Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
A genus of plant viruses of the family BROMOVIRIDAE, which infect cucurbits and solanaceous plants. Transmission occurs via aphids in a non-persistent manner, and also via seeds. The type species Cucumber mosaic virus, a CUCUMOVIRUS, should not be confused with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, a TOBAMOVIRUS.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.
A genus of plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE in which the bipartite genome is encapsidated in separate icosahedral particles. Mosaic and mottle symptoms are characteristic, and transmission is exclusively by leaf-feeding beetles. Cowpea mosaic virus is the type species.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
Diseases of plants.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Viral proteins that facilitate the movement of viruses between plant cells by means of PLASMODESMATA, channels that traverse the plant cell walls.
A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A genus of plant viruses, in the family TYMOVIRIDAE, possessing a narrow host range that includes CRUCIFERAE. Transmission occurs by BEETLES and mechanical inoculation.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
A large genus of plant viruses of the family POTYVIRIDAE which infect mainly plants of the Solanaceae. Transmission is primarily by aphids in a non-persistent manner. The type species is potato virus Y.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A genus of plant viruses in the family FLEXIVIRIDAE, that cause mosaic and ringspot symptoms. Transmission occurs mechanically. Potato virus X is the type species.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A satellite RNA (not a satellite virus) which has several types. Different cucumoviruses can act as helper viruses for different types.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
A family of RNA plant viruses with flexuous, filamentous particles and consisting of six genera: POTYVIRUS; Ipomovirus; Macluravirus; Rymovirus; Tritimovirus; and Bymovirus. All members of the family form cytoplasmic cylindrical inclusion bodies during infection.
A species of the Chenopodium genus which is the source of edible seed called quinoa. It contains makisterone A and other STEROIDS, some having ECDYSTEROID activity on insects.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)
A family of RNA plant viruses infecting dicotyledons. Transmission is mainly by mechanical inoculation and through propagative plant material. All species elicit formation of multivesicular inclusion bodies. There are at least eight genera: Aureusvirus, Avenavirus, CARMOVIRUS, Dianthovirus, Machlomovirus, Necrovirus, Panicovirus, and TOMBUSVIRUS.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that is perennial with conspicuous, almost palmate leaves like those of RICINUS but more deeply parted into five to nine lobes. It is a source of a starch after removal of the cyanogenic glucosides. The common name of Arrowroot is also used with Maranta (MARANTACEAE). The common name of yuca is also used for YUCCA.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A family of plant viruses where the VIRION possesses an unusual morphology consisting of a pair of isometric particles. Transmission occurs via leafhoppers or whitefly. Some viruses cause economically important diseases in cultivated plants. There are four genera: Mastrevirus, Curtovirus, Topocuvirus, and BEGOMOVIRUS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. Folin is the water-soluble extract from Sasa albomarginata. Sasa kurinensis is an ingredient of Sho-ju-sen, a Japanese herbal medicine.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
The type species of the genus ALFAMOVIRUS that is non-persistently transmitted by aphids.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
A spherical RNA satellite virus which requires an obligatory helper TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS for replication.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A genus of plant viruses in the family GEMINIVIRIDAE that are transmitted in nature by whitefly Bemisia tabaci.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE known for the edible fruit.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
The mallow family of the order Malvales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. Members include GOSSYPIUM, okra (ABELMOSCHUS), HIBISCUS, and CACAO. The common names of hollyhock and mallow are used for several genera of Malvaceae.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Viruses that produce tumors.
A genus of the family BROMOVIRIDAE which infects mainly woody plants. Species are divided into ten subgroups. Tobacco streak virus is the type species.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Membrane-like channels of cytoplasm connecting adjacent plant cells. Plasmodesmata connect through pores in the CELL WALL and associate with the CYTOSKELETON machinery. They are essential for intercellular transport and communication.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
A genus of polyhedral plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE causing ringspots and spotting on leaves or sometimes symptomless infection. Transmission occurs by seeds, soil nematodes, or experimentally by mechanical inoculation. Tobacco ringspot virus is the type species.
A plant genus of the family Caricaceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is the source of edible fruit and PAPAIN.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain piperidine alkaloids (PIPERIDINES).
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
A genus of plant viruses in which the virion is a rigid filament. Transmission is by mechanical inoculation or seed. The type species is TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
A genus of the family BROMOVIRIDAE with a wide host range. Transmission is by aphids and the type species is ALFALFA MOSAIC VIRUS.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
A genus in the family TOMBUSVIRIDAE mostly found in temperate regions. Some species infecting legumes (FABACEAE) are reported from tropical areas. Most viruses are soil-borne, but some are transmitted by the fungus Olpidium radicale and others by beetles. Carnation mottle virus is the type species.
A family of RNA plant viruses infecting disparate plant families. They are transmitted by specific aphid vectors. There are three genera: LUTEOVIRUS; Polerovirus; and Enamovirus.
A genus of plant viruses that infects both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Its organisms are persistently transmitted by aphids, and weeds may provide reservoirs of infection.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates VANILLOID RECEPTORS. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
A plant species of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae known for the melon fruits with reticulated (net) surface including cantaloupes, honeydew, casaba, and Persian melons.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
The goosefoot plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes beets and chard (BETA VULGARIS), as well as SPINACH, and salt tolerant plants.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.

Physical and functional heterogeneity in TYMV RNA: evidence for the existence of an independent messenger coding for coat protein. (1/667)

Turnip yellow mosaic virus RNA can be separated into two distinct components of 2 times 10(6) and 300 000 daltons molecular weight after moderate heat treatment in the presence of SDS or EDTA. The two species cannot have arisen by accidental in vitro degradation of a larger RNA, as they both possess capped 5' ends. Analysis of the newly synthesized proteins resulting from translation of each RNA by a wheat germ extract shows that the 300 000 molecular weight RNA can be translated very efficiently into coat protein. When translated in vitro the longer RNA gave a series of high molecular weight polypeptides but only very small amounts of a polypeptide having about the same mass as the coat protein. Thus our results suggest that the small RNA is the functional messenger for coat protein synthesis in infected cells.  (+info)

Complete sequence and genome properties of Chinese wheat mosaic virus, a new furovirus from China. (2/667)

The complete nucleotide sequence of a virus infecting winter wheat in Shandong province, China has been determined. This was previously thought to be soil-borne wheat mosaic virus but, while the two viruses are related, they are only 75% (RNA1) and 63% (RNA2) identical at the nucleotide level, while the amino acid sequences share from 62% (19 kDa RNA2 product) to 84% (RNA1 replicase) identity. The analysis shows that the Chinese virus should be considered a new member of the genus Furovirus and has been named Chinese wheat mosaic virus (CWMV). A Cys-Gly ... Cys-Gly-X-X-His amino acid pattern was identified in the cysteine-rich protein of CWMV and those of several other plant virus genera, which seems likely to have some functional significance.  (+info)

The sCYMV1 hairpin ribozyme: targeting rules and cleavage of heterologous RNA. (3/667)

The catalytic center of the RNA from the negative strand of the satellite RNA of chicory yellow mottle virus type 1 (sCYMV1) is in the hairpin ribozyme family, has catalytic activity, and cleaves substrates before a preferred GUA sequence. This is different from that of the satellite RNA from the negative strand of tobacco ringspot virus (sTRSV) which prefers a GUC sequence at the site of cleavage. The sCYMV1 hairpin ribozyme has now been developed for cleaving heterologous RNA substrates. When helix 1 was extended from the native 5 bp to 6 bp with a newly added A:U base pair, catalytic activity increased three-fold. The preferred sequence for the substrate loop was the native A*GUA sequence where * is the site of cleavage. When each nucleotide in this sequence was changed to each of the other three nucleotides, catalytic activity decreased 66-100%. RNA targets, containing this A*GUA sequence, were located in both human papillomavirus and HIV-1. Ribozymes were developed which efficiently cleaved these targets in vitro. These results identify a new class of hairpin ribozymes capable of cleaving substrates before a preferred GUA sequence rather than the GUC preferred by the sTRSV hairpin ribozyme. This expands the repertoire of target sites available for gene therapy using the hairpin ribozyme.  (+info)

Rapid generation of genetic heterogeneity in progenies from individual cDNA clones of peach latent mosaic viroid in its natural host. (4/667)

Viroids, small single-stranded circular RNAs endowed with autonomous replication, are unique systems to conduct evolutionary studies of complete RNA genomes. The primary structure of 36 progeny variants of peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd), evolved from inoculations of the peach indicator GF-305 with four individual PLMVd cDNAs differing in their pathogenicity, has been determined. Most progeny variants had unique sequences, revealing that the extremely heterogeneous character of PLMVd natural isolates most probably results from the intrinsic ability of this RNA to accumulate changes, rather than from repeated inoculations of the same individual trees under field conditions. The structure of the populations derived from single PLMVd sequences differed according to the observed phenotype. Variant gds6 induced a reproducible symptomatic infection and gave rise to a more uniform progeny that preserves some parental features, whereas variant gds15, which induced a variable phenotype, showed a more complex behaviour, generating two distinct progenies in symptomatic and asymptomatic individual plants. Progenies derived from variants esc10 and Is11, which incited latent infections, followed a similar evolutionary pattern, leading to a population structure consisting of two main groups of variants, one of which was formed by variants closely related to the parental sequence. The evolution rate exhibited by PLMVd, considerably higher than that reported for potato spindle tuber viroid, may contribute to the fluctuating symptomatology of the severe PLMVd natural isolates. However, the polymorphism observed in PLMVd progenies does preserve some structural and functional elements previously proposed for this viroid, supporting the fact that they act as constraints limiting the genetic divergence of PLMVd quasispecies generated de novo.  (+info)

Sequences of European wheat mosaic virus and oat golden stripe virus and genome analysis of the genus furovirus. (5/667)

The complete nucleotide sequences of both RNAs of oat golden stripe virus (OGSV) and a wheat-infecting furovirus isolate from France, previously thought to be soil-borne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV), have been determined. Both viruses had a similar genomic organisation to SBWMV and Chinese wheat mosaic virus, the two other furoviruses previously sequenced but had <70% nucleotides identical to them. The French isolate has been named European wheat mosaic virus (EWMV). Phylogenetic analyses supported the recognition of these isolates as distinct viruses in the genus Furovirus. Analysis of the coat protein readthrough domain on RNA2 of all furoviruses strongly predicts two mutually compatible conserved transmembrane domains that may be significant for fungus transmission. The second of these regions is eliminated by a deletion in the isolate of OGSV studied. Leaky opal (UGA) stop codons occur on both RNAs of all four furoviruses characterised and, in common with most other leaky opal codons identified in plant viruses, they are followed by a CGG codon.  (+info)

Structural fingerprinting: subgrouping of comoviruses by structural studies of red clover mottle virus to 2.4-A resolution and comparisons with other comoviruses. (6/667)

Red clover mottle virus (RCMV) is a member of the comoviruses, a group of picornavirus-like plant viruses. The X-ray structure of RCMV strain S has been determined and refined to 2.4 A. The overall structure of RCMV is similar to that of two other comoviruses, Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) and Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV). The sequence of the coat proteins of RCMV strain O were modeled into the capsid structure of strain S without causing any distortion, confirming the close resemblance between the two strains. By comparing the RCMV structure with that of other comoviruses, a structural fingerprint at the N terminus of the small subunit was identified which allowed subgrouping of comoviruses into CPMV-like and BPMV-like viruses.  (+info)

Quasi-elastic behavior of solutions of viral capsid and RNA at very low shearing stresses. (7/667)

By the application of shearing stresses on the order of 10(-3) dyne cm-2 (10(-2) muN cm-2), via the magnetic viscodensimeter, extremely high relative viscosities (greater than 500) were observed when turnip yellow mosaic virus was degraded in alkali into its capsid and RNA. The solutions, however, possessed a watery consistency at this stage and exhibited a quasi-elastic character by rotor-recoil experiments. The development of this curious behavior was concentration and temperature dependent; it was not seen less than 0.5% nor at 8 degrees, and appeared sooner at 30 degrees than at 20 degrees. The time of appearance was delayed as the pH was lowered; however, the effect was still observed when the pH was as low as 9. Whereas reversibility was demonstrated when the shearing stresses exceeded the elastic resistance [0.17 dyne cm-2 (1.7 muN CM-2)], thorough mixing usually resulted in a normal behavior of the solutions thereafter. Values for the modulus of rigidity at 20 degrees for about 1% virus concentration was less than 2 X 10(-2) dyne cm-2 rad-1 (0.2 muN cm-2 rad-1), which, while extremely small, was reproducible. A porous structure, possibly involving a capsid and RNA complex, is envisioned.  (+info)

A gene cluster encoded by panicum mosaic virus is associated with virus movement. (8/667)

A subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) of about 1500 nucleotides has been detected in millet plants and protoplasts infected with panicum mosaic virus (PMV). This sgRNA expressed p8, p6.6, p15, and the 26-kDa capsid protein (CP) genes during in vitro translation assays, as determined by using mutants inactivated for expression of each open reading frame. Abolishing expression of p8 and p6.6, the two 5'-proximal genes on the sgRNA, did not affect the replication of PMV in millet protoplasts, but obstructed spread in plants. As predicted for a typical cell-to-cell movement protein, p8 localized to the cell wall fraction of PMV-infected millet plants. The introduction of premature stop codons downstream of the PMV p15 start codon (p15*) abolished infectivity in planta, but did not impair replication in protoplasts. However, a delayed systemic infection in millet plants was supported by the p15aug(-) start codon mutant, which may reflect very low levels of expression from a suboptimal start codon context and/or leaky scanning to a second inframe AUG codon to express the C-terminal portion of the 15-kDa protein. PMV CP mutants had little effect on sgRNA accumulation, but were correlated with a reduction of the gRNA and the decreased expression of the 8-kDa protein in protoplasts as well as abolishment of cell-to-cell spread in plants. These results imply that the successful establishment of a PMV systemic infection in millet host plants appears to be dependent on the concerted expression of the p8, p6.6, p15, and CP genes.  (+info)

Southern bean mosaic virus ATCC ® PVAS-298™ Designation: Cowpea [southern bean mosaic virus antiserum] Application: Test animal used: rabbit Host plant from which virus was purified: Vigna unguiculata cv. Plant research
Abstract: The mode of inheritance of resistance to cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CAMV) and southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) was determined in the following cowpea (Vigna unguiculata s.sp. unguiculata (L) Walp) varieties: A44/2, TVu 222, TVu 612 all resistant to CAMV and TVu 1948, which is resistant to both CAMV and SBMV. Crosses were made between each of the resistant varieties and C20-55, a cowpea variety susceptible to CAMV and SBMV. The parents, FI, F2, B1 and B2 progenies of each cross were raised in the greenhouse and inoculated with the appropriate virus. The results showed that two recessive genes control resistance to CAMV in A44/2, a single dominant gene controls resistance to the same virus in TVu 222, while a single recessive gene was responsible for resistance in each of the varieties TVu 612 and TVu 1948. Results of allelic tests among the F1 and F2 progenies of crosses among A44/2, TVu 612, and TVu 222 indicated that each of them possesses different genes for resistance to ...
Biomolecules are increasingly attractive templates for the synthesis of functional nanomaterials. Chief among them are the plant Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) due to their high aspect ratio, narrow size distribution,
Summary Barley tissue with an acute systemic infection of barley stripe mosaic virus contained a large amount of unencapsidated virus RNA which was stable in extracts made in ribosome isolation buffer. The virus RNA in ribosome preparations sedimented in a broad band at 80S to 100S in sucrose gradients, which is less than the virion sedimentation rate of 180S to 200S. A protein of apparent M r 60000, which sedimented with the virus RNA, was present in ribosome extracts from infected plants but absent from those from uninfected plants. The protein is probably a virus protein because its apparent molecular weight varied slightly with the strain of virus. The structure containing the M r 60000 protein did not sediment in sucrose gradients in a compact zone as would be expected for a particle of uniform size. The M r 60000 protein was present at a concentration equal to or slightly higher (up to 400 µg/g leaf tissue) than the unencapsidated virus RNA (up to 300 µg/g leaf tissue). Sedimentation results
Only one of four isolates (C4) of barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) was transmitted (airbrush method of inoculation) from barley (Hordeum vulgare Black Hulless ) to wild oats (Avena fatua). Initially, the proportion of inoculated wild oat plants systemically infected by isolate C4 was low, and in some plants only localized infections developed in inoculated leaves. However, when isolate C4 was subsequently transferred from infected to healthy wild oats, the proportion of inoculated plants infected was high and the infection was invariably systemic. These observations and several additional lines of evidence indicated that this pattern of transmission was due to strain selection during systemic passage of isolate C4 through wild oats. Complete separation of strains comprising this isolate, however, apparently did not occur until three successive passages of the virus through wild oats. After this, the selected strain from barley systemically infected almost all wild oat plants that were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endoplasmic reticulum export and vesicle formation of the movement protein of Chinese wheat mosaic virus are regulated by two transmembrane domains and depend on the secretory pathway. AU - Andika, Ida Bagus. AU - Zheng, Shiling. AU - Tan, Zilong. AU - Sun, Liying. AU - Kondo, Hideki. AU - Zhou, Xueping. AU - Chen, Jianping. PY - 2013/1/20. Y1 - 2013/1/20. N2 - The 37K protein of Chinese wheat mosaic virus (CWMV) belongs to the 30K superfamily of plant virus movement proteins. CWMV 37K trans-complemented the cell-to-cell spread of a movement-defective Potato virus X. CWMV 37K fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein localized to plasmodesmata and formed endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived vesicular and large aggregate structures. CWMV 37K has two putative N-terminal transmembrane domains (TMDs). Mutations disrupting TMD1 or TMD2 impaired 37K movement function; those mutants were unable to form ER-derived structures but instead accumulated in the ER. Treatment with Brefeldin A ...
Virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a technology that has been used primarily to target the virus genome in infected plants. However, if the virus genome carries inserts derived from the host plant, the system could be employed to target the mRNAs corresponding to the host gene. Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus (BSMV), a disease of various cereals including barley and wheat, has been one of the successfully used viral RNA silencing tools in monocotyledonous plants for the last decade. In this study, we investigated several factors that play a significant role in VIGS. We tested the efficiency of silencing two genes simultaneously using the BSMV-induced gene silencing (IGS) system in detail. We found that two genes could be silenced simultaneously using BSMV-IGS. However, the silencing efficiency was found to be influenced by several factors including stability of the insert, temperature, and the accumulation of small viral RNAs from BSMV. The effect of these factors on VIGS system has been ...
Dr. Detlef Förster. As Germanys association of technology- and patenttransfer agencies TechnologieAllianz e.V. is offering businesses access to the entire range of innovative research results of almost all German universities and numerous non-university research institutions. More than 2000 technology offers of 14 branches are beeing made accessable to businesses in order to assure your advance on the market. At a free, fast and non-bureaucratic access to all further offers of the German research landscape is offered to our members aiming to sucessfully transfer technologies.. ...
The Effect of Low-Temperature Pre-Incubation Treatment of Tobacco and Soybean Callus Cultures on Rates of Tobacco- and Southern Bean Mosaic Virus Synthesis. James L. White, Fang-Sheng Wu, and H. H. Murakishi. Pages 60-63. VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. ...
Cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs) encoded by some plant viruses in diverse genera function as RNA silencing suppressors. Within the N-terminal portion of CRPs encoded by furoviruses, there are six conserved cysteine residues and a Cys-Gly-X-X-His motif (
New bean leaves may be small and stiff, and older leaves are puckered with curled edges. The colour on affected leaves becomes mottled with light and dark green patches. Blossom clusters become curled and distorted. If the plants produce pods, they are often kinked and mottled with shades of yellowish green.
Full nutritional breakdown of the calories in Southern Beans & Greens (PCRM Kickstart) based on the calories and nutrition in each ingredient, including Chickpeas (garbanzo beans), Beans, black, Kale, Olive Oil, Pacific Natural Foods Organic Low Sodium Vegetable Broth, 1 cup and the other ingredients in this recipe.
winter wheat. Plant Disease. ( Singh, Jasleen; ... Jones, Mark. Wheat mosaic virus (WMoV), the causal agent of High Plains disease, is present in Ohio wheat ... Soybean and Wheat Quality Research Unit focuses on virus diseases of maize. Objectives of my work include .... ...
The symptoms of rose mosaic virus are quite variable, usually appear in spring and remain throughout the growing season. The whole plant, a single stem, or a portion of the plant may exhibit symptoms even though the whole plant is infected. So pruning off those plant parts that display symptoms will not control the disease ...
Vigorous plants produce heavy crops of 6-7 long, straight beans. Stringless; resistant to Bean Mosaic Virus. Excellent for canning-holds its deep green color and flavor during processing. Days to Maturity: 50 Choose from 3 sizes!
or https:// means youve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. ...
Our stone mosaics, glass mosaics, ceramic mosaics, wood mosaics, steel mosaics and custom mosaics have been designed using constant feedback from clients. Our development team is also capable of customizing any image of your choice into the perfect feature wall with the customizable mosaics.
I have been a frequent visitor to this site for the past year and a half, but have never posted before. Ive learned a lot from the stories shared in here, primarily pertaining to situations that occurred at Mosaic prior to my joining them in Spring of 2006. A little over a month ago, I chose to leave Mosaic after finally coming to terms that its community of faith, love and hope didnt embrace me fully as a human being. While the reasons for my departure are not in any way like the ones described in this site, nevertheless the pain and hurt experienced in the process of leaving is. Im also quite familiar with the duality of Erwins personality (on stage vs off stage). That in itself, made me weary of him a long time ago, though I did fall victim to his charming persona in the beginning. There are a lot of things Im grateful to Mosaic. First, I came to Christ while at Mosaic. Also, it provided me with the opportunity to meet some quality human beings. In the two years at Mosaic, I managed to ...
Well fuck. Ive learned about mold mildew mites and gnats the hard way, now its a fuckin virus. I thought this was a def. at first, but its not going away.
RTBV has bacilliform particles of 30 nm diameter and usually about 130 nm length (Fig. 2). However, in some isolates longer particles in excess of 300 nm are found. The structure of the particles is based on a T 3 icosahedron cut across its threefold axis with the tubular portion being made up of rings of hexamer subunits and a repeat distance of about 10 nm. The particles have an S2ow of approximately 200 and a buoyant density in cesium chloride of approximately 1.36 g ml-1. Figure 2 Electron.... ...
Art is about the notion of artifice but the nature of mosaics, like life, is to be fructured. Helen Miles Mosaics explores this intimate link.
Set in stone mosaics business mosaic for Stump cross caverns. Bespoke commissioned mosaic. Creating a unique work of art to any space.
A mosaic workshop in Ravenna Luciana Notturnis Officina del Mosaico in Ravenna has operated for many years in the mosaic field, both locally and internationally. The activities carried
Since ancient times, artists have used many different types of tesserae (small pieces) to create beautiful mosaic art. Combine new technology with geometric skills to create beautiful mosaics!
Mosaic art embellishments and glass tesserea. Gems, pebbles ... Find pre-cut stained glass for stepping stones and other mosaic projects.
Hey there not sure if anyone knows much about Gonadal Mosaic but thats what the geneticist told me I have meaning that some of my eggs have the mutation and s…
Hey there not sure if anyone knows much about Gonadal Mosaic but thats what the geneticist told me I have meaning that some of my eggs have the mutation and s…
As an eight year old I received a mosaic kit for making an art piece of plastic tiles and an additional kit using beads to sew with each other. The... Read more »
Artaic designs and fabricates custom mosaic tile installations. We make beautiful custom tile fast and painless for any architectural setting.
Authors Note: This is the new and revised version of A Strange Sky. I decided to give a more personal touch to the system (it felt too generic before), along with other changes to the events and story itself. The old version of this chapter is still available for reading, on a separate post listed…
JoVE publishes peer-reviewed scientific video protocols to accelerate biological, medical, chemical and physical research. Watch our scientific video articles.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Turnip yellow mosaic virus and its capsid have thermal stabilities with opposite ph dependence. T2 - studies by differential scanning calorimetry and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. AU - Virudachalam, R.. AU - Low, Philip S.. AU - Argos, Patrick. AU - Markley, John L.. PY - 1985/10/30. Y1 - 1985/10/30. N2 - In the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) scans of turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) or its capsid a single endotherm was observed. The endotherm was attributed to disruption of the virion or capsid structure with accompanying protein denaturation. At pH 4.5 the thermal stabilities of the TYMV virion and capsid were similar. With increasing pH, the capsid stability increased while the virion stability decreased. At neutral pH the capsid disrupted at 83.5°, and the virion disrupted at 69°. Our results suggest that packaging of viral RNA in the TYMV capsid imparts instability. The pHmid for disruption of the TYMV capsid is 5.7, which is in the pKa range ...
Plant Dicer-like (DCL) enzymes exhibit a GC-preference during anti-viral post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), delivering an evolutionary selection pressure resulting in plant viruses with GC-poor genomes. However, some viruses, e.g. Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus (TYMV, genus Tymovirus) have GC-rich genomes, raising the question as to whether or not DCL derived selection pressure affects these viruses. In this study we analyzed the virus-derived small interfering RNAs from TYMV-infected leaves of Brassica juncea showed that the TYMV population accumulated a mutational bias with AU replacing GC (GC-AU), demonstrating PTGS pressure. Interestingly, at the highly polymorphic sites the GC-AU bias was no longer observed. This suggests the presence of an unknown mechanism preventing mutational drift of the viral population and maintaining viral genome stability, despite the host PTGS pressure.. ...
Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a pathogenic plant virus in the genus Potyvirus and the virus family Potyviridae which primarily infects the papaya tree. Papaya ring spot virus (PRSV) of apaya pests and diseases. Papaya virus disease with special reference to papaya ringspot. The Filamentous Plant Viruses. The virus is a monopartite strand of positive-sense, single-stranded RNA surrounded by a capsid made for a single viral encoded protein. PapMV infection initiated at the seedling stage on pawpaw (Carica papaya) results in a slightly stunted plant with leaf mottle, still able to produce fruit with no significant reduction on size or yield. These two strains are very similar, except that type PRSV-W does not infect papaya; it infects cucurbits. Nucleotide sequence of the capsid protein gene and 3 non-coding region of papaya mosaic virus RNA. Hosts and electron microscopy of two papaya viruses. Spot, remove and destroy infected plants or plant parts. Cuttings or divisions from infected plants ...
Bevan, M.W.; Mason, S.E.; Goelet, P., 1985: Expression of tobacco mosaic virus coat protein by a cauliflower mosaic virus promoter in plants transformed by Agrobacterium
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular and partial biological characterization of the coat protein sequences of Iranian alfalfa mosaic virus isolates. AU - Mangeli, Fatemeh. AU - Massumi, Hossain. AU - Alipour, Fereshteh. AU - Maddahian, Mohammad. AU - Heydarnejad, Jahangir. AU - Hosseinipour, Akbar. AU - Amid-Motlagh, Mohammad Hadi. AU - Azizizadeh, Morteza. AU - Varsani, Arvind. N1 - Funding Information: This research work was supported by the Iran National Science Foundation (INSF; Grant No. 93004315). PY - 2019/8/15. Y1 - 2019/8/15. N2 - Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) is one of the most important viruses that cause significant losses to alfalfa worldwide. A total of 1066 symptomatic alfalfa, 143 weeds and other secondary hosts were collected and assayed for AMV infection. The virus was detected in 360 samples (33.8% incidence) of alfalfa by plate-trapped antigen (PTA)-ELISA. Among the weed species and the other plants tested, potato, pepper and seven weed species were infected with AMV. The coat protein (CP) ...
Cauliflower Mosaic Virus is classified as an icosahedral (20 sided) virus. This is because of the icosahedral shape of the capsid that surrounds the viral genome. This shape gives the virus 20 symmetrical triangular faces. This symmetry allows for synthesis efficiency by having the same small number of proteins being produced from a small number genes and from short chromosome sequences. This allows the largest and most complex capsid to be formed from the least amount of resources making it more efficient than a non-symmetrical capsid (Slonczewski). The structure of cauliflower mosaic virus is approximately 52 nanometers in diameter and is surrounded by 420 capsid proteins arranged in triangulation T=7 (P, Ashwathi). In addition to capsid proteins, caulimoviruses are also surrounded by virus associated proteins (Caulimovirus.). These proteins are responsible for assisting in the binding of the virus to DNA on its c-terminal end (InterPro.). The efficiency of the icosahedral structure allows ...
Rsv1, a single dominant resistance gene in soybean PI 96983 (Rsv1), confers extreme resistance against all known American strains of Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), except G7 and G7d. SMV-G7 provokes a lethal systemic hypersensitive response (LSHR), whereas SMV-G7d, an experimentally evolved variant of …
Acts as a suppressor of RNA-mediated gene silencing, also known as post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), a mechanism of plant viral defense that limits the accumulation of viral RNAs.
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
AMV infects over 600 plant species in 70 families (experimental and natural hosts). Some hosts: potato (Solanum tuberosum), pea (Pisum sativum), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), bluebeard (Caryopteris incana), ... Symptoms vary from wilting, white flecks, malformation like dwarfing, ringspots, mottles, mosaics to necrosis depending on the virus strain, host variety, stage of growth at infection and environmental conditions. Signs of infection can persist or disappear quickly. The virus can be detected in each part of the host plant. The virions are mainly found in the cytoplasm of the infected plant (as inclusion bodies). Inclusions of Alfalfa mosaic virus In vitro AMV has a longevity of 1-4 days (sometimes much longer). Temperature and light are the environmental factors that have the greatest influence on the multiplication and movement of AMV in the plant and thus indirectly on the symptoms. Under low temperature the appearance of necrosis for example is less ...
Citation: Fenwick, A., Larson, R.L., Reeves, P.A., Richards, C.M., Panella, L.W. 2007. Virus induced gene silencing of a gene repressing flowering in sugar beet. American Society of Sugarbeet Technologists. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Exposure to a prolonged cold period during winter is necessary for flowering in the next spring in many biennial plants - a process termed vernalization. We have described BvFL1, a vernalization gene in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), which is a repressor of flowering that is downregulated in response to cold. This gene is a homolog to the MADS-bx gene FLOWRING LOCUS C(FLC)found in Arabidopsis thaliana. Flowering time is a trait of critical agronomic importance, and an assessment of function at this key regulatory locus may present an opportunity to study (and control) flowering time as a tool in applied plant breeding efforts. Virus induced gene silencing constructs were engineered into a Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) vector for use in blocking ...
Cauliflower mosaic virus has a very important function in biotechnology. It is because of its efficient promoter that is used to produce cloned genes, that it can be used to create transgenic plants that can take use of this efficiency. That is why now, 10% of cruciferous vegetables have a CaMV infection[16]. In order to do this, genes can only be inserted in the minor coding regions or regions not necessary for virus production which include open reading frame II and open reading frame VII. If done correctly, the production of progeny viruses will not be affected. A use of this is to insert a dihydroxyl folatereductase gene so that the infected plant will be resistant to methotrexate which otherwise is very toxic to plants[15]. Producing transgenic plants is done in order to gain benefits such as higher yield, resistance, quality and efficiency which would be hugely impactful to farmers who have been plagued by mosaic viruses and had to throw away a large percentage of their crop[11]. There are ...
Being aware of the different types of Mosaic Viruses can help to keep your plants thriving and virus-free. Plant has 2 leaves, big leaf was the original propagation leaf,small leaf has just emerged showing good variegation. Unfortunately, some of these signs can be due to many other factors such as insufficient watering, high humidity or too much sunlight. We have included some of the most commonly asked questions in regards to this infection that will hopefully answer any further concerns you may have. Interestingly the virus can also be latent in plants meaning that you cannot see any symptoms yet but the plant is already a host and is affected. As it quickly spreads to other plants you can see whole deliveries in gardening centres and plant shops infected with the virus. Once mosaic virus shows up on your plant, its almost certainly a goner. Philodendron Pink Princess #1 Best Care Hacks, Root Rot Causes & Symptoms in Plants you Wish you Knew. Tobacco Mosaic Virus is not the most common virus ...
Salah satu penyakit yang menyerang tanaman tebu adalah penyakit mosaik yang disebabkan oleh Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV) (Koesmihartono,2009). Kehadiran virus ini dapat menghambat fotosintesis, merusak tanaman dan menekan tingkat produktifitas tanaman tebu hingga 0.2%-50% tergantung dari seberapa berat infeksi virus dan ketahanan varietas terhadap Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (Duriat,1979). Salah satu upaya dalam mencegah penyebaran virus tersebut terutama di lapang adalah dengan cara deteksi dini melalui uji serologi. Untuk dapat melakukan uji serologi sebagai upaya uji deteksi dini perlu diproduksi protein rekombinan salah satu caranya adalah melalui kloning (perbanyakan dalam sel bakteri) cDNA yang menyandikan protein mantel dan melakukan konstruksi ke dalam vektor ekspresi. Protein rekombinan yang dapat digunakan untuk memproduksi antigen dalam pembuatan antibodi. Tahapan yang dilakukan adalah mengisolasi materi genetik yang ada pada SCMV beerupa RNA dan mengubahnya menjadi cDNA untuk kemudian ...
ID Y11775; SV 1; linear; genomic RNA; STD; VRL; 1194 BP. XX AC Y11775; XX DT 03-MAR-1998 (Rel. 54, Created) DT 03-MAR-1998 (Rel. 54, Last updated, Version 1) XX DE Peanut stripe virus RNA for NIb protein and coat protein, isolate 95/399 XX KW coat protein; NIb protein; nuclear inclusion b protein. XX OS Bean common mosaic virus strain peanut stripe OC Viruses; ssRNA viruses; ssRNA positive-strand viruses, no DNA stage; OC Potyviridae; Potyvirus. XX RN [1] RA Higgins C.M., Cassidy B.G., Teycheney P.Y., Wongkaew S., Dietzgen R.G.; RT ; RL Unpublished. XX RN [2] RP 1-1194 RA Higgins C.M.; RT ; RL Submitted (10-MAR-1997) to the INSDC. RL C.M. Higgins, Qld. Department of Primary Industries, Qld. Agricultural RL Biotechnology Centre, Level 4, Gehrmann Laboratories, The University of RL Queensland, St.Lucia, Qld. 4072, AUSTRALIA XX DR MD5; 16c18ef8c854fd0e451bf4f6361b8812. XX FH Key Location/Qualifiers FH FT source 1..1194 FT /organism=Bean common mosaic virus strain peanut stripe FT /host=peanut ...
Viruses spread through a plant in two steps. The first step is from cell to cell within the inoculated leaf. However, as soon as the virus has reached a cell bordering the vascular system of the plant, it can also spread via the vascular system throughout the entire plant. To spread from cell to cell, the virus needs to enlarge existing channels connecting neighbouring cells by building up a tunnel to transport the virus from one cell into the other. This is because the natural channels connecting the cells are too narrow for the virus to pass through ...
The present investigation was conducted to see the effect of Soybean Mosaic Virus (SMV) infection on carbohydrate content in nodules of soybean. Observation made on the carbohydrate (reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar and starch) content of nodules in soybean mosaic virus infected soybean indicated the reduction of all the contents in comparison to nodules in the healthy plants. Reducing sugar ranged from 2.0 to 3.39 mg g-1 dry weight in healthy and in diseased it ranged from 1.86 to 3.00 mg g-1 dry weight and in non reducing sugar ranged from 1.4 to 2.75 mg g-1 dry weight and in healthy and in diseased it ranged from 1.3 to 2.45 mg g-1 dry weight. The results were significant in the case of non-reducing sugar. The reducing and non-reducing sugars were estimated by the colorimetric method. The alcohol extract was clarified and residue left on the filter paper was returned to the extracting flask, dried at 65°C and preserved for starch analysis ...
During research carried out in the Netherlands, Marilia Santos Silva discovered that some tobacco plants die if a virus infects them, whereas others survive.
Extracts of barley leaves infected with bromegrass mosaic virus (BrMV) incorporated radioactivity into RNA when incubated with [3H]UTP in the presence of actinomycin D (Semal & Kummert, 1970). The radioactive product thus obtained was partly resistant to pancreatic RNase in × 2:SSC (0.15 m-NaCl, 0.015 m-sodium citrate, pH 7.0:SSC) but was entirely hydrolysed by this enzyme in × 0.05:SSC (Semal, 1970). A sequential synthesis of double- and single-stranded RNA was obtained under certain experimental conditions (Semal & Kummert, 1971). The present results identify the radioactive product associated with duplex RNA as a segment of BrMV-RNA. Cell-free extracts of the second leaf of barley seedlings, whose first leaf had been inoculated 3 days earlier with BrMV, were used to prepare the crude virus-induced RNA polymerase fraction. This fraction was incubated for 3½ min. with tritiated UTP (1 to 2 c/mm - The Radiochemical Centre, Amersham, Buckinghamshire, England), 10-3 m-EDTA, 20 µg./ml. of
In this study a new real-time PCR assay for the detection of figwort mosaic virus (FMV) DNA is described. This assay targets a 113-bp-long sequence of the FMV open reading frame Vll, a non-conserved coding region among the caulimoviruses. Detection of FMV DNA is useful to complement screening for the FMV 34S promoter (P-FMV), a genetic element present in several genetically modified (GM) plants. T ...
Bean production constraints in Africa with special reference to breeding for resistance to bean common mosaic virus in Uganda ...
Yellow-podded version of Neckar Queen. Lots of tasty, stringless, bright yellow, pencil pods, borne on vigorous plants which can tolerate unfavourable and variable weather conditions. Vines are vigorous climbers which easily top 2 metres. This wax bean produces a heavy crop of crunchy pods, 10-15 cm in length. Good for freezing. Resistant to bean mosaic virus. ...
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or https:// means youve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. ...
Prohibited organisms are declared pests by virtue of section 22(1), and may only be imported and kept subject to permits. Permit conditions applicable to some species may only be appropriate or available to research organisations or similarly secure institutions ...
COGEM released a comprehensive database of pathogenicity assessment of around 2575 bacterial species in 2011. The database ranks the pathogenicity of species on a scale of 1 to 4 - 1 being not belonging to a recognized group of disease-invoking agents in humans or animals and having an extended history of safe usage and 4 being a species that can cause a very serious human disease, for which no prophylaxis is known ...
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Cytoplasmic Protein Required For Replication Of Brome Mosaic Virus; S. Cerevisiae Is A Model System For Studying Replication Of Positive-strand RNA Viruses In Their Natural Hosts
Faustina has been producing ammonia since 1968. Mosaic chose to implement an emissions reduction project in 2017 instead of a debottleneck at Faustina. In October 2013, Mosaic abandoned plans for a $1.1 billion ammonia brownfield plant, because it became unnecessary after Mosaic acquired CF Industries phosphate operations. In early 2018, Mosaic derated the capacity at Faustina.. Read more. ...
解釋 Vector covid virus covid-2019 mosaic icon created for medicare applications. Covid virus mosaic is shaped of small covid pathogen items. 剪貼畫、和美工 Image 167276787.
HKDSE Biology - This article is about the usage of fluid mosaic model to explain the properties and functions of cell membrane. Furthermore, under the study of fluid mosaic model,
MOSAIC : a relational database for comparative genomics of bacteria using complete genome multiple alignment, MOSAIC : une base de donn e relationnelle pour la g nomique compar e des bact ries utilisant des alignements de g nomes complets.
Karyotype with XO cell from a mosaic. Mosaic, also called mosaicism, denotes the presence of two populations of cells with different genotypes in one individual who has developed from a single fertilized egg. - Stock Image C017/2381
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Virus, Mosaic Virus, Nanoparticles, Papaya, Production, Animals, Influenza, Proteins, Mice, Plant, Plant Virus, Vaccines, Nucleocapsid, Antibodies, Flu Vaccines, Antigen, Epitopes, Nanoparticle, Association, Cysteine
Buy your Torq Mosaic Pale Ale Summer Shandy Gel (15x45g) - Energy & Recovery Gels from Wiggle Cycle To Work. Our price . Free worldwide delivery available.
Get Nikon NIKKOR Z 11-30mm f/4S and Nikon NIKKOR Z lenses at B&H Photo.. The series assesses of the Nikon NIKKOR Z 14-30mm f/4 S at 14mm on a demanding planar target. The main point of interest here is sharpness, but color rendition is also a concern.. In diglloyd Mirrorless:. Nikon NIKKOR Z 14-30mm f/4 S Aperture Series @ 14mm: Mosaic. Includes images up to full camera resolution from f/4 through f/11, plus crops.. ...
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Mosaic tiles very beautiful and can be turned into many different designs. Design your own with this craft project video. Heidi Borchers shows you how to construct your own masterpiece.
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The metaverse, aka, the real Internet 2.0, is currently at the stage of the Internet at the time of the Mosaic browser circa 1996, e.g.; at the beginning when only techies understand what it is and are using it, before it explodes into mainstream. Right now, there are at minimum several metaverses in the early stages of development, launch and use; it is not clear which of these metaverses could be the big one. Maybe they will all be displaced in the Netscape tradition. There will probably be many metaverses, and we may even be able to have as many of our own metaverses as we like ...
This festive Mexican jello looks like multi-colored mosaic gelatin. It does take a bit of time so youll want to make it a day ahead (maybe even two).
Show how much you care with a Mosaic Heart Plaque. This recycles craft uses glass from broken china or other collectibles to create a unique project.
While traditional mosaic imagery have been created from small pieces of glass or stone, computerized equipment is making it increasingly practical to create the pieces from clay or porcelain
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Cucumber mosaic virus. The cucumber mosaic virus is transmitted by aphids. Pansies with the virus have fine yellow veining on ... Aphids, which can spread the cucumber mosaic virus, sometimes feed on pansies. ... The virus can lay dormant, affect the entire plant and be passed to next generations and to other species. Prevention is key: ...
... the vector of the sugar cane Mosaic virus. Mosaic viruses are plant viruses. Fermín Tangüis, an agriculturist and scientist ...
... was the vector of the sugar cane Mosaic virus. Mosaic viruses are plant viruses. In the 1920s, he was appointed as Commissioner ... In 1922 he discovered the vector of the Mosaic virus of sugar cane, which was the aphid Aphis maidis. His findings were ...
A common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus. Handling cigarettes and other infected tobacco products can transmit the virus ... Pfleger, F. L.; Zeyen, R. J. (2008). "Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease". University of Minnesota Extension. Archived from ... tobacco mosaic virus, and A - alternaria. Some common tomato pests are stink bugs, cutworms, tomato hornworms and tobacco ...
... carrot thin leaf virus; celery mosaic virus; and alfalfa mosaic virus. In 2015, a novel Poison Hemlock Virus Y (PHVY) was ... The virus was shown serologically to be related to potyviruses. Conium plants are poisonous to a variety of animals including ... The plants serve as a host for several viruses, bacteria, and insects, including the carrot rust fly, Psila rosae; the ... Nury, Saeedeh; Hosseini, Ahmad; Gibbs, Adrian J.; Mohammadi, Musa (March 2020). "Poison hemlock virus Y (PHVY), a novel ...
Pea seedborne mosaic Pea seed-borne mosaic virus Product[edit]. Processing[edit]. A combination of gravity, screens and air ... Bean (pea) leaf roll virus Beet western yellows virus Bean yellow mosaic Bean yellow mosaic virus ... Cucumber mosaic Cucumber mosaic virus ... Broad bean mottle virus Broad bean stain Broad bean stain virus ...
and Rhizoctonia spp., Cercospora leafspot caused by Cercospora spp., and leaf mosaic virus. For information on control methods ... For information on control methods go to: Bean flower thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti) Peanut bud necrosis virus Blister ...
... informally called Tobacco mosaic satellite virus, Satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV), or tobacco mosaic satellite virus, is ... icosahedral plant virus which worsens the symptoms of infection by Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Satellite viruses are some of ... Dodds, J. A. (1998). "Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus". Annual Review of Phytopathology. 36: 295-310. doi:10.1146/annurev.phyto. ... "Tobacco necrosis satellite virus". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 12881. Virtovirus on ViralZone. ...
"African cassava mosaic virus. In: ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database", version 4. Büchen-Osmond, C. (Ed), Columbia ... Reports from Burundi and Angola warn of a threat to food security caused by the African Cassava Mosaic Virus (ACMD). ACMD is ... Suitable farming strategies include polyculture, crop rotation, mosaics of small scattered fields and uncultivated land. ...
A common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus. Handling cigarettes and other infected tobacco products can transmit the virus ... tobacco mosaic virus, and A - alternaria. Some common tomato pests are stink bugs, cutworms, tomato hornworms and tobacco ... "Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease". University of Minnesota Extension. Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved ...
Mosaic is a symptom caused by many viruses. Based on the intensity and the pattern of discoloration, mosaics are termed ... "Mosaic Virus: Symptoms, Treatment and Control". Planet Natural. Retrieved 12 December 2018. " - The world's ... Such an example is the color break virus-affected tulips. Wilting is due to loss of turgor in plant tissue resulting in the ... Leaf curl of papaya is caused by papaya leaf curl virus (a begomovirus). Extreme reduction of the leaf lamina brings about the ...
It is very susceptible to iris mosaic virus. It can be propagated by bulblets, 1 to 4 small bulbs growing beside the main bulb ... Kenneth M. Smith A Textbook of Plant Virus Diseases, p. 306, at Google Books "Iris tingitana". 17 February 1938. p. 6. ...
February 26 - Rosalind Franklin publishes her observation that tobacco mosaic virus rods are all of identical length. December ... Franklin, Rosalind E. (1955). "Structure of Tobacco Mosaic Virus". Nature. 175 (4452): 379-381. Bibcode:1955Natur.175..379F. ... Williams assembles a functional tobacco mosaic virus from purified versions of these components. Severo Ochoa develops enzymes ... Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat shows that a virus consists of an infective RNA core and a non-infective protein coat; and with Robley C ...
Mosaic Virus - Floricanto Press 2007. Papi Chulo: A Legend, a Novel, and the Puerto Rican Identity - Floricanto Press 2008. The ...
The African cassava mosaic virus causes the leaves of the cassava plant to wither, limiting the growth of the root. An outbreak ... Fauquet Claude; Fargette Denis (1990). "African Cassava Mosaic Virus: Etiology, Epidemiology, and Control" (PDF). Plant Disease ... The virus is spread by the whitefly and by the transplanting of diseased plants into new fields. Sometime in the late-1980s, a ... This mutated virus spread at a rate of 80 kilometres (50 miles) per year, and as of 2005 was found throughout Uganda, Rwanda, ...
... is a global cereal pest and a vector for spreading and transmission of viruses like wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and wheat ... ISBN 978-0-542-90873-6.[page needed] "Wheat streak mosaic virus". Oklahoma State University. Retrieved 7 October 2017. CS1 ... and wheat streak mosaic virus and distribution of wheat curl mite biotypes in the field. University of Nebraska - Lincoln. ... from Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus-infected wheat plants in Argentina". International Journal of Acarology. 32 (2): 189-93. doi: ...
... rice tungro bacilliform viruses, and cauliflower mosaic virus. In these viruses the ribosome is directly translocated from the ... Translation of Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S RNA is initiated by a ribosome shunt. The 35S RNA of CaMV contains a ~600nt ... Pooggin, MM; Hohn, T; Fütterer, J (2000). "Role of a short open reading frame in ribosome shunt on the cauliflower mosaic virus ... Sendai virus Y proteins are initiated by ribosome shunting. Among 8 primary translation products of Sendai virus P/C mRNA, ...
Reddi KK, Mauser LJ (March 1965). "Studies on the formation of tobacco mosaic virus ribonucleic acid. VI. Mode of degradation ...
Wiley-VCH, 2009, 132 pp) Scholthof, Karen-Beth; Shaw, John G.; Zaitlin, Milton (eds.): Tobacco Mosaic Virus: One Hundred Years ...
Hunter, A.R.; Hunt, T.; Knowland, J.S.; Zimmern, D. (1976). "Messenger RNA for the coat protein of tobacco mosaic virus". ...
... bean mottle virus Brome mosaic virus Cassia yellow blotch virus Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus Melandrium yellow fleck virus ... Brome mosaic virus (BMV) genomes are able to undergo RNA-RNA homologous recombination upon infection of plant cells. The RNA- ... There are currently six species in this genus including the type species Brome mosaic virus. Group: ssRNA(+) Order: ... Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded rna virus transcription, using the ...
Latex Strongly inhibits the watermelon mosaic virus. Leaves Leaf sap can be used to blow bubbles. Sap It stains linen. ...
HIV vaccines: mosaic approach to virus diversity. Nat Med. 2010 Mar;16(3):268-70. • Chapuis A, Casper C, Kuntz S, Zhu J, ... Previously, the scientific consensus for HSV-2 pathogenesis was that virus reactivation was infrequent and determined by virus- ... especially human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes viruses. Corey has pioneered some of the most significant advances in ... Wald A, Zeh J, Selke S, Warren T, Ryncarz AJ, Ashley R, Krieger JN, Corey L. Reactivation of genital herpes simplex virus type ...
Canady MA, Larson SB, Day J, McPherson A (1996). "Crystal structure of turnip yellow mosaic virus". Nat Struct Biol. 3 (9): 771 ... The virus coat is composed of 180 copies of the coat protein arranged in an icosahedral shell. Fundamentally, the viral coat ... Since the genetic material in the virus consists of RNA the coat protein contains RNA binding sites. Additionally, the coat ... In molecular biology, the Tymovirus coat protein refers to the protein coat of a virus order, named Tymovirales. More ...
It is susceptible to virus infections when in cultivation, including from Iris mosaic virus. Which produces some necrotic ... Brunt, A. A.; Derks, A. F. L. M.; Barnett, O. W. "Iris severe mosaic virus". Retrieved 14 September 2016. "How to ... This strain of virus also attacks Belamcanda chinensis, Iris pumila and Iris ricardi. Irises can generally be propagated by ... Bbierley, Philip (15 October 1936). "A Mosaic Disease Of Iris" (PDF). Journal of Agricultural Research. 53 (8). Retrieved 31 ...
Many strains of corn have been developed in recent years to combat the spread of Maize dwarf mosaic virus, a costly virus that ... The viruses are watermelon, cucumber and zucchini/courgette yellow mosaic. Squash was the second GM crop to be approved by US ... Papaya, potatoes, and squash have been engineered to resist viral pathogens such as cucumber mosaic virus which, despite its ... Virus resistant papaya were developed in response to a papaya ringspot virus (PRV) outbreak in Hawaii in the late 1990s. They ...
... mosaic virus is probably transmitted by the oak aphid Myzocallis castanicola. Root rot is caused by the honey fungus ... Chestnut mosaic virus : Transmission by the aphid Myzocallis castanicola on Chestnut tree. By J.-C. Desvignes and D. Cornaggia ... The chestnut mosaic virus is probably transmitted by M. castanicola aphids. The chestnut weevil (Curculio elephas) most often ...
... these virus particles often organized themselves into highly ordered arrays. Rod-shaped particles in the tobacco mosaic virus ... 1970) Stanley, W.M. (1937). "Crystalline Form of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus Protein". American Journal of Botany. 24 (2): 59-68. ... The discovery by W.M. Stanley of the crystalline forms of the tobacco and tomato viruses provided examples of this. Using X-ray ... In 1957, a letter describing the discovery of "A Crystallizable Insect Virus" was published in the journal Nature. Known as the ...
The cucumber mosaic virus is transmitted by aphids. Pansies with the virus have fine yellow veining on young leaves, stunted ... Aphids, which can spread the cucumber mosaic virus, sometimes feed on pansies. Leaf spot (Ramularia deflectens) is a fungal ... The virus can lay dormant, affect the entire plant and be passed to next generations and to other species. Prevention is key: ...
Chamberlain, E.E.; Atkinson, J.D.; Hunter, J.A. (1964). "Cross-protection between strains of apple mosaic virus". New Zealand ... Cross-protection between strains of apple mosaic virus (Book, 1964). []. 22 February 1999. OCLC 525085186. google ... Plant virus diseases in New Zealand (Book, 1954). []. 22 February 1999. OCLC 3962884. Tomato streak (Microform, ... Chamberlain, E.E. (1954). Plant virus diseases in New Zealand. Auckland: DSIR. Chamberlain, E.E. (1947). Tomato streak. ...
Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), Lily-Mottle-Virus - en. Lily mottle virus (LMoV), sowie Sellerie-Virus Y - en. Apium virus Y (ApVY ... Tomato black ring virus,; Arabis-Mosaic-Virus - en. Arabis mosaic virus, sowie Beet ringspot virus ... Usutu-Virus - en. Usutu virus (USUV), Zika-Virus - en. Zika virus (ZIKV), sowie Gelbfieber-Virus - en. Yellow fever virus (YFV) ... Genus ‚Negevirus', mit Species ‚Blackford virus', ‚Bofa virus', ‚Buckhurst virus', ‚Marsac virus', sowie ‚Muthill virus'[53] ...
Mosaic virus is spread by greenfly, causing yellowing of leaves, distortion of new shoots, and inhibited flowering. ...
Mosaic evolution. *Multicellularity. *Sexual reproduction *Gamete differentiation/sexes. *Life cycles/nuclear phases ...
apple latent virus 2 chenopodium mosaic virus chenopodium seed-borne mosaic virus chenopodium star mottle virus ... Sowbane mosaic virus (SoMV) is a pathogenic plant virus, infecting potato and grapevine. Infected species present chlorotic ... This plant virus article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Retrieved from "" ...
"Interaction of Sesbania Mosaic Virus Movement Protein with VPg and P10: Implication to Specificity of Genome Recognition". PLoS ... deformed wing virus, acute bee paralysis virus, Drosophila C virus, Rhopalosiphum padi virus, and Himetobi P virus. Several ... This family includes Infectious flacherie virus and SeIV-1 virus. Another virus is Nora virus from Drosophila melanogaster. ... Bovine rhinitis A virus Bovine rhinitis B virus Equine rhinitis A virus Foot-and-mouth disease virus Genus: Aquamavirus ...
Methods are also available for making 3D reconstructions of helical samples (such as tobacco mosaic virus), taking advantage of ... These viruses infect fish and other aquatic animals. The reconstruction has high enough resolution to have amino acid side ... "3.3 A cryo-EM structure of a nonenveloped virus reveals a priming mechanism for cell entry". Cell. 141 (3): 472-82. doi:10.1016 ... typically proteins or other large biological entities such as viruses. Individual images of stained or unstained particles are ...
Movement Protein of Tobacco Mosaic Virus Modifies Plasmodesmatal Size Exclusion Limit Science 20 October 1989: Vol. 246. no. ...
... s have been found in the cauliflower mosaic virus, rotavirus, vaccinia virus and the rice dwarf virus. These appear ... The viroplasm could also prevent virus degradation by proteases and nucleases. In the case of the Cauliflower mosaic virus ( ... Virus factories of Cauliflower mosaic virus are virion reservoirs that engage actively in vector-transmission. 2013 journal of ... Xiong; Muller, S; Lebeurier, G; Hirth, L (1982). "Identification by immunoprecipitation of cauliflower mosaic virus in vitro ...
Family Caulimoviridae - e.g. Cauliflower mosaic virus. *Family Hepadnaviridae - e.g. Hepatitis B virus ... Such viruses are either single stranded RNA (e.g. HIV) or double stranded DNA (e.g. Hepatitis B virus) viruses. ... Genus Betaretrovirus; type species: Mouse mammary tumour virus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2018b Release" (html). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2019. Retrieved 16 March ...
... (BMV) is a small (28 nm, 86S), positive-stranded, icosahedral RNA plant virus belonging to the genus ... The alphavirus-like superfamily includes more than 250 plant and animal viruses including Tobacco mosaic virus, Semliki forest ... Sacher, R.; Ahlquist, P. (1989). "Effects of deletions in the N-terminal basic arm of brome mosaic virus coat protein on RNA ... Portion of thesis entitled Characterization of Brome Mosaic Virus RNA3 interaction with GCD10, a tRNA binding host factor from ...
The first virus to be discovered (see below) was Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). This and other viruses cause an estimated US$60 ... Generally TMV, potato viruses and cucumber mosaic viruses are transmitted via sap. Plant viruses need to be transmitted by a ... Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) are frequently used in plant molecular biology. Of special ... Plant viruses are viruses that affect plants. Like all other viruses, plant viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that ...
"African Cassava Mosaic Virus: Etiology, Epidemiology, and Control" Plant Disease Vol. 74(6): 404-11. ...
... it was not until Wendell Stanley first crystallized tobacco mosaic virus in 1935 that the non-cellular nature of viruses was ... In virus classification, influenza viruses are RNA viruses that make up four of the seven genera of the family Orthomyxoviridae ... These viruses are only distantly related to the human parainfluenza viruses, which are RNA viruses belonging to the ... The virus has the potential to infect humans, although no such cases have been observed yet.[7] This virus has not been found ...
Mosaic evolution. *Multicellularity. *Sexual reproduction *Gamete differentiation/sexes. *Life cycles/nuclear phases ...
The role of viruses[edit]. Genes borrowed from viruses have recently been identified as playing a crucial role in the ... Mosaic evolution. *Multicellularity. *Sexual reproduction *Gamete differentiation/sexes. *Life cycles/nuclear phases ... The first is syncytin, which came from a virus. The second identified in 2007 is called EFF1, which helps form the skin of ... Slezak, Michael (2016), "No Viruses? No skin or bones either" (New Scientist, No. 2958, 1 March 2014) p.16 ...
Talk:Alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein binding (CPB) RNA. *Talk:Alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 1 5' UTR stem-loop ... Pages in category "Low-importance virus articles". The following 200 pages are in this category, out of approximately 1,493 ... Retrieved from "" ... Talk:Bamboo mosaic virus. *Talk:Bamboo mosaic virus satellite RNA cis-regulatory element ...
"Mosaic retroposon insertion patterns in placental mammals". Genome Research. 19 (5): 868-75. doi:10.1101/gr.090647.108. PMC ...
Wasik, Bill; Murphy, Monica (2013). Rabid: A Cultural History of the World's Most Diabolical Virus. New York: Penguin Books. ... in a vault covered in depictions of his accomplishments in Byzantine mosaics.[153] ... The primary cause is currently thought to be viruses.[57] The spread of flacherie could be accidental or hereditary. Hygiene ... Pasteur produced the first vaccine for rabies by growing the virus in rabbits, and then weakening it by drying the affected ...
Mosaic evolution. *Multicellularity. *Sexual reproduction *Gamete differentiation/sexes. *Life cycles/nuclear phases ...
Viri[uredi , uredi kodo]. *↑ Wilfried Koch, Umetnost stavbarstva, MK 1999, ISBN 86-11-14124-5 ... Anthony Cutler on the economic history of Byzantine mosaics, wall-paintings and icons; at Dumbarton Oaks. ...
"Virus Bulletin. Retrieved 8 June 2019.. *^ Segura, Jérôme (29 November 2017). "Persistent drive-by cryptomining coming to a ...
In 1952, Watson performed X-ray diffraction on tobacco mosaic virus and found results indicating that it had helical structure ... In 1956, Crick and Watson speculated on the structure of small viruses. They suggested that spherical viruses such as Tomato ... Bernal's Lab at Birkbeck College with the tobacco mosaic virus extending ideas on helical construction.[35] ... Morgan GJ (February 2003). "Historical review: viruses, crystals and geodesic domes". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 28 (2): ...
Agagawa na iti kapamilatan ning metung a mosaic da reng makabukud a cell a bibilug milyun-milyung mangalatiktik at misna ... ing pasari da reng impeksyon king bagáng ibat kareng bacteria ampong virus. ...
One of the most serious viruses pertaining to vegetation is the Cucumber mosaic virus. In the passion fruit, this virus appears ... VirusesEdit. Passion fruit woodiness virus is one of the most well-known viruses to the passion fruit. It belongs to the ... The virus is spread by sap-sucking insects such as aphids and mites. Woodiness can also spread through vegetation propagation ... There is no chemical control for this virus once the plant is infected, but the use of clean planting material can reduce its ...
This involves using a non-infectious virus to shuttle a gene into a part of the retina. Recombinant adeno-associated virus ( ... At the centre of the macula is the foveal pit where the cones are narrow and long, and, arranged in a hexagonal mosaic, the ... Though the rod and cones are a mosaic of sorts, transmission from receptors, to bipolars, to ganglion cells is not direct. ... Dinculescu Astra; Glushakova Lyudmyla; Seok-Hong Min; Hauswirth William W (2005). "Adeno-associated virus-vectored gene therapy ...
... mosaic virus Glycine mosaic virus Pea green mottle virus Pea mild mosaic virus Quail pea mosaic virus Radish mosaic virus Red ... virus Bean pod mottle virus Bean rugose mosaic virus Broad bean stain virus Broad bean true mosaic virus Cowpea mosaic virus ... Broad bean wilt virus 1 Broad bean wilt virus 2 Cucurbit mild mosaic virus Gentian mosaic virus Lamium mild mosaic virus Genus ... mosaic virus Potato black ringspot virus Potato virus U Raspberry ringspot virus Tobacco ringspot virus Tomato black ring virus ...
Wilson, J. Matthew (October 22, 2007). From Pews to Polling Places: Faith and Politics in the American Religious Mosaic. ... human immunodeficiency virus, and sexually transmitted infections: two systematic reviews for the Guide to Community Preventive ...
Mosaic evolution. *Multicellularity. *Sexual reproduction *Gamete differentiation/sexes. *Life cycles/nuclear phases ...
Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is a small (28 nm, 86S), positive-stranded, icosahedral RNA plant virus belonging to the genus ... The alphavirus-like superfamily includes more than 250 plant and animal viruses including Tobacco mosaic virus, Semliki forest ... Sacher, R.; Ahlquist, P. (1989). "Effects of deletions in the N-terminal basic arm of brome mosaic virus coat protein on RNA ... Portion of thesis entitled Characterization of Brome Mosaic Virus RNA3 interaction with GCD10, a tRNA binding host factor from ...
There exists a satellite virus to panicum mosaic virus. Although little is known about the satellite panicum mosaic virus, the ... Because of the change in disease virulence to the main viral pathogen, panicum mosaic virus and satellite panicum mosaic virus ... The synergistic effect of panicum mosaic virus and satellite panicum mosaic virus on millet cultivars is rapidly developed ... thus it depends entirely on panicum mosaic virus for replication and systemic movement in the host plant. Panicum mosaic virus ...
Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), which has occurred in tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum) in the United States (Clinton, 1909; Allard ... Mosaic Virus Coat Protein Tobacco Mosaic Virus Tomato Crop Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus These keywords were added by ... Brunt A.A. (1986) Tomato Mosaic Virus. In: Van Regenmortel M.H.V., Fraenkel-Conrat H. (eds) The Plant Viruses. The Viruses. ... Ainsworth, G. C., 1937, Enation mosaic of tomato caused by a virus of the tobacco virus 1 type, Ann. Appl. Biol. 24:545. ...
Domain: Viruses • Group: Group IV viruses • Familia: Virgaviridae • Genus: Tobamovirus • Species: Tobacco mosaic virus ... Satellite tobacco mosaic virus rendering produced by VMD and Tachyon.jpg 2,048 × 2,048; 1,005 KB. ... Media in category "Tobacco mosaic virus". The following 25 files are in this category, out of 25 total. ... TMV virus super resolution microscopy Christoph Cremer Christina Wege.jpg 588 × 275; 22 KB. ...
... is one of the most common plant viruses, causing yellow mottling, distorted leaves and stunted growth in a wide range of garden ... Pelargonium viruses. Plant viruses. Raspberry viruses. Strawberry viruses. Sweet pea viruses. Tomato viruses. Tulip viruses ... Cucumber mosaic virus. Back to all plant problems. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is one of the most common plant viruses, causing ... What is Cucumber mosaic virus?. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is one of the most common plant viruses and causes a wide range of ...
"Nucleotide sequence of the genome of eggplant mosaic tymovirus.". Osorio-Keese M.E., Keese P., Gibbs A.. Virology 172:547-554( ...
Nucleotide sequence of tobacco mosaic virus RNA. P Goelet, G P Lomonossoff, P J Butler, M E Akam, M J Gait, and J Karn ... Oligonucleotide primers have been used to generate a cDNA library covering the entire tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) RNA sequence. ...
a retrovirus causing mosaic disease in members of the nightshade family. Abbr.: TMV ...
Shortly after the first purification of virus by Stanley (1935), structural studies were... ... has become a classical object for studies on the structure and assembly of viruses. ... Coat Protein Tobacco Mosaic Virus Polymorphic Form Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus These ... Hirth, L., and Richards, K. E., 1981, Tobacco mosaic virus: Model for structure and function of a simple virus, Adv. Virus Res ...
The disease is caused by different strains of Barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) and Barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV). It ... Yellow mosaic virus disease leads to substantial losses - up to 50 % of the yield - in susceptible barley varieties (Hordeum ... Variants of the gene lead to resistance against all agents known to cause yellow mosaic virus disease in Europe. ...
Marilia Santos Silva discovered that some tobacco plants die if a virus infects them, whereas others survive. ... she could follow the virus infection through the plant. In plants infected by the cowpea mosaic virus, the leaves become yellow ... Viruses spread more quickly through the vascular system than from cell to cell. Santos Silva discovered that the cowpea mosaic ... Tobacco plant refuses cowpea mosaic virus. Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research. Funder. Netherlands Organisation ...
The tobacco mosaic virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the genus tobamovirus, the genus that specifically ... Tobacco Mosaic Virus because of its ability to reproduce in the tobacco plants. The tobacco mosaic virus was the first virus ... The tobacco mosaic virus was the first virus to be discovered(1). In 1982, Dmitri Ivanovsky suggested that there was a non- ... The tobacco mosaic virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the genus tobamovirus, the genus that specifically ...
Crystal structure of turnip yellow mosaic virus.. Canady, M.A., Larson, S.B., Day, J., McPherson, A.. (1996) Nat Struct Biol 3 ... The structure of turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) has been solved to 3.2 A resolution and an R-value of 18.7%. The structure ... The structure of turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) has been solved to 3.2 A resolution and an R-value of 18.7%. The structure ... Preliminary X-Ray Diffraction Analysis of Crystals of Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus (Tymv). Canady, M.A., Day, J.,& ...
... the virus can persist for years in the soil. Mosaic virus is spread by contact -- by gardeners, visitors, or insects. It would ... What are the symptoms of tobacco mosaic virus, how does the disease spread, is there a possiblity of a tobacco chewer starting ... Symptoms of a virus infection include light and dark green mottled areas on the leaves, unusual leaf thickening, stunting, and ... Although the virus doesnt usually kill plants, it can reduce yields dramatically, and if affected plants are allowed to remain ...
... of the circular double-stranded DNA of cauliflower mosaic virus has been established. The DNA molecule is known to possess ... Nucleotide sequence of cauliflower mosaic virus DNA Cell. 1980 Aug;21(1):285-94. doi: 10.1016/0092-8674(80)90136-1. ... The complete nucleotide sequence (8024 nucleotides) of the circular double-stranded DNA of cauliflower mosaic virus has been ...
... Mike Ryan msryan at Mon Oct 30 08:14:02 EST 1995 *Previous ... for the detection of Cucumber Mosaic virus? Thank you. *Previous message: Plant Viruses with Fungal Vectors: Meeting and WWW ...
infected with Tobacco mosaic virus.. TMV was the first virus to be discovered over a century ago and was the first virus ever ... Tobacco mosaic virus. Scholthof, K-B.G. 2000. Tobacco mosaic virus. The Plant Health Instructor. DOI: 10.1094/PHI-I-2000-1010- ... APS , Education , Introductory , Plant Disease Lessons , Viruses and Viroids , Tobacco mosaic virus ... Symptoms induced by Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) are somewhat dependent on the host plant and can include mosaic, mottling ( ...
Euphorbia mosaic virus (EuMV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Geminiviridae. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: ...
Primula mosaic virus (PrMV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Potyviridae. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: ... Primula mosaic virus Family Groups - The Baltimore Method v t e. ...
Zucchini yellow mosaic virus isolate BR2, complete genome Zucchini yellow mosaic virus isolate BR2, complete genome. gi, ...
Malvastrum yellow mosaic Jamaica virus is a species of Viruses in the family Geminiviridae. ...
Okra Mosaic Virus Antiserum] Application: Test animal used: rabbit Host Plant: Nicotiana benthamiana Plant research ... Okra mosaic virus (ATCC® PVAS-512™) Classification: Tymovirus / Strain: Ibadan / Product Format: freeze-dried ... Related viruses: Clitoria Yellow Vein, Belladona Mottle, Desmodium Yellow Mottle, and Cocoa Yellow Mosaic ... Okra mosaic virus ATCC ® PVAS-512™ Designation: Ibadan [ ... Okra mosaic virus ATCC® PVAS-512™ freeze-dried For-Profit: $ ...
... she could follow the virus infection through the plant. In plants infected by the cowpea mosaic virus, the leaves become yellow ... Viruses spread more quickly through the vascular system than from cell to cell. Santos Silva discovered that the cowpea mosaic ... Santos Silva discovered that the cowpea mosaic virus could not penetrate the vascular system of some tobacco plants. In the ... Knowledge about how viruses spread within plants could lead to strategies for obtaining virus-resistant plants. The research ...
... antiserum to Radish mosaic virus Application: The antiserum was made against the neo-type strain of Radish mosaic virus. Test ... animal used: rabbit Recommended dilution for ELISA: 1:5,000 Host Plant from which virus was purified: tendergreen mustard Plant ... Radish mosaic virus (ATCC® PVAS-138™) Classification: Comovirus / Strain: Neo-type. / Product Format: frozen ... The antiserum was made against the neo-type strain of Radish mosaic virus. ...
Viruses. › Riboviria. › Orthornavirae. › Pisuviricota. › Stelpaviricetes. › Patatavirales. › Potyviridae. › Potyvirus. › ... Soybean mosaic virus (strain G2) (SMV). ›Soybean mosaic virus G2. Rank i. - ...
apple latent virus 2 chenopodium mosaic virus chenopodium seed-borne mosaic virus chenopodium star mottle virus ... Sowbane mosaic virus (SoMV) is a pathogenic plant virus, infecting potato and grapevine. Infected species present chlorotic ... This plant virus article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Retrieved from "" ...
Regnum: Virus. Group IV: ssRNA(+) Ordo: - Familia: Tombusviridae Genus: Gallantivirus Species: Galinsoga mosaic virus ... Retrieved from "" ...
East African cassava mosaic virus-Uganda (EACMV-UG) and African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) reported for the first time in ... Cassava mosaic virus disease in Uganda: the current pandemic and approaches to control. In: Cassava mosaic virus disease in ... Cassava mosaic virus disease in Uganda: the current pandemic and approaches to control. In: Cassava mosaic virus disease in ... They are: East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV; Hong et al., 1993), East African cassava mosaic Malawi virus (EACMMV; Zhou ...
Regnum: Virus. Group IV: ssRNA(+) Ordo: Tymovirales Familia: Alphaflexiviridae Genus: Potexvirus Species: Plantago asiatica ... Retrieved from "" ...
TOMATO: Cucumber Mosaic(Cucumber mosaic virus/aphids ) Photo 1 courtesy of R. Provvidenti, NYAES Geneva. Photo 2 courtesy of T.A. Zitter, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. << Previous Photo , Next Photo>> Link to the Important New York Vegetable Diseases Factsheet. Link to Photo Gallery of Important New York Tomato Diseases. Link to Virus Diseases and Disorders of Tomato Fact sheet. ...
  • The alphavirus-like superfamily includes more than 250 plant and animal viruses including Tobacco mosaic virus, Semliki forest virus, Hepatitis E virus, Sindbis virus, and arboviruses (which cause certain types of encephalitis). (
  • Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is a small (28 nm, 86S), positive-stranded, icosahedral RNA plant virus belonging to the genus Bromovirus, family Bromoviridae, in the alphavirus-like superfamily. (
  • Panicum mosaic virus is the type species of the genus Panicovirus, a member of the plant virus family Tombusviridae. (
  • The tobacco mosaic virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the genus tobamovirus, the genus that specifically affects the family Solanaceae and belongs to the family Virgaviridae. (
  • TMV is the type member of a large group of viruses within the genus Tobamovirus . (
  • African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) is a member of the genus Begomovirus in the family Geminiviridae . (
  • Abutilon mosaic virus is a part of the Geminivirus/Geminiviridae family and Begomovirus genus. (
  • Viruses in this genus have a insect vector transmission cycle. (
  • Abutilon mosaic virus has 321 peers in Begomoviruses Genus. (
  • Summary.Konjak mosaic virus (KoMV) belongs to the genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae. (
  • Chinese wheat mosaic virus (CWMV, genus Furovirus, family Virgaviridae) infecting wheat releases one vsiRNA (denoted as vsiRNA-20) capable of down-regulating a VP transcript (Yang et al. (
  • In this study, we report the development of a VOX vector based on a monopartite single-stranded positive sense RNA virus, Foxtail mosaic virus (genus Potexvirus ). (
  • Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is the type member of the genus Cucumovirus , family Bromoviridae , which infects over 800 plant species and causes economically important diseases of many crops worldwide ( 18 ). (
  • The virus is composed of 2130 copies of a small coat protein (158 amino acids) wrapped around a single-stranded RNA molecule of 6000 nucleotides. (
  • Aaron Klug worked out the mechanism of assembly based on the demonstration by Fraenkel-Conrat and Williams (1955) that purified coat protein and purified RNA could be mixed and spontaneously reassembled to form active virus particles [See Citation Classic from Oct. 26, 2007]. (
  • Later, Fraenkel-Conrat mixed and matched coat protein and RNA from different viruses and used the hybrids to infect plant cells. (
  • He showed that the new viruses always had the properties of the RNA and not the coat protein, demonstrating that the genetic material was the RNA and not the protein. (
  • Transgenic plants that express the coat protein genes of tobacco mosaic virus or alfalfa mosaic virus interfere with disease development of some nonrelated viruses. (
  • The identity of the virus associated with the disease symptoms in garlic mustard was further confirmed by reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) using a pair of primers designed from an available TuMV coat protein (CP) genomic sequence (NC_002509) to generate a 463-bp amplicon. (
  • Antibodies raised against the 126K nonstructural protein (replicase) encoded by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) RNA or the viral coat protein have been used to localize these proteins within virus-infected tobacco leaf cells by an immunogold labeling technique. (
  • When utilizing the coat protein antiserum, very little labeling was seen within the viroplasms, although virus particles throughout the cytoplasm were heavily labeled. (
  • Alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV) RNAs 1 and 2 with deletions in their 3′ non‑translated regions (NTRs) have been previously shown to be encapsidated into virions by coat protein (CP) expressed from RNA3, indicating that the 3′ NTRs of RNAs 1 and 2 are not required for virion assembly. (
  • Cloned cDNAs representing the coat protein gene of the virus have been sequenced. (
  • An unusual feature at the N-terminal end of the coat protein of Maize dwarf mosaic virus isolated in Hungary. (
  • RNA-free virus-like particles (eVLPs) can be generated by transiently co-expressing the RNA-2-encoded coat protein precursor (VP60) with the RNA-1-encoded 24K protease, in the absence of the replication machinery (Saunders et al. (
  • Protection of transgenic plants expressing the coat protein gene of watermelon mosaic virus II or zucchini yellow mosaic virus against six potyviruses. (
  • Although little is known about the satellite panicum mosaic virus, the pathogen is believed to play a role in the infection process because when combined with panicum mosaic virus, the satellite virus causes symptoms to appear earlier in the growing season and results in a more severe infection. (
  • Symptoms of St. Augustine Decline Syndrome on St. Augustine Grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum) are mild green mosaics in addition to mottling and streaking of leaves. (
  • Symptoms of panicum mosaic virus on millet-without its satellite virus-are slight chlorosis and mild stunting. (
  • Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is one of the most common plant viruses and causes a wide range of symptoms, especially yellow mottling, distortion and stunting. (
  • What are the symptoms of tobacco mosaic virus, how does the disease spread, is there a possiblity of a tobacco chewer starting an outbreak? (
  • Symptoms of a virus infection include light and dark green mottled areas on the leaves, unusual leaf thickening, stunting, and sometimes distorted, fernlike foliage. (
  • Symptoms induced by Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) are somewhat dependent on the host plant and can include mosaic, mottling ( Figures 1 and 2 ), necrosis ( Figures 3 and 4 ), stunting, leaf curling, and yellowing of plant tissues. (
  • The symptoms are very dependent on the age of the infected plant, the environmental conditions, the virus strain, and the genetic background of the host plant. (
  • whole plant, showing Cassava mosaic symptoms. (
  • 1977 ). The virus was momentarily named as cassava latent virus (CLV) because its sap inoculation into Nicotiana clevelandii did not produce symptoms in this herbaceous host ( Bock et al. (
  • 1978 ). Following the molecular characterization of CLV ( Stanley and Gay, 1983 ), the virus was successful sap-inoculated onto N. benthamiana and cassava and typical CMD symptoms produced ( Bock and Woods, 1983 ) thus fulfilling Koch's postulates and prompting a name change from CLV to ACMV. (
  • The symptoms of rose mosaic virus are quite variable, usually appear in spring and remain throughout the growing season. (
  • Symptoms seen with this virus include leaf mosaic or mottling hence the name. (
  • In the summer of 2011 and spring of 2012, plants of the invasive weed species Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) were observed in two locations in St. Paul, MN, with virus-like symptoms consisting of conspicuous mosaic (Fig. 1A) and severe stunting. (
  • Inoculum prepared from systemically infected leaves of N. benthamiana was then used to inoculate 12 healthy garlic mustard seedlings which all developed systemic mosaic symptoms 2 to 3 weeks post-inoculation, and became progressively stunted and chlorotic (Fig. 1B). (
  • In contrast, the Minnesota TuMV Alliaria isolate readily infected and produced distinct mosaic symptoms in both turnip ( B. rapa ssp. (
  • B ) stunting and mosaic symptoms in inoculated plant at left, healthy plant at right. (
  • Since plants do not have a complete immune system, once infected, the leaves can show mosaic symptoms or even deformities and the growth can also be chronically diseased, which makes tobacco mosaic virus is very difficult to control ( Hu and Lee, 2015 ). (
  • Hello Claire, I don't know where you can find any decent photos, it could be Cucumber Mosaic Virus, but from what you have described, it does not sound as if your cucumber plants are showing any of the classic symptoms yet. (
  • Cassava plant showing symptoms of the African Cassava Mosaic Disease (ACMD) transmitted by whiteflies. (
  • Bean common mosaic virus causes common mosaic symptoms that appear as a light green-yellow and dark green mosaic pattern developing on the trifoliolate leaves. (
  • Virus-like symptoms were recently observed on leaves of landscape and nursery downy and star jasmine ( Jasminum multiflorum ) and wax jasmine ( J. gracile ) in southeast Florida. (
  • V10 is composed of two mild variants of the pepino mosaic virus (VX1 and VC1), so it offers twofold protection against the various symptoms of the virus. (
  • They can attenuate or exacerbate the symptoms induced by the helper viruses in specific plant hosts. (
  • In tobacco, however, D-satRNA and WL1-satRNA attenuate symptoms, whereas minor nucleotide sequence variants of the B-satRNA either attenuate symptoms or induce chlorosis in a helper virus-specific manner (reviewed in García-Arenal and Palukaitis, 1999 ). (
  • Santos Silva discovered that the cowpea mosaic virus could not penetrate the vascular system of some tobacco plants. (
  • Plants from the tobacco species Nicotiana benthamiana died when the researchers infected a leaf of the plant with cowpea mosaic virus. (
  • Santos Silva discovered that the cowpea mosaic virus could even penetrate the vascular system via the existing channel connections without enlarging them. (
  • In plants infected by the cowpea mosaic virus, the leaves become yellow and rot, and the plant gradually dies. (
  • The Cowpea mosaic virus is a plant mosaic virus of the comovirus group. (
  • Infection of a cowpea leaf results in high virus yields (1-2 g/kg). (
  • Despite the fact that CMV has only 19% capsid protein sequence identity (34% similarity) to cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), the core structures of these two members of the Bromoviridae family are highly homologous. (
  • A remarkable similarity was demonstrated between the structure of CMV and that of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), another member of the Bromoviridae . (
  • Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus and cucumber mosaic virus causing mosaic disease on asparagus bean (Vigna sesquipedalis) in Korea. (
  • Encapsidation of viral RNA in Picornavirales: studies on cowpea mosaic virus demonstrate dependence on viral replication. (
  • To elucidate linkage between replication and encapsidation in Picornavirales, we have taken advantage of the bipartite nature of the plant-infecting member of the order, cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), to decouple the two processes. (
  • The complete nucleotide sequence (8024 nucleotides) of the circular double-stranded DNA of cauliflower mosaic virus has been established. (
  • The topic of my research is the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV). (
  • The goal of my research is to identify as well as learn about the structure and function of the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus. (
  • We investigate this question with cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), a dsDNA virus that expresses its genome through the polycistronic 35S RNA, which carries an unusually extensive secondary structure known as translational leader. (
  • Recently researchers from the John Innes Centre (JIC) for plant research in Great Britain have again claimed that the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) promoter used to genetically modify virtually all of the transgenic crops now marketed or being tested for marketing has been proven to be safe for human consumption because humans have been consuming virus infected crucifers for a long time. (
  • Here, we show that cauliflower mosaic virus ( CaMV ) MP contains three tyrosine-based sorting signals that interact with an Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) μA-adaptin subunit. (
  • Here, we focus on this second group of tubule-forming MP s and examine the intracellular trafficking of cauliflower mosaic virus ( CaMV ) MP . (
  • Of four severe BYMV isolates tested, isolate 724 yielded the highest amount of partially purified virus. (
  • Use of isolate 724 cultured in C. amaranticolor resulted in a high yield of extractable virus. (
  • Complete nucleotide sequence and analysis of the putative polyprotein of maize dwarf mosaic virus genomic RNA (Bulgarian isolate). (
  • Panicum mosaic virus (PMV) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA viral pathogen that infects plant species in the Panicoid tribe of the grass family Poaceae. (
  • The disease most commonly associated with the panicum mosaic virus pathogen is St. Augustine Decline Syndrome, which infects species of turf grass and causes chlorotic mottling. (
  • CMV is vectored by several aphid species which feed on a broad range of plants and this contributes to the very wide host range of this virus. (
  • Malvastrum yellow mosaic Jamaica virus is a species of Viruses in the family Geminiviridae . (
  • ACMV was the first of 10 recognized and one tentative begomovirus species characterized from cassava plants affected by cassava mosaic disease (CMD). (
  • After this latency period, the infected adult whiteflies begin to transmit the virus when they feed on the next Abutilon species. (
  • [7] Speaking from an evolutionary standpoint, whiteflies are a sound vector selection because they feed on many types of plant species giving the virus the best opportunity to be transmitted to many plants. (
  • As its name implies, TMV is a plant virus that infects tobacco and related species. (
  • The virus is transmitted by several species of aphids, and also, in alfalfa plants, by pollen into the seeds. (
  • Based on genomic organization and biological characteristics, it was proposed that the American SBWMV, CWMV, European SBCMV, and Japanese SBWMV are four strains of the same virus species. (
  • Unassigned virgaviruses, with indication of virus species, number of genes, host and country of origin. (
  • Rapid and cost-effective virus-derived transient expression systems for plants are invaluable in elucidating gene function and are particularly useful in plant species for which transformation-based methods are unavailable or are too time and labor demanding, such as wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) and maize ( Zea mays ). (
  • The virus-mediated overexpression (VOX) vectors based on Barley stripe mosaic virus and Wheat streak mosaic virus described previously for these species are incapable of expressing free recombinant proteins of more than 150 to 250 amino acids, are not suited for high-throughput screens, and have other limitations. (
  • New hosts and taxonomic analysis of the Mississippi native species tested for reaction to maize dwarf mosaic and sugarcane mosaic viruses. (
  • Plantago asiatica mosaic virus (PlAMV) was described four decades ago from the weedy species Plantago asiatica in the Russian Far East, but has also been reported from lilies ( Lilium spp. (
  • Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has the broadest host range of any plant virus, being able to infect over 1200 plant species. (
  • Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a plant virus that attacks a number of species, including cucumbers and many other vining plants as well as tomatoes, potatoes and others. (
  • It is the most widely distributed plant virus in terms of possible affected species. (
  • Ahoonmanesh, A., and Shalla, T. A., 1981, Feasibility of cross-protection for control of tomato mosaic virus in fresh market field-grown tomatoes, Plant Dis . (
  • It would be possible, for example, for tomato plants to be infected with the virus after being touched by a person who smokes or chews or by contact with any form of tobacco. (
  • This virus also infects a wide range of other plants, including tomato, tobacco, pea and potato plants. (
  • Transfer of the 3' non-translated region of grapevine chrome mosaic virus RNA-1 by recombination to tomato black ring virus RNA-2 in pseudorecombinant isolates. (
  • The virus reacted specifically with IgG for Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and related tobamoviruses [including Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV)] in double antibody sandwich, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (
  • The domain connecting the N-terminal basic R domain to the β-barrel domain has been observed in the electron densities of the C subunits in several T=3 plant viruses, including southern bean mosaic virus ( 1 ) and tomato busy stunt virus ( 6 ). (
  • Cucumber mosaic virus can infect plants from over forty families, including vegetable crops like tomato, lettuce and spinach, flower crops like gladiolus, petunias, impatiens and rudbekia, and a wide variety of weeds. (
  • But now we have six other cucumber plants that look quite different, and this time I'm pretty confident that it is the cucumber mosaic virus… Problem: Cucumber Mosaic Virus Host Plants: Tomato, pepper, cucumber, melons, squash, spinach, celery, beets, and petunia. (
  • Description: The cucumber mosaic virus has one of the broadest host ranges of any of the tomato viruses. (
  • Their best-known product, V10, protects tomato plants against the highly damaging pepino mosaic virus. (
  • Thorben continues: "In 2006 we found a revolutionary and completely natural remedy against the pepino mosaic virus, which until then was accountable for substantial losses in tomato production. (
  • D satellite RNA (satRNA) with its helper virus, namely, cucumber mosaic virus, causes systemic necrosis in tomato. (
  • Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is an emerging pathogen that causes severe economic losses in tomato crops (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in the Northern hemisphere, despite persistent attempts of control. (
  • In fact, it is considered one of the most significant viral diseases for tomato production worldwide, and it may constitute a good model for the analysis of virus emergence in crops. (
  • Panicum mosaic virus is a plant disease that infects monocots by invading through mechanical wounds. (
  • During research carried out in the Netherlands, Marilia Santos Silva discovered that some tobacco plants die if a virus infects them, whereas others survive. (
  • Abutilon mosaic virus (AbMV) is a plant virus that infects evergreen upright shrubs, Abutilon striatum . (
  • Abutilon mosaic virus infects weeds, crops, and ornamentals. (
  • Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a positive-sense single stranded RNA virus that infects a wide range of plants, especially tobacco and other members of the family Solanaceae . (
  • Tobacco mosaic virus is a small rod-shaped RNA virus that infects crops related to tobacco, producing a green or white filiform appearance on the leaves. (
  • By linking this protein to the virus, she could follow the virus infection through the plant. (
  • The infection causes characteristic patterns, such as " mosaic "-like mottling and discoloration on the leaves (hence the name). (
  • The only other report of natural viral infection in garlic mustard in the US is the occurrence of Cucumber mosaic virus in this host in Ohio (4). (
  • The infection causes characteristic patterns, such as "mosaic"-like mottling and discoloration on the leaves. (
  • The cell-to-cell spread of Tobacco mosaic virus infection depends on virus-encoded movement protein (MP), which is believed to form a ribonucleoprotein complex with viral RNA (vRNA) and to participate in the intercellular spread of infectious particles through plasmodesmata. (
  • During infection, ER membranes aggregate to form inclusions that function as virus factories ( 42 , 86 ) or virus replication complexes ( 6 ) that contain vRNA in addition to replicase and MP ( 66 ). (
  • Encapsidation of the viral genome is an essential step in the life cycle of many plant viruses because efficient virus infection and spreading require production of virions. (
  • Hopefully, Price said, this will help determine environmental factors that prompt movement and allow researchers to inform producers of the likelihood of high wheat streak mosaic infection in any given year. (
  • Along with the new information and continued cultural practice of destroying volunteer wheat, we can help limit the risk of general wheat virus infection. (
  • Viral determinants involved in systemic infection of hosts by monocot-infecting plant viruses are poorly understood. (
  • These data suggest that CP amino acids 58-100 are required for systemic infection of oat by WSMV by specifically facilitating virus long-distance transport in oat. (
  • Because of the change in disease virulence to the main viral pathogen, panicum mosaic virus and satellite panicum mosaic virus are believed to cause synergistic effects to their hosts. (
  • Because panicum mosaic virus pathogen cannot create its own wound in a host plant, the pathogen must survive until a wound is formed by living epiphytically on its future host or in plant debris. (
  • In regard to pathogen composition, there are two characteristic components of panicum mosaic and its related panicum satellite mosaic viruses. (
  • From replication testing, it is believed the 109S component is the panicum mosaic pathogen and the 42S component of the pathogen is the panicum satellite virus because the 109S component replicates independently while 42S cannot replicate without the presence of the 109S component. (
  • It is the first pathogen identified as a virus. (
  • Among these pathogens, Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is the most prevalent and destructive viral pathogen in soybean production worldwide ( Hill and Whitham, 2014 ). (
  • Samples from virus infected maize were collected from different part of Bulgaria and employed test plants, ELISA serological method and RT-PCR in order to identify the viral pathogen. (
  • Bean common mosaic (BCMV) ( Potyvirus Bean Common Mosaic Virus ) is a viral pathogen. (
  • These virus particles are very stable and, at some point when the cells are broken or the leaf dries up, they are released to infect new plants. (
  • 6 of the 18 displayed systemic mosaic chlorosis and leaf curling. (
  • Tobacco mosaic lesions on a leaf. (
  • The photomicrograph illustrated below is a medium-magnification phase contrast image of a stained thin section of a tobacco mosaic virus-infected tobacco leaf. (
  • In this research of study, we aimed to identify tobacco mosaic virus proteins and healthy tobacco leaf proteins by using machine learning approaches. (
  • In cells of TMV-infected leaf tissue, the 126K protein immunogold label was found almost exclusively in "viroplasms" in the cytoplasm and in pockets of virus particles at the viroplasmic periphery. (
  • Symptom s of African cassava mosaic virus disease occur as characteristic leaf mosaic patterns that affect discrete areas and are determined at an early stage of leaf development. (
  • Symptom s vary from leaf to leaf, shoot to shoot and plant to plant, even of the same variety and virus strain in the same locality. (
  • Rod-shaped particles (297 x 18 nm) similar to tobamoviruses were observed in partially purified virus preparations, and in leaf dips from symptomatic star jasmine and indicator plants. (
  • Once TMV enters the cell, the virus particles disassemble in an organized manner to expose the TMV RNA. (
  • Coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of virus particles (virions) of the alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV). (
  • Electron microscopy showed that the modal length of the virus particles directly from local lesions was 750 nm, while the modal length of particles in the most purified DG fraction was 680 nm. (
  • No other virus-like particles were observed. (
  • These particles were trapped and decorated by antibodies to Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), but not by antibodies to Clover yellow vein virus , Potato virus Y , Tobacco etch virus , and Watermelon mosaic virus , four potyviruses that are known to occur in weed and ornamental plant hosts in Minnesota. (
  • The 24 kDa N-terminally extended CP may be incorporated into virus particles, as it has been detected in purified CWMV virions. (
  • Clusters of virus particles at the edge of or within the viroplasms were also labeled with the 126K antiserum, in contrast to virus particles in other areas of the cell, which were not. (
  • Here, a single-step highly selective biocatalytic functionalization approach is described, providing a general platform for virus-acrylate hybrid particles. (
  • Once the virus has infected the cell, two pathways are possible: either the virus becomes latentand the infected cell continues to function, or the virus becomes active and replicates, and a large number of virus particles are liberated that can then infect other cells. (
  • If TMV virus particles exist on the clothing of a worker and that clothing comes in contact with a susceptible host, transmission of the virus to the crop could take place. (
  • The viral DNA is transcribed releasing both messenger RNA for making virus components and RNA copies of the viral chromosome that are translocated to the cytoplasm where the RNA copies of the viral chromosome are packaged in virion like particles. (
  • Within the virion like particles the RNA is reverse transcribed to make the viral DNA that is released from the plant cell in the mature virus (reviewed in Poogin et al 1998). (
  • Nucleotide sequence of the genome of eggplant mosaic tymovirus. (
  • The genome organization of Soybean mosaic virus . (
  • This plant virus is an alfamovirus, and has an RNA (ribonucleic acid) genome. (
  • Like other plant viruses, TMV encodes a movement protein (MP) that interacts with Pd and facilitates the intercellular passage of its genome ( 28 , 39 , 64 ). (
  • Because of its close serological relationship to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), ToMV is still often considered to be a strain of TMV (e.g. (
  • The antiserum was made against the neo-type strain of Radish mosaic virus. (
  • It's either a strain thats too hard for me to grow, or a case of the virus. (
  • Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus Marne strain (SBWMV-Mar) was isolated from barley cv. (
  • Portion of thesis entitled Characterization of Brome Mosaic Virus RNA3 interaction with GCD10, a tRNA binding host factor from yeast. (
  • The sequence similarities of RNA replication genes and strategies for BMV have been shown to extend to a wide range of plant and animal viruses beyond the alphaviruses, including many other positive-strand RNA viruses from other families. (
  • The cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 2b protein not only inhibits anti-viral RNA silencing but also quenches transcriptional responses of plant genes to jasmonic acid, a key signalling molecule in defence against insects. (
  • When CaMV genes are inserted into the DNA of the plant chromosome those genes may recombine with infecting CaMV virus. (
  • Wintermantel and Schoelz (1996) found that recombination was observable in every plant when virus invaded transgenic plants with CaMV genes inserted on plant chromosome. (
  • When Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Col-0 was inoculated with a series of reassortant viruses created by exchanging viral genomic RNAs between two strains of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), CMV(Y), and CMV(H), cell death developed in the leaves inoculated with reassortant CMV carrying CMV(H) RNA1 encoding 1a protein, but not in noninoculated upper leaves. (
  • Structure of Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) (PDB 1F15) from the family Bromoviridae. (
  • Foxtail millet (Setaria italica), white proso millet (Panicum miliaceum) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) have also been used to propagate PMV and panicum mosaic satellite virus (SPMV), and mechanical transmission can occur to maize and some cultivars of common wheat (Triticum aestivum). (
  • PMV is serologically related to Molina streak virus and Maize mild mottle virus. (
  • The vector allowed the expression of a 239-amino acid-long GFP in both virus-inoculated and upper uninoculated (systemic) leaves of wheat and maize and directed the systemic expression of a larger approximately 600-amino acid protein, GUSPlus, in maize. (
  • Electron micrograph of Maize mosaic virus (MMV, Rhabdoviridae) in the accessory salivary gland of the insect vector Peregrinus maidis (planthopper, Hemiptera, Delphacidae). (
  • A neurotropic route for Maize mosaic virus (Rhabdoviridae) in its planthopper vector Peregrinus maidis. (
  • Assembly and accumulation sites of Maize mosaic virus in its planthopper vector. (
  • Maize dwarf mosaic is the most widespread virus disease affecting corn production in Hungary and Bulgaria. (
  • Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) was detected in all tested samples. (
  • Serological relatedness of strains of maize dwarf mosaic and sugarcane mosaic viruses as determined by microprecipitin and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. (
  • Studies on maize mosaic in Bulgaria. (
  • Taxonomy of potyviruses infecting maize, sorghum, and sugarcane in Australia and the United States as determined by reactivities of polyclonal antibodies directed towards virus-specific N-termini of coat proteins. (
  • Purification and serology of maize dwarf mosaic and sugarcane mosaic viruses. (
  • Maize mosaic or stripe. (
  • Aggregates of maize mosaic virus (MMV, Rhabdoviridae) in cells from hemolymph of the insect vector Peregrinus maidis (planthopper, Hemiptera, Delphacidae). (
  • El-Desouky Ammar, Saskia A. Hogenhout, L. R. Nault (2011) CIL:25366, Maize mosaic virus, Peregrinus maidis, hemocyte (sensu Nematoda and Protostomia). (
  • Electron micrograph of Maize mosaic virus (MMV, Rhabdoviridae) in midgut epithelial cells of the insect vector Peregrinus maidis (planthopper, Hemiptera, Delphacidae). (
  • a retrovirus causing mosaic disease in members of the nightshade family. (
  • Until now, identification of the OAS in the tripartite Alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV), a member of the Bromoviridae family, has been elusive. (
  • Number of members according to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) as of January 2020. (
  • Many of the positive-strand RNA viruses that belong to the alphavirus family share a high degree of similarity in proteins involved in genomic replication and synthesis. (
  • Satellite panicum mosaic virus cannot produce its own replication nor movement proteins, thus it depends entirely on panicum mosaic virus for replication and systemic movement in the host plant. (
  • Once the virus has successfully invaded the plant, panicum mosaic virions spread through the plant by producing three proteins (p8, p6.6, and p15) as part of their capsids. (
  • Since microinjected MP spreads rapidly between cells ( 77 , 103 ) and plants themselves encode proteins thought to be functionally analogous to viral MPs ( 65 , 108 ), the function of MP may directly reflect mechanisms of macromolecular Pd transport in normal plants which are exploited by viruses for the movement of their genomes. (
  • Transient in planta expression systems using plant virus-mediated overexpression (VOX) vectors can provide the rapid production of heterologous recombinant proteins. (
  • Many plant viruses and primarily those with (+)-sense single-strand (ss) RNA genomes have been cloned and modified to express foreign peptides and proteins in planta. (
  • Rubella virus is an enveloped positive-strand RNA virus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE: Virions are composed of three structural proteins: a capsid and two membrane-spanning glycoproteins, E2 and E1. (
  • The rubella virus (RV) structural proteins: capsid, E2, and E1 are synthesized as a polyprotein precursor. (
  • Unexpected sequence diversity in the amino-terminal ends of the coat proteins of strains of sugarcane mosaic virus. (
  • Yellow mosaic virus disease leads to substantial losses - up to 50 % of the yield - in susceptible barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare). (
  • The disease is caused by different strains of Barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) and Barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV). (
  • Variants of the gene lead to resistance against all agents known to cause yellow mosaic virus disease in Europe. (
  • The TMV disease cycle and its epidemiology are intimately related because the virus is completely dependent on the host for replication and spread. (
  • Fig mosaic is a viral disease believed to be carried by eriophyid mites (Aceria fici). (
  • I have mosaic disease on my green beans in a raised garden. (
  • Although it was known from the late 19th century that an infectious disease was damaging tobacco crops, it was not until 1930 that the infectious agent was determined to be a virus. (
  • Avoid this disease by purchasing certified virus-free plants. (
  • An RNA virus that causes mosaic disease in tobacco and some other plants and is widely used in research in virology and genetics. (
  • As the Society emerged as a distinct entity in the first decade of the 20th century, viruses were also making their mark as newly described and discovered agents of disease. (
  • The disease is characterized by leaves that are mottled with yellow, white, and light or dark green spots and streaks (in other words, a "mosaic" of these colors). (
  • Tobacco is one of the important economic crops in our country, however, the existence of tobacco mosaic disease has greatly reduced the yield and quality of tobacco. (
  • Texas AgriLife Research scientists are studying wheat streak mosaic virus, the most prevalent disease in southwest wheat. (
  • Wheat streak mosaic virus is the most prevalent disease in the southwestern wheat producing region of the U.S., according to a Texas AgriLife Research scientist. (
  • Like many other plant RNA viruses, Dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV) is an important and conspicuous viral disease of ornamental and edible aroids throughout the South Pacific and worldwide, but its population diversity and variability are poorly understood. (
  • African cassava mosaic virus is the most important virus disease of cassava, but total losses are extremely difficult to estimate. (
  • We had to remove three cucumber plants because they seemed to have some sort of disease that we thought was the cucumber mosaic virus. (
  • The disease, cucumber mosaic, is caused by the Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). (
  • Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is probably the most widely distributed and important virus disease of cucurbits in New York. (
  • Color enhanced Transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). (
  • In vitro transcripts of a full-length cDNA of a naturally deleted RNA2 of barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV) replicate in BaMMV-infected plants. (
  • Plant viruses share many of the characteristics of those that infect animals, though they do not cross infect (plant viruses only infect plants). (
  • A virus can quickly and completely infect a plant by spreading through the plant's vascular system. (
  • It has since yielded fascinating insights into how viruses infect their hosts. (
  • All of the mosaic viruses can also infect weeds in the cucurbit family. (
  • Identification and distribution of cucumber- infecting viruses in the jiroft greenhouses and partial characterization of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus collected from this region. (
  • Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is one of the most common plant viruses, causing yellow mottling, distorted leaves and stunted growth in a wide range of garden plants, not just cucumbers. (
  • Up until now, a lack of appropriate technology made it difficult to study how viruses spread through the vascular system of plants. (
  • Knowledge about how viruses spread within plants could lead to strategies for obtaining virus-resistant plants. (
  • Beijerinck initially called it 'contagium vivium fluidium' and later on coined the term ' virus ' to indicate that the infectious agent was of non-bacterial and non-capsular nature and thus was named 'Tobacco Mosaic Virus' because of its ability to reproduce in the tobacco plants. (
  • Although the virus doesn't usually kill plants, it can reduce yields dramatically, and if affected plants are allowed to remain in the garden, the virus can persist for years in the soil. (
  • Some gardeners will actually exclude all tobacco and people who handle it from the garden, but in any case remove infected plants and burn them, control surrounding weeds, wash your hands and tools with detergent, use fresh soil and clean equipment for seedlings or if you purchase them be sure they are virus free, grow resistant varieties. (
  • The virus can also contaminate seed coats, and the plants germinating from these seeds can become infected. (
  • All control plants tested negative for the virus. (
  • Once plants are infected with a virus, they can not be treated to eradicate the virus. (
  • Because no chemical controls exist to treat fig mosaic virus as of April 2013, Purdue University's agricultural experts suggest removing and destroying affected fig trees to prevent spreading the virus to your other landscape plants. (
  • I am worried that the virus could infest the other plants in my landscape. (
  • Tobacco mosaic virus ( TMV ) can be spread from many plants to tomatoes. (
  • Fortunately rose mosaic virus does not spread from infected to healthy rose plants in the garden. (
  • This means you can leave virus infected plants in the garden until their poor growth and flowering make them undesirable. (
  • 1987b) demonstrated that transgenic tobacco plants expressing the AMV CP gene were resistant to two strains of AMV but were susceptible to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). (
  • Although induction of RNA silencing by RNA viruses has been well documented in plants, the interactions between DNA viruses and the host silencing machinery remain poorly understood. (
  • 02% of plants with Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV). (
  • Several examples of intercellular and long-distance RNA movement have been described for higher plants, and of these, RNA viruses have become the subject of extensive investigation with regard to the molecular mechanisms that govern intercellular macromolecular trafficking ( 40 ). (
  • In general, cell death in virus-infected plants is a critical event for virus survival because virus multiplication is completely dependent on host cell metabolism. (
  • Cell death resulting from incompatible interactions between viruses and plants has been described as necrotic local lesions , and that occurring in compatible interactions as necrotic cell death [ 6 , 7 ]. (
  • Differentiation and Distribution of Cordyline Viruses 1-4 in Hawaiian ti Plants ( Cordyline fruticosa L. (
  • Here, we constructed various mutants by deleting sequences within the 3′ NTR of AlMV subgenomic (sg) RNA4 (same as of RNA3) and examined the effect of these deletions on replication and translation of chimeric Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) expressing AlMV sgRNA4 from the TMV CP sg promoter (Av/A4) in tobacco protoplasts and Nicotiana benthamiana plants. (
  • Wait to see what develops because if it is Cucumber Mosaic Virus you will have to destroy the plants, as the virus is not treatable. (
  • Hello Fiona, Courgette plants are also susceptible to Cucumber Mosaic Virus, but don't throw the plant away until you are sure. (
  • Virus and Virus-like Diseases of Crop Plants. (
  • Establishing the host plants of the virus. (
  • Leaves that are distorted by the virus cannot function normally, so plants struggle to grow and stop gaining size. (
  • This seed-borne virus can easily spread from a contaminated seeds to seedlings and to adjacent plants through mechanical contact of the foliage of diseased and healthy plants causing extensive yield losses. (
  • Crystallization of mutants of Turnip yellow mosaic virus protease/ubiquitin hydrolase designed to prevent protease self-recognition. (
  • Factors limiting effective extraction and purification of bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) were investigated. (
  • How is Zucchini yellow mosaic virus abbreviated? (
  • 1984a) y del mosaico amarillo del zapallo italiano ( Zucchini yellow mosaic virus , ZYMV) (Lisa & Lecoq 1984) son importantes limitaciones para la produccion de melon en Costa Rica (Rivera et al. (
  • Retention and transmission characteristics of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus by Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae). (
  • Freedom II carries an inserted gene for a protein found in the watermelon mosaic virus 2 (WMV2) and the zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV). (
  • Viruses include Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) and PRSV were found infecting cucurbits. (
  • First report of Papaya ringspot virus-type W and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus infecting Trichosanthes cucumerina in Brazil. (
  • Its wide distribution in the region is primarily due to the use infected planting material, the widespread presence of the vector (Bemisia tabaci) and the use of traditional local varieties that are susceptible to the virus. (
  • Cassava (Manihot esculenta ) and castor bean ( Ricinus communis ) are the two major hosts of African cassava mosaic virus. (
  • Mosaic virus overwinters on perennial weeds and is spread by insects that feed on them. (
  • Testing by the Department of Primary Industry has revealed some weeds on some of the quarantined properties are hosting the virus. (
  • Members of Tombusviridae are transmitted as positive sense single-stranded non-enveloped RNA viruses, with an icosohedral capsid. (
  • Abutilon mosaic virus has a circular, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) structure that readily recombines and mutates. (
  • Lentiviruses are transmitted as single-stranded, positive-sense, enveloped RNA viruses. (
  • Even if virus infected crucifers could be prepared and consumed as dietary treats the fact is that the behavior and potential hazard of the CaMV promoter in transgenic crops is unrelated to the replication and behavior of the virus in the plant cell. (
  • It is simply unreasonable to maintain that the the integrated CaMV promoter in transgenic crops behaves the same way in the virus replication cycle as it does in the chromosome of the transgenic crop. (
  • CaMV is a pararetrovirus which means that it transmitted as a double stranded DNA virus that replicates using reverse transcription of RNA into DNA. (
  • In CaMV replication the infecting virus enters the plant cell then transfers a copy of the viral DNA to the plant cell nucleus where it forms a nuclear plasmid that very rarely (possibly never) integrates into the chromosome. (
  • They believed that most observed recombination occurred in the cytoplasm during reverse transcription and that there was little chance for recombination between invading virus and CaMV transgenes on the chromosome. (
  • Altogether, these results demonstrate that CaMV MP traffics in the endocytic pathway and that virus viability depends on functional host endomembranes. (
  • Poquonock was also selected for the dominant hypersensitive gene for resistance to tobacco mosaic virus derived from Nicotiana glutinosa L. (
  • Genetic resistance to tobacco mosaic virus , cyst nematodes, root-knot nematodes, and wildfire from Nicotiana repanda incorporated into N. (
  • Virus Research 242 (2017) 37-42. (
  • I read that a mite or aphids carry the virus and bite into tree,but it your trees are strong and healthy these bugs can't sink their teeth in, so to speak. (
  • Viruses can be transfered through pests like aphids, white flies, etc ot failure to clean tools cutting from plant to plant. (
  • It is transmitted in a non-persistent manner by aphids and thus vector control is a key component of control strategies against this virus. (
  • The virus overwinters in many perennial weed sources especially attractive to aphids when weed growth resumes in the spring. (
  • Present status of sugarcane mosaic subgroup of potyviruses. (
  • Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) is a re-emerging threat to greenhouse cucumber and other Cucurbitaceae crop production worldwide. (
  • the amiRNA targets were fully conserved in all three isolates, indicating virus replication on some transgenics was not a result of mutational escape by the virus. (
  • To further investigate this virus, phylogenetic and population genetics based methods were used to investigate the temporal and spatial dynamics of the evolutionary mechanism and genetic variability among the DsMV isolates. (
  • Analysis of DsMV isolates on a temporal scale suggested the role of stochastic or selection-fitness levels are the key mechanisms in the dynamics of plant virus population genetics and evolution. (
  • There are no cures for viral diseases such as mosaic once a plant is infected. (
  • Mosaic diseases. (
  • This is the first report of FMV in a non-fig host, Cyclamen persicum , a finding that may help in the control of the mosaic and mosaic-like diseases of fig and cyclamen, respectively. (
  • There are other diseases of concern, but wheat streak mosaic is always found somewhere in this wheat growing region, and every couple of years, we have an epidemic of it,' Rush said. (
  • Plant virus diseases. (
  • Grass is collected from the fields and the wheat curl mites are washed out and tested individually to determine if they are carrying the wheat streak mosaic and triticum mosaic viruses. (
  • During virus assembly, the capsid interacts with genomic RNA to form nucleocapsids. (
  • Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) is a persistent threat to wheat production, necessitating novel approaches for protection. (
  • The virus poses a new threat to the wheat production and required development of new bio-security practices. (
  • The widespread occurrence of the virus and its vector, the potential major impacts on yield, and the impracticality of managing the mites add to the priority of breeding virus-resistant varieties and developing alternative methods of virus control through development of virus-resistant transgenic wheat. (
  • In a separate study, Price planted an area of a wheat field in July and allowed it to become infested with the virus-carrying mites. (
  • When whiteflies first contract AbMV there is a 12 hour window that must elapse before it can transmit the virus to plant hosts. (
  • Chenopodium amarantciolor, a local lesion host of BYMV, yielded more virus than the systemically infected hosts evaluated. (
  • It is a multifunctional protein that is also a symptom determinant as well as playing a crucial role in local and systemic movement of the virus through its hosts. (
  • Cucumber Mosaic virus detection kit. (
  • Does anyone know if there is a commercial kit available, preferably a Laboratory Immunological based kit, for the detection of Cucumber Mosaic virus? (
  • To date, there have been no reports of Dalmatian toadflax serving as a host for cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). (
  • Protein 2b in cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is regarded as a strong suppressor of PTGS. (
  • Hi, I was wondering whether you could point me in the direction of some good photos of leaves with cucumber mosaic virus? (
  • I was wondering if I had cucumber mosaic virus on my courgette as well. (
  • Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is an important virus because of its agricultural impact in the Mediterranean Basin and worldwide, and also as a model for understanding plant-virus interactions. (
  • Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) can cause severe losses in vegetables, legumes, and ornamentals. (
  • Like other plant viruses, cucumber mosaic virus interferes with genetic signalling within the plant. (
  • Cucumber leaves afflicted with various stages of Cucumber mosaic virus A mosaic virus is any virus that causes infected plant foliage to have a mottled appearance. (
  • But the most common symptom of this virus is a light- and dark-green mosaic pattern on the leaves. (
  • The localization of MP with ER membranes is consistent with results of several studies indicating that ER membranes act as sites for virus replication and virus protein synthesis ( 6 , 42 , 76 ). (
  • The satRNAs are dependent on CMV for their replication, encapsidation, and dispersion, but they are not necessary for the life cycle of the virus. (
  • Last year, 10 properties were quarantined in three zones near Katherine, to minimise the spread of Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus (CGMMV). (
  • The P30 movement protein of tobacco mosaic virus is a single-strand nucleic acid binding protein. (
  • The P30 protein of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is required for cell to cell movement of viral RNA, which presumably occurs through plant intercellular connections, the plasmodesmata. (