Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
A genus of plant viruses of the family BROMOVIRIDAE, which infect cucurbits and solanaceous plants. Transmission occurs via aphids in a non-persistent manner, and also via seeds. The type species Cucumber mosaic virus, a CUCUMOVIRUS, should not be confused with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, a TOBAMOVIRUS.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.
A genus of plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE in which the bipartite genome is encapsidated in separate icosahedral particles. Mosaic and mottle symptoms are characteristic, and transmission is exclusively by leaf-feeding beetles. Cowpea mosaic virus is the type species.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
Diseases of plants.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Viral proteins that facilitate the movement of viruses between plant cells by means of PLASMODESMATA, channels that traverse the plant cell walls.
A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A genus of plant viruses, in the family TYMOVIRIDAE, possessing a narrow host range that includes CRUCIFERAE. Transmission occurs by BEETLES and mechanical inoculation.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
A large genus of plant viruses of the family POTYVIRIDAE which infect mainly plants of the Solanaceae. Transmission is primarily by aphids in a non-persistent manner. The type species is potato virus Y.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A genus of plant viruses in the family FLEXIVIRIDAE, that cause mosaic and ringspot symptoms. Transmission occurs mechanically. Potato virus X is the type species.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A satellite RNA (not a satellite virus) which has several types. Different cucumoviruses can act as helper viruses for different types.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
A family of RNA plant viruses with flexuous, filamentous particles and consisting of six genera: POTYVIRUS; Ipomovirus; Macluravirus; Rymovirus; Tritimovirus; and Bymovirus. All members of the family form cytoplasmic cylindrical inclusion bodies during infection.
A species of the Chenopodium genus which is the source of edible seed called quinoa. It contains makisterone A and other STEROIDS, some having ECDYSTEROID activity on insects.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)
A family of RNA plant viruses infecting dicotyledons. Transmission is mainly by mechanical inoculation and through propagative plant material. All species elicit formation of multivesicular inclusion bodies. There are at least eight genera: Aureusvirus, Avenavirus, CARMOVIRUS, Dianthovirus, Machlomovirus, Necrovirus, Panicovirus, and TOMBUSVIRUS.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that is perennial with conspicuous, almost palmate leaves like those of RICINUS but more deeply parted into five to nine lobes. It is a source of a starch after removal of the cyanogenic glucosides. The common name of Arrowroot is also used with Maranta (MARANTACEAE). The common name of yuca is also used for YUCCA.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A family of plant viruses where the VIRION possesses an unusual morphology consisting of a pair of isometric particles. Transmission occurs via leafhoppers or whitefly. Some viruses cause economically important diseases in cultivated plants. There are four genera: Mastrevirus, Curtovirus, Topocuvirus, and BEGOMOVIRUS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. Folin is the water-soluble extract from Sasa albomarginata. Sasa kurinensis is an ingredient of Sho-ju-sen, a Japanese herbal medicine.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
The type species of the genus ALFAMOVIRUS that is non-persistently transmitted by aphids.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
A spherical RNA satellite virus which requires an obligatory helper TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS for replication.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A genus of plant viruses in the family GEMINIVIRIDAE that are transmitted in nature by whitefly Bemisia tabaci.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE known for the edible fruit.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
The mallow family of the order Malvales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. Members include GOSSYPIUM, okra (ABELMOSCHUS), HIBISCUS, and CACAO. The common names of hollyhock and mallow are used for several genera of Malvaceae.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Viruses that produce tumors.
A genus of the family BROMOVIRIDAE which infects mainly woody plants. Species are divided into ten subgroups. Tobacco streak virus is the type species.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Membrane-like channels of cytoplasm connecting adjacent plant cells. Plasmodesmata connect through pores in the CELL WALL and associate with the CYTOSKELETON machinery. They are essential for intercellular transport and communication.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
A genus of polyhedral plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE causing ringspots and spotting on leaves or sometimes symptomless infection. Transmission occurs by seeds, soil nematodes, or experimentally by mechanical inoculation. Tobacco ringspot virus is the type species.
A plant genus of the family Caricaceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is the source of edible fruit and PAPAIN.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain piperidine alkaloids (PIPERIDINES).
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
A genus of plant viruses in which the virion is a rigid filament. Transmission is by mechanical inoculation or seed. The type species is TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
A genus of the family BROMOVIRIDAE with a wide host range. Transmission is by aphids and the type species is ALFALFA MOSAIC VIRUS.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
A genus in the family TOMBUSVIRIDAE mostly found in temperate regions. Some species infecting legumes (FABACEAE) are reported from tropical areas. Most viruses are soil-borne, but some are transmitted by the fungus Olpidium radicale and others by beetles. Carnation mottle virus is the type species.
A family of RNA plant viruses infecting disparate plant families. They are transmitted by specific aphid vectors. There are three genera: LUTEOVIRUS; Polerovirus; and Enamovirus.
A genus of plant viruses that infects both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Its organisms are persistently transmitted by aphids, and weeds may provide reservoirs of infection.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates VANILLOID RECEPTORS. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
A plant species of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae known for the melon fruits with reticulated (net) surface including cantaloupes, honeydew, casaba, and Persian melons.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
The goosefoot plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes beets and chard (BETA VULGARIS), as well as SPINACH, and salt tolerant plants.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.

Physical and functional heterogeneity in TYMV RNA: evidence for the existence of an independent messenger coding for coat protein. (1/667)

Turnip yellow mosaic virus RNA can be separated into two distinct components of 2 times 10(6) and 300 000 daltons molecular weight after moderate heat treatment in the presence of SDS or EDTA. The two species cannot have arisen by accidental in vitro degradation of a larger RNA, as they both possess capped 5' ends. Analysis of the newly synthesized proteins resulting from translation of each RNA by a wheat germ extract shows that the 300 000 molecular weight RNA can be translated very efficiently into coat protein. When translated in vitro the longer RNA gave a series of high molecular weight polypeptides but only very small amounts of a polypeptide having about the same mass as the coat protein. Thus our results suggest that the small RNA is the functional messenger for coat protein synthesis in infected cells.  (+info)

Complete sequence and genome properties of Chinese wheat mosaic virus, a new furovirus from China. (2/667)

The complete nucleotide sequence of a virus infecting winter wheat in Shandong province, China has been determined. This was previously thought to be soil-borne wheat mosaic virus but, while the two viruses are related, they are only 75% (RNA1) and 63% (RNA2) identical at the nucleotide level, while the amino acid sequences share from 62% (19 kDa RNA2 product) to 84% (RNA1 replicase) identity. The analysis shows that the Chinese virus should be considered a new member of the genus Furovirus and has been named Chinese wheat mosaic virus (CWMV). A Cys-Gly ... Cys-Gly-X-X-His amino acid pattern was identified in the cysteine-rich protein of CWMV and those of several other plant virus genera, which seems likely to have some functional significance.  (+info)

The sCYMV1 hairpin ribozyme: targeting rules and cleavage of heterologous RNA. (3/667)

The catalytic center of the RNA from the negative strand of the satellite RNA of chicory yellow mottle virus type 1 (sCYMV1) is in the hairpin ribozyme family, has catalytic activity, and cleaves substrates before a preferred GUA sequence. This is different from that of the satellite RNA from the negative strand of tobacco ringspot virus (sTRSV) which prefers a GUC sequence at the site of cleavage. The sCYMV1 hairpin ribozyme has now been developed for cleaving heterologous RNA substrates. When helix 1 was extended from the native 5 bp to 6 bp with a newly added A:U base pair, catalytic activity increased three-fold. The preferred sequence for the substrate loop was the native A*GUA sequence where * is the site of cleavage. When each nucleotide in this sequence was changed to each of the other three nucleotides, catalytic activity decreased 66-100%. RNA targets, containing this A*GUA sequence, were located in both human papillomavirus and HIV-1. Ribozymes were developed which efficiently cleaved these targets in vitro. These results identify a new class of hairpin ribozymes capable of cleaving substrates before a preferred GUA sequence rather than the GUC preferred by the sTRSV hairpin ribozyme. This expands the repertoire of target sites available for gene therapy using the hairpin ribozyme.  (+info)

Rapid generation of genetic heterogeneity in progenies from individual cDNA clones of peach latent mosaic viroid in its natural host. (4/667)

Viroids, small single-stranded circular RNAs endowed with autonomous replication, are unique systems to conduct evolutionary studies of complete RNA genomes. The primary structure of 36 progeny variants of peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd), evolved from inoculations of the peach indicator GF-305 with four individual PLMVd cDNAs differing in their pathogenicity, has been determined. Most progeny variants had unique sequences, revealing that the extremely heterogeneous character of PLMVd natural isolates most probably results from the intrinsic ability of this RNA to accumulate changes, rather than from repeated inoculations of the same individual trees under field conditions. The structure of the populations derived from single PLMVd sequences differed according to the observed phenotype. Variant gds6 induced a reproducible symptomatic infection and gave rise to a more uniform progeny that preserves some parental features, whereas variant gds15, which induced a variable phenotype, showed a more complex behaviour, generating two distinct progenies in symptomatic and asymptomatic individual plants. Progenies derived from variants esc10 and Is11, which incited latent infections, followed a similar evolutionary pattern, leading to a population structure consisting of two main groups of variants, one of which was formed by variants closely related to the parental sequence. The evolution rate exhibited by PLMVd, considerably higher than that reported for potato spindle tuber viroid, may contribute to the fluctuating symptomatology of the severe PLMVd natural isolates. However, the polymorphism observed in PLMVd progenies does preserve some structural and functional elements previously proposed for this viroid, supporting the fact that they act as constraints limiting the genetic divergence of PLMVd quasispecies generated de novo.  (+info)

Sequences of European wheat mosaic virus and oat golden stripe virus and genome analysis of the genus furovirus. (5/667)

The complete nucleotide sequences of both RNAs of oat golden stripe virus (OGSV) and a wheat-infecting furovirus isolate from France, previously thought to be soil-borne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV), have been determined. Both viruses had a similar genomic organisation to SBWMV and Chinese wheat mosaic virus, the two other furoviruses previously sequenced but had <70% nucleotides identical to them. The French isolate has been named European wheat mosaic virus (EWMV). Phylogenetic analyses supported the recognition of these isolates as distinct viruses in the genus Furovirus. Analysis of the coat protein readthrough domain on RNA2 of all furoviruses strongly predicts two mutually compatible conserved transmembrane domains that may be significant for fungus transmission. The second of these regions is eliminated by a deletion in the isolate of OGSV studied. Leaky opal (UGA) stop codons occur on both RNAs of all four furoviruses characterised and, in common with most other leaky opal codons identified in plant viruses, they are followed by a CGG codon.  (+info)

Structural fingerprinting: subgrouping of comoviruses by structural studies of red clover mottle virus to 2.4-A resolution and comparisons with other comoviruses. (6/667)

Red clover mottle virus (RCMV) is a member of the comoviruses, a group of picornavirus-like plant viruses. The X-ray structure of RCMV strain S has been determined and refined to 2.4 A. The overall structure of RCMV is similar to that of two other comoviruses, Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) and Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV). The sequence of the coat proteins of RCMV strain O were modeled into the capsid structure of strain S without causing any distortion, confirming the close resemblance between the two strains. By comparing the RCMV structure with that of other comoviruses, a structural fingerprint at the N terminus of the small subunit was identified which allowed subgrouping of comoviruses into CPMV-like and BPMV-like viruses.  (+info)

Quasi-elastic behavior of solutions of viral capsid and RNA at very low shearing stresses. (7/667)

By the application of shearing stresses on the order of 10(-3) dyne cm-2 (10(-2) muN cm-2), via the magnetic viscodensimeter, extremely high relative viscosities (greater than 500) were observed when turnip yellow mosaic virus was degraded in alkali into its capsid and RNA. The solutions, however, possessed a watery consistency at this stage and exhibited a quasi-elastic character by rotor-recoil experiments. The development of this curious behavior was concentration and temperature dependent; it was not seen less than 0.5% nor at 8 degrees, and appeared sooner at 30 degrees than at 20 degrees. The time of appearance was delayed as the pH was lowered; however, the effect was still observed when the pH was as low as 9. Whereas reversibility was demonstrated when the shearing stresses exceeded the elastic resistance [0.17 dyne cm-2 (1.7 muN CM-2)], thorough mixing usually resulted in a normal behavior of the solutions thereafter. Values for the modulus of rigidity at 20 degrees for about 1% virus concentration was less than 2 X 10(-2) dyne cm-2 rad-1 (0.2 muN cm-2 rad-1), which, while extremely small, was reproducible. A porous structure, possibly involving a capsid and RNA complex, is envisioned.  (+info)

A gene cluster encoded by panicum mosaic virus is associated with virus movement. (8/667)

A subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) of about 1500 nucleotides has been detected in millet plants and protoplasts infected with panicum mosaic virus (PMV). This sgRNA expressed p8, p6.6, p15, and the 26-kDa capsid protein (CP) genes during in vitro translation assays, as determined by using mutants inactivated for expression of each open reading frame. Abolishing expression of p8 and p6.6, the two 5'-proximal genes on the sgRNA, did not affect the replication of PMV in millet protoplasts, but obstructed spread in plants. As predicted for a typical cell-to-cell movement protein, p8 localized to the cell wall fraction of PMV-infected millet plants. The introduction of premature stop codons downstream of the PMV p15 start codon (p15*) abolished infectivity in planta, but did not impair replication in protoplasts. However, a delayed systemic infection in millet plants was supported by the p15aug(-) start codon mutant, which may reflect very low levels of expression from a suboptimal start codon context and/or leaky scanning to a second inframe AUG codon to express the C-terminal portion of the 15-kDa protein. PMV CP mutants had little effect on sgRNA accumulation, but were correlated with a reduction of the gRNA and the decreased expression of the 8-kDa protein in protoplasts as well as abolishment of cell-to-cell spread in plants. These results imply that the successful establishment of a PMV systemic infection in millet host plants appears to be dependent on the concerted expression of the p8, p6.6, p15, and CP genes.  (+info)

Southern bean mosaic virus ATCC ® PVAS-298™ Designation: Cowpea [southern bean mosaic virus antiserum] Application: Test animal used: rabbit Host plant from which virus was purified: Vigna unguiculata cv. Plant research
Abstract: The mode of inheritance of resistance to cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CAMV) and southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) was determined in the following cowpea (Vigna unguiculata s.sp. unguiculata (L) Walp) varieties: A44/2, TVu 222, TVu 612 all resistant to CAMV and TVu 1948, which is resistant to both CAMV and SBMV. Crosses were made between each of the resistant varieties and C20-55, a cowpea variety susceptible to CAMV and SBMV. The parents, FI, F2, B1 and B2 progenies of each cross were raised in the greenhouse and inoculated with the appropriate virus. The results showed that two recessive genes control resistance to CAMV in A44/2, a single dominant gene controls resistance to the same virus in TVu 222, while a single recessive gene was responsible for resistance in each of the varieties TVu 612 and TVu 1948. Results of allelic tests among the F1 and F2 progenies of crosses among A44/2, TVu 612, and TVu 222 indicated that each of them possesses different genes for resistance to ...
Biomolecules are increasingly attractive templates for the synthesis of functional nanomaterials. Chief among them are the plant Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) due to their high aspect ratio, narrow size distribution,
Summary Barley tissue with an acute systemic infection of barley stripe mosaic virus contained a large amount of unencapsidated virus RNA which was stable in extracts made in ribosome isolation buffer. The virus RNA in ribosome preparations sedimented in a broad band at 80S to 100S in sucrose gradients, which is less than the virion sedimentation rate of 180S to 200S. A protein of apparent M r 60000, which sedimented with the virus RNA, was present in ribosome extracts from infected plants but absent from those from uninfected plants. The protein is probably a virus protein because its apparent molecular weight varied slightly with the strain of virus. The structure containing the M r 60000 protein did not sediment in sucrose gradients in a compact zone as would be expected for a particle of uniform size. The M r 60000 protein was present at a concentration equal to or slightly higher (up to 400 µg/g leaf tissue) than the unencapsidated virus RNA (up to 300 µg/g leaf tissue). Sedimentation results
Only one of four isolates (C4) of barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) was transmitted (airbrush method of inoculation) from barley (Hordeum vulgare Black Hulless ) to wild oats (Avena fatua). Initially, the proportion of inoculated wild oat plants systemically infected by isolate C4 was low, and in some plants only localized infections developed in inoculated leaves. However, when isolate C4 was subsequently transferred from infected to healthy wild oats, the proportion of inoculated plants infected was high and the infection was invariably systemic. These observations and several additional lines of evidence indicated that this pattern of transmission was due to strain selection during systemic passage of isolate C4 through wild oats. Complete separation of strains comprising this isolate, however, apparently did not occur until three successive passages of the virus through wild oats. After this, the selected strain from barley systemically infected almost all wild oat plants that were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endoplasmic reticulum export and vesicle formation of the movement protein of Chinese wheat mosaic virus are regulated by two transmembrane domains and depend on the secretory pathway. AU - Andika, Ida Bagus. AU - Zheng, Shiling. AU - Tan, Zilong. AU - Sun, Liying. AU - Kondo, Hideki. AU - Zhou, Xueping. AU - Chen, Jianping. PY - 2013/1/20. Y1 - 2013/1/20. N2 - The 37K protein of Chinese wheat mosaic virus (CWMV) belongs to the 30K superfamily of plant virus movement proteins. CWMV 37K trans-complemented the cell-to-cell spread of a movement-defective Potato virus X. CWMV 37K fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein localized to plasmodesmata and formed endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived vesicular and large aggregate structures. CWMV 37K has two putative N-terminal transmembrane domains (TMDs). Mutations disrupting TMD1 or TMD2 impaired 37K movement function; those mutants were unable to form ER-derived structures but instead accumulated in the ER. Treatment with Brefeldin A ...
Virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a technology that has been used primarily to target the virus genome in infected plants. However, if the virus genome carries inserts derived from the host plant, the system could be employed to target the mRNAs corresponding to the host gene. Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus (BSMV), a disease of various cereals including barley and wheat, has been one of the successfully used viral RNA silencing tools in monocotyledonous plants for the last decade. In this study, we investigated several factors that play a significant role in VIGS. We tested the efficiency of silencing two genes simultaneously using the BSMV-induced gene silencing (IGS) system in detail. We found that two genes could be silenced simultaneously using BSMV-IGS. However, the silencing efficiency was found to be influenced by several factors including stability of the insert, temperature, and the accumulation of small viral RNAs from BSMV. The effect of these factors on VIGS system has been ...
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The Effect of Low-Temperature Pre-Incubation Treatment of Tobacco and Soybean Callus Cultures on Rates of Tobacco- and Southern Bean Mosaic Virus Synthesis. James L. White, Fang-Sheng Wu, and H. H. Murakishi. Pages 60-63. VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. ...
Cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs) encoded by some plant viruses in diverse genera function as RNA silencing suppressors. Within the N-terminal portion of CRPs encoded by furoviruses, there are six conserved cysteine residues and a Cys-Gly-X-X-His motif (
New bean leaves may be small and stiff, and older leaves are puckered with curled edges. The colour on affected leaves becomes mottled with light and dark green patches. Blossom clusters become curled and distorted. If the plants produce pods, they are often kinked and mottled with shades of yellowish green.
Full nutritional breakdown of the calories in Southern Beans & Greens (PCRM Kickstart) based on the calories and nutrition in each ingredient, including Chickpeas (garbanzo beans), Beans, black, Kale, Olive Oil, Pacific Natural Foods Organic Low Sodium Vegetable Broth, 1 cup and the other ingredients in this recipe.
winter wheat. Plant Disease. ( Singh, Jasleen; ... Jones, Mark. Wheat mosaic virus (WMoV), the causal agent of High Plains disease, is present in Ohio wheat ... Soybean and Wheat Quality Research Unit focuses on virus diseases of maize. Objectives of my work include .... ...
The symptoms of rose mosaic virus are quite variable, usually appear in spring and remain throughout the growing season. The whole plant, a single stem, or a portion of the plant may exhibit symptoms even though the whole plant is infected. So pruning off those plant parts that display symptoms will not control the disease ...
Vigorous plants produce heavy crops of 6-7 long, straight beans. Stringless; resistant to Bean Mosaic Virus. Excellent for canning-holds its deep green color and flavor during processing. Days to Maturity: 50 Choose from 3 sizes!
or https:// means youve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. ...
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I have been a frequent visitor to this site for the past year and a half, but have never posted before. Ive learned a lot from the stories shared in here, primarily pertaining to situations that occurred at Mosaic prior to my joining them in Spring of 2006. A little over a month ago, I chose to leave Mosaic after finally coming to terms that its community of faith, love and hope didnt embrace me fully as a human being. While the reasons for my departure are not in any way like the ones described in this site, nevertheless the pain and hurt experienced in the process of leaving is. Im also quite familiar with the duality of Erwins personality (on stage vs off stage). That in itself, made me weary of him a long time ago, though I did fall victim to his charming persona in the beginning. There are a lot of things Im grateful to Mosaic. First, I came to Christ while at Mosaic. Also, it provided me with the opportunity to meet some quality human beings. In the two years at Mosaic, I managed to ...
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Well fuck. Ive learned about mold mildew mites and gnats the hard way, now its a fuckin virus. I thought this was a def. at first, but its not going away.
RTBV has bacilliform particles of 30 nm diameter and usually about 130 nm length (Fig. 2). However, in some isolates longer particles in excess of 300 nm are found. The structure of the particles is based on a T 3 icosahedron cut across its threefold axis with the tubular portion being made up of rings of hexamer subunits and a repeat distance of about 10 nm. The particles have an S2ow of approximately 200 and a buoyant density in cesium chloride of approximately 1.36 g ml-1. Figure 2 Electron.... ...
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A mosaic workshop in Ravenna Luciana Notturnis Officina del Mosaico in Ravenna has operated for many years in the mosaic field, both locally and internationally. The activities carried
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Hey there not sure if anyone knows much about Gonadal Mosaic but thats what the geneticist told me I have meaning that some of my eggs have the mutation and s…
Hey there not sure if anyone knows much about Gonadal Mosaic but thats what the geneticist told me I have meaning that some of my eggs have the mutation and s…
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As an eight year old I received a mosaic kit for making an art piece of plastic tiles and an additional kit using beads to sew with each other. The... Read more »
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Authors Note: This is the new and revised version of A Strange Sky. I decided to give a more personal touch to the system (it felt too generic before), along with other changes to the events and story itself. The old version of this chapter is still available for reading, on a separate post listed…
こちらシェルとブラックアゲートをモザイク状にしたパーツです。サイズは定形ですが、がシェルですので光沢や色味には若干の個体差がございます。また、貼り合わせたものですので、裏面には石の接合部が含まれ部場合がございます。特価品のため選り分けることはできませんのであらかじめご了承ください。サイズ:15 mm x 15 mm x 1.6 mm重さ: 0.72 gーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーー♦︎自然光での撮影♦︎商品は全て自然光の元で撮影しています。それが石が一番美しく見える状態であり、またお客様が実際にご覧いただく環境となるべく誤差をなくす為です。撮影環境により画像の色味がその都度異なる為、調整程度の加工は施しておりますが、その他の画像処理は一切しておりません
JoVE publishes peer-reviewed scientific video protocols to accelerate biological, medical, chemical and physical research. Watch our scientific video articles.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Turnip yellow mosaic virus and its capsid have thermal stabilities with opposite ph dependence. T2 - studies by differential scanning calorimetry and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. AU - Virudachalam, R.. AU - Low, Philip S.. AU - Argos, Patrick. AU - Markley, John L.. PY - 1985/10/30. Y1 - 1985/10/30. N2 - In the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) scans of turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) or its capsid a single endotherm was observed. The endotherm was attributed to disruption of the virion or capsid structure with accompanying protein denaturation. At pH 4.5 the thermal stabilities of the TYMV virion and capsid were similar. With increasing pH, the capsid stability increased while the virion stability decreased. At neutral pH the capsid disrupted at 83.5°, and the virion disrupted at 69°. Our results suggest that packaging of viral RNA in the TYMV capsid imparts instability. The pHmid for disruption of the TYMV capsid is 5.7, which is in the pKa range ...
Plant Dicer-like (DCL) enzymes exhibit a GC-preference during anti-viral post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), delivering an evolutionary selection pressure resulting in plant viruses with GC-poor genomes. However, some viruses, e.g. Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus (TYMV, genus Tymovirus) have GC-rich genomes, raising the question as to whether or not DCL derived selection pressure affects these viruses. In this study we analyzed the virus-derived small interfering RNAs from TYMV-infected leaves of Brassica juncea showed that the TYMV population accumulated a mutational bias with AU replacing GC (GC-AU), demonstrating PTGS pressure. Interestingly, at the highly polymorphic sites the GC-AU bias was no longer observed. This suggests the presence of an unknown mechanism preventing mutational drift of the viral population and maintaining viral genome stability, despite the host PTGS pressure.. ...
Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a pathogenic plant virus in the genus Potyvirus and the virus family Potyviridae which primarily infects the papaya tree. Papaya ring spot virus (PRSV) of apaya pests and diseases. Papaya virus disease with special reference to papaya ringspot. The Filamentous Plant Viruses. The virus is a monopartite strand of positive-sense, single-stranded RNA surrounded by a capsid made for a single viral encoded protein. PapMV infection initiated at the seedling stage on pawpaw (Carica papaya) results in a slightly stunted plant with leaf mottle, still able to produce fruit with no significant reduction on size or yield. These two strains are very similar, except that type PRSV-W does not infect papaya; it infects cucurbits. Nucleotide sequence of the capsid protein gene and 3 non-coding region of papaya mosaic virus RNA. Hosts and electron microscopy of two papaya viruses. Spot, remove and destroy infected plants or plant parts. Cuttings or divisions from infected plants ...
Bevan, M.W.; Mason, S.E.; Goelet, P., 1985: Expression of tobacco mosaic virus coat protein by a cauliflower mosaic virus promoter in plants transformed by Agrobacterium
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular and partial biological characterization of the coat protein sequences of Iranian alfalfa mosaic virus isolates. AU - Mangeli, Fatemeh. AU - Massumi, Hossain. AU - Alipour, Fereshteh. AU - Maddahian, Mohammad. AU - Heydarnejad, Jahangir. AU - Hosseinipour, Akbar. AU - Amid-Motlagh, Mohammad Hadi. AU - Azizizadeh, Morteza. AU - Varsani, Arvind. N1 - Funding Information: This research work was supported by the Iran National Science Foundation (INSF; Grant No. 93004315). PY - 2019/8/15. Y1 - 2019/8/15. N2 - Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) is one of the most important viruses that cause significant losses to alfalfa worldwide. A total of 1066 symptomatic alfalfa, 143 weeds and other secondary hosts were collected and assayed for AMV infection. The virus was detected in 360 samples (33.8% incidence) of alfalfa by plate-trapped antigen (PTA)-ELISA. Among the weed species and the other plants tested, potato, pepper and seven weed species were infected with AMV. The coat protein (CP) ...
Cauliflower Mosaic Virus is classified as an icosahedral (20 sided) virus. This is because of the icosahedral shape of the capsid that surrounds the viral genome. This shape gives the virus 20 symmetrical triangular faces. This symmetry allows for synthesis efficiency by having the same small number of proteins being produced from a small number genes and from short chromosome sequences. This allows the largest and most complex capsid to be formed from the least amount of resources making it more efficient than a non-symmetrical capsid (Slonczewski). The structure of cauliflower mosaic virus is approximately 52 nanometers in diameter and is surrounded by 420 capsid proteins arranged in triangulation T=7 (P, Ashwathi). In addition to capsid proteins, caulimoviruses are also surrounded by virus associated proteins (Caulimovirus.). These proteins are responsible for assisting in the binding of the virus to DNA on its c-terminal end (InterPro.). The efficiency of the icosahedral structure allows ...
Rsv1, a single dominant resistance gene in soybean PI 96983 (Rsv1), confers extreme resistance against all known American strains of Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), except G7 and G7d. SMV-G7 provokes a lethal systemic hypersensitive response (LSHR), whereas SMV-G7d, an experimentally evolved variant of …
Acts as a suppressor of RNA-mediated gene silencing, also known as post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), a mechanism of plant viral defense that limits the accumulation of viral RNAs.
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
AMV infects over 600 plant species in 70 families (experimental and natural hosts). Some hosts: potato (Solanum tuberosum), pea (Pisum sativum), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), bluebeard (Caryopteris incana), ... Symptoms vary from wilting, white flecks, malformation like dwarfing, ringspots, mottles, mosaics to necrosis depending on the virus strain, host variety, stage of growth at infection and environmental conditions. Signs of infection can persist or disappear quickly. The virus can be detected in each part of the host plant. The virions are mainly found in the cytoplasm of the infected plant (as inclusion bodies). Inclusions of Alfalfa mosaic virus In vitro AMV has a longevity of 1-4 days (sometimes much longer). Temperature and light are the environmental factors that have the greatest influence on the multiplication and movement of AMV in the plant and thus indirectly on the symptoms. Under low temperature the appearance of necrosis for example is less ...
Citation: Fenwick, A., Larson, R.L., Reeves, P.A., Richards, C.M., Panella, L.W. 2007. Virus induced gene silencing of a gene repressing flowering in sugar beet. American Society of Sugarbeet Technologists. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Exposure to a prolonged cold period during winter is necessary for flowering in the next spring in many biennial plants - a process termed vernalization. We have described BvFL1, a vernalization gene in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), which is a repressor of flowering that is downregulated in response to cold. This gene is a homolog to the MADS-bx gene FLOWRING LOCUS C(FLC)found in Arabidopsis thaliana. Flowering time is a trait of critical agronomic importance, and an assessment of function at this key regulatory locus may present an opportunity to study (and control) flowering time as a tool in applied plant breeding efforts. Virus induced gene silencing constructs were engineered into a Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) vector for use in blocking ...
Cauliflower mosaic virus has a very important function in biotechnology. It is because of its efficient promoter that is used to produce cloned genes, that it can be used to create transgenic plants that can take use of this efficiency. That is why now, 10% of cruciferous vegetables have a CaMV infection[16]. In order to do this, genes can only be inserted in the minor coding regions or regions not necessary for virus production which include open reading frame II and open reading frame VII. If done correctly, the production of progeny viruses will not be affected. A use of this is to insert a dihydroxyl folatereductase gene so that the infected plant will be resistant to methotrexate which otherwise is very toxic to plants[15]. Producing transgenic plants is done in order to gain benefits such as higher yield, resistance, quality and efficiency which would be hugely impactful to farmers who have been plagued by mosaic viruses and had to throw away a large percentage of their crop[11]. There are ...
Being aware of the different types of Mosaic Viruses can help to keep your plants thriving and virus-free. Plant has 2 leaves, big leaf was the original propagation leaf,small leaf has just emerged showing good variegation. Unfortunately, some of these signs can be due to many other factors such as insufficient watering, high humidity or too much sunlight. We have included some of the most commonly asked questions in regards to this infection that will hopefully answer any further concerns you may have. Interestingly the virus can also be latent in plants meaning that you cannot see any symptoms yet but the plant is already a host and is affected. As it quickly spreads to other plants you can see whole deliveries in gardening centres and plant shops infected with the virus. Once mosaic virus shows up on your plant, its almost certainly a goner. Philodendron Pink Princess #1 Best Care Hacks, Root Rot Causes & Symptoms in Plants you Wish you Knew. Tobacco Mosaic Virus is not the most common virus ...
Salah satu penyakit yang menyerang tanaman tebu adalah penyakit mosaik yang disebabkan oleh Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV) (Koesmihartono,2009). Kehadiran virus ini dapat menghambat fotosintesis, merusak tanaman dan menekan tingkat produktifitas tanaman tebu hingga 0.2%-50% tergantung dari seberapa berat infeksi virus dan ketahanan varietas terhadap Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (Duriat,1979). Salah satu upaya dalam mencegah penyebaran virus tersebut terutama di lapang adalah dengan cara deteksi dini melalui uji serologi. Untuk dapat melakukan uji serologi sebagai upaya uji deteksi dini perlu diproduksi protein rekombinan salah satu caranya adalah melalui kloning (perbanyakan dalam sel bakteri) cDNA yang menyandikan protein mantel dan melakukan konstruksi ke dalam vektor ekspresi. Protein rekombinan yang dapat digunakan untuk memproduksi antigen dalam pembuatan antibodi. Tahapan yang dilakukan adalah mengisolasi materi genetik yang ada pada SCMV beerupa RNA dan mengubahnya menjadi cDNA untuk kemudian ...
ID Y11775; SV 1; linear; genomic RNA; STD; VRL; 1194 BP. XX AC Y11775; XX DT 03-MAR-1998 (Rel. 54, Created) DT 03-MAR-1998 (Rel. 54, Last updated, Version 1) XX DE Peanut stripe virus RNA for NIb protein and coat protein, isolate 95/399 XX KW coat protein; NIb protein; nuclear inclusion b protein. XX OS Bean common mosaic virus strain peanut stripe OC Viruses; ssRNA viruses; ssRNA positive-strand viruses, no DNA stage; OC Potyviridae; Potyvirus. XX RN [1] RA Higgins C.M., Cassidy B.G., Teycheney P.Y., Wongkaew S., Dietzgen R.G.; RT ; RL Unpublished. XX RN [2] RP 1-1194 RA Higgins C.M.; RT ; RL Submitted (10-MAR-1997) to the INSDC. RL C.M. Higgins, Qld. Department of Primary Industries, Qld. Agricultural RL Biotechnology Centre, Level 4, Gehrmann Laboratories, The University of RL Queensland, St.Lucia, Qld. 4072, AUSTRALIA XX DR MD5; 16c18ef8c854fd0e451bf4f6361b8812. XX FH Key Location/Qualifiers FH FT source 1..1194 FT /organism=Bean common mosaic virus strain peanut stripe FT /host=peanut ...
Viruses spread through a plant in two steps. The first step is from cell to cell within the inoculated leaf. However, as soon as the virus has reached a cell bordering the vascular system of the plant, it can also spread via the vascular system throughout the entire plant. To spread from cell to cell, the virus needs to enlarge existing channels connecting neighbouring cells by building up a tunnel to transport the virus from one cell into the other. This is because the natural channels connecting the cells are too narrow for the virus to pass through ...
The present investigation was conducted to see the effect of Soybean Mosaic Virus (SMV) infection on carbohydrate content in nodules of soybean. Observation made on the carbohydrate (reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar and starch) content of nodules in soybean mosaic virus infected soybean indicated the reduction of all the contents in comparison to nodules in the healthy plants. Reducing sugar ranged from 2.0 to 3.39 mg g-1 dry weight in healthy and in diseased it ranged from 1.86 to 3.00 mg g-1 dry weight and in non reducing sugar ranged from 1.4 to 2.75 mg g-1 dry weight and in healthy and in diseased it ranged from 1.3 to 2.45 mg g-1 dry weight. The results were significant in the case of non-reducing sugar. The reducing and non-reducing sugars were estimated by the colorimetric method. The alcohol extract was clarified and residue left on the filter paper was returned to the extracting flask, dried at 65°C and preserved for starch analysis ...
During research carried out in the Netherlands, Marilia Santos Silva discovered that some tobacco plants die if a virus infects them, whereas others survive.
Extracts of barley leaves infected with bromegrass mosaic virus (BrMV) incorporated radioactivity into RNA when incubated with [3H]UTP in the presence of actinomycin D (Semal & Kummert, 1970). The radioactive product thus obtained was partly resistant to pancreatic RNase in × 2:SSC (0.15 m-NaCl, 0.015 m-sodium citrate, pH 7.0:SSC) but was entirely hydrolysed by this enzyme in × 0.05:SSC (Semal, 1970). A sequential synthesis of double- and single-stranded RNA was obtained under certain experimental conditions (Semal & Kummert, 1971). The present results identify the radioactive product associated with duplex RNA as a segment of BrMV-RNA. Cell-free extracts of the second leaf of barley seedlings, whose first leaf had been inoculated 3 days earlier with BrMV, were used to prepare the crude virus-induced RNA polymerase fraction. This fraction was incubated for 3½ min. with tritiated UTP (1 to 2 c/mm - The Radiochemical Centre, Amersham, Buckinghamshire, England), 10-3 m-EDTA, 20 µg./ml. of
In this study a new real-time PCR assay for the detection of figwort mosaic virus (FMV) DNA is described. This assay targets a 113-bp-long sequence of the FMV open reading frame Vll, a non-conserved coding region among the caulimoviruses. Detection of FMV DNA is useful to complement screening for the FMV 34S promoter (P-FMV), a genetic element present in several genetically modified (GM) plants. T ...
Bean production constraints in Africa with special reference to breeding for resistance to bean common mosaic virus in Uganda ...
Yellow-podded version of Neckar Queen. Lots of tasty, stringless, bright yellow, pencil pods, borne on vigorous plants which can tolerate unfavourable and variable weather conditions. Vines are vigorous climbers which easily top 2 metres. This wax bean produces a heavy crop of crunchy pods, 10-15 cm in length. Good for freezing. Resistant to bean mosaic virus. ...
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or https:// means youve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. ...
Prohibited organisms are declared pests by virtue of section 22(1), and may only be imported and kept subject to permits. Permit conditions applicable to some species may only be appropriate or available to research organisations or similarly secure institutions ...
COGEM released a comprehensive database of pathogenicity assessment of around 2575 bacterial species in 2011. The database ranks the pathogenicity of species on a scale of 1 to 4 - 1 being not belonging to a recognized group of disease-invoking agents in humans or animals and having an extended history of safe usage and 4 being a species that can cause a very serious human disease, for which no prophylaxis is known ...
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Cytoplasmic Protein Required For Replication Of Brome Mosaic Virus; S. Cerevisiae Is A Model System For Studying Replication Of Positive-strand RNA Viruses In Their Natural Hosts
Faustina has been producing ammonia since 1968. Mosaic chose to implement an emissions reduction project in 2017 instead of a debottleneck at Faustina. In October 2013, Mosaic abandoned plans for a $1.1 billion ammonia brownfield plant, because it became unnecessary after Mosaic acquired CF Industries phosphate operations. In early 2018, Mosaic derated the capacity at Faustina.. Read more. ...
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解釋 Vector covid virus covid-2019 mosaic icon created for medicare applications. Covid virus mosaic is shaped of small covid pathogen items. 剪貼畫、和美工 Image 167276787.
HKDSE Biology - This article is about the usage of fluid mosaic model to explain the properties and functions of cell membrane. Furthermore, under the study of fluid mosaic model,
MOSAIC : a relational database for comparative genomics of bacteria using complete genome multiple alignment, MOSAIC : une base de donn e relationnelle pour la g nomique compar e des bact ries utilisant des alignements de g nomes complets.
Karyotype with XO cell from a mosaic. Mosaic, also called mosaicism, denotes the presence of two populations of cells with different genotypes in one individual who has developed from a single fertilized egg. - Stock Image C017/2381
ls8_barest_earth_mosaic: Landsat-8 Barest Earth pixel composite mosaic 25 metre, 25km tile, Australian Albers Equal Area projection (EPSG:3577) ...
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Get Nikon NIKKOR Z 11-30mm f/4S and Nikon NIKKOR Z lenses at B&H Photo.. The series assesses of the Nikon NIKKOR Z 14-30mm f/4 S at 14mm on a demanding planar target. The main point of interest here is sharpness, but color rendition is also a concern.. In diglloyd Mirrorless:. Nikon NIKKOR Z 14-30mm f/4 S Aperture Series @ 14mm: Mosaic. Includes images up to full camera resolution from f/4 through f/11, plus crops.. ...
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The metaverse, aka, the real Internet 2.0, is currently at the stage of the Internet at the time of the Mosaic browser circa 1996, e.g.; at the beginning when only techies understand what it is and are using it, before it explodes into mainstream. Right now, there are at minimum several metaverses in the early stages of development, launch and use; it is not clear which of these metaverses could be the big one. Maybe they will all be displaced in the Netscape tradition. There will probably be many metaverses, and we may even be able to have as many of our own metaverses as we like ...
This festive Mexican jello looks like multi-colored mosaic gelatin. It does take a bit of time so youll want to make it a day ahead (maybe even two).
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... (PrMV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Potyviridae. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: ... Primula mosaic virus Family Groups - The Baltimore Method v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches ...
... (BCaMV or BCMoV) is a plant virus transmitted by whiteflies that infects bean genera and species ... and shares a most recent common ancestor with the Leaf curl virus-E strain and the Texas pepper virus, both also found in the ... and Phylogenetic Characterization of Bean Calico Mosaic Virus, a DistinctBegomovirusSpecies with Affiliation in the Squash Leaf ... Phylogenetic analysis of its two genome segments, DNA-A and DNA-B, indicate the virus is from Sonora, Mexico, ...
... is transmitted by a whitefly. Cassava brown streak virus disease "ICTVdB Virus Description - ... African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV, ICTV approved acronym) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Geminiviridae that may ... African cassava mosaic virus". Archived from the original on 2007-08-03. v t e v t e (Articles with short description, Short ... In Manihot esculenta (cassava), a highly valuable African food crop, the virus causes severe mosaic. Cassava is a staple food ...
... (WPMV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Potyviridae. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: ... Wild potato mosaic virus Family Groups - The Baltimore Method v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches ...
... (GCMV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Secoviridae. ICTVdB-The Universal Virus Database ... Grapevine chrome mosaic virus Family Groups-The Baltimore Method v t e (Articles with short description, Short description ...
A mosaic virus is any virus that causes infected plant foliage to have a mottled appearance. Such viruses come from a variety ... "mosaic" in the name. Mosaic "Rose Mosaic Virus: What Is It and What to Do". The Green Pinky. 5 October 2021. Retrieved 9 ... Virus species that contain the word 'mosaic' in their English language common name, as of March 2019, are listed below. However ... Mosaic+Viruses at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (Articles with short description, Short ...
... (EuMV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Geminiviridae. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: ... Euphorbia mosaic virus v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Articles with hatnote ...
... is a species of virus in the genus Potyvirus. It is known to infect American pokeweed (Phytolacca ... iNaturalist - Pokeweed mosaic virus v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Articles with ' ... americana), in which it causes mosaic symptoms. "Taxonomy". Retrieved 2021-07-07. ...
... virus/index.html. User, Super. "Brome Mosaic Virus (BMV)." Wheat Doctor, (Articles with ... "First Report of Brome Mosaic Virus (BMV) and Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV) Co-Infection in Triticale Plants in Poland." ... Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is a small (28 nm, 86S), positive-stranded, icosahedral RNA plant virus belonging to the genus ... "Mosaic Virus: Symptoms, Treatment and Control." Planet Natural, ...
... is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Potyviridae. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Kalanchoë ... mosaic virus Family Groups - The Baltimore Method v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, ...
... the West Indies virus strain Abutilon mosaic B, the Brazil virus strain Abutilon mosaic Hawaii virus "Abutilon mosaic virus - ... Abutilon mosaic virus (AbMV) is a virus of the genus Begomovirus. It infects Abutilon species, notably the flowering maple, ... PMID 5. Wikispecies has information related to Abutilon mosaic virus. Abutilon Mosaic, Scot C. Nelson, Department of Plant and ... "Managing Pests in Gardens: Diseases: Abutilon mosaic virus-UC IPM". Retrieved 2019-12-13. Jyothsna, P.; Haq, Q. ...
... (CymMV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Alphaflexiviridae. Cymbidium mosaic virus and the ... It is related to the Narcissus mosaic virus (NMV), the Scallion virus X (SVX), the Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) and the Potato ... Wikispecies has information related to Cymbidium mosaic virus. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Cymbidium mosaic virus ... "Detection of Cymbidium mosaic virus, Odontoglossum ringspot virus, tomato spotted wilt virus, and potyviruses infecting orchids ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ribgrass mosaic virus. Wikispecies has information related to Ribgrass mosaic virus. ... Ribgrass mosaic virus (RMV) is a species of Tobamovirus. It is an RNA-containing virus with rod-shape particles. It can be ... N. Oshima & B. D. Harrison (October 1975). "Ribgrass mosaic virus". Descriptions of Plant Viruses. Retrieved 25 November 2015 ... This virus does not itself produce serious epidemic diseases, but it served as the inciting pathogen of a necrotic virus ...
... (ToMV) is a plant pathogenic virus. It is found worldwide and affects tomatoes and many other plants. The ... ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Tomato mosaic virus Family Groups - The Baltimore Method (Articles with short ... The virus may be introduced on infected seed. Only a small number of seedlings need to be infected for the virus to spread ... is generally restricted to plants that are grown in seedbeds and transplanted as it is in the handling processes that the virus ...
... (WMV) also known as Marrow mosaic virus (Raychaudhuri and Varma, 1975; Varma, 1988), Melon mosaic virus ... WMV-2 Genome Plant Viruses Online Database on Watermelon Mosaic 2 Mosaic Virus Disease of Vine Crops Fact Sheet Description of ... The virus itself is referred to as Watermelon Mosaic Virus II or WMV-2 and is an isolate of the U.S. WMV-2 is a ssRNA positive ... and Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) along with Peanut Stripe virus (PSV). WMV is a potyvirus whose particles are 760 nm long ...
Tradescantia mosaic virus (=Tradescantia/Zebrina virus), Aneilema virus (3) and Tradescantia mild mosaic virus CoMV was ... Commelina mosaic virus (CoMV) is a plant pathogenic virus in the genus Potyvirus and the virus family Potyviridae. Like other ... Archives of Virology 151:1235-1241, 2003 ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Commelina mosaic virus Family Groups - The ... Commelina mosaic virus was first reported in 1977 and was the first Potyvirus found infecting a member of the plant family, ...
There exists a satellite virus to panicum mosaic virus. Although little is known about the satellite panicum mosaic virus, the ... Because of the change in disease virulence to the main viral pathogen, panicum mosaic virus and satellite panicum mosaic virus ... The synergistic effect of panicum mosaic virus and satellite panicum mosaic virus on millet cultivars is rapidly developed ... thus it depends entirely on panicum mosaic virus for replication and systemic movement in the host plant. Panicum mosaic virus ...
... can refer to a few different virus species: Chinese wheat mosaic virus, in the genus Furovirus High Plains ... in the genus Emaravirus Japanese soil-borne wheat mosaic virus, in the genus Furovirus Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus, in the ... genus Furovirus Wheat streak mosaic virus, in the genus Tritimovirus This disambiguation page lists articles about taxa ...
Descriptions of Plant Viruses: Narcissus mosaic virus ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Narcissus mosaic virus (Articles ... Narcissus mosaic virus (NMV) is a plant pathogenic virus in the genus Potexvirus and family Alphaflexiviridae, which infects ... Wikispecies has information related to Narcissus mosaic virus. ...
... (TuMV) is a Potyvirus of the family Potyviridae that causes diseases in cruciferous plants, among others. ... This virus probably evolved from a virus of wild orchids in Germany spreading to wild and domestic brassicas. Via Southern ... The virus is usually spread by 40-50 species of aphids in a non-persistent manner. Infected plants, especially the natural ... The TuMV genome is linear and monopartite (single particle). The virus has a thermal inactivation point (TIP) of 62 °C, and ...
... (HoMV) is a pathogenic plant virus. It affects barley crops. List of barley diseases ICTVdB - The ... Universal Virus Database: Hordeum mosaic virus Family Groups - The Baltimore Method v t e (Articles with short description, ...
... (BaMV) is a plant pathogenic virus in the genus Potexvirus and the family Alphaflexiviridae. BaMV is a ... Bamboo mosaic potexvirus (BaMV) cis-regulatory element Bamboo mosaic virus satellite RNA cis-regulatory element Lin, N. S.; Lin ... Lin, N. S.; Lin, B. Y.; Yeh, T. Y. (1995). "First Report of Bamboo Mosaic Virus and Its Associated Satellite RNA on Bamboo in ... Lin, N. S.; Chen, C. C. (1991). "Association of Bamboo Mosaic Virus (BoMV) and BoMV-Specific Electron-Dense Crystalline Bodies ...
... is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Alphaflexiviridae. It was discovered in 2008 and infects the ... Data related to Malva mosaic virus at Wikispecies v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, ... Malva Mosaic Virus". Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 8 (1): 83-93. doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2007.10.006. PMID 18054524. ... Malva vein clearing virus Côté, F.; Paré, C.; Majeau, N.; Bolduc, M. N.; Leblanc, É.; Bergeron, M. G.; Bernardy, M. G.; Leclerc ...
... (SCMV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Potyviridae. The virus was first noticed in Puerto Rico ... maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), and SCMV. The aphid Myzus persicae was first found to vector SCMV ... Sugarcane mosaic virus is one of the largest and most economically important plant viruses due to its wide host range. In the ... Sugarcane mosaic virus causes mosaic symptoms in sugarcane, maize, sorghum, and other poaceous plants. In sugarcane, this is ...
... Plant Viruses Online ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Papaya mosaic virus Family Groups - The ... Alternanthera mosaic virus Antoniw, John. "Show DPV Figure". "Papaya mosaic virus genomic RNA, complete genome ... Papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) is a plant pathogenic virus in the genus Potexvirus and the family Alphaflexiviridae. PapMV is a ... Reptr 54: 893, 1970 Symptoms of Papaya mosaic virus in a papaya leaf Descriptions of Plant Viruses: ...
... Florida Tomato Scouting Guide: Cucumber Mosaic Virus HYPP Pathology: Cucumber Mosaic Virus ICTVdB Virus ... Cucumber mosaic virus Ohio Floriculture: Cucumber mosaic virus Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cucumber mosaic virus. ... Wikispecies has information related to Cucumber mosaic virus. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Cucumber mosaic virus ... Description of Plant Viruses:What are viruses? Description of Plant Viruses: Bromovirideae Plant Viruses Online:Cucumber mosaic ...
... (SrMV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Potyviridae. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: ... Sorghum mosaic virus Family Groups - The Baltimore Method v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches ...
"STUDY OF THE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ARABIS MOSAIC VIRUS AND ITS HOST PLANTS" (PDF). "Arabis Mosaic Virus". ... Arabis mosaic virus". Archived from the original on 2007-07-08. "The Big Picture Book of Viruses - Baltimore Listing". v t e ( ... and it causes yellow dwarf of raspberry and is one of the causes of mosaic of rhubarb. Arabis mosaic virus infects multiple ... Arabis mosaic virus is a viral plant pathogen that is known to infect multiple hosts. The pathogen, commonly referred to as ...
... (RaMV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Radish ... mosaic virus Family Groups - The Baltimore Method v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, ...
"Soybean mosaic virus and Alfalfa mosaic virus". WISCONSIN FIELD CROPS PATHOLOGY. Retrieved 2017-12-11. Maroof, Saghai; A, M.; ... Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is a member of the plant virus genus Potyvirus (family Potyviridae). It infects mainly plants ... Calvert LA, Ghabrial SA (1983). "Enhancement by Soybean mosaic virus of Bean pod mottle virus Titer in Doubly Infected Soybean ... Latent infection has been reported in several hosts." p. 355-390 ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Soybean mosaic virus ...
At least 22 species of pathogenic human bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoans, as well as five species of helminthic worms, ... hexagonal apertures which provide a kind of vision known as the mosaic vision with more sensitivity but less resolution, being ...
Olson, Roger (2009). The Mosaic of Christian Belief: Twenty Centuries of Unity and Diversity. InterVarsity Press. ISBN 978-0- ... "Benjamin Franklin's Fight Against A Deadly Virus". Retrieved September 27, 2021 - via The Conversation. One article posited ...
Wolbachia infections have significantly decreased virus-induced mortality in D. simulans. While the mechanism for the decreased ... "The mosaic genome structure of the Wolbachia wRi strain infecting Drosophila simulans". PNAS. 106 (14): 5725-5730. Bibcode: ... Drosophila C virus) while other strains cannot. Drosophila simulans has also played an important role in sequencing the genomes ... potentially perpetuated by outcompeting the virus. Furthermore, different strains of Wolbachia have varying levels of antiviral ...
Many viruses have an RNA genome, such as HIV, which uses reverse transcription to create a DNA template from its viral RNA ... an enzyme mosaic". Trends in Biotechnology. 19 (12): 482-6. doi:10.1016/S0167-7799(01)01813-3. PMID 11711174. Spirin V, Gelfand ... These recruitment processes result in an evolutionary enzymatic mosaic. A third possibility is that some parts of metabolism ...
ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: White clover mosaic virus Descriptions of Plant Viruses Family Groups - The Baltimore ... White clover mosaic virus (WClMV) is a plant pathogenic virus in the genus Potexvirus and the family Alphaflexiviridae. WClMV ... "About Plant Viruses / Florida Plant Viruses / Florida Plant Viruses and Their Inclusions / Science / Plant Industry / Divisions ... "White clover mosaic virus, complete genome - Nucleotide - NCBI". Retrieved 2017-12-20. "Diagnosis / ...
On October 24, Buffalo tight end Dawson Knox tested positive for the virus. He and three other players, including all of the ... As part of Microsoft's sponsorship of the NFL, a "Fan Mosaic" feature powered by Microsoft Teams was featured on stadium video ... Week 12 game against New Orleans after coming into close contact with Jeff Driskel who had tested positive for the virus; the ...
In 2006, Schulten's group modeled the satellite tobacco mosaic virus, emulating femtosecond interactions of approximately one ... The simulation provided new insights about activities of the virus. One discovery was that the virus, which looks symmetrical ... "Molecular dynamics simulations of the complete satellite tobacco mosaic virus". Structure. 14 (3): 437-49. doi:10.1016/j.str. ... Another was that the virus coat, the protein capsid, is dependent upon the genetic material in the RNA core of the particle and ...
Deformed wing virus has been found to affect 11% of bumblebees in Great Britain. Female bee moths (Aphomia sociella) prefer to ... In Canada and Sweden it has been shown that growing a mosaic of different crops encourages bumblebees and provides higher ...
ICTVdB - Bean yellow mosaic virus. ICTVdB - Tomato aspermy virus. New Disease Reports. ICTVdB - Cucumber Mosaic Virus RHS ... Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), cannas are susceptible to this virus, but none found yet in England. Canna yellow streak virus ( ... Known species of virus are: Canna yellow mottle badnavirus (CYMV) infecting canna species. Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) ... Tomato aspermy virus (TAV), causes mosaic in cannas, but it has not been reported affecting cannas in the UK. ...
... viruses such as hepatitis C virus, Flaviviridae viruses and bovine viral diarrheal virus could enter cells indirectly via LDLR- ... The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) is a mosaic protein of 839 amino acids (after removal of 21-amino acid signal ... Agnello V, Abel G, Elfahal M, Knight GB, Zhang QX (October 1999). "Hepatitis C virus and other flaviviridae viruses enter cells ... LDLR has been identified as the primary mode of entry for the Vesicular stomatitis virus in mice and humans. In addition, LDLR ...
"Highly sensitive determination of transient generation of biophotons during hypersensitive response to cucumber mosaic virus in ...
The Sunn-hemp mosaic virus should not be confused with the hemp mosaic virus. The virus causes cellular mutations, stunted ... ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Hemp mosaic virus Family Groups - The Baltimore Method Hemp Mosaic Virus - RNA Pro ( ... Sunn-hemp mosaic virus (SHMV) is a pathogenic plant virus. It is known by many names, including bean strain of tobacco mosaic ... Hemp mosaic virus is known as one of the most stable viruses. It has a very wide survival range. As long as the surrounding ...
... (ICMV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Geminiviridae. It affects cassava (Manihot ... ISBN 978-94-007-0791-7. Gao, S.; Qu, J.; Chua, N.H. (2010). "A new strain of Indian cassava mosaic virus causes a mosaic ... ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Indian cassava mosaic virus (Articles with short description, Short description matches ... "Indian cassava mosaic virus". Invasive Species Compendium. CABI. Retrieved 25 December 2018. Loebenstein, Gad; Thottappilly, ...
... Plant Viruses Online: Descriptions and Lists from the VIDE Database. Version: 20 August 1996. v t ... Barley mild mosaic bymovirus is a plant virus. See the article in French, "Jaunisse nanisante de l'orge": https://fr.wikipedia. ...
Mosaic of Christ August 22 - George H. W. Bush August 29 - George H. W. Bush & Dan Quayle September 5 - Begging in America ... Viruses November 10 - High-Tech Wall Street November 17 - Ronald Reagan's Secret Dealings With Iran (Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani) ... September 12 - Gridlock September 19 - Jackie Joyner-Kersee September 26 - Computer Viruses October 3 - John Sasso & James ...
Paszkowski U, Zhang S, Potrykus I, Paszkowski J (1993) Replication of the DNA A component of African cassava mosaic virus in a ... Futterer J, Rothnie H, Hohn T, Potrykus I (1997) Rice tungro bacilliform virus open reading frames II and III are translated ... Position-dependent ATT initiation during plant pararetrovirus rice tungro bacilliform virus translation. J. Virol. 70:2999-3010 ...
Furthermore, it can be host for other aphids, erysiphe heracley or celery mosaic virus. The Plant List: A Working List of All ...
... untranslated region of Tobacco Mosaic Virus known as omega. Osbourn then moved into medical research through a British Heart ... "Evidence that nucleocapsid disassembly and a later step in virus replication are inhibited in transgenic tobacco protoplasts ... Research in Norwich which resulted in the publication of Evidence that nucleocapsid disassembly and a later step in virus ...
... tobacco mosaic virus - topoisomerase - toxin - trans-activator - transcription factor - transcription factor AP-1 - transducin ... RNA virus - RNA-binding protein - RNA-directed DNA polymerase - rod outer segment - rough ER sarcoplasmic reticulum - satellite ... fluid mosaic model - fms gene - Formaldehyde - fos gene - free energy - freezing point - FSH receptor - functional group - ... DNA virus - DNA-binding protein - dopamine D1 receptor - dopamine D2 receptor - dopamine receptor - double helix - Drosophila ...
Together with Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat, Williams studied the Tobacco mosaic virus, and showed that a functional virus could be ... A growing fascination with viruses led him to leave Michigan in 1950, when he was invited to the University of California, ...
... (WMoV), or High Plains virus (HPV) or Maize red stripe virus (MRSV/MRStV) is the causative ... Adarsh K. Gupta (2019). "P7 and P8 proteins of High Plains wheat mosaic virus, a negative-strand RNA virus, employ distinct ... which also transmits Wheat streak mosaic virus. The mite's ability to transmit a number of different viruses to cereal crops ... As Wheat streak mosaic virus is already present in Alberta, and coinfection with these two causes even more severe damage, this ...
The first major IE security hole, the Princeton Word Macro Virus Loophole, was discovered on August 22, 1996 in IE3. Backwards ... It was a reworked version of Spyglass Mosaic, which Microsoft licensed from Spyglass Inc., like many other companies initiating ... It was a reworked version of Spyglass Mosaic which Microsoft had licensed, like many other companies initiating browser ... such as the source code of Spyglass Mosaic, used without royalty in early versions) and security and privacy vulnerabilities, ...
ISBN 978-1-4698-3066-7. Zabel P, Moerman M, Lomonossoff G, Shanks M, Beyreuther K (July 1984). "Cowpea mosaic virus VPg: ... Roy Chowdhury S, Savithri HS (January 2011). Pfeffer S (ed.). "Interaction of Sesbania mosaic virus movement protein with VPg ... The first animal virus discovered (1897) was the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). It is the prototypic member of the genus ... They are viruses that represent a large family of small, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses with a 30 nm icosahedral ...
The virus is serologically related to bean yellow mosaic, lettuce mosaic, and turnip mosaic viruses. The virus does not show ... serological relationships to beet mosaic, iris mild mosaic, and potato Y viruses. Asparagus virus 1 occurs naturally in ... or cucumber mosaic viruses. Few, if any, symptoms are caused. Asparagus 1 virus is readily separated from the others because ... Asparagus virus 1 (AV-1) is one of the nine known viruses that affects asparagus plants. It is in the Potyviridae family. ...
The pseudoknot was first recognized in the turnip yellow mosaic virus in 1982. Pseudoknots fold into knot-shaped three- ... The telomerase RNA component contains a pseudoknot that is critical for activity, and several viruses use a pseudoknot ...
Lyotropic LCs abound in living systems; many proteins and cell membranes are LCs, as well as the tobacco mosaic virus. LCs in ...
... mosaic virus is probably transmitted by the oak aphid Myzocallis castanicola. Root rot is caused by the honey fungus ... Chestnut mosaic virus : Transmission by the aphid Myzocallis castanicola on Chestnut tree. By J.-C. Desvignes and D. Cornaggia ... The chestnut mosaic virus is probably transmitted by M. castanicola aphids. The chestnut weevil (Curculio elephas) most often ...
Cultivated colocynth suffers of climatic stress and diseases such as cucumber mosaic virus, melon mosaic virus, Fusarium wilt, ...
... resistant to the bean common mosaic virus (BCMV), which is transmitted through seeds Michelite, descended from 'Robust', but ...
Convention-cadre de lOMS pour la lutte antitabac, Organe intergouvernemental de négociation de la Convention-cadre de lOMS pour la lutte antitabac, quatrième session (‎Organisation mondiale de la Sante, 2002)‎ ...
Convention-cadre de lOMS pour la lutte antitabac, Organe intergouvernemental de négociation de la Convention-cadre de lOMS pour la lutte antitabac, quatrième session (‎Organisation mondiale de la Sante, 2002)‎ ...
Semantic Scholar is a free, AI-powered research tool for scientific literature, based at the Allen Institute for AI.. Learn More ...
Total RNA from virus-infected ornamental species were extracted, submitted to RT-PCR with specific primers, and amplicons ... In ornamental plants, CMV can cause mosaic and distortion of leaves, stunting, color break, and malformation of flowers. CMV ... Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has the broadest host range, infecting more than 1300 species in more than 500 genera from over 100 ... P. Palukaitis, M. J. Roossinck, R. G. Dietzgen and R. I. B. "Francki, Cucumber mosaic virus," Advances in Virus Research, Vol. ...
The main species of tobacco virus spread by aphids in Shaanxi included cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), tobacco etch virus (TEV) ... The main species of tobacco virus spread by aphids in Shaanxi included cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), tobacco etch virus (TEV) ... The change of catalase activity in 12 tobacco cultivars with different resistances after inoculating cucumber Mosaic virus and ... The fluorescence labeling technique of phycoerythrin and application for the immunoassay of Tobacco mosaic Virus were studied ...
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus is a plant pathogen that causes disease in cucumber and other cucurbit crops. The virus ... Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus can spread readily by contact as its virions are stable and have been shown to remain ... Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus is a pathogen that causes a serious disease of greenhouse-grown cucumbers. Cucumber green ... What is attenuated Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus strain ON-BM3; Al-Bio10?. Attenuated CGMMV strain ON-BM3; Al-Bio10 is a ...
Cowpea mosaic virus) [TaxId:12264] from b.121.4.2 Comovirus coat proteins (VP37 and VP23): *Species CPMV (Cowpea mosaic virus) ... Species CPMV (Cowpea mosaic virus) [TaxId:12264] from b.121.4.2 Comovirus coat proteins (VP37 and VP23) appears in SCOPe 2.07. ... PDB entries in Species: CPMV (Cowpea mosaic virus) [TaxId: 12264]:. *Domain(s) for 1ny7: *. Domain d1ny711: 1ny7 1:1-189 [86398 ... Lineage for Species: CPMV (Cowpea mosaic virus) [TaxId: 12264]. *Root: SCOPe 2.08 *. Class b: All beta proteins [48724] (180 ...
... sequence was genetically fused either directly or via a glycine-serine linker to the C-terminus of the Tobacco mosaic virus ( ... sequence was genetically fused either directly or via a glycine-serine linker to the C-terminus of the Tobacco mosaic virus ( ... Plant virus nanoparticles have been utilized for epitope presentation in vaccines, for drug delivery, as nanospheres and ... Plant virus nanoparticles have been utilized for epitope presentation in vaccines, for drug delivery, as nanospheres and ...
HTLV-1 Mosaic was purified by proprietary chromatographic technique.. Purity. HTLV-1 Mosaic protein is >95% pure as determined ... Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) is a human, single-stranded RNA retrovirus that causes T-cell leukemia and T-cell lymphoma. ... HTLV-1 Mosaic can be used as an antigen in ELISA and Western Blots. Excellent reagent for correct detection of HTLV infections ... The virus activates a subset of T-helper cellscalled Th1cells. The result is a proliferation of Th1 cells and overproduction of ...
Aggregates of maize mosaic virus (MMV, Rhabdoviridae) in cells of the anterior diverticulum of the insect vector Peregrinus ... Virus Research 131: 77-85. Ammar, E.-D. and Nault, L.R. (1985). Assembly and accumulation sites of Maize mosaic virus in its ... Maize mosaic virus Peregrinus maidis Cellular Component. nucleus host cell perinuclear region of cytoplasm ... Aggregates of maize mosaic virus (MMV, Rhabdoviridae) in cells of the anterior diverticulum of the insect vector Peregrinus ...
... a genetically modified Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV1cys) template is used to fabricate a 3D current collector for the silicon or ...
Learn all about this virus and make sure your lawn isnt next! ... Sugarcane mosaic virus can devastate turfgrass in Florida. ... Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) is a virus of great concern for turfgrass aficionados. This past Winter, a local landscaper and I ... Sugarcane Mosaic Virus. Email0Facebook0Twitter0Reddit0. X Linkedin0 Stumbleupon0 ... When the virus kills the entire lawn, scientists say that the lawn is exhibiting what is called lethal viral necrosis (LVN). ...
Antiviral activity against Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in compound treated Nicotiana tabacum L.leaves assessed as curative ...
... has been developed to classify cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) isolates accurately into two subgroups. Two CMV-specific ... Differentiation of cucumber mosaic virus isolates using the polymerase chain reaction * Helen Rizos1, Linda V. Gunn2, Ray D. ... Kataoka J., Masuta C., Takanami Y. 1990; Complete nucleotide sequence of RNA2 of cucumber mosaic virus Y strain. Annals of the ... Further implications for the evolutionary relationships between tripartite plant viruses based on cucumber mosaic virus RNA 3. ...
found: Springer index of viruses, 2001:p. 861 (Wheat streak mosaic virus, WSMV, in genus Tritimovirus of family Potyviridae) ... found: Handbook of plant virus diseases, 1999:p. 28 (Wheat streak mosaic potyvirus) ...
... Sugarcane mosaic virus ... Maize Yellow Mosaic Virus Interacts with Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus and Sugarcane Mosaic Virus in Mixed Infections, but Does ... RT-PCR assays for the detection and discrimination of Maize dwarf mosaic virus, Sugarcane mosaic virus, and Sorghum mosaic ... sugarcane mosaic virus, SCMV) und des Maisverzwergungsmosaik-Virus (maize dwarf mosaic virus, MDMV) auf Wachstum und Ertrag von ...
The disease is vectored by migrating aphids that transmit Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV) in a ... Mosaic in Louisiana is currently caused by strains of SrMV. Mosaic has been controlled primarily by developing resistant ... Recently, mosaic was detected in some near-commercial clones in the cultivar selection program. This prompted extensive ... Marker-trait association identified 33 significant nonredundant SNPs of which some are known to be associated with virus ...
Cassava vein mosaic virus (CVMV) is a double stranded DNA virus which infects cassava plants (Manihot esculenta) and has been ... Characterization of cassava vein mosaic virus a distinct plant pararetrovirus.pdf [ English. ] ...
Collectively, these data demonstrate for the first time that CP is a determinant for an eriophyid-transmitted plant virus. ... Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV; genus Tritimovirus; family Potyviridae), is transmitted by the wheat curl mite (Aceria ... Wheat streak mosaic virus coat protein is a determinant for vector transmission by the wheat curl mite ... Wheat streak mosaic virus coat protein is a determinant for vector transmission by the wheat curl mite. Virology, 514, 42-49. ...
Positive Control for Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) - Synthetic Click to view a larger image ...
We have been able to contain the cucumber mosaic virus much better ... Hortus in Futuro has been suffering from the cucumber green mottle mosaic virus since 2011. "We know the virus well," the ... We have been able to contain the cucumber mosaic virus much better. At cucumber grower Paul van Lipzig of Hortus in Futuro in ... The tricky thing with the cucumber green mottle mosaic virus is that the plant only shows symptoms of infection after about ...
Taxonomic Hierarchy , Viruses and Viroids , RNA viruses , ssRNA viruses , positive sense, single-stranded RNA viruses , ... Chinese wheat mosaic virus. Taxonomic Hierarchy , Viruses and Viroids , Riboviria , Orthornavirae , Kitrinoviricota , ...
Species: Foxtail mosaic virus , Acronym: FoMV. Foxtail mosaic virus. Margaret N. Short John Innes Institute, Colney Lane, ... sugarcane mosaic and wheat streak mosaic viruses), or rigid rod-shaped particles (e.g. barley stripe mosaic, poa semi-latent ... clover yellow mosaic, papaya mosaic, potato X or white clover mosaic viruses (Short, 1981). ... However, these have either isometric particles (e.g. brome mosaic, cocksfoot mild mosaic, cocksfoot mottle and panicum mosaic ...
Distribution details in Venezuela of Euphorbia mosaic virus (EUMV00) ...
CRISPR-Cas9 chez Acyrthosiphon pisum pour valider le rôle de Stylin-01 dans la transmission du Cauliflower mosaic virus ... CRISPR-Cas9 chez Acyrthosiphon pisum pour valider le rôle de Stylin-01 dans la transmission du Cauliflower mosaic virus. 11. ...
Satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV), a small T = 1 icosahedral plant virus, has been crystallized in a form suitable for high ... The centers of the virus particles occupy 222 symmetry points in the unit cell and one quarter of the virus particle ... Satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV), a small T = 1 icosahedral plant virus, has been crystallized in a form suitable for high ... The centers of the virus particles occupy 222 symmetry points in the unit cell and one quarter of the virus particle ...
A tobacco plant infected with Tobacco Mosaic Virus. Knapp, E. and Lewandowski, D. J. 2001. Tobacco mosaic virus, not just a ... Tobacco Mosaic Virus is one of the most common plant virus diseases in Minnesota. The dreaded virus is transmittable to ... The leaves of a tomato plant with Tobacco Mosaic Virus exhibit a clear mosaic pattern. (photo John Paul Jones) ... It is quite possible that your tomato plants suffered Tobacco Mosaic Virus, however, without the actual plants for physical ...
Mosaic viruses are usually spread by aphids. Squash mosaic virus can be spread by spotted cucumber beetles. These are difficult ... both are listed as resistant to watermelon mosaic virus and zucchini yellow mosaic virus, whereas Dunja is not listed as ... Virus Disease of Cucurbits fact sheet from Cornell. Article on some effects of mosaic viruses by University of Marylands Dr. ... Here are some points to note about cucurbit mosaic viruses:. *They can cause a variety of symptoms, including mosaic-like ...
Tobacco Mosaic Virus. Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV). Tobacco mosaic virus on tobacco leaf [Credit: R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company] ... Tobacco mosaic virus on tobacco leaf [Credit: R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company] ... growing resistant varieties for three years often ends the epidemic by depriving the virus of host plants. ...
Term: Mosaic Virus. « Back to Glossary Index. These plant viruses cause plants to turn yellow and speckled and stunt plant ...
  • In this study, the iLOV sequence was genetically fused either directly or via a glycine-serine linker to the C-terminus of the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) coat protein (CP) and also carried an N-terminal Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2A sequence. (
  • To prevent silicon or tin electrodes from a structure failure due to the volume change during lithiation and delithiation, a genetically modified Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV1cys) template is used to fabricate a 3D current collector for the silicon or tin electrode. (
  • Preliminary analysis of crystals of satellite tobacco mosaic virus. (
  • Satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV), a small T = 1 icosahedral plant virus, has been crystallized in a form suitable for high-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis. (
  • A tobacco plant infected with Tobacco Mosaic Virus. (
  • Tobacco mosaic virus, not just a single component virus anymore. (
  • According to plant pathologists at the University of Minnesota, Tobacco Mosaic Virus is one of the most common plant virus diseases in Minnesota. (
  • Typical mottling symptoms appearing on tomato fruit with Tobacco Mosaic Virus (photo John Paul Jones). (
  • It is quite possible that your tomato plants suffered Tobacco Mosaic Virus, however, without the actual plants for physical identification and/or a lab tissue test I fear your claim could be rejected as specious. (
  • The leaves of a tomato plant with Tobacco Mosaic Virus exhibit a clear mosaic pattern. (
  • This constitutes one of the most destructive phases of tobacco mosaic virus infection. (
  • The tobacco mosaic virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the genus tobamovirus, the genus that specifically affects the family Solanaceae and belongs to the family Virgaviridae. (
  • The tobacco mosaic virus was the first virus to be discovered(1). (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Haemagglutination test to detect tobacco mosaic virus antigens. (
  • Note: Hand washing is extremely important for smokers because Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease can be spread by the fingers of smokers touching plants, particularly those found in the Nightshade family (tomatoes, peppers, etc. (
  • More info on Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease can be found here . (
  • Tobacco Mosaic Virus or TMV was the first virus discovered. (
  • It is difficult to measure the economic impact of Tobacco Mosaic Virus or any plant virus. (
  • Can Tobacco Mosaic Virus be spread from Cigarettes? (
  • Tobacco Mosaic Virus spreads from contact. (
  • The protein coat for Tobacco Mosaic Virus is made from only one protein. (
  • The Tobacco Mosaic "Virus" is said to be the first "virus" ever discovered. (
  • Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) dan tobacco mosaic virus strain orchid (TMV-O) merupakan dua virus yang paling penting pada tanaman anggrek di Indonesia dan di negara lain pengekspor anggrek. (
  • Several other Tobamovirus-infected samples collected prior to 2013 which were previously attributed to Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) or Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) have since been distinguished as ToMMV infections via high-specificity molecular methods which were not previously available. (
  • No cross-reactivity was observed with high titer samples from other Tobamoviruses, including Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), Kyuri green mottle mosaic virus (KGMMV), Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV), Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), Tobacco mild green mosaic virus (TMGMV), Zucchini Green Mottle Mosaic Virus (ZGMMV) and more. (
  • Unlike TMV (tobacco mosaic virus), CMV is not seedborne in tomato and does not persist in plant debris in the soil or on workers' hands or clothing. (
  • What are the symptoms of tobacco mosaic virus? (
  • Can humans get tobacco mosaic virus? (
  • Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), a widespread plant pathogen, is found in tobacco (including cigarettes and smokeless tobacco) as well as in many other plants. (
  • Reply to: Parkinson disease, edible Solanaceae, and tobacco mosaic virus. (
  • It is believed that the wintergreen plant produces a pheromone to help it protect itself and its colony when attacked by pathogens such as the tobacco mosaic virus. (
  • L. Duarte, E. Rivas, R. Harakava, M. Veauvy and M. Alexandre, "Genealogy of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Ornamental Species," American Journal of Plant Sciences , Vol. 4 No. 5, 2013, pp. 1081-1087. (
  • F. García-Arenal and P. Palukaitis, "Cucumber mosaic virus," In: B. W. J. Mahy and M. H. V. van Regenmortel, Eds. (
  • M. J. Roossinck, L. Zhang and K. Hellwald, "Rearranments in the 5' Nontranslated Region and Phylogenetic Analyses of Cucumber Mosaic Virus RNA 3 Indicate Radial Evolution of Three Subgroups," Journal of Virology, Vol. 73, No. 8, 1999, pp. 6752-758. (
  • S. Wylie, C. R. Wilson, R. A. C. Jones and M. G. K. Jones, "A Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Cucumber Mosaic Virus in Lupin Seeds," Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. 44, No. 1, 1993, pp. 41-51. (
  • A procedure based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been developed to classify cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) isolates accurately into two subgroups. (
  • Further implications for the evolutionary relationships between tripartite plant viruses based on cucumber mosaic virus RNA 3. (
  • Grouping of seven biologically defined isolates of cucumber mosaic virus by peptide mapping. (
  • Monoclonal antibodies for detection and serotyping of cucumber mosaic virus. (
  • Complete nucleotide sequence of RNA2 of cucumber mosaic virus Y strain. (
  • Nucleotide sequence and evolutionary relationships of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) strains: CMV RNA 3. (
  • Nucleic acid homologies of eighteen cucumber mosaic virus isolates determined by competition hybridization. (
  • Nucleotide sequences of the coat protein genes and flanking regions of cucumber mosaic virus strains C and WL RNA 3. (
  • At cucumber grower Paul van Lipzig of Hortus in Futuro in Maasbree, the cucumber green mottle mosaic virus repeatedly popped up in the greenhouse in recent years. (
  • Hortus in Futuro has been suffering from the cucumber green mottle mosaic virus since 2011. (
  • The tricky thing with the cucumber green mottle mosaic virus is that the plant only shows symptoms of infection after about three weeks. (
  • Squash mosaic virus can be spread by spotted cucumber beetles. (
  • Chris didn't know which mosaic virus we have, but given this short list of anecdotal resistance I can make a guess: both are listed as resistant to watermelon mosaic virus and zucchini yellow mosaic virus, whereas Dunja is not listed as resistant to cucumber mosaic virus. (
  • Characterization of cucumber mosaic virus. (
  • Frequent question: Where does cucumber mosaic virus come from? (
  • Can tomatoes get cucumber mosaic virus? (
  • Tomatoes infected with the cucumber mosaic virus develop a slight yellowing and mottling of the older leaves. (
  • First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus on Vigna marina in Taiwan / Deng, T. -C. (
  • Allamanda mosaic caused by Cucumber mosaic virus in Taiwan / Chen, Y.K. (
  • Cucumber mosaic virus in New Guinea impatiens in Taiwan / Hu, W. C. (
  • Viruses are small, infectious particles that can cause cucumber plants to become stunted and produce distorted fruit. (
  • You can also use a virus-resistant cucumber variety. (
  • Then, take steps to remove them by hand, or use an insecticide, fungicide, or virus-resistant cucumber variety. (
  • Besides the obvious leaf damage that they do, (which compromises a plant's ability to photosynthesize, i.e., create food), these insects can oftentimes be vectors of plant diseases such as bacterial wilt and cucumber mosaic virus. (
  • Prof. Carr focuses on a series of examples of lab work, mostly using cucumber mosaic virus as a model, investigating how some viruses appear to be able to modify the biochemistry and defence status of the host plant in ways that alter interactions between host plants and insect vectors, and how these changes might accelerate virus transmission. (
  • Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) causes systemic infections in soybean plants, leading to chlorotic mosaic and producing significant yield losses. (
  • Co-infection of soybean by AMV and Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) can also occur (Malapi-Nelson et la., 2009). (
  • Incidence of Alfalfa mosaic virus , Bean pod mottle virus , and Soybean mosaic virus in Nebraska soybean fields. (
  • Co-infection of soybean with soybean mosaic virus and alfalfa mosaic virus results in disease synergism and alteration in accumulation level of both viruses. (
  • 2013. Pengaruh Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (Pgpr) Terhadap Infeksi Soybean Mosaic Virus (Smv), Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Pada Tanaman Kedelai (Glycine Max (L.) Merr. (
  • The virus may still infect these plants, but they will tough it out, keep symptoms at bay, and produce more or less normally. (
  • Complete nucleotide (nt) and deduced amino acid sequences of two onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV) isolates showing mild and severe symptoms in onion but being unable to infect garlic were determined. (
  • Plants showed bright yellow mosaic symptoms with malformed leaves. (
  • where they were produced they were twisted and had mosaic symptoms. (
  • Trifoliate leaves of young seedlings (10-14 day old) showed bright chlorotic spots and bright yellow mosaic symptoms. (
  • Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) was found in plants with symptoms. (
  • Alfalfa mosaic virus symptoms on soybean leaves in the field. (
  • These symptoms are indicative of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) on soybean. (
  • Severe symptoms of Alfalfa mosaic virus on soybean leaflets. (
  • An intranasal vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 could quickly get to the respiratory tract, where the virus most commonly causes symptoms. (
  • a number of native and cultivated eudicots in the yucatan peninsula of mexico (ypm) exhibit symptoms associated with virus infection. (
  • Symptoms of wheat streak mosaic (WSM) in a farmer field in Grady County, OK (photo taken on April 13, 2022). (
  • Upon viral establishment and systemic spreading into the upper parts of the plants, yellow mosaics occur as first symptoms on leaves. (
  • The yellow stripes, mosaic and chlorotic spot symptoms of the disease resemble the viral infection in garlic reported to occur worldwide. (
  • Identification of DNA sequences required for activity of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. (
  • Cassava vein mosaic virus (CVMV) is a double stranded DNA virus which infects cassava plants ( Manihot esculenta ) and has been characterized as a plant pararetrovirus belonging to the caulimovirus subgroup. (
  • Genetic analysis of the tomato golden mosaic virus. (
  • Transient expression of heterologous RNAs using tomato golden mosaic virus. (
  • Genetic analysis of tomato golden mosaic virus: the coat protein is not required for systemic spread or symptom development. (
  • Tomato golden mosaic virus A component DNA replicates autonomously in transgenic plants. (
  • Tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV) is a geminivirus that replicates its single-stranded DNA genome through double-stranded DNA intermediates in nucl. (
  • It is caused by the bluetongue virus (BTV) and is placed in the epizooties list of diseases international. (
  • Environmental heterogeneity can shape the plant-virus relationship, furthering the appearance of new diseases in crops, or altering disease incidence and severity. (
  • The IPM CRSP project on insect-transmitted virus diseases in South and Southeast Asia funded by USAID is joining forces with Indonesian colleagues to develop science-based disease management strategies to prevent the outbreaks of BCMV in Indonesia. (
  • A 2010 estimate of plant disease damage in George found that virus diseases cost $559,100 worth of damages to producers of Blackberry (Williams-Woodward, J. 2010. (
  • Viruses cause many important plant diseases and are responsible for huge losses in crop production and quality in all parts of the world. (
  • Using join-count statistics, spatial aggregation of both virus diseases was found for all years, except for the initial year (1999) when incidence was low. (
  • molecular characterization and phylogenetic relationships of desmodium leaf distortion virus (deldv): a new begomovirus infecting desmodium glabrum in yucatan, mexico. (
  • Fluorescent protein fusions have been instrumental for the tagging of plant virus particles. (
  • The E.Coli derived recombinant mosaic protein contains the gp21 and gp46 immunodominant regions, 374-400 amino acids and 190-207 amino acids, the MW is 42kDa. (
  • HTLV-1 Mosaic protein is >95% pure as determined by 10% PAGE (coomassie staining) and RP-HPLC. (
  • Wheat streak mosaic virus coat protein is a determinant for vec" by Satyanarayana Tatineni, Anthony J. McMechan et al. (
  • A virus with slightly flexuous filamentous particles with a modal length of c. 500 nm, containing one coat protein species and one molecule of single-stranded RNA. (
  • The crystals, which diffract to better than 2.5 A resolution, are of space group I222 and have unit cell dimensions of a = 176 A, b = 192 A and c = 205 A. The centers of the virus particles occupy 222 symmetry points in the unit cell and one quarter of the virus particle constitutes the asymmetric unit, which is therefore comprised of 15 capsid protein molecules. (
  • The virus is made up of two components: genetic information and a protein coat. (
  • This protein is only found in this virus, not found in plants or other organisms. (
  • A virus is only genetic information and a protein coat. (
  • The 37K protein of Chinese wheat mosaic virus (CWMV) belongs to the 30K superfamily of plant virus movement proteins. (
  • CWMV 37K trans-complemented the cell-to-cell spread of a movement-defective Potato virus X. CWMV 37K fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein localized to plasmodesmata and formed endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived vesicular and large aggregate structures. (
  • The envelope of virus is inlaid with two virally encoded proteins: envelope (E) protein and membrane (M) protein. (
  • This modified strain protects greenhouse cucumbers against aggressive forms of the virus through cross-protection, which is a plant defense mechanism against viral infection. (
  • This year, too, an infection was present, but the virus spread much less than in previous years. (
  • In many species infection is symptomless and/or confined to inoculated leaves, but the virus induces systemic mosaic in wheat, oats and barley ( Fig. 1 ). (
  • Mosaic does not result in plant death but if infection occurs early in the season, plants are stunted. (
  • Remedies to treat shingles/herpes zoster - Herpes and shingles domestic measures Herpes zoster and herpes virus, this infection can occur on any part of the body, usually on the abdomen looks on. (
  • Plant viruses do not replicate or cause infection in humans or other mammals. (
  • Kasetsart 50 caused by Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus infection. (
  • While proteomics has the potential to identify molecular markers that could assist the breeding of virus resistant cultivars, the effects of SLCMV infection in cassava have not been previously explored in detail. (
  • In 1997, heart disease and cancers accounted for 54.7% of all deaths, with 4.5% attributable to pneumonia, influenza, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (2). (
  • Longitudinal viral-DNA load measurements in a well characterized cohort of outpatients and hospitalized patients with monkeypox virus infection. (
  • Early planted wheat is prone to infection by aphid-transmitted virus (i.e., barley yellow dwarf virus), and mite-transmitted viruses including wheat streak mosaic (WSM) virus, high plains virus, and Triticum mosaic virus. (
  • Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease caused by yellow fever virus infection and is identical to other viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) in characteristics, such as Dengue hemorrhagic fever, Lassa fever, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. (
  • Prevention is also hard: you can't take your squash plant to CVS for a flu shot, or rather a watermelon mosaic virus vaccination. (
  • Necrotic and chlorotic local lesions followed by systemic mosaic. (
  • First report of begonia chlorotic ringspot caused by Zucchini yellow mosaic virus in Taiwan / Chen, Y.K. (
  • In ornamental plants, CMV can cause mosaic and distortion o f leaves, stunting, color break, and malformation of flowers. (
  • R. A. Valverde, S. Sabanadzovic and J. Hammond, "Viruses That Enhance the Aesthetics of Some Ornamental Plants: Beauty or Beast? (
  • Plant viruses are suitable as building blocks for nanomaterials and nanoparticles because they are easy to modify and can be expressed and purified using plants or heterologous expression systems. (
  • Like colds and flu in humans, viruses of plants are tricky. (
  • These particular viruses were named for the plants they were first identified on, but that doesn't mean those are the only hosts, or even the most common ones. (
  • If this disease has been seen in your garden, growing resistant varieties for three years often ends the epidemic by depriving the virus of host plants. (
  • These plant viruses cause plants to turn yellow and speckled and stunt plant growth. (
  • Removal of diseased plants and weeds that harbor virus early in the season also helps in reduction and elimination of subsequent spread of virus. (
  • An agent (the virus) was shown to infect plants after being crystallized, something bacteria can not do. (
  • Clippers were shown to transfer the virus to up to 20 plants after being used on an infected plant. (
  • In cases where severely infected plants are identified with AMV, tests of SMV may also result in confirmation of that aphid-transmitted virus too. (
  • Purchase virus-free plants. (
  • Discard virus infected plants. (
  • There are over 2000 known viruses and about one-fourth cause disease in plants. (
  • Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants. (
  • This experiment was conducted in Biology Department, Science College, University of Al- Anbar in 2018 season, to test the inhibition activity of gibberillic acid and antibiotic, pencillin against tomato mosaic virus.Two compounds were used to investigate resistance induction in tomato plants against the tomato mosaic virus (ToMV). (
  • In this study 50 ppm and 100 ppm of gibberillic acid and pencillin respectively were used to identify the activity in the inhibition of virus replicating or inducing the resistance in tomato plants against this virus. (
  • Things like European wheat stem sawfly, Fusarium wilts in chickpea and canola and wheat spindle streak mosaic virus. (
  • Finally, the OSU Diagnostic Lab has tested 11 samples from southwestern OK (Washita County) for the wheat viruses that cause wheat streak mosaic, high plains, Triticum mosaic (all transmitted by the wheat curl mite) and barley yellow dwarf (aphid transmitted). (
  • Marker-trait association identified 33 significant nonredundant SNPs of which some are known to be associated with virus resistance while others were involved in direct defense mechanisms or induced systemic resistance against various pathogens. (
  • Much like ToBRFV, Tomato mottle mosaic virus is also able to break through well-established viral resistance traits, and thus represents yet another significant threat to tomato and pepper production worldwide. (
  • Furthermore, when treating the tomato plant with pencillin the resistance against virus was higher at the concentration 100 ppm than at the concentration 50 ppm, which resulted in the inhibition ratios 63.60 % , 41.59 % respectively.The experiment of immersion Datura roots with gibberellic acid and pencillin showed no differences between the concentration 50 ppm of gibberellic acid and control. (
  • This experiment did not identify any differences between the antibiotic pencillin concentrations, where the concentration 100 ppm of pencillin gave the highest resistance in plant against the virus with the lowest local lesions on Datura plant (inhibition ratio, 66.267% ) compared with the concentration 50 ppm which gave inhibition ratio, 21.881% and control. (
  • Prof. Carr's research interests at the University of Cambridge's Department of Plant Sciences include plant-virus-insect interactions, and natural and engineered resistance to plant viruses. (
  • Our garden has been suffering from a problem I never encountered at home or in the Derwood demo garden: mosaic virus on cucumbers and squash. (
  • How do you prevent mosaic virus in cucumbers? (
  • Can you eat cucumbers with mosaic virus? (
  • CIL:25379, Maize mosaic virus, Peregrinus maidis. (
  • Aggregates of maize mosaic virus (MMV, Rhabdoviridae) in cells of the anterior diverticulum of the insect vector Peregrinus maidis (planthopper, Hemiptera, Delphacidae). (
  • A neurotropic route for Maize mosaic virus (Rhabdoviridae) in its planthopper vector Peregrinus maidis. (
  • Assembly and accumulation sites of Maize mosaic virus in its planthopper vector. (
  • Total RNA from virus-infected ornamental species w ere extracted, submitted to RT-PCR with specific primers, and amplicons obtained were sequenced. (
  • Mosaic viruses named for cucurbits can affect nonrelated plant species, including other vegetables like peppers. (
  • Since virus spreads between species easily, farmers are often advised to keep susceptible crops widely separated. (
  • Prunus Necrotic Ringspot Virus is a serious plant pathogenic virus affecting mainly species of the genus Prunus including Sweet Cherry, Peach, Almond and Plum. (
  • One reason for this is that many species of aphids can move into a soybean field and transmit the virus. (
  • This species is a vector of European aster yellows virus. (
  • Posnette and Ellenberger (623) were first to report this species as a vector of delphinium yellows in England, Only 1 white clover plant out of 10 was infected with the virus. (
  • Over 100 species comprise the genus Flavivirus, which includes other notable human pathogens, such as dengue virus (DENV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Zika virus (ZIKV), West Nile virus (WNV), Kyasanur Forest disease virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. (
  • cactus X (barrel cactus strain), clover yellow mosaic , papaya mosaic , potato X or white clover mosaic viruses ( Short, 1981 ). (
  • The results showed that the concentration 100 ppm of gibberillic acid is the best in the inhibition ratio ( in the experiment of mixture tomato mosaic virus inoculum and gibberillic acid or pencillin). (
  • Metode double antibody sandwich enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (DAS ELISA) digunakan untuk deteksi virus dalam tiap sampel. (
  • Agdia has launched a RNA-based assay, on their AmplifyRP XRT platform, for the detection of Tomato mottle mosaic virus (ToMMV). (
  • Alfalfa mosaic virus is transmitted in low levels in soybean seed (Tolin, 1999). (
  • Seasonal progression, symptom development, and yield effect of Alfalfa mosaic virus epidemics on soybean in Wisconsin. (
  • The disease is vectored by migrating aphids that transmit Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV) in a non-persistent manner. (
  • Aphids that transmit BYD virus are shown in the picture on the right. (
  • Seed treatment with a systemic insecticide that contains imidacloprid or thiamethoxam can also be used to control aphids that transmit BYD virus. (
  • Barley is a long-lived propagation host and a good source of virus for purification. (
  • The barley yellow mosaic virus disease, caused by the bymoviruses Barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) and Barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV), can lead to yield losses of up to 50% in winter barley. (
  • Mosaic in Louisiana is currently caused by strains of SrMV. (
  • Influenza A virus (IAV) genetic exchange through reassortment has the potential to accelerate viral evolution and has played a critical role in the generation of multiple pandemic strains. (
  • Systemic mosaic in Setaria viridis and S. italica ( Paulsen & Niblett, 1977 ). (
  • Pin-point necrotic local lesions ( Fig. 2 ) followed by systemic necrotic etch and then mosaic. (
  • Mimi- and related viruses - making us think again about virus classification? (
  • When the virus kills the entire lawn, scientists say that the lawn is exhibiting what is called lethal viral necrosis (LVN). (
  • Viral specific dsRNA: diagnostic value for plant virus disease identification. (
  • Human monkeypox is a viral zoonotic disease caused by the monkeypox virus (MPXV), a member of the genus Orthopoxvirus (family Poxviridae, subfamily Chordopoxvirinae), that occurs mostly in the rain forests of central and western Africa. (
  • 83(11):5796-5805Suppression of Bamboo mosaic virus accumulation by a putative methyltransferase in Nicotiana benthamiana. (
  • Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) is a virus of great concern for turfgrass aficionados. (
  • Although the virus is named for its first known host, sugarcane, it affects turfgrasses in Florida. (
  • We are still learning how Sugarcane mosiac virus is spread, but culprits include landscaping equipment (e.g. lawn mowers contaminated with infected clippings), other machinery and transportation (e.g. contaminated clippings on the wheels of vehicles), and aphids. (
  • Mosaic is a potentially devastating disease of sugarcane that had severe economic impact on Louisiana's sugarcane industry in the 1920's and has caused periodic problems ever since. (
  • Las principales virosis que afectan al zapallito redondo son las producidas por virus del género Potyvirus. (
  • It is a single stranded RNA virus with rod shape as you can see in following picture. (
  • Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV) is a filamentous plant virus belonging to the genus Potexvirus. (
  • Yellow fever virus (YFV) is an RNA virus that belongs to the genus Flavivirus. (
  • The tobacco mosaic disease is caused by a rod-shaped virus called as TMV. (
  • The first symptom of this virus disease is a light green coloration between the veins of young leaves. (
  • A team of IPM CRSP scientists reported the cause of a virus disease outbreak in yardlong beans in Indonesia. (
  • A severe epidemic of a plant virus disease emerged during 2008, devastating yardlong bean production in Bogor and West, Central, and Eastern Java. (
  • The virus can stay viable for a long time which is how a cigarette can spread the disease. (
  • Two antigenically distinct H1N1 influenza A viruses were isolated during an outbreak of respiratory disease in Quebec swine in 1990/91. (
  • Building on this momentum, the past year has seen clinical progress with second-generation coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines, Omicron-specific boosters and vaccines against seasonal influenza, Epstein-Barr virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and cancer. (
  • Anyone with an interest in plant virus vector-borne disease can be a network member. (
  • Mosaic has been controlled primarily by developing resistant cultivars. (
  • The cultivars "CitraBlue" and "Palmetto" can become infected but won't die back from the virus (although I tend not to recommend "Palmetto" as it is very vulnerable to chinch bugs in South Florida! (
  • The virus can replicate itself and attach and infect the files it attaches itself to. (
  • For reassortment to occur, distinct viruses must co-infect the same cell. (
  • Positive-sense single-stranded RNA plant virus that infects many members of Solanaceae family. (
  • However, the majority of fields that tested positive for one or more of these viruses, had incidence levels of 50% or less. (
  • We will follow these fields as the season progresses to see how the incidence of these viruses in these fields relates to the virus testing. (
  • When they all occur together you can be pretty sure mosaic virus is present, but the only way to tell for sure (and to determine which type of mosaic virus you have) is to send a sample to a lab for analysis. (
  • First Report of Bidens mottle virus Causing Mosaic and Leaf Deformation in Garland Chrysanthemum and Lettuce in Taiwan / Chen, Y.K. (
  • Yes, you can eat squash and melons that are infected with mosaic virus. (
  • Initially found in tomato crops in Mexico in 2013, Tomato mottle mosaic virus has since been detected in the United States, Brazil, Europe, Africa, Asia and Iran. (
  • Calls, photos, and plant samples have been coming in over the last week (8/1/2014) pertaining to soybeans exhibiting abnormal growth and varying degrees of leaf mosaic (interwoven green and yellow areas). (
  • Purified virus is readily prepared by the method devised by Bancroft, Abou Haidar & Erickson (1979) for clover yellow mosaic virus. (
  • HTLV-1 Mosaic can be used as an antigen in ELISA and Western Blots. (
  • We are doing this to see if testing for the presence of these viruses early in the season with the ELISA procedure may have value in giving producers a "heads-up" related to the decision of removing cattle or to graze out a given field. (
  • the complete dna-b component sequence was 2514 nt in length, and shared its highest nucleotide identity (60%) with potato yellow mosaic trinidad virus (pymtv). (
  • Plant virus nanoparticles have been utilized for epitope presentation in vaccines, for drug delivery, as nanospheres and nanowires, and for biomedical imaging applications. (
  • Plant virus capsids are highly suitable for nanotechnological applications because they can be modified by genetic engineering or chemical conjugation to exposed amino acid residues. (
  • Collectively, these data demonstrate for the first time that CP is a determinant for an eriophyid-transmitted plant virus. (
  • Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV) is a plant virus causing significant economic losses throughout Southeast Asia . (
  • Remember, spraying aphids below threshold with an insecticide will only control the vector and won't solve your virus problem. (
  • It has been reported as a suspect vector of sugarbeet mosaic by Muraviov (539) and Novinenko (572), but this has not been confirmed. (