The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
All deaths reported in a given population.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.
The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.
The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.
Measurement of rate of airflow over the middle half of a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination (from the 25 percent level to the 75 percent level). Common abbreviations are MMFR and FEF 25%-75%.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.
The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.
The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
The airflow rate measured during the first liter expired after the first 200 ml have been exhausted during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are MEFR, FEF 200-1200, and FEF 0.2-1.2.
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
The maximum volume of air that can be inspired after reaching the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the TIDAL VOLUME and the INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is IC.
Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.
Curves depicting MAXIMAL EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE, in liters/second, versus lung inflation, in liters or percentage of lung capacity, during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviation is MEFV.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.
Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.
The act of BREATHING in.
The extra volume of air that can be expired with maximum effort beyond the level reached at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. Common abbreviation is ERV.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Difficult or labored breathing.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be breathed in and blown out over a sustained interval such as 15 or 20 seconds. Common abbreviations are MVV and MBC.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.
A common interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology, usually occurring between 50-70 years of age. Clinically, it is characterized by an insidious onset of breathlessness with exertion and a nonproductive cough, leading to progressive DYSPNEA. Pathological features show scant interstitial inflammation, patchy collagen fibrosis, prominent fibroblast proliferation foci, and microscopic honeycomb change.
A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Complete or severe weakness of the muscles of respiration. This condition may be associated with MOTOR NEURON DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; injury to the PHRENIC NERVE; and other disorders.
The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.
Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
An infant during the first month after birth.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
A diverse group of lung diseases that affect the lung parenchyma. They are characterized by an initial inflammation of PULMONARY ALVEOLI that extends to the interstitium and beyond leading to diffuse PULMONARY FIBROSIS. Interstitial lung diseases are classified by their etiology (known or unknown causes), and radiological-pathological features.
A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
A diffuse parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation of dust and by tissue reaction to their presence. These inorganic, organic, particulate, or vaporized matters usually are inhaled by workers in their occupational environment, leading to the various forms (ASBESTOSIS; BYSSINOSIS; and others). Similar air pollution can also have deleterious effects on the general population.
A general term encompassing lower MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and certain MUSCULAR DISEASES. Manifestations include MUSCLE WEAKNESS; FASCICULATION; muscle ATROPHY; SPASM; MYOKYMIA; MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, myalgias, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.
An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.
Analogs or derivatives of scopolamine.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Deaths that occur before LIFE EXPECTANCY is reached within a given population.
The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
A chronic multi-system disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. It is characterized by SCLEROSIS in the SKIN, the LUNGS, the HEART, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, the KIDNEYS, and the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM. Other important features include diseased small BLOOD VESSELS and AUTOANTIBODIES. The disorder is named for its most prominent feature (hard skin), and classified into subsets by the extent of skin thickening: LIMITED SCLERODERMA and DIFFUSE SCLERODERMA.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)
Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi.
Deaths occurring from the 28th week of GESTATION to the 28th day after birth in a given population.
An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.
Therapeutic exercises aimed to deepen inspiration or expiration or even to alter the rate and rhythm of respiration.
A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.
Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The period following a surgical operation.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Surgical removal of ribs, allowing the chest wall to move inward and collapse a diseased lung. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.
An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Spirometric technique in which the volume of air breathed in the right and left lung is recorded separately.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Official records of individual deaths including the cause of death certified by a physician, and any other required identifying information.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Number of fetal deaths with stated or presumed gestation of 20 weeks or more in a given population. Late fetal mortality is death after of 28 weeks or more.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.
A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Sarcoidosis affecting predominantly the lungs, the site most frequently involved and most commonly causing morbidity and mortality in sarcoidosis. Pulmonary sarcoidosis is characterized by sharply circumscribed granulomas in the alveolar, bronchial, and vascular walls, composed of tightly packed cells derived from the mononuclear phagocyte system. The clinical symptoms when present are dyspnea upon exertion, nonproductive cough, and wheezing. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p431)
A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers which elicit potent inflammatory responses in the parenchyma of the lung. The disease is characterized by interstitial fibrosis of the lung, varying from scattered sites to extensive scarring of the alveolar interstitium.
Organizational development including enhancement of management structures, processes and procedures, within organizations and among different organizations and sectors to meet present and future needs.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.
Analogs and derivatives of atropine.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
The outer margins of the thorax containing SKIN, deep FASCIA; THORACIC VERTEBRAE; RIBS; STERNUM; and MUSCLES.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
The act of BREATHING out.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A rapid onset form of SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA with progressive widespread SKIN thickening over the arms, the legs and the trunk, resulting in stiffness and disability.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.
The aggregate business enterprise of manufacturing textiles. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Injury following pressure changes; includes injury to the eustachian tube, ear drum, lung and stomach.
Drugs used for their effects on the respiratory system.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Surgical formation of an opening into the trachea through the neck, or the opening so created.
Surgical incision into the chest wall.
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.
A tough, malleable, iron-based alloy containing up to, but no more than, two percent carbon and often other metals. It is used in medicine and dentistry in implants and instrumentation.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
He also used his machine for the prediction of premature mortality. He coined the term 'vital capacity', which was claimed as a ... Hutchinson is regarded as the inventor of vital capacity because he found that with every inch of height vital capacity ... including residual volume and vital capacity. 1846 The water spirometer measuring vital capacity was developed by a surgeon ... describing the direct relationship between vital capacity and height and the inverse relationship between vital capacity and ...
If the lung was otherwise healthy, then certain aspects of lung function, such as vital capacity, may improve after ... The mortality of surgery is less than 1% overall, but rises to 4-6% in the elderly. Other factors predicting poorer surgical ... "Pleural Thickening of Lungs: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment". Mesothelioma Center - Vital Services for Cancer Patients & Families ...
... poor areas where infant mortality is high but children are a vital source of labor to maintain the earning capacity of the ... Thus for example, a 13-year-old does not have the capacity to marry in England, but does have that capacity in Nigeria ( ... The validity of the marriage is governed by the capacity of the parties to marry each other. Capacity to become a spouse is ... In Family Law as opposed to the Law of Contract, there is also a strong case for legal capacity to be universally enforced to ...
... demonstrated by reduction in forced expiratory volume and forced vital capacity. This reduction in total lung volume sets ... However, the mortality rate still exceeds 50%. Most causes of death are because of the presence of associated anomalies and ... Considering the fact that a large proportion of mortality cases of pulmonary agenesis are partly due to the presence of ... Bilateral pulmonary agenesis is lethal, while the mortality rate of unilateral pulmonary agenesis is higher than 50%. Depending ...
... had a decline in forced vital capacity of at least 10%. In study 006, the difference between groups in forced vital capaticy ... analysis of the pooled population of 1,247 subjects from three studies showed that the risk of all-cause mortality was reduced ... Mean change in forced vital capacity FVC at week 72 was -9.0% in the pirfenidone group and -9.6% in the placebo group. The ... In study 004, pirfenidone reduced decline in forced vital capacity. Mean change in FVC at week 72 was -8.0% in the pirfenidone ...
Vital Capacity' stature, stem length and weight in a Sample of Healthy Male Adults". Biometrika. 14 (3/4): 3-4. doi:10.2307/ ... Newbold, E (1925). "On the Excess Mortality of Males in the First Year of Life". Biometrika. 17 (3/4): 3-4. doi:10.2307/2332084 ...
In 1842, John Hutchinson invented the spirometer, which allowed the measurement of vital capacity of the lungs. However, his ... 8 October 2016). "Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 ... and the forced vital capacity (FVC), which is the greatest volume of air that can be breathed out in a single large breath. ... In some countries, mortality has decreased in men but increased in women. This is most likely due to rates of smoking in women ...
"Cation Exchange Capacity and Base Saturation , UGA Cooperative Extension". extension.uga.edu. Retrieved 2021-03-29. Gray E, ... These diebacks were numerically analyzed to exclude natural tree mortality. It is hypothesized that a mature forest is more ... Merzdorf J. "Earth's Freshwater Future: Extremes of Flood and Drought". Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet. NASA's Jet ... September 2017). "A multi-species synthesis of physiological mechanisms in drought-induced tree mortality". Nature Ecology & ...
... dysfunction may result from bronchiolitis obliterans and could manifest as abnormal flow at 50 to 70 percent of vital capacity ... increase in daily mortality. A level of 114 ppb was attributed to 5 to 9% increase daily mortality. Silo filler's disease is ...
Changes in the infant mortality rate reflect social and technical capacities[clarification needed] of a nation's population.[14 ... The existence of IMR helps solve the inadequacies of the other vital statistic systems for global health as most of the vital ... Infant mortality is the death of young children under the age of 1. This death toll is measured by the infant mortality rate ( ... UNdata: Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 births) *^ UNICEF, State of the World's Children 2003 infant mortality table. Unicef. ...
Changes in the infant mortality rate reflect social and technical capacities[clarification needed] of a nation's population. ... The existence of IMR helps solve the inadequacies of the other vital statistic systems for global health as most of the vital ... List of countries by infant mortality rate List of countries by maternal mortality ratio Maternal mortality Miscarriage ... Infant mortality is the death of young children under the age of 1. This death toll is measured by the infant mortality rate ( ...
Tanzania: Transform NPHI by adding NCD capacity.[95] The burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing, but in the ... IANPHI's grant included funding for two FELTP fellows and work on STEPS and vital statistics. AFENET and the University of ... Morocco faces multiple public health burdens: infectious diseases, high maternal mortality rates, a growing incidence of ... Ghana has worked for several decades to build a national primary health care network and has developed substantive capacity at ...
Percent predicted forced vital capacity in the group of patients treated with aglucosidase alfa increased by 1.2 percent at 78 ... shows great promise to reduce the mortality and disability associated with this devastating disorder. Taiwan and several states ... difficulty swallowing or chewing and reduced vital capacity. Prognosis depends on the age of onset of symptoms with a better ... and to determine the effect of aglucosidase alfa on pulmonary function as measured by percent predicted forced vital capacity. ...
... has argued that the carrying capacity of Earth - that is, Earth's capacity to sustain human populations and consumption levels ... 2006). Vital waste graphics 2. The Basel Convention, UNEP, GRID-Arendal. ISBN 82-7701-042-7. ... To reduce child mortality. *To improve maternal health. *To combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases ... Brian Walker and David Salt, Resilience Practice: Building Capacity to Absorb Disturbance and Maintain Function. Island Press, ...
Increasing capacity and adapting healthcare for the needs of COVID-19 patients is described by the WHO as a fundamental ... "VITAL. THE COVID-19 VENTILATOR DEVICE. Learn More About the Licensee". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. California Institute of ... "Impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to reduce COVID19 mortality and healthcare demand" (PDF). Imperial College ... Due to capacity limitations in the standard supply chains, some manufacturers are 3D printing healthcare material such as nasal ...
"Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System , Maternal and Infant Health , CDC". www.cdc.gov. February 4, 2020. Haynie, Devon (2020 ... According to the Asia Power Index 2020, within Asia, the United States still takes the lead on the military capacity, cultural ... resulting in resources being diverted from the tasks vital to maintain economic or geopolitical dominance." Kennedy argues that ... According to the Asia Power Index 2020, within Asia, the United States still takes the lead on the military capacity, cultural ...
At a state health department the activities may include: collection and storage of vital statistics (birth and death records); ... Among other uses, the CDC publishes the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) based on these data acquired ... collection of hospital capacity information to allow for planning of responses in case of emergencies. Each of these activities ...
Fish capacity is a function of aquarium size. Limiting factors include the availability of oxygen in the water and the rate at ... Fish can also be injured during collection and/or shipping; mortality rates during shipping are high. Many others are weakened ... The largest bacterial populations inhabit the filter; efficient filtration is vital. Sometimes, simply cleaning the filter is ... Capacity can also be increased with the addition of external filtration which increases the total volume of water in the ...
Change of mortality of stroke after a community-based intervention for nine years in three cities in China. Chin J Chron Non- ... There will be priority actions in at least four areas: adult male smoking, hypertension, overweight and obesity, and capacity ... Preventing chronic diseases: a vital investment. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2005. Wen C. China's plans to curb cervical ... For example, mortality from cervical cancer in the Jing'an county of Jiangxi province decreased to 9.6 per 100 000 in 1985 from ...
In lab studies, neonicotinoids were shown to increase mortality rates. Separate from lethal and sublethal effects due solely to ... both castes are vital to colony survival..." A 2015 systematic review (Lundin et al., 2015) of the scientific literature on ... An October 2015 study demonstrated significant effects on the survival and reproductive capacities of honey bee queens exposed ... Nonlethal exposure of honey bees to thiamethoxam (neonicotinoid systemic pesticide) causes high mortality due to homing failure ...
are vital in the establishment of oak communities. Tuber species prefer argillaceous or calcareous soils that are well drained ... For example, truffle fungi have lost their ability to degrade the cell walls of plants, limiting their capacity to decompose ... This variability in climate has increased the mortality of P. edulis. Therefore, the availability of compatible mycorrhizal ...
According to the Ministry of Health data (as of June 2004), the rates of cancer and mortality are 65% higher for those living ... Therefore, this zone is vital for them, especially during the global warming when species of the desert are expected to migrate ... The Bedouins keep livestock in herds greater than the carrying capacity of the land, which leads to serious overgrazing, and to ...
CRVS (civil registration and vital statistics) to provide monitoring of vital events (birth, death, wedding, divorce). The 2012 ... The program was aimed at rebuilding WHO capacity for direct action, which critics said had been lost due to budget cuts in the ... Of the eight Millennium Development Goals, three - reducing child mortality by two-thirds, to reduce maternal deaths by three- ... "Civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS)". who.int. Archived from the original on 4 May 2020. Retrieved 12 April 2018. " ...
Cardiac output, pulmonary diffusion capacity, oxygen carrying capacity, and the peripheral limitations of muscle diffusion ... all-cause mortality, and mortality rates stemming from various types of cancers. In addition to risk assessment, the AHA ... be regularly assessed and used as a clinical vital sign. This statement was based on mounting evidence that lower fitness ... If one of these factors is sub-par, then the whole system loses its normal capacity to function properly. The drug ...
He accepts his mortality and rejects the constrictions of society he previously placed on himself, leaving him unencumbered and ... only appeals to people's natural desires for happiness and significance but also makes skillful use of their innate capacity ... of the use of meaning-centered interventions appropriate for their predicaments because of the empirical evidence for the vital ... One can accept one's own mortality and overcome the fear of death. Although the French author Albert Camus denied the specific ...
Fish capacity is a function of aquarium size. Limiting factors include the availability of oxygen in the water and the rate at ... The measure also requires that shippers file mortality reports on the animals they ship. Fish farming List of aquarium fish by ... The largest bacterial populations inhabit the filter; efficient filtration is vital. Sometimes, simply cleaning the filter is ... Capacity can also be increased with the addition of external filtration which increases the total volume of water in the ...
There is some evidence that a PEG tube should be inserted before vital capacity drops below 50% of expected, as a low vital ... Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 66 (27): 718-722. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6627a2. PMC 5687590. PMID 28704346. Sutedja NA, ... The criteria are "scores of at least 2 points on all 12 items of ALSFRS-R, forced vital capacity of 80% or more, definite or ... However, a large 2015 study showed that PEG insertion is safe in people with advanced ALS and low vital capacities, as long as ...
Therefore, she played a vital role in his work, acting as a possible influence. In the first nine months, Helene and Albert had ... Patti Marxsen writes that Helene's "capacity for hard work in a challenging environment can be read as proof that her ... Her aid in the poor relief system, "Armenpflegesystem," mirrored in modern social welfare, saw the illegitimate mortality rate ...
Weakening, collapse and mortality of bee colonies; November 2008 - Updated April 2009 anses.fr "Minutes of Northern Ireland ... vital to sustain natural habitats there in addition to their value for human societies (to sustain food resources). Where ... while other plants are only dependent on honeybees to enhance their capacity to produce better and healthier fruits. Honeybees ... The researchers suggested, "the observed delayed mortality in honey bees caused by imidacloprid in HFCS is a novel and ...
... deep diaphragmatic breathing exercises are beneficial in improving chest wall mobility and vital capacity. Exercise may improve ... all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global ... Mortality ratios are around twice those of unaffected people. Cognitive decline and dementia, old age at onset, a more advanced ... Dementia is associated with a reduced quality of life in people with PD and their caregivers, increased mortality, and a higher ...
Heuveline, Patrick (2001). "The Demographic Analysis of Mortality Crises: The Case of Cambodia, 1970-1979". Forced Migration ... believing that this would be vital in enabling him to win the war.[366] In August 1981, he travelled, via Bangkok, to Beijing, ... although he was an ally of China's Marxist-Leninist government and admitted Marxism-Leninism's capacity to bring swift economic ... Heuveline, Patrick (2001). "The Demographic Analysis of Mortality Crises: The Case of Cambodia, 1970-1979". Forced Migration ...
A vital instrument of support for regionalization is the project for strengthening and reorganizing the SUS. ... The Ministry of Public Health invested some US$120 million in the development of the capacity of these laboratories. In 2000, ... with emphasis on reduction of child mortality, and political-institutional reorganization of the sector, with a view to ... enhancing the operative capacity of the SUS. The plan for the next period (2000-2003) reinforces the previous objectives and ...
The Koine Greek Septuagint uses ψυχή (psyche) to translate Hebrew נפש (nephesh), meaning "life, vital breath", and specifically ... of the capacity to be alive. For example, someone who falls asleep, as opposed to someone who falls dead, can wake up and live ... believe in the mortality of the soul and unconscious "sleep" until the resurrection of the dead.[18] Various new religious ... ", "life", or "vital spirit"). It is located somewhere in the abdominal cavity, often in the liver or the heart (Proto- ...
Regional differences in mortality rates were influenced by the effects of migration,[217] and of natural disasters.[218] In ... Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) was a vital asset in the Allied war effort. It was "one of the very few sources of natural rubber still ... faced significant capacity constraints that further drove up prices of Indian goods and commodities. The rise in prices of ... Though excess mortality due to malarial deaths peaked in December 1943, rates remained high throughout the following year.[224] ...
"Notes on the World POPClock and World Vital Events". US Census Bureau. Retrieved February 12, 2013.. ... A number of factors contributed to this increase, including the lessening of the mortality rate in many countries by improved ... This feedback can be described as follows: technological advance → increase in the carrying capacity of land for people → ... Another critical factor for such an estimate is the question of pre-modern infant mortality rates; these figures are very ...
With the largest of capturing capacity, IL-CCS is currently the largest BECCS project in the world.[26][27][28] ... Recognising CCS technologies as an emission reduction tool is vital for the implementation of such plants as there is no other ... The Greenville project at Ohio, USA has capacity of capturing 1 MtCO2/year. The Wallula project was planned to capture 0.75 ... Phase 2 has capturing capacity about 3 time larger than the pilot project (phase 1). Annually, IL-CCS can capture mourned 1 ...
In 1842, John Hutchinson invented the spirometer, which allowed the measurement of vital capacity of the lungs. However, his ... Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 61 (46): 938-43. PMID 23169314. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013.. ... and the forced vital capacity (FVC), which is the greatest volume of air that can be breathed out in a single large breath.[77] ... "Morbidity & Mortality: 2009 Chart Book on Cardiovascular, Lung, and Blood Diseases" (PDF). National Heart, Lung, and Blood ...
The Koine Greek Septuagint uses ψυχή (psyche) to translate Hebrew נפש (nephesh), meaning "life, vital breath", and specifically ... Mortality or immortalityEdit. Main articles: Immortality of the soul, Christian conditionalism, Christian mortalism, and ... of the capacity to be alive. For example, someone who falls asleep, as opposed to someone who falls dead, can wake up and live ... believe in the mortality of the soul and unconscious "sleep" until the resurrection of the dead.[40] Various new religious ...
There is some evidence that a PEG tube should be inserted before vital capacity drops below 50% of expected, as a low vital ... Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 66 (27): 718-722. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6627a2. PMC 5687590. PMID 28704346. Archived from ... The criteria are "scores of at least 2 points on all 12 items of ALSFRS-R, forced vital capacity of 80% or more, definite or ... However, a large 2015 study showed that PEG insertion is safe in people with advanced ALS and low vital capacities, as long as ...
Newcombe, H. B.; J.M. Kennedy; S.J. Axford; A. P. James (October 1959). "Automatic Linkage of Vital Records". Science. 130 ( ... For example, fetal and infant mortality is a general indicator of a country's socioeconomic development, public health, and ... Linkages can help in follow-up studies of cohorts or other groups to determine factors such as vital status, residential status ... along with mortality data, such as cause of death, in analyzing the data. ...
"Estimation of potential global pandemic influenza mortality on the basis of vital registry data from the 1918-20 pandemic: a ... better quality and surge capacity.[218] Research on a universal influenza A vaccine, targeted against the external domain of ... Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 55 (2): 44-46. PMID 16424859. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 June 2011.. ... "Mortality due to influenza in the United States-an annualized regression approach using multiple-cause mortality data". ...
In children, sleep is also vital for growth and development. Ongoing sleep deprivation has been linked to an increased risk for ... Wingard DL, Berkman LF, Brand RJ (1982). "A multivariate analysis of health-related practices: a nine-year mortality follow-up ... Health is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities."[22] ... treating a disease or controlling a pathogen can be vital to preventing it in others, such as during an outbreak. Vaccination ...
Under-five mortality rates have also dropped, from 12 million in 1990 to 6.9 million in 2011.[41] Although these numbers alone ... The provision of emergency humanitarian aid consists of the provision of vital services (such as food aid to prevent starvation ... weakening local capacity.[19] Between 2005 and 2007, the number of parallel systems did fall, by about 10% in 33 countries.[19] ...
"Grave goods in early medieval burials: messages and meanings." Mortality ahead-of-print (2014): 1-21. ... vital to military success, was appreciated even if it was taken for granted and features only incidentally in the sources.[150] ... who had the capacity not merely to interfere in Northumbrian affairs, but also to block a line of communication between Dublin ...
... deep diaphragmatic breathing exercises are beneficial in improving chest wall mobility and vital capacity.[96] Exercise may ... The life expectancy of people with PD is reduced.[105] Mortality ratios are around twice those of unaffected people.[105] ... GBD 2013 Mortality Causes of Death Collaborators (January 2015). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and ... GBD 2015 Mortality Causes of Death Collaborators (October 2016). "Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause ...
... is still vital in marginal climates, especially those unsuited for pastoral uses or agriculture.[citation needed] For ... However, in most circumstances carrying capacity is determined by a combination habitat and food availability, and hunting for ... reducing mortality among the remaining animals. Some environmentalists assert[who?] that (re)introducing predators would ... in managing populations that might exceed the carrying capacity of their habitat and threaten the well-being of other species, ...
"The action of caffeine on the capacity for muscular work" Journal of Physiology 36: 33-47: 1907. ... "vital fluid", including trees and flasks of water. The subjects were unable to do so. The commission went on to examine claims ... Mortality rate. *Morbidity. *Case fatality rate. *Specificity and sensitivity. *Likelihood-ratios. *Pre- and post-test ...
It demonstrated activity in animal models of stroke,[23] but human trials demonstrated no effect on mortality or other outcomes ... Uric acid has the highest concentration of any blood antioxidant[80] and provides over half of the total antioxidant capacity ... or remove them before they can damage vital components of the cell.[52][53] However, reactive oxygen species also have useful ... In food science, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) was once an industry standard for antioxidant strength of whole ...
MortalityEdit. Mortality unitsEdit. According to the WHO/IRTAD, Traffic accident data are often compared between countries and ... However, the planned capacity of motorways is often exceeded in a shorter timeframe than initially planned, due to the under ... "Correct traffic control and road traffic safety is vital to keeping communities safe and people in our neighborhoods safe from ... Mortality from Road Crashes in 193 Countries: A Comparison with Other Leading Causes of Death, University of Michigan ...
Adger, W.N.; et al., Ch 17: Assessment of Adaptation Practices, Options, Constraints and Capacity. , in IPCC AR4 WG2 2007 ... "Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Retrieved 2018-08-18. Multiple ... heat-related mortality and morbidity; vector-borne infectious diseases,… water-borne diseases…(and) malnutrition from ... these impacts have the potential to negatively impact the adaptability and resilience of the world's food production capacity; ...
A decline in the trade would mean over capacity in shipping and a fall in owner's profit. This again would lead to fewer orders ... high infant mortality, and growing rates of tuberculosis.[75] The new companies attracted rural workers, as well as large ... of Scottish business to Edinburgh to make Westminster more efficient and it was taken for granted that the union was vital to ...
In 1912, Casimir Funk coined the term vitamin, a vital factor in the diet, from the words "vital" and "amine," because these ... Bjelakovic G; Nikolova, D; Gluud, LL; Simonetti, RG; Gluud, C (2007). "Mortality in randomized trials of antioxidant ... the water requirement of this group is increased due to a reduction in renal concentrating capacity.[65] Pregnant and ... Vitamin C and selenium supplements did not impact mortality rate. Health effects of non-nutrient phytochemicals such as ...
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 56 (44): 1157-61. PMID 17989644.. *^ a b "The Global Burden of Disease 2004 Update" (PDF ... It is a very dangerous article, and use it as you will, it always diminishes the vital energies in exact proportion to the ... reduction of pulmonary capacity characterised by shortness of breath, wheezing, persistent cough with sputum, and damage to the ... Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 51 (14): 300-3. PMID 12002168.. *^ Streppel MT, Boshuizen HC, Ocké MC, Kok FJ, Kromhout ...
It is vital that resistance is detected at an early stage as if it becomes an acute, whole-farm problem, options are more ... 1997). "Cancer mortality in workers exposed to phenoxy herbicides, chlorophenols, and dioxins. An expanded and updated ... and soils with limited capacity to adsorb or retain the herbicides. Herbicide properties that increase likelihood of transport ...
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 65 (5051): 1434-1438. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm655051a4. PMID 28033311.. ... The functional capacity of individuals with CFS varies greatly.[24] Some persons with CFS lead relatively normal lives; others ... and that it is vital that further biomedical research be undertaken to help discover a cause and more effective forms of ... There is some preliminary evidence that the immunomodulatory medication rintatolimod improves exercise capacity, as well as ...
... adult mortality began to improve again.[184] The infant mortality rate increased from 24.7 in 1970 to 27.9 in 1974. Some ... Moscow considered Eastern Europe to be a critically vital buffer zone for the forward defense of its western borders, in case ... Resources were mobilized for rapid industrialization, which greatly expanded Soviet capacity in heavy industry and capital ... Dinkel, R.H. (1990). The Seeming Paradox of Increasing Mortality in a Highly Industrialized Nation: the Example of the Soviet ...
"Mortality and Burden of Disease Estimates for WHO Member States in 2002" (xls). World Health Organization. 2002.. ... Iron is present in all cells in the human body and has several vital functions, such as carrying oxygen to the tissues from the ... High TIBC (total iron binding capacity), although this can be elevated in cases of anemia of chronic inflammation. ... "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Recommendations and Reports. 47 (RR-3): 1-36. PMID 9563847.. .mw-parser-output cite. ...
... and inspiratory vital capacity were included in the multivariate analysis [29]. The SRI score was associated with mortality in ... The highest mortality was among COPD patients with established CHRF receiving LTMV. The majority of mortality in COPD is ... forced vital capacity; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in one second; PaCO2, partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide; PaO2, ... PaCO2 and forced vital capacity (FVC), but without subgroup analyses for the different diagnosis group [30]. Other measures of ...
FEV1.0 = forced expiratory volume in 1 s. VC = vital capacity. V/Q = ventilation-perfusion ratio. ... and an in-hospital mortality rate of 4%.5 The in-hospital mortality rate found in an Italian study3 of patients aged 65 years ... were important predictors of 30-day mortality. The risk of 30-day mortality almost doubled with each higher ASA status level. ... The 30-day mortality rate was 6%; 19% had postoperative complications; and 20% of patients spent at least 1 night in ICU. On ...
Forced vital capacity. *Mortality. *Progression free survival. *(and 7 more...). 50. All. 18 Years and older (Adult, Senior). ... Percent predicted forced vital capacity (FVC-%). 150. All. 18 Years and older (Adult, Senior). NCT03221257. UCLA-SLS3. SLSIII. ... Change from baseline in Forced vital capacity (FVC) at 6 months, after treatment with oral mycophenolate mofetil or placebo ... Effect of bortezomib with mycophenolate mofetil on lung function measured by change in Forced Vital Capacity during pulmonary ...
The first examined the mortality of a private census population (greater than 35,000 whites) enumerated in 1963 over two ... Risk factors for temporal changes in chronic respiratory disease mortality were evaluated from two studies conducted in ... Vital Capacity ... The second examined the 10-yr mortality of a subset of the 1963 ... Furthermore, while smokers showed an increased mortality risk for all causes, the excess mortality risk did not fall uniformly ...
The modified GOLD classification system of COPD predicts mortality in this cohort of middle-aged Americans followed for up to ... Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / mortality* * Risk Factors * Severity of Illness Index* * Vital Capacity ... Conclusion: The modified GOLD classification system of COPD predicts mortality in this cohort of middle-aged Americans followed ... Global Initiative on Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification of lung disease and mortality: findings from the ...
... forced vital capacity less than 80% with hemoglobin greater than 14 gm/dl or forced vital capacity less than 65% with ... Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity * Scleroderma, Systemic / mortality* * Scleroderma, Systemic / physiopathology * Survival Analysis ... reduced pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (less than or equal to 50% of predicted), reduced total serum protein ...
AFD was significantly associated with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1; P , 0.001) and FEV1/forced vital capacity ( ... and mortality on longitudinal follow-up. We identified a subset of participants with AFD below the median and peribronchial ... and can be used to estimate mortality risk. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00608764. FUNDING. This study ...
TRM, treatment related mortality. *VC, vital capacity. *WG, Wegeners granulomatosis. *autoimmune disease ... However, there was no treatment related mortality. Encouraging results were obtained after autologous PBSCT. Sclerosis of the ...
Lung function records were searched to retrieve forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and ... including increased mortality and poor functional recovery from stroke8 and increased mortality and infection on a ... Mortality. The proportion of participants in each group who died is shown in table 1. The mean (SD) blood glucose concentration ... Mortality and length of stay were slightly but not significantly lower in those who did not have a blood glucose measurement, ...
BMI was calculated by dividing patient body weight (in kg) by the square of height (in m2). FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC ... Seneff et al29 reported an in-hospital mortality rate of 24%, with mortality rates after hospital discharge increasing to 59% ... We also observed a high mortality among patients requiring admission to hospital, with a crude mortality risk 2.94-fold greater ... Our results suggest that the mortality risk increases with the frequency of severe acute exacerbations. The maximum mortality ...
Vital capacity as a predictor of cardiovascular disease: the Framingham study.Am Heart J1983;331:3158. ... for respiratory mortality among those with no respiratory symptoms, and for both all cause mortality and mortality from ... For all cause mortality, the relative hazard ratio for those in the bottom fifth was 1.9 for men and women. Increased risks ... Coronary heart disease mortality in our study was based on 1001 deaths from ischaemic heart disease in men and 565 such deaths ...
Mortality-data; Pulmonary-function-tests; Spirometry; Vital-capacity; Men; Worker-health; Workers; Workplace-studies; Fumes; ... The objective was to compare annual decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (dFEV1) and forced vital capacity (dFVC). ... Background: Aluminum potroom exposure is associated with increased mortality of COPD but the association between potroom ...
We extended vital status follow-up on a cohort of 1,990 lead smelter workers by 25 years and computed standardized mortality ... Vital capacity; Information processing; Cardiovascular disease; Cerebrovascular system disorders; Cardiovascular system disease ... Increased risk of mortality was observed for the a priori outcomes of lung cancer, cardiovascular disease (including ... Mortality of lead smelter workers: a follow-up study with exposure assessment. ...
... forced vital capacity; PFT, pulmonary function tests; TLC, total lung capacity; UIP, usual interstitial pneumonia. ... Cause-specific mortality. No significant change (IPF mortality). No significant change (respiratory mortality). ... forced vital capacity; IPF, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; LFT, liver function test; SGRQ, Saint George Respiratory ... All-cause mortality. No significant change. No significant change. ...
... and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC; P , 0.001) after adjusting for age, race, sex, smoking status, pack-years of smoking ... Finally, we calculated all-cause mortality, as mortality causes have not been adjudicated. ... Mortality by level of emphysema and airway wall thickness. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013;187(6):602-608.. View this article ... Airway fractal dimension predicts respiratory morbidity and mortality in COPD. Sandeep Bodduluri,1,2,3 Abhilash S. Kizhakke ...
Change in forced vital capacity (FVC) is widely accepted as a surrogate for mortality and is the most common primary endpoint ... Association of hospital admission and forced vital capacity endpoints with survival in patients with idiopathic pulmonary ... Association of Hospitalization and Forced Vital Capacity Endpoints with Survival in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Analysis of ... Association of Hospitalization and Forced Vital Capacity Endpoints with Survival in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Analysis of ...
Lower mortality was associated with albumin level , 37 g/L (3.7 dg/L, P , 0.001); forced vital capacity , 3 mL (P , 0.005); ... 5-year mortality rate.. Main results. By 5 years, 646 deaths (12%) occurred. 21 of 27 variables were associated with mortality ... Greater mortality was associated with moderate or severe aortic stenosis (P , 0.001); increasing age (P , 0.001); 100% stenosis ... At 5 years, mortality in older adults was associated with 21 variables, including age, sex, income, weight, some serum measures ...
Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) decline, mortality and healthcare resource utilization in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. ...
Evidence for sedentary traits of resting tachycardia, obesity, and low vital capacity. Am. J. Epidemiol. 129:1145-1156. ... Body weight change, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Ann. ... Vital Health Stat. 2(73):1-53.. Feinleib, M., R. J. Garrison, R. Fabsitz, and J. C. Christian, Z. Hruber, N. O. Borhani, W. B. ... Vital Health Stat. 10(172):iii-iv, 1-60.. Debusk, R. F., U. Stenestrand, M. Sheehan, and W. L. Haskell. 1990. Training effects ...
... mortality risk, and with respiratory mortality risk to a lesser extent. Compared to those who reported no physical activity, ... and CVD mortality (HR 0.48, 95% CI 0.26-0.88). Dose-response associations with mortality risk were demonstrated for walking and ... This aim of this study was to examine the associations of total and type-specific physical activity with mortality risk in ... We found a dose-response association between physical activity and all-cause and CVD mortality risk in people with COPD, with ...
The findings may represent a common pathway that may link low normal FVC to cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. ... Rate of Decline of Forced Vital Capacity Predicts Future Arterial Hypertension. David R. Jacobs, Hiroshi Yatsuya, Mary O. ... Rate of Decline of Forced Vital Capacity Predicts Future Arterial Hypertension. David R. Jacobs, Hiroshi Yatsuya, Mary O. ... We studied whether greater loss of forced vital capacity (FVC) early in life predicted incident hypertension. The sample was ...
... forced vital capacity (FVC); forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1); and peak flow rate. Where individuals had missing data, we ... Mortality rates in the Scottish studies were 40% higher than in the English studies for all causes. The mortality rates for ... Scottish mortality in a European context 1950-2000: an analysis of comparative mortality trends. Edinburgh Scottish Public ... The end points of interest were all-cause mortality and mortality from: CVD (International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 ...
FVC (Forced Vital Capacity). Reduction of pulmonary function is the primary source of morbidity and mortality in ALS. FVC ... Reduction of pulmonary function is the primary source of morbidity and mortality in ALS. MIP testing will be used to monitor ...
There was no relationship with forced vital capacity (FVC) decline. On multivariate analysis, supplemental oxygen use was the ... There was no association between prolonged anxiety and mortality (p=0.31). On univariate analysis, prolonged anxiety was ... Understanding and optimizing health-related quality of life and physical functional capacity in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. ... Australian Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Registry: vital lessons from a national prospective collaborative project. Respirology ...
Review: Liberal oxygen increases mortality in acutely ill adults compared with conservative oxygen therapy Annals of Internal ... EFFECT OF INTRAVENOUSLY ADMINISTERED OXYGEN ON SYMPTOMS AND VITAL CAPACITY IN BRONCHIAL ASTHMA1 HARRY MARKOW, M.D.; MENDEL ... EFFECT OF INTRAVENOUSLY ADMINISTERED OXYGEN ON SYMPTOMS AND VITAL CAPACITY IN BRONCHIAL ASTHMA1. Ann Intern Med. ;29:607-622. ... Review: Liberal oxygen increases mortality in acutely ill adults compared with conservative oxygen therapy Annals of Internal ...
Seccombe, L., Rogers, P., Jenkins, C., Peters, M. (2012). Maintenance of vital capacity during repetitive breath-hold in a ... Brillante, R., Laks, L., Cossa, G., Peters, M., Liu, P. (2012). An Overnight Increase in CO(2) Predicts Mortality in Sleep ... Seccombe, L., Rogers, P., Jenkins, C., Peters, M. (2012). Maintenance of vital capacity during repetitive breath-hold in a ... Leung, W., McKeough, Z., Peters, M., Alison, J. (2013). Does Short-Form Sun Style Tai Chi improve exercise capacity in people ...
The vital capacity decreases by nine percent in the case of compression fracture of one thoracic vertebral body. Mortality of ...
... and forced vital capacity at 1 year (58 patients; p = 0.009), 2 years (40 patients; p = 0.02), and 3 years (28 patients; p = ... with a nonselected autograft results in sustained improvement in skin thickness and forced vital capacity. DLCO is affected by ... 0.004), but total lung capacity and diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) were not improved significantly after HSCT. ... YOU ARE HERE: Home , Latest in Cardiology , Cardiac Involvement and Treatment-Related Mortality After Non-Myeloablative ...
Forced vital capacity paired with Framingham Risk Score for prediction of all-cause mortality H.M. Lee, H. Le, B.T. Lee, V.A. ... Vital capacity in lying position: important in Duchenne patients P. Wijkstra, A. Hazenberg, J. Nieuwenhuis ... Pulmonary artery pressure limits exercise capacity at high altitude R. Naeije, S. Huez, M. Lamotte, K. Retailleau, S. Neupane, ...
  • We observed a fall in age-adjusted mortality from all causes and from arteriosclerotic heart disease (ASHD), but an increase in COPD mortality. (nih.gov)
  • To determine whether a modified Global Initiative on Obstructive Lung Diseases (GOLD) classification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) predicts mortality in a cohort of subjects followed for up to 11 years. (nih.gov)
  • The modified GOLD classification system of COPD predicts mortality in this cohort of middle-aged Americans followed for up to 11 years. (nih.gov)
  • A study was undertaken to investigate whether severe acute exacerbations of COPD exert a direct effect on mortality. (bmj.com)
  • The patients with the greatest mortality risk were those with three or more acute COPD exacerbations (HR 4.13, 95% CI 1.80 to 9.41). (bmj.com)
  • 1 However, of all these illnesses, only COPD mortality has increased in recent years and by the year 2020 it is expected to become the third leading cause of death in the world. (bmj.com)
  • Different authors have investigated the predictive factors associated with increased COPD mortality. (bmj.com)
  • Background: Aluminum potroom exposure is associated with increased mortality of COPD but the association between potroom exposure and annual decline in lung function is unknown. (cdc.gov)
  • Regular physical activity is recommended for all people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the dose of physical activity required to gain mortality benefit in this population is not yet known. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This aim of this study was to examine the associations of total and type-specific physical activity with mortality risk in people with COPD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We found a dose-response association between physical activity and all-cause and CVD mortality risk in people with COPD, with protective effects appearing at levels considerably lower than the general physical activity recommendations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although regular PA is recommended for all patients with COPD [ 6 ], there is a lack of high-quality evidence on which to base specific PA recommendations for this population, in particular the dose of PA required to gain mortality benefit. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Such studies are limited by the use of small non-representative samples of people with COPD to examine the association between PA and mortality risk, and by arbitrary definitions of what constitutes "low" and "high" levels of PA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Endoscopic Lung Volume Reduction in COPD: Improvements in Gas Transfer Capacity Are Associated With Improvements in Ventilation and Perfusion Matching. (edu.au)
  • Among 14,213 participants followed for events, each standard deviation in ln-albuminuria increased the risk for incident COPD-related hospitalization/mortality by 26 percent. (drugs.com)
  • FVC) in predicting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-related hospitalization and mortality? (bmj.com)
  • BMI has served as an independent prognostic factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with a clear association between a low BMI and increased mortality (9). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The researchers aimed to determine how accurate various thresholds were in predicting COPD-related hospitalizations and mortality. (eurekalert.org)
  • Discriminative Accuracy of FEV1:FVC Thresholds for COPD-Related Hospitalization and Mortality. (eurekalert.org)
  • Patient factors were often stronger predictors of mortality than the type of surgery. (mja.com.au)
  • What are the predictors of mortality for community-living adults who are ≥ 65 years of age? (acpjc.org)
  • We sought to identify predictors of mortality and cardiopulmonary hospitalizations in patients at risk for pulmonary hypertension (PH) and enrolled in PHAROS, a prospective cohort study to investigate the natural history of PH in systemic sclerosis (SSc). (jrheum.org)
  • In this study, we evaluated the relationships between BMI and clinical variables of disease severity in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis and explored the predictive factors for the risks of hospitalization and mortality in these patients. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • To assess the relation between forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and subsequent mortality. (bmj.com)
  • The relative hazard ratios for all cause mortality for subjects in the lowest fifth of the FEV1 distribution were 1.92 (95% confidence interval 1.68 to 2.20) for men and 1.89 (1.63 to 2.20) for women. (bmj.com)
  • 10 11 12 The strong inverse relations found between mortality and FEV1 in each of these diseases suggest that poor respiratory function has a predictive or even causal role in a wide range of conditions, not only respiratory disease. (bmj.com)
  • We present an analysis of the relation between FEV1 and mortality in the Renfrew and Paisley survey. (bmj.com)
  • Forced vital capacity (FVC) showed stronger associations than FEV1 with LV mass. (cdc.gov)
  • For each standard decrease in ln-albuminuria, there was a 2.81 percent greater decline in FEV1 and an 11.02 percent greater decline in FEV1/forced vital capacity. (drugs.com)
  • In 1965 lung function was measured by spirometry and the vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were available. (bmj.com)
  • A reduced FEV1 was a strong predictor of both CNSLD incidence and mortality. (bmj.com)
  • The clinical outcome measures were body mass index (BMI), forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), immunoglobulin E (IgE) in serum and serum C-reactive protein (CRP). (uio.no)
  • We meta-analyzed genome-wide association studies for two clinically important lung-function measures: forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and its ratio to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC), an indicator of airflow obstruction. (rti.org)
  • Those include the ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) - that is, the amount of air exhaled forcefully in one second - over forced vital capacity (FVC) - or the full amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled in a complete breath. (eurekalert.org)
  • Five hundred fifty-eight healthy children, ages 6-14 years, attending Navajo Nation elementary schools in Arizona, were asked to perform spirometry to develop population-specific and tribe-specific nomograms for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), and FEV1 Ratio (FEV1/FVC). (biomedsearch.com)
  • High lead exposures have been associated with increased mortality from certain cancers, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). (cdc.gov)
  • Prospective studies have revealed that in patients with SSc a greater rate of decline of forced vital capacity (FVC) is associated with increased mortality. (the-rheumatologist.org)
  • The cohort has high mortality from coronary heart disease 13 14 15 and lung cancer 16 and a high prevalence of impaired respiratory function. (bmj.com)
  • However, in a cohort study of persons who were ≥ 70 years of age, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol predicted coronary heart disease events and mortality in women as well as men ( 2 ). (acpjc.org)
  • We also sought to investigate the associations between several factors [e.g., age, smoking habits, total serum cholesterol, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity] and cancer mortality, and to compare these results with the findings reported in previous analyses about coronary heart disease and stroke mortality. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Background While various measures of common mental disorders (CMD) have been found to be associated with mortality, a comparison of how different measures predict mortality may improve our understanding of the association. (bmj.com)
  • While both have been shown to predict mortality 3-8 each has different qualities that could influence the association: while the 30-item GHQ was designed to screen for general psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and depression, HADS consists of two seven-item subscales, each designed specifically to discriminate between anxiety and depression. (bmj.com)
  • It is unknown if the method of calculating decline in FVC (relative vs. absolute change) impacts its frequency or its ability to predict mortality. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Nocturnal hypoxemia and hypercapnia (using four different definitions) at baseline were compared in their ability to predict mortality and respiratory events requiring ICU admission during follow-up. (frontiersin.org)
  • By American Thoracic Society , For idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients awaiting lung transplantation, a simple walk test can predict mortality rates. (rxpgnews.com)
  • A poor nutritional status was directly related to decreasing pulmonary function, and this link was a proposed predictive factor of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic respiratory diseases (8). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • For this reason, there have been numerous attempts to use a variety of antioxidants (which reduce the concentrations of reactive species) to decrease morbidity and mortality in patients with ARDS. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Association of hospital admission and forced vital capacity endpoints with survival in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: analysis of a p. (nih.gov)
  • Mortality is an impractical primary endpoint for clinical trials in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis who have mild-to-moderate physiological impairment because event rates are low. (nih.gov)
  • Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) decline, mortality and healthcare resource utilization in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. (nih.gov)
  • The analysis from three key trials with similar designs further confirms the benefits of OFEV® in reducing mortality and acute exacerbations in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. (fiercepharma.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) over time reliably predicts mortality in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by pulmonary function tests (PFT) disorders with a typical restrictive pattern defined by a decreased total lung capacity (TLC) or vital capacity (VC) altogether with the decrease of the diffusion of carbon monoxide (DLco), including corrections by alveolar volume (KCO). (mdpi.com)
  • The decreased functional residual capacity and expiratory reserve volume, with a high closing volume to functional residual capacity ratio of obesity, are associated with the closure of peripheral lung units, ventilation to perfusion ratio abnormalities and hypoxemia, especially in the supine position. (hindawi.com)
  • Methods: We extended vital status follow-up on a cohort of 1,990 lead smelter workers by 25 years and computed standardized mortality ratios and rate ratios (RR) stratified by cumulative lead exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Methods Data on 2547 men and women from two cohorts, aged approximately 39 and 55 years, from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study who were followed up for mortality over an average of 18.9 (SD 5.0) years. (bmj.com)
  • p = 0.004), but total lung capacity and diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) were not improved significantly after HSCT. (acc.org)
  • Patients were required to have an FVC ≥ 50% predicted of normal and a carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO, corrected for hemoglobin) 30% to 79% predicted of normal. (mims.com)
  • Analyses were performed unadjusted and adjusted for age, gender, use of oxygen, baseline FVC and baseline diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Additionally, they found a small benefit in terms of % FVC when cyclophosphamide was compared with placebo, but they found no difference in % diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO). (the-rheumatologist.org)
  • When middle-aged and older men increase their level of physical fitness, their risk for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality decreases ( 1 ). (acpjc.org)
  • Lung function studies in middle-aged subjects predict cardiovascular disease mortality. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the context of an international project conducted from 1960 to 2000 in Europe, United States, and Japan (the Seven Countries Study), we aim to evaluate the 40-year incidence of cancer mortality among middle-aged men that consisted one of the cohorts of the study (the Corfu cohort in Greece). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to examine whether SRI sum scores and related subscales are associated with mortality in LTMV patients. (springer.com)
  • SRI score is associated with mortality in LTMV-treated patients. (springer.com)
  • To determine the incidence of postoperative complications, including 30-day mortality rate, and need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission in older patients after non-cardiac surgery. (mja.com.au)
  • Using the NSQIP database, Hamel et al recently described risk factors for mortality in over 25 000 patients aged 80 years or older. (mja.com.au)
  • We therefore performed a prospective observational study of patients 70 years and older having surgery at three Melbourne hospitals to test the hypothesis that morbidity and mortality rates in older patients after surgery are high, resulting in a significant workload burden on hospital critical care services. (mja.com.au)
  • A study was therefore undertaken to determine the relationship between blood glucose concentrations, length of stay in hospital, and mortality in patients admitted with AECOPD. (bmj.com)
  • Tight control of blood glucose reduces mortality in patients in intensive care or following myocardial infarction. (bmj.com)
  • The paradoxic protective effect of greater weight and the lack of association of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels with mortality should be interpreted cautiously because they occurred after researchers controlled for diabetes and when the patients had difficulty with IADLs and carotid stenosis (a likely proxy for atherosclerosis). (acpjc.org)
  • Obese patients have increased dyspnea and decreased exercise capacity, which are vital to quality of life. (hindawi.com)
  • The respiratory impairment is the main cause of morbid-mortality at these patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients who had pulmonary complications had a 2.8-fold increased risk of mortality (P (jove.com)
  • These patients may benefit from modified transplant strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality. (jove.com)
  • CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that positive RI-SUV is strongly predictive of earlier deterioration of pulmonary function and higher mortality in patients with IPF. (nii.ac.jp)
  • One of the key components of an ICU is the continuous monitoring of patients' vital parameters. (bvsalud.org)
  • These symptoms impose a significant burden on patients, resulting in worsening of quality of life and premature mortality (4). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In 2004, one study described a clear association between a low BMI and increased mortality in patients with end-stage respiratory disease (including 33 patients with bronchiectasis) (7). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Patients with hip fractures have high morbidity and mortality, which has not changed significantly since last two decades. (intechopen.com)
  • Rates of morbidity and mortality are high in these patients and also there is decline in function and loss of independence. (intechopen.com)
  • Risk of significant morbidity and mortality in these patients can be reduced by early surgical fixation of the fracture and early, effective rehabilitation. (intechopen.com)
  • The primary endpoint of the two Phase III trials is the annual rate of decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) over a treatment period of 52 weeks in approximately 1,000 enrolled patients. (news-medical.net)
  • Conclusions Plasma creatinine is an inexpensive and easily accessible biomarker that exhibits less variability between patients with ALS over time and is predictive for the patient's functional status, muscle strength and mortality risk. (bmj.com)
  • Mortality was elevated in subgroup of patients with gout and heart failure (adjusted HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.30 to 1.73) compared to those with heart failure but without gout. (bmj.com)
  • The investigators call the six-minute walk test a "simple, safe, reliable and inexpensive" way to assess the self-paced exercise capacity of IPF patients. (rxpgnews.com)
  • CONCLUSION In patients undergoing TA-AVI, the new EuroSCORE II correlates strongly with the logistic EuroSCORE, but is a poorer predictor of 30-day and in-hospital mortality than the STS score. (escardio.org)
  • Higher SRI sum scores in 2008 were associated with a lower mortality risk after adjustment for age, education, hours a day on LTMV, time since initiation of LTMV, disease category and comorbidity (HR 0.98, 95% CI: 0.96-0.99). (springer.com)
  • In addition, SRI-Physical Functioning (HR 0.98, 95% CI: 0.96-0.99), SRI-Psychological Well-Being (HR 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97-0.99), and SRI-Social Functioning (HR 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97-0.99) remained significant risk factors for mortality after covariate adjustment. (springer.com)
  • Risk factors for temporal changes in chronic respiratory disease mortality were evaluated from two studies conducted in Washington County, Maryland. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, while smokers showed an increased mortality risk for all causes, the excess mortality risk did not fall uniformly across cigarette smokers. (nih.gov)
  • We used Cox proportional hazard models to determine the risk of impaired lung function on subsequent mortality, after adjusting for age, race, sex and smoking status. (nih.gov)
  • Airway fractal dimension as a measure of airway branching complexity and remodeling in smokers is associated with respiratory morbidity and lung function change, offers prognostic information additional to traditional CT measures of airway wall thickness, and can be used to estimate mortality risk. (jci.org)
  • Impaired lung function is a major clinical indicator of mortality risk in men and women for a wide range of diseases. (bmj.com)
  • Increased risk of mortality was observed for the a priori outcomes of lung cancer, cardiovascular disease (including cerebrovascular disease), chronic kidney disease, and ALS. (cdc.gov)
  • We used Cox proportional-hazards models to assess the risk of all-cause mortality associated with these surrogate events, occurring up to a predefined landmark timepoint. (nih.gov)
  • Risk factors for 5-year mortality in older adults. (acpjc.org)
  • The study by Fried and colleagues shows that several independent risk factors-many of which represent subclinical disease or lifestyle factors-act singly and in concert to increase the overall risk for mortality in older persons. (acpjc.org)
  • The study by Fried and colleagues substantiates the protective effect of physical activity, which may delay or prevent functional dependence (another risk factor for mortality). (acpjc.org)
  • Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the associations between physical activity and mortality risk. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For both total physical activity and MVPA, we observed dose-response associations with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality risk, and with respiratory mortality risk to a lesser extent. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Compared to those who reported no physical activity, participants who met the physical activity guidelines demonstrated the greatest reductions in all-cause (HR 0.56, 95% CI 0.45-0.69), CVD (HR 0.48, 95% CI 0.32-0.71) and respiratory mortality risk (HR 0.40, 95% CI 0.24-0.67). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Participants who reported a level of physical activity of at least half the dosage recommended by the guidelines also had a reduced risk of all-cause (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.56-1.00) and CVD mortality (HR 0.48, 95% CI 0.26-0.88). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dose-response associations with mortality risk were demonstrated for walking and sport/exercise, but not domestic physical activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cox regression analysis was used to quantify the excess mortality risk in Scotland relative to England with adjustment for baseline characteristics. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions Only a quarter of the excess mortality among Scottish respondents could be explained by the available baseline risk factors. (bmj.com)
  • In the at-risk group, higher mortality was strongly associated with male sex, low %DLCO, exercise oxygen desaturation, anemia, abnormal dyspnea scores, and baseline pericardial effusion. (jrheum.org)
  • 6 miles/h was sufficient to reduce risk of mortality, compared with not running. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Although these differences in lung function have no direct clinical importance for the individual subject, they indicate a raised morbidity and mortality risk for the population. (bmj.com)
  • Purpose: We evaluated risk factors of cancer mortality based on a 40-year follow-up of the Corfu cohort (Seven Countries Study). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cox proportional hazards models evaluated various risk factors in relation to cancer mortality. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Smoking was associated with increased risk of cancer, whereas moderate total serum cholesterol and increased body and mass index seemed to have a protective effect on 40-year cancer mortality. (aacrjournals.org)
  • FRIDAY, Nov. 30 (HealthDay News) -- A meta-analysis of mortality related to ischemic heart disease found that lower levels of total cholesterol were associated with a decreased risk of death in middle and old age, however, a similar association was not found in stroke mortality, researchers report in the Dec. 1 issue of The Lancet . (healthday.com)
  • Mortality Risk Prediction in Scleroderma-Related Interstitial Lung Disease: The SADL Model. (ucsf.edu)
  • Conclusion Gout is associated with increased risk for clinical heart failure, subclinical measures of systolic dysfunction and mortality. (bmj.com)
  • 1 Heart failure is associated with a high risk of morbidity, mortality and hospital utilisation. (bmj.com)
  • In addition, a Spearman correlation analysis was performed, and a stepwise multivariate Cox regression used to identify the independent risk factors of mortality. (escardio.org)
  • these facts compare unfavourably with developed countries where the CPR is high, the TFR has declined to 1.6 and maternal death risk is 1:2 800.2 The millennium development goals (MDGs) call for three-quarters reduction in maternal mortality and two-thirds reduction in child mortality between 1990 and 2015. (who.int)
  • On multivariable analysis, AFD was also associated with respiratory quality of life and 6-minute walk distance, as well as exacerbations, lung function decline, and mortality on longitudinal follow-up. (jci.org)
  • The objective was to compare annual decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (dFEV1) and forced vital capacity (dFVC). (cdc.gov)
  • Use of hospital admission as a predictor for mortality, independent of FVC decline, has not been well defined. (nih.gov)
  • The analysis also confirmed that OFEV® slowed disease progression by approximately 50%, as measured by annual rate of decline in forced vital capacity (FVC). (fiercepharma.com)
  • The primary endpoint was the annual rate of decline in Forced Vital Capacity (FVC). (mims.com)
  • Because of the prevalence and high mortality of IPF, researchers have studied a wide variety of potential agents, searching for an effective treatment. (medscape.com)
  • Hypophosphatemia is associated with malnutrition and can result in high mortality, especially upon refeeding. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We tested the extent to which sociodemographic, behavioural, anthropometric and biological factors explain the higher mortality in Scotland compared with England. (bmj.com)
  • The population of Scotland has experienced higher mortality rates than the rest of the UK since the 1920s, and improved more slowly than the rest of continental Europe since the 1950s. (bmj.com)
  • 1-3 Initially, this was largely ascribed to higher mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke and cancer. (bmj.com)
  • Secondary endpoints include change from baseline in quality of life, time to first acute exacerbation, respiratory mortality, overall survival and on-treatment survival. (news-medical.net)
  • The second examined the 10-yr mortality of a subset of the 1963 census (884 men who had undergone spirometry). (nih.gov)
  • Spirometry is a non-invasive tool of importance in portance in respiratory medicine and a vital tool in the respiratory medicine. (who.int)
  • 21 of 27 variables were associated with mortality in a multivariate regression analysis. (acpjc.org)
  • On the other hand, multivariate Cox analysis showed higher RI-SUV and lower forced vital capacity to be independent predictors of shorter overall survival. (nii.ac.jp)
  • L ittle is known about the incidence and extent of comorbidities and complications in older Australians having surgery or the mortality associated with surgery. (mja.com.au)
  • The cumulative incidence of death due to pulmonary complications was significantly higher in children who had low lung volumes, functional residual capacity (FRC) (jove.com)
  • MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Colorectal cancer incidence and mortality, test accuracy in detecting CRC or adenomas, and serious adverse events. (cdc.gov)
  • Purpose: Impaired pulmonary function has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality. (cdc.gov)
  • Relations between occupation, smoking, lung function, and incidence and mortality of chronic non-specific lung disease: the Zutphen Study. (bmj.com)
  • For the analysis of the relation between age, lung function, smoking habits, and occupational state with CNSLD incidence and mortality, proportional hazard models were used. (bmj.com)
  • It is noteworthy that small differences in age and height standardised lung function were significantly related to incidence of CNSLD, mortality from CNSLD, and total mortality. (bmj.com)
  • Postoperative complications and 30-day mortality rate. (mja.com.au)
  • One study reported no in-hospital postoperative mortality in either the exercise or the non-exercise groups. (altmetric.com)
  • The association between the SRI score and mortality was estimated as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) using Cox regression models and HRs were estimated per one unit change in the SRI score. (springer.com)
  • The hazard ratio for blue v white collar workers with CNSLD mortality was 1.4 but not statistically significant. (bmj.com)
  • He also used his machine for the prediction of premature mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • The prognostic values of the STS score, logistic EuroSCORE and the recent EuroSCORE II systems were analysed by ROC curve analysis for the prediction of 30-day (area under the curve, AUC: 0.64 vs 0.55 vs 0.50) and in-hospital mortality (AUC: 0.65 vs 0.54 vs 0.49). (escardio.org)
  • Mortality increases with the frequency of severe exacerbations, particularly if these require admission to hospital. (bmj.com)
  • Administration of ascorbate and deferoxamine reduces mortality and decreases lung injury through reduction of alveolar-capillary permeability, inflammation, and epithelial sloughing and lipid peroxidation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Our studies show that administration of ascorbate and deferoxamine reduced mortality and decreased lung injury through reduction of alveolar-capillary permeability, inflammation, and epithelial sloughing and lipid peroxidation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Lung function is significantly affected in cases of pulmonary agenesis, demonstrated by reduction in forced expiratory volume and forced vital capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to its role in the diagnosis of SSc, highlighted by its inclusion in the most recent ACR/EULAR consensus classification criteria, NFC has been shown to predict disease activity, many organ-specific complications such as digital ulcers, pulmonary hypertension and interstitial lung disease, and even mortality. (intechopen.com)
  • It is a major observation of this study that all-cause and cardiovascular (as well as pulmonary) mortality are significantly more often found among subjects with ventilatory impairment (independent of smoking status). (nih.gov)
  • Although anesthesia and surgical techniques have improved significantly, anesthesia related morbidity and mortality is still high in this vulnerable population. (springer.com)
  • The six-minute walk test's ability to separate those alive at six months from those who died was not only significantly better than chance, but also superior to the forced vital capacity percent (FVC%) predicted test. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) is an important predictor of all-cause mortality in the absence of chronic respiratory conditions. (uta.fi)
  • 5 With an accompanying increase in rates of alcohol-related deaths over subsequent decades, the mortality pattern now has parallels to that observed in eastern Europe. (bmj.com)
  • We sought to examine the performance of 5 algorithms to identify prescription opioid-related deaths from vital statistics data against data abstracted from the Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario as a gold standard. (cmaj.ca)
  • We then used 5 different algorithms to identify prescription opioid-related deaths from vital statistics death data in 2010. (cmaj.ca)
  • In the absence of specific systems for monitoring prescription opioid-related deaths in Canada, readily available national vital statistics data can be used to study prescription opioid-related mortality with considerable accuracy. (cmaj.ca)
  • The data in this section cover population and population change (migrations, births, deaths) as well as infant mortality data. (economy.com)
  • The infant mortality rate represents the ratio between deaths of children under one year and the number of live births in a given year. (economy.com)
  • In 2000, cancer accounted for over 7 million deaths (13% of total mortality) and there were more than 10 million new cancer cases worldwide. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Prognostic factors recognized classically that influence mortality include functional, clinical and radiological parameters. (mdpi.com)
  • Despite the large amount of evidences about the prognostic markers of cancer mortality, long-term predictors have rarely been reported in the literature. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The prognostic value of the EuroSCORE II was evaluated and compared with the logistic EuroSCORE and STS mortality score by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis. (escardio.org)
  • Anxiety and depression have shown different associations with mortality, 5 , 9 but it is not known how a general measure of CMD such as GHQ-30 would compare. (bmj.com)
  • Anatomical changes to the thorax produce a progressive decrease in functional residual capacity, which is reduced 10-20% by term. (medscape.com)
  • functional residual capacity the amount of gas remaining at the end of normal quiet respiration. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2 In this context, strategies to reduce mortality and length of stay from AECOPD are urgently required. (bmj.com)
  • As HIV care services continue to scale-up in sub-Saharan Africa, adequate tuberculosis diagnostic capacity is vital to reduce mortality among HIV-infected persons. (msh.org)
  • The increased circumference of the thoracic cage allows the vital capacity to remain unchanged, and the total lung capacity decreases only minimally by term. (medscape.com)
  • He coined the term 'vital capacity', which was claimed as a powerful prognosis for heart disease by the Framingham study. (wikipedia.org)
  • The association of daily counts of cardiovascular mortality with PM2.5 components was analysed using time-series regression analyses. (bmj.com)
  • Change in forced vital capacity (FVC) is widely accepted as a surrogate for mortality and is the most common primary endpoint in clinical trials for this disorder. (nih.gov)
  • Given FDA's skepticism about forced vital capacity (FVC) as a clinically relevant endpoint, the company says it may need to consider mortality as a primary endpoint if it decides to move BIBF 1120 into Phase III testing. (biocentury.com)
  • Objectives We examined the associations of running with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risks in 55,137 adults, 18 to 100 years of age (mean age 44 years). (onlinejacc.org)
  • Compared with nonrunners, runners had 30% and 45% lower adjusted risks of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, respectively, with a 3-year life expectancy benefit. (onlinejacc.org)
  • In the analyses of change in running behaviors and mortality, persistent runners had the most significant benefits, with 29% and 50% lower risks of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, respectively, compared with never-runners. (onlinejacc.org)
  • To examine associations of daily cardiovascular mortality with PM2.5 and its constituents after stratification by gender, race/ethnicity and education, using data from six California counties during 2000 to 2003. (bmj.com)
  • Daily counts of cardiovascular mortality were associated with PM2.5 and several of its species including EC, OC, nitrates, sulphates, potassium, copper and iron. (bmj.com)
  • There is evidence that several PM2.5 constituents may represent important contributors to cardiovascular mortality. (bmj.com)
  • The age-adjusted and sex-adjusted all-cause mortality HR for Scottish respondents compared with English respondents was 1.40 (95% CI 1.34 to 1.47), which attenuated to 1.29 (95% CI 1.23 to 1.36) with the addition of the baseline socioeconomic and behavioural characteristics. (bmj.com)
  • It should be noted that the protective effect of total cholesterol on cancer mortality was observed only between 183 and 218 mg/dL baseline levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CONTEXT: Screening reduces mortality from breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers. (cdc.gov)
  • Nonventilatory therapy of flail chest reduces morbidity, mortality, and hospital cost. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Conclusions There were associations between CMD and both all-cause and cause-specific mortality which were broadly similar for GHQ-30 and HADS-D and were still present after adjustment for important confounders and mediators. (bmj.com)
  • In the subgroup analyses of patient with neuromuscular diseases we found significant inverse associations between some of the SRI subscales and mortality. (springer.com)
  • Several multi-city time-series analyses have demonstrated associations between daily mortality and ambient fine particulate matter (particles less than 2.5 microns in aerodynamic diameter or PM2.5). (bmj.com)
  • Second, in multi-city studies of particulate matter and daily mortality, analyses have demonstrated inter-city heterogeneity. (bmj.com)
  • It has been recognised for over 10 years that poor respiratory function is associated with a greatly increased mortality from chronic lung disease. (bmj.com)
  • Lung disease is the main cause of mortality in scleroderma. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cox Proportional Hazards Models were used to determine how each CMD measure predicted mortality. (bmj.com)
  • Major complications after surgery are strongly associated with prolonged hospitalisation, increased hospital costs, and mortality. (mja.com.au)
  • virus neutralizing capacity the ability of a serum to inhibit the infectivity of a virus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The first examined the mortality of a private census population (greater than 35,000 whites) enumerated in 1963 over two subsequent time periods by age, sex, and initial smoking status. (nih.gov)
  • Previous studies have shown that in-hospital mortality from AECOPD is predicted largely by fixed factors such as older age, 3, 4 male sex, co-morbidity and higher income, 4 but also by arterial pH. (bmj.com)