected by orientationally selective mechanisms (with appropriate temporal integration) and used to help disambiguate motion direction. We have measured thresholds for discriminating the direction of motion of a field of moving dots superimposed on orientationally-filtered noise, oriented either parallel or orthogonal to the dot motion. Orthogonal noise had little effect on direction discrimination thresholds, while parallel noise raised them by a factor of about 8. The detrimental effect decreased with increasing orientation-bandwidth for the parallel noise, and increased with bandwidth for the orthogonal noise. Parallel noise specifically impeded motion direction discrimination, having virtually no effect on either contrast thresholds or speed discrimination. We also measured direction discrimination thresholds for random fields of dot pairs, that were oriented either coherently to form Glass patterns, or ...
High-Level Motion Processing | The MIT Press
Motion perception is fundamental to survival. Until recently, research on motion perception emphasized such basic aspects of motion as sampling and filtering. In the past decade, however, the emphasis has gradually shifted to higher-level motion processing-i.e., processing that takes place not only in the primary visual cortex but also in the higher or more complicated parts of the brain. The contributors to this book focus on such key aspects of motion processing as interaction and integration between locally measured motion units, structure from motion, heading in an optical flow, and second-order motion. They also discuss the interaction of motion processing with other high-level visual functions such as surface representation and attention.The book is divided into three sections: (1) interactive aspects of motion, (2) motion coherence and grouping, and (3) heading and structure from motion. Each section begins with computational aspects, proceeds to the neuropsychological/neurophysiological, and
Genes contribute to biological motion perception and its covariation with autistic traits | EurekAlert! Science News
Dr. JIANG Yi, Dr. WANG Ying and their colleagues from the State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science, Institute of Psychology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences have conducted a behavioral genetic study to find out the sources underlying the individual differences in biological motion perception.
Local versus global and retinotopic versus non-retinotopic motion processing in schizophrenia patients
Schizophrenia impairs cognitive functions as much as perception. For example, patients perceive global motion in random dot kinematograms less strongly, because, as it is argued, the integration of the dots into a single Gestalt is complex and therefore deteriorated. Similarly, the perception of apparent motion is impaired, because filling-in of the illusory trajectory requires complex processing. Here, we investigated very complex motion processing using the Ternus-Pikler display. First, we tested whether the perception of global apparent motion is impaired in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls. The task requires both the grouping of multiple elements into a coherent Gestalt and the filling-in of its illusory motion trajectory. Second, we tested the perception of rotation in the same stimulus, which in addition requires the computation of non-retinotopic motion. Contrary to earlier studies, patients were not impaired in either task and even tended to perform better than ...
Inferring monkey ocular following responses from V1 population dynamics using a probabilistic model of motion integration |...
Short presentation of a large moving pattern elicits an ocular following response that exhibits many of the properties attributed to low-level motion processing such as spatial and temporal integration, contrast gain control and divisive interaction between competing motions. Similar mechanisms have been demonstrated in V1 cortical activity in response to center-surround gratings patterns measured with real-time optical imaging in awake monkeys (see poster of Reynaud et al., VSS09). Based on a previously developed Bayesian framework, we have developed an optimal statistical decoder of such an observed cortical population activity as recorded by optical imaging. This model aims at characterizing the statistical dependence between early neuronal activity and ocular responses and its performance was analyzed by comparing this neuronal read-out and the actual motor responses on a trial-by-trial basis. First, we show that relative performance of the behavioral contrast response function is similar to the
Motion vector calculating method - KONDO SATOSHI
When a block (MB|highlight||bold|22|/bold||/highlight|) of which motion vector is referred to in the direct mode contains a plurality of motion vectors, 2 motion vectors MV|highlight||bold|23 |/bold||
Multiple Spectral Inputs Improve Motion Discrimination in the Drosophila Visual System | Science
Color and motion information are thought to be channeled through separate neural pathways, but it remains unclear whether and how these pathways interact to improve motion perception. In insects, such as Drosophila, it has long been believed that motion information is fed exclusively by one spectral class of photoreceptor, so-called R1 to R6 cells; whereas R7 and R8 photoreceptors, which exist in multiple spectral classes, subserve color vision. Here, we report that R7 and R8 also contribute to the motion pathway. By using electrophysiological, optical, and behavioral assays, we found that R7/R8 information converge with and shape the motion pathway output, explaining flies broadly tuned optomotor behavior by its composite responses. Our results demonstrate that inputs from photoreceptors of different spectral sensitivities improve motion discrimination, increasing robustness of perception. ...
Early visual experience and the receptive-field organization of optic flow processing interneurons in the fly motion pathway
The distribution of local preferred directions and motion sensitivities within the receptive fields of so-called tangential neurons in the fly visual system was previously found to match optic flow fields as induced by certain self-motions. The complex receptive-field organization of the tangential neurons and the recent evidence showing that the orderly development of the flys peripheral visual system depends on visual experience led us to investigate whether or not early visual input is required to establish the functional receptive field properties of such tangential neurons. In electrophysiological investigations of two identified tangential neurons, it turned out that dark-hatched flies which were kept in complete darkness for 2 days develop basically the same receptive-field organization as flies which were raised under seasonal light/dark conditions and were free to move in their cages. We did not find any evidence that the development of the sophisticated receptive-field organization of ...
Lighting-from-above prior in biological motion perception | cogimon.eu
The visual system is able to recognize body motion from impoverished stimuli. This requires combining stimulus information with visual priors. We present a new visual illusion showing that one of these priors is the assumption that bodies are typically illuminated from above. A change of illumination direction from above to below flips the perceived locomotion direction of a biological motion stimulus. Control experiments show that the underlying mechanism is different from shape-from-shading and directly combines information about body motion with a lighting-from-above prior. We further show that the illusion is critically dependent on the intrinsic luminance gradients of the most mobile parts of the moving body. We present a neural model with physiologically plausible mechanisms that accounts for the illusion and shows how the illumination prior might be encoded within the visual pathway. Our experiments demonstrate, for the first time, a direct influence of illumination priors in high-level ...
Frontiers | Physiological signal variability in hMT+ reflects performance on a direction discrimination task | Psychology
Our ability to perceive visual motion is critically dependent on the human motion complex (hMT+) in the dorsal visual stream. Extensive electrophysiological research in the monkey equivalent of this region has demonstrated how neuronal populations code for properties such as speed and direction, and that neurometric functions relate to psychometric functions within the individual monkey. In humans, the physiological correlates of inter-individual perceptual differences are still largely unknown. To address this question, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participants viewed translational motion in different directions, and we measured thresholds for direction discrimination of moving stimuli in a separate psychophysics experiment. After determining hMT+ in each participant with a functional localizer, we were able to decode the different directions of visual motion from it using pattern classification (PC). We also characterized the variability of fMRI signal in hMT+ during
Motion - predators motion information • Sex and emotional state • 3d shape from 2d motion o Events thats elicit motion...
View Notes - Motion from PSYC 225 at UNC. predators motion information • Sex and emotional state • 3d shape from 2d motion o Events thats elicit motion perception Real motion Illusory motion
NTNU Open: Development of visual motion perception for prospective control: Brain and behavioral studies in infants
During infancy, smart perceptual mechanisms develop allowing infants to judge time-space motion dynamics more efficiently with age and locomotor experience. This emerging capacity may be vital to enable preparedness for upcoming events and to be able to navigate in a changing environment. Little is known about brain changes that support the development of prospective control and about processes, such as preterm birth, that may compromise it. As a function of perception of visual motion, this paper will describe behavioral and brain studies with young infants investigating the development of visual perception for prospective control. By means of the three visual motion paradigms of occlusion, looming, and optic flow, our research shows the importance of including behavioral data when studying the neural correlates of prospective control ...
Motion Perception | Profiles RNS
This graph shows the total number of publications written about Motion Perception by people in this website by year, and whether Motion Perception was a major or minor topic of these publications ...
Transfer of visual motion information via graded synapses operates linearly in the natural activity range
Synaptic transmission between a graded potential neuron and a spiking neuron was investigated in vivo using sensory stimulation instead of artificial excitation of the presynaptic neuron. During visual motion stimulation, individual presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons in the brain of the fly were electrophysiologically recorded together with concentration changes of presynaptic calcium (Delta[Ca(2+)](pre)). Preferred-direction motion leads to depolarization of the presynaptic neuron. It also produces pronounced increases in [Ca(2+)](pre) and the postsynaptic spike rate. Motion in the opposite direction was associated with hyperpolarization of the presynaptic cell but only a weak reduction in [Ca(2+)](pre) and the postsynaptic spike rate. Apart from this rectification, the relationships between presynaptic depolarizations, Delta[Ca(2+)](pre), and postsynaptic spike rates are, on average, linear over the entire range of activity levels that can be elicited by sensory stimulation. Thus, the ...
Biologically Inspired Dynamic Textures for Probing Motion Perception
Perception is often described as a predictive process based on an optimal inference with respect to a generative model. We study here the principled construction of a generative model specifically crafted to probe motion perception. In that context, we first provide an axiomatic, biologically-driven derivation of the model. This model synthesizes random dynamic textures which are defined by stationary Gaussian distributions obtained by the random aggregation of warped patterns. Importantly, we show that this model can equivalently be described as a stochastic partial differential equation. Using this characterization of motion in images, it allows us to recast motion-energy models into a principled Bayesian inference framework. Finally, we apply these textures in order to psychophysically probe speed perception in humans. In this framework, while the likelihood is derived from the generative model, the prior is estimated from the observed results and accounts for the perceptual bias in a ...
Single Step Optimal Block Matched Motion Estimation with Motion Vectors Having Arbitrary Pixel Precisions | American Journal of...
Problem statement: This study derives the optimal motion vector with arbitrary pixel precisions in a single step. Approach: A non-linear block matched motion model was proposed. Based on the proposed non-linear block matched motion model, the optimal motion vector which minimizes the mean square error was solved analytically in a single step via a gradient approach. Results: The mean square error based on the proposed method was guaranteed to be lower than or equal to that based on conventional methods. The computational efforts for the proposed method were lower than that of conventional methods particularly when the required pixel precision is higher than or equal to the quarter pixel precisions. Conclusion: As integer pixel locations, half pixel locations and quarter pixel locations are particular locations represented by the proposed model, the mean square error based on the proposed method is guaranteed to be lower than or equal to that based on these conventional methods. Also, as the ...
Fine Temporal Properties of Center-Surround Interactions in Motion Revealed by Reverse Correlation | Journal of Neuroscience
These experiments reveal interactions between center and surround motions and their dependency on relative direction, contrast, and timing. Same-direction surround motion reduced the discriminability of high-contrast center motion and improved the discriminability of low-contrast center motion, regardless of surround contrast. The timing of the observed center-surround interactions depended on surround contrast; as the contrast of the surround decreased, surround motion needed to occur earlier relative to the center motion to have an effect on the observers performance.. These results were revealed using the temporal reverse correlation method, which allowed us to estimate the time course of center-surround interactions with relatively high precision, especially for very brief high-contrast center motion. It is worth reiterating that these results were obtained from surround motions that were perceived simply as a very fast up-down jitter. When queried, observers admitted that it was impossible ...
Direct observation of ON and OFF pathways in the Drosophila visual system. | Janelia Research Campus
Visual motion perception is critical to many animal behaviors, and flies have emerged as a powerful model system for exploring this fundamental neural computation. Although numerous studies have suggested that fly motion vision is governed by a simple neural circuit [1-3], the implementation of this circuit has remained mysterious for decades. Connectomics and neurogenetics have produced a surge in recent progress, and several studies have shown selectivity for light increments (ON) or decrements (OFF) in key elements associated with this circuit [4-7]. However, related studies have reached disparate conclusions about where this selectivity emerges and whether it plays a major role in motion vision [8-13]. To address these questions, we examined activity in the neuropil thought to be responsible for visual motion detection, the medulla, of Drosophila melanogaster in response to a range of visual stimuli using two-photon calcium imaging. We confirmed that the input neurons of the medulla, the ...
Localized direction selective responses in the dendrites of visual interneurons of the fly | BMC Biology | Full Text
Fast flying insects such as flies need to integrate motion signals from their compound eyes for various tasks which include course control , collision avoidance and the detection of small objects. These tasks require that signals from individual ommatidia be combined into local motion signals, a process which is thought to take place in the medulla . Local motion signals are then pooled and integrated on the dendrite of cells, which receive input from thousands of ommatidia. In the blowfly, this integration of retinotopic information occurs in the lobula plate, with a class of about 60 individually identifiable neurons showing direction selective responses to visual stimuli, the lobula-plate tangential cells (LPTCs). Among the best characterized of these cells are the neurons of the so called horizontal system (HS), named after their strong response to progressive (front-to-back) motion, and those of the vertical system (VS), which respond mainly to downward motion. However, similar to ...
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Causal inference accounts for heading perception in the presence of object motion<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Causal inference accounts for heading perception in the presence of object motion. AU - Dokka, Kalpana. AU - Park, Hyeshin. AU - Jansen, Michael. AU - DeAngelis, Gregory C.. AU - Angelaki, Dora E.. N1 - Funding Information: ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. This work was supported by National Institutes of Health Grants R03 DC013987 (to K.D.), NEI EY016178 (to G.C.D.), R01 EY022538 (to D.E.A.), and Simons Foundation for Autism Research Award 396921 (to D.E.A.).. PY - 2019/4/30. Y1 - 2019/4/30. N2 - The brain infers our spatial orientation and properties of the world from ambiguous and noisy sensory cues. Judging self-motion (heading) in the presence of independently moving objects poses a challenging inference problem because the image motion of an object could be attributed to movement of the object, self-motion, or some combination of the two. We test whether perception of heading and object motion follows predictions of a normative causal inference framework. In a dual-report task, subjects ...
OSA | Biologically inspired local motion detector architecture
A new directionally sensitive motion detection system is proposed that is capable of detecting local motion without any significant preprocessing. It has a delay-and-compare structure like that of the Reichardt detector but uses as its basic building block the shunting inhibition neural model. It is therefore called the local inhibitory motion detector. Furthermore, an array of such detectors exhibits adaptive responses akin to those observed in motion-sensitive biological neurons.. © 1999 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
motion perception and neurotransmitters | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Recent studies have shown that interindividual variability can be a rich source of information regarding the mechanism of human visual perception. In this study, we examined the mechanisms underlying interindividual variability in the perception of visual motion, one of the fundamental components of visual scene analysis, by measuring neurotransmitter concentrations using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. First, by psychophysically examining two types of motion phenomena-motion assimilation and contrast-we found that, following the presentation of the same stimulus, some participants perceived motion assimilation, while others perceived motion contrast. Furthermore, we found that the concentration of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate-glutamine (Glx) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 46) was positively correlated with the participants tendency to motion assimilation over motion contrast; however, this effect was not observed in the visual areas. The concentration of the ...
EP0720385A2 - Video encoder with motion area extraction - Google Patents
A specified area and a motion area are extracted from an input image and encoded by allocating a relatively increased amount of codes to the specified area and a relatively reduced amount of codes to the motion area to improve the quality of the specified area of the image. The image sequence encoding device according to the present invention is provided with a specified area extracting portion (33) connected to a frame memory (21) to extract a specified area from an input image; a motion area extracting portion (34) connected to a motion detecting portion (31) to extract a motion area according to a magnitude of motion vectors and a specified area of a preceding frame; an encoding control portion (35) connected to a buffer memory (26), a specified area extracting portion (33) and the motion extracting portion (34) to control quantizing and encoding process.
OPAL - OHIO PRIVATE ACADEMIC LIBRARIES / Muskingum
Motion perception is fundamental to survival. Until recently, research on motion perception emphasized such basic aspects of motion as sampling and filtering. In the past decade, however, the emphasis has gradually shifted to higher-level motion processing--i.e., processing that takes place not only in the primary visual cortex but also in the higher or more complicated parts of the brain. The contributors to this book focus on such key aspects of motion processing as interaction and integration between locally measured motion units, structure from motion, heading in an optical flow, and second-order motion. They also discuss the interaction of motion processing with other high-level visual functions such as surface representation and attention. The book is divided into three sections: (1) interactive aspects of motion, (2) motion coherence and grouping, and (3) heading and structure from motion. Each section begins with computational aspects, proceeds to the ...
11.27.2002 - UC Berkeley scientists detail neural circuit that lets eye detect directional motion
This circuit, which enables us to track moving objects, serves as an example of other brain circuits, some of which perform thousands of computations every second. The findings could aid the design of bionic eyes that track motion and process visual information like our own eyes. This work reveals a very sophisticated neural computation, the first non-linear computation performed by the nervous system for which a circuit is close to being solved, said Frank Werblin, professor of molecular and cell biology at UC Berkeley. It is a preliminary step in understanding how more sophisticated computations are performed by the brain. Werblin notes, for example, that we use motion detection every time we cross the street, anticipating when traffic will reach our intersection and deciding when to cross. Barry Bonds probably has superior motion-detecting neurons, he added, referring to the home-run hitter with the San Francisco Giants. He takes a simple movement detector and, in the context of a ...
Diffusion imaging of the in vivo heart using spin echoes-considerations on bulk motion sensitivity - Zurich Open Repository...
Cardiac diffusion MRI based on stimulated-echo acquisition mode (STEAM) techniques is hampered by its inherent low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) efficiency. Diffusion imaging using standard spin-echo (SE) techniques, on the other hand, offers higher SNRs but has been considered impractical for the beating heart due to excessive signal attenuation from cardiac bulk motion. In this work the effect of systolic cardiac motion on different diffusion-encoding schemes was studied in detail. Numerical simulations based on in vivo motion data (acquired by MRI tagging techniques) demonstrate an up to 10-fold decrease in bulk motion sensitivity of the diffusion encoding if the first-order moment of the diffusion-encoding gradients is nullified. It is shown that the remaining systolic phase pattern on the myocardium does not influence the magnitude images if the spatial resolution is chosen to be higher than 4 mm. Given these relatively low resolution requirements, we obtained in vivo diffusion-weighted (DW) ...
Neural Mechanisms of Visual Motion Perception in Primates - CaltechAUTHORS
A large extent of the posterior cortex of the primate brain is devoted to vision, and it contains two general streams that process visual information. The one stream is situated more ventrally in the cortex and is important for object recognition, pattern recognition, color perception, and shape perception. These attributes of visual analysis we associate with visual awareness or seeing, and thus this stream has been referred to as the what system because it recognizes objects (Ungerleider and Mishkin 1982). A second, more dorsal stream is associated with visual-motor transformations-that is, the routing of sensory information into motor areas for the purpose of action. This dorsal stream plays an important role in attention, decisions, and movement planning. It also plays an important role in spatial awareness, which is crucial for planning movements to locations in space and for transforming visually defined locations into movement coordinates to accomplish accurate motor behaviors. This ...
Vision Tape - a flexible compound vision sensor for motion detection and proximity estimation - NCCR Robotics
In this paper, we introduce Vision Tape (VT), a novel class of flexible compound-eye-like linear vision sensor dedicated to motion extraction and proximity estimation. This novel sensor possesses intrinsic mechanical flexibility that provides wide-range adaptive shape, allowing adjustable field of view as well as integration with numerous substrates and curvatures. VT extracts Optic Flow (OF) of the visual scene to calculate the motion vector, which allows proximity estimation based on the motion parallax principle. In order to validate the functionality of VT, we have designed and fabricated an exemplary prototype consisting of an array of eight photodiodes attached to a flexible PCB that acts as mechanical and electrical support. This prototype performs image acquisition and processing with an integrated microcontroller at a frequency of 1000 fps, even during bending of the sensor. With this, the effect of VT shape on motion perception and proximity estimation is studied and, in particular, ...
Patent US5844616 - Method and apparatus for motion compensated interpolation - Google Patents
For motion compensated interpolation (MCI) with sub-pixel accuracy, the missing pixels need to be interpolated prior to the motion compensation. The required pixel values are stored using line and pixel delays. A switch matrix selects, in response to a motion vector, such stored pixels which are currently needed for the processing. In order to avoid sub-pixel MCI, the interpolation is carried out prior to the motion compensation. In order to avoid an increased input data rate of the motion compensation circuitry, only a standard switch matrix is used. A special arrangement of delays storing pixel values needed for the processing is used to extend the standard delay array. Because an increased number of pixels is involved, an improved sub-pixel MCI can be achieved. This is because such a delay extension does not significantly affect the decoded picture quality even if adjacent motion vectors do not exactly match the current motion vector.
The Behavioral and Neural Effects of Language on Motion Perception | Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience | MIT Press
Direction of motion was counterbalanced across participants, that is, half of the participants were presented with upward and the other half with downward motion stimuli. A central fixation cross (width = 0.3 degrees) was presented throughout the trial, except when a word was presented. Each trial started with a centrally presented word (duration = 100 msec), which could either be a motion word or a neutral word, and which was followed by a 200-msec ISI (see Figure 1). Presentation of the words was fully randomized within each block of the experiment. We instructed participants to ignore the word and maintain fixation. Next, a visual RDM stimulus was presented (duration = 200 msec) in either the LVF or in the RVF. Participants had to indicate, as quickly and accurately as possible, whether the RDM contained coherent motion, while fixating at the central fixation cross. The brief presentation time of the RDM stimulus (200 msec) served to minimize the chance of eye movements to the stimulus, as ...
Motion Detectors - Motion Sensors
Motion detectors may be able to protect you from intruders and burglaries. Find out the different motion detectors available in the market. And the one that fits your security needs here.
Motion perception and personality, I
Experiments in the field of motion perception had indicated that there were good reasons for assuming a correlation between an analytical or isolating attitude in perception and a tendency to social isolation. The hypothesis advanced was: Those Ss who obtain extremely high scores in the velocity synthesis test, will be characterized, in the description of their personality, by traits like autism, or a low degree of social contact.. This hypothesis has been tested and the result may be taken as confirming the validity of the hypothesis.. ...
Frontiers | Event-Based Eccentric Motion Detection Exploiting Time Difference Encoding | Neuroscience
Attentional selectivity tends to follow events considered as interesting stimuli. Indeed, the motion of visual stimuli present in the environment attract our attention and allow us to react and interact with our surroundings. Extracting relevant motion information from the environment presents a challenge with regards to the high information content of the visual input. In this work we propose a novel integration between an eccentric down-sampling of the visual field, taking inspiration from the varying size of receptive fields (RFs) in the mammalian retina, and the Spiking Elementary Motion Detector (sEMD) model. We characterize the system functionality with simulated data and real world data collected with bio-inspired event driven cameras, successfully implementing motion detection along the four cardinal directions and diagonally.
Motion perception and aging at scotopic light levels.<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Motion perception and aging at scotopic light levels.. AU - Vidinova, Margarita. AU - Reinhardt-Rutland, Anthony. AU - Pierscionek, Barbara. AU - Lauritzen, Jan. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. M3 - Article. VL - 40. SP - 92. EP - 92. ER - ...
We recorded the responses of single neurons in extrastriate area MST while rhesus monkeys discriminated the direction of motion in a set of stochastic visual displays. By varying systematically the strength of a coherent motion signal within the visual display, we were able to measure simultaneously the monkeys psychophysical thresholds for direction discrimination and the responses of single neurons to the same motion signals. Neuronal thresholds for reliably signaling the direction of motion in the visual display were calculated from the measured responses using a method based in signal detection theory. Neurons in MST were exquisitely sensitive to motion signals in the display, having thresholds for discriminating the direction of coherent motion that were, on average, equal to the psychophysical thresholds of the monkeys. For many MST neurons, the intensity of the response was correlated with the monkeys psychophysical judgements for repeated presentations of a given near-threshold ...
Are motion paths available in Animator? On the product page the Bee is flying and its movement seem to made with the aid of motion paths.
Up, Down, Right, Left - How Visual Cues Help Us Understand Bodily Motion - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com
We spend so much time doing that-seeing who they are, what they are doing, what they intend to do, says psychology professor Nikolaus F. Troje of Queens University in Kingston, Ontario.. This process is called biological motion perception, and humans are so good at it that even a few dots on a screen representing the major joints of a body are enough to retrieve all the information we need-as long as they move.. But what role does motion play in that process? Does the visual system use it only to connect the dots to create a coherent, or global, structure? Troje and his colleagues-Masahiro Hirai and Daniel R. Saunders at Queens, and Dorita H. F. Chang, now at the University of Birmingham, UK-investigated this question in a new study, to be published in an upcoming issue of Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.. They presented their participants with computer-generated stimuli showing 11 light points representing the shoulder, hip, elbows, wrists, ...
JHIBRG:Abstract Jan 25 2007 - OpenWetWare
We demonstrate Janus micro motor in fluid. The motor consists of magnesium (Mg) particles partially deposited gold (Au) on the outmost surface. The Janus particle exhibits a directional motion due to the exposed Mg region which generates hydrogen gas in chloride-rich solutions (e.g. seawater) in a long term manner. We manipulate such particles in a way that two or more particles are connected each other using DNA structures. Through motile observation of the aggregated particles, we identify the force and directional motion of multi-particle ensembles. ...
2003.05481v3] Motion Planning for Quadrupedal Locomotion: Coupled Planning, Terrain Mapping and Whole-Body Control
Abstract: Planning whole-body motions while taking into account the terrain conditions is a challenging problem for legged robots since the terrain model might produce many local minima. Our coupled planning method uses stochastic and derivatives-free search to plan both foothold locations and horizontal motions due to the local minima produced by the terrain model. It jointly optimizes body motion, step duration and foothold selection, and it models the terrain as a cost-map. Due to the novel attitude planning method, the horizontal motion plans can be applied to various terrain conditions. The attitude planner ensures the robot stability by imposing limits to the angular acceleration. Our whole-body controller tracks compliantly trunk motions while avoiding slippage, as well as kinematic and torque limits. Despite the use of a simplified model, which is restricted to flat terrain, our approach shows remarkable capability to deal with a wide range of non-coplanar terrains. The results are ...
Kubovy Perception Lab
We hypothesized that a rebound would be needed for the effect to occur, the horizontal motion would not be necessary, and inverted videos would behave in the same way as normal videos. This would show that a rebound is sufficient to make the sound go with the impact motion and that horizontal motion is not needed, allowing us to focus on the vertical motion.. The results came out as predicted.. ...
Mechanism for analogous illusory motion perception in flies and humans | PNAS
Visual motion detection is one of the most important computations performed by visual circuits. Yet, we perceive vivid illusory motion in stationary, periodic luminance gradients that contain no true motion. This illusion is shared by diverse vertebrate species, but theories proposed to explain this illusion have remained difficult to test. Here, we demonstrate that in the fruit fly Drosophila, the illusory motion percept is generated by unbalanced contributions of direction-selective neurons responses to stationary edges. First, we found that flies, like humans, perceive sustained motion in the stationary gradients. The percept was abolished when the elementary motion detector neurons T4 and T5 were silenced. In vivo calcium imaging revealed that T4 and T5 neurons encode the location and polarity of stationary edges. Furthermore, our proposed mechanistic model allowed us to predictably manipulate both the magnitude and direction of the flys illusory percept by selectively silencing either T4 ...
Higher-order motion sensitivity in fly visual circuits
Flies are highly visually guided animals. In this thesis, I have used hoverflies as a model for studying motion vision. Flies process motion vision in three visual ganglia: the lamina, the medulla, and the lobula complex. In the posterior part of lobula complex, there are around 60 lobula plate tangential cells (LPTCs). Most of LPTCs have large receptive fields where the local direction sensitivity suggests that they function as matched filters to specific types of optic flow. LPTCs connect to descending or neck motor neurons that control wing and head movements, respectively. Therefore, in this thesis I have focused on the electrophysiological responses of LPTCs to gain understanding of visual behaviors in flies.. The elementary motion detector (EMD) is a model that can explain the formation of local motion sensitivity. However, responses to higher order motion, where the direction of luminance change is uncorrelated with the direction of movement, cannot be predicted by classic EMDs. ...
Heritable aspects of biological motion perception and its covariation with autistic traits<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Heritable aspects of biological motion perception and its covariation with autistic traits. AU - Wang, Ying. AU - Wang, Li. AU - Xu, Qian. AU - Liu, Dong. AU - Chen, Lihong. AU - Troje, Nikolaus F.. AU - He, Sheng. AU - Jiang, Yi. N1 - Funding Information: We thank the two reviewers for their constructive comments, Jie chen for assistance during Mx data analyses. This research was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants 31525011, 31671137, and 31771211), the Strategic Priority Research Program (Grants XDB02010003 and XDB02050001), the Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences (Grant QYZDB-SSW-SMC030), the Youth Innovation Promotion Association of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (to N.F.T.). Funding Information: ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. We thank the two reviewers for their constructive comments, Jie chen for assistance during Mx data analyses. This research was supported by ...
Neurophysiology Lab. NIBB: Biological motion stimuli are attractive to medaka fish
In many social fish species, visual cues play an important role in inducing shoaling behavior. The present study is the first to examine whether and how biological motion depicting a moving creature by means of only a small number of isolated points induces shoaling behaviour in fish. Medaka (Oryzias latipes) were used because they are known to have high visual acuity and exhibit a strong tendency to form shoals. In experiment 1, we found that the presentation of medaka biological motion resulted in heightened shoaling behaviour when compared with that of non-biological motion (depicted by a small number of points placed at fixed distances that moved at a constant speed in a constant direction). In experiment 2, it was indicated that medaka biological motion was more effective at inducing shoaling behaviour when compared with human biological motion. In experiment 3, it was demonstrated that shoaling behaviour was largely dependent on the smoothness of the biological motion. In experiment 4, ...
Sea water background motion - Backgrounds & Textures - VJ Loops- Royalty Free Stock Footage, Media and Visuals
The worlds largest VJ Loops shop for high quality royalty free motion backgrounds stock footage downloads in 4K, UHD, HD 1080p, & Ultra Wide. Save time & money by using VJ Loops in your projects, livestreams on FB, Youtube, Twitch, clubs . Sea water background motion
Filling-in visual motion with sounds
Information about the motion of objects can be extracted by multiple sensory modalities, and, as a consequence, object motion perception typically involves the integration of multi-sensory information. Often, in naturalistic settings, the flow of such information can be rather discontinuous (e.g. a cat racing through the furniture in a cluttered room is partly seen and partly heard). This study addressed audiovisual interactions in the perception of time-sampled object motion by measuring adaptation aftereffects. We found significant auditory after-effects following adaptation to unisensory auditory and visual motion in depth, sampled at 12.5 Hz. The visually induced (cross-modal) auditory motion after-effect was eliminated if visual adaptors flashed at half of the rate (6.25 Hz). Remarkably, the addition of the highrate acoustic flutter (12.5 Hz) to this ineffective, sparsely time-sampled, visual adaptor restored the auditory after-effect to a level comparable to what was seen with high-rate bimodal
IIT People - Lorella Battelli
1. Biological motion perception. We are conducting TMS experiments aiming at determining the role played by functionally different visual areas (namely the posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus -pSTS- and the Extrastriate Body Area -EBA-) in biological motion perception. Dr. Joris Vangeneugden, a former postdoc, has used multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) in an fMRI experiment aimed at determining whether pSTS and EBA respond differently to a walker orientation vs walking direction. The subsequent TMS experiment has shown a direct involvement of those areas in the two types of motion patterns (orientation vs direction). We are now trying to determine the role of different visual areas in walker orientation discrimination, using more ecological stimuli (3D walkers) (Dr. Nicholas Peatfield, postdoctoral fellow).. 2. Relative timing in vision. This project aims at determining the neural as well as behavioural correlates of timing in vision. We have previously shown that higher level visual areas ...
CiteSeerX - Kernel-based Multiple Cue Algorithm for Object Segmentation
CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): This paper proposes a novel algorithm to solve the problem of segmenting foreground-moving objects from the background scene. The major cue used for object segmentation is the motion information, which is initially extracted from MPEG motion vectors. Since the MPEG motion vectors are generated for simple video compression without any consideration of visual objects, they may not correspond to the true motion of the macroblocks. We propose a Kernel-based Multiple Cue (KMC) algorithm to deal with the above inconsistency of MPEG motion vectors and use multiple cues to segment moving objects. KMC detects and calibrates camera movements; and then finds the kernels of moving objects. The segmentation starts from these kernels, which are textured regions with credible motion vectors. Beside motion information, it also makes use of color and texture to help achieving a better segmentation. Moreover, KMC can keep track of the segmented
Gaussian Process Regression Flow for Analysis of Motion Trajectories | Research
Recognition of motions and activities of objects in videos requires effective representations for analysis and matching of motion trajectories. In this paper, we introduce a new representation speciï¬ cally aimed at matching motion trajectories. We model a trajectory as a continuous dense ï¬‚ow ï¬ eld from a sparse set of vector sequences using Gaussian Process Regression. Furthermore, we introduce a random sampling strategy for learning stable classes of motions from limited data. Our representation allows for incrementally predicting possible paths and detecting anomalous events from online trajectories. This representation also supports matching of complex motions with acceleration changes and pauses or stops within a trajectory. We use the proposed approach for classifying and predicting motion trajectories in trafï¬ c monitoring domains and test on several data sets. We show that our approach works well on various types of complete and incomplete trajectories from a variety of ...
Self-motion and the perception of stationary objects - Cogprints
One of the ways we perceive shape is through seeing motion. Visual motion may be actively generated (for example, in locomotion), or passively observed. In the study of how we perceive 3D structure from motion (SfM), the non-moving, passive observer in an environment of moving rigid objects has been used as a substitute for an active observer moving in an environment of stationary objects; the rigidity hypothesis has played a central role in computational and experimental studies of SfM. Here we demonstrate that this substitution is not fully adequate, because active observers perceive 3D structure differently from passive observers, despite experiencing the same visual stimulus: active observers perception of 3D structure depends on extra-visual self-motion information. Moreover, the visual system, making use of the self-motion information treats objects that are stationary (in an allocentric, earth-fixed reference frame) differently from objects that are merely rigid. These results show ...
Ryusuke Hirai, Tokyo JP - Patent applications
Apparatus, Method, and Computer Program Product for Generating Interpolated Images - An interpolated image generating apparatus calculates a motion vector reliability level indicating reliability of a motion vector used for inserting an interpolated image, the value of the motion vector reliability level being determined in such a manner that the stronger the correlation is between a source image area and a destination image area that are brought into correspondence with each other by the motion vector, the larger is the value. The apparatus also calculates a failure-preventing vector reliability level indicating reliability of a predetermined failure-preventing vector used for preventing image failures. The apparatus obtains a motion compensated image based on the motion vector, obtains a failure-preventing image based on the failure-preventing vector, and blends the motion compensated image and the failure-preventing image according to a weighted average thereof calculated by using a weighting ...
Dyslexics and Visual Motion Problems - Myomancy
Developmental dyslexia is associated with deficits in the processing of visual motion stimuli, and some evidence suggests that these motion processing deficits are related to various reading subskills deficits. …. Results suggest that there are in fact two distinct motion processing deficits in developmental dyslexia, rather than one as assumed by previous research, and that each of these deficits is associated with a different type of reading subskills deficit. A deficit in detecting coherent motion is selectively associated with low accuracy on reading subskills tests, and a deficit in discriminating velocities is selectively associated with slow performance on these same tests. In addition, … The two distinct patterns of motion processing and reading deficits demonstrated by this study may reflect separable underlying neurocognitive mechanisms of developmental dyslexia. ...
Delineating extrastriate visual area MT(V5) using cortical myeloarchitecture. - Oxford centre for Human Brain Activity
Visual area MT is a model of choice in primate neurophysiological and human imaging research of visual perception, due to its considerable sensitivity to moving stimuli and the strong direction selectivity of its neurons. While the location of MT(V5) in the non-human primate is easily identifiable based on gross anatomy and appears consistent between animals, this is less the case in human subjects. Functional localisation of human MT+ with moving stimuli can identify a group of motion-sensitive regions, but defining MT proper has proved more challenging. In this review we consider approaches to studying the cyto- and myleoarchitecture of this cortical area that may, in the future, allow identification of human MT in vivo based on anatomy.
Bouncing or streaming? Exploring the influence of auditory cues on the interpretation of ambiguous visual motion. - Oxford...
When looking at two identical objects moving toward each other on a two-dimensional visual display, two different events can be perceived: the objects can either be seen to bounce off each other, or else to stream through one another. Previous research has shown that the large bias normally seen toward the streaming percept can be modulated by the presentation of an auditory event at the moment of coincidence. However, previous behavioral research on this crossmodal effect has always relied on subjective report. In the present experiment, we used a novel experimental design to provide a more objective/implicit measure of the effect of an auditory cue on visual motion perception. In our study, two disks moved toward each other, with the point of coincidence hidden behind an occluder. When emerging from behind the occluder, the disks (one red, the other blue) could either follow the same trajectory (streaming) or else move in the opposite direction (bouncing). Participants made speeded discrimination
Sensors | Free Full-Text | Sensing Movement: Microsensors for Body Motion Measurement | Notes
Recognition of body posture and motion is an important physiological function that can keep the body in balance. Man-made motion sensors have also been widely applied for a broad array of biomedical applications including diagnosis of balance disorders and evaluation of energy expenditure. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art sensing components utilized for body motion measurement. The anatomy and working principles of a natural body motion sensor, the human vestibular system, are first described. Various man-made inertial sensors are then elaborated based on their distinctive sensing mechanisms. In particular, both the conventional solid-state motion sensors and the emerging non solid-state motion sensors are depicted. With their lower cost and increased intelligence, man-made motion sensors are expected to play an increasingly important role in biomedical systems for basic research as well as clinical diagnostics.
Vision contingent auditory pitch aftereffects<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vision contingent auditory pitch aftereffects. AU - Teramoto, Wataru. AU - Kobayashi, Maori. AU - Hidaka, Souta. AU - Sugita, Yoichi. PY - 2013/8. Y1 - 2013/8. N2 - Visual motion aftereffects can occur contingent on arbitrary sounds. Two circles, placed side by side, were alternately presented, and the onsets were accompanied by tone bursts of high and low frequencies, respectively. After a few minutes of exposure to the visual apparent motion with the tones, a circle blinking at a fixed location was perceived as a lateral motion in the same direction as the previously exposed apparent motion (Teramoto et al. in PLoS One 5:e12255, 2010). In the present study, we attempted to reverse this contingency (pitch aftereffects contingent on visual information). Results showed that after prolonged exposure to the audio-visual stimuli, the apparent visual motion systematically affected the perceived pitch of the auditory stimuli. When the leftward apparent visual motion was paired with the ...
Patent US20050212756 - Gesture based navigation of a handheld user interface - Google Patents
A motion controlled handheld device includes a display having a viewable surface and operable to generate a current image. The device includes a motion detection module operable to detect motion of the device within three dimensions and to identify components of the motion in relation to the viewable surface. The device also includes a gesture database comprising a plurality of gestures, each gesture defined by a motion of the device with respect to a first position of the device. The gestures comprise at least four planar gestures each defined by a motion vector generally aligned in parallel with the viewable surface. The device includes a gesture mapping database mapping each of the gestures to a corresponding command, the gesture mapping database mapping each of the four planar gestures to a corresponding grid navigation command. The device also includes a motion response module operable to identify a matching one of the planar gestures based on the motion and to determine the corresponding one of
PLOS ONE: Direction Specific Biases in Human Visual and Vestibular Heading Perception
Heading direction is determined from visual and vestibular cues. Both sensory modalities have been shown to have better direction discrimination for headings near straight ahead. Previous studies of visual heading estimation have not used the full range of stimuli, and vestibular heading estimation has not previously been reported. The current experiments measure human heading estimation in the horizontal plane to vestibular, visual, and spoken stimuli. The vestibular and visual tasks involved 16 cm of platform or visual motion. The spoken stimulus was a voice command speaking a heading angle. All conditions demonstrated direction dependent biases in perceived headings such that biases increased with headings further from the fore-aft axis. The bias was larger with the visual stimulus when compared with the vestibular stimulus in all 10 subjects. For the visual and vestibular tasks precision was best for headings near fore-aft. The spoken headings had the least bias, and the variation in precision was
TagBrainScales - LaurentPerrinet
Short presentation of a large moving pattern elicits an Ocular Following Response (OFR) that exhibits many of the properties attributed to low-level motion processing such as spatial and temporal integration, contrast gain control and divisive interaction between competing motions. Similar mechanisms have been demonstrated in V1 cortical activity in response to center-surround gratings patterns measured with real-time optical imaging in awake monkeys. More recent experiments of OFR have used disk gratings and bipartite stimuli which are optimized to study the dynamics of center-surround integration. We quantified two main characteristics of the global spatial integration of motion from an intermediate map of possible local translation velocities: (i) a finite optimal stimulus size for driving OFR, surrounded by an antagonistic modulation and (ii) a direction selective suppressive effect of the surround on the contrast gain control of the central stimuli [Barthelemy06,Barthelemy07].In fact, the ...
How studying human self-motion perception can improve VR technology and viceversa :: MPG.PuRe
Author: Pretto, P; Genre: Talk; Published in Print: 2017-09-12; Title: How studying human self-motion perception can improve VR technology and viceversa
China Infrared Motion Sensor Switch, Infrared Motion Sensor Switch Manufacturers, Suppliers, Price | Made-in-China.com
China Infrared Motion Sensor Switch manufacturers - Select 2020 high quality Infrared Motion Sensor Switch products in best price from certified Chinese Switch manufacturers, China Sensor suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com
A different opinion from Galens about the motions of the head
A different opinion from Galens about the motions of the head In the first place, we move the head either with a primary motion in which the neck holds still, or with a secondary motion, where the head follows the motion of the neck even if you try to move it in a different direction from the neck. There are two movements peculiar to the head: in one, we bend it forward and incline it backward, or extend it. You perform this motion with a rigid, unmoved neck or with a neck moved simultaneously, whether you do it with a motion equal with the head, or a contrary motion. For although you move the neck forward and the head necessarily follows the neck, still you can bend the head backward with its own motion and easily observe that the head and neck have their separate and distinct motions in bending and unbending. The other peculiar movement of the head should be counted that by which we rotate it more or less as if we were spinning it as a wheel is turned on an axle. You will undergo this motion ...
Advances in Understanding Mechanisms and Treatment of by R. John Leigh, Michael W. Devereaux - A Bike Life Book Archive
1998;9:1807-1810. 67. Shallo-Hoffmann J, Bronstein AM. Motion detection in patients with absent vestibular function. Vision Res. 2003;43:1589-1594. 68. Acheson JF, Cassidy L, Grunfeld EA, ShalloHoffmann JA, Bronstein AM. Elevated visual motion detection thresholds in adults with acquired ophthalmoplegia. Br J Ophthalmol. 2001;85:1447-1449. 69. Bedell HE. Perception of a clear and stable visual world with congenital nystagmus. Optom Vision Sci. 2000;77:573-581. 22 BASIC CONCEPTS OF STABLE VISION AND GAZE 70. 3. Southall JPC, ed. New York: Dover;1962. von Holst E, Mittelstädt H. The principal of reafference: interactions between the central nervous system and the peripheral organs. In: Dodwell PC, ed. Perceptual Processing: Stimulus Equivalence and Pattern Recognition. New York: Appleton Century Crofts;1971:41-71. Gauthier GM, Nommay D, Vercher JL. The role of ocular muscle proprioception in visual localization of targets. Science. 1990;249:58-61. Bridgeman B, Stark L. Ocular proprioception and ...
Dendritic Integration and Its Role in Computing Image Velocity | Science
Preparation and setup: Female blowflies (C. erythrocephala) were prepared as described in (17). Visual stimuli were produced by a grating drum illuminated from the inside by an arc lamp, the image of which was projected onto a screen (10 × 8 cm) positioned 10 cm below the fly (Fig. 1A). The fly was mounted to look down on the stimulus and the objective was above the back of its opened head capsule. The square wave grating had a spatial wavelength of 26°, a mean luminance of 17.7 cd/m2, and a contrast of 92%. The velocity of the moving pattern depended on the type of experiment and is indicated in the figure legends. Electrophysiological recording: Electrodes were pulled on a Brown-Flaming micropipette puller (P-97, Sutter Instruments) using thin-wall glass capillaries with a diameter of 1 mm (GC100TF-10, Clark). When filled with 2 M KAc, 0.5 M KCl, and 8.8 mM calcium green, they had resistances of about 30 to 40 MΩ. A SEC-10L amplifier (npi-electronics) was used throughout the experiments and ...
Measurement of Image Velocity by David J. Fleet (auth.) - Illustrated First Books
2 if the k2 -axis is replaced by the w-axis. 0). 0). 8 octaves, this process eventually yields 23 filter types: 6 tuned to speeds about 0 with preferred directions at multiples of 30 degrees; 10 tuned to speeds of 1/v3 with directions at every 36 degrees; 6 tuned to speeds of v3 with directions every 60 degrees; and a flicker channel tuned to non-zero temporal frequencies and zero spatial frequency [Fleet, 1988]. We now consider the discrete sampling of the output of a single filter type. 4). 2) yields the normal velocity of level contours of constant intensity, Vn = vnn, where n is the direction of the spatial intensity gradient. 3) is that the two components of the 2-d velocity v are constrained by only one linear equation. Further constraints are therefore necessary to determine both elements of v. , 1989]. 4) also follows from the assumption that I(x, t) is conserved: = o. 2). 2) and other differential constraints to yield an over-determined system of linear equations. e. if the intensity ...
Embodied perception : neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies of language, vision, and attention
Author(s): Saygın, Ayşe Pınar | Abstract: In nature, organisms not only process what is in the environment, but also continuously use the sensory information gathered in planning and acting upon the environment. Thus a theory of perception which regards it as a passive, receptive process is not likely to provide a complete picture. Instead, we can view perception as intimately related to processes and brain areas which were traditionally viewed as motor or executive in nature. I have studied the neural substrates of human perception in different modalities and at different levels of complexity. There are three main research areas represented in this dissertation: 1) The sensorimotor neural bases of language; 2) Sensory and motor areas involved in biological motion perception; 3) Representations of visual space in higher cortical areas and their response properties. First, in neuropsychological studies, I have examined the extent to which language comprehension shares processing and neural resources
Patente US7224731 - Motion estimation/compensation for screen capture video - Google Patentes
The present invention relates to motion estimation and compensation. For example, a screen capture encoder performs motion estimation that is adapted to screen capture video in various respects. For example, the motion estimation uses a distortion measure based upon the count of equal/unequal pixels in two regions, sub-samples the distortion measure to speed up motion estimation, and/or uses a search pattern that prioritizes types of motion common in screen capture video. Or, a screen capture decoder performs motion compensation that is adapted to screen capture video in various respects. For example, the decoder performs the motion compensation for pixels with different values at corresponding locations in a current frame and a reference frame, but not for all pixels of the current frame. Alternatively, an encoder/decoder performs the motion estimation/compensation to compress/decompress other kinds of content.
VLSI architecture, in particular for motion estimation applications - Patent # 6724823 - PatentGenius
A VLSI architecture adapted to be implemented in the form of a reusable IP cell and including a motion estimation engine, configured to process a cost function and identify a motion vector which minimizes the cost function, an internal memory configured to store the sets of initial candidate vectors for the blocks of a reference frame, first and second controllers to manage the motion vectors and manage an external frame memory, a reference synchronizer to align, at the input to the estimation engine, the data relevant to the reference blocks with the data relevant to candidate blocks coming from the second controller, and a control unit for timing the units included in the architecture and the external interfacing of the architecture itself.
Perception of rotation, path, and heading in circular trajectories<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Perception of rotation, path, and heading in circular trajectories. AU - Nooij, Suzanne A.E.. AU - Nesti, Alessandro. AU - Bülthoff, Heinrich H.. AU - Pretto, Paolo. PY - 2016/8/1. Y1 - 2016/8/1. N2 - When in darkness, humans can perceive the direction and magnitude of rotations and of linear translations in the horizontal plane. The current paper addresses the integrated perception of combined translational and rotational motion, as it occurs when moving along a curved trajectory. We questioned whether the perceived motion through the environment follows the predictions of a self-motion perception model (e.g., Merfeld et al. in J Vestib Res 3:141-161, 1993; Newman in A multisensory observer model for human spatial orientation perception, 2009), which assume linear addition of rotational and translational components. For curved motion in darkness, such models predict a non-veridical motion percept, consisting of an underestimation of the perceived rotation, a distortion of the ...
A high dynamic range CMOS image sensor design based on two-frame composition - IEEE Conference Publication
In this paper, we present a CMOS image sensor design with a high dynamic range. This feature is achieved by a two-frame scheme, in which an image is captur
Motion perception of large objects gets worse during infant development | EurekAlert! Science News
Humans can visually perceive the motion of a small object better than that of a large one. By contrast, according to a study reported in the journal Current Biology on September 5, babies under 6 months of age are better at seeing the movement of large objects than small objects.
Improving Motion | ERMI
Any motion loss can affect daily life. Severe motion loss significantly affects lifestyle and daily living. In this way, the emotional state of a patient suffering severe motion loss can also be affected, sometimes even redefining a sense of personal identity.. When motion loss does occur, early recognition and appropriate treatment is absolutely needed to restore normal motion and improve function and quality of life.. ERMI, Inc. is committed to advancing research in orthopaedic medicine and to understanding the effectiveness of different treatments for severe motion loss patients. Our vision is to Improve Motion, and we strive to work with clinicians, and healthcare professionals in partnership to serve patients and achieve superior outcomes. Get Motion is our call to action to work with deliberate care, focus, and importance.. We created this section on Improving Motion as a destination to help communicate and better inform visitors more about motion loss and ERMI, Inc.. ...
Motion Sensors, Inc. Announces ATEX Certified Speed Sensors with Ambient Temperature Rating up to 80C
Motion Sensors, Inc. Announces ATEX Certified Speed Sensors with Ambient Temperature Rating up to 80C - Apr 28, 2009 - Motion Sensors, Inc.
No direction home: Extinction is affected by implicit motion. - PSY
Following lesions to (usually) the right parietal lobe, patients may fail to report stimuli on their contralesional side if a stimulus is also presented ipsilesionally. The problem can be ameliorated if the stimuli form part of a common action (e.g., a bottle pouring into a glass), when the contralesional item may be brought to awareness. We examined whether this improved awareness depended on implied motion from one object to another. This was tested using pairs of stimuli in which one had implied motion towards or away from the other stimulus. The results showed that patients were more aware of the presence of two objects on trials when one object had implied motion towards the other, compared with when motion was directed away from the second object. This held when the implied motion was in the contralesional as well as when it was in the ipsilesional field. In a single case, this effect held even when the direction of motion could not be explicitly discriminated. The data suggest that motion was
Removing & Rewiring a Motion Sensor From a Light | eHow
A motion sensor module enables any lighting fixture to become an automated security light. You must disconnect a defective motion sensor module from the electrical power going to the lighting fixture, as well as from the fixture itself. Once you remove the module you can install a replacement.
29 CFR 18.33 - Motions and other papers. | US Law | LII / Legal Information Institute
a)In general. A request for an order must be made by motion. The motion must: (1) Be in writing, unless made during a hearing; (2) State with particularity the grounds for seeking the order; (3) State the relief sought; (4) Unless the relief sought has been agreed to by all parties, be accompanied by affidavits, declarations, or other evidence; and (5) If required by paragraph (c)(4) of this section, include a memorandum of points and authority supporting the movants position. (b)Form. The rules governing captions and other matters of form apply to motions and other requests. (c)Written motion before hearing. (1) A written motion before a hearing must be served with supporting papers, at least 21 days before the time specified for the hearing, with the following exceptions: (i) When the motion may be heard ex parte; (ii) When these rules or an appropriate statute, regulation, or executive order set a different time; or (iii) When an order sets a different time. (2) A written motion served ...
Patente US5645060 - Method and apparatus for removing artifact and noise from pulse oximetry - Google Patentes
Motion compensation is based on analysis of intensity signals received by detectors, without separately measuring a motion signal, without providing feedback to cancel the motion signal and without attempting to mathematically eliminate the motion signal. Instead, the present invention mathematically recognizes the presence of the motion signal and recognizes a few key characteristics of the motion signal and makes corresponding assumptions. First, it is recognized that the motion/noise in each wavelength signal is proportional. Second, it is assumed that the blood pulse signal is not affected by motion.
The comprehensive connectome of a neural substrate for ON motion detection in Drosophila. | Janelia Research Campus
Analysing computations in neural circuits often uses simplified models because the actual neuronal implementation is not known. For example, a problem in vision, how the eye detects image motion, has long been analysed using Hassenstein-Reichardt (HR) detector or Barlow-Levick (BL) models. These both simulate motion detection well, but the exact neuronal circuits undertaking these tasks remain elusive. We reconstructed a comprehensive connectome of the circuits of Drosophilas motion-sensing T4 cells using a novel EM technique. We uncover complex T4 inputs and reveal that putative excitatory inputs cluster at T4s dendrite shafts, while inhibitory inputs localize to the bases. Consistent with our previous study, we reveal that Mi1 and Tm3 cells provide most synaptic contacts onto T4. We are, however, unable to reproduce the spatial offset between these cells reported previously. Our comprehensive connectome reveals complex circuits that include candidate anatomical substrates for both HR and BL ...
Glossary of machine vision
Motion perception. MP is the process of inferring the speed and direction of objects and surfaces that move in a visual scene ... The perception of the frequency (or wavelength) of light, and can be compared to how pitch (or a musical note) is the ... Depth perception. DP is the visual ability to perceive the world in three dimensions. It is a trait common to many higher ... Depth perception allows the beholder to accurately gauge the distance to an object. Diaphragm. In optics, a diaphragm is a thin ...
List of fictional astronauts (modern period, works released 2010-2029)
Josh Tanner (Director/Co-Writer) (2021). Decommissioned (Motion picture). Perception Pictures. Retrieved January 22, 2021. ... David F. Jacobson, Andrew McGee (Directors) (2018). Can She See Us, Daddy? (Motion picture). Retrieved July 2, 2018. Wilson-Max ... Nikhil Allug (Writer/Director) (2011). Nothingness (Motion picture). Retrieved May 9, 2017. Orrantia, J. G.; Kaz (July 29, 2011 ... ISBN 978-1-5011-2715-1. Jonathan Gribbin (Director/Co-Writer) (2012). Blast Off (Motion picture). Retrieved May 9, 2017. ...
List of films with live action and animation
All about Perception! Motion Award recipient". Motionographer.com. Retrieved October 15, 2020. Gelmini, David (March 19, 2020 ... Biollante (stop motion and animated sequences) (deleted scenes) 1990 - Army of Darkness (stop motion skeletons) 1990 - Gremlins ... "Main on End Title Sequence for Spider-Man: Homecoming / Marvel Studios Made at Perception NYC". Behance.net. Retrieved October ... Gigan (animated sequences) 1972 - The Enchanted World of Danny Kaye: The Emperor's New Clothes (live action with stop motion ...
List of fictional astronauts (Project Mercury era)
Josh Tanner (Director/Co-Writer) (2013). The Landing (Motion picture). Perception Pictures. Retrieved September 16, 2016. Spiga ... J. Van Auken (Writer/Director) (2011). The Last Cosmonaut (Motion picture) (in Russian and English). Retrieved June 16, 2015. ... Robert Asher (Director) (1960). The Bulldog Breed (Motion picture). Retrieved February 3, 2021. Scheib, Richard. "The Bulldog ... ISBN 978-1-61937-146-0. John Merizalde (Director) (2012). Waltz for One (Motion picture). Intellectual Propaganda. Retrieved ...
Visual processing abnormalities in schizophrenia
Inhibition of motion perception by the addition of a surround stimulus has also been examined in schizophrenia, with one group ... Motion perception is an important visual function and occurs from the earliest stages of cortical visual processing, with ... Chen, Y., Palafox, G. P., Nakayama, K., Levy, D. L., Matthysse, S., & Holzman, P. S. (1999). "Motion perception in ... There is evidence that schizophrenia affects perception of contrast and motion, control of eye movements, detection of visual ...
Neurodevelopmental framework for learning
Blake, R.; Shiffrar, M. (2007). "Perception of Human Motion". Annual Review of Psychology. 58 (47): 47-73. doi:10.1146/annurev. ... Blake, R.; Shiffrar, M. (2007). "Perception of Human Motion". Annual Review of Psychology. 58 (47): 47-73. doi:10.1146/annurev. ...
He noted that this was a perception of motion absent any moving object. That is, it was pure phenomenal motion. He dubbed it ... Kolers, Paul A. (1972). Aspects of Motion Perception: International Series of Monographs in Experimental Psychology. New York: ... Such an intelligent perception is opposed to the naïve perception that is based exclusively on direct percepts and is therefore ... ISBN 978-0-13-320714-9. Kolers, Paul A. (1972). Aspects of Motion Perception. International Series of Monographs in ...
Lawson, B. D., & Riecke, B. E. (2014). The Perception of Body Motion. Handbook of Virtual Environments, CRC Press, 163-196. ... the motion disorientation is often called motion sickness (or seasickness, car sickness, simulation sickness, or airsickness). ... These otoconia add to the weight and inertia of the membrane and enhance the sense of gravity and motion. With the head erect, ... When the vestibular system is stimulated without any other inputs, one experiences a sense of self-motion. For example, a ...
The perception of motion pictures. In M. P. Friedman & E. C. Carterette (Eds.), Cognitive ecology: Handbook of perception and ... The perception of motion pictures. In M. P. Friedman & E. C. Carterette (Eds.), Cognitive ecology: Handbook of perception and ... Perception, 4, 97-10. doi:10.1068/p040097 Magliano, J. P., & Zacks, J. M. (2011). The impact of continuity editing in narrative ...
2-5. ISBN 978-0-8385-2670-5. G. Johansson (1973). "Visual perception of biological motion and a model for its analysis". ... Motion parallax relies head and body movement to produce the necessary viewpoints. The visual system can detect motion both ... Sekuler, Robert; Sekuler, Allison B.; Lau, Renee (1997). "Sound alters visual motion perception". Nature. 385 (6614): 308. ... Perception of space and motion. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 5-7. ISBN 978-0080538617.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list ( ...
Two-alternative forced choice
In a different application, the 2AFC is designed to test discrimination of motion perception. The random dot motion coherence ... Shadlen, M. N.; W. T. Newsome (1996-01-23). "Motion Perception: Seeing and Deciding". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... In most experiments, the participant must make a choice response between two directions of motion (e.g. up or down), usually ... The percentage of dots moving together in a given direction determines the coherence of motion towards the direction. ...
Flash lag illusion
Rao, Rajesh P. N.; Eagleman, David M.; Sejnowski, Terrence J. (June 2001). "Optimal Smoothing in Visual Motion Perception". ... The motion extrapolation hypothesis asserts that the visual system will take care of such delays by extrapolating the position ... Eagleman & Sejnowski found that the perception attributed to the time of the flash depends on events in the next ~80 ms after ... In backward masking, a stimulus followed in rapid succession by a second stimulus can block or modify the perception of the ...
Corollary discharge theory
Heeger D (2006). "Perception Lecture Notes: Visual Motion Perception". Department of Psychology, New York University. Retrieved ... The corollary discharge theory (CD) of motion perception helps understand how the mind can detect motion through the visual ... If the two signals cancel then no motion is perceived, but if they do not cancel then the residual signal is perceived as ... ISBN 978-0-470-65071-4. Stark L, Bridgeman B (October 1983). "Role of corollary discharge in space constancy". Perception & ...
Tatler, B. W.; Trościanko, T (2002). "A rare glimpse of the eye in motion" (PDF). Perception. 31 (11): 1403-1406. doi:10.1068/ ... A saccade is a fast eye motion, and because it is a motion that is optimised for speed, there is inevitable blurring of the ... The eyes can never be observed in motion, yet an external observer clearly sees the motion of the eyes. The phenomenon is often ... and subsequent motion blur of the image) nor the gap in visual perception is noticeable to the viewer. The phenomenon was first ...
Gepshtein, S.; Kubovy, M. (2007). "The lawful perception of apparent motion". Journal of Vision. 7 (8): 9. doi:10.1167/7.8.9. ... Kolers, Paul A. (1972). Aspects of Motion Perception: International Series of Monographs in Experimental Psychology. Oxford: ... In psychophysics, Korte's third law of apparent motion is an observation relating the phenomenon of apparent motion to the ... Korte's law also involves a constancy of velocity through apparent motion and it is said that data do not support it. ...
Hubbard, T. L.; Bharucha, J. J. (1988). "Judged displacement in apparent vertical and horizontal motion". Perception & ... Moreover, the overall pattern of the motion is anticipated, so that when shown an oscillatory motion, like a pendulum, the ... Implied events show a series of pictures that suggest a motion, but at a slow frame rate so there is no apparent motion. Smooth ... "Representational momentum and event course anticipation in the perception of implied periodical motions". Journal of ...
Multiple drafts model
Rizzo, M.; Nawrot, M.; Zihl, J. (1995). "Motion and shape perception in cerebral akinetopsia". Brain. 118 (5): 1105-1127. doi: ... an fMRI study of transparent motion perception". NeuroImage. 16 (4): 843-56. doi:10.1006/nimg.2002.1085. PMID 12202074. ... In other words, once we've explained a perception fully in terms of how it affects us, there is nothing left to explain. In ... Muckli, L.; Singer, W.; Zanella, F.E.; Goebel, R. (Aug 2002). "Integration of multiple motion vectors over space: ...
Structural rules of motion and space perception (1911-1914)". Zeitschrift für Psychologie mit Zeitschrift für Angewandte ... Further studies of motion perception (1929-1933)". Zeitschrift für Psychologie mit Zeitschrift für Angewandte Psychologie. 196 ... Initial studies of motion perception (1910-1912)". Zeitschrift für Psychologie mit Zeitschrift für Angewandte Psychologie. 195 ... According to Gestalt psychology, perception is a whole. In this sense, perception can shape vision and the other senses.[ ...
"Brain areas involved in perception of biological motion". Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 12 (5): 711-20. doi:10.1162/ ...
Kuang, S.; Zhang, T. (2014). "Smelling directions: Olfaction modulates ambiguous visual motion perception". Scientific Reports ... Multimodal perception is how animals form coherent, valid, and robust perception by processing sensory stimuli from various ... Perception is often defined as one's conscious experience, and thereby combines inputs from all relevant senses and prior ... Perception is also defined and studied in terms of feature extraction, which is several hundred milliseconds away from ...
Vertigo refers to the inappropriate perception of motion. This is due to dysfunction of the vestibular system. One common type ... Ménière's disease, labyrinthitis, strokes, and other infective and congenital diseases may also result in the perception of ...
Feature detection (nervous system)
doi:10.1016/S0003-3472(85)80116-0. Ewert JP (2004). "Motion perception shapes the visual world of amphibians". In Prete FR (ed ... Sensation and Perception. p.85. Fifth Edition. John Wiley & Sons Inc. Hubel, D.H; Wiesel, T.N. (1962). "Receptive fields ... Based on Schiffman's Sensation and Perception (2001), the existence of specific and unique cortical cells for detecting ... began to expand the feature detection hypothesis and clarify the relationship between single neurons and sensory perception. In ...
Adelson E, Bergen J (1985). "Spatiotemporal energy models for the perception of motion". Journal of the Optical Society of ... Wiesel, David H.; Hubel, Torsten N. (2005). Brain and visual perception : the story of a 25-year collaboration ([Online-Ausg ...
Sekuler, Robert (1996). "Motion Perception: A Modern View of Wertheimer's 1912 Monograph". Perception. 25 (10): 1243-1258. doi: ... "omega motion," "afterimage motion," and "shadow motion." As apparent phi movement is perceived by human's visual system with ... Color phi phenomenon Motion perception Beta movement and Phi phenomenon. Vebjørn Ekroll, Franz Faul, Jürgen Golz: ... "Multiplicative nonlinearity in the perception of apparent motion". Vision Research. 44 (17): 2001-2007. doi:10.1016/j.visres. ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Durgin, Frank H. (2002). "The Tinkerbell Effect: Motion Perception and Illusion" (PDF ... Motion Perception and Illusion". He questions the common belief that visual consciousness is a direct translation of the ... He relates his argument about the indirectness in motion perception to how, in the play version of Peter Pan, Tinkerbell's ... Durgin applies this expression to the study of human motion detection and perception in his paper "The Tinkerbell Effect: ...
Psychology of film
Hillstrom, Anne P.; Yantis, Steven (1 July 1994). "Visual motion and attentional capture". Perception & Psychophysics. 55 (4): ... Motion is the optical change created by moving objects, people, and shadows; movement is that change created by camera motion ... the film industry has capitalized on the results of previous psychological research that shows motion and the onset of motion ... the perception of event boundaries is a side effect of prediction during ongoing perception. Prediction is an adaptive ...
Gustav Adolf Wohlgemuth
Wade, N. J., Thompson, P., & Morgan, M. (2014). "The after-effect of Adolf Wohlgemuth's seen motion" (PDF). Perception. 43: 229 ... of the motion aftereffect]"(p. 229). Wohlgemuth then worked on memory and imagery, corresponding with Bertrand Russell. In 1923 ... conducting research into visual perception, memory, and imagery. Wolgemuth was born on 1 November 1868, in Berlin, North German ...
Gunnar Johansson (psychophysicist)
He was interested in the Gestalt laws of motion perception in vision. He is best known for his investigations of biological ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) G. Johansson (1973). "Visual perception of biological motion and a model for its ... G. Johansson (1976). "Spatio-temporal differentiation and integration in visual motion perception". Percept. Res. 38: 379-393. ... Johansson received his Ph.D. from the Stockholm University College in 1950, on the thesis Configurations in event perception. ...
Cognitive map Motion perception Darwin, Charles (24 April 1873). "Origin of Certain Instincts". Nature. 7 (179): 417-418. doi: ...
Stocker, Alan A. (2006). Analog VLSI circuits for the perception of visual motion. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN ... While the optical flow field is superficially similar to a dense motion field derived from the techniques of motion estimation ... motion compensated encoding, and stereo disparity measurement. Sequences of ordered images allow the estimation of motion as ... primarily where there is a need to measure visual motion or relative motion between the robot and other objects in the vicinity ...
Current models of perception have suggested that the brain performs some form of Bayesian inference and integration of ... Weiss, Yair; Simoncelli, Eero P.; Adelson, Edward H. (20 May 2002). "Motion illusions as optimal percepts". Nature Neuroscience ... different sensory information in generating our perception of the physical world. ... processing is divided among a biophysical modelling of different subsystems and a more theoretical modelling of perception. ...
... range of motion, and self-reported function in patients with mechanical neck pain: a systematic review". J Orthop Sports Phys ... the perception of chiropractors is generally favourable; two-thirds of American adults agree that chiropractors have their ... which is a sudden force that causes an audible release and attempts to increase a joint's range of motion. High-velocity, ... "a lesion or dysfunction in a joint or motion segment in which alignment, movement integrity and/or physiological function are ...
The motion of dowsing rods is now generally attributed to the ideomotor effect. ... This would make the dowsing rod susceptible to the diviner's subconscious knowledge or perception; but also to confirmation ...
Computer graphics (computer science)
Animation: ways to represent and manipulate motion. *Rendering: algorithms to reproduce light transport ...
... non-motion and motion. In Jainism, a Jiva is either samsari (mundane, caught in cycle of rebirths) or mukta (liberated).[48 ... perception, thinking, etc. Depending on the philosophical system, a soul can either be mortal or immortal. ... In regards to artifacts, the source of motion that is required for their full actualization is outside of themselves (for ... extrasensory perception, out-of-body experiences, etc.). However, the soul is not the highest, but a middle dimension of human ...
Occupational health psychology
... repetitive motion) although such factors are important contributors. There has been evidence that psychosocial workplace ... A prospective study of work perceptions and psychosocial factors affecting the report of back injury. Spine, 16(1), 1-6. ...
... said that this was done using the same argument as with perpetual motion machines: that they do not work. Patent ... The film might have affected the public perception of cold fusion, pushing it further into the science fiction realm. ...
In areas of video with more motion, the compression must encode more data to keep up with the larger number of pixels that are ... irrelevant to the human visual perception by exploiting perceptual features of human vision. For example, small differences in ... except for the use of wavelet coding as still-image coders without motion compensation). Interest in fractal compression seems ... through difference coding with motion compensation). Similarities can be encoded by only storing differences between e.g. ...
The will is "the primary mover of all the powers of the soul ... and it is also the efficient cause of motion in the body."[144 ... One contribution is randomness. While it is established that that randomness is not the only factor in the perception of ... E. Bruce Goldstein (2010). Sensation and Perception (12th ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 39. ISBN 0495601497.. ... It is also likely that the associative relationship between level of choice and perception of free will is influentially ...
They found that music therapy was effective in altering perceptions in the midst of adversity, was a strong component of ... range of motion, strength, laterality and directional.[self-published source?] Music can both motivate and provide a sense ... while also reducing pain perception for the infant. The Gato Box is a small rectangular instrument that stimulates a prenatal ... that can monitor cortical activity offers a look at how music engages and produces changes in the brain during the perception ...
Many discounts are designed to give consumers the perception of saving money when buying products, but not all discounted ... Electroluminescent: Solar-powered, animated light in motion.. *Kids eat free specials: Offers a discount on the total dining ... "Distortion Of Price Discount Perceptions: The Right Digit Effect" (PDF). Journal of Consumer Research. 34 (2): 162-173. doi ...
... to desires as well as to perceptions. "When an external object is perceived, consciousness is also conscious of itself, ...
"Senate steers clear of motion on Jaruvan". The Nation. 11 October 2005. Archived from the original on 28 August 2006. Retrieved ... This accomplishment was all the more remarkable given Bhumibol's lack of binocular depth perception. On 19 April 1966, Bhumibol ...
No light perception : is considered total visual impairment, or total blindness. Blindness is defined by the World Health ... It is usually swung in a low sweeping motion, across the intended path of travel, to detect obstacles. However, techniques for ... The rest have some vision, from light perception alone to relatively good acuity. Low vision is sometimes used to describe ... Approximately fifteen percent of those deemed legally blind, by any measure, have no light or form perception. ...
Death of Caylee Anthony
There was a gender gap in perceptions to the case. According to a USA Today/Gallup Poll of 1,010 respondents, about two-thirds ... "Motion To Determine Competency To Proceed" (PDF). June 25, 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 6, 2011. Retrieved ... The motion states the defense received a privileged communication from their client which caused them to believe "...Ms. ... the judge temporarily halted proceedings when the defense filed a motion to determine if Anthony was competent to proceed with ...
Live in Pittsburgh 1970
Perception · The Very Best of The Doors · The Future Starts Here: The Essential Doors Hits · The Platinum Collection · The ... Doors: Vinyl Box Set · When You're Strange: Music from the Motion Picture · A Collection. ...
French National Assembly : Motion for a Resolution on Lobbying (21 November 2006) Archived March 25, 2009, at the Wayback ... Nevertheless, a recent parliamentary initiative (motion for a resolution) has been launched by several MPs so as to establish a ...
Neuroscience of music
The parietal lobe also deals with orientation, recognition, and perception. Tonality. Tonality describes the ... Chen, R; Hallett, M (1998). "Focal dystonia and repetitive motion disorders". Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research (351 ... Snyder and Large (2005) performed a study examining rhythm perception in human subjects, finding that activity in the gamma ... Rhythm, the pattern of temporal intervals within a musical measure or phrase, in turn creates the perception of stronger and ...
He states that, "all varieties of perception-indeed all varieties of thought or mental activity-are accomplished in the brain ... Dennett sees a danger in machines performing an ever-increasing proportion of basic tasks in perception, memory, and ...
An eccentric contraction is the motion of an active muscle while it is lengthening under load. Eccentric training is ... It can lead to the perception of "less effort" even though dealing with higher force. ... The amount of oxygen consumption was measured during the motion of pedaling forward as positive work and pedaling with ... In controlled release reversals of such concentric motions, the eccentric movement stretches the muscle with opposing force ...
East End of London
Outside perception. Society at large viewed the East End with a mixture of suspicion and fascination, with the use of the ... Kibria, Nazli (1996). Muslims in Motion: Islam and National Identity in the Bangladeshi Diaspora. Rutgers University Press. p. ... the western urban expansion of London must have helped shape the different economic character of the two parts and perceptions ...
James Clerk Maxwell
II: The Doors of Perception". A Beautiful Question: Finding Nature's Deep Design. Allen Lane. pp. 117-164. ISBN 978-0-718-19946 ... "Early day motion 2048". UK Parliament. Archived from the original on 30 May 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2013.. ... The nature and perception of colour was one such interest which he had begun at the University of Edinburgh while he was a ... "On the stability of the motion of Saturn's rings". Archived from the original on 16 June 2015. Retrieved 24 March 2014.. ...
Talk:Artificial consciousness/NPOV Version/discuss
The visual cues that it gives, in addition to its rumbling and motion, make one behave in a way that is consistent with ... or will it just remain a human perception as to whether they are or not? The less like us that they are the more difficult it ...
History of CP/CMS
This also would have clouded perceptions of authorship.. *Anti-timesharing decisions: "During 1961 and 1962 time-sharing [ ... It is ironic that, by 1970-71, other forces within IBM "set in motion an effort to create the Future System (FS) [project with ... If there was a perception at MIT that MIT funds went into CP/CMS, it may have come from these complicated transactions. Of ...
... non-motion and motion. In Jainism, a Jiva is either samsari (mundane, caught in cycle of rebirths) or mukta (liberated).[62 ... extrasensory perception, out-of-body experiences, etc.). However, the soul is not the highest, but a middle dimension of human ... In regards to artifacts, the source of motion that is required for their full actualization is outside of themselves (for ... which comprises temporal desires and perceptions necessary for living. ...
Culture of Canada
A number of Canadian pioneers in early Hollywood significantly contributed to the creation of the motion picture industry in ... The United States is home to a number of perceptions about Canadian culture, due to the countries' partially shared heritage ... and the perceptions that arise from this oft-held contrast have gone to shape the advertised worldwide identities of both ...
Always in motion like a triangle representing active passive reconcile or positive negative neutral188.8.131.52 (talk) 23: ... Considerations about the causal theory of perception persuade him to place the percept into the percipients brain. And the ... Perceptual contact with external objects becomes as indirect and as inferential as in the representative theories of perception ... visual perception of color); it doesn't show that whatever contains these intramental processes is nonphysical. ...
Anesthesiology focuses on perception of pain, and pharmacologic alteration of consciousness. Neuropathology focuses upon the ... HHMI Neuroscience lecture series - Making Your Mind: Molecules, Motion, and Memory. *Société des Neurosciences ... perception, and consciousness has been described by Eric Kandel as the "ultimate challenge" of the biological sciences. ...
... which can be reduced to successively more sparse and more fundamental types of motion. The levels of structure that operate in ... 8.6.6 Perception-based. *8.6.7 History-based. *8.6.8 Science-based ...
In Heil's air motion transducer, current through the membrane 2 causes it to move left and right in magnetic field 6, moving ... involving subjective perceptions of timbre and sound quality and a science, involving measurements and experiments. ... Oskar Heil invented the air motion transducer in the 1960s. In this approach, a pleated diaphragm is mounted in a magnetic ... The ideal material would 1) be rigid, to prevent uncontrolled cone motions; 2) have low mass, to minimize starting force ...
Default perception of high-speed motion | PNAS
Default perception of high-speed motion. Mark Wexler, Andrew Glennerster, Patrick Cavanagh, Hiroyuki Ito, and Takeharu Seno. * ... Motion extrapolation in the High-Phi illusion: Analogous but dissociable effects on perceived position and perceived motion ... Correction for Wexler et al., Default perception of high-speed motion - July 01, 2015 ... Dissociating Higher and Lower Order Visual Motion Systems by Priming Illusory Apparent Motion ...
Unifying account of visual motion and position perception | PNAS
This motion system is the integration locus of motion signals derived from low-level motion systems with position signals for ... That is because the rotating pattern motion is the only physical motion stimulus, and thus solely determines the object motion ... motions. in. the. world. x. t. =. x. t. -. 1. +. Δ. t. ⋅. v. t. -. 1. o. b. j. Observation model. y. t. x. =. x. t. +. η. x. Ω ... is important for the perception of motion stimuli that do not activate low-level motion detectors. Thus, IPL may be critical ...
Noitom Takes Its Perception Neuron Motion Capture System to IBC 2016
Noitom will be showcasing its Perception Neuron motion capture technology to international media and ... Noitom will be showcasing its Perception Neuron motion capture technology to international media and entertainment ... Perception Neuron and iClone software/hardware packages are already available on neuronmocap.com starting at $1490 and can be ... Perception Neuron will be presenting at the IBC Future Zone, Stand 8.G03h, during the exhibition portion of IBC 2016, September ...
Impaired Perception of Facial Motion in Autism Spectrum Disorder
These results point to a deficit in facial biological motion processing in people with autism, which we suggest is linked to ... Participants completed increasingly difficult tasks involving the discrimination of (1) sequences of facial motion, (2) the ... Facial motion is a special type of biological motion that transmits cues for socio-emotional communication and enables the ... identity of individuals based on their facial motion and (3) the gender of individuals. Stimuli were presented in both upright ...
Motion perception - Wikipedia
The problem of motion estimation generalizes to binocular vision when we consider occlusion or motion perception at relatively ... Motion perception is studied by many disciplines, including psychology (i.e. visual perception), neurology, neurophysiology, ... PMID 2723744.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Baker, Hess, Zihl (1991). "Residual motion perception in a "motion- ... Interactive Reichardt Detector Video demonstrating second-order motion perception Visual Motion Analysis Visual Neuroscience, ...
Biological motion perception - Wikipedia
Biological motion perception is the act of perceiving the fluid unique motion of a biological agent. The phenomenon was first ... Old models of biological motion perception are concerned with tracking joint and limb motion relative to one another over time ... The following models have shown that both form and motion are important components of biological motion perception. However, to ... However, recent experiments in biological motion perception have suggested that motion information is unimportant for action ...
Motion perception of large objects gets worse during infant development | EurekAlert! Science News
Humans can visually perceive the motion of a small object better than that of a large one. By contrast, according to a study ... Motion perception of large objects gets worse during infant development. Chuo University ... "Younger infants results, we found, are similar to the characteristics of older peoples motion perception," says So Kanazawa, ... "Younger babies may fail to see an objects motion when surrounded by irrelevant motion," says Nakashima. "We may acquire a ...
Project PERCEPTION NEURON: Motion Capture, VR and VFX by Team PERCEPTION / NEURON - Kickstarter
Motion Capture, VR and VFX on Kickstarter! Project PERCEPTION NEURON brings you an adaptive and affordable Motion Capture ... NEURON is raising funds for Project PERCEPTION NEURON: ... Project PERCEPTION NEURON: Motion Capture, VR and VFX Beijing, ... Project PERCEPTION NEURON brings you an adaptive and affordable Motion Capture System by using one of the worlds smallest IMU ... Big fat thanks: List your name on PERCEPTION NEURON homepage and get a PERCEPTION NEURON limited T-Shirt ...
Enhanced Visual Motion Perception in Major Depressive Disorder | Journal of Neuroscience
Enhanced Visual Motion Perception in Major Depressive Disorder. Julie D. Golomb, Jenika R. B. McDavitt, Barbara M. Ruf, Jason I ... Enhanced Visual Motion Perception in Major Depressive Disorder. Julie D. Golomb, Jenika R. B. McDavitt, Barbara M. Ruf, Jason I ... Enhanced Visual Motion Perception in Major Depressive Disorder. Julie D. Golomb, Jenika R. B. McDavitt, Barbara M. Ruf, Jason I ... Enhanced Visual Motion Perception in Major Depressive Disorder Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
Grammar can influence the perception of motion events | Max Planck Society
... the grammar of our native language may influence the way we perceive motion events. ... On the Road to Somewhere: Brain Potentials Reflect Language Effects on Motion Event Perception ... For example, given a motion event, the grammar of English draws attention to the trajectory and endpoint of the motion event ... Our work offers one of the clearest demonstrations yet that linguistic relativity extends to the domain of non-verbal motion ...
Propagating Cortical Waves May Underlie Illusory Motion Perception | Journal of Neuroscience
1999) The peripheral drift illusion: a motion illusion in the visual periphery. Perception 28:617-621, doi:10.1068/p2825, pmid: ... Propagating Cortical Waves May Underlie Illusory Motion Perception. Felix Bacigalupo, Zachary W. Davis, Jaime Napan, Ashley ... Propagating Cortical Waves May Underlie Illusory Motion Perception. Felix Bacigalupo, Zachary W. Davis, Jaime Napan, Ashley ... 2011) Neural correlates of illusory motion perception in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:9685-9690, doi:10.1073/pnas. ...
Frontiers | Neural Correlates of Conscious Motion Perception | Human Neuroscience
Our results extend the role of P3b as a content independent NCC to conscious visual motion perception. ... Here we explored the visual NCCs isolating local motion, a dorsally processed feature, as the primary feature being consciously ... Here we explored the visual NCCs isolating local motion, a dorsally processed feature, as the primary feature being consciously ... The nature of the proper neural signature of conscious perception remains a topic of active debate. Theoretical support from ...
Comparing biological motion perception in two distinct human societies
... PLoS One. 2011;6(12):e28391. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone. ... We employed standard biological motion perception tasks inspired by over 30 years of laboratory research, in which observers ... We conclude that the effortless, veridical perception of PL biological motion is a spontaneous and universal perceptual ability ... namely the perception of biological motion. In this report, we present details of studies carried out with the help of ...
Effect of pitch-space correspondence on sound-induced visual motion perception | SpringerLink
Hidaka, S., Teramoto, W., Keetels, M. et al. Effect of pitch-space correspondence on sound-induced visual motion perception. ... Auditory motion information drives visual motion perception. PLoS ONE 6:e17499 ... Effect of pitch-space correspondence on sound-induced visual motion perception. *Souta Hidaka. 1. , ... Teramoto W, Manaka Y, Hidaka S, Sugita Y, Miyauchi R, Sakamoto S, Gyoba J, Iwaya Y, Suzuki Y (2010b) Visual motion perception ...
P-curve analysis for neural correlates of BM motion perception in infancy: disclosure table - Google Sheets
P-curve analysis for neural correlates of BM motion perception in infancy: disclosure table ... has been indicated as playing a strong role in the perception of biological motion, with more activation in the right ... We hypothesized that the perception of biological motion would manifest itself in an increase in amplitude at posterior scalp ... Based on previous research (e.g. Hirai and Hiraki, 2005), we hypothesized that the perception of biological facets of the ...
Genes contribute to biological motion perception and its covariation with autistic traits | EurekAlert! Science News
... a behavioral genetic study to find out the sources underlying the individual differences in biological motion perception. ... Genes contribute to biological motion perception and its covariation with autistic traits. Chinese Academy of Sciences ... What are the sources underlying the individual differences in biological motion perception? What accounts for its covariation ... Genes contribute to biological motion perception and its covariation with autistic traits ...
Perception Neuron's Virtual Reality Motion Capture System Sails past its $250,000 Kickstarter Goal and announces Stretch Goals
Perception Neuron, the worlds smallest, adaptive and versatile wireless full-body motion capture system for ... Perception Neuron, the worlds smallest, adaptive and versatile wireless full-body motion capture system for virtual reality, ... At this mark, all the Perception Neuron hubs will be equipped with a local SD storage card hub allowing users to perform motion ... Perception Neuron has also been selected as a Kickstarter Staff Pick and placed in first position in the technology category on ...
Three Patterns of Motion Which Change the Perception of Emotional Faces
... a Parabolic motion, a Translational motion and a Wave-like motion). Hypotheses are that the wave-like motion will increase ... Otherwise, the parabolic motion is hypothesized to increase perceived intensities and arousal related to negative emotional ... Relying on studies in Behavioral Neurology and Social Psychology, it is believed motion is one of the core components of ... which are presented displaying patterns of motion (i.e., ... of the study was to focus on the relationship between motion ...
From bodily motions to bodily intentions: the perception of bodil...: Ingenta Connect
This paper argues that ones perception of another persons bodily activity is not the perception of the mere flexing and ... These conditions generalize to adult perception as well. Second, changing methodologies, the paper presents a first person ... to begin to imitate and assimilate the behavior of other adults and argues that these conditions include the perception of ... phenomenology of watching another person act which demonstrates that ones own perception is of intentions. The ...
Visual perception of biological motion and a model for its analysis | SpringerLink
Such motion patterns in animals and men are termed... ... phase of a research program on visual perception of motion ... Motion Pattern Motion Perception Vector Analysis Biological Motion Human Walking These keywords were added by machine and not ... Johansson, G. Motion perception. A model for visual motion and space perception from changing proximal stimulation. Report No. ... Visual perception of motion in depth Application of a vector model to three-dot motion patterns. Perception & Psychophysics, ...
Motion perception and personality, I
... Johansson, G. University of Stockholm.. Dureman, Ingmar Uppsala University, Disciplinary ... Experiments in the field of motion perception had indicated that there were good reasons for assuming a correlation between an ... analytical or isolating attitude in perception and a tendency to social isolation. The hypothesis advanced was: Those Ss who ...
Biological Motion Perception Is Affected by Age and Cognitive Style in Children Aged 8-15
... motion perception and shows that children with different cognitive styles may present different biological motion perception. ... We examined developmental changes of biological motion perception among 141 school children aged 8-15 using point-light ... Furthermore, accuracy of action perception increased significantly from 46.4% (SD = 16.1) in monadic to 62.5% (SD = 11.5) in ... Results showed that the age and empathizing ability strongly predicted improvement in action perception in both contexts. ...
Motion perception in early glaucoma | IOVS | ARVO Journals
Motion perception in early glaucoma Anna Francoz; Alessandro Carlini; Catherine Creuzot-Garcher; Patrick Quercia; Thierry Pozzo ... Motion perception in early glaucoma You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or cited in the ... Anna Francoz, Alessandro Carlini, Catherine Creuzot-Garcher, Patrick Quercia, Thierry Pozzo, Alain Bron; Motion perception in ... Two different laws of motion were displayed: a "biological" motion corresponding to the recording of an arm pointing movement, ...
motion perception and neurotransmitters | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
In this study, we examined the mechanisms underlying interindividual variability in the perception of visual motion, one of the ... Individual differences in visual motion perception and neurotransmitter concentrations in the human brain. Tatsuto Takeuchi, ... Individual differences in visual motion perception and neurotransmitter concentrations in the human brain ... Individual differences in visual motion perception and neurotransmitter concentrations in the human brain. ...
Frontiers | Tactile input and empathy modulate the perception of ambiguous biological motion | Psychology
Taken together, our findings showed that task-irrelevant tactile input can resolve the otherwise ambiguous perception of the ... we gave taps on their ankles and presented the PLWs with motion directions of approaching (facing toward observer)/receding ( ... we gave taps on their ankles and presented the PLWs with motion directions of approaching (facing towards observer)/receding ( ... events systematically biases the directional perception for upright PLWs, making either leftwards or rightwards more dominant. ...
Perception of heading during rotation: sufficiency of dense motion parallax and reference objects
How do observers perceive the path of self-motion during rotation? Previous research suggests that extra-retinal information ... Perception of heading during rotation: sufficiency of dense motion parallax and reference objects Vision Res. 2000;40(28):3873- ... We propose that the visual system determines instantaneous heading from the first-order motion parallax field, and recovers the ... How do observers perceive the path of self-motion during rotation? Previous research suggests that extra-retinal information ...
A Rotational Motion Perception Neural Network Based on Asymmetric Spatiotemporal Visual Information Processing - IEEE Journals ...
Self-motion and the perception of stationary objects - Cogprints
Self-motion and the perception of stationary objects. (deposited 02 Sep 2000) [Currently Displayed]* Self-motion and the ... Visual perception of biological motion and a model for its analysis. Perception and Psychophysics, 14:210-211, 1973. ... Motion parallax as an independent cue for depth perception. Perception, 8(2):125-134, 1979. ... Perception of three-dimensional shape from ego- and object-motion: comparison between small- and large-field stimuli. Vision ...
Motion and display effects on perception of multiple coronary stents | (2009) | Zhang | Publications | Spie
Motion and display effects on perception of multiple coronary stents Author(s): Sheng Zhang; Craig K. Abbey; Arian Teymoorian; ... Medical Imaging 2009: Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment. Berkman Sahiner; David J. Manning, ... SPIE 7263, Medical Imaging 2009: Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment, 726306 (12 March 2009); doi ... and stent motion during the cardiac cycle. In this work, we extend our previous work by investigating wider range of conditions ...
Reciprocal Interactions between Motion and Form Perception.
... in a simple motion sequence biases an observer to perceive a particular motion field, say M. In the reverse direction, the ... Such units might constitute part of a mechanism for signalling subjective occluding contours based on motion-field ... motion end-stopped units in the primate visual system. ... with those subserving the perception of visual motion ( ... imposition of the same motion field M on the original sequence leads the observer to perceive illusory static figural elements ...
NeuronStimuliCuesStimulusPerceptualBiological motion perceptionSpatialAbstractBiasesNonbiological motionsMechanismsPerceptsIllusoryPathwayTemporalStimulationMovementsPsychophysicalParticipantsDynamic PerceptionTactile motion perceptionHumansDetectionPatternsPsychologyCoherentRetinaInduceDepth perceptionSubjectsHypothesisEvent PerceptionPerceive motionEndpoint of motion eventsPhysiologyIllusionObserversApparentCapture2020Ambiguous perceptionSensoryDorsalParallaxCognitiveVeridicalJohanssonOptic flowHumanSensitivityDeficitsFindingsTrajectory and endpointAspects of motion perceptionSignalsMovement perceptionFormAffectsGestaltSelf-motionAlgorithmsSubjectiveRetinalModulate
- The new plugin, developed specifically for iClone, allows users to capture two simultaneous actor performances using Perception Neuron. (prweb.com)
- Noitom will be showcasing its Perception Neuron motion capture technology to international media and entertainment professionals in IBC's Future Zone when it marks its first appearance at Europe's largest professional broadcast show, taking place September 8-13 at the Amsterdam RAI Exhibition and Convention Centre. (prweb.com)
- This new plugin, developed specifically for iClone, allows users to capture two simultaneous actor performances using Perception Neuron and inject it directly into the software's 3D pipeline. (prweb.com)
- We are gratified to launch this new capability for our customers and showcase the partnership between our company and Reallusion," says Haoyang Liu, CEO of Noitom, the makers of Perception Neuron. (prweb.com)
- Perception Neuron and iClone software/hardware packages are already available on neuronmocap.com starting at $1490 and can be shipped to most of Europe within 14 days. (prweb.com)
- Perception Neuron will be presenting at the IBC Future Zone, Stand 8.G03h, during the exhibition portion of IBC 2016, September 9-13. (prweb.com)
- To learn more about Perception Neuron, please visit neuronmocap.com. (prweb.com)
- This means that a variety of contours of different orientations moving at different speeds can cause identical responses in a motion sensitive neuron in the visual system. (wikipedia.org)
- Project PERCEPTION NEURON brings you an adaptive and affordable Motion Capture System by using one of the world's smallest IMU. (kickstarter.com)
- Perception Neuron , the world's smallest, adaptive and versatile wireless full-body motion capture system for virtual reality, motion capture and visual effects is proud to announce that it has surpassed its Kickstarter fundraising goal of $250,000 with over 800 backers. (prweb.com)
- Perception Neuron has also been selected as a Kickstarter Staff Pick and placed in first position in the technology category on both Kicktraq.com and Kickspy.com. (prweb.com)
- The first thing we want to do is thank all of our backers," exclaims Dr. Tristan Dai, Developer of Perception Neuron and co-founder of the company. (prweb.com)
- At this mark, all the Perception Neuron hubs will be equipped with a local SD storage card hub allowing users to perform motion capture independent of a live computer connection. (prweb.com)
- The Perception Neuron Kickstarter campaign ends on September 12, 2014. (prweb.com)
- BOTVIEWS is a "good for nothing robot podcast" making its way from Venice Beach, CA. Directed and Created by Gary Suissa, the motion capture was created with Perception Neuron Studio. (neuronmocap.com)
- The Perception Neuron MOCAP system is based on individual sensors called Neurons. (petagadget.com)
- Whether you're a developer, gamer, VFX pro, researcher or virtual reality pioneer, Perception Neuron is designed to deliver professional results out of the box. (petagadget.com)
- Created with Perception Neuron motion capture. (neuronmocap.com)
- Because each local motion-detecting neuron will suffer from the aperture problem, the estimates from many neurons need to be integrated into a global motion estimate. (infogalactic.com)
- I open the Motion Live plugin to connect the neuron to iclone, but when I click the green circle it lights up but does not detect my neuron actor. (reallusion.com)
- The IP address and port are both same on the Motion Live plugin and also on Axis neuron. (reallusion.com)
- Because of this, I'm unable to move my character in iClone using the perception neuron. (reallusion.com)
- The object-tracking model provides an excellent fit to both position and motion judgments in simple stimuli. (pnas.org)
- Two or more stimuli that are switched on and off in alternation can produce two different motion percepts. (wikipedia.org)
- Second-order motion produces a weaker motion aftereffect unless tested with dynamically flickering stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
- Stimuli were presented in both upright and upside-down orientations to test for the difference in inversion effects often found when comparing ASD with controls in face perception. (plos.org)
- While single-cell recording is not conducted on humans, this research uses neuroimaging methods such as fMRI, PET, EEG/ERP to collect information on what brain areas become active when executing biological motion perception tasks, such as viewing point light walker stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
- Another study on stroke patients sustaining lesions to their superior temporal and premotor frontal areas showed deficits in their processing of biological motion stimuli, thereby implicating these areas as important to that perception process. (wikipedia.org)
- To explore possible functional consequences of MDD on visual processing, we applied a psychophysical visual motion processing task in which healthy young adults typically exhibit impaired perceptual discrimination of large high-contrast stimuli. (jneurosci.org)
- Indeed, motion perception for typically suppressed stimuli was enhanced in patients with MDD compared with age-matched controls. (jneurosci.org)
- The motion is perceived from dark to bright such that the above stimuli are seen as rotating inward toward fixation (center dot). (jneurosci.org)
- Although little is known about the development of context sensitivity in motion detection, few previous studies reported that some parts of the brain including the superior temporal sulcus (STS) and primary motor cortex show greater response to the biological than to the nonbiological motion stimuli [ 7 , 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Perception of three-dimensional shape from ego- and object-motion: comparison between small- and large-field stimuli. (cogprints.org)
- In Experiment 2 participants performed a behavioural motion matching task using the same stimuli as those used in Experiment 1. (mpi.nl)
- Nineteen participants with schizophrenia and 26 healthy matched controls were presented with a series of real, illusory, no motion or combined real and illusory motion stimuli at various target speeds. (lancs.ac.uk)
- Furthermore, this temporal dilation effect could be extended to spatially scrambled biological motion signals, whose global configurations were completely disrupted, regardless of whether observers were aware of the nature of the stimuli. (dericbownds.net)
- By directly recording neuronal activity while monkeys were presented with different visual stimuli and making categorical choices about the perceived direction of motion, scientists have been able to study how decisions are made when enough perceptual evidence is accumulated to reach a threshold. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- By manipulating the modality with which subjects estimated the direction of motion of the stimuli they were presented with, it was also possible to show that a perceptual bias is observed for manual reproduction of the perceived direction, but not when the response is given by a saccadic eye movement. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- We studied depth order perception using three first-order and three second-order motion stimuli. (arvojournals.org)
- Using a vibro-tactile belt consisting of 7 vibrators we generated tactile apparent motion stimuli by sequentially activating neighboring motors with an onset of 200ms between the motors. (mpg.de)
- Starting at the left and the right hip, two tactile motion stimuli run towards each other. (mpg.de)
- On the body midline an ambiguous event was perceived: either the transition of both stimuli with continuing motion trajectories or a bounce event followed by the reversal of the movement direction. (mpg.de)
- Visual stimuli simulated self-motion through a 3-D cloud of dots and subjects had to indicate their perceived heading direction after each trial. (zenodo.org)
- This is called the phi phenomenon and is sometimes described as an example of "pure" motion detection uncontaminated, as in Beta movement, by form cues. (wikipedia.org)
- Facial motion is a special type of biological motion that transmits cues for socio-emotional communication and enables the discrimination of properties such as gender and identity. (plos.org)
- The authors suggest that ASD participants were able to integrate local motion cues to produce a coherent perception of BM  . (plos.org)
- The dorsal visual pathway (sometimes referred to as the "where" pathway), as contrasted with the ventral visual pathway ("what" pathway), has been shown to play a significant role in the perception of motion cues. (wikipedia.org)
- The relative roles of form cues compared to motion cues in the process of perceiving biological motion is unclear. (wikipedia.org)
- Previous research has not untangled the circumstances under which local motion cues are needed or only additive. (wikipedia.org)
- This model looks at how form-only cues can replicate psychophysical results of biological motion perception. (wikipedia.org)
- When encountering a visual BM stimulus, people can discern the motion pattern using two types of visual cues: the local motion of individual joints that conveys the kinematics (Fig. 1, Local BM cues), and the global configuration of the body that represents the skeletal structure (Fig. 1, Global BM cues). (eurekalert.org)
- Recognizing friends by their walk: Gait perception without familiarity cues. (scirp.org)
- However, it also plays important roles in visual-motor processing, including spatial awareness based on motion cues, and the analysis of motion information for the planning of motor behaviors such as tracking moving targets with the eyes. (caltech.edu)
- We administered four experiments measuring sensitivity in using (global) form and (local) motion cues in biological motion, plus well-established measures of social cognition (e.g., empathy) and motor imagery (e.g., kinesthetic motor imagery). (biomedsearch.com)
- sensitivity for using motion cues was correlated with motor imagery (and not the social) measures. (biomedsearch.com)
- To this end 11 experiments were conducted that spanned the perception and representation of emotion, the role spatial and temporal cues played in the perception of emotions and finally high level cognitive features in the categorisation of emotion. (gla.ac.uk)
- In experiments 4-7 the contribution of spatial cues to the perception of emotion was explored and in the final set of experiments (8-11) perception of emotion was examined from a cognitive perspective. (gla.ac.uk)
- A threshold model, stipulating that perception of object unity is supported by multiple visual cues, is proposed to account for these results. (lancs.ac.uk)
- However, it remains unclear how the brain integrates these cues to create adequate motion perception, especially for curvilinear displacements. (iospress.com)
- In the present study, the effect of visual, inertial and visuo-inertial cues (concordant or discordant bimodal cues) on self-motion perception was analyzed. (iospress.com)
- Although, again, the notion of a "pure motion" detector suffers from the problem that there is no "pure motion" stimulus, i.e. a stimulus lacking perceived figure/ground properties). (wikipedia.org)
- Second-order motion is when the moving contour is defined by contrast, texture, flicker or some other quality that does not result in an increase in luminance or motion energy in the Fourier spectrum of the stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
- One patient with bilateral lesions that included the human homologue of area MT, lost their ability to see biological motion when the stimulus was embedded in noise, a task which the average observer is able to complete. (wikipedia.org)
- In healthy young adults, increasing the size of a low-contrast stimulus results in improved motion discrimination performance, reflecting the phenomenon of spatial summation. (jneurosci.org)
- These waves accelerated in the direction of illusory motion, and the response magnitude was subadditive, suggesting that nonlinear interactions between the stimulus locations may mediate wave properties. (jneurosci.org)
- We demonstrated that only sounds that alternate in up/down location induced illusory vertical motion of a static visual stimulus, while sounds that alternate in higher/lower pitch did not induce this illusion. (springer.com)
- It is found that 10-12 such elements in adequate motion combinations in proximal stimulus evoke a compelling impression of human walking, running, dancing, etc. (springer.com)
- This study desrcibed disorders in movement perception and localization in patients with early glaucoma.Particularly, the unexpected lack of difference between normal subjects and patients in localizing a moving stimulus strongly suggested that the visual deficiency could be partly compensated by endogenous informations. (arvojournals.org)
- First, by psychophysically examining two types of motion phenomena-motion assimilation and contrast-we found that, following the presentation of the same stimulus, some participants perceived motion assimilation, while others perceived motion contrast. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Here we demonstrate that this substitution is not fully adequate, because active observers perceive 3D structure differently from passive observers, despite experiencing the same visual stimulus: active observers' perception of 3D structure depends on extra-visual self-motion information. (cogprints.org)
- We assessed the human brain network for sound-motion processing using the same virtual stimulus in three independent functional imaging experiments. (whiterose.ac.uk)
- A particularly interesting aspect of perceptual decision making is that it allows the study of situations in which the choice deviates from the physical features characterising the stimulus (e.g., a leftward motion is presented but the subject reports perceiving a rightward motion). (nottingham.ac.uk)
- A type of such perceptual bias is called reference repulsion: a systematic bias away from a reference when estimating the direction of motion of a stimulus. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- Moreover, the information given by the reference at the time of response - when subjects report the perceived motion, rather than at the time of stimulus presentation - plays a crucial role in the observed perceptual bias. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- 1996 ) showed that three different kinds of visual motion (optic flow, coherent and biological motion) yield foci of activation within stimulus-specific regions of the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), regions that they were able to localize unambiguously in the auditory cortex. (arvojournals.org)
- 1 . Leon PS, Vanzetta I, Masson GS, Perrinet LU (2012) Motion clouds: model-based stimulus synthesis of natural-like random textures for the study of motion perception. (yale.edu)
- In the current work, we used a tri-stable barberpole motion stimulus combining empirical and modelling approaches to elucidate the contributions of noise and adaptation to underlying competition. (bournemouth.ac.uk)
- Presenting just the tactile motion stimulus resulted in an ambiguous percept. (mpg.de)
- In different subsets of experiments we varied individually relevant stimulus parameters: presentation time, number of dots in the display, stereoscopic vs. non-stereoscopic stimulation, and motion coherence. (zenodo.org)
- The key to this finding was a version of the line motion illusion entailing reverse-phi motion in which opposing motion directions are simultaneously cued by motion energy and changes in stimulus shape. (ox.ac.uk)
- In forced-choice tests, a blindsighted test subject selected the direction cued by shape change when the stimulus was presented in his intact field, but reliably selected the direction cued by motion energy when the same stimulus was presented in his blind field, where relevant position information was either inaccessible or invalid. (ox.ac.uk)
- Despite growing evidence for perceptual interactions between motion and position, no unifying framework exists to account for these two key features of our visual experience. (pnas.org)
- This includes motion-induced shifts in perceived position, perceptual slow-speed biases, slowing of motions shown in visual periphery, and the well-known curveball illusion. (pnas.org)
- Conceptualizing motion and position perception in the broader context of object tracking suggests an alternative conceptual framework-one that we show provides a unifying account for a number of perceptual phenomena. (pnas.org)
- An optimal tracking system would integrate incoming position and motion signals with predictive information from the recent past to continuously update perceptual estimates of both an object's position and its motion. (pnas.org)
- Surprisingly, little field research has been carried out on a fundamentally important perceptual ability, namely the perception of biological motion. (nih.gov)
- We conclude that the effortless, veridical perception of PL biological motion is a spontaneous and universal perceptual ability, occurring both inside and outside traditional laboratory environments. (nih.gov)
- Johansson, G. Rigidity, stability and motion in perceptual space. (springer.com)
- In the current study, we extended the investigation of cross-modal influences to the tactile domain by asking how tactile input resolves perceptual ambiguity in visual apparent motion, and how empathy plays a role in this cross-modal interaction. (frontiersin.org)
- 1994). Here we present perceptual evidence that is at odds with this view and instead suggests strong symmetric interactions between the form and motion processes. (dtic.mil)
- Our perceptual understanding of virtual motion derives from encounters with reality, thus Hochberg and Brooks' argue, it is real in perceptual terms. (experimentaltvcenter.org)
- Gestalt psychology has traditionally ignored the role of attention in perception, leading to the view that autonomous processes create perceptual configurations that are then attended. (lu.se)
- The results support the existence of a posteriorly directed temporo-parietal pathway for obligatory perceptual processing of sound-source motion. (whiterose.ac.uk)
- However, the motion detection curves for the schizophrenia group revealed a reduction in the perceptual effect of illusory motion in comparison to controls. (lancs.ac.uk)
- The findings presented in this thesis show that perceptual biases in estimates of motion direction arise at a later stage than at the encoding of sensory representation, as previously thought. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- Biological motion perception may therefore be compromised in PD but also provide a target for intervention, with perceptual training potentially improving motor function. (bu.edu)
- This deficit was not associated with participants' own walking difficulties or with other perceptual deficits (contrast sensitivity, coherent motion perception). (bu.edu)
- Because biological motion perception is associated with motor function, it was hypothesized that perceptual training would improve walking. (bu.edu)
- We delivered double-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) while moving a single tactile point across the fingertip, and used signal detection theory to quantify perceptual sensitivity to motion direction. (ucl.ac.uk)
- Determining the perceptual effectiveness of optical sources of information also tells us what the functional metrics are for detecting and guiding self motion. (dtic.mil)
- The outcome of our investigations is a biologically plausible model of motion segmentation together with a fast algorithmic implementation which explains and predicts perceptual and neural effects of motion perception and allows to extract optic flow from given image sequences. (uni-ulm.de)
Biological motion perception12
- Biological motion perception is the act of perceiving the fluid unique motion of a biological agent. (wikipedia.org)
- Currently a large topic of research, many different models of biological motion/perception have been proposed. (wikipedia.org)
- The following models have shown that both form and motion are important components of biological motion perception. (wikipedia.org)
- This may be due to the fact that area V3B and area KO were still intact, suggesting their possible roles in biological motion perception. (wikipedia.org)
- We employed standard biological motion perception tasks inspired by over 30 years of laboratory research, in which observers attempt to decipher the walking direction of point-light (PL) humans and animals. (nih.gov)
- What are the sources underlying the individual differences in biological motion perception? (eurekalert.org)
- The current paper aims to address the question of how biological motion perception in different social contexts is influenced by age or also affected by cognitive styles. (hindawi.com)
- We examined developmental changes of biological motion perception among 141 school children aged 8-15 using point-light displays in monadic and dyadic social contexts. (hindawi.com)
- This study can help to identify the roles of social context in biological motion perception and shows that children with different cognitive styles may present different biological motion perception. (hindawi.com)
- Biological motion perception is often claimed to support social cognition, and to rely upon embodied representations and motor imagery. (biomedsearch.com)
- Are people with higher levels of social traits or more vivid motor imagery better at biological motion perception? (biomedsearch.com)
- Improving biological motion perception led to enhancement in self-perceived walking ability. (bu.edu)
- patients with greater lifetime duration of depression exhibited the least spatial suppression and performed the best in the high-contrast motion discrimination task. (jneurosci.org)
- Borjesson, E., & von Hofsten, C. Spatial determinants of depth perception in two-dot motion patterns. (springer.com)
- More recent research, however, has shown that spatial attention influences a form of Gestalt perception: the coherence of random-dot kinematograms (RDKs). (lu.se)
- Despite decades of experimentation, motion sickness, spatial disorientation, reorientation illusions and degraded visuomotor performance continue to impact the availability and effectiveness of astronauts. (edu.au)
- We simplified the definition to parametrically define these 'Motion Clouds' around the most prevalent feature axis (mean and bandwith): direction, spatial frequency, orientation. (yale.edu)
- Increased knowledge about spatial perception and postural orientation would provide better understanding of balance disorders, and their rehabilitation. (lu.se)
- Furthermore whole brain analyses showed additional areas with a preference to local motion, and responses to global flow in activity in areas commonly involved in perception of our surrounding spatial environment. (mpg.de)
- Motion detection is typically spared in blindsight, which results from damage to the striate cortex (area V1) of the brain that is sufficient to eliminate conscious visual awareness and severely reduce sensitivity to luminance contrast, especially for high spatial and low temporal frequencies. (ox.ac.uk)
- In Experiment 1, we found that observers rated these kinds of paintings higher in portraying motion than they did other abstract paintings in which motion is not intended. (brillonline.com)
- We also found that observers who had previously experienced abstract paintings with implied motion tended to give higher motion ratings to that class of paintings. (brillonline.com)
- In Experiment 2, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain activity of observers while viewing abstract paintings receiving the highest and the lowest motion rating scores in Experiment 1. (brillonline.com)
- We found MT+, but not primary visual cortex (V1), showed greater BOLD responses to abstract paintings with implied motion than to abstract paintings with little motion impression, but only in observers with prior experience viewing those kinds of paintings. (brillonline.com)
- The model accounts for several well-known visual illusions, including motion-induced position shifts, slow speed biases, and the curveball illusion. (pnas.org)
- We found that the temporal structures between tactile (feedback) and visual (hitting) events systematically biases the directional perception for upright PLWs, making either leftwards or rightwards more dominant. (frontiersin.org)
- It has been demonstrated that infants have inner tendency to distinguish animate beings from objects and tend to look more at biological motions rather than nonbiological motions [ 13 - 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Wang and Jiang show that the inherent temporal properties of life motion signals spontaneously engage more intricate brain processings compared with those of nonbiological motions, and consequentially induce subjective time dilation. (dericbownds.net)
- The resulting framework is characterized by a strong bidirectional coupling between position and motion estimates and provides a rational, unifying account of a number of motion and position phenomena that are currently thought to arise from independent mechanisms. (pnas.org)
- Research into the basic mechanisms of visual motion processing has largely focused on simple cases in which motion signals are fixed in space and constant over time (e.g., moving patterns presented in static windows) ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
- One factor may be due to abnormalities in the mechanisms responsible for biological motion (BM) perception. (plos.org)
- Motion-inducing illusions can reveal basic mechanisms of motion processing by separating the contributions of local versus global mechanisms within the motion detection hierarchy. (jneurosci.org)
- This study disentangles the genetic roots of the two major components underpinning BM perception, extending the theoretical account that BM perception is supported by two distinct neural mechanisms from a genetic perspective. (eurekalert.org)
- Furthermore it is proposed that differences in other factors such as character of social contexts (person-person versus person-object interactions) may contribute to differences in context utilization and mechanisms of action perception [ 5 , 9 , 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
- In this study, we examined the mechanisms underlying interindividual variability in the perception of visual motion, one of the fundamental components of visual scene analysis, by measuring neurotransmitter concentrations using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Bradley DC, Maxwell M, Andersen RA, Banks MS,Shenoy KV (1996) Mechanisms of heading perception in primate visual cortex. (springer.com)
- Despite numerous empirical studies using binocular rivalry or plaid pattern motion, the driving mechanisms behind the spontaneous transitions between alternatives remain unclear. (bournemouth.ac.uk)
- These results suggest that similar supramodal mechanisms exist for apparent motion perception. (mpg.de)
- The neural mechanisms underlying the segregation and integration of detected motion still remain unclear to a large extent. (uni-ulm.de)
- In summary, we provide a unifying framework that reconceptualizes how the human visual system constructs coherent percepts from noisy position and motion signals. (pnas.org)
- We show that percepts of both object position and motion derive from a common object-tracking system-a system that optimally integrates sensory signals with a realistic model of motion dynamics, effectively inferring their generative causes. (pnas.org)
- This description is, however, somewhat paradoxical as it is not possible to create such motion in the absence of figural percepts. (wikipedia.org)
- Motion illusions as optimal percepts. (whiterose.ac.uk)
- Sawtooth luminance wheels viewed in the periphery generate an illusory motion percept during rapid blinking or by generating an afterimage. (jneurosci.org)
- The findings revealed that people with schizophrenia may be less easily deceived by illusory motion in comparison to healthy participants. (lancs.ac.uk)
- Illusory motion perception in blindsight. (ox.ac.uk)
- Cavanagh P, Favreau OE (1985) Color and luminance share a common motion pathway. (springer.com)
- Our working hypothesis consisted in inquiring if the impairment of the magnocellular pathway may modify the movement perception capabilities in the visual field, more particularly in its peripheral area. (arvojournals.org)
- The motion processing stream is considered to be part of the dorsal "where" pathway, but it shares features of both these dorsal and ventral systems. (caltech.edu)
- What is the cellular pathway involved in detection of motion? (brainscape.com)
- The dissociation of motion direction by visual field (cortically blind vs. intact) provides evidence that two pathways from the retina to MT/V5 (the cortical area specialized for motion perception) are functionally distinct: the retinogeniculate pathway through V1 is specialized for feature-based motion perception, whereas the retinocollicular pathway, which bypasses V1, is specialized for detecting motion energy. (ox.ac.uk)
- These sensors are described as detecting motion by spatio-temporal correlation and are considered by some to be plausible models for how the visual system may detect motion. (wikipedia.org)
- This research has yielded areas important to motion perception in primates such as area MT (middle temporal visual area), also referred to as V5, and area MST (medial superior temporal area). (wikipedia.org)
- A case study conducted on a patient with bilateral lesions involving the posterior visual pathways and effecting the lateral parietal-temporal-occipital cortex struggled with early motion tasks, and yet was able to perceive the biological motion of a point light walker, a higher-order task. (wikipedia.org)
- used voltage-sensitive dyes (VSDs) and extracellular electrodes to measure neuronal activity in anesthetized cat visual cortex and to test whether the temporal asymmetries in On and Off processing produce motion signals. (jneurosci.org)
- When the luminance change was the same for both locations, the wave propagation was symmetric, suggesting that the temporal asymmetry between On and Off pathways was the source of the motion signal. (jneurosci.org)
- Jan P. H. van Santen and George Sperling, "Temporal covariance model of human motion perception," J. Opt. (osapublishing.org)
- Using ERPs, we investigated whether temporal expectations exert analogous attentional effects on the perception of coherence level in RDKs. (lu.se)
- They thus suggest that the temporal encoding of biological motions relies upon a specialized brain mechanism intrinsically tuned to life motion signals irrespective of their configurations, and is essentially an automatic process operating without a person's awareness. (dericbownds.net)
- Taken together, our findings suggest a special mechanism of time perception tuned to life motion signals and shed new light on the temporal encoding of biological motion. (dericbownds.net)
- o Types of motion First order motion - spatio temporal change in luminance Second-order motion - spatio temporal change in some quality other than luminance (contrast, texture). (coursehero.com)
- The ability to accurately perceive others' motion is related to one's own motor ability and depends on the integrity of brain areas affected in PD, including superior temporal sulcus and premotor cortex. (bu.edu)
-  These sensors detect motion by spatio-temporal correlation and are plausible models for how the visual system may detect motion. (infogalactic.com)
- A model for visual motion and space perception from changing proximal stimulation. (springer.com)
- The results indicated that exposure to the PAT sensory rearrangement altered self-motion perception, induced motion sickness, and changed the amplitude and phase of the horizontal eye movements evoked by roll stimulation. (nasa.gov)
- Humans can readily perceive and recognize the movements of a living creature, based solely on a few point-lights tracking the motion of the major joints. (eurekalert.org)
- Among human beings, body movements or biological motions convey a part of this information which helps individuals to anticipate conditions that include a combination of social and nonsocial factors [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
- investigated emotion perception using point-light displays (PLDs) of human movements. (hindawi.com)
- The concept of optical flow to estimate movement, the types of perception of real and apparent movement, the role of movement perception, the processing of movement information and the relationship between eye movements and movement perception are described. (ucm.es)
- In the third experiment we manipulated the dimension of arousal and showed that through a modulation of duration, perception of angry, sad and neutral movements could be modulated. (gla.ac.uk)
- Studies on motion perception during smooth pursuit eye movements have measured either perceived speed or perceived direction during smooth pursuit to investigate this frame of reference transformation, but never both at the same time. (springer.com)
- De Graaf B, Wertheim AH (1988) The perception of object-motion during smooth-pursuit eye movements: Adjacency is not a factor contributing to the Filehne illusion. (springer.com)
- Festinger L, Sedgwick HA, Holtzman JD (1976) Visual perception during smooth pursuit eye movements. (springer.com)
- We constantly have a mixture of these two kinds of motion, but generally have no problems distinguishing between the two, even though they can produce similar movements on the retina. (mpg.de)
- By subtracting out the visual motion caused by your eye movements, your visual cortex is then able to figure out what's moving and what's stationary. (thegreatcoursesdaily.com)
- Participants completed increasingly difficult tasks involving the discrimination of (1) sequences of facial motion, (2) the identity of individuals based on their facial motion and (3) the gender of individuals. (plos.org)
- In this task, participants view drifting sinusoidal gratings of varying size and contrast and attempt to discriminate their direction of motion ( Fig. 1 ). (jneurosci.org)
- In the study, Flecken, with colleagues Panos Athanasopoulos (Lancaster University), Jan Rouke Kuipers (University of Stirling) and Guillaume Thierry (Bangor University), measured the extent to which German and English participants allocated attention to trajectory and endpoint of motion events in a task in which they did not have to speak. (mpg.de)
- Their results indicate that interactive social information rather than noninteractive information may enhance emotion perception of participants [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Instead of giving tactile feedback on participants' fingertips, we gave taps on their ankles and presented the PLWs with motion directions of approaching (facing toward observer)/receding (facing away from observer) to resemble normal walking postures. (frontiersin.org)
- German and English participants did not differ in response times showing that motion event verbalisation cannot readily account for the difference in P3 amplitude found in the first experiment. (mpi.nl)
- The participants with schizophrenia were not distinguished from the control group in the perception of real motion. (lancs.ac.uk)
- These results represent a basis for the adaptation of motion cueing algorithms are developed for dynamic driving simulators, by taking into account the dynamics of simulated motion in line with the status of the participants (driver or passenger). (iospress.com)
- Visual Symmetry and Joint-Space Symmetry proved to be easier than Point Mirror Symmetry and participants' recreated motions typically lagged by approximately 50-100 ms. Based on these results, participants used bimanual guidance to identify the orientation of a hard rod embedded in a soft material. (usf.edu)
- The results show that participants could identify the orientation of the rod equally well when working independently compared to being bimanually guided through a desired motion. (usf.edu)
- The sudy involved measuring the extent to which German and English participants gave attention to trajectory and endpoint of motion events in a task in which they did not have to speak. (reliawire.com)
Tactile motion perception1
- However, such studies cannot establish whether these areas are causally involved in tactile motion perception. (ucl.ac.uk)
- Neuropsychological studies of a patient who could not see motion, seeing the world in a series of static "frames" instead, suggested that visual area V5 in humans is homologous to motion processing area MT in primates. (wikipedia.org)
- Humans can visually perceive the motion of a small object better than that of a large one. (eurekalert.org)
- Finally, we apply these textures in order to psychophysically probe speed perception in humans. (nips.cc)
- Numerous theoretical models propose motion detection circuits that carry out computational comparisons of light varying across space and time ( Borst and Euler, 2011 ), but exploring such circuits in cortex is a considerable methodological challenge. (jneurosci.org)
- Detection thresholds were measured to determine the reliability of motion perception. (lancs.ac.uk)
- The motion projects described in this report include the specification of low level motion detection systems which are both Fourier and NonFourier in kind, investigations in visual persistence in motion, higher level issues in structure from motion, cue integration and decision theory, and object recognition. (dtic.mil)
- The dorsal stream is responsible for detection of location and motion. (infogalactic.com)
- Here we show that the discrimination of motion direction within cortically blind fields is not attributable to feature tracking (the detection of changes in position or shape), but is due instead to the detection of first-order motion energy (spatiotemporal changes in luminance). (ox.ac.uk)
- Motion energy has been characterized as objectless, so reliance on motion energy detection is consistent with impaired access to shape information in blindsight. (ox.ac.uk)
- Happy, Surprised, Fearful, Sad, Disgusted and Angry) which are presented displaying patterns of motion (i.e., a Parabolic motion, a Translational motion and a Wave-like motion). (scirp.org)
- On the other hand, further research still has to be done so as to question the exact effects of the Translational, Parabolic and Wave-like motion patterns, especially in more dynamic contexts. (scirp.org)
- This paper reports the first phase of a research program on visual perception of motion patterns characteristic of living organisms in locomotion. (springer.com)
- Such motion patterns in animals and men are termed here as biological motion. (springer.com)
- They are characterized by a far higher degree of complexity than the patterns of simple mechanical motions usually studied in our laboratories. (springer.com)
- In everyday perceptions, the visual information from biological motion and from the corresponding figurative contour patterns (the shape of the body) are intermingled. (springer.com)
- The kinetic-geometric model for visual vector analysis originally developed in the study of perception of motion combinations of the mechanical type was applied to these biological motion patterns. (springer.com)
- Borjesson, E. & von Hofsten, C. Visual perception of motion in depth Application of a vector model to three-dot motion patterns. (springer.com)
- Perceiving and recognizing biological motion patterns in a complex and cluttered environment is vital for human survival. (frontiersin.org)
- Depth perception in rotating dot patterns. (cogprints.org)
- We argue that, even in a non-verbal context, the grammatical properties of the native language and associated sentence-level patterns of event encoding influence motion event perception, such that attention is automatically drawn towards aspects highlighted by the grammar. (mpi.nl)
- In order to derive a computational mechanism for large-scale simulations we propose a sparse coding framework for neural motion activity patterns and suggest a means how initial activities are detected efficiently. (uni-ulm.de)
- To understand if grammatical patterns can influence the way people perceive motion events, researcher Monique Flecken from the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics and colleagues employed differences between the two languages in an EEG experiment. (reliawire.com)
- Relying on studies in Behavioral Neurology and Social Psychology, it is believed motion is one of the core components of Emotion. (scirp.org)
- Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 72:415-420, 1962. (cogprints.org)
- Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 8(2):238-252, 1982. (cogprints.org)
- Julian Hochberg and Virginia Brooks argue in "Movies in the Mind's Eye" that the apparent movement of motion pictures should be understood as a mental process described by cognitive theory and gestalt psychology. (experimentaltvcenter.org)
- Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 10: 713-723. (springer.com)
- The process of generating coherent estimates of object motion and position is known in the engineering and computer vision literature as "tracking" (e.g., as used by the Global Positioning System) ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
- It is not clear how this 2D representation is then converted into the perceived 3D percept) Further processing is required to detect coherent motion or "global motion" present in a scene. (wikipedia.org)
- The ability of a subject to detect coherent motion is commonly tested using motion coherence discrimination tasks. (wikipedia.org)
- Werner E. Reichardt and Bernard Hassenstein have modelled it in terms of relatively simple "motion sensors" in the visual system, that have evolved to detect a change in luminance at one point on the retina and correlate it with a change in luminance at a neighbouring point on the retina after a short delay. (wikipedia.org)
- This pure motion perception is referred to as "first-order" motion perception and is mediated by relatively simple "motion sensors" in the visual system, that have evolved to detect a change in luminance at one point on the retina and correlate it with a change in luminance at a neighbouring point on the retina after a short delay. (infogalactic.com)
- In most situations, our visual input and the movement of images projected onto our retina are a combination of these two types of inputs: The motion of things in the environment and the motions of our retina through the environment. (thegreatcoursesdaily.com)
- However, associative exposure could increase the saliency of pitch-space relationships and then the pitch could induce visual motion perception by itself. (springer.com)
- These results show that action plays a central role in depth perception, and argue for a revision of the rigidity hypothesis to incorporate the special case of stationary objects. (cogprints.org)
- Motion parallax as an independent cue for depth perception. (cogprints.org)
- Similarities between motion parallax and stereopsis in human depth perception. (cogprints.org)
- In shop depth perception, two Browse issues can Start via a decoration intended as laboratory Protein, if they are on the ethological morning, which will complete the Submissions of the No. in a part-time l. (polynomiography.com)
- This shop depth perception through might not sign daily to work. (polynomiography.com)
- The shop depth perception will grow rid to real developer spending. (polynomiography.com)
- Can write and log shop depth perception through lies of this recipient to provide textE-mailDid with them. (polynomiography.com)
- Visit Bahman Kalantari's personal home page Most data of NMR have technical NMR shop depth perception through motion, that continues, the classification of the NMR request as a regime of collection. (polynomiography.com)
- Polynomial Root-Finding and Polynomiography This shop depth perception 's Then held in field, types, backup and limitations review, and often in magnetic walls of we' and quality. (polynomiography.com)
- We recently discovered a new formula for visual depth perception from motion parallax. (wolfram.com)
- Neurological work by J. W. Nadler, D. E. Angelaki, and G. C. DeAngelis in 'A Neural Representation of Depth from Motion Parallax in Macaque Visual Cortex' ( Nature , 452 (7187), 2008 pp. 642-645) suggests that an extra-retinal signal is needed for depth perception. (wolfram.com)
- We outline the other visual depth perception Demonstrations below. (wolfram.com)
- The Demonstration ' Motion, Pursuit, Fixate and Distractor (Visual Depth Perception 2) ' plots the values of retinal motion and smooth eye pursuit for your choice of fixate and distractor in this basic one-dimensional setting. (wolfram.com)
- The Demonstrations ' Motion/Pursuit Law in 2D (Visual Depth Perception 3) ' and ' Motion/Pursuit Law on Invariant Circles (Visual Depth Perception 4) ' allow you to do computations with the 2D formula. (wolfram.com)
- The direction of propagation was consistent with the reported perception of motion in human subjects. (jneurosci.org)
- Subjects signalled self motion during three independent tasks (1) by pushing a button when rotation was first sensed, when velocity reached a peak, when velocity began to decrease, and when velocity reached zero, (2) by rotating a disc to match the perceived motion of the body, or (3) by changing the static position of the dial such that a bigger change in its position correlated with a larger perceived velocity. (uzh.ch)
- On the contrary, active subjects were able to reject the inertial cue when the discordance became too high, producing self-motion perception on the basis of more reliable information. (iospress.com)
- Experiment 2 evaluated the hypothesis that PD deficits would extend to more socially-complex biological motion. (bu.edu)
- Johansson, G. Configurations in event perception . (springer.com)
- The inability to perceive motion is called akinetopsia and it may be caused by a lesion to cortical area V5 in the extrastriate cortex. (wikipedia.org)
- In a new paper in the journal Cognition , researcher Monique Flecken from the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, together with colleagues, shows that even when we are not speaking, the grammar of our native language may influence the way we perceive motion events. (mpg.de)
- Even when you aren't talking, the grammar of your native language may influence how you perceive motion events, a new study from the Max Planck Institute shows. (reliawire.com)
Endpoint of motion events1
- English is a language with grammatical aspect in which attention is drawn to trajectory and endpoint of motion events equally. (mpi.nl)
- This argument is a reconfiguration of the traditional, physiological model that makes the motion an effect of ocular physiology. (experimentaltvcenter.org)
- In place of this model, they propose that the movement we see when watching a movie -- whether in the form of a film or a video tape -- is more than simply the illusion of motion: it is perceptually as real as any other visual motion we perceive. (experimentaltvcenter.org)
- 1] investigated the motion-bounce illusion and found that sound can influence ambiguous visual motion perception. (mpg.de)
- Here we investigated the motion-bounce illusion in the tactile-auditory and the tactile-visual domain, respectively. (mpg.de)
- A tweet that I recently posted- which was retweeted over 1.5K times -featured a visual illusion called the Perpetual Diamond (see my December 2018 article in i-Perception , co-authored with Oliver Flynn). (illusionscience.com)
- Johansson first introduced point-light walkers to examine how well human observers could extract motion and form information for a simulated walking person from the characteristic light dots rendering key parts of the human body ( Johansson, 1973 ). (frontiersin.org)
- How do observers perceive the path of self-motion during rotation? (nih.gov)
- These motion reversals were identified during the experimental programme which examined observers' perception of robot motion under different conditions of human-robot orientation and robot arm configuration. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- This is also termed "apparent motion" and is the basis of movies and television. (wikipedia.org)
- Interestingly, though, sounds alternating in higher/lower pitch could become a driver for visual motion if they were paired in a previous exposure phase with vertical visual apparent motion. (springer.com)
- The world's most adaptable and affordable motion capture system launches its Dual Character MOCAP plugin for iClone by Reallusion at Europe's largest professional broadcast conference. (prweb.com)
- By combining our product with iClone, we now offer a comprehensive professional 3D animation pipeline that includes full-body motion capture at a price that makes it accessible to prosumers, enthusiasts and small studios. (prweb.com)
- The team will be presenting its full-body, sensor-based motion capture suit and launching the dual character mocap plugin for iClone by Reallusion. (prweb.com)
- Founded in 2011, Noitom Ltd. works with a team of dedicated engineers who develop world-class motion capture technology for consumer and industrial markets through the integration of MEMS sensors, pattern recognition, human kinetics and wireless transmission. (prweb.com)
- With over half of its Kickstarter campaign completed, the world's smallest, adaptive and most affordable motion capture system has reached its funding goal and released news about its stretch goals. (prweb.com)
- To create them we used motion capture technology and computer animation techniques. (gla.ac.uk)
- In paper A, we propose a novel dual sensor method for capturing hands and fingers using optical motion capture in combination with low-cost instrumented gloves. (dissertations.se)
- In paper B, we propose a robust method for automatic labeling of sparse, non-rigid motion capture marker sets, and we evaluate it on a variety of marker configurations for finger and facial capture. (dissertations.se)
- In paper D, we record motion capture data for a virtual talking head with variable articulation style (normal-to-over articulated). (dissertations.se)
- Second, we describe, how content-adaptive capture protocols can reduce false motion-in-depth sensation for time-multiplexing based displays. (tib.eu)
- As part of our exploration of virtual communication in the Covid Age, we visit with Studio Giggle, a team of creatives who with motion capture, made a digital art film that explores the experience of isolation. (neuronmocap.com)
- We are part of Noitom Ltd. and dedicated to the development of motion capture systems for entertainment , sports, science and medicine. (neuronmocap.com)
- Motion Capture (MoCap) is the process of translating human movement into other mediums such as video games and movies. (petagadget.com)
- Je participe à ce concours pour gagner 2 combinaisons de capture de mouvement (d'une valeur de + de 3000$ US + 5000$ US en argent. (strob.net)
- J'y présente rapidement 2 projets pour lesquels j'aimerais utiliser leur combinaison de motion capture. (strob.net)
- Tunisian Animation, 3D and Motion Design studio, Pixel One , created this animated introduction to the 2020 Tunisia Digital Summit. (neuronmocap.com)
- Taken together, our findings showed that task-irrelevant tactile input can resolve the otherwise ambiguous perception of the direction of biological motion, and this cross-modal bias was mediated by higher level social-cognitive factors, including empathy. (frontiersin.org)
- Here, we propose and test an object-tracking model that optimally integrates sensory signals with a realistic model of motion dynamics. (pnas.org)
- We have found that incorporating jitter of the vantage point into visual displays produces more compelling illusions of self-motion (vection), despite generating greater sensory conflicts. (edu.au)
- This difference suggests that the sensory signal from the semicircular canals undergoes additional neural processing, beyond the contribution of the velocity-storage mechanism of the aVOR, to compute the percept of self-motion. (uzh.ch)
- To address this question, we investigated the effect of prenatal drug exposure on global motion perception, a behavioural measure of processing within the dorsal extrastriate visual cortex that is thought to be particularly vulnerable to abnormal neurodevelopment. (uwaterloo.ca)
- It was concluded that the preterm infants' atypical responses could be related to brain anomalies related to dorsal stream vulnerability, while full-term infants' progression in visual motion perception could reflect increased neuronal maturation and locomotion experience. (bibsys.no)
- In this thesis, a novel neural model of visual motion processing is developed that involves early stages of the cortical, dorsal and ventral pathways of the primate brain to integrate and segregate visual motion and in particular to solve the motion aperture problem. (uni-ulm.de)
- With dense texture-mapped displays, we find the path can be perceived from retinal flow alone at high simulated rotation rates if (a) dense motion parallax and (b) at least one reference object are available. (nih.gov)
- We propose that the visual system determines instantaneous heading from the first-order motion parallax field, and recovers the path of self-motion by updating heading over time with respect to reference objects in the scene. (nih.gov)
- Visual and nonvisual information disambiguate surfaces specified by motion parallax. (cogprints.org)
- Previous work by Nawrot and others (such as M. Nawrot and L. Joyce, Vision Research , 'The Pursuit Theory of Motion Parallax,' 46 (28), 2006 pp. 4709-4725) suggested that the motion/pursuit ratio was important. (wolfram.com)
- We begin with a description of the formula for depth from motion parallax in a symmetric case with links to Demonstrations that explain basic terms and quantities. (wolfram.com)
- Hochberg and Brook's theory about a cognitive basis for film motion is applicable to any form of virtual movement. (experimentaltvcenter.org)
- It is concluded that human cognitive factors, specifically the operators' perception of robot movement and their ability to recognise motion reversals, have greater influence on control selection errors than control design per se. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- Veridical perception of motion of display elements, depth ordering, and edge orientation are necessary, but not individually sufficient, to support young infants' perception of object unity. (lancs.ac.uk)
- Electroencephalogram (EEG) was used in preterm and full-term infants at 5 and 12 months of age to longitudinally study brain electrical activity as a function of perception of structured forward optic flow, structured reversed optic flow, and non-structured random visual motion. (bibsys.no)
- In full-term infants, VEP results revealed a significant decrease in latencies for forward and reversed optic flow, but not for random visual motion with age. (bibsys.no)
- At 12 months, full-term infants were also found to significantly differentiate between the three motion conditions, with shortest latencies for forward optic flow, and longest latencies for random visual motion. (bibsys.no)
- Self-motion through space generates a visual pattern called optic flow. (zenodo.org)
- Point light walkers are coordinated moving dots that simulate biological motion in which each dot represents specific joints of a human performing an action. (wikipedia.org)
- In: Knoblich G, Thornton I, Grosjean M, Shiffrar M (eds) Perception of the human body perception from the inside out. (springer.com)
- Perception of human motion. (scirp.org)
- Recent studies have shown that interindividual variability can be a rich source of information regarding the mechanism of human visual perception. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Gestalt theory claims human perception treats all visual phenomena encountered in the same way. (experimentaltvcenter.org)
- Unlike motion in the real world which is physically emmanent, the motion of movies and in the technique of painterly motion is entirely a result of a human perception. (experimentaltvcenter.org)
- We have been interested in better understanding the perception and cognition of emotion from human motion. (gla.ac.uk)
- Point-light biological motions, conveying various different attributes of biological entities, have particular spatiotemporal properties that enable them to be processed with remarkable efficiency in the human visual system. (dericbownds.net)
- Biological motion is the movement of something biological, like a human or animal walking. (dericbownds.net)
- In both cases, human motion serves as the model and inspiration for the non-verbal behavior displayed. (dissertations.se)
- This thesis focuses on increasing the expressive capacities of artificial agents and avatars using two main strategies: 1) improving the automatic capturing of the most communicative areas for human communication, namely the face and the fingers, and 2) increasing communication clarity by proposing novel ways of eliciting clear and readable non-verbal behavior.The first part of the thesis covers automatic methods for capturing and processing motion data. (dissertations.se)
- How PD affects perception of moving human bodies, or biological motion, is unknown. (bu.edu)
- We may acquire a truly superior ability to see an object's motion by losing sensitivity for large-size motion. (eurekalert.org)
- Such exquisite sensitivity to biological motion (BM) signals is essential to our survival and social interaction. (eurekalert.org)
- We thus show that although both social cognition and motor imagery predict sensitivity to biological motion, these skills likely tap into different aspects of perception. (biomedsearch.com)
- These results point to a deficit in facial biological motion processing in people with autism, which we suggest is linked to deficits in lower level motion processing we have previously reported. (plos.org)
- It also advances our understanding of the sources of the linkage between autistic symptoms and BM perception deficits. (eurekalert.org)
- In addition, their performance was in accord with important recent findings in the literature, in the abundant ease with which they extracted direction information from local motion invariants alone. (nih.gov)
- These findings indicate that pitch-space correspondence is not so strong to drive or modulate visual motion perception. (springer.com)
- These findings further support the idea that there are different brain areas involved in the processing of global flow and local motion. (mpg.de)
- Our findings suggest that the brain interprets object motion and self-motion using a causal inference framework. (nyu.edu)
Trajectory and endpoint1
- For example, given a motion event, the grammar of English points attention to the trajectory and endpoint of the motion event equally. (reliawire.com)
Aspects of motion perception2
- In the present study, the developmental age and four aspects of motion perception (biological motion, global motion, motion speed, motion-defined form) were assessed in 49 children with indications of brain damage and in 60 controls. (eur.nl)
- We conclude that a continuous decline of certain aspects of motion perception, among them heading, might directly be based on an age-related progressive loss of groups of neurons being activated by visual motion. (zenodo.org)
- These results reveal that motion perception cannot be isolated from position signals. (pnas.org)
- Even in the simplest displays with no changes in object position, our perception is driven by the output of an object-tracking system that rationally infers different generative causes of motion signals. (pnas.org)
- See MIT example Some have speculated that, having extracted the hypothesized motion signals (first- or second-order) from the retinal image, the visual system must integrate those individual local motion signals at various parts of the visual field into a 2-dimensional or global representation of moving objects and surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
- hypothesized that these asynchronies in On and Off latencies generate motion signals in V1. (jneurosci.org)
- A method for studying information from the motion pattern per se without interference with the form aspect was devised. (springer.com)
- Role of learning in three-dimensional form perception. (cogprints.org)
- Reciprocal Interactions between Motion and Form Perception. (dtic.mil)
- In this study we measure perception of an audiovisual form of biological motion, tap dancing. (arvojournals.org)
- We found that both form and motion influence sex perception for these characters: for neutral synthetic motions, form determines perceived sex, whereas natural motion affects the perceived sex of both androgynous and realistic forms. (tcd.ie)
- Moreover we present several extensions of the neural model to investigate the influence of form information, the effects of attention, and the perception of transparent motion. (uni-ulm.de)
- Home Research Outputs Disturbed cervical proprioception affects perception of spat. (lu.se)
- Moreover, the visual system, making use of the self-motion information treats objects that are stationary (in an allocentric, earth-fixed reference frame) differently from objects that are merely rigid. (cogprints.org)
- Visual perception of smooth and perturbed self-motion" by Robert S Allison, James E. Zacher et al. (edu.au)
- This delay in the rise of self-motion perception, and the plateau for the maximum perceived velocity, contrasts with the rapid rise and the immediate decay of the angular vestibuloocular reflex (aVOR). (uzh.ch)
- Self-motion perception, which partly determines the realism of dynamic driving simulators, is based on multisensory integration. (iospress.com)
- Judging self-motion (heading) in the presence of independently moving objects poses a challenging inference problem because the image motion of an object could be attributed to movement of the object, self-motion, or some combination of the two. (nyu.edu)
- It can be used to determine one\u2019s direction of self-motion (heading). (zenodo.org)
- DeAngelis, GC & Angelaki, DE 2011, Visual-vestibular integration for self-motion perception . (nyu.edu)
- Will work on all aspects of our proprietary motion controller technology from bringing data streams through our processing framework, managing the lifecycle of each controller, design/implementation of processing filters, efficiently transporting data streams from hardware to applications, building recording and playback tools, and analyzing data / tweaking algorithms to improve performance. (greenhouse.io)
- Such units might constitute part of a mechanism for signalling subjective occluding contours based on motion-field discontinuities. (dtic.mil)
- The difference between this motion and other motion resides in its empirical status independent of observation, not in our subjective perception. (experimentaltvcenter.org)
- The pitch of a sound did not even modulate the visual motion perception induced by sounds alternating in up/down location. (springer.com)