Mosaic Viruses: Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.Cucumovirus: A genus of plant viruses of the family BROMOVIRIDAE, which infect cucurbits and solanaceous plants. Transmission occurs via aphids in a non-persistent manner, and also via seeds. The type species Cucumber mosaic virus, a CUCUMOVIRUS, should not be confused with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, a TOBAMOVIRUS.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Caulimovirus: A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.Comovirus: A genus of plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE in which the bipartite genome is encapsidated in separate icosahedral particles. Mosaic and mottle symptoms are characteristic, and transmission is exclusively by leaf-feeding beetles. Cowpea mosaic virus is the type species.Tobacco Mosaic Virus: The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Plant Viral Movement Proteins: Viral proteins that facilitate the movement of viruses between plant cells by means of PLASMODESMATA, channels that traverse the plant cell walls.Bromovirus: A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Tymovirus: A genus of plant viruses, in the family TYMOVIRIDAE, possessing a narrow host range that includes CRUCIFERAE. Transmission occurs by BEETLES and mechanical inoculation.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Potyvirus: A large genus of plant viruses of the family POTYVIRIDAE which infect mainly plants of the Solanaceae. Transmission is primarily by aphids in a non-persistent manner. The type species is potato virus Y.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Potexvirus: A genus of plant viruses in the family FLEXIVIRIDAE, that cause mosaic and ringspot symptoms. Transmission occurs mechanically. Potato virus X is the type species.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Cucumber Mosaic Virus Satellite: A satellite RNA (not a satellite virus) which has several types. Different cucumoviruses can act as helper viruses for different types.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Potyviridae: A family of RNA plant viruses with flexuous, filamentous particles and consisting of six genera: POTYVIRUS; Ipomovirus; Macluravirus; Rymovirus; Tritimovirus; and Bymovirus. All members of the family form cytoplasmic cylindrical inclusion bodies during infection.Chenopodium quinoa: A species of the Chenopodium genus which is the source of edible seed called quinoa. It contains makisterone A and other STEROIDS, some having ECDYSTEROID activity on insects.Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA, Satellite: Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)Tombusviridae: A family of RNA plant viruses infecting dicotyledons. Transmission is mainly by mechanical inoculation and through propagative plant material. All species elicit formation of multivesicular inclusion bodies. There are at least eight genera: Aureusvirus, Avenavirus, CARMOVIRUS, Dianthovirus, Machlomovirus, Necrovirus, Panicovirus, and TOMBUSVIRUS.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Manihot: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that is perennial with conspicuous, almost palmate leaves like those of RICINUS but more deeply parted into five to nine lobes. It is a source of a starch after removal of the cyanogenic glucosides. The common name of Arrowroot is also used with Maranta (MARANTACEAE). The common name of yuca is also used for YUCCA.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Geminiviridae: A family of plant viruses where the VIRION possesses an unusual morphology consisting of a pair of isometric particles. Transmission occurs via leafhoppers or whitefly. Some viruses cause economically important diseases in cultivated plants. There are four genera: Mastrevirus, Curtovirus, Topocuvirus, and BEGOMOVIRUS.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Sasa: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. Folin is the water-soluble extract from Sasa albomarginata. Sasa kurinensis is an ingredient of Sho-ju-sen, a Japanese herbal medicine.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Cucurbita: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Satellite Viruses: Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.Alfalfa mosaic virus: The type species of the genus ALFAMOVIRUS that is non-persistently transmitted by aphids.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Panicum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Tobacco mosaic satellite virus: A spherical RNA satellite virus which requires an obligatory helper TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS for replication.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Begomovirus: A genus of plant viruses in the family GEMINIVIRIDAE that are transmitted in nature by whitefly Bemisia tabaci.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Citrullus: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE known for the edible fruit.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Cucumis sativus: A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Virus Latency: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Malvaceae: The mallow family of the order Malvales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. Members include GOSSYPIUM, okra (ABELMOSCHUS), HIBISCUS, and CACAO. The common names of hollyhock and mallow are used for several genera of Malvaceae.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses that produce tumors.Ilarvirus: A genus of the family BROMOVIRIDAE which infects mainly woody plants. Species are divided into ten subgroups. Tobacco streak virus is the type species.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Mumps virus: The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.Plasmodesmata: Membrane-like channels of cytoplasm connecting adjacent plant cells. Plasmodesmata connect through pores in the CELL WALL and associate with the CYTOSKELETON machinery. They are essential for intercellular transport and communication.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Avian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.BK Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.Nepovirus: A genus of polyhedral plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE causing ringspots and spotting on leaves or sometimes symptomless infection. Transmission occurs by seeds, soil nematodes, or experimentally by mechanical inoculation. Tobacco ringspot virus is the type species.Carica: A plant genus of the family Caricaceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is the source of edible fruit and PAPAIN.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Viruses, Unclassified: Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.JC Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.Helper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Avian leukosis virus: The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.3' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Sesbania: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain piperidine alkaloids (PIPERIDINES).Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Bluetongue virus: The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.Tobamovirus: A genus of plant viruses in which the virion is a rigid filament. Transmission is by mechanical inoculation or seed. The type species is TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Trifolium: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Sendai virus: The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.Alfamovirus: A genus of the family BROMOVIRIDAE with a wide host range. Transmission is by aphids and the type species is ALFALFA MOSAIC VIRUS.Moloney murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.GlucuronidaseProtein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Yellow fever virus: The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.Brassica napus: A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.Carmovirus: A genus in the family TOMBUSVIRIDAE mostly found in temperate regions. Some species infecting legumes (FABACEAE) are reported from tropical areas. Most viruses are soil-borne, but some are transmitted by the fungus Olpidium radicale and others by beetles. Carnation mottle virus is the type species.Luteoviridae: A family of RNA plant viruses infecting disparate plant families. They are transmitted by specific aphid vectors. There are three genera: LUTEOVIRUS; Polerovirus; and Enamovirus.Luteovirus: A genus of plant viruses that infects both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Its organisms are persistently transmitted by aphids, and weeds may provide reservoirs of infection.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.Myxoma virus: The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.Capsicum: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates VANILLOID RECEPTORS. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.Cowpox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Cucumis melo: A plant species of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae known for the melon fruits with reticulated (net) surface including cantaloupes, honeydew, casaba, and Persian melons.Variola virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human: The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.Chenopodiaceae: The goosefoot plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes beets and chard (BETA VULGARIS), as well as SPINACH, and salt tolerant plants.Lassa virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.Brassica rapa: A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.RNA Helicases: A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.Chikungunya virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.Norwalk virus: The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Chimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.Encephalitis Viruses: A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.RNA Caps: Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.DNA Virus Infections
Physical and functional heterogeneity in TYMV RNA: evidence for the existence of an independent messenger coding for coat protein. (1/667)Turnip yellow mosaic virus RNA can be separated into two distinct components of 2 times 10(6) and 300 000 daltons molecular weight after moderate heat treatment in the presence of SDS or EDTA. The two species cannot have arisen by accidental in vitro degradation of a larger RNA, as they both possess capped 5' ends. Analysis of the newly synthesized proteins resulting from translation of each RNA by a wheat germ extract shows that the 300 000 molecular weight RNA can be translated very efficiently into coat protein. When translated in vitro the longer RNA gave a series of high molecular weight polypeptides but only very small amounts of a polypeptide having about the same mass as the coat protein. Thus our results suggest that the small RNA is the functional messenger for coat protein synthesis in infected cells. (+info)
Complete sequence and genome properties of Chinese wheat mosaic virus, a new furovirus from China. (2/667)The complete nucleotide sequence of a virus infecting winter wheat in Shandong province, China has been determined. This was previously thought to be soil-borne wheat mosaic virus but, while the two viruses are related, they are only 75% (RNA1) and 63% (RNA2) identical at the nucleotide level, while the amino acid sequences share from 62% (19 kDa RNA2 product) to 84% (RNA1 replicase) identity. The analysis shows that the Chinese virus should be considered a new member of the genus Furovirus and has been named Chinese wheat mosaic virus (CWMV). A Cys-Gly ... Cys-Gly-X-X-His amino acid pattern was identified in the cysteine-rich protein of CWMV and those of several other plant virus genera, which seems likely to have some functional significance. (+info)
The sCYMV1 hairpin ribozyme: targeting rules and cleavage of heterologous RNA. (3/667)The catalytic center of the RNA from the negative strand of the satellite RNA of chicory yellow mottle virus type 1 (sCYMV1) is in the hairpin ribozyme family, has catalytic activity, and cleaves substrates before a preferred GUA sequence. This is different from that of the satellite RNA from the negative strand of tobacco ringspot virus (sTRSV) which prefers a GUC sequence at the site of cleavage. The sCYMV1 hairpin ribozyme has now been developed for cleaving heterologous RNA substrates. When helix 1 was extended from the native 5 bp to 6 bp with a newly added A:U base pair, catalytic activity increased three-fold. The preferred sequence for the substrate loop was the native A*GUA sequence where * is the site of cleavage. When each nucleotide in this sequence was changed to each of the other three nucleotides, catalytic activity decreased 66-100%. RNA targets, containing this A*GUA sequence, were located in both human papillomavirus and HIV-1. Ribozymes were developed which efficiently cleaved these targets in vitro. These results identify a new class of hairpin ribozymes capable of cleaving substrates before a preferred GUA sequence rather than the GUC preferred by the sTRSV hairpin ribozyme. This expands the repertoire of target sites available for gene therapy using the hairpin ribozyme. (+info)
Rapid generation of genetic heterogeneity in progenies from individual cDNA clones of peach latent mosaic viroid in its natural host. (4/667)Viroids, small single-stranded circular RNAs endowed with autonomous replication, are unique systems to conduct evolutionary studies of complete RNA genomes. The primary structure of 36 progeny variants of peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd), evolved from inoculations of the peach indicator GF-305 with four individual PLMVd cDNAs differing in their pathogenicity, has been determined. Most progeny variants had unique sequences, revealing that the extremely heterogeneous character of PLMVd natural isolates most probably results from the intrinsic ability of this RNA to accumulate changes, rather than from repeated inoculations of the same individual trees under field conditions. The structure of the populations derived from single PLMVd sequences differed according to the observed phenotype. Variant gds6 induced a reproducible symptomatic infection and gave rise to a more uniform progeny that preserves some parental features, whereas variant gds15, which induced a variable phenotype, showed a more complex behaviour, generating two distinct progenies in symptomatic and asymptomatic individual plants. Progenies derived from variants esc10 and Is11, which incited latent infections, followed a similar evolutionary pattern, leading to a population structure consisting of two main groups of variants, one of which was formed by variants closely related to the parental sequence. The evolution rate exhibited by PLMVd, considerably higher than that reported for potato spindle tuber viroid, may contribute to the fluctuating symptomatology of the severe PLMVd natural isolates. However, the polymorphism observed in PLMVd progenies does preserve some structural and functional elements previously proposed for this viroid, supporting the fact that they act as constraints limiting the genetic divergence of PLMVd quasispecies generated de novo. (+info)
Sequences of European wheat mosaic virus and oat golden stripe virus and genome analysis of the genus furovirus. (5/667)The complete nucleotide sequences of both RNAs of oat golden stripe virus (OGSV) and a wheat-infecting furovirus isolate from France, previously thought to be soil-borne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV), have been determined. Both viruses had a similar genomic organisation to SBWMV and Chinese wheat mosaic virus, the two other furoviruses previously sequenced but had <70% nucleotides identical to them. The French isolate has been named European wheat mosaic virus (EWMV). Phylogenetic analyses supported the recognition of these isolates as distinct viruses in the genus Furovirus. Analysis of the coat protein readthrough domain on RNA2 of all furoviruses strongly predicts two mutually compatible conserved transmembrane domains that may be significant for fungus transmission. The second of these regions is eliminated by a deletion in the isolate of OGSV studied. Leaky opal (UGA) stop codons occur on both RNAs of all four furoviruses characterised and, in common with most other leaky opal codons identified in plant viruses, they are followed by a CGG codon. (+info)
Structural fingerprinting: subgrouping of comoviruses by structural studies of red clover mottle virus to 2.4-A resolution and comparisons with other comoviruses. (6/667)Red clover mottle virus (RCMV) is a member of the comoviruses, a group of picornavirus-like plant viruses. The X-ray structure of RCMV strain S has been determined and refined to 2.4 A. The overall structure of RCMV is similar to that of two other comoviruses, Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) and Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV). The sequence of the coat proteins of RCMV strain O were modeled into the capsid structure of strain S without causing any distortion, confirming the close resemblance between the two strains. By comparing the RCMV structure with that of other comoviruses, a structural fingerprint at the N terminus of the small subunit was identified which allowed subgrouping of comoviruses into CPMV-like and BPMV-like viruses. (+info)
Quasi-elastic behavior of solutions of viral capsid and RNA at very low shearing stresses. (7/667)By the application of shearing stresses on the order of 10(-3) dyne cm-2 (10(-2) muN cm-2), via the magnetic viscodensimeter, extremely high relative viscosities (greater than 500) were observed when turnip yellow mosaic virus was degraded in alkali into its capsid and RNA. The solutions, however, possessed a watery consistency at this stage and exhibited a quasi-elastic character by rotor-recoil experiments. The development of this curious behavior was concentration and temperature dependent; it was not seen less than 0.5% nor at 8 degrees, and appeared sooner at 30 degrees than at 20 degrees. The time of appearance was delayed as the pH was lowered; however, the effect was still observed when the pH was as low as 9. Whereas reversibility was demonstrated when the shearing stresses exceeded the elastic resistance [0.17 dyne cm-2 (1.7 muN CM-2)], thorough mixing usually resulted in a normal behavior of the solutions thereafter. Values for the modulus of rigidity at 20 degrees for about 1% virus concentration was less than 2 X 10(-2) dyne cm-2 rad-1 (0.2 muN cm-2 rad-1), which, while extremely small, was reproducible. A porous structure, possibly involving a capsid and RNA complex, is envisioned. (+info)
A gene cluster encoded by panicum mosaic virus is associated with virus movement. (8/667)A subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) of about 1500 nucleotides has been detected in millet plants and protoplasts infected with panicum mosaic virus (PMV). This sgRNA expressed p8, p6.6, p15, and the 26-kDa capsid protein (CP) genes during in vitro translation assays, as determined by using mutants inactivated for expression of each open reading frame. Abolishing expression of p8 and p6.6, the two 5'-proximal genes on the sgRNA, did not affect the replication of PMV in millet protoplasts, but obstructed spread in plants. As predicted for a typical cell-to-cell movement protein, p8 localized to the cell wall fraction of PMV-infected millet plants. The introduction of premature stop codons downstream of the PMV p15 start codon (p15*) abolished infectivity in planta, but did not impair replication in protoplasts. However, a delayed systemic infection in millet plants was supported by the p15aug(-) start codon mutant, which may reflect very low levels of expression from a suboptimal start codon context and/or leaky scanning to a second inframe AUG codon to express the C-terminal portion of the 15-kDa protein. PMV CP mutants had little effect on sgRNA accumulation, but were correlated with a reduction of the gRNA and the decreased expression of the 8-kDa protein in protoplasts as well as abolishment of cell-to-cell spread in plants. These results imply that the successful establishment of a PMV systemic infection in millet host plants appears to be dependent on the concerted expression of the p8, p6.6, p15, and CP genes. (+info)
Southern bean mosaic virus ATCC ® PVAS-298™
Inheritance of Resistance to Cowpea Aphid-Borne Mosaic Virus and Southern Bean Mosaic Virus in Cowpea. Vigna Unguiculata S. SP....
Abstract: The mode of inheritance of resistance to cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CAMV) and southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) was determined in the following cowpea (Vigna unguiculata s.sp. unguiculata (L) Walp) varieties: A44/2, TVu 222, TVu 612 all resistant to CAMV and TVu 1948, which is resistant to both CAMV and SBMV. Crosses were made between each of the resistant varieties and C20-55, a cowpea variety susceptible to CAMV and SBMV. The parents, FI, F2, B1 and B2 progenies of each cross were raised in the greenhouse and inoculated with the appropriate virus. The results showed that two recessive genes control resistance to CAMV in A44/2, a single dominant gene controls resistance to the same virus in TVu 222, while a single recessive gene was responsible for resistance in each of the varieties TVu 612 and TVu 1948. Results of allelic tests among the F1 and F2 progenies of crosses among A44/2, TVu 612, and TVu 222 indicated that each of them possesses different genes for resistance to ...
A Non-capsid Protein Associated with Unencapsidated Virus RNA in Barley Infected with Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus | Microbiology...
Summary Barley tissue with an acute systemic infection of barley stripe mosaic virus contained a large amount of unencapsidated virus RNA which was stable in extracts made in ribosome isolation buffer. The virus RNA in ribosome preparations sedimented in a broad band at 80S to 100S in sucrose gradients, which is less than the virion sedimentation rate of 180S to 200S. A protein of apparent M r 60000, which sedimented with the virus RNA, was present in ribosome extracts from infected plants but absent from those from uninfected plants. The protein is probably a virus protein because its apparent molecular weight varied slightly with the strain of virus. The structure containing the M r 60000 protein did not sediment in sucrose gradients in a compact zone as would be expected for a particle of uniform size. The M r 60000 protein was present at a concentration equal to or slightly higher (up to 400 µg/g leaf tissue) than the unencapsidated virus RNA (up to 300 µg/g leaf tissue). Sedimentation results
Endoplasmic reticulum export and vesicle formation of the movement protein of Chinese wheat mosaic virus are regulated by two...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endoplasmic reticulum export and vesicle formation of the movement protein of Chinese wheat mosaic virus are regulated by two transmembrane domains and depend on the secretory pathway. AU - Andika, Ida Bagus. AU - Zheng, Shiling. AU - Tan, Zilong. AU - Sun, Liying. AU - Kondo, Hideki. AU - Zhou, Xueping. AU - Chen, Jianping. PY - 2013/1/20. Y1 - 2013/1/20. N2 - The 37K protein of Chinese wheat mosaic virus (CWMV) belongs to the 30K superfamily of plant virus movement proteins. CWMV 37K trans-complemented the cell-to-cell spread of a movement-defective Potato virus X. CWMV 37K fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein localized to plasmodesmata and formed endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived vesicular and large aggregate structures. CWMV 37K has two putative N-terminal transmembrane domains (TMDs). Mutations disrupting TMD1 or TMD2 impaired 37K movement function; those mutants were unable to form ER-derived structures but instead accumulated in the ER. Treatment with Brefeldin A ...
Factors influencing Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus-mediated gene silencing in wheat - WRAP: Warwick Research Archive Portal
Virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a technology that has been used primarily to target the virus genome in infected plants. However, if the virus genome carries inserts derived from the host plant, the system could be employed to target the mRNAs corresponding to the host gene. Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus (BSMV), a disease of various cereals including barley and wheat, has been one of the successfully used viral RNA silencing tools in monocotyledonous plants for the last decade. In this study, we investigated several factors that play a significant role in VIGS. We tested the efficiency of silencing two genes simultaneously using the BSMV-induced gene silencing (IGS) system in detail. We found that two genes could be silenced simultaneously using BSMV-IGS. However, the silencing efficiency was found to be influenced by several factors including stability of the insert, temperature, and the accumulation of small viral RNAs from BSMV. The effect of these factors on VIGS system has been ...
Barley yellow mosaic virus
Dr. Detlef Förster. As Germanys association of technology- and patenttransfer agencies TechnologieAllianz e.V. is offering businesses access to the entire range of innovative research results of almost all German universities and numerous non-university research institutions. More than 2000 technology offers of 14 branches are beeing made accessable to businesses in order to assure your advance on the market. At www.technologieallianz.de a free, fast and non-bureaucratic access to all further offers of the German research landscape is offered to our members aiming to sucessfully transfer technologies.. ...
Number 1, January
Identification of the amino acid residues and domains in the cysteine-rich protein of Chinese wheat mosaic virus that are...
Bean Mosaic Virus Guide
New bean leaves may be small and stiff, and older leaves are puckered with curled edges. The colour on affected leaves becomes mottled with light and dark green patches. Blossom clusters become curled and distorted. If the plants produce pods, they are often kinked and mottled with shades of yellowish green.
Calories in Southern Beans & Greens (PCRM Kickstart) - Calorie, Fat, Carb, Fiber, and Protein Info | SparkRecipes
Full nutritional breakdown of the calories in Southern Beans & Greens (PCRM Kickstart) based on the calories and nutrition in each ingredient, including Chickpeas (garbanzo beans), Beans, black, Kale, Olive Oil, Pacific Natural Foods Organic Low Sodium Vegetable Broth, 1 cup and the other ingredients in this recipe.
Mosaics | PORCELANOSA
Mosaic Of Pain: MOP Comments (Page 10)
I have been a frequent visitor to this site for the past year and a half, but have never posted before. Ive learned a lot from the stories shared in here, primarily pertaining to situations that occurred at Mosaic prior to my joining them in Spring of 2006. A little over a month ago, I chose to leave Mosaic after finally coming to terms that its "community of faith, love and hope" didnt embrace me fully as a human being. While the reasons for my departure are not in any way like the ones described in this site, nevertheless the pain and hurt experienced in the process of leaving is. Im also quite familiar with the duality of Erwins personality (on stage vs off stage). That in itself, made me weary of him a long time ago, though I did fall victim to his charming persona in the beginning. There are a lot of things Im grateful to Mosaic. First, I came to Christ while at Mosaic. Also, it provided me with the opportunity to meet some quality human beings. In the two years at Mosaic, I managed to ...
RTBV has bacilliform particles of 30 nm diameter and usually about 130 nm length (Fig. 2). However, in some isolates longer particles in excess of 300 nm are found. The structure of the particles is based on a T 3 icosahedron cut across its threefold axis with the tubular portion being made up of rings of hexamer subunits and a repeat distance of about 10 nm. The particles have an S2ow of approximately 200 and a buoyant density in cesium chloride of approximately 1.36 g ml-1. Figure 2 Electron.... ...
Case study - Stump cross Caverns - Set in Stone Mosaics
Modern Mosaics | crayola.com
Gonadal Mosaic - PPMD Community
Gonadal Mosaic - PPMD Community
Artaic - Custom Mosaic Tile Made Simply Beautiful
How To Make A Mosaic (2) | Lama - Home Improvement and Repair
A Strange Sky: Chapter 1- Mosaic | A Very Lame Web Novel (yep)
Plant Disease 1983 | Reciprocal Contact Transmission of Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus Between Wild Oats and Barley
Contact transmissibility of barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) was examined in field plots using seed-infected plants of wild oats (Avena fatua), Herta barley (Hordeum distichum), and Conquest barley (H. vulgare) as virus sources and healthy plants of the same species as test material. The virus was transmitted by contract from wild oats to both Herta and Conquest barley but in reciprocal tests was transmitted only from Conquest barley to wild oats. The frequencies of contact transmission of BSMV in these tests were lower than the frequencies of contact transmission of the virus from infected to healthy plants of either Herta or Conquest barley. There was no evidence of contact transmission of BSMV from infected to healthy wild oats. Results obtained in this study support the notion that wild oats are involved in the epidemiology of BSMV in barley. ...
Mutational bias of Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus in the context of host anti-viral gene silencing - NERC Open Research Archive
Plant Dicer-like (DCL) enzymes exhibit a GC-preference during anti-viral post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), delivering an evolutionary selection pressure resulting in plant viruses with GC-poor genomes. However, some viruses, e.g. Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus (TYMV, genus Tymovirus) have GC-rich genomes, raising the question as to whether or not DCL derived selection pressure affects these viruses. In this study we analyzed the virus-derived small interfering RNAs from TYMV-infected leaves of Brassica juncea showed that the TYMV population accumulated a mutational bias with AU replacing GC (GC-AU), demonstrating PTGS pressure. Interestingly, at the highly polymorphic sites the GC-AU bias was no longer observed. This suggests the presence of an unknown mechanism preventing mutational drift of the viral population and maintaining viral genome stability, despite the host PTGS pressure.. ...
Expression of tobacco mosaic virus coat protein by a cauliflower mosaic virus promoter in plants transformed by Agrobacterium
Cauliflower mosaic virus - microbewiki
Cauliflower Mosaic Virus is classified as an icosahedral (20 sided) virus. This is because of the icosahedral shape of the capsid that surrounds the viral genome. This shape gives the virus 20 symmetrical triangular faces. This symmetry allows for synthesis efficiency by having the same small number of proteins being produced from a small number genes and from short chromosome sequences. This allows the largest and most complex capsid to be formed from the least amount of resources making it more efficient than a non-symmetrical capsid (Slonczewski). The structure of cauliflower mosaic virus is approximately 52 nanometers in diameter and is surrounded by 420 capsid proteins arranged in triangulation T=7 (P, Ashwathi). In addition to capsid proteins, caulimoviruses are also surrounded by virus associated proteins ("Caulimovirus."). These proteins are responsible for assisting in the binding of the virus to DNA on its c-terminal end ("InterPro."). The efficiency of the icosahedral structure allows ...
Loss and Gain of Elicitor Function of Soybean Mosaic Virus G7 Provoking Rsv1-mediated Lethal Systemic Hypersensitive Response...
Rsv1, a single dominant resistance gene in soybean PI 96983 (Rsv1), confers extreme resistance against all known American strains of Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), except G7 and G7d. SMV-G7 provokes a lethal systemic hypersensitive response (LSHR), whereas SMV-G7d, an experimentally evolved variant of …
Alfalfa mosaic virus - Wikipedia
AMV infects over 600 plant species in 70 families (experimental and natural hosts). Some hosts: potato (Solanum tuberosum), pea (Pisum sativum), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), bluebeard (Caryopteris incana), ... Symptoms vary from wilting, white flecks, malformation like dwarfing, ringspots, mottles, mosaics to necrosis depending on the virus strain, host variety, stage of growth at infection and environmental conditions. Signs of infection can persist or disappear quickly. The virus can be detected in each part of the host plant. The virions are mainly found in the cytoplasm of the infected plant (as inclusion bodies). Inclusions of Alfalfa mosaic virus In vitro AMV has a longevity of 1-4 days (sometimes much longer). Temperature and light are the environmental factors that have the greatest influence on the multiplication and movement of AMV in the plant and thus indirectly on the symptoms. Under low temperature the appearance of necrosis for example is less ...
Publication : USDA ARS
Citation: Fenwick, A., Larson, R.L., Reeves, P.A., Richards, C.M., Panella, L.W. 2007. Virus induced gene silencing of a gene repressing flowering in sugar beet. American Society of Sugarbeet Technologists. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Exposure to a prolonged cold period during winter is necessary for flowering in the next spring in many biennial plants - a process termed vernalization. We have described BvFL1, a vernalization gene in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), which is a repressor of flowering that is downregulated in response to cold. This gene is a homolog to the MADS-bx gene FLOWRING LOCUS C(FLC)found in Arabidopsis thaliana. Flowering time is a trait of critical agronomic importance, and an assessment of function at this key regulatory locus may present an opportunity to study (and control) flowering time as a tool in applied plant breeding efforts. Virus induced gene silencing constructs were engineered into a Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) vector for use in blocking ...
Difference between revisions of "Cauliflower mosaic virus" - microbewiki
Cauliflower mosaic virus has a very important function in biotechnology. It is because of its efficient promoter that is used to produce cloned genes, that it can be used to create transgenic plants that can take use of this efficiency. That is why now, 10% of cruciferous vegetables have a CaMV infection. In order to do this, genes can only be inserted in the minor coding regions or regions not necessary for virus production which include open reading frame II and open reading frame VII. If done correctly, the production of progeny viruses will not be affected. A use of this is to insert a dihydroxyl folatereductase gene so that the infected plant will be resistant to methotrexate which otherwise is very toxic to plants. Producing transgenic plants is done in order to gain benefits such as higher yield, resistance, quality and efficiency which would be hugely impactful to farmers who have been plagued by mosaic viruses and had to throw away a large percentage of their crop. There are ...
ID Y11775; SV 1; linear; genomic RNA; STD; VRL; 1194 BP
ID Y11775; SV 1; linear; genomic RNA; STD; VRL; 1194 BP. XX AC Y11775; XX DT 03-MAR-1998 (Rel. 54, Created) DT 03-MAR-1998 (Rel. 54, Last updated, Version 1) XX DE Peanut stripe virus RNA for NIb protein and coat protein, isolate 95/399 XX KW coat protein; NIb protein; nuclear inclusion b protein. XX OS Bean common mosaic virus strain peanut stripe OC Viruses; ssRNA viruses; ssRNA positive-strand viruses, no DNA stage; OC Potyviridae; Potyvirus. XX RN  RA Higgins C.M., Cassidy B.G., Teycheney P.Y., Wongkaew S., Dietzgen R.G.; RT ; RL Unpublished. XX RN  RP 1-1194 RA Higgins C.M.; RT ; RL Submitted (10-MAR-1997) to the INSDC. RL C.M. Higgins, Qld. Department of Primary Industries, Qld. Agricultural RL Biotechnology Centre, Level 4, Gehrmann Laboratories, The University of RL Queensland, St.Lucia, Qld. 4072, AUSTRALIA XX DR MD5; 16c18ef8c854fd0e451bf4f6361b8812. XX FH Key Location/Qualifiers FH FT source 1..1194 FT /organism="Bean common mosaic virus strain peanut stripe" FT /host="peanut" ...
Tobacco plant refuses cowpea mosaic virus
Viruses spread through a plant in two steps. The first step is from cell to cell within the inoculated leaf. However, as soon as the virus has reached a cell bordering the vascular system of the plant, it can also spread via the vascular system throughout the entire plant. To spread from cell to cell, the virus needs to enlarge existing channels connecting neighbouring cells by building up a tunnel to transport the virus from one cell into the other. This is because the natural channels connecting the cells are too narrow for the virus to pass through ...
Tobacco plant refuses cowpea mosaic virus | EurekAlert! Science News
In vitro Synthesis of a Segment of Bromegrass Mosaic Virus Ribonucleic Acid | Microbiology Society
Extracts of barley leaves infected with bromegrass mosaic virus (BrMV) incorporated radioactivity into RNA when incubated with [3H]UTP in the presence of actinomycin D (Semal & Kummert, 1970). The radioactive product thus obtained was partly resistant to pancreatic RNase in × 2:SSC (0.15 m-NaCl, 0.015 m-sodium citrate, pH 7.0:SSC) but was entirely hydrolysed by this enzyme in × 0.05:SSC (Semal, 1970). A sequential synthesis of double- and single-stranded RNA was obtained under certain experimental conditions (Semal & Kummert, 1971). The present results identify the radioactive product associated with duplex RNA as a segment of BrMV-RNA. Cell-free extracts of the second leaf of barley seedlings, whose first leaf had been inoculated 3 days earlier with BrMV, were used to prepare the crude virus-induced RNA polymerase fraction. This fraction was incubated for 3½ min. with tritiated UTP (1 to 2 c/mm - The Radiochemical Centre, Amersham, Buckinghamshire, England), 10-3 m-EDTA, 20 µg./ml. of
Neckar Gold · Diary of a Brussels Kitchen Garden
Yellow-podded version of Neckar Queen. Lots of tasty, stringless, bright yellow, pencil pods, borne on vigorous plants which can tolerate unfavourable and variable weather conditions. Vines are vigorous climbers which easily top 2 metres. This wax bean produces a heavy crop of crunchy pods, 10-15 cm in length. Good for freezing. Resistant to bean mosaic virus. ...
China Hexagon White Marble Mosaic and Mosaic Tiles - China Mosaic, Mosaic Tiles
Galinsoga mosaic virus - Wikispecies
Mosaic - AMMONIA INDUSTRY
Faustina has been producing ammonia since 1968. Mosaic chose to implement an emissions reduction project in 2017 instead of a debottleneck at Faustina. In October 2013, Mosaic abandoned plans for a $1.1 billion ammonia brownfield plant, because it became "unnecessary" after Mosaic acquired CF Industries phosphate operations. In early 2018, Mosaic derated the capacity at Faustina.. Read more. ...
XO Cell from Mosaic - Stock Image C017/2381 - Science Photo Library
Clearance - Mosaic Weighted Blankets
JoVE Author Search: Leclerc D
Wiggle Cycle To Work | Torq Mosaic Pale Ale Summer Shandy Gel (15x45g) | Energy & Recovery Gels
diglloyd blog: Nikon NIKKOR Z 14-30mm f/4 S Aperture Series @ 14mm: Mosaic (Nikon Z7)
Get Nikon NIKKOR Z 11-30mm f/4S and Nikon NIKKOR Z lenses at B&H Photo.. The series assesses of the Nikon NIKKOR Z 14-30mm f/4 S at 14mm on a demanding planar target. The main point of interest here is sharpness, but color rendition is also a concern.. In diglloyd Mirrorless:. Nikon NIKKOR Z 14-30mm f/4 S Aperture Series @ 14mm: Mosaic. Includes images up to full camera resolution from f/4 through f/11, plus crops.. ...
Arabescato Carrara 5/8 Honed | Marble Mosaic - Wallandtile.com
Mosaic Tiles | FaveCrafts.com
Sand Marble Weighted Blanket | Mosaic Weighted Blankets
Metaverse in Mosaic
The metaverse, aka, the real Internet 2.0, is currently at the stage of the Internet at the time of the Mosaic browser circa 1996, e.g.; at the beginning when only techies understand what it is and are using it, before it explodes into mainstream. Right now, there are at minimum several metaverses in the early stages of development, launch and use; it is not clear which of these metaverses could be the big one. Maybe they will all be displaced in the Netscape tradition. There will probably be many metaverses, and we may even be able to have as many of our own metaverses as we like ...
Mosaic Heart Plaque | FaveCrafts.com
Empty Mosaic² : Torn Minds - Page 3 - AnimeMusicVideos.org
ALIZEE & TRISTIAN-GOUIN - The Pet Glider LLC
ALIZEE IS A MOSAIC FEMALE. HER OOP IS 04-22-2016 TRISTIAN-GOUIN IS A NEUTERED MOSAIC MALE. HIS OOP IS 06-11-2016 ALIZEE IS VERY OUTGOING AND TENDS TO MAKE FRIENDS EASILY. SHES A SOCIAL BUTTERFLY AND WILL GREET YOU WHEN YOU ENTER THE ROOM. TRISTIAN IS A LITTLE BIT MORE INTROVERTED THAN HIS WIFE, BUT QUICKLY WARMS UP TO
Carlos E. Chardón
A common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus. Handling cigarettes and other infected tobacco products can transmit the virus ... Pfleger, F. L.; Zeyen, R. J. (2008). "Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease". University of Minnesota Extension. Archived from ... tobacco mosaic virus, and A - alternaria. Some common tomato pests are stink bugs, cutworms, tomato hornworms and tobacco ...
... is a global cereal pest and a vector for spreading and transmission of viruses like wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and wheat ... ISBN 978-0-542-90873-6. [page needed] "Wheat streak mosaic virus". Oklahoma State University. Retrieved 7 October 2017. Carew, ... and wheat streak mosaic virus and distribution of wheat curl mite biotypes in the field. University of Nebraska - Lincoln. ... from Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus-infected wheat plants in Argentina". International Journal of Acarology. 32 (2): 189-93. doi: ...
1955 in science
... rice tungro bacilliform viruses, and cauliflower mosaic virus. In these viruses the ribosome is directly translocated from the ... Translation of Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S RNA is initiated by a ribosome shunt. The 35S RNA of CaMV contains a ~600nt ... Pooggin, MM; Hohn, T; Fütterer, J (2000). "Role of a short open reading frame in ribosome shunt on the cauliflower mosaic virus ... Sendai virus Y proteins are initiated by ribosome shunting. Among 8 primary translation products of Sendai virus P/C mRNA, ...
Pea seedborne mosaic Pea seed-borne mosaic virus Product. Processing. A combination of gravity, screens and air ... Bean (pea) leaf roll virus Beet western yellows virus Bean yellow mosaic Bean yellow mosaic virus ... Cucumber mosaic Cucumber mosaic virus ... Broad bean mottle virus Broad bean stain Broad bean stain virus ...
Tymovirus coat protein
Canady MA, Larson SB, Day J, McPherson A (1996). "Crystal structure of turnip yellow mosaic virus". Nat Struct Biol. 3 (9): 771 ... The virus coat is composed of 180 copies of the coat protein arranged in an icosahedral shell. Fundamentally, the viral coat ... Since the genetic material in the virus consists of RNA the coat protein contains RNA binding sites. Additionally, the coat ... In molecular biology, the Tymovirus coat protein refers to the protein coat of a virus order, named Tymovirales. More ...
It is susceptible to virus infections when in cultivation, including from Iris mosaic virus. Which produces some necrotic ... Brunt, A. A.; Derks, A. F. L. M.; Barnett, O. W. "Iris severe mosaic virus". dpvweb.net. Retrieved 14 September 2016. "How to ... This strain of virus also attacks Belamcanda chinensis, Iris pumila and Iris ricardi. Irises can generally be propagated by ... Bbierley, Philip (15 October 1936). "A Mosaic Disease Of Iris" (PDF). Journal of Agricultural Research. 53 (8). Retrieved 31 ...
A common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus. Handling cigarettes and other infected tobacco products can transmit the virus ... tobacco mosaic virus, and A - alternaria. Some common tomato pests are stink bugs, cutworms, tomato hornworms and tobacco ... "Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease". University of Minnesota Extension. Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved ...
Morphological symptoms of plant diseases
Mosaic is a symptom caused by many viruses. Based on the intensity and the pattern of discoloration, mosaics are termed ... Such an example is the color break virus-affected tulips. Wilting is due to loss of turgor in plant tissue resulting in the ... Patches of green tissue alternating with chlorotic areas are described as a mosaic. ... www.planetnatural.com/pest-problem-solver/plant-disease/mosaic-virus/ http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/virescence http:// ...
Santa Fe Grande pepper
Edward Edinborough Chamberlain
Chamberlain, E.E.; Atkinson, J.D.; Hunter, J.A. (1964). "Cross-protection between strains of apple mosaic virus". New Zealand ... "Cross-protection between strains of apple mosaic virus (Book, 1964)". [WorldCat.org]. 22 February 1999. Retrieved 19 August ... "Plant virus diseases in New Zealand (Book, 1954)". [WorldCat.org]. 22 February 1999. Retrieved 19 August 2014. "Tomato streak ( ... Chamberlain, E.E. (1954). Plant virus diseases in New Zealand. Auckland: DSIR. Chamberlain, E.E. (1947). Tomato streak. ...
... a mosaic virus that was carried by the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. While the virus produces fantastically streaked ... Tulips affected by mosaic virus are called "broken"; while such plants can occasionally revert to a plain or solid colouring, ... Today the virus is almost eradicated from tulip growers' fields. The multicoloured patterns or modern varieties result from ... an infection of tulip bulbs by the tulip breaking virus created variegated patterns in the tulip flowers that were much admired ...
The cucumber mosaic virus is transmitted by aphids. Pansies with the virus have fine yellow veining on young leaves, stunted ... Aphids, which can spread the cucumber mosaic virus, sometimes feed on pansies. Infestations are treated with a spray of diluted ... The virus can lay dormant, affect the entire plant and be passed to next generations and to other species. Prevention is key: ...
2010). HIV vaccines: mosaic approach to virus diversity. Nature Medicine. 16(3):268-70. Lazaro CA, Chang M, Tang W, Campbell J ... His research group was the first to identify an association between the virus that causes genital herpes (herpes simplex virus ... "Larry Corey, Virus Hunter With Midwest Roots, Seeks to Unleash Health Innovation at Hutch". xconomy. "Part IV: The Infectious ... Reduction of HIV-1 RNA levels with therapy to suppress herpes simplex virus. N Engl J Med 2007;356:790-799. Corey L, Nahmias AJ ...
Timeline of biology and organic chemistry
1935 - Wendell Stanley crystallized the tobacco mosaic virus. 1935 - Konrad Lorenz described the imprinting behavior of young ... 1898 - Martinus Beijerinck used filtering experiments to show that tobacco mosaic disease is caused by something smaller than a ... 1978 - Frederick Sanger presented the 5,386 base sequence for the virus PhiX174; first sequencing of an entire genome. 1982 - ... 2001 - Publication of the first drafts of the complete human genome (see Craig Venter). 2002 - First virus produced 'from ...
The plant is susceptible to mosaic viruses, which cause a green mosaic pattern to appear in the leaves. The cowpea mosaic virus ... Sainsbury, Frank; Cañizares, M. Carmen; Lomonossoff, George P. (2010). "Cowpea mosaic Virus: The Plant Virus-Based ... Cowpea is susceptible to nematode, fungal, bacterial and virus diseases, which can result in substantial loss in yield. Common ...
The African cassava mosaic virus causes the leaves of the cassava plant to wither, limiting the growth of the root. An outbreak ... Fauquet Claude; Fargette Denis (1990). "African Cassava Mosaic Virus: Etiology, Epidemiology, and Control" (PDF). Plant Disease ... The virus is spread by the whitefly and by the transplanting of diseased plants into new fields. Sometime in the late-1980s, a ... This mutated virus spread at a rate of 50 mi (80 km) per year, and as of 2005 was found throughout Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, the ...
Jelly roll fold
Larson, Steven B.; Day, John S.; McPherson, Alexander (29 August 2014). "Satellite tobacco mosaic virus refined to 1.4 Å ... the majority of the single JRC viruses are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, and the only double-stranded DNA viruses ... However, the degree of structural similarity among double-jelly-roll virus capsids has led to the conclusion that these viruses ... They are found exclusively in double-stranded DNA viruses of at least nine different viral families, including viruses that ...
Also in 2006, Schulten's group modeled the satellite tobacco mosaic virus, emulating femtosecond interactions of approximately ... The simulation provided new insights about activities of the virus. One discovery was that the virus, which looks symmetrical ... "Molecular dynamics simulations of the complete satellite tobacco mosaic virus". Structure. 14 (3): 437-49. doi:10.1016/j.str. ... Another was that the virus coat, the protein capsid, is dependent upon the genetic material in the RNA core of the particle and ...
Genetically modified crops
Many strains of corn have been developed in recent years to combat the spread of Maize dwarf mosaic virus, a costly virus that ... The viruses are watermelon, cucumber and zucchini/courgette yellow mosaic. Squash was the second GM crop to be approved by US ... Papaya, potatoes, and squash have been engineered to resist viral pathogens such as cucumber mosaic virus which, despite its ... Virus resistant papaya were developed in response to a papaya ringspot virus (PRV) outbreak in Hawaii in the late 1990s. They ...
Helen Purdy Beale
The specificity of the antibody for Tobacco mosaic virus, being unreactive with other viruses, proved to be a useful tool with ... The antibodies were specific to Tobacco mosaic virus, thus identifying and characterizing the virus as a pathogenic agent in ... It also allowed for the isolation and characterization of unique strains of Tobacco mosaic virus, making it possible for her ... Through her work on Tobacco mosaic virus, Beale developed serology tools which are used today in standard research practices ...
Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), Lily-Mottle-Virus - en. Lily mottle virus (LMoV), sowie Sellerie-Virus Y - en. Apium virus Y (ApVY ... Tomato black ring virus,; Arabis-Mosaic-Virus - en. Arabis mosaic virus, sowie Beet ringspot virus ... Usutu-Virus - en. Usutu virus (USUV), Zika-Virus - en. Zika virus (ZIKV), sowie Gelbfieber-Virus - en. Yellow fever virus (YFV) ... Genus ‚Negevirus', mit Species ‚Blackford virus', ‚Bofa virus', ‚Buckhurst virus', ‚Marsac virus', sowie ‚Muthill virus' ...
Evolution of biological complexity
Sowbane mosaic virus
apple latent virus 2 chenopodium mosaic virus chenopodium seed-borne mosaic virus chenopodium star mottle virus ... Sowbane mosaic virus (SoMV) is a pathogenic plant virus, infecting potato and grapevine. Infected species present chlorotic ... This plant virus article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sowbane_mosaic_virus&oldid=857428685" ...
"Interaction of Sesbania Mosaic Virus Movement Protein with VPg and P10: Implication to Specificity of Genome Recognition". PLoS ... deformed wing virus, acute bee paralysis virus, Drosophila C virus, Rhopalosiphum padi virus, and Himetobi P virus. Several ... This family includes Infectious flacherie virus and SeIV-1 virus. Another virus is Nora virus from Drosophila melanogaster. ... Bovine rhinitis A virus Bovine rhinitis B virus Equine rhinitis A virus Foot-and-mouth disease virus Genus: Aquamavirus ...
Single particle analysis
Methods are also available for making 3D reconstructions of helical samples (such as tobacco mosaic virus), taking advantage of ... These viruses infect fish and other aquatic animals. The reconstruction has high enough resolution to have amino acid side ... "3.3 A cryo-EM structure of a nonenveloped virus reveals a priming mechanism for cell entry". Cell. 141 (3): 472-82. doi:10.1016 ... typically proteins or other large biological entities such as viruses. Individual images of stained or unstained particles are ...
原生質絲 - 维基百科，自由的百科全书
... s have been found in the cauliflower mosaic virus, rotavirus, vaccinia virus and the rice dwarf virus. These appear ... The viroplasm could also prevent virus degradation by proteases and nucleases. In the case of the Cauliflower mosaic virus ( ... Virus factories of Cauliflower mosaic virus are virion reservoirs that engage actively in vector-transmission. 2013 journal of ... Xiong; Muller, S; Lebeurier, G; Hirth, L (1982). "Identification by immunoprecipitation of cauliflower mosaic virus in vitro ...
Family Caulimoviridae - e.g. Cauliflower mosaic virus. *Family Hepadnaviridae - e.g. Hepatitis B virus ... Such viruses are either single stranded RNA (e.g. HIV) or double stranded DNA (e.g. Hepatitis B virus) viruses. ... Genus Betaretrovirus; type species: Mouse mammary tumour virus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2018b Release" (html). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2019. Retrieved 16 March ...
Brome mosaic virus
... (BMV) is a small (28 nm, 86S), positive-stranded, icosahedral RNA plant virus belonging to the genus ... The alphavirus-like superfamily includes more than 250 plant and animal viruses including Tobacco mosaic virus, Semliki forest ... Sacher, R.; Ahlquist, P. (1989). "Effects of deletions in the N-terminal basic arm of brome mosaic virus coat protein on RNA ... Portion of thesis entitled Characterization of Brome Mosaic Virus RNA3 interaction with GCD10, a tRNA binding host factor from ...
The first virus to be discovered (see below) was Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). This and other viruses cause an estimated US$60 ... Generally TMV, potato viruses and cucumber mosaic viruses are transmitted via sap. Plant viruses need to be transmitted by a ... Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) are frequently used in plant molecular biology. Of special ... Plant viruses are viruses that affect plants. Like all other viruses, plant viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that ...
... it was not until Wendell Stanley first crystallized tobacco mosaic virus in 1935 that the non-cellular nature of viruses was ... In virus classification, influenza viruses are RNA viruses that make up four of the seven genera of the family Orthomyxoviridae ... These viruses are only distantly related to the human parainfluenza viruses, which are RNA viruses belonging to the ... The virus has the potential to infect humans, although no such cases have been observed yet. This virus has not been found ...
The role of viruses. Genes borrowed from viruses have recently been identified as playing a crucial role in the ... Mosaic evolution. *Multicellularity. *Sexual reproduction *Gamete differentiation/sexes. *Life cycles/nuclear phases ... The first is syncytin, which came from a virus. The second identified in 2007 is called EFF1, which helps form the skin of ... Slezak, Michael (2016), "No Viruses? No skin or bones either" (New Scientist, No. 2958, 1 March 2014) p.16 ...
Category:Low-importance virus articles
Talk:Alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein binding (CPB) RNA. *Talk:Alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 1 5' UTR stem-loop ... Pages in category "Low-importance virus articles". The following 200 pages are in this category, out of approximately 1,493 ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Low-importance_virus_articles&oldid=388350164" ... Talk:Bamboo mosaic virus. *Talk:Bamboo mosaic virus satellite RNA cis-regulatory element ...
Evolution of mammals
Wasik, Bill; Murphy, Monica (2013). Rabid: A Cultural History of the World's Most Diabolical Virus. New York: Penguin Books. ... in a vault covered in depictions of his accomplishments in Byzantine mosaics. ... The primary cause is currently thought to be viruses. The spread of flacherie could be accidental or hereditary. Hygiene ... Pasteur produced the first vaccine for rabies by growing the virus in rabbits, and then weakening it by drying the affected ...
In 1952, Watson performed X-ray diffraction on tobacco mosaic virus and found results indicating that it had helical structure ... In 1956, Crick and Watson speculated on the structure of small viruses. They suggested that spherical viruses such as Tomato ... Bernal's Lab at Birkbeck College with the tobacco mosaic virus extending ideas on helical construction. ... Morgan GJ (February 2003). "Historical review: viruses, crystals and geodesic domes". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 28 (2): ...
This involves using a non-infectious virus to shuttle a gene into a part of the retina. Recombinant adeno-associated virus ( ... At the centre of the macula is the foveal pit where the cones are narrow and long, and, arranged in a hexagonal mosaic, the ... Though the rod and cones are a mosaic of sorts, transmission from receptors, to bipolars, to ganglion cells is not direct. ... Dinculescu Astra; Glushakova Lyudmyla; Seok-Hong Min; Hauswirth William W (2005). "Adeno-associated virus-vectored gene therapy ...
... mosaic virus Glycine mosaic virus Pea green mottle virus Pea mild mosaic virus Quail pea mosaic virus Radish mosaic virus Red ... virus Bean pod mottle virus Bean rugose mosaic virus Broad bean stain virus Broad bean true mosaic virus Cowpea mosaic virus ... Broad bean wilt virus 1 Broad bean wilt virus 2 Cucurbit mild mosaic virus Gentian mosaic virus Lamium mild mosaic virus Genus ... mosaic virus Potato black ringspot virus Potato virus U Raspberry ringspot virus Tobacco ringspot virus Tomato black ring virus ...
Evolution of nervous systems
Horisontaalne geeniülekanne - Vikipeedia
Pearson H (August 2008). "'Virophage' suggests viruses are alive". Nature 454 (7205): 677. Bibcode:2008Natur.454..677P. PMID ... "Cauliflower Mosaic Viral Promoter - A Recipe for Disaster?". Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 11: 194-7. Vaadatud 09.06 ... "Interaction among Virus, Cell, and Organism". Nobel Lecture for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. ...
... allowing the approximation of the dielectrophoretic response of carbon nanotubes or tobacco mosaic viruses in suspension. These ... Strains of bacteria and viruses red and white blood and cells. DEP can also be used to detect ... proteins and viruses. DEP can be used to separate particles with different sign polarizabilities as they move in different ... viruses), that are difficult to count with the previous technique; particle velocity measurements: this technique measures ...
ఉలిపిరి కాయలు - వికీపీడియా
Warts are caused by a virus called human papilloma virus or HPV. There are approximately 100 strains of human papilloma viruses ... mosaic plantar warts. Type 3 causes plane warts, or commonly known as flat warts.. Anogenital warts are caused by types 6, ... ఇవి మానవ పాపిల్లోమా వైరస్ (Human Papilloma Virus-HPV) అనే వైరస్ వలక చర్మం మీద ఒక దగ్గర నుండి మరొక దగ్గరికి వ్యాపించే ప్రమాదం ...
Barley yellow mosaic virus
The disease is caused by different strains of Barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) and Barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV). It ... Yellow mosaic virus disease leads to substantial losses - up to 50 % of the yield - in susceptible barley varieties (Hordeum ... Variants of the gene lead to resistance against all agents known to cause yellow mosaic virus disease in Europe. ...
Identification of the amino acid residues and domains in the cysteine-rich protein of Chinese wheat mosaic virus that are...
... encoded by some plant viruses in diverse genera function as RNA silencing suppressors. Within the N-terminal portion of CRPs ... Identification of the amino acid residues and domains in the cysteine-rich protein of Chinese wheat mosaic virus that are ... we present evidence that the conserved cysteine residues and Cys-Gly-X-X-His motif in the CRP of Chinese wheat mosaic virus ( ... Cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs) encoded by some plant viruses in diverse genera function as RNA silencing suppressors. Within the ...
Virus Titration Fri, 26 Feb 2016 , Mosaic Virus There is a variety of ways to determine the amount of virus in a preparation. ... Host Range and Virus Propagation Fri, 09 Jun 2017 , Mosaic Virus Rabies virus infects a very broad array of animal species, ... Perpetuation of Viruses in Nature Wed, 19 Oct 2016 , Mosaic Virus Perpetuation of a virus in nature depends on the maintenance ... Viruses Affecting the Heart Mon, 01 Feb 2016 , Mosaic Virus Viruses may affect the heart in a number of different ways. ...
Bean Mosaic Virus Guide
Bean Mosaic Virus. Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMB). Bean Common Mosaic Virus [Credit: Howard F. Schwartz, Colorado University, ... Like other viruses, bean common mosaic virus interferes with genetic signalling within the plant. Leaves that are distorted by ... Bean Common Mosaic Virus [Credit: Howard F. Schwartz, Colorado University, Bugwood.org] ... Bean Common Mosaic Virus [Credit: Howard F. Schwartz, Colorado University, Bugwood.org] ...
Factors influencing Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus-mediated gene silencing in wheat - WRAP: Warwick Research Archive Portal
Barley stripe mosaic virus -- Research, Wheat -- Diseases and pests, Plant gene silencing, RNA viruses. ... Barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing in a monocot plant. The Plant Journal 2002;30 (3): 315-327.. Jiang CZ, Lu F, ... Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus (BSMV), a disease of various cereals including barley and wheat, has been one of the successfully ... The Barley stripe mosaic virus b gene encodes a multifunctional cysteine-rich protein that affects pathogenesis. The Plant Cell ...
Brome mosaic virus - Wikipedia
Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is a small (28 nm, 86S), positive-stranded, icosahedral RNA plant virus belonging to the genus ... The alphavirus-like superfamily includes more than 250 plant and animal viruses including Tobacco mosaic virus, Semliki forest ... Sacher, R.; Ahlquist, P. (1989). "Effects of deletions in the N-terminal basic arm of brome mosaic virus coat protein on RNA ... Portion of thesis entitled Characterization of Brome Mosaic Virus RNA3 interaction with GCD10, a tRNA binding host factor from ...
Panicum mosaic virus - Wikipedia
There exists a satellite virus to panicum mosaic virus. Although little is known about the satellite panicum mosaic virus, the ... Because of the change in disease virulence to the main viral pathogen, panicum mosaic virus and satellite panicum mosaic virus ... The synergistic effect of panicum mosaic virus and satellite panicum mosaic virus on millet cultivars is rapidly developed ... thus it depends entirely on panicum mosaic virus for replication and systemic movement in the host plant. Panicum mosaic virus ...
Tomato Mosaic Virus | SpringerLink
Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), which has occurred in tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum) in the United States (Clinton, 1909; Allard ... Mosaic Virus Coat Protein Tobacco Mosaic Virus Tomato Crop Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus These keywords were added by ... Brunt A.A. (1986) Tomato Mosaic Virus. In: Van Regenmortel M.H.V., Fraenkel-Conrat H. (eds) The Plant Viruses. The Viruses. ... Ainsworth, G. C., 1937, Enation mosaic of tomato caused by a virus of the tobacco virus 1 type, Ann. Appl. Biol. 24:545. ...
Euphorbia mosaic virus - Wikipedia
Abutilon mosaic virus - Wikipedia
Category:Tobacco mosaic virus - Wikimedia Commons
Domain: Viruses • Group: Group IV viruses • Familia: Virgaviridae • Genus: Tobamovirus • Species: Tobacco mosaic virus ... Satellite tobacco mosaic virus rendering produced by VMD and Tachyon.jpg 2,048 × 2,048; 1,005 KB. ... Media in category "Tobacco mosaic virus". The following 25 files are in this category, out of 25 total. ... TMV virus super resolution microscopy Christoph Cremer Christina Wege.jpg 588 × 275; 22 KB. ...
Cucumber mosaic virus/RHS Gardening
... is one of the most common plant viruses, causing yellow mottling, distorted leaves and stunted growth in a wide range of garden ... Pelargonium viruses. Plant viruses. Raspberry viruses. Strawberry viruses. Sweet pea viruses. Tomato viruses. Tulip viruses ... Cucumber mosaic virus. Back to all plant problems. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is one of the most common plant viruses, causing ... What is Cucumber mosaic virus?. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is one of the most common plant viruses and causes a wide range of ...
Nucleotide sequence of tobacco mosaic virus RNA | PNAS
tobacco mosaic virus: Meaning and Definition of | Infoplease
Tobacco Mosaic Virus Structure and Self-Assembly | SpringerLink
Shortly after the first purification of virus by Stanley (1935), structural studies were... ... has become a classical object for studies on the structure and assembly of viruses. ... Coat Protein Tobacco Mosaic Virus Polymorphic Form Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus These ... Hirth, L., and Richards, K. E., 1981, Tobacco mosaic virus: Model for structure and function of a simple virus, Adv. Virus Res ...
Tobacco plant refuses cowpea mosaic virus | EurekAlert! Science News
Marilia Santos Silva discovered that some tobacco plants die if a virus infects them, whereas others survive. ... she could follow the virus infection through the plant. In plants infected by the cowpea mosaic virus, the leaves become yellow ... Viruses spread more quickly through the vascular system than from cell to cell. Santos Silva discovered that the cowpea mosaic ... Tobacco plant refuses cowpea mosaic virus. Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research. Funder. Netherlands Organisation ...
RCSB PDB - 1AUY: TURNIP YELLOW MOSAIC VIRUS
Crystal structure of turnip yellow mosaic virus.. Canady, M.A., Larson, S.B., Day, J., McPherson, A.. (1996) Nat Struct Biol 3 ... The structure of turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) has been solved to 3.2 A resolution and an R-value of 18.7%. The structure ... The structure of turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) has been solved to 3.2 A resolution and an R-value of 18.7%. The structure ... Preliminary X-Ray Diffraction Analysis of Crystals of Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus (Tymv). Canady, M.A., Day, J.,& ...
Tobacco Mosaic Virus - Knowledgebase Question - Garden.org
... the virus can persist for years in the soil. Mosaic virus is spread by contact -- by gardeners, visitors, or insects. It would ... What are the symptoms of tobacco mosaic virus, how does the disease spread, is there a possiblity of a tobacco chewer starting ... Symptoms of a virus infection include light and dark green mottled areas on the leaves, unusual leaf thickening, stunting, and ... Although the virus doesnt usually kill plants, it can reduce yields dramatically, and if affected plants are allowed to remain ...
Nucleotide sequence of cauliflower mosaic virus DNA
... of the circular double-stranded DNA of cauliflower mosaic virus has been established. The DNA molecule is known to possess ... Nucleotide sequence of cauliflower mosaic virus DNA Cell. 1980 Aug;21(1):285-94. doi: 10.1016/0092-8674(80)90136-1. ... The complete nucleotide sequence (8024 nucleotides) of the circular double-stranded DNA of cauliflower mosaic virus has been ...
Tobacco mosaic virus
infected with Tobacco mosaic virus.. TMV was the first virus to be discovered over a century ago and was the first virus ever ... Tobacco mosaic virus. Scholthof, K-B.G. 2000. Tobacco mosaic virus. The Plant Health Instructor. DOI: 10.1094/PHI-I-2000-1010- ... APS , Education , Introductory , Plant Disease Lessons , Viruses and Viroids , Tobacco mosaic virus ... Symptoms induced by Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) are somewhat dependent on the host plant and can include mosaic, mottling ( ...
Zucchini yellow mosaic virus isolate BR2, complete genome - Nucleotide - NCBI
Okra mosaic virus ATCC ® PVAS-512™
Okra Mosaic Virus Antiserum] Application: Test animal used: rabbit Host Plant: Nicotiana benthamiana Plant research ... Okra mosaic virus (ATCC® PVAS-512™) Classification: Tymovirus / Strain: Ibadan / Product Format: freeze-dried ... Related viruses: Clitoria Yellow Vein, Belladona Mottle, Desmodium Yellow Mottle, and Cocoa Yellow Mosaic ... Okra mosaic virus ATCC ® PVAS-512™ Designation: Ibadan [ ... Okra mosaic virus ATCC® PVAS-512™ freeze-dried For-Profit: $ ...
Tobacco plant refuses cowpea mosaic virus
... she could follow the virus infection through the plant. In plants infected by the cowpea mosaic virus, the leaves become yellow ... Viruses spread more quickly through the vascular system than from cell to cell. Santos Silva discovered that the cowpea mosaic ... Santos Silva discovered that the cowpea mosaic virus could not penetrate the vascular system of some tobacco plants. In the ... Knowledge about how viruses spread within plants could lead to strategies for obtaining virus-resistant plants. The research ...
Radish mosaic virus ATCC ® PVAS-138™
... antiserum to Radish mosaic virus Application: The antiserum was made against the neo-type strain of Radish mosaic virus. Test ... animal used: rabbit Recommended dilution for ELISA: 1:5,000 Host Plant from which virus was purified: tendergreen mustard Plant ... Radish mosaic virus (ATCC® PVAS-138™) Classification: Comovirus / Strain: Neo-type. / Product Format: frozen ... The antiserum was made against the neo-type strain of Radish mosaic virus. ...
Soybean mosaic virus (strain G2) (SMV)
Sowbane mosaic virus - Wikipedia
apple latent virus 2 chenopodium mosaic virus chenopodium seed-borne mosaic virus chenopodium star mottle virus ... Sowbane mosaic virus (SoMV) is a pathogenic plant virus, infecting potato and grapevine. Infected species present chlorotic ... This plant virus article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sowbane_mosaic_virus&oldid=857428685" ...
Galinsoga mosaic virus - Wikispecies
African cassava mosaic virus (African cassava mosaic)
East African cassava mosaic virus-Uganda (EACMV-UG) and African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) reported for the first time in ... Cassava mosaic virus disease in Uganda: the current pandemic and approaches to control. In: Cassava mosaic virus disease in ... Cassava mosaic virus disease in Uganda: the current pandemic and approaches to control. In: Cassava mosaic virus disease in ... They are: East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV; Hong et al., 1993), East African cassava mosaic Malawi virus (EACMMV; Zhou ...
Plantago asiatica mosaic virus - Wikispecies
Tomato-Cucumber Mosaic Virus photos
TOMATO: Cucumber Mosaic(Cucumber mosaic virus/aphids ) Photo 1 courtesy of R. Provvidenti, NYAES Geneva. Photo 2 courtesy of T.A. Zitter, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. << Previous Photo , Next Photo>> Link to the Important New York Vegetable Diseases Factsheet. Link to Photo Gallery of Important New York Tomato Diseases. Link to Virus Diseases and Disorders of Tomato Fact sheet. ...
Cauliflower mosaic virus 35 S RNA leader ... & related info | Mendeley
The cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35 S RNA is a full-length transcript of the viral genome. It encodes the genes VII and I-V ... The cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35 S RNA is a full-length transcript of the viral genome. It encodes the genes VII and I-V ... Cauliflower mosaic virus 35 S RNA leader region inhibits translation of downstream genes. *Baughman G ...
Dalmatian toadflax (Linaria dalmatica): New host for cucumber mosaic virus | Rocky Mountain Research Station
To date, there have been no reports of Dalmatian toadflax serving as a host for cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Infestations of ... Home / Publications / Dalmatian toadflax (Linaria dalmatica): New host for cucumber mosaic virus ... Dalmatian toadflax (Linaria dalmatica): New host for cucumber mosaic virus. Weed Technology. 21: 41-44. ... Ten of the 18 CMV-inoculated toadflax plants tested positive for the virus; 6 of the 18 displayed systemic mosaic chlorosis and ...
Tobacco mosaic virus 2007 - MSU Extension
Photo 1. Tobacco mosaic lesions on a leaf.. Photos 2 and 3. Tobacco mosaic damage on a petunia plant.. Unlike some of the other ... Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) has a very wide host range including petunia, calibrachoa, lobelia, impatiens, chrysanthemums, ... Once plants are infected with a virus, they can not be treated to eradicate the virus. Infected plants should be removed and ... The virus can be spread by sap, through vegetative plant production and through mechanical means. Smoking should not be ...
Fig Tree Mosaic Virus
Ignore fig tree mosaic virus by: figgy lover Youll have to live with it like I do. I have a Black Mission fig tree and it has ... A little investigation identified the problem as infestation with the fig mosaic virus. The following was reported as the ... Because no chemical controls exist to treat fig mosaic virus as of April 2013, Purdue Universitys agricultural experts suggest ... Comments for Fig Tree Mosaic Virus. Click here to add your own comments ...
ParticlesViralBeanHostsPlantsMadeStructureConditionsIncluding Tobacco mosaiCucumberSymptomsIsolateInfectionNucleotide sequenceSpeciesLeafProteinsRNAsTomatoInfectsCoatMembers of the nightshade familyCaMVYellow mosaic virusAlfalfaBeanTurnipVirologyResistanceMaizeReplicationEnhanced Transmission electron mSoybeanSusceptibleTriticumPathogenBegomovirusCapsidIsolatesWheatCropGenes2017Tobacco mosaic virusBromoviridaeReplicateGeneProtein of tobacco mosaiDiseases
Including Tobacco mosai1
- Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is one of the most common plant viruses, causing yellow mottling, distorted leaves and stunted growth in a wide range of garden plants, not just cucumbers. (rhs.org.uk)
- Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is one of the most common plant viruses and causes a wide range of symptoms, especially yellow mottling, distortion and stunting. (rhs.org.uk)
- To date, there have been no reports of Dalmatian toadflax serving as a host for cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). (fed.us)
- Structure of Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) (PDB 1F15) from the family Bromoviridae. (sciencephoto.com)
- The only other report of natural viral infection in garlic mustard in the US is the occurrence of Cucumber mosaic virus in this host in Ohio (4). (plantmanagementnetwork.org)
- The ability of Trichoderma harzianum , strain T-22 (T22) to control Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in Solanum lycopersicum var. (frontiersin.org)
- Protein 2b in cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is regarded as a strong suppressor of PTGS. (magiran.com)
- When Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Col-0 was inoculated with a series of reassortant viruses created by exchanging viral genomic RNAs between two strains of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), CMV(Y), and CMV(H), cell death developed in the leaves inoculated with reassortant CMV carrying CMV(H) RNA1 encoding 1a protein, but not in noninoculated upper leaves. (mdpi.com)
- Hi, I was wondering whether you could point me in the direction of some good photos of leaves with cucumber mosaic virus? (plantadvice.co.uk)
- Hello Claire, I don't know where you can find any decent photos, it could be Cucumber Mosaic Virus, but from what you have described, it does not sound as if your cucumber plants are showing any of the classic symptoms yet. (plantadvice.co.uk)
- Wait to see what develops because if it is Cucumber Mosaic Virus you will have to destroy the plants, as the virus is not treatable. (plantadvice.co.uk)
- I was wondering if I had cucumber mosaic virus on my courgette as well. (plantadvice.co.uk)
- Hello Fiona, Courgette plants are also susceptible to Cucumber Mosaic Virus, but don't throw the plant away until you are sure. (plantadvice.co.uk)
- The cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 2b protein not only inhibits anti-viral RNA silencing but also quenches transcriptional responses of plant genes to jasmonic acid, a key signalling molecule in defence against insects. (stir.ac.uk)
- Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is the type member of the genus Cucumovirus , family Bromoviridae , which infects over 800 plant species and causes economically important diseases of many crops worldwide ( 18 ). (asm.org)
- D satellite RNA (satRNA) with its helper virus, namely, cucumber mosaic virus, causes systemic necrosis in tomato. (plantcell.org)
- Identification and distribution of cucumber- infecting viruses in the jiroft greenhouses and partial characterization of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus collected from this region. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Viruses include Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) and PRSV were found infecting cucurbits. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Cucumber green mottle mosaic (CGMMV) ( Tobamovirus Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus ) is a viral pathogen of cucurbit. (purdue.edu)
- Although little is known about the satellite panicum mosaic virus, the pathogen is believed to play a role in the infection process because when combined with panicum mosaic virus, the satellite virus causes symptoms to appear earlier in the growing season and results in a more severe infection. (wikipedia.org)
- Symptoms of St. Augustine Decline Syndrome on St. Augustine Grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum) are mild green mosaics in addition to mottling and streaking of leaves. (wikipedia.org)
- Symptoms of panicum mosaic virus on millet-without its satellite virus-are slight chlorosis and mild stunting. (wikipedia.org)
- What are the symptoms of tobacco mosaic virus, how does the disease spread, is there a possiblity of a tobacco chewer starting an outbreak? (garden.org)
- Symptoms of a virus infection include light and dark green mottled areas on the leaves, unusual leaf thickening, stunting, and sometimes distorted, fernlike foliage. (garden.org)
- Symptoms induced by Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) are somewhat dependent on the host plant and can include mosaic, mottling ( Figures 1 and 2 ), necrosis ( Figures 3 and 4 ), stunting, leaf curling, and yellowing of plant tissues. (apsnet.org)
- The symptoms are very dependent on the age of the infected plant, the environmental conditions, the virus strain, and the genetic background of the host plant. (apsnet.org)
- whole plant, showing Cassava mosaic symptoms. (cabi.org)
- 1977 ). The virus was momentarily named as cassava latent virus (CLV) because its sap inoculation into Nicotiana clevelandii did not produce symptoms in this herbaceous host ( Bock et al. (cabi.org)
- 1978 ). Following the molecular characterization of CLV ( Stanley and Gay, 1983 ), the virus was successful sap-inoculated onto N. benthamiana and cassava and typical CMD symptoms produced ( Bock and Woods, 1983 ) thus fulfilling Koch's postulates and prompting a name change from CLV to ACMV. (cabi.org)
- Symptoms seen with this virus include leaf mosaic or mottling hence the name. (sciencephoto.com)
- In the summer of 2011 and spring of 2012, plants of the invasive weed species Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) were observed in two locations in St. Paul, MN, with virus-like symptoms consisting of conspicuous mosaic (Fig. 1A) and severe stunting. (plantmanagementnetwork.org)
- The identity of the virus associated with the disease symptoms in garlic mustard was further confirmed by reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) using a pair of primers designed from an available TuMV coat protein (CP) genomic sequence (NC_002509) to generate a 463-bp amplicon. (plantmanagementnetwork.org)
- Inoculum prepared from systemically infected leaves of N. benthamiana was then used to inoculate 12 healthy garlic mustard seedlings which all developed systemic mosaic symptoms 2 to 3 weeks post-inoculation, and became progressively stunted and chlorotic (Fig. 1B). (plantmanagementnetwork.org)
- In contrast, the Minnesota TuMV Alliaria isolate readily infected and produced distinct mosaic symptoms in both turnip ( B. rapa ssp. (plantmanagementnetwork.org)
- B ) stunting and mosaic symptoms in inoculated plant at left, healthy plant at right. (plantmanagementnetwork.org)
- The ability of viruses to significantly hinder the physiological processes of plants is closely related to a range of symptoms. (frontiersin.org)
- Cassava plant showing symptoms of the African Cassava Mosaic Disease (ACMD) transmitted by whiteflies. (infonet-biovision.org)
- ABSTRACT: Screening for the source of virus resistance in horticultural plants or specific characterization as hybridization, through symptoms, requires time and depends on the weather and knowledge of plant characteristics. (scirp.org)
- Bean common mosaic virus causes common mosaic symptoms that appear as a light green-yellow and dark green mosaic pattern developing on the trifoliolate leaves. (purdue.edu)
- V10 is composed of two mild variants of the pepino mosaic virus (VX1 and VC1), so it offers twofold protection against the various symptoms of the virus. (hortidaily.com)
- They can attenuate or exacerbate the symptoms induced by the helper viruses in specific plant hosts. (plantcell.org)
- In tobacco, however, D-satRNA and WL1-satRNA attenuate symptoms, whereas minor nucleotide sequence variants of the B-satRNA either attenuate symptoms or induce chlorosis in a helper virus-specific manner (reviewed in García-Arenal and Palukaitis, 1999 ). (plantcell.org)
- Symptoms vary between strains of the virus, but can range from light yellow spots and vein clearing on young leaves, to chlorotic mottling, plant stunting and necrosis on older plants. (purdue.edu)
- Symptoms in the bean crop associated with the mixed infection were wrinkled leaves, mosaic, and reduced size of the leaves. (sld.cu)
- By linking this protein to the virus, she could follow the virus infection through the plant. (eurekalert.org)
- The infection causes characteristic patterns, such as " mosaic "-like mottling and discoloration on the leaves (hence the name). (wn.com)
- Infection of a cowpea leaf results in high virus yields (1-2 g/kg). (wikidoc.org)
- Upon infection, the genomes of positive-strand RNA viruses are translated to yield a variety of proteins. (pnas.org)
- The cell-to-cell spread of Tobacco mosaic virus infection depends on virus-encoded movement protein (MP), which is believed to form a ribonucleoprotein complex with viral RNA (vRNA) and to participate in the intercellular spread of infectious particles through plasmodesmata. (asm.org)
- During infection, ER membranes aggregate to form inclusions that function as virus factories ( 42 , 86 ) or virus replication complexes ( 6 ) that contain vRNA in addition to replicase and MP ( 66 ). (asm.org)
- Hopefully, Price said, this will help determine environmental factors that prompt movement and allow researchers to inform producers of the likelihood of high wheat streak mosaic infection in any given year. (southwestfarmpress.com)
- Along with the new information and continued cultural practice of destroying volunteer wheat, we can help limit the risk of general wheat virus infection. (southwestfarmpress.com)
- These data suggest that CP amino acids 58-100 are required for systemic infection of oat by WSMV by specifically facilitating virus long-distance transport in oat. (unl.edu)
- Once a plant is infected, there is no known cure, therefore the best management method is to prevent the infection of the virus. (purdue.edu)
- Even in the presence of the vector, leaf chlorosis and deformation were associated with a low probability of mixed infection, which suggested the presence of a unique virus or another disease. (sld.cu)
- Co infection experiments with labelled BSBMV and BNYVV showed that both viruses remained spatially separated after N. benthamiana agroinoculation. (cuvillier.de)
- In contrast, a mixture of BSBMV with an unrelated virus resulted in no co infection exclusion. (cuvillier.de)
- The complete nucleotide sequence (8024 nucleotides) of the circular double-stranded DNA of cauliflower mosaic virus has been established. (nih.gov)
- Chen X, Bruening G (1992) Nucleotide sequence and genetic map of cowpea severe mosaic virus RNA2 and comparisons with RNA2 of other comoviruses. (springer.com)
- The disease most commonly associated with the panicum mosaic virus pathogen is St. Augustine Decline Syndrome, which infects species of turf grass and causes chlorotic mottling. (wikipedia.org)
- CMV is vectored by several aphid species which feed on a broad range of plants and this contributes to the very wide host range of this virus. (rhs.org.uk)
- ACMV was the first of 10 recognized and one tentative begomovirus species characterized from cassava plants affected by cassava mosaic disease (CMD). (cabi.org)
- As its name implies, TMV is a plant virus that infects tobacco and related species. (blogspot.com)
- The virus is transmitted by several species of aphids, and also, in alfalfa plants, by pollen into the seeds. (sciencephoto.com)
- Plantago asiatica mosaic virus (PlAMV) was described four decades ago from the weedy species Plantago asiatica in the Russian Far East, but has also been reported from lilies ( Lilium spp. (ishs.org)
- These virus particles are very stable and, at some point when the cells are broken or the leaf dries up, they are released to infect new plants. (apsnet.org)
- 6 of the 18 displayed systemic mosaic chlorosis and leaf curling. (fed.us)
- Tobacco mosaic lesions on a leaf. (msu.edu)
- Viruses may also cause leaf deformity, smaller produce and stunted growth. (kenyon.edu)
- The photomicrograph illustrated below is a medium-magnification phase contrast image of a stained thin section of a tobacco mosaic virus-infected tobacco leaf. (fsu.edu)
- In cells of TMV-infected leaf tissue, the 126K protein immunogold label was found almost exclusively in "viroplasms" in the cytoplasm and in pockets of virus particles at the viroplasmic periphery. (nih.gov)
- Symptom s of African cassava mosaic virus disease occur as characteristic leaf mosaic patterns that affect discrete areas and are determined at an early stage of leaf development. (infonet-biovision.org)
- Symptom s vary from leaf to leaf, shoot to shoot and plant to plant, even of the same variety and virus strain in the same locality. (infonet-biovision.org)
- Markers were developed based on sequences homology comparison of susceptible and resistant plants provided by HORTEC SEEDS in tomato for Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) by the resistance gene Ty-1, in zucchini for Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and Papaya ringspot virus estirpe watermelon (PRSV-W), and in lettuce for Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV). (scirp.org)
- Many of the positive-strand RNA viruses that belong to the alphavirus family share a high degree of similarity in proteins involved in genomic replication and synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
- Satellite panicum mosaic virus cannot produce its own replication nor movement proteins, thus it depends entirely on panicum mosaic virus for replication and systemic movement in the host plant. (wikipedia.org)
- Once the virus has successfully invaded the plant, panicum mosaic virions spread through the plant by producing three proteins (p8, p6.6, and p15) as part of their capsids. (wikipedia.org)
- The structure of cauliflower mosaic virus is approximately 52 nanometers in diameter and is surrounded by 420 capsid proteins arranged in triangulation T=7 (P, Ashwathi). (kenyon.edu)
- In addition to capsid proteins, caulimoviruses are also surrounded by virus associated proteins ("Caulimovirus. (kenyon.edu)
- These proteins are responsible for assisting in the binding of the virus to DNA on its c-terminal end ("InterPro. (kenyon.edu)
- Rubella virus is an enveloped positive-strand RNA virus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE: Virions are composed of three structural proteins: a capsid and two membrane-spanning glycoproteins, E2 and E1. (neuromics.com)
- The rubella virus (RV) structural proteins: capsid, E2, and E1 are synthesized as a polyprotein precursor. (neuromics.com)
- Argos P, Kamer G, Nickiin MJH, Wimmer W (1984) Similarity in gene organisation and homology between proteins of animal picornaviruses and a plant comovirus suggest common ancestry of these virus families. (springer.com)
- These coding regions overlap and encode three proteins (TGBP 1, 2 and 3) that are thought to act in concert to enable virus movement between cells. (edu.au)
- Ahoonmanesh, A., and Shalla, T. A., 1981, Feasibility of cross-protection for control of tomato mosaic virus in fresh market field-grown tomatoes, Plant Dis . (springer.com)
- It would be possible, for example, for tomato plants to be infected with the virus after being touched by a person who smokes or chews or by contact with any form of tobacco. (garden.org)
- This virus also infects a wide range of other plants, including tomato, tobacco, pea and potato plants. (sciencephoto.com)
- Transfer of the 3' non-translated region of grapevine chrome mosaic virus RNA-1 by recombination to tomato black ring virus RNA-2 in pseudorecombinant isolates. (semanticscholar.org)
- Their best-known product, V10, protects tomato plants against the highly damaging pepino mosaic virus. (hortidaily.com)
- Thorben continues: "In 2006 we found a revolutionary and completely natural remedy against the pepino mosaic virus, which until then was accountable for substantial losses in tomato production. (hortidaily.com)
- Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is an emerging pathogen that causes severe economic losses in tomato crops (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in the Northern hemisphere, despite persistent attempts of control. (csic.es)
- Panicum mosaic virus is a plant disease that infects monocots by invading through mechanical wounds. (wikipedia.org)
- During research carried out in the Netherlands, Marilia Santos Silva discovered that some tobacco plants die if a virus infects them, whereas others survive. (eurekalert.org)
- Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a positive-sense single stranded RNA virus that infects a wide range of plants, especially tobacco and other members of the family Solanaceae . (wn.com)
- Tobacco mosaic virus is a small rod-shaped RNA virus that infects crops related to tobacco, producing a green or white filiform appearance on the leaves. (fsu.edu)
- Viruses are extremely minute and consist of a protein coat and a core of nucleic acid. (rhs.org.uk)
- The virus is composed of 2130 copies of a small coat protein (158 amino acids) wrapped around a single-stranded RNA molecule of 6000 nucleotides. (blogspot.com)
- Aaron Klug worked out the mechanism of assembly based on the demonstration by Fraenkel-Conrat and Williams (1955) that purified coat protein and purified RNA could be mixed and spontaneously reassembled to form active virus particles [See Citation Classic from Oct. 26, (blogspot.com)
- Later, Fraenkel-Conrat mixed and matched coat protein and RNA from different viruses and used the hybrids to infect plant cells. (blogspot.com)
- He showed that the new viruses always had the properties of the RNA and not the coat protein, demonstrating that the genetic material was the RNA and not the protein. (blogspot.com)
- A comparison of the BMV T=1 particles was made with the reassembled T=1 particles produced from the coat protein of trypsin treated alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV), another bromovirus. (rcsb.org)
- Each virus consists of a protein coat with internal RNA genetic material. (fineartamerica.com)
- Transgenic plants that express the coat protein genes of tobacco mosaic virus or alfalfa mosaic virus interfere with disease development of some nonrelated viruses. (thefreedictionary.com)
- When utilizing the coat protein antiserum, very little labeling was seen within the viroplasms, although virus particles throughout the cytoplasm were heavily labeled. (nih.gov)
- RNA-free virus-like particles (eVLPs) can be generated by transiently co-expressing the RNA-2-encoded coat protein precursor (VP60) with the RNA-1-encoded 24K protease, in the absence of the replication machinery (Saunders et al. (jic.ac.uk)
- Protection of transgenic plants expressing the coat protein gene of watermelon mosaic virus II or zucchini yellow mosaic virus against six potyviruses. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Forster, R. L. S. 1999-10-01 00:00:00 Sequences from the coat protein cistron of five ryegrass mosaic virus (RgMV) isolates indicated the presence of two distinct strains in New Zealand. (deepdyve.com)
Members of the nightshade family1
- The topic of my research is the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV). (kenyon.edu)
- Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV), specifically, effects the Brassicaceae family and impacts a host range including crops such as broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower and turnips.Cauliflower mosaic virus is classified as a Group VII. (kenyon.edu)
- Recently researchers from the John Innes Centre (JIC) for plant research in Great Britain have again claimed that the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) promoter used to genetically modify virtually all of the transgenic crops now marketed or being tested for marketing has been proven to be safe for human consumption because humans have been consuming virus infected crucifers for a long time. (i-sis.org.uk)
- Even if virus infected crucifers could be prepared and consumed as dietary treats the fact is that the behavior and potential hazard of the CaMV promoter in transgenic crops is unrelated to the replication and behavior of the virus in the plant cell. (i-sis.org.uk)
- It is simply unreasonable to maintain that the the integrated CaMV promoter in transgenic crops behaves the same way in the virus replication cycle as it does in the chromosome of the transgenic crop. (i-sis.org.uk)
- CaMV is a pararetrovirus which means that it transmitted as a double stranded DNA virus that replicates using reverse transcription of RNA into DNA. (i-sis.org.uk)
- When CaMV genes are inserted into the DNA of the plant chromosome those genes may recombine with infecting CaMV virus. (i-sis.org.uk)
- Wintermantel and Schoelz (1996) found that recombination was observable in every plant when virus invaded transgenic plants with CaMV genes inserted on plant chromosome. (i-sis.org.uk)
- They believed that most observed recombination occurred in the cytoplasm during reverse transcription and that there was little chance for recombination between invading virus and CaMV transgenes on the chromosome. (i-sis.org.uk)
- Here, we show that cauliflower mosaic virus ( CaMV ) MP contains three tyrosine-based sorting signals that interact with an Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) μA-adaptin subunit. (plantphysiol.org)
- Altogether, these results demonstrate that CaMV MP traffics in the endocytic pathway and that virus viability depends on functional host endomembranes. (plantphysiol.org)
- Here, we focus on this second group of tubule-forming MP s and examine the intracellular trafficking of cauliflower mosaic virus ( CaMV ) MP . (plantphysiol.org)
- Translation of the polycistronic 35S RNA of CaMV (cauliflower mosaic virus) occurs via a reinitiation mechanism, which requires TAV (transactivator/viroplasmin). (biochemsoctrans.org)
Yellow mosaic virus13
- Yellow mosaic virus disease leads to substantial losses - up to 50 % of the yield - in susceptible barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare). (innovations-report.com)
- The disease is caused by different strains of Barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) and Barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV). (innovations-report.com)
- Variants of the gene lead to resistance against all agents known to cause yellow mosaic virus disease in Europe. (innovations-report.com)
- Factors limiting effective extraction and purification of bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) were investigated. (oregonstate.edu)
- 02% of plants with Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV). (magiran.com)
- Chen, S.-Y. (2014) Developing the Molecular Markers for Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus Resistance in Winter Squash (Cucurbita moschata). (scirp.org)
- How is Zucchini yellow mosaic virus abbreviated? (thefreedictionary.com)
- 1984a) y del mosaico amarillo del zapallo italiano ( Zucchini yellow mosaic virus , ZYMV) (Lisa & Lecoq 1984) son importantes limitaciones para la produccion de melon en Costa Rica (Rivera et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Retention and transmission characteristics of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus by Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Freedom II carries an inserted gene for a protein found in the watermelon mosaic virus 2 (WMV2) and the zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV). (thefreedictionary.com)
- First report of Papaya ringspot virus-type W and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus infecting Trichosanthes cucumerina in Brazil. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) en Phaselous vulgaris L. (sld.cu)
- Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) in Phaselous vulgaris L. (sld.cu)
- Currently, about 10% of cruciferous vegetables are infected with Cauliflower Mosaic Virus in order to give the host plant pesticide resistance. (kenyon.edu)
- Use of detached leaves to evaluate tobacco haploids and doubled haploids for resistance to tobacco mosaic virus , Meloidogyne incognita, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Transmission of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) resistance to female gametes in selected [BC. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Poquonock was also selected for the dominant hypersensitive gene for resistance to tobacco mosaic virus derived from Nicotiana glutinosa L. (thefreedictionary.com)
- developed by the Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 1999 because of its resistance to the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and Race 0 black shank [caused by Phytophthora parasitica Dastur var. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Genetic resistance to tobacco mosaic virus , cyst nematodes, root-knot nematodes, and wildfire from Nicotiana repanda incorporated into N. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The finding of CMV 1a protein-mediated induction of necrotic cell death in A. thaliana , which is not associated with virus resistance and HR cell death, has the potential to provide a new pathosystem to study the role of cell death in virus-host plant interactions. (mdpi.com)
- Exogenous spermidine, arsenic and beta-aminobutyric acid modulate tobacco resistance to tobacco mosaic virus, and affect local and systemic glucosylsalicylic acid levels and arginine decarboxylase gene expression in tobacco leaves. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The polyamine spermidine and the metalloid arsenic increased resistance responses in the well-known pathosystem NN tobacco/tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). (sigmaaldrich.com)
- In this paper, an integrated QTL map for Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) resistance in maize was constructed by compiling a total of 81 QTL loci available with the Genetic Map IBM2 2005 Neighbors as reference. (cnki.com.cn)
- Foxtail millet (Setaria italica), white proso millet (Panicum miliaceum) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) have also been used to propagate PMV and panicum mosaic satellite virus (SPMV), and mechanical transmission can occur to maize and some cultivars of common wheat (Triticum aestivum). (wikipedia.org)
- PMV is serologically related to Molina streak virus and Maize mild mottle virus. (wikipedia.org)
- Electron micrograph of Maize mosaic virus (MMV, Rhabdoviridae) in the accessory salivary gland of the insect vector Peregrinus maidis (planthopper, Hemiptera, Delphacidae). (cellimagelibrary.org)
- A neurotropic route for Maize mosaic virus (Rhabdoviridae) in its planthopper vector Peregrinus maidis. (cellimagelibrary.org)
- Assembly and accumulation sites of Maize mosaic virus in its planthopper vector. (cellimagelibrary.org)
- Aggregates of maize mosaic virus (MMV, Rhabdoviridae) in cells from hemolymph of the insect vector Peregrinus maidis (planthopper, Hemiptera, Delphacidae). (cellimagelibrary.org)
- El-Desouky Ammar, Saskia A. Hogenhout, L. R. Nault (2011) CIL:25366, Maize mosaic virus, Peregrinus maidis, hemocyte (sensu Nematoda and Protostomia). (cellimagelibrary.org)
- The sequence similarities of RNA replication genes and strategies for BMV have been shown to extend to a wide range of plant and animal viruses beyond the alphaviruses, including many other positive-strand RNA viruses from other families. (wikipedia.org)
- From replication testing, it is believed the 109S component is the panicum mosaic pathogen and the 42S component of the pathogen is the panicum satellite virus because the 109S component replicates independently while 42S cannot replicate without the presence of the 109S component. (wikipedia.org)
- the amiRNA targets were fully conserved in all three isolates, indicating virus replication on some transgenics was not a result of mutational escape by the virus. (wiley.com)
- Several lines of evidence suggest that multiple steps in positive-strand RNA virus RNA replication depend on specific host factors. (pnas.org)
- The replication complex of each virus assembles on specific membrane sites in the infected cell ( 3 - 5 ), and such association with cell membranes appears particularly important for positive-strand RNA synthesis ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
- The localization of MP with ER membranes is consistent with results of several studies indicating that ER membranes act as sites for virus replication and virus protein synthesis ( 6 , 42 , 76 ). (asm.org)
- Here, we constructed various mutants by deleting sequences within the 3′ NTR of AlMV subgenomic (sg) RNA4 (same as of RNA3) and examined the effect of these deletions on replication and translation of chimeric Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) expressing AlMV sgRNA4 from the TMV CP sg promoter (Av/A4) in tobacco protoplasts and Nicotiana benthamiana plants. (mdpi.com)
- The satRNAs are dependent on CMV for their replication, encapsidation, and dispersion, but they are not necessary for the life cycle of the virus. (plantcell.org)
Enhanced Transmission electron m1
- Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is one of the most devastating pathogens that cost huge economic losses in soybean production worldwide. (frontiersin.org)
- In addition, we review the progress in dissecting the SMV resistant signaling pathways in soybean, with a special focus on the studies using virus-induced gene silencing. (frontiersin.org)
- Pathogenesis of Soybean mosaic virus in soybean carrying Rsv1 gene is associated with miRNA and siRNA pathways, and breakdown of AGO1 homeostasis. (gc.ca)
- 1987b) demonstrated that transgenic tobacco plants expressing the AMV CP gene were resistant to two strains of AMV but were susceptible to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Its wide distribution in the region is primarily due to the use infected planting material, the widespread presence of the vector (Bemisia tabaci) and the use of traditional local varieties that are susceptible to the virus. (infonet-biovision.org)
- Because panicum mosaic virus pathogen cannot create its own wound in a host plant, the pathogen must survive until a wound is formed by living epiphytically on its future host or in plant debris. (wikipedia.org)
- In regard to pathogen composition, there are two characteristic components of panicum mosaic and its related panicum satellite mosaic viruses. (wikipedia.org)
- It is the first pathogen identified as a virus. (shapeways.com)
- Members of Tombusviridae are transmitted as positive sense single-stranded non-enveloped RNA viruses, with an icosohedral capsid. (wikipedia.org)
- The appearance of the interior surface of the virus capsid, along with buried surface area calculations, suggest that a pentameric unit is lost during decapsidation. (rcsb.org)
- During virus assembly, the capsid interacts with genomic RNA to form nucleocapsids. (neuromics.com)
- Despite the fact that CMV has only 19% capsid protein sequence identity (34% similarity) to cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), the core structures of these two members of the Bromoviridae family are highly homologous. (asm.org)
- To further investigate this virus, phylogenetic and population genetics based methods were used to investigate the temporal and spatial dynamics of the evolutionary mechanism and genetic variability among the DsMV isolates. (researchgateway.ac.nz)
- Analysis of DsMV isolates on a temporal scale suggested the role of stochastic or selection-fitness levels are the key mechanisms in the dynamics of plant virus population genetics and evolution. (researchgateway.ac.nz)
- Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) is a persistent threat to wheat production, necessitating novel approaches for protection. (wiley.com)
- The virus poses a new threat to the wheat production and required development of new bio-security practices. (wiley.com)
- The widespread occurrence of the virus and its vector, the potential major impacts on yield, and the impracticality of managing the mites add to the priority of breeding virus-resistant varieties and developing alternative methods of virus control through development of virus-resistant transgenic wheat. (wiley.com)
- There are other diseases of concern, but wheat streak mosaic is always found somewhere in this wheat growing region, and every couple of years, we have an epidemic of it,' Rush said. (southwestfarmpress.com)
- In a separate study, Price planted an area of a wheat field in July and allowed it to become infested with the virus-carrying mites. (southwestfarmpress.com)
- Identification of the amino acid residues and domains in the cysteine-rich protein of Chinese wheat mosaic virus that are important for RNA silencing suppression and subcellular localization. (biomedsearch.com)
- Here, we present evidence that the conserved cysteine residues and Cys-Gly-X-X-His motif in the CRP of Chinese wheat mosaic virus (CWMV) are critical for protein stability and silencing suppression activity. (biomedsearch.com)
- Wheat streak mosaic virus was confirmed on the white wheat variety Caledonia at a research plot in Williamston, Michigan last week. (msu.edu)
- This virus is vectored by the wheat curl mite, Aceria tulipae . (msu.edu)
Tobacco mosaic virus2
Protein of tobacco mosai1
- Mosaic plant diseases are common diseases that occur during warmer months which are caused by plant mosaic viruses. (kenyon.edu)
- Mosaic diseases. (wn.com)
- This is the first report of FMV in a non-fig host, Cyclamen persicum , a finding that may help in the control of the mosaic and mosaic-like diseases of fig and cyclamen, respectively. (mdpi.com)