The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.
Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.
Cognitive disorders characterized by an impaired ability to perceive the nature of objects or concepts through use of the sense organs. These include spatial neglect syndromes, where an individual does not attend to visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli presented from one side of the body.
The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
Differential response to different stimuli.
The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.
An illusion of vision usually affecting spatial relations.
The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.
Perception of three-dimensionality.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
Eye movements that are slow, continuous, and conjugate and occur when a fixed object is moved slowly.
A perceptual phenomenon used by Gestalt psychologists to demonstrate that events in one part of the perceptual field may affect perception in another part.
The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.
The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.
Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.
Normal nystagmus produced by looking at objects moving across the field of vision.
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.
Images seen by one eye.
The difference between two images on the retina when looking at a visual stimulus. This occurs since the two retinas do not have the same view of the stimulus because of the location of our eyes. Thus the left eye does not get exactly the same view as the right eye.
The smallest difference which can be discriminated between two stimuli or one which is barely above the threshold.
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)
Disorder caused by motion, as sea sickness, train sickness, car sickness, air sickness, or SPACE MOTION SICKNESS. It may include nausea, vomiting and dizziness.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Treatment of chronic, severe and intractable psychiatric disorders by surgical removal or interruption of certain areas or pathways in the brain, especially in the prefrontal lobes.
The function of the eye that is used in the intermediate level of illumination (mesopic intensities) where both the RETINAL ROD PHOTORECEPTORS and the RETINAL CONE PHOTORECEPTORS are active in processing light input simultaneously.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.
The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).
The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
The interference of one perceptual stimulus with another causing a decrease or lessening in perceptual effectiveness.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.
An increase in the rate of speed.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.
The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The ability to estimate periods of time lapsed or duration of time.
The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.
An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
The sensory interpretation of the dimensions of objects.
A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
The process by which the nature and meaning of tactile stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain, such as realizing the characteristics or name of an object being touched.
The process by which the nature and meaning of gustatory stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain. The four basic classes of taste perception are salty, sweet, bitter, and sour.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The process by which the nature and meaning of olfactory stimuli, such as odors, are recognized and interpreted by the brain.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
Recognition and discrimination of the heaviness of a lifted object.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.
Lack of correspondence between the way a stimulus is commonly perceived and the way an individual perceives it under given conditions.
Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.
Continuation of visual impression after cessation of stimuli causing the original image.
The continuous visual field seen by a subject through space and time.

Transient and permanent deficits in motion perception after lesions of cortical areas MT and MST in the macaque monkey. (1/3995)

We examined the nature and the selectivity of the motion deficits produced by lesions of extrastriate areas MT and MST. Lesions were made by injecting ibotenic acid into the representation of the left visual field in two macaque monkeys. The monkeys discriminated two stimuli that differed either in stimulus direction or orientation. Direction and orientation discrimination were assessed by measuring thresholds with gratings and random-dots placed in the intact or lesioned visual fields. At the start of behavioral testing, we found pronounced, motion-specific deficits in thresholds for all types of moving stimuli, including pronounced elevations in contrast thresholds and in signal-to-noise thresholds measured with moving gratings, as well as deficits in direction range thresholds and motion coherence measured with random-dot stimuli. In addition, the accuracy of direction discrimination was reduced at smaller spatial displacements (i.e. step sizes), suggesting an increase in spatial scale of the residual directional mechanism. Subsequent improvements in thresholds were seen with all motion stimuli, as behavioral training progressed, and these improvements occurred only with extensive behavioral testing in the lesioned visual field. These improvements were particularly pronounced for stimuli not masked by noise. On the other hand, deficits in the ability to extract motion from noisy stimuli and in the accuracy of direction discrimination persisted despite extensive behavioral training. These results demonstrate the importance of areas MT and MST for the perception of motion direction, particularly in the presence of noise. In addition, they provide evidence for the importance of behavioral training for functional recovery after cortical lesions. The data also strongly support the idea of functional specialization of areas MT and MST for motion processing.  (+info)

The neuronal basis of a sensory analyser, the acridid movement detector system. I. Effects of simple incremental and decremental stimuli in light and dark adapted animals. (2/3995)

1. The response of the movement detector (MD) system to proportionally constant incremental and decremental stimuli has been studied at various degrees of light and dark adaptation. Action potentials in the descending contralateral movement detector neurone were taken as the indicator of response. 2. Over a range of at least six log10 units of adapting luminance, the MD system behaves as an ON/OFF unit, giving responses to both incremental and decremental changes in the illumination of a 5 degrees target. 3. With increasing amplitudes of stimuli, both the ON and OFF responses saturate rapidly. Saturation is reached sooner at higher levels of light adaptation. At all levels of light adaptation, the OFF response is greater than the ON. The ratio for saturating stimuli is approximately constant at around 3:2. 4. At the brightest adapting luminances used (20 000 cd/m2) the ON response is reduced but not lost. At the lowest (0-004 cd/m2) the OFF response to a 5 degrees disc fails, but can be regained by increasing the test area to 10 degrees. 5. From what is known of the retina of locusts and other insects, it is thought that light and dark adaptation in the MD system can be adequately explained by events at the retinula cell.  (+info)

Visual motion analysis for pursuit eye movements in area MT of macaque monkeys. (3/3995)

We asked whether the dynamics of target motion are represented in visual area MT and how information about image velocity and acceleration might be extracted from the population responses in area MT for use in motor control. The time course of MT neuron responses was recorded in anesthetized macaque monkeys during target motions that covered the range of dynamics normally seen during smooth pursuit eye movements. When the target motion provided steps of target speed, MT neurons showed a continuum from purely tonic responses to those with large transient pulses of firing at the onset of motion. Cells with large transient responses for steps of target speed also had larger responses for smooth accelerations than for decelerations through the same range of target speeds. Condition-test experiments with pairs of 64 msec pulses of target speed revealed response attenuation at short interpulse intervals in cells with large transient responses. For sinusoidal modulation of target speed, MT neuron responses were strongly modulated for frequencies up to, but not higher than, 8 Hz. The phase of the responses was consistent with a 90 msec time delay between target velocity and firing rate. We created a model that reproduced the dynamic responses of MT cells using divisive gain control, used the model to visualize the population response in MT to individual stimuli, and devised weighted-averaging computations to reconstruct target speed and acceleration from the population response. Target speed could be reconstructed if each neuron's output was weighted according to its preferred speed. Target acceleration could be reconstructed if each neuron's output was weighted according to the product of preferred speed and a measure of the size of its transient response.  (+info)

Common 3 and 10 Hz oscillations modulate human eye and finger movements while they simultaneously track a visual target. (4/3995)

1. A 10 Hz range centrally originating oscillation has been found to modulate slow finger movements and anticipatory smooth eye movements. To determine if an interaction or linkage occurs between these two central oscillations during combined visuo-manual tracking, frequency and coherence analysis were performed on finger and eye movements while they simultaneously tracked a visual target moving in intermittently visible sinusoidal patterns. 2. Two different frequencies of common or linked oscillation were found. The first, at 2-3 Hz, was dependent on visual feedback of target and finger tracking positions. The second, at around 10 Hz, still occurred when both target and finger positions were largely obscured, indicating that this common oscillation was generated internally by the motor system independent of visual feedback. Both 3 and 10 Hz oscillation frequencies were also shared by the right and left fingers if subjects used these together to track a visual target. 3. The linking of the 10 Hz range oscillations between the eyes and finger was task specific; it never occurred when eye and finger movements were made simultaneously and independently, but only when they moved simultaneously and followed the target together. However, although specific for tracking by the eyes and fingers together, the linking behaviour did not appear to be a prerequisite for such tracking, since significant coherence in the 10 Hz range was only present in a proportion of trials where these combined movements were made. 4. The experiments show that common oscillations may modulate anatomically very distinct structures, indicating that single central oscillations may have a widespread distribution in the central nervous system. The task-specific manifestation of the common oscillation in the eye and finger suggests that such mechanisms may have a functional role in hand-eye co-ordination.  (+info)

Variability in spike trains during constant and dynamic stimulation. (5/3995)

In a recent study, it was concluded that natural time-varying stimuli are represented more reliably in the brain than constant stimuli are. The results presented here disagree with this conclusion, although they were obtained from the same identified neuron (H1) in the fly's visual system. For large parts of the neuron's activity range, the variability of the responses was very similar for constant and time-varying stimuli and was considerably smaller than that in many visual interneurons of vertebrates.  (+info)

Shift in speed selectivity of visual cortical neurons: a neural basis of perceived motion contrast. (6/3995)

The perceived speed of motion in one part of the visual field is influenced by the speed of motion in its surrounding fields. Little is known about the cellular mechanisms causing this phenomenon. Recordings from mammalian visual cortex revealed that speed preference of the cortical cells could be changed by displaying a contrast speed in the field surrounding the cell's classical receptive field. The neuron's selectivity shifted to prefer faster speed if the contextual surround motion was set at a relatively lower speed, and vice versa. These specific center-surround interactions may underlie the perceptual enhancement of speed contrast between adjacent fields.  (+info)

Neuronal basis of a sensory analyser, the acridid movement detector system. III. Control of response amplitude by tonic lateral inhibition. (7/3995)

1. The Lobular Giant Movement Detector neurone (LGMD) of Schistocerca responds with spikes when small areas of the visual field change in luminance. Previous work has shown that changes of +/- 1 log 10 unit are enough to produce maximal ON and OFF responses. 2. Using a 5 degree test area, it is shown that the number of spikes generated by such a stimulus depends on the luminance of the surrounding area. When the surround is dark, the response is maximal; when it is brightly lit, the response is minimal. Intermediate intensities produce intermediate values of response. A X 2 change in response is produced by about 3 log 10 units change in surround intensity. 3. A bright annulus, with diameters of 10-5 degrees and 25-8 degrees, inhibits both ON and OFF responses when concentric with the 5 degree test area, but not when it is 30 degrees eccentric to the test area. The inhibitory effect shows no decrease after 4 min. 4. These results are interpreted to indicate a tonic lateral inhibitory network, sited peripherally in the optic lobe prior to the divergence of the separate ON and OFF channels found in the projection from the medulla to the LGMD. It is probably identical with that described for the lamina by previous workers.  (+info)

A theory of geometric constraints on neural activity for natural three-dimensional movement. (8/3995)

Although the orientation of an arm in space or the static view of an object may be represented by a population of neurons in complex ways, how these variables change with movement often follows simple linear rules, reflecting the underlying geometric constraints in the physical world. A theoretical analysis is presented for how such constraints affect the average firing rates of sensory and motor neurons during natural movements with low degrees of freedom, such as a limb movement and rigid object motion. When applied to nonrigid reaching arm movements, the linear theory accounts for cosine directional tuning with linear speed modulation, predicts a curl-free spatial distribution of preferred directions, and also explains why the instantaneous motion of the hand can be recovered from the neural population activity. For three-dimensional motion of a rigid object, the theory predicts that, to a first approximation, the response of a sensory neuron should have a preferred translational direction and a preferred rotation axis in space, both with cosine tuning functions modulated multiplicatively by speed and angular speed, respectively. Some known tuning properties of motion-sensitive neurons follow as special cases. Acceleration tuning and nonlinear speed modulation are considered in an extension of the linear theory. This general approach provides a principled method to derive mechanism-insensitive neuronal properties by exploiting the inherently low dimensionality of natural movements.  (+info)

Motion perception is the ability to interpret and understand the movement of objects in our environment. It is a complex process that involves multiple areas of the brain and the visual system. In medical terms, motion perception refers to the specific function of the visual system to detect and analyze the movement of visual stimuli. This allows us to perceive and respond to moving objects in our environment, which is crucial for activities such as driving, sports, and even maintaining balance. Disorders in motion perception can lead to conditions like motion sickness or difficulty with depth perception.

In the context of medical terminology, "motion" generally refers to the act or process of moving or changing position. It can also refer to the range of movement of a body part or joint. However, there is no single specific medical definition for the term "motion." The meaning may vary depending on the context in which it is used.

Photic stimulation is a medical term that refers to the exposure of the eyes to light, specifically repetitive pulses of light, which is used as a method in various research and clinical settings. In neuroscience, it's often used in studies related to vision, circadian rhythms, and brain function.

In a clinical context, photic stimulation is sometimes used in the diagnosis of certain medical conditions such as seizure disorders (like epilepsy). By observing the response of the brain to this light stimulus, doctors can gain valuable insights into the functioning of the brain and the presence of any neurological disorders.

However, it's important to note that photic stimulation should be conducted under the supervision of a trained healthcare professional, as improper use can potentially trigger seizures in individuals who are susceptible to them.

Psychophysics is not a medical term per se, but rather a subfield of psychology and neuroscience that studies the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they produce. It involves the quantitative investigation of psychological functions, such as how brightness or loudness is perceived relative to the physical intensity of light or sound.

In medical contexts, psychophysical methods may be used in research or clinical settings to understand how patients with neurological conditions or sensory impairments perceive and respond to different stimuli. This information can inform diagnostic assessments, treatment planning, and rehabilitation strategies.

Perceptual disorders are conditions that affect the way a person perceives or interprets sensory information from their environment. These disorders can involve any of the senses, including sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell. They can cause a person to have difficulty recognizing, interpreting, or responding appropriately to sensory stimuli.

Perceptual disorders can result from damage to the brain or nervous system, such as from a head injury, stroke, or degenerative neurological condition. They can also be caused by certain mental health conditions, such as schizophrenia or severe depression.

Symptoms of perceptual disorders may include:

* Misinterpretations of sensory information, such as seeing things that are not there or hearing voices that are not present
* Difficulty recognizing familiar objects or people
* Problems with depth perception or spatial awareness
* Difficulty judging the size, shape, or distance of objects
* Trouble distinguishing between similar sounds or colors
* Impaired sense of smell or taste

Perceptual disorders can have a significant impact on a person's daily life and functioning. Treatment may involve medication, therapy, or rehabilitation to help the person better cope with their symptoms and improve their ability to interact with their environment.

In the context of medicine and psychology, perception refers to the neurophysiological processes, cognitive abilities, and psychological experiences that enable an individual to interpret and make sense of sensory information from their environment. It involves the integration of various stimuli such as sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell to form a coherent understanding of one's surroundings, objects, events, or ideas.

Perception is a complex and active process that includes attention, pattern recognition, interpretation, and organization of sensory information. It can be influenced by various factors, including prior experiences, expectations, cultural background, emotional states, and cognitive biases. Alterations in perception may occur due to neurological disorders, psychiatric conditions, sensory deprivation or overload, drugs, or other external factors.

In a clinical setting, healthcare professionals often assess patients' perceptions of their symptoms, illnesses, or treatments to develop individualized care plans and improve communication and adherence to treatment recommendations.

Sensory thresholds are the minimum levels of stimulation that are required to produce a sensation in an individual, as determined through psychophysical testing. These tests measure the point at which a person can just barely detect the presence of a stimulus, such as a sound, light, touch, or smell.

There are two types of sensory thresholds: absolute and difference. Absolute threshold is the minimum level of intensity required to detect a stimulus 50% of the time. Difference threshold, also known as just noticeable difference (JND), is the smallest change in intensity that can be detected between two stimuli.

Sensory thresholds can vary between individuals and are influenced by factors such as age, attention, motivation, and expectations. They are often used in clinical settings to assess sensory function and diagnose conditions such as hearing or vision loss.

Contrast sensitivity is a measure of the ability to distinguish between an object and its background based on differences in contrast, rather than differences in luminance. Contrast refers to the difference in light intensity between an object and its immediate surroundings. Contrast sensitivity is typically measured using specially designed charts that have patterns of parallel lines with varying widths and contrast levels.

In clinical settings, contrast sensitivity is often assessed as part of a comprehensive visual examination. Poor contrast sensitivity can affect a person's ability to perform tasks such as reading, driving, or distinguishing objects from their background, especially in low-light conditions. Reduced contrast sensitivity is a common symptom of various eye conditions, including cataracts, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration.

Optical illusions are visual phenomena that occur when the brain perceives an image or scene differently from the actual physical properties of that image or scene. They often result from the brain's attempt to interpret and make sense of ambiguous, contradictory, or incomplete information provided by the eyes. This can lead to visually perceived images that are different from the objective reality. Optical illusions can be categorized into different types such as literal illusions, physiological illusions, and cognitive illusions, based on the nature of the illusion and the underlying cause.

Form perception, also known as shape perception, is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in the field of neuropsychology and sensory perception, form perception refers to the ability to recognize and interpret different shapes and forms of objects through visual processing. This ability is largely dependent on the integrity of the visual cortex and its ability to process and interpret information received from the retina.

Damage to certain areas of the brain, particularly in the occipital and parietal lobes, can result in deficits in form perception, leading to difficulties in recognizing and identifying objects based on their shape or form. This condition is known as visual agnosia and can be a symptom of various neurological disorders such as stroke, brain injury, or degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease.

Depth perception is the ability to accurately judge the distance or separation of an object in three-dimensional space. It is a complex visual process that allows us to perceive the world in three dimensions and to understand the spatial relationships between objects.

Depth perception is achieved through a combination of monocular cues, which are visual cues that can be perceived with one eye, and binocular cues, which require input from both eyes. Monocular cues include perspective (the relative size of objects), texture gradients (finer details become smaller as distance increases), and atmospheric perspective (colors become less saturated and lighter in value as distance increases). Binocular cues include convergence (the degree to which the eyes must turn inward to focus on an object) and retinal disparity (the slight difference in the images projected onto the two retinas due to the slightly different positions of the eyes).

Deficits in depth perception can occur due to a variety of factors, including eye disorders, brain injuries, or developmental delays. These deficits can result in difficulties with tasks such as driving, sports, or navigating complex environments. Treatment for depth perception deficits may include vision therapy, corrective lenses, or surgery.

Visual pattern recognition is the ability to identify and interpret patterns in visual information. In a medical context, it often refers to the process by which healthcare professionals recognize and diagnose medical conditions based on visible signs or symptoms. This can involve recognizing the characteristic appearance of a rash, wound, or other physical feature associated with a particular disease or condition. It may also involve recognizing patterns in medical images such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs.

In the field of radiology, for example, visual pattern recognition is a critical skill. Radiologists are trained to recognize the typical appearances of various diseases and conditions in medical images. This allows them to make accurate diagnoses based on the patterns they see. Similarly, dermatologists use visual pattern recognition to identify skin abnormalities and diseases based on the appearance of rashes, lesions, or other skin changes.

Overall, visual pattern recognition is an essential skill in many areas of medicine, allowing healthcare professionals to quickly and accurately diagnose medical conditions based on visible signs and symptoms.

Eye movements, also known as ocular motility, refer to the voluntary or involuntary motion of the eyes that allows for visual exploration of our environment. There are several types of eye movements, including:

1. Saccades: rapid, ballistic movements that quickly shift the gaze from one point to another.
2. Pursuits: smooth, slow movements that allow the eyes to follow a moving object.
3. Vergences: coordinated movements of both eyes in opposite directions, usually in response to a three-dimensional stimulus.
4. Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR): automatic eye movements that help stabilize the gaze during head movement.
5. Optokinetic nystagmus (OKN): rhythmic eye movements that occur in response to large moving visual patterns, such as when looking out of a moving vehicle.

Abnormalities in eye movements can indicate neurological or ophthalmological disorders and are often assessed during clinical examinations.

Visual perception refers to the ability to interpret and organize information that comes from our eyes to recognize and understand what we are seeing. It involves several cognitive processes such as pattern recognition, size estimation, movement detection, and depth perception. Visual perception allows us to identify objects, navigate through space, and interact with our environment. Deficits in visual perception can lead to learning difficulties and disabilities.

Visual pathways, also known as the visual system or the optic pathway, refer to the series of specialized neurons in the nervous system that transmit visual information from the eyes to the brain. This complex network includes the retina, optic nerve, optic chiasma, optic tract, lateral geniculate nucleus, pulvinar, and the primary and secondary visual cortices located in the occipital lobe of the brain.

The process begins when light enters the eye and strikes the photoreceptor cells (rods and cones) in the retina, converting the light energy into electrical signals. These signals are then transmitted to bipolar cells and subsequently to ganglion cells, whose axons form the optic nerve. The fibers from each eye's nasal hemiretina cross at the optic chiasma, while those from the temporal hemiretina continue without crossing. This results in the formation of the optic tract, which carries visual information from both eyes to the opposite side of the brain.

The majority of fibers in the optic tract synapse with neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), a part of the thalamus. The LGN sends this information to the primary visual cortex, also known as V1 or Brodmann area 17, located in the occipital lobe. Here, simple features like lines and edges are initially processed. Further processing occurs in secondary (V2) and tertiary (V3-V5) visual cortices, where more complex features such as shape, motion, and depth are analyzed. Ultimately, this information is integrated to form our perception of the visual world.

In the context of medical terminology, I believe you may be referring to "pursuit" as it relates to neurological tests. A smooth pursuit is a type of eye movement in which the eyes smoothly and slowly follow a moving object. It requires coordination between the extraocular muscles, vestibular system, and visual system. If there are issues with any of these systems, smooth pursuit can be affected, leading to abnormalities such as jerky or saccadic movements.

Therefore, "smooth pursuit" is a medical term used to describe the normal, coordinated movement of the eyes that allows for the tracking of moving objects in a smooth and continuous manner.

"Figural aftereffect" is not a widely recognized or established term in medical or clinical neuroscience literature. However, it seems to be related to the concept of "perceptual aftereffects," which are well-documented phenomena in visual and other sensory perception. Here's a definition that may help you understand figural aftereffects within this context:

Perceptual aftereffect is a phenomenon where exposure to a specific stimulus for a certain period can temporarily alter the perception of subsequent stimuli, making them appear different from what they would have been without the initial exposure. This effect arises due to neural adaptation in response to the prolonged exposure.

In the case of "figural aftereffect," it likely refers to a specific type of perceptual aftereffect where the perception of figures or shapes is affected by prior exposure. For example, if someone stares at a curved line for a while and then looks at a straight line, they might initially perceive the straight line as being more curved than it actually is due to the lingering influence of the initial stimulus.

However, since "figural aftereffect" isn't a standard term in medical or neuroscience literature, I would recommend consulting original research articles or experts in visual perception for a more precise definition and context.

Binocular vision refers to the ability to use both eyes together to create a single, three-dimensional image of our surroundings. This is achieved through a process called binocular fusion, where the images from each eye are aligned and combined in the brain to form a unified perception.

The term "binocular vision" specifically refers to the way that our visual system integrates information from both eyes to create depth perception and enhance visual clarity. When we view an object with both eyes, they focus on the same point in space and send slightly different images to the brain due to their slightly different positions. The brain then combines these images to create a single, three-dimensional image that allows us to perceive depth and distance.

Binocular vision is important for many everyday activities, such as driving, reading, and playing sports. Disorders of binocular vision can lead to symptoms such as double vision, eye strain, and difficulty with depth perception.

An illusion is a perception in the brain that does not match the actual stimulus in the environment. It is often described as a false or misinterpreted sensory experience, where the senses perceive something that is different from the reality. Illusions can occur in any of the senses, including vision, hearing, touch, taste, and smell.

In medical terms, illusions are sometimes associated with certain neurological conditions, such as migraines, brain injuries, or mental health disorders like schizophrenia. They can also be a side effect of certain medications or substances. In these cases, the illusions may be a symptom of an underlying medical condition and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional.

It's important to note that while illusions are often used in the context of entertainment and art, they can also have serious implications for individuals who experience them frequently or as part of a medical condition.

The visual cortex is the part of the brain that processes visual information. It is located in the occipital lobe, which is at the back of the brain. The visual cortex is responsible for receiving and interpreting signals from the retina, which are then transmitted through the optic nerve and optic tract.

The visual cortex contains several areas that are involved in different aspects of visual processing, such as identifying shapes, colors, and movements. These areas work together to help us recognize and understand what we see. Damage to the visual cortex can result in various visual impairments, such as blindness or difficulty with visual perception.

In the context of medicine, particularly in anatomy and physiology, "rotation" refers to the movement of a body part around its own axis or the long axis of another structure. This type of motion is three-dimensional and can occur in various planes. A common example of rotation is the movement of the forearm bones (radius and ulna) around each other during pronation and supination, which allows the hand to be turned palm up or down. Another example is the rotation of the head during mastication (chewing), where the mandible moves in a circular motion around the temporomandibular joint.

Color perception refers to the ability to detect, recognize, and differentiate various colors and color patterns in the visual field. This complex process involves the functioning of both the eyes and the brain.

The eye's retina contains two types of photoreceptor cells called rods and cones. Rods are more sensitive to light and dark changes and help us see in low-light conditions, but they do not contribute much to color vision. Cones, on the other hand, are responsible for color perception and function best in well-lit conditions.

There are three types of cone cells, each sensitive to a particular range of wavelengths corresponding to blue, green, and red colors. The combination of signals from these three types of cones allows us to perceive a wide spectrum of colors.

The brain then interprets these signals and translates them into the perception of different colors and hues. It is important to note that color perception can be influenced by various factors, including cultural background, personal experiences, and even language. Some individuals may also have deficiencies in color perception due to genetic or acquired conditions, such as color blindness or cataracts.

Optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) is a type of involuntary eye movement that occurs in response to large moving visual patterns. It serves as a mechanism for stabilizing the image on the retina during head movement and helps in maintaining visual fixation.

In OKN, there are two phases of eye movement: a slow phase where the eyes follow or track the moving pattern, and a fast phase where the eyes quickly reset to the starting position. This results in a back-and-forth or "to-and-fro" motion of the eyes.

Optokinetic nystagmus can be elicited by observing a large moving object or a series of alternating visual stimuli, such as stripes on a rotating drum. It is often used in clinical settings to assess various aspects of the visual system, including oculomotor function and visual acuity.

Abnormalities in OKN can indicate problems with the vestibular system, brainstem, or cerebellum, and may be associated with conditions such as brain injury, multiple sclerosis, or cerebral palsy.

Space perception, in the context of neuroscience and psychology, refers to the ability to perceive and understand the spatial arrangement of objects and their relationship to oneself. It involves integrating various sensory inputs such as visual, auditory, tactile, and proprioceptive information to create a coherent three-dimensional representation of our environment.

This cognitive process enables us to judge distances, sizes, shapes, and movements of objects around us. It also helps us navigate through space, reach for objects, avoid obstacles, and maintain balance. Disorders in space perception can lead to difficulties in performing everyday activities and may be associated with neurological conditions such as stroke, brain injury, or neurodevelopmental disorders like autism.

In the context of medicine, "cues" generally refer to specific pieces of information or signals that can help healthcare professionals recognize and respond to a particular situation or condition. These cues can come in various forms, such as:

1. Physical examination findings: For example, a patient's abnormal heart rate or blood pressure reading during a physical exam may serve as a cue for the healthcare professional to investigate further.
2. Patient symptoms: A patient reporting chest pain, shortness of breath, or other concerning symptoms can act as a cue for a healthcare provider to consider potential diagnoses and develop an appropriate treatment plan.
3. Laboratory test results: Abnormal findings on laboratory tests, such as elevated blood glucose levels or abnormal liver function tests, may serve as cues for further evaluation and diagnosis.
4. Medical history information: A patient's medical history can provide valuable cues for healthcare professionals when assessing their current health status. For example, a history of smoking may increase the suspicion for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a patient presenting with respiratory symptoms.
5. Behavioral or environmental cues: In some cases, behavioral or environmental factors can serve as cues for healthcare professionals to consider potential health risks. For instance, exposure to secondhand smoke or living in an area with high air pollution levels may increase the risk of developing respiratory conditions.

Overall, "cues" in a medical context are essential pieces of information that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care and treatment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "lighting" does not have a specific medical definition. In a general context, lighting refers to the arrangement or use of light sources to achieve a particular effect or atmosphere. However, if you are referring to a term in medicine that may be similar to "lighting," you might be thinking of "lumination" or "illumination," which refer to the act of providing or admitting light, especially for medical examination or surgical procedures. I hope this helps! If you have any other questions, please don't hesitate to ask.

Monocular vision refers to the ability to see and process visual information using only one eye. It is the type of vision that an individual has when they are using only one eye to look at something, while the other eye may be covered or not functioning. This can be contrasted with binocular vision, which involves the use of both eyes working together to provide depth perception and a single, combined visual field.

Monocular vision is important for tasks that only require the use of one eye, such as when looking through a microscope or using a telescope. However, it does not provide the same level of depth perception and spatial awareness as binocular vision. In some cases, individuals may have reduced visual acuity or other visual impairments in one eye, leading to limited monocular vision in that eye. It is important for individuals with monocular vision to have regular eye exams to monitor their eye health and ensure that any visual impairments are detected and treated promptly.

Vision disparity, also known as binocular vision disparity, refers to the difference in the image that is perceived by each eye. This can occur due to a variety of reasons such as misalignment of the eyes (strabismus), unequal refractive power in each eye (anisometropia), or abnormalities in the shape of the eye (astigmatism).

When there is a significant difference in the image that is perceived by each eye, the brain may have difficulty combining the two images into a single, three-dimensional perception. This can result in visual symptoms such as double vision (diplopia), eyestrain, headaches, and difficulty with depth perception.

Vision disparity can be detected through a comprehensive eye examination and may be treated with corrective lenses, prism lenses, vision therapy, or surgery, depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition.

The Differential Threshold, also known as the Just Noticeable Difference (JND), is the minimum change in a stimulus that can be detected or perceived as different from another stimulus by an average human observer. It is a fundamental concept in psychophysics, which deals with the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they produce.

The differential threshold is typically measured using methods such as the method of limits or the method of constant stimuli, in which the intensity of a stimulus is gradually increased or decreased until the observer can reliably detect a difference. The difference between the original stimulus and the barely detectable difference is then taken as the differential threshold.

The differential threshold can vary depending on a number of factors, including the type of stimulus (e.g., visual, auditory, tactile), the intensity of the original stimulus, the observer's attention and expectations, and individual differences in sensory sensitivity. Understanding the differential threshold is important for many applications, such as designing sensory aids for people with hearing or vision impairments, optimizing the design of multimedia systems, and developing more effective methods for detecting subtle changes in physiological signals.

Articular Range of Motion (AROM) is a term used in physiotherapy and orthopedics to describe the amount of movement available in a joint, measured in degrees of a circle. It refers to the range through which synovial joints can actively move without causing pain or injury. AROM is assessed by measuring the degree of motion achieved by active muscle contraction, as opposed to passive range of motion (PROM), where the movement is generated by an external force.

Assessment of AROM is important in evaluating a patient's functional ability and progress, planning treatment interventions, and determining return to normal activities or sports participation. It is also used to identify any restrictions in joint mobility that may be due to injury, disease, or surgery, and to monitor the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs.

Visual fields refer to the total area in which objects can be seen while keeping the eyes focused on a central point. It is the entire area that can be observed using peripheral (side) vision while the eye gazes at a fixed point. A visual field test is used to detect blind spots or gaps (scotomas) in a person's vision, which could indicate various medical conditions such as glaucoma, retinal damage, optic nerve disease, brain tumors, or strokes. The test measures both the central and peripheral vision and maps the entire area that can be seen when focusing on a single point.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, "movement" refers to the act or process of changing physical location or position. It involves the contraction and relaxation of muscles, which allows for the joints to move and the body to be in motion. Movement can also refer to the ability of a patient to move a specific body part or limb, which is assessed during physical examinations. Additionally, "movement" can describe the progression or spread of a disease within the body.

The temporal lobe is one of the four main lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain, located on each side of the head roughly level with the ears. It plays a major role in auditory processing, memory, and emotion. The temporal lobe contains several key structures including the primary auditory cortex, which is responsible for analyzing sounds, and the hippocampus, which is crucial for forming new memories. Damage to the temporal lobe can result in various neurological symptoms such as hearing loss, memory impairment, and changes in emotional behavior.

Ocular fixation is a term used in ophthalmology and optometry to refer to the ability of the eyes to maintain steady gaze or visual focus on an object. It involves the coordinated movement of the extraocular muscles that control eye movements, allowing for clear and stable vision.

In medical terminology, fixation specifically refers to the state in which the eyes are aligned and focused on a single point in space. This is important for maintaining visual perception and preventing blurring or double vision. Ocular fixation can be affected by various factors such as muscle weakness, nerve damage, or visual processing disorders.

Assessment of ocular fixation is often used in eye examinations to evaluate visual acuity, eye alignment, and muscle function. Abnormalities in fixation may indicate the presence of underlying eye conditions or developmental delays that require further investigation and treatment.

In a medical context, "orientation" typically refers to an individual's awareness and understanding of their personal identity, place, time, and situation. It is a critical component of cognitive functioning and mental status. Healthcare professionals often assess a person's orientation during clinical evaluations, using tests that inquire about their name, location, the current date, and the circumstances of their hospitalization or visit.

There are different levels of orientation:

1. Person (or self): The individual knows their own identity, including their name, age, and other personal details.
2. Place: The individual is aware of where they are, such as the name of the city, hospital, or healthcare facility.
3. Time: The individual can accurately state the current date, day of the week, month, and year.
4. Situation or event: The individual understands why they are in the healthcare setting, what happened leading to their hospitalization or visit, and the nature of any treatments or procedures they are undergoing.

Impairments in orientation can be indicative of various neurological or psychiatric conditions, such as delirium, dementia, or substance intoxication or withdrawal. It is essential for healthcare providers to monitor and address orientation issues to ensure appropriate diagnosis, treatment, and patient safety.

In a medical or psychological context, attention is the cognitive process of selectively concentrating on certain aspects of the environment while ignoring other things. It involves focusing mental resources on specific stimuli, sensory inputs, or internal thoughts while blocking out irrelevant distractions. Attention can be divided into different types, including:

1. Sustained attention: The ability to maintain focus on a task or stimulus over time.
2. Selective attention: The ability to concentrate on relevant stimuli while ignoring irrelevant ones.
3. Divided attention: The capacity to pay attention to multiple tasks or stimuli simultaneously.
4. Alternating attention: The skill of shifting focus between different tasks or stimuli as needed.

Deficits in attention are common symptoms of various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as ADHD, dementia, depression, and anxiety disorders. Assessment of attention is an essential part of neuropsychological evaluations and can be measured using various tests and tasks.

Ocular motility disorders refer to a group of conditions that affect the movement of the eyes. These disorders can result from nerve damage, muscle dysfunction, or brain injuries. They can cause abnormal eye alignment, limited range of motion, and difficulty coordinating eye movements. Common symptoms include double vision, blurry vision, strabismus (crossed eyes), nystagmus (involuntary eye movement), and difficulty tracking moving objects. Ocular motility disorders can be congenital or acquired and may require medical intervention to correct or manage the condition.

Motion sickness is a condition characterized by a disturbance in the balance and orientation senses, often triggered by conflicting information received from the eyes, inner ears, and other bodily sensory systems. It's typically brought on by motion such as that experienced during travel in cars, trains, boats, or airplanes, or even while using virtual reality devices. Symptoms can include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and cold sweats.

The inner ear's vestibular system plays a key role in this condition. When the body is in motion but the inner ear remains still, or vice versa, it can cause the brain to receive conflicting signals about the body's state of motion, leading to feelings of disorientation and sickness.

Preventative measures for motion sickness include fixating on a stationary point outside the vehicle, avoiding reading or looking at electronic screens during travel, taking over-the-counter medications like dimenhydrinate (Dramamine) or scopolamine (Transderm Scop), and engaging in relaxation techniques such as deep breathing.

Psychological models are theoretical frameworks used in psychology to explain and predict mental processes and behaviors. They are simplified representations of complex phenomena, consisting of interrelated concepts, assumptions, and hypotheses that describe how various factors interact to produce specific outcomes. These models can be quantitative (e.g., mathematical equations) or qualitative (e.g., conceptual diagrams) in nature and may draw upon empirical data, theoretical insights, or both.

Psychological models serve several purposes:

1. They provide a systematic and organized way to understand and describe psychological phenomena.
2. They generate hypotheses and predictions that can be tested through empirical research.
3. They integrate findings from different studies and help synthesize knowledge across various domains of psychology.
4. They inform the development of interventions and treatments for mental health disorders.

Examples of psychological models include:

1. The Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality, which posits that individual differences in personality can be described along five broad dimensions: Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism.
2. The Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) model, which suggests that maladaptive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are interconnected and can be changed through targeted interventions.
3. The Dual Process Theory of Attitudes, which proposes that attitudes are formed and influenced by two distinct processes: a rapid, intuitive process (heuristic) and a slower, deliberative process (systematic).
4. The Social Cognitive Theory, which emphasizes the role of observational learning, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations in shaping behavior.
5. The Attachment Theory, which describes the dynamics of long-term relationships between humans, particularly the parent-child relationship.

It is important to note that psychological models are provisional and subject to revision or replacement as new evidence emerges. They should be considered as useful tools for understanding and explaining psychological phenomena rather than definitive truths.

The occipital lobe is the portion of the cerebral cortex that lies at the back of the brain (posteriorly) and is primarily involved in visual processing. It contains areas that are responsible for the interpretation and integration of visual stimuli, including color, form, movement, and recognition of objects. The occipital lobe is divided into several regions, such as the primary visual cortex (V1), secondary visual cortex (V2 to V5), and the visual association cortex, which work together to process different aspects of visual information. Damage to the occipital lobe can lead to various visual deficits, including blindness or partial loss of vision, known as a visual field cut.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Neurological models are simplified representations or simulations of various aspects of the nervous system, including its structure, function, and processes. These models can be theoretical, computational, or physical and are used to understand, explain, and predict neurological phenomena. They may focus on specific neurological diseases, disorders, or functions, such as memory, learning, or movement. The goal of these models is to provide insights into the complex workings of the nervous system that cannot be easily observed or understood through direct examination alone.

Psychosurgery is a surgical intervention aimed at modifying or altering brain functions to treat severe and disabling mental disorders. It involves the deliberate destruction or disconnection of specific areas of the brain, typically through procedures such as lobotomy or stereotactic neurosurgery. These interventions are usually considered a last resort when other treatments have failed, and they are reserved for individuals with extreme cases of mental illness, such as intractable depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or severe anxiety disorders.

It's important to note that psychosurgery is a highly controversial and stigmatized field, and its use has declined significantly since the mid-20th century due to concerns about its effectiveness, ethics, and potential for harm. Today, psychosurgery is tightly regulated and subject to strict ethical guidelines in most countries.

Mesopic vision is a term used to describe the intermediate level of vision that occurs in conditions of decreased illumination, specifically between 0.02 and 3 candelas per square meter (cd/m²). This range falls between photopic vision, which is vision in bright light (>3 cd/m²), and scotopic vision, which is vision in very low light (

Ocular vision refers to the ability to process and interpret visual information that is received by the eyes. This includes the ability to see clearly and make sense of the shapes, colors, and movements of objects in the environment. The ocular system, which includes the eye and related structures such as the optic nerve and visual cortex of the brain, works together to enable vision.

There are several components of ocular vision, including:

* Visual acuity: the clarity or sharpness of vision
* Field of vision: the extent of the visual world that is visible at any given moment
* Color vision: the ability to distinguish different colors
* Depth perception: the ability to judge the distance of objects in three-dimensional space
* Contrast sensitivity: the ability to distinguish an object from its background based on differences in contrast

Disorders of ocular vision can include refractive errors such as nearsightedness or farsightedness, as well as more serious conditions such as cataracts, glaucoma, and macular degeneration. These conditions can affect one or more aspects of ocular vision and may require medical treatment to prevent further vision loss.

Reaction time, in the context of medicine and physiology, refers to the time period between the presentation of a stimulus and the subsequent initiation of a response. This complex process involves the central nervous system, particularly the brain, which perceives the stimulus, processes it, and then sends signals to the appropriate muscles or glands to react.

There are different types of reaction times, including simple reaction time (responding to a single, expected stimulus) and choice reaction time (choosing an appropriate response from multiple possibilities). These measures can be used in clinical settings to assess various aspects of neurological function, such as cognitive processing speed, motor control, and alertness.

However, it is important to note that reaction times can be influenced by several factors, including age, fatigue, attention, and the use of certain medications or substances.

Social perception, in the context of psychology and social sciences, refers to the ability to interpret and understand other people's behavior, emotions, and intentions. It is the process by which we make sense of the social world around us, by observing and interpreting cues such as facial expressions, body language, tone of voice, and situational context.

In medical terminology, social perception is not a specific diagnosis or condition, but rather a cognitive skill that can be affected in various mental and neurological disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, and dementia. For example, individuals with autism may have difficulty interpreting social cues and understanding other people's emotions and intentions, while those with schizophrenia may have distorted perceptions of social situations and interactions.

Healthcare professionals who work with patients with cognitive or neurological disorders may assess their social perception skills as part of a comprehensive evaluation, in order to develop appropriate interventions and support strategies.

Speech perception is the process by which the brain interprets and understands spoken language. It involves recognizing and discriminating speech sounds (phonemes), organizing them into words, and attaching meaning to those words in order to comprehend spoken language. This process requires the integration of auditory information with prior knowledge and context. Factors such as hearing ability, cognitive function, and language experience can all impact speech perception.

Ocular adaptation is the ability of the eye to adjust and accommodate to changes in visual input and lighting conditions. This process allows the eye to maintain a clear and focused image over a range of different environments and light levels. There are several types of ocular adaptation, including:

1. Light Adaptation: This refers to the eye's ability to adjust to different levels of illumination. When moving from a dark environment to a bright one, the pupils constrict to let in less light, and the sensitivity of the retina decreases. Conversely, when moving from a bright environment to a dark one, the pupils dilate to let in more light, and the sensitivity of the retina increases.
2. Dark Adaptation: This is the process by which the eye adjusts to low light conditions. It involves the dilation of the pupils and an increase in the sensitivity of the rods (specialised cells in the retina that are responsible for vision in low light conditions). Dark adaptation can take several minutes to occur fully.
3. Color Adaptation: This refers to the eye's ability to adjust to changes in the color temperature of light sources. For example, when moving from a room lit by incandescent light to one lit by fluorescent light, the eye may need to adjust its perception of colors to maintain accurate color vision.
4. Accommodation: This is the process by which the eye changes focus from distant to near objects. The lens of the eye changes shape to bend the light rays entering the eye and bring them into sharp focus on the retina.

Overall, ocular adaptation is an essential function that allows us to see clearly and accurately in a wide range of environments and lighting conditions.

Psychomotor performance refers to the integration and coordination of mental processes (cognitive functions) with physical movements. It involves the ability to perform complex tasks that require both cognitive skills, such as thinking, remembering, and perceiving, and motor skills, such as gross and fine motor movements. Examples of psychomotor performances include driving a car, playing a musical instrument, or performing surgical procedures.

In a medical context, psychomotor performance is often used to assess an individual's ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), such as bathing, dressing, cooking, cleaning, and managing medications. Deficits in psychomotor performance can be a sign of neurological or psychiatric disorders, such as dementia, Parkinson's disease, or depression.

Assessment of psychomotor performance may involve tests that measure reaction time, coordination, speed, precision, and accuracy of movements, as well as cognitive functions such as attention, memory, and problem-solving skills. These assessments can help healthcare professionals develop appropriate treatment plans and monitor the progression of diseases or the effectiveness of interventions.

Perceptual masking, also known as sensory masking or just masking, is a concept in sensory perception that refers to the interference in the ability to detect or recognize a stimulus (the target) due to the presence of another stimulus (the mask). This phenomenon can occur across different senses, including audition and vision.

In the context of hearing, perceptual masking occurs when one sound (the masker) makes it difficult to hear another sound (the target) because the two sounds are presented simultaneously or in close proximity to each other. The masker can make the target sound less detectable, harder to identify, or even completely inaudible.

There are different types of perceptual masking, including:

1. Simultaneous Masking: When the masker and target sounds occur at the same time.
2. Temporal Masking: When the masker sound precedes or follows the target sound by a short period. This type of masking can be further divided into forward masking (when the masker comes before the target) and backward masking (when the masker comes after the target).
3. Informational Masking: A more complex form of masking that occurs when the listener's cognitive processes, such as attention or memory, are affected by the presence of the masker sound. This type of masking can make it difficult to understand speech in noisy environments, even if the signal-to-noise ratio is favorable.

Perceptual masking has important implications for understanding and addressing hearing difficulties, particularly in situations with background noise or multiple sounds occurring simultaneously.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

An artifact, in the context of medical terminology, refers to something that is created or introduced during a scientific procedure or examination that does not naturally occur in the patient or specimen being studied. Artifacts can take many forms and can be caused by various factors, including contamination, damage, degradation, or interference from equipment or external sources.

In medical imaging, for example, an artifact might appear as a distortion or anomaly on an X-ray, MRI, or CT scan that is not actually present in the patient's body. This can be caused by factors such as patient movement during the scan, metal implants or other foreign objects in the body, or issues with the imaging equipment itself.

Similarly, in laboratory testing, an artifact might refer to a substance or characteristic that is introduced into a sample during collection, storage, or analysis that can interfere with accurate results. This could include things like contamination from other samples, degradation of the sample over time, or interference from chemicals used in the testing process.

In general, artifacts are considered to be sources of error or uncertainty in medical research and diagnosis, and it is important to identify and account for them in order to ensure accurate and reliable results.

In the context of medicine and physiology, acceleration refers to the process of increasing or quickening a function or process. For example, heart rate acceleration is an increase in the speed at which the heart beats. It can also refer to the rate at which something increases, such as the acceleration of muscle strength during rehabilitation. In physics terms, acceleration refers to the rate at which an object changes its velocity, but this definition is not typically used in a medical context.

Brain mapping is a broad term that refers to the techniques used to understand the structure and function of the brain. It involves creating maps of the various cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes in the brain by correlating these processes with physical locations or activities within the nervous system. Brain mapping can be accomplished through a variety of methods, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET) scans, electroencephalography (EEG), and others. These techniques allow researchers to observe which areas of the brain are active during different tasks or thoughts, helping to shed light on how the brain processes information and contributes to our experiences and behaviors. Brain mapping is an important area of research in neuroscience, with potential applications in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

A saccade is a quick, rapid, and ballistic conjugate eye movement that shifts the point of fixation from one target to another. It helps in rapidly repositioning the fovea (the central part of the retina with the highest visual acuity) to focus on different targets of interest in the visual scene. Saccades are essential for efficient scanning and exploration of our environment, allowing us to direct our high-resolution vision towards various points of interest. They typically take only about 20-200 milliseconds to complete and can reach peak velocities of up to 500 degrees per second or more, depending on the amplitude of the movement. Saccades are a critical component of normal visual function and are often studied in fields such as ophthalmology, neurology, and neuroscience.

Auditory perception refers to the process by which the brain interprets and makes sense of the sounds we hear. It involves the recognition and interpretation of different frequencies, intensities, and patterns of sound waves that reach our ears through the process of hearing. This allows us to identify and distinguish various sounds such as speech, music, and environmental noises.

The auditory system includes the outer ear, middle ear, inner ear, and the auditory nerve, which transmits electrical signals to the brain's auditory cortex for processing and interpretation. Auditory perception is a complex process that involves multiple areas of the brain working together to identify and make sense of sounds in our environment.

Disorders or impairments in auditory perception can result in difficulties with hearing, understanding speech, and identifying environmental sounds, which can significantly impact communication, learning, and daily functioning.

Visual acuity is a measure of the sharpness or clarity of vision. It is usually tested by reading an eye chart from a specific distance, such as 20 feet (6 meters). The standard eye chart used for this purpose is called the Snellen chart, which contains rows of letters that decrease in size as you read down the chart.

Visual acuity is typically expressed as a fraction, with the numerator representing the testing distance and the denominator indicating the smallest line of type that can be read clearly. For example, if a person can read the line on the eye chart that corresponds to a visual acuity of 20/20, it means they have normal vision at 20 feet. If their visual acuity is 20/40, it means they must be as close as 20 feet to see what someone with normal vision can see at 40 feet.

It's important to note that visual acuity is just one aspect of overall vision and does not necessarily reflect other important factors such as peripheral vision, depth perception, color vision, or contrast sensitivity.

Acoustic stimulation refers to the use of sound waves or vibrations to elicit a response in an individual, typically for the purpose of assessing or treating hearing, balance, or neurological disorders. In a medical context, acoustic stimulation may involve presenting pure tones, speech sounds, or other types of auditory signals through headphones, speakers, or specialized devices such as bone conduction transducers.

The response to acoustic stimulation can be measured using various techniques, including electrophysiological tests like auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) or otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), behavioral observations, or functional imaging methods like fMRI. Acoustic stimulation is also used in therapeutic settings, such as auditory training programs for hearing impairment or vestibular rehabilitation for balance disorders.

It's important to note that acoustic stimulation should be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional to ensure safety and effectiveness.

Discrimination learning is a type of learning in which an individual learns to distinguish between two or more stimuli and respond differently to each. It involves the ability to recognize the differences between similar stimuli and to respond appropriately based on the specific characteristics of each stimulus. This type of learning is important for many aspects of cognition, including perception, language, and problem-solving.

In discrimination learning, an individual may be presented with two or more stimuli and reinforced for responding differently to each. For example, a person might be trained to press a button in response to the color red and to do nothing in response to the color green. Through this process of differential reinforcement, the individual learns to discriminate between the two colors and to respond appropriately to each.

Discrimination learning is often studied in animals as well as humans, and it is thought to involve a range of cognitive processes, including attention, memory, and perception. It is an important aspect of many forms of learning and plays a role in a wide variety of behaviors.

"Macaca mulatta" is the scientific name for the Rhesus macaque, a species of monkey that is native to South, Central, and Southeast Asia. They are often used in biomedical research due to their genetic similarity to humans.

Psychometrics is a branch of psychology that deals with the theory and technique of psychological measurement, such as the development and standardization of tests used to measure intelligence, aptitude, personality, attitudes, and other mental abilities or traits. It involves the construction and validation of measurement instruments, including the determination of their reliability and validity, and the application of statistical methods to analyze test data and interpret results. The ultimate goal of psychometrics is to provide accurate, objective, and meaningful measurements that can be used to understand individual differences and make informed decisions in educational, clinical, and organizational settings.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Time perception, in the context of medicine and neuroscience, refers to the subjective experience and cognitive representation of time intervals. It is a complex process that involves the integration of various sensory, attentional, and emotional factors.

Disorders or injuries to certain brain regions, such as the basal ganglia, thalamus, or cerebellum, can affect time perception, leading to symptoms such as time distortion, where time may seem to pass more slowly or quickly than usual. Additionally, some neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as Parkinson's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and depression, have been associated with altered time perception.

Assessment of time perception is often used in neuropsychological evaluations to help diagnose and monitor the progression of certain neurological disorders. Various tests exist to measure time perception, such as the temporal order judgment task, where individuals are asked to judge which of two stimuli occurred first, or the duration estimation task, where individuals are asked to estimate the duration of a given stimulus.

Pain perception refers to the neural and psychological processes involved in receiving, interpreting, and responding to painful stimuli. It is the subjective experience of pain, which can vary greatly among individuals due to factors such as genetics, mood, expectations, and past experiences. The perception of pain involves complex interactions between the peripheral nervous system (which detects and transmits information about tissue damage or potential harm), the spinal cord (where this information is processed and integrated with other sensory inputs), and the brain (where the final interpretation and emotional response to pain occurs).

Medical science often defines and describes "walking" as a form of locomotion or mobility where an individual repeatedly lifts and sets down each foot to move forward, usually bearing weight on both legs. It is a complex motor activity that requires the integration and coordination of various systems in the human body, including the musculoskeletal, neurological, and cardiovascular systems.

Walking involves several components such as balance, coordination, strength, and endurance. The ability to walk independently is often used as a measure of functional mobility and overall health status. However, it's important to note that the specific definition of walking may vary depending on the context and the medical or scientific field in question.

Computer-assisted image processing is a medical term that refers to the use of computer systems and specialized software to improve, analyze, and interpret medical images obtained through various imaging techniques such as X-ray, CT (computed tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), ultrasound, and others.

The process typically involves several steps, including image acquisition, enhancement, segmentation, restoration, and analysis. Image processing algorithms can be used to enhance the quality of medical images by adjusting contrast, brightness, and sharpness, as well as removing noise and artifacts that may interfere with accurate diagnosis. Segmentation techniques can be used to isolate specific regions or structures of interest within an image, allowing for more detailed analysis.

Computer-assisted image processing has numerous applications in medical imaging, including detection and characterization of lesions, tumors, and other abnormalities; assessment of organ function and morphology; and guidance of interventional procedures such as biopsies and surgeries. By automating and standardizing image analysis tasks, computer-assisted image processing can help to improve diagnostic accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, while reducing the potential for human error.

Functional laterality, in a medical context, refers to the preferential use or performance of one side of the body over the other for specific functions. This is often demonstrated in hand dominance, where an individual may be right-handed or left-handed, meaning they primarily use their right or left hand for tasks such as writing, eating, or throwing.

However, functional laterality can also apply to other bodily functions and structures, including the eyes (ocular dominance), ears (auditory dominance), or legs. It's important to note that functional laterality is not a strict binary concept; some individuals may exhibit mixed dominance or no strong preference for one side over the other.

In clinical settings, assessing functional laterality can be useful in diagnosing and treating various neurological conditions, such as stroke or traumatic brain injury, where understanding any resulting lateralized impairments can inform rehabilitation strategies.

Size perception in a medical context typically refers to the way an individual's brain interprets and perceives the size or volume of various stimuli. This can include visual stimuli, such as objects or distances, as well as tactile stimuli, like the size of an object being held or touched.

Disorders in size perception can occur due to neurological conditions, brain injuries, or certain developmental disorders. For example, individuals with visual agnosia may have difficulty recognizing or perceiving the size of objects they see, even though their eyes are functioning normally. Similarly, those with somatoparaphrenia may not recognize the size of their own limbs due to damage in specific areas of the brain.

It's important to note that while 'size perception' is not a medical term per se, it can still be used in a medical or clinical context to describe these types of symptoms and conditions.

Pitch perception is the ability to identify and discriminate different frequencies or musical notes. It is the way our auditory system interprets and organizes sounds based on their highness or lowness, which is determined by the frequency of the sound waves. A higher pitch corresponds to a higher frequency, while a lower pitch corresponds to a lower frequency. Pitch perception is an important aspect of hearing and is crucial for understanding speech, enjoying music, and localizing sounds in our environment. It involves complex processing in the inner ear and auditory nervous system.

The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive layer of tissue in the eye of many vertebrates and some cephalopods. It receives light that has been focused by the cornea and lens, converts it into neural signals, and sends these to the brain via the optic nerve. The retina contains several types of photoreceptor cells including rods (which handle vision in low light) and cones (which are active in bright light and are capable of color vision).

In medical terms, any pathological changes or diseases affecting the retinal structure and function can lead to visual impairment or blindness. Examples include age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, and retinitis pigmentosa among others.

Touch perception, also known as tactile perception, refers to the ability to perceive and interpret sensations resulting from mechanical stimulation of the skin and other tissues. This sense is mediated by various receptors in the skin, such as Meissner's corpuscles, Pacinian corpuscles, Merkel's disks, and Ruffini endings, which detect different types of stimuli like pressure, vibration, and texture.

The information gathered by these receptors is transmitted to the brain through sensory neurons, where it is processed and integrated with other sensory information to create a coherent perception of the environment. Touch perception plays a crucial role in many aspects of daily life, including object manipulation, social interaction, and the appreciation of various forms of sensory pleasure.

Taste perception refers to the ability to recognize and interpret different tastes, such as sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami, which are detected by specialized sensory cells called taste buds located on the tongue and other areas in the mouth. These taste signals are then transmitted to the brain, where they are processed and identified as specific tastes. Taste perception is an important sense that helps us to appreciate and enjoy food, and it also plays a role in our ability to detect potentially harmful substances in our diet.

Neural pathways, also known as nerve tracts or fasciculi, refer to the highly organized and specialized routes through which nerve impulses travel within the nervous system. These pathways are formed by groups of neurons (nerve cells) that are connected in a series, creating a continuous communication network for electrical signals to transmit information between different regions of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves.

Neural pathways can be classified into two main types: sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent). Sensory neural pathways carry sensory information from various receptors in the body (such as those for touch, temperature, pain, and vision) to the brain for processing. Motor neural pathways, on the other hand, transmit signals from the brain to the muscles and glands, controlling movements and other effector functions.

The formation of these neural pathways is crucial for normal nervous system function, as it enables efficient communication between different parts of the body and allows for complex behaviors, cognitive processes, and adaptive responses to internal and external stimuli.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Physiological adaptation refers to the changes or modifications that occur in an organism's biological functions or structures as a result of environmental pressures or changes. These adaptations enable the organism to survive and reproduce more successfully in its environment. They can be short-term, such as the constriction of blood vessels in response to cold temperatures, or long-term, such as the evolution of longer limbs in animals that live in open environments.

In the context of human physiology, examples of physiological adaptation include:

1. Acclimatization: The process by which the body adjusts to changes in environmental conditions, such as altitude or temperature. For example, when a person moves to a high-altitude location, their body may produce more red blood cells to compensate for the lower oxygen levels, leading to improved oxygen delivery to tissues.

2. Exercise adaptation: Regular physical activity can lead to various physiological adaptations, such as increased muscle strength and endurance, enhanced cardiovascular function, and improved insulin sensitivity.

3. Hormonal adaptation: The body can adjust hormone levels in response to changes in the environment or internal conditions. For instance, during prolonged fasting, the body releases stress hormones like cortisol and adrenaline to help maintain energy levels and prevent muscle wasting.

4. Sensory adaptation: Our senses can adapt to different stimuli over time. For example, when we enter a dark room after being in bright sunlight, it takes some time for our eyes to adjust to the new light level. This process is known as dark adaptation.

5. Aging-related adaptations: As we age, various physiological changes occur that help us adapt to the changing environment and maintain homeostasis. These include changes in body composition, immune function, and cognitive abilities.

Neurons, also known as nerve cells or neurocytes, are specialized cells that constitute the basic unit of the nervous system. They are responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting information and signals within the body. Neurons have three main parts: the dendrites, the cell body (soma), and the axon. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors, while the axon transmits these signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands. The junction between two neurons is called a synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to transmit the signal across the gap (synaptic cleft) to the next neuron. Neurons vary in size, shape, and structure depending on their function and location within the nervous system.

Olfactory perception refers to the ability to perceive and recognize odors or smells, which is mediated by olfactory receptor neurons located in the nasal cavity. These neurons detect and transmit information about chemical compounds present in the inhaled air to the brain, specifically to the primary olfactory cortex, where the perception of smell is processed and integrated with other sensory inputs. Olfactory perception plays a crucial role in various aspects of human behavior, including food selection, safety, and emotional responses.

Biomechanics is the application of mechanical laws to living structures and systems, particularly in the field of medicine and healthcare. A biomechanical phenomenon refers to a observable event or occurrence that involves the interaction of biological tissues or systems with mechanical forces. These phenomena can be studied at various levels, from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue, organ, and whole-body level.

Examples of biomechanical phenomena include:

1. The way that bones and muscles work together to produce movement (known as joint kinematics).
2. The mechanical behavior of biological tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments under various loads and stresses.
3. The response of cells and tissues to mechanical stimuli, such as the way that bone tissue adapts to changes in loading conditions (known as Wolff's law).
4. The biomechanics of injury and disease processes, such as the mechanisms of joint injury or the development of osteoarthritis.
5. The use of mechanical devices and interventions to treat medical conditions, such as orthopedic implants or assistive devices for mobility impairments.

Understanding biomechanical phenomena is essential for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies for a wide range of medical conditions, from musculoskeletal injuries to neurological disorders.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Brain diseases, also known as neurological disorders, refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the brain and nervous system. These diseases can be caused by various factors such as genetics, infections, injuries, degeneration, or structural abnormalities. They can affect different parts of the brain, leading to a variety of symptoms and complications.

Some examples of brain diseases include:

1. Alzheimer's disease - a progressive degenerative disorder that affects memory and cognitive function.
2. Parkinson's disease - a movement disorder characterized by tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with coordination and balance.
3. Multiple sclerosis - a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the nervous system and can cause a range of symptoms such as vision loss, muscle weakness, and cognitive impairment.
4. Epilepsy - a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures.
5. Brain tumors - abnormal growths in the brain that can be benign or malignant.
6. Stroke - a sudden interruption of blood flow to the brain, which can cause paralysis, speech difficulties, and other neurological symptoms.
7. Meningitis - an infection of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
8. Encephalitis - an inflammation of the brain that can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or autoimmune disorders.
9. Huntington's disease - a genetic disorder that affects muscle coordination, cognitive function, and mental health.
10. Migraine - a neurological condition characterized by severe headaches, often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.

Brain diseases can range from mild to severe and may be treatable or incurable. They can affect people of all ages and backgrounds, and early diagnosis and treatment are essential for improving outcomes and quality of life.

Bayes' theorem, also known as Bayes' rule or Bayes' formula, is a fundamental principle in the field of statistics and probability theory. It describes how to update the probability of a hypothesis based on new evidence or data. The theorem is named after Reverend Thomas Bayes, who first formulated it in the 18th century.

In mathematical terms, Bayes' theorem states that the posterior probability of a hypothesis (H) given some observed evidence (E) is proportional to the product of the prior probability of the hypothesis (P(H)) and the likelihood of observing the evidence given the hypothesis (P(E|H)):

Posterior Probability = P(H|E) = [P(E|H) x P(H)] / P(E)


* P(H|E): The posterior probability of the hypothesis H after observing evidence E. This is the probability we want to calculate.
* P(E|H): The likelihood of observing evidence E given that the hypothesis H is true.
* P(H): The prior probability of the hypothesis H before observing any evidence.
* P(E): The marginal likelihood or probability of observing evidence E, regardless of whether the hypothesis H is true or not. This value can be calculated as the sum of the products of the likelihood and prior probability for all possible hypotheses: P(E) = Σ[P(E|Hi) x P(Hi)]

Bayes' theorem has many applications in various fields, including medicine, where it can be used to update the probability of a disease diagnosis based on test results or other clinical findings. It is also widely used in machine learning and artificial intelligence algorithms for probabilistic reasoning and decision making under uncertainty.

"Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices" (HKAP) is a term used in public health to refer to the knowledge, beliefs, assumptions, and behaviors that individuals possess or engage in that are related to health. Here's a brief definition of each component:

1. Health Knowledge: Refers to the factual information and understanding that individuals have about various health-related topics, such as anatomy, physiology, disease processes, and healthy behaviors.
2. Attitudes: Represent the positive or negative evaluations, feelings, or dispositions that people hold towards certain health issues, practices, or services. These attitudes can influence their willingness to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors.
3. Practices: Encompass the specific actions or habits that individuals engage in related to their health, such as dietary choices, exercise routines, hygiene practices, and use of healthcare services.

HKAP is a multidimensional concept that helps public health professionals understand and address various factors influencing individual and community health outcomes. By assessing and addressing knowledge gaps, negative attitudes, or unhealthy practices, interventions can be designed to promote positive behavior change and improve overall health status.

An "attitude to health" is a set of beliefs, values, and behaviors that an individual holds regarding their own health and well-being. It encompasses their overall approach to maintaining good health, preventing illness, seeking medical care, and managing any existing health conditions.

A positive attitude to health typically includes:

1. A belief in the importance of self-care and taking responsibility for one's own health.
2. Engaging in regular exercise, eating a balanced diet, getting enough sleep, and avoiding harmful behaviors such as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption.
3. Regular check-ups and screenings to detect potential health issues early on.
4. Seeking medical care when necessary and following recommended treatment plans.
5. A willingness to learn about and implement new healthy habits and lifestyle changes.
6. Developing a strong support network of family, friends, and healthcare professionals.

On the other hand, a negative attitude to health may involve:

1. Neglecting self-care and failing to take responsibility for one's own health.
2. Engaging in unhealthy behaviors such as sedentary lifestyle, poor diet, lack of sleep, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption.
3. Avoidance of regular check-ups and screenings, leading to delayed detection and treatment of potential health issues.
4. Resistance to seeking medical care or following recommended treatment plans.
5. Closed-mindedness towards new healthy habits and lifestyle changes.
6. Lack of a support network or reluctance to seek help from others.

Overall, an individual's attitude to health can significantly impact their physical and mental well-being, as well as their ability to manage and overcome any health challenges that may arise.

The "attitude of health personnel" refers to the overall disposition, behavior, and approach that healthcare professionals exhibit towards their patients or clients. This encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Interpersonal skills: The ability to communicate effectively, listen actively, and build rapport with patients.
2. Professionalism: Adherence to ethical principles, confidentiality, and maintaining a non-judgmental attitude.
3. Compassion and empathy: Showing genuine concern for the patient's well-being and understanding their feelings and experiences.
4. Cultural sensitivity: Respecting and acknowledging the cultural backgrounds, beliefs, and values of patients.
5. Competence: Demonstrating knowledge, skills, and expertise in providing healthcare services.
6. Collaboration: Working together with other healthcare professionals to ensure comprehensive care for the patient.
7. Patient-centeredness: Focusing on the individual needs, preferences, and goals of the patient in the decision-making process.
8. Commitment to continuous learning and improvement: Staying updated with the latest developments in the field and seeking opportunities to enhance one's skills and knowledge.

A positive attitude of health personnel contributes significantly to patient satisfaction, adherence to treatment plans, and overall healthcare outcomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "weight perception" is not a standard medical term with a widely accepted or specific definition in the field of medicine. It seems more related to the general psychological concept of how individuals perceive and judge their own weight or the weight of objects. If you have a more specific context or situation related to this term, I would be happy to help further!

Aging is a complex, progressive and inevitable process of bodily changes over time, characterized by the accumulation of cellular damage and degenerative changes that eventually lead to increased vulnerability to disease and death. It involves various biological, genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that contribute to the decline in physical and mental functions. The medical field studies aging through the discipline of gerontology, which aims to understand the underlying mechanisms of aging and develop interventions to promote healthy aging and extend the human healthspan.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Motion Pictures as Topic" is not a medical term or concept. It is actually a subject heading used in library and information sciences to categorize materials related to the study or analysis of motion pictures as a medium or art form. This could include books, articles, and other resources about film theory, film history, film criticism, and so on.

If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help!

Perceptual distortion is not explicitly defined within the realm of medicine, but it does fall under the broader category of cognitive impairments and abnormalities. It generally refers to the incorrect interpretation or misrepresentation of sensory information by the brain. This can result in various experiences such as hallucinations, illusions, or distorted perceptions of reality. Perceptual distortions are often associated with certain medical conditions like mental disorders (e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder), neurological disorders (e.g., migraines, epilepsy), and substance use disorders.

Head movements refer to the voluntary or involuntary motion of the head in various directions. These movements can occur in different planes, including flexion (moving the head forward), extension (moving the head backward), rotation (turning the head to the side), and lateral bending (leaning the head to one side).

Head movements can be a result of normal physiological processes, such as when nodding in agreement or shaking the head to indicate disagreement. They can also be caused by neurological conditions, such as abnormal head movements in patients with Parkinson's disease or cerebellar disorders. Additionally, head movements may occur in response to sensory stimuli, such as turning the head toward a sound.

In a medical context, an examination of head movements can provide important clues about a person's neurological function and help diagnose various conditions affecting the brain and nervous system.

An afterimage is a visual phenomenon that occurs when the eye's retina continues to send signals to the brain even after exposure to a stimulus has ended. This can result in the perception of a lingering image, often in complementary colors to the original stimulus. Afterimages can be either positive or negative, with a positive afterimage appearing as the same color as the original stimulus and a negative afterimage appearing as its complementary color.

Afterimages are typically caused by exposure to bright or intense light sources, such as a camera flash or the sun. They can also occur after prolonged exposure to a particular color or pattern. The phenomenon is thought to be related to the adaptation of photoreceptor cells in the retina, which become less responsive to stimuli after prolonged exposure.

Afterimages are generally harmless and temporary, lasting only a few seconds to several minutes. However, they can sometimes be used as a tool for visual perception experiments or to study the mechanisms of visual processing in the brain.

Optic flow is not a medical term per se, but rather a term used in the field of visual perception and neuroscience. It refers to the pattern of motion of objects in the visual field that occurs as an observer moves through the environment. This pattern of motion is important for the perception of self-motion and the estimation of egocentric distance (the distance of objects in the environment relative to the observer). Optic flow has been studied in relation to various clinical populations, such as individuals with vestibular disorders or visual impairments, who may have difficulty processing optic flow information.

The problem of motion estimation generalizes to binocular vision when we consider occlusion or motion perception at relatively ... Motion perception is studied by many disciplines, including psychology (i.e. visual perception), neurology, neurophysiology, ... Baker CL, Hess RF, Zihl J (February 1991). "Residual motion perception in a "motion-blind" patient, assessed with limited- ... Interactive Reichardt Detector Video demonstrating second-order motion perception Visual Motion Analysis Visual Neuroscience, ...
... is the act of perceiving the fluid unique motion of a biological agent. The phenomenon was first ... Old models of biological motion perception are concerned with tracking joint and limb motion relative to one another over time ... The following models have shown that both form and motion are important components of biological motion perception. However, to ... However, recent experiments in biological motion perception have suggested that motion information is unimportant for action ...
Motion perception. MP is the process of inferring the speed and direction of objects and surfaces that move in a visual scene ... The perception of the frequency (or wavelength) of light, and can be compared to how pitch (or a musical note) is the ... Depth perception. DP is the visual ability to perceive the world in three dimensions. It is a trait common to many higher ... Depth perception allows the beholder to accurately gauge the distance to an object. Diaphragm. In optics, a diaphragm is a thin ...
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The perception of motion pictures. In M. P. Friedman & E. C. Carterette (Eds.), Cognitive ecology: Handbook of perception and ... Perception, 4, 97-10. doi:10.1068/p040097 Magliano, J. P., & Zacks, J. M. (2011). The impact of continuity editing in narrative ...
Lawson, B. D., & Riecke, B. E. (2014). The Perception of Body Motion. Handbook of Virtual Environments, CRC Press, 163-196. " ... Illusions of self-motion (or "vection") occur when one perceives bodily motion despite no movement taking place. One can ... "Perceptual and Cognitive Factors for Self-Motion Simulation in Virtual Environments: How Can Self-Motion Illusions ("Vection") ... Vertigo is not associated with illusory self-motion as it does not typically make one feel as though they are moving; however, ...
2-5. ISBN 978-0-8385-2670-5. G. Johansson (1973). "Visual perception of biological motion and a model for its analysis". ... Motion parallax relies head and body movement to produce the necessary viewpoints. The visual system can detect motion both ... Sekuler, Robert; Sekuler, Allison B.; Lau, Renee (1997). "Sound alters visual motion perception". Nature. 385 (6614): 308. ... Perception of space and motion. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 5-7. ISBN 978-0080538617. {{cite book}}: ,first= has generic ...
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In visual perception, structure from motion (SFM) refers to how humans recover depth structure from object's motion. The human ... Rogers, Brian; Graham, Maureen (April 1979). "Motion Parallax as an Independent Cue for Depth Perception". Perception. 8 (2): ... Johansson, Gunnar (1973-06-01). "Visual perception of biological motion and a model for its analysis". Perception & ... "Perceived motion in structure from motion: pointing responses to the axis of rotation". Perception & Psychophysics. 56 (1): 91- ...
Perception, 25, 1177-1188. Wade, N. J., Thompson, P., & Morgan, M. (2014). The after-effect of Adolf Wohlgemuth's seen motion. ... The motion aftereffect is believed to be the result of motion adaptation. For example, if one looks at a waterfall for about a ... The illusory upwards movement is the motion aftereffect. This particular motion aftereffect is also known as the waterfall ... Afterimage Motion perception Wohlgemuth, Adolf (1911). On the after-effect of seen movement. Wellesley College Library. ...
Gepshtein, S.; Kubovy, M. (2007). "The lawful perception of apparent motion". Journal of Vision. 7 (8): 9. doi:10.1167/7.8.9. ... Kolers, Paul A. (1972). Aspects of Motion Perception: International Series of Monographs in Experimental Psychology. Oxford: ... In psychophysics, Korte's third law of apparent motion is an observation relating the phenomenon of apparent motion to the ... Korte's law also involves a constancy of velocity through apparent motion and it is said that data do not support it. ...
... the effect of invisible noise on insect motion detection; motion-in-depth perception of mantises; reaction to different stimuli ... "Motion-in-depth perception and prey capture in the praying mantis Sphodromantis Lineola". Journal of Experimental Biology. 222 ... Since S. lineola are sit and wait predators they have a well developed motion detection visual system. This species of mantis ... They use looming signals in order to detect and calculate other organisms or objects heading towards them using motion-in-depth ...
Rao, Rajesh P. N.; Eagleman, David M.; Sejnowski, Terrence J. (June 2001). "Optimal Smoothing in Visual Motion Perception". ... The motion extrapolation hypothesis asserts that the visual system will take care of such delays by extrapolating the position ... Eagleman & Sejnowski found that the perception attributed to the time of the flash depends on events in the next ~80 ms after ... In backward masking, a stimulus followed in rapid succession by a second stimulus can block or modify the perception of the ...
Heeger D (2006). "Perception Lecture Notes: Visual Motion Perception". Department of Psychology, New York University. Retrieved ... The corollary discharge theory (CD) of motion perception helps understand how the mind can detect motion through the visual ... If the two signals cancel then no motion is perceived, but if they do not cancel then the residual signal is perceived as ... He was studying apparent motion and developed early theories in an error of the mind to account for efferent signals centuries ...
Tatler, B. W.; Trościanko, T (2002). "A rare glimpse of the eye in motion" (PDF). Perception. 31 (11): 1403-1406. doi:10.1068/ ... Vallines, I., & Greenlee, M.W., 2006 Castet E.; Masson G.S. (2000). "Motion perception during saccadic eye movements". Nature ... A saccade is a fast eye motion, and because it is a motion that is optimised for speed, there is inevitable blurring of the ... The eyes can never be observed in motion, yet an external observer clearly sees the motion of the eyes. The phenomenon is often ...
... stop-motion animation sequences) 2019 - Spider-Man: Far From Home (stop motion end credits sequence created by Perception) 2019 ... All about Perception! Motion Award recipient". Archived from the original on September 26, 2020. Retrieved ... stop motion animation) 1986 - Aliens (go motion shots of Alien Queen) 1986 - The Adventures of Milo and Otis 1986 - Flight of ... stop motion scene) 1987 - A Mouse, A Mystery and Me 1988 - Totally Minnie (TV special) 1988 - Beetlejuice (stop-motion effects ...
Casile A, Giese MA (2006). "Nonvisual motor training influences biological motion perception". Current Biology. 16 (1): 69-74. ... One example of such active interaction between perception and the body is the case that distance perception can be influenced ... As experiences are received, neural states are reenacted in action, perception, and introspection systems. Perception includes ... Embodied perception-action experience may serve as a tool for learning that extends across the life span, from infancy to ...
1984 van Santen, J. P. H., & Sperling, G. (1984). Temporal covariance model of human motion perception. Journal of the Optical ... and motion perception. Sperling, George (1963). "A model for visual memory tasks". Human Factors. 5: 19-31. doi:10.1177/ ... a general basis for studying non-Fourier motion perception". Journal of the Optical Society of America A. 5 (11): 1986-2007. ...
"Integration of multiple motion vectors over space: an fMRI study of transparent motion perception". NeuroImage. 16 (4): 843-56 ... Rizzo, M.; Nawrot, M.; Zihl, J. (1995). "Motion and shape perception in cerebral akinetopsia". Brain. 118 (5): 1105-1127. doi: ... In other words, once we've explained a perception fully in terms of how it affects us, there is nothing left to explain. In ... whether what we think of when we speak of perceptions and consciousness can be understood in terms of nothing more than their ...
Josh Tanner (Director/Co-Writer) (2013). The Landing (Motion picture). Perception Pictures. Retrieved September 16, 2016. Spiga ... J. Van Auken (Writer/Director) (2011). The Last Cosmonaut (Motion picture) (in Russian and English). Retrieved June 16, 2015. ... Robert Asher (Director) (1960). The Bulldog Breed (Motion picture). Retrieved February 3, 2021. Scheib, Richard. "The Bulldog ... ISBN 978-1-61937-146-0. John Merizalde (Director) (2012). Waltz for One (Motion picture). Intellectual Propaganda. Retrieved ...
"Brain areas involved in perception of biological motion". Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 12 (5): 711-20. doi:10.1162/ ...
Kuang, S.; Zhang, T. (2014). "Smelling directions: Olfaction modulates ambiguous visual motion perception". Scientific Reports ... Multimodal perception is how animals form coherent, valid, and robust perception by processing sensory stimuli from various ... Perception is often defined as one's conscious experience, and thereby combines inputs from all relevant senses and prior ... Perception is also defined and studied in terms of feature extraction, which is several hundred milliseconds away from ...
Vertigo refers to the inappropriate perception of motion. This is due to dysfunction of the vestibular system. One common type ... Ménière's disease, labyrinthitis, strokes, and other infective and congenital diseases may also result in the perception of ...
doi:10.1016/S0003-3472(85)80116-0. Ewert JP (2004). "Motion perception shapes the visual world of amphibians". In Prete FR (ed ... began to expand the feature detection hypothesis and clarify the relationship between single neurons and sensory perception. In ...
"Depth Perception in Motion Parallax and Stereokinesis" (PDF). {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Stefano ... A stereokinetic stimuli generates 3D perception based on 2D rotational motion. A stereokinetic effect is created when flat ... v t e (CS1 errors: missing periodical, CS1 errors: missing publisher, Visual perception, All stub articles, Science stubs). ... Ernst Mach first reported a depth effect produced by motion in the frontoparallel plane in 1886. Marcel Duchamp first ...
Adelson E, Bergen J (1985). "Spatiotemporal energy models for the perception of motion". Journal of the Optical Society of ... Wiesel, David H.; Hubel, Torsten N. (2005). Brain and visual perception : the story of a 25-year collaboration ([Online-Ausg ...
Sekuler, Robert (1996). "Motion Perception: A Modern View of Wertheimer's 1912 Monograph". Perception. 25 (10): 1243-1258. doi: ... "omega motion," "afterimage motion," and "shadow motion." As apparent phi movement is perceived by human's visual system with ... Color phi phenomenon Motion perception Wikimedia Commons has media related to Phi phenomenon. Beta movement and Phi phenomenon ... "Multiplicative nonlinearity in the perception of apparent motion". Vision Research. 44 (17): 2001-2007. doi:10.1016/j.visres. ...
Motion Perception and Illusion". He questions the common belief that visual consciousness is a direct translation of the ... Motion Perception and Illusion" (PDF). Journal of Consciousness Studies. 9 (5-6): 1-14. Paris, D.C. (1997). "School Reform: Too ... He relates his argument about the indirectness in motion perception to how, in the play version of Peter Pan, Tinkerbell's ... Durgin applies this expression to the study of human motion detection and perception in his paper "The Tinkerbell Effect: ...
He was interested in the Gestalt laws of motion perception in vision. He is best known for his investigations of biological ... G. Johansson (1973). "Visual perception of biological motion and a model for its analysis". Percept. Psychophys. 14 (2): 201- ... G. Johansson (1976). "Spatio-temporal differentiation and integration in visual motion perception". Percept. Res. 38: 379-393. ... Johansson received his Ph.D. from the Stockholm University College in 1950, on the thesis Configurations in event perception. ...
The problem of motion estimation generalizes to binocular vision when we consider occlusion or motion perception at relatively ... Motion perception is studied by many disciplines, including psychology (i.e. visual perception), neurology, neurophysiology, ... Baker CL, Hess RF, Zihl J (February 1991). "Residual motion perception in a "motion-blind" patient, assessed with limited- ... Interactive Reichardt Detector Video demonstrating second-order motion perception Visual Motion Analysis Visual Neuroscience, ...
Tag: motion perception. Lazzaro-Bertoni-2021. Beyond Reading Modulation: Temporo-Parietal tDCS Alters Visuo-Spatial Attention ... and Motion Perception in Dyslexia (2021 - Journal Article and Open Access) (Lazzaro, G.; Bertoni, S.; Menghini, D.; Costanzo, F ...
1990) Intact "biological motion" and "structure from motion" perception in a patient with impaired motion mechanisms: a case ... whole body motion, object motion, and random motion. The results demonstrated that the perception of scripts of goal-directed ... 1993) Action categories and the perception of biological motion. Perception 22:15-22. ... 1973) Visual perception of biological motion and a model of its analysis. Percept Psychophys 14:202-211. ...
... discovering our vertical perception worsens when our body pitches and moves simultaneously. ... The team then turned their attention to motion. They re-created a motion-free seating inclination with a dental chair. Changing ... Psychology Professor Kenzo Sakurai from Tohoku Gakuin University, an expert on self-motion and co-author of the study, points ... Although body pitch and body motion have been studied in previous studies, the phenomena were isolated. This study combined ...
... Wei Peng (UGent) , Emiel Cracco (UGent) , Nikolaus F. Troje ... In sum, our results show that biological motion perception, a low-level social process, is related to high-level beliefs about ... In sum, our results show that biological motion perception, a low-level social process, is related to high-level beliefs about ... "Does Belief in Free Will Influence Biological Motion Perception?" PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH-PSYCHOLOGISCHE FORSCHUNG, vol. 87, no ...
Individual motion perception parameters and motion sickness frequency sensitivity in fore-aft motion. Title Individual motion ... Here, we used well-established paradigms to relate motion perception and motion sickness on an individual level. We recruited ... Motion perception. Motion sickness. To reference this document use: ... perception parameters and motion sickness frequency sensitivity in fore-aft motion. Author Irmak, T. (TU Delft Intelligent ...
Motion Perception: New ideas on how drivers perceive speed emerge from the fog. ... Motion Perception: New ideas on how drivers perceive speed emerge from the fog ... Motion Perception: New ideas on how drivers perceive speed emerge from the fog ... The effect of fog on car drivers: Listen to Paolo Pretto talk about the effect that fog has on our perceptions of speed while ...
Physical Motion Stimuli. A motion simulator provided physical-motion stimuli. The motion simulator cabin was supported by a ... visual motion onset 100 msec before physical motion onset, (2) physical motion onset 100 msec before visual motion onset, and ( ... unified perception of self-motion. One complicating factor in this integration process is that each of these cues to motion is ... accentuating the perception of traveling along a track into the distance. The perception of self-motion along the track was ...
Hutchinson, Claire V. and Ledgeway, Tim and Allen, Harriet A. (2014) The ups and downs of global motion perception: a ... The ups and downs of global motion perception: a paradoxical advantage for smaller stimuli in the aging visual system ... motion of visual objects in the world. The purpose of this study was to examine the interplay between age-related changes in ... such that motion coherence thresholds decreased as aperture area increased (participants required fewer local elements to move ...
insect visual systems, motion perception models, looming, translation, small targets motion, applications. ... Motion perception is a critical capability determining a variety of aspects of insects life, including avoiding predators, ... These motion perception models or neural networks comprise the looming sensitive neuronal models of lobula giant movement ... 2019) Towards Computational Models and Applications of Insect Visual Systems for Motion Perception: A Review. Artificial life, ...
Dickinson, J. E., Green, R. J., Harkin, G. M., Tang, M. F. & Badcock, D. R., Dec 2019, In: Vision Research. 165, p. 80-83 4 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review ...
3. Motion Perception. Broad, Clay, Russell, Foster and other realists all claim that motion (and other forms of change) can be ... Since perceived motion is usually a property of perceptible objects-we cannot discern motion in the absence of moving things-it ... Motion is a sensation that cannot be communicated by a single snapshot, but somehow, the sensation of motion can occur without ... These orders are the following (a) less than 100 msec, at which perception is an instantaneity, (b) 100 msec-5 sec, perception ...
The visual perception of natural motion: Abnormal task-related neural activity in DYT1 dystonia. Brain. 2015 Dec 1;138(12):3598 ... The visual perception of natural motion : Abnormal task-related neural activity in DYT1 dystonia. In: Brain. 2015 ; Vol. 138, ... The visual perception of natural motion: Abnormal task-related neural activity in DYT1 dystonia. / Sako, Wataru; Fujita, Koji; ... title = "The visual perception of natural motion: Abnormal task-related neural activity in DYT1 dystonia", ...
Motion Perception & Spatial Orientation. The vestibular system senses motion using the semicircular canal and otolith organs in ... Motion Perception & Spatial Orientation Lab. MC 6-7422. 601 Elmwood Ave,. Rochester, NY 14642 ... Dizziness and vertigo, the most common clinical manifestations of the vestibular system, are disorders of motion perception. ... Research in our laboratory aims to better understand human motion perception and spatial orientation using psychophysical and ...
My timelapse motion looks jumpy or choppy. There are a handful of issues that can contribute to less than perfectly smooth ... It is not very easy to notice this issue in a static timelapse but its very apparent in a motion timelapse.. So sometimes we ... Motion settings are too fast or there are too few frames for said move ... When your motion is relitively extreme over a short shot period of time two things can happen; the viewers graphics card cannot ...
It might be thought that motion perception is simply the outcome of retinal image motion, but in fact this is so only for a ... It might be thought that motion perception is simply the outcome of retinal image motion, but in fact this is so only for a ... Occasionally, errors do occur in our perception of motion in the natural environment, and these can be very instructive in ... Retinal image motion can be a consequence of the displacement of an object relative to a stationary environment, of an observer ...
Multisensory integration for the perception of self-motion ... Department Human Perception, Cognition and Action, Max Planck ... Berger, D. (2005). Multisensory integration for the perception of self-motion. Talk presented at Institutskolloquium, Max- ... When we move in the environment, we perceive our position and motion in space with several senses. Among these are the visual ... I will present a series of experiments in which we studied the multimodal perception of whole-body rotations around an earth- ...
For example, motion recognition tasks can be used to diagnose neurodevelopmental diseases, or to evaluate the aesthetics and ... In these cases, human motion is often recorded from real people and transposed into 3D displays, such as stick-figures, as ... Human motion stimuli are frequently employed in a wide range of research fields. ... The impact of visual display of human motion on observers perception of music performance. , PLoS ONE, March 2023, PLOS, DOI: ...
... Human motion analysis has received a great attention from researchers in the ... This field of research focuses on the perception and recognition of human activities, including people identification. We have ... where model templates are established through the analysis of gait motion. Gait periodicity and other parameters are estimated ...
I have performed a detailed psychophysical characterisation of visual motion perception in general and the peculiar omega ... I have performed a detailed psychophysical characterisation of visual motion perception in general and the peculiar omega ... 0 Thesis %A Jain, Siddharth %T PSYCHOPHYSICS & COMPUTATIONAL MODELING OF VISUAL MOTION PERCEPTION %I EECS Department, ... in motion estimation can play an important role in perception by significantly improving detectability of subliminal motion ...
Perception of looming visual motion from infancy to school age : a high-density EEG study of full-term and preterm children. ... In sum, a clear developmental trend was observed in the full-term childrens perception of looming visual motion, probably due ... or if they continue to show impaired perception of visual motion. ... trends in brain activity in response to looming visual motion ...
Inferring the Effects of Wiping Motions based on Haptic Perception. Authors:. Authors. Institution or Email of Authors. ... Leidner, Daniel and Beetz, Michael (2016) Inferring the Effects of Wiping Motions based on Haptic Perception. In: IEEE-RAS ... This way we are not just able to distinguish good from bad contact situations, but also replan recovery motions w. r. t. the ... In this work we propose to utilize haptic perception paired with a qualitative effect representation to reason about the task ...
... ... However, how this property affects multisensory temporal perception remains unclear. We investigate whether the motion-binding ... Temporal perception in multisensory processing is important for an accurate and efficient understanding of the physical world. ... In particular, the motion-binding property is important for correctly identifying moving objects in the external environment. ...
The role of human motion processing complex, MT+, during sustained perception and attention Author Thakral, Preston P. School ... Thakral, Preston P. "The role of human motion processing complex, MT+, during sustained perception and attention", Boston ... The role of human motion processing complex, MT+, during sustained perception and attention. ... MT+ during sustained perception and attention. MT+ is comprised of sub-region MT, which processes motion in the contralateral ...
Ueda, H, Yamamoto, K & Watanabe, K 2018, Contribution of global and local biological motion information to speed perception ... Contribution of global and local biological motion information to speed perception and discrimination. In: Journal of Vision. ... Contribution of global and local biological motion information to speed perception and discrimination. Journal of Vision. 2018 ... Dive into the research topics of Contribution of global and local biological motion information to speed perception and ...
1985) Spatiotemporal energy models for the perception of motion. J Opt Soc Am A 2:284-299, doi:10.1364/JOSAA.2.000284, pmid: ... 2014) Cortical correlates of human motion perception biases. J Neurosci 34:2592-2604, doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2809-13.2014, pmid: ... We assumed a motion stimulus with a rich spatiotemporal frequency spectrum. For simplicity, we only considered coherent motion ... We assumed that a complex motion stimulus is driving the channels according to its motion energy in the corresponding frequency ...
Biological Motion Perception. Steph Curry has an unbelievable talent: He can read opponents biological motion. This means he ... Biological Motion Perception. Steph Curry has an unbelievable talent: He can read opponents biological motion. This means he ... A 2015 study out of Montreal found that "athletes who are experts at biological motion perception had superior results in ... A 2015 study out of Montreal found that "athletes who are experts at biological motion perception had superior results in ...
... for example the perception of complex motion, 3D perception; object recognition, multisensory perception; perceiving ... perception of art, event perception, time perception, space perception and face perception. We will also discuss aspects of ... critically analyze the empirical basis for perception and action research. · apply knowledge of perception and action to ... demonstrate an understanding of advanced perception and action research.. · critically evaluate the methods used in perception ...
  • Two or more stimuli that are switched on and off in alternation can produce two different motion percepts. (
  • Second-order motion produces a weaker motion aftereffect unless tested with dynamically flickering stimuli. (
  • The correlation between the subjective vertical time constant and motion sickness sensitivity supports the importance of verticality perception during exposure to translational sickness stimuli. (
  • Research in our laboratory aims to better understand human motion perception and spatial orientation using psychophysical and engineering techniques to study head motion and its interaction with visual stimuli. (
  • Effect of timing delay between visual and vestibular stimuli on heading perception. (
  • Human motion stimuli are frequently employed in a wide range of research fields. (
  • In Experiment 1, the subjects conducted audiovisual TOJ tasks in the motion-binding condition, between two flashes, and in the simultaneous condition, in which the two flashes are perceived as simultaneous stimuli without motion. (
  • In Experiment 2, subjects conducted audiovisual TOJ tasks in the motion-binding condition and the short and long successive interval condition, in which the two stimuli are perceived as successive with no motion. (
  • This suggests that the motion-binding property contributes to accurate temporal integration in multisensory processing by precisely encoding the temporal order of the physical stimuli. (
  • Perceived motion speed was slower for the original than for scrambled stimuli (Experiment 2), but regardless of the orientation of the display (Experiment 1). (
  • A subsequent experiment comparing different scrambled stimuli of the same actions showed that the higher speed discrimination sensitivity to upright stimuli was preserved even in the scrambled biological motions (Experiment 3). (
  • Object motion in natural scenes results in visual stimuli with a rich and broad spatiotemporal frequency spectrum. (
  • Discussion and Conclusions: Impairments in biological motion and non-biological form-from-motion perception are not across the board in ASC, and are only found for some stimuli and tasks. (
  • Perception & Psychophysics , 31 (5), 502-505. (
  • These motion perception models or neural networks comprise the looming sensitive neuronal models of lobula giant movement detectors (LGMDs) in locusts, the translation sensitive neural systems of direction selective neurons (DSNs) in fruit flies, bees and locusts, as well as the small target motion detectors (STMDs) in dragonflies and hover flies. (
  • it remains unclear how this neural integration relates to motion perception. (
  • Medications used to prevent and treat motion sickness are thought to work by suppressing the signals that contribute to neural mismatch. (
  • I have performed a detailed psychophysical characterisation of visual motion perception in general and the peculiar omega effect originally discovered by Rose & Blake in particular in which dynamic random noise in the form of random dots displayed in a circular annulus evokes the illusion of rotary motion. (
  • I have also found that a model based on the Watson & Ahumada motion detector is able to explain most and key parts of the psychophysical data such as the very delicate effects of frame duration on motion perception, independence of observer performance on dot density in the display and the surprising reverse phi motion caused by contrast reversing dots. (
  • In addition to explaining the psychophysical data, the model relates reasonably well to what is known about the neurobiology of motion sensitive cells in the brain making it a realistic model of human visual motion sensing. (
  • We applied a combination of tailored psychophysical experiments and predictive modeling to address this question with regard to perceived motion in a given direction (i.e., stimulus speed). (
  • Methodology and Principal Findings: We compared psychophysical thresholds for both biological and non-biological form-from-motion perception in adults with ASC and controls. (
  • In this study, in order to evaluate the effect of frequency change to the amount of human elbow joint motion change, a psychophysical experiment was carried out with 4 healthy experimental participants. (
  • To explore the extent to which functional systems within the human posterior parietal cortex and the superior temporal sulcus are involved in the perception of action, we measured cerebral metabolic activity in human subjects by positron emission tomography during the perception of simulations of biological motion with point-light displays. (
  • The experimental paradigm used to explore the above questions involved simulations of biological motion in the three-dimensional space using point-light displays. (
  • Does belief in free will influence biological motion perception? (
  • Based on evidence that biological motion contains intentionality cues that observers spontaneously extract, we investigate whether people who believe more in free will, or in related constructs, such as dualism and determinism, would be better at picking up such cues and therefore at detecting biological agents hidden in noise, or would be more inclined to detect intentionality cues and therefore to detect biological agents even when there are none. (
  • Signal detection theory was used to measure participants' ability to detect biological motion from scrambled background noise (d ') and their response bias (c) in doing so. (
  • In two experiments, we found that belief in determinism and belief in dualism, but not belief in free will, were associated with biological motion perception. (
  • In sum, our results show that biological motion perception, a low-level social process, is related to high-level beliefs about dualism and determinism. (
  • Peng W, Cracco E, Troje NF, Brass M. Does belief in free will influence biological motion perception? (
  • W. Peng, E. Cracco, N. F. Troje, and M. Brass, "Does belief in free will influence biological motion perception? (
  • Computational modelling of these motion detectors has not only been providing effective solutions to artificial intelligence, but also benefiting the understanding of complicated biological visual systems. (
  • This article reviews the computational motion perception models originating from biological research of insects' visual systems in the literature. (
  • Steph Curry has an unbelievable talent: He can read opponents' biological motion. (
  • The ability to read biological motion is a vital skill for athletic success-not just in basketball, but in other sports as well. (
  • A 2015 study out of Montreal found that "athletes who are experts at biological motion perception had superior results in predicting passes in soccer and had quicker reaction times. (
  • Here, using original and spatially scrambled point-light biological motions in upright and inverted orientations, we investigated the effect of global and local biological motion information on speed perception and sensitivity. (
  • Taken together, our findings suggest that perception of the speed of biological movements emanates from both global and local biological motion signals. (
  • Background: Perception of biological motion is linked to the action perception system in the human brain, abnormalities within which have been suggested to underlie impairments in social domains observed in autism spectrum conditions (ASC). (
  • However, the literature on biological motion perception in ASC is heterogeneous and it is unclear whether deficits are specific to biological motion, or might generalize to form-from-motion perception. (
  • Participants viewed point-light displays depicting a walking person (Biological Motion), a translating rectangle (Structured Object) or a translating unfamiliar shape (Unstructured Object). (
  • We found no evidence for an impairment in biological or non-biological object motion perception in individuals with ASC. (
  • Taken together, these results confirm that fog influences speed perception, and that this illusion causes drivers to slow down in real fog, as well they should. (
  • A new motion illusion, "illusory rebound motion" (IRM), is described. (
  • One of the causes of this motion change is supposed to be the kinesthetic illusion which is induced by vibration stimulation. (
  • Influence of auditory cues on the visually-induced self-motion illusion (circular vection) in virtual reality. (
  • This is called the phi phenomenon and is sometimes described as an example of "pure" motion detection uncontaminated, as in Beta movement, by form cues. (
  • There is a gap in understanding how a temporal lag between visual and vestibular motion cues affects visual-vestibular weighting during self-motion perception. (
  • The present study examined modulation of event-related spectral power during a heading judgment task in which participants attended to either visual (optic flow) or physical (inertial cues stimulating the vestibular, proprioceptive and somatosensory systems) motion cues from a motion simulator mounted on a MOOG Stewart Platform. (
  • The temporal lag between the onset of visual and physical motion cues was manipulated to produce three lag conditions: simultaneous onset, visual before physical motion onset, and physical before visual motion onset. (
  • First, we demonstrated that when the attended motion cue was presented before an ignored cue, the power of beta associated with the attended modality was greater than when visual-vestibular cues were presented simultaneously or when the ignored cue was presented first. (
  • Some other highlights of the dissertation are as follows: ¿ I find that the intrinsic cortical noise in the brain which manifests itself as uncertainty in motion estimation can play an important role in perception by significantly improving detectability of subliminal motion cues at the expense of a very modest drop in performance for a suprathreshold signal ala stochastic resonance. (
  • Experiments were performed on a hexapod platform with a projection screen, which allows the presentation of realistic movements during which visual cues and body cues for self-motion can be manipulated independently. (
  • In particular, we tested whether the integration of visual and body cues of self-motion follows the mathematically optimal maximum likelihood integration principle. (
  • We also investigated how the influence of visual and body cues on the perception of yaw rotations depends on focusing attention to either cue, and on becoming aware of conflicts between the two modalities. (
  • Quitting (even short-term) reduces susceptibility to motion sickness. (
  • Genetic factors may also increase susceptibility to motion sickness. (
  • Beyond Reading Modulation: Temporo-Parietal tDCS Alters Visuo-Spatial Attention and Motion Perception in Dyslexia (2021 - Journal Article and Open Access) (Lazzaro, G. (
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the interplay between age-related changes in the ability to perceive translational global motion (up vs. down) and important factors such as the spatial extent (size) over which movement occurs and how cluttered the moving elements are (density).We used random dot kinematograms (RDKs) and measured motion coherence thresholds (% signal elements required to reliably discriminate global direction) for young and older adults. (
  • While the question of how the visual system detects and senses motion energies at different spatial and temporal frequencies has been fairly well studied, it is unclear how the visual system integrates this information to form coherent percepts of object motion. (
  • Furthermore, the proposed channel model provides an intuitive explanation for the previously reported spatial frequency dependence of perceived speed of coherent object motion. (
  • To form coherent motion percepts, the visual system must first detect and sense these changes at different spatial and temporal frequencies, and then combine the sensory information appropriately. (
  • Temporal perception in multisensory processing is important for an accurate and efficient understanding of the physical world. (
  • However, how this property affects multisensory temporal perception remains unclear. (
  • The ability of a subject to detect coherent motion is commonly tested using motion coherence discrimination tasks. (
  • The inability to perceive motion is called akinetopsia and it may be caused by a lesion to cortical area V5 in the extrastriate cortex. (
  • We measured cerebral blood flow with PET under conditions in which human subjects perceive goal-directed hand action, whole body motion, and object and random motion. (
  • Recent evidence suggests that normal aging is typically accompanied by impairment in the ability to perceive the global (overall) motion of visual objects in the world. (
  • We, as well as our metaphorical guide dog, can perceive the constant properties of objects (such as their location, motion, size and colour) despite large variations in the pattern of sensory stimulation. (
  • When we move in the environment, we perceive our position and motion in space with several senses. (
  • Motion perception is the process of inferring the speed and direction of elements in a scene based on visual, vestibular and proprioceptive inputs. (
  • Self-motion perception relies primarily on the integration of the visual, vestibular, proprioceptive, and somatosensory systems. (
  • The vestibular system senses motion using the semicircular canal and otolith organs in the inner ear. (
  • Dizziness and vertigo, the most common clinical manifestations of the vestibular system, are disorders of motion perception. (
  • Current understanding of the vestibular system is centered on control of eye movement and posture, with very little understood about perception especially as it pertains to clinical symptoms. (
  • Among these are the visual sense and body senses of self-motion (vestibular and somatosensory). (
  • Given sufficient stimulus, all people with functional vestibular systems can develop motion sickness. (
  • People with a history of migraines, vertigo, and vestibular disorders are more prone to motion sickness. (
  • Sensory conflict theory (the most widely accepted explanation for motion sickness) proposes that the condition is caused by conflict between the visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems, and involves complex neurophysiologic signaling between multiple nuclear regions, neurotransmitters, and receptors. (
  • In the second part of the experiment, we determined individual motion sickness frequency responses. (
  • In this experiment, vibration stimulation was added to the tendon of biceps brachii during elbow joint extension motion. (
  • In this work we propose to utilize haptic perception paired with a qualitative effect representation to reason about the task performance of robotic wiping motions despite poor visual information. (
  • This study explored dental students' performance (quantitative data) and perceptions (qualitative data) on canal preparation with Ni-Ti rotary vs. hand instruments and discussed interactions between technical findings and students' insights. (
  • Qualitative data (students' perceptions) were collected and perceptions were identified from interview contents using thematic analysis. (
  • This paper examines how 4 display types (point-light figure, stick figure, body mass and skeleton) shape observers' perception of music performance. (
  • Stationary observers often experience illusory self-motion (vection) when they are exposed to large patterns of optic flow. (
  • 50 years are less susceptible to motion sickness. (
  • Some people are more susceptible to motion sickness than others. (
  • These sensors are described as detecting motion by spatio-temporal correlation and are considered by some to be plausible models for how the visual system may detect motion. (
  • The results demonstrated that the perception of scripts of goal-directed hand action implicates the cortex in the intraparietal sulcus and the caudal part of the superior temporal sulcus, both in the left hemisphere. (
  • By contrast, the rostrocaudal part of the right superior temporal sulcus and adjacent temporal cortex, and limbic structures such as the amygdala, are involved in the perception of signs conveyed by expressive body movements. (
  • The above findings raise the question whether, in the human brain, the perception of action implicates specific systems within the superior temporal sulcus and the posterior parietal cortex. (
  • For example, if the light or sound emitted by a perceived event is scrambled, compressed or stretched en route to the perceiver, the duration of T (and even the temporal ordering of its parts) will be affected, and the resulting experience will probably misrepresent the temporal properties of the perceived event to a significant degree. (
  • We investigate whether the motion-binding property influences audiovisual temporal integration. (
  • The study subjects performed four types of temporal-order judgment (TOJ) task experiments using three types of perception. (
  • The medial temporal (MT) area receives direct input from V1 and is considered the first extrastriate area that integrates visual motion information ( Zeki, 1974 ). (
  • Werner E. Reichardt and Bernard Hassenstein have modelled it in terms of relatively simple "motion sensors" in the visual system, that have evolved to detect a change in luminance at one point on the retina and correlate it with a change in luminance at a neighbouring point on the retina after a short delay. (
  • Temporonasal motion projected on the nasal retina underlies expansion-contraction asymmetry in vection. (
  • See MIT example Some have speculated that, having extracted the hypothesized motion signals (first- or second-order) from the retinal image, the visual system must integrate those individual local motion signals at various parts of the visual field into a 2-dimensional or global representation of moving objects and surfaces. (
  • It might be thought that motion perception is simply the outcome of retinal image motion, but in fact this is so only for a stationary observer with unmoving eyes. (
  • Retinal image motion can be a consequence of the displacement of an object relative to a stationary environment, of an observer relative to a stationary object or of some combination of both. (
  • A good number of motion detectors have been identified in the insects' visual pathways. (
  • Complementary approaches with anecdotal evidence of effectiveness for preventing or treating motion sickness (e.g., acupressure and magnets, ginger, homeopathic remedies, pyridoxine [vitamin B6]) might be effective for individual travelers but cannot generally be recommended (see Sec. 2, Ch. 14, Complementary & Integrative Health Approaches to Travel Wellness ). (
  • Here, we used well-established paradigms to relate motion perception and motion sickness on an individual level. (
  • The main objective of these projects is the development of novel methodologies and technological paradigms that improve the perception of the machine and allows for natural body interactions in human-machine partnerships. (
  • I carried out a quantitative literature review of ProQuest, Scopus, and the Web of Science throughout June 2022, with search terms including "metaverse" + "ambient sound recognition and processing tools," "object perception and motion control algorithms," and "behavioral predictive analytics. (
  • This means that a variety of contours of different orientations moving at different speeds can cause identical responses in a motion sensitive neuron in the visual system. (
  • Sickness responses were recorded using both the MIsery SCale (MISC) with 30 s intervals, and the Motion Sickness Assessment Questionnaire (MSAQ) at the end of the motion exposure. (
  • To determine whether activation responses to natural versus unnatural motion in primary dystonia differ from normal, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study 10 DYT1 dystonia and 10 healthy control subjects at rest and during the perception of 'natural' and 'unnatural' motion. (
  • The two groups differed, however, in their responses to 'natural' versus 'unnatural' motion in these regions. (
  • Equipped with protective rails, a catwalk provides a mechanism for studying human perception and responses at heights. (
  • This description is, however, somewhat paradoxical as it is not possible to create such motion in the absence of figural percepts. (
  • Participants were exposed to 30-minute sinusoidal fore-aft motions at frequencies of 0.15, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 Hz, with a peak amplitude of 2 m/s 2 in five separate sessions, approximately 1 week apart. (
  • It is important to identify more specifically which processes of motion perception are impacted in ASC before a link can be made between perceptual deficits and the higher-level features of the disorder. (
  • Although, again, the notion of a "pure motion" detector suffers from the problem that there is no "pure motion" stimulus, i.e. a stimulus lacking perceived figure/ground properties). (
  • Second-order motion is when the moving contour is defined by contrast, texture, flicker or some other quality that does not result in an increase in luminance or motion energy in the Fourier spectrum of the stimulus. (
  • Specifically, the PSS in the motion-binding condition was shifted toward a sound-lead stimulus in which the PSS became closer to zero (i.e., physical simultaneity) and the JND became narrower compared to other conditions. (
  • We assumed a motion stimulus with a rich spatiotemporal frequency spectrum. (
  • Psychology Professor Kenzo Sakurai from Tohoku Gakuin University, an expert on self-motion and co-author of the study, points out what a major discovery their findings are. (
  • Human motion can be changed from his/her intended motion by giving vibration stimulation to an antagonist muscle. (
  • It indicates that the amount of human motion change induced by vibration stimulation can be controlled by frequency change. (
  • These results indicate that the Perception-Assist with vibration stimulation can be carried out using frequency change. (
  • Two years after the surgery, Mr May was able to see form, colour and motion almost normally. (
  • The goal of the research described in this dissertation is to understand the mechanisms by which the brain senses motion. (
  • The human brain combines the information of the different senses to generate a unified and robust percept of self-motion. (
  • Human motion analysis has received a great attention from researchers in the last decade due to its potential use in different applications. (
  • This field of research focuses on the perception and recognition of human activities, including people identification. (
  • In these cases, human motion is often recorded from 'real people' and transposed into 3D displays, such as stick-figures, as they allow to standardize recordings from different individuals. (
  • We will also discuss aspects of action including human action, disorders of action and the perception of actions. (
  • This lab is also equipped with a six-camera VICON motion measurement system to capture movements of human subjects in the virtual environment. (
  • The Centre for Robotics of MINES ParisTech is involved in several research projects on human motion pattern recognition applied to the Factory of the Future, the Creative and Cultural Industries and the Autonomous Vehicles. (
  • Work-related repetitive motion disorders are costly. (
  • Sixty-five percent of all occupational illnesses in U.S. private industry are attributed to musculoskeletal disorders arising from the performance of repeated motion, yet the precise mechanisms of tissue pathophysiology have yet to be determined for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. (
  • It is not clear how this 2D representation is then converted into the perceived 3D percept) Further processing is required to detect coherent motion or "global motion" present in a scene. (
  • The sensitivity to motion coherence is assessed by measuring the ratio of 'signal' to 'noise' dots required to determine the coherent motion direction. (
  • Here, we investigated the computations that underlie this integration in the case of coherent motion. (
  • For simplicity, we only considered coherent motion along a given motion direction (i.e., visual speed). (
  • Being sleep-deprived can worsen motion sickness symptoms. (
  • Most people, in time, notice a reduction in motion sickness symptoms. (
  • To explore this possibility, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study primary dystonia and healthy volunteer subjects while they performed a motion perception task in which elliptical target trajectories were visually tracked on a computer screen. (
  • Prior functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of healthy subjects performing this task have revealed selective activation of motor regions during the perception of 'natural' versus 'unnatural' motion (defined respectively as trajectories with kinematic properties that either comply with or violate the two-thirds power law of motion). (
  • Results imply that IRM arises because of a heuristic about how objects move in the environment: In the absence of countervailing evidence, motion trajectories are assumed to continue away from the location where an object was last seen to move. (
  • For example, motion recognition tasks can be used to diagnose neurodevelopmental diseases, or to evaluate the aesthetics and emotion of an artistic performance. (
  • However, his 3D perception and face and object recognition was still severely impaired. (
  • In particular, we relate the desired contact force to the measured end-effector force in order to simulate the effect of previously executed wiping motions. (
  • It is these errors that have received most attention both historically and in contemporary research, which is perhaps surprising as this focus has diverted attention from the extraordinary ability of perceptual systems to recover motion accurately under widely varying conditions. (
  • It appears that individuals with ASC are unaffected in perceptual processing of form-from-motion, but may exhibit impairments in higher order judgments such as emotion processing. (
  • IRM is qualitatively similar to illusory line motion (ILM). (
  • 4. Psychological changes in pain perception and reporting behavior. (
  • In aggregate, the findings suggest that the normal pattern of brain activation in response to motion perception is disrupted in DYT1 dystonia. (
  • While many past studies, including studies of visual perception and the visual areas of the brain, have examined how changes in overall contrast affect perception, these results suggest that our visual system responds to the gradient of contrast differences rather than to overall levels of contrast. (
  • The results revealed that the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS) and the just-noticeable difference (JND) in the motion-binding condition differed significantly from those in the simultaneous and short and long successive interval conditions. (
  • The experimental results show that the amount of elbow joint motion change increases when the frequency increases. (
  • Sound recordings and motion pictures that present the results of scholarly research or fieldwork are also included. (
  • Past studies of speed perception simulated the effects of fog by reducing the contrast of everything in the scene equally regardless of distance (see, e.g. (
  • Previous literature suggests a relationship between individual characteristics of motion perception and the peak frequency of motion sickness sensitivity. (
  • However, we did observe a strong positive correlation between the subjective vertical time constant and general motion sickness sensitivity (r = 0.74, p = 0.0006). (
  • In young adults, performance was also insensitive to element number and density but was modulated markedly by display size, such that motion coherence thresholds decreased as aperture area increased (participants required fewer local elements to move coherently to determine the overall image direction). (
  • With the smallest apertures tested, young participants' motion coherence thresholds were considerably higher (~1.5 times worse) than those of their older counterparts. (
  • Three plausible accounts of IRM are considered: a shifting attentional gradient model, a motion aftereffect (MAE) model, and a heuristic model. (
  • Therefore, when RDK size is relatively small, older participants were actually better than young participants at processing global motion. (
  • I find and prove that the rotary motion signal does not depend on the center of rotation relative to which it is computed which explains the experimentally observed position invariance of MST(d) cells found by (Graziano, Andersen, & Snowden, 1994). (
  • Ni-Ti rotary instrumentation perceptions were: good initial expectations before its use, perceptions of doubts and difficulties concerning workability right after its first use, and increase in confidence after its second use in a second canal. (
  • Several regions with significant connectivity changes in primary dystonia were situated in proximity to normal motion perception pathways, suggesting that abnormalities of these circuits may also be present in this disorder. (
  • This way we are not just able to distinguish good from bad contact situations, but also replan recovery motions w. r. t. the effect-space to accomplish the commanded cleaning task subsequently. (
  • Awareness and avoidance of situations that tend to trigger symptoms are the primary defenses against motion sickness. (
  • Neuropsychological studies of a patient who could not see motion, seeing the world in a series of static "frames" instead, suggested that visual area V5 in humans is homologous to motion processing area V5/MT in primates. (
  • Motion sickness occurs when the parts of the inner ear that help control balance (including the semicircular canals) are overstimulated, as can occur when motion is excessive. (
  • It can also occur when the brain receives contradictory information from its motion sensors-the eyes, the semicircular canals, and the muscle sensors (nerve endings in muscles and joints that provide information about body position). (
  • To respond to movements of others and understand the intention of others' actions, it is important to accurately extract motion information from body movements. (
  • The experimental design involved comparisons of activity during the perception of goal-directed hand action, whole body motion, object motion, and random motion. (
  • Material perception and action: The role of material properties in object handling [Doctoral thesis]. (