Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Maternal Mortality: Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.United StatesProportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic: Works about comparative studies to verify the effectiveness of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques determined in phase II studies. During these trials, patients are monitored closely by physicians to identify any adverse reactions from long-term use. These studies are performed on groups of patients large enough to identify clinically significant responses and usually last about three years. This concept includes phase III studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Mortality, Premature: Deaths that occur before LIFE EXPECTANCY is reached within a given population.Perinatal Mortality: Deaths occurring from the 28th week of GESTATION to the 28th day after birth in a given population.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic: Works about studies that are usually controlled to assess the effectiveness and dosage (if appropriate) of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques. These studies are performed on several hundred volunteers, including a limited number of patients with the target disease or disorder, and last about two years. This concept includes phase II studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials involving one or more test treatments, at least one control treatment, specified outcome measures for evaluating the studied intervention, and a bias-free method for assigning patients to the test treatment. The treatment may be drugs, devices, or procedures studied for diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic effectiveness. Control measures include placebos, active medicines, no-treatment, dosage forms and regimens, historical comparisons, etc. When randomization using mathematical techniques, such as the use of a random numbers table, is employed to assign patients to test or control treatments, the trials are characterized as RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS AS TOPIC.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic: Works about studies performed to evaluate the safety of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques in healthy subjects and to determine the safe dosage range (if appropriate). These tests also are used to determine pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties (toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, and preferred route of administration). They involve a small number of persons and usually last about 1 year. This concept includes phase I studies conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Death Certificates: Official records of individual deaths including the cause of death certified by a physician, and any other required identifying information.Morbidity: The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.Fetal Mortality: Number of fetal deaths with stated or presumed gestation of 20 weeks or more in a given population. Late fetal mortality is death after of 28 weeks or more.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Multicenter Studies as Topic: Works about controlled studies which are planned and carried out by several cooperating institutions to assess certain variables and outcomes in specific patient populations, for example, a multicenter study of congenital anomalies in children.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Life Expectancy: Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Clinical Protocols: Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.Review Literature as Topic: Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Great BritainAbstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Benchmarking: Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.EnglandRecurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.EuropeTextbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Meta-Analysis as Topic: A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Early Termination of Clinical Trials: Earlier than planned termination of clinical trials.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.JapanCoronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.WalesDeveloping Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Critical Illness: A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.SwedenDatabases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Clinical Trials Data Monitoring Committees: Committees established to review interim data and efficacy outcomes in clinical trials. The findings of these committees are used in deciding whether a trial should be continued as designed, changed, or terminated. Government regulations regarding federally-funded research involving human subjects (the "Common Rule") require (45 CFR 46.111) that research ethics committees reviewing large-scale clinical trials monitor the data collected using a mechanism such as a data monitoring committee. FDA regulations (21 CFR 50.24) require that such committees be established to monitor studies conducted in emergency settings.ItalyCombined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Respiratory Tract DiseasesBreast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.GermanySample Size: The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.DenmarkDatabases as Topic: Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.BrazilForecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Intensive Care: Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Programmed Instruction as Topic: Instruction in which learners progress at their own rate using workbooks, textbooks, or electromechanical devices that provide information in discrete steps, test learning at each step, and provide immediate feedback about achievement. (ERIC, Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1996).Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.APACHE: An acronym for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, a scoring system using routinely collected data and providing an accurate, objective description for a broad range of intensive care unit admissions, measuring severity of illness in critically ill patients.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Clinical Trials, Phase IV as Topic: Planned post-marketing studies of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques that have been approved for general sale. These studies are often conducted to obtain additional data about the safety and efficacy of a product. This concept includes phase IV studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Risk Adjustment: The use of severity-of-illness measures, such as age, to estimate the risk (measurable or predictable chance of loss, injury or death) to which a patient is subject before receiving some health care intervention. This adjustment allows comparison of performance and quality across organizations, practitioners, and communities. (from JCAHO, Lexikon, 1994)FinlandStatistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Bias (Epidemiology): Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Life Tables: Summarizing techniques used to describe the pattern of mortality and survival in populations. These methods can be applied to the study not only of death, but also of any defined endpoint such as the onset of disease or the occurrence of disease complications.AccidentsProbability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.CaliforniaEducational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.ScotlandCardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Confounding Factors (Epidemiology): Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.Vascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Guinea-Bissau: A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and west of GUINEA. Its capital is Bissau.

*Stress hyperglycemia

... can measurably increase the morbidity and mortality of such patients. According to a randomized control trial of over 1500 ... A meta-analysis of studies on this topic could not demonstrate an advantage of tight glycemic control, while there was an ... the largest randomized control trial to date (with 6104 enrolled patients) comparing the effects of intensive glucose control ... conventional glucose control in ICU patients found that tight glucose control significantly increased mortality at 90 days ...

*List of important publications in medicine

... clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, efficacy tests, and clinical pharmacology. The work is considered one of the ... The results of the trial showed that simvastatin had a lowering effect on mortality and morbidity of patients suffering from ... Importance: Topic creator, Breakthrough, Impact The Canon of Medicine Author: Avicenna (Ibn Sina) Publication data: The Canon ... The Heart Protection Study is a large randomized controlled trial by the Medical Research Council (MRC) in the United Kingdom. ...

*Vitamin D

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials". PLoS One. 8 (6): e65835. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...865835B. ... Emerging and Evolving Topics in Multiple Sclerosis Pathogenesis and Treatments. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences. 26 ... The effect of vitamin D supplementation on mortality is not clear, with one meta-analysis finding a small decrease in mortality ... a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Psychosomatic Medicine. 76 (3): 190-6. doi:10.1097/psy. ...

*Multivitamin

A 2012 meta-analysis of ten randomized, placebo-controlled trials published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease found that a ... and CVD mortality. One major meta-analysis published in 2011, including previous cohort and case-control studies, concluded ... A Cochrane Review on the specific topic of age-related macular degeneration found that "taking vitamin E or beta-carotene ... Health Study II Randomized Controlled Trial". JAMA. 308: 1751. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.14805. Retrieved November 8, 2012. Grima, ...

*Acute respiratory distress syndrome

To date, no prospective controlled clinical trial has shown a mortality benefit of exogenous surfactant in adult ARDS.[10] ... "A randomized, controlled trial of furosemide with or without albumin in hypoproteinemic patients with acute lung injury". Crit ... The Wikibook Intensive Care Medicine has a page on the topic of: ARDS. ... a multicentre randomised controlled trial". Lancet. 374 (9698): 1351-63. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61069-2. PMID 19762075.. ...

*Linear regression

For this reason, randomized controlled trials are often able to generate more compelling evidence of causal relationships than ... Thus important topics can be Computations where a number of similar, and often nested, models are considered for the same data ... Early evidence relating tobacco smoking to mortality and morbidity came from observational studies employing regression ... Some of the topics involved in considering numerical methods for linear least squares relate to this point. ...

*Sexism in medicine

"A randomized controlled trial of acetyl salicylic acid in the secondary prevention of mortality from myocardial infarction". ... The obstacles and opportunities for women in management". Hospital Topics. 69 (1): 8-14. doi:10.1080/00185868.1991.9948448. ... Most clinical trials published before 1988 included no women and so many older medications on the market were never evaluated ... Pal, Somnath (2015). "Inclusion of Women in Clinical Trials of New Drugs and Devices". US Pharm. 40 (10): 21. "What Sexism in ...

*Phytosterol

A meta-analysis of 14 randomized, controlled trials comparing plant sterols to plant stanols directly at doses of 0.6 to 2.5 g/ ... Patterson, CA (July 2006). "Phytosterols and stanols: Topic 10075E" (PDF). Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Government of ... or overall mortality exists. The molecule on the left is β-sitosterol. Nomenclature for steroid skeleton is on the right. By ... Health Canada reviewed the evidence of 84 randomized controlled trials published between 1994-2007 involving phytosterol ...

*Healthcare in Cuba

Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of inactivated poliovirus vaccine in Cuba. N Engl J Med. 2007 Apr 12;356(15):1536-44. Free ... A 2018 paper using a synthetic control method found that infant mortality increased in the first years of the Castro regime ... "Cuban infant mortality and longevity: health care or repression?". Health Policy and Planning. doi:10.1093/heapol/czy033.. ... Tom Harkin says Cuba has lower child mortality, longer life expectancy than U.S." @politifact. Retrieved 2016-11-30.. ...

*Anorexia nervosa

A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials and Naturalistic Outcome Studies". International Journal of Eating ... AN has the highest mortality rate of any psychological disorder.[8] The mortality rate is 11 to 12 times greater than in the ... Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences. 6. pp. 141-56. doi:10.1007/7854_2010_91. ISBN 978-3-642-15130-9. PMC 3599773 . PMID ... 2011). "Mortality rates in patients with anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders. A meta-analysis of 36 studies". Arch Gen ...

*Otitis media

An osteopathic manipulation technique called the Galbreath technique was evaluated in one randomized controlled clinical trial ... 8 October 2016). "Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 ... Sattout, A.; Jenner, R. (February 2008). "Best evidence topic reports. Bet 1. The role of topical analgesia in acute otitis ... a preliminary randomized placebo-controlled trial". The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 20 (2): 177-83. PMID 11224838. ...

*Low-carbohydrate diet

Some randomized control trials have shown that low-carbohydrate diets, especially very low-carbohydrate diets, perform better ... but mortality increase was only associated with animal-based diets, whereas mortality was reduced with plant-based diets.[40][ ... a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials". American Journal of Epidemiology. 176 Suppl 7 (Suppl 7): S44-54. doi ... A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 131: 124-131. ...

*Health policy

Evidence-based policy relies on the use of science and rigorous studies such as randomized controlled trials to identify ... tobacco control policy or breastfeeding promotion policy. They may cover topics of financing and delivery of healthcare, access ... inadequate access to HIV drugs and women's sexual and reproductive rights including wide disparities in maternal mortality ... There are many topics in the politics and evidence that can influence the decision of a government, private sector business or ...

*List of statistics articles

Randomization Randomized block design Randomized controlled trial Randomized decision rule Randomized experiment Randomized ... of graphical methods List of fields of application of statistics List of stochastic processes topics Lists of statistics topics ... space Standard score Standardized coefficient Standardized moment Standardised mortality rate Standardized mortality ratio ... Control chart Control event rate Control limits Control variate Controlling for a variable Convergence of measures Convergence ...

*Megavitamin therapy

A Randomized Controlled Trial". J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 101 (1): 14-23. doi:10.1093/jnci/djn438. PMC 2615459 . PMID 19116389.. ... Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, Gluud LL, Simonetti RG, Gluud C (2012). "Antioxidant supplements for prevention of mortality in ... Researchers Vitetta, Sali, Paspaliaris, and Reavley (2002) completed a double blind randomized control study with 400 healthy ... a randomised controlled trial". The Medical Journal of Australia. 176 (6): 298-299;. ISSN 0025-729X. PMID 11999270.. ...

*Airway management

These studies, however, guide recommendations until prospective, randomized controlled trials are conducted. Current evidence ... to reduce risk of failure and the associated increase in morbidity and mortality due to hypoxia. Management of the airway in ... method of airway management during CPR is not well established at this time given that the majority of studies on the topic are ... "Experience in Prehospital Endotracheal Intubation Significantly Influences Mortality of Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain ...

*Fecal occult blood

November 1996). "Randomised controlled trial of faecal-occult-blood screening for colorectal cancer". Lancet. 348 (9040): 1472- ... May 1993). "Reducing mortality from colorectal cancer by screening for fecal occult blood. Minnesota Colon Cancer Control Study ... and flexible sigmoidoscopy screening have each shown benefit in randomized clinical trials.[citation needed] Evidence for other ... Colorectal Cancer http://patients.gi.org/topics/colorectal-cancer *^ Young GP, Cole SR (March 2009). "Which fecal occult blood ...

*Bariatric surgery

While randomized controlled trials of bariatric surgery exist, they are limited by short follow-up periods. ... Reduced mortality and morbidity[edit]. In the short term, weight loss from bariatric surgeries is associated with reductions in ... Bariatric surgery in older patients has also been a topic of debate, centered on concerns for safety in this population; the ... A systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Medicine. 96 (46): e8632. doi:10.1097/MD. ...

*Virus

interferon for hepatitis B e antigen-positive hepatitis B treatment: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Liver ... The geography and mortality of the 1918 influenza pandemic. Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 1991;65(1):4-21. PMID 2021692. ... Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 2008;325:263-79. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-77349-8_15. PMID 18637511. ... Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 2006;304:17-29. doi:10.1007/3-540-36583-4_2. PMID 16989262. ...

*Vaccination

A randomized, placebo-controlled trial". Archives of Internal Medicine. 156 (14): 1546-50. doi:10.1001/archinte. ... Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 333. pp. 43-82. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-92165-3_3. ISBN 978-3-540-92164-6. PMID ... In 2007, studies regarding the effectiveness of vaccines on mortality or morbidity rates of those exposed to various diseases ... The Influenza vaccine was tested in controlled trials and proven to have negligible side effects equal to that of a placebo.[24 ...

*Androgen replacement therapy

Concerns have been raised that testosterone was being widely marketed ahead of large randomized controlled trials. As a result ... Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry. 11 (13): 1728-35. doi:10.2174/156802611796117540. PMID 21463250. Basaria S (April 2014 ... "Association of testosterone therapy with mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke in men with low testosterone levels". ... Due to an increased rate of adverse cardiovascular events compared to a placebo group, a randomized trial stopped early. Also, ...

*Terminal illness

... a randomized, blinded, controlled trial". J. Clin. Oncol. 21 (22): 4120-6. doi:10.1200/JCO.2003.09.011. PMID 14615440. " ... Anxiety disorders are also relatively common for terminal patients as they face their mortality. Patients may feel distressed ... Coping with impending death is a hard topic to digest universally. Patients may experience grief, fear, loneliness, depression ... Some groups favor PAS because they do not believe they will have control over their pain, because they believe they will be a ...

*Central venous catheter

... a randomized controlled trial". JAMA. 299 (20): 2413-22. doi:10.1001/jama.299.20.2413. PMID 18505951. Safdar N, Fine JP, Maki ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention". MMWR. Recommendations and reports: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. ... PMC 3788245 . Central Venous Catheters - Topic Overview from WebMD López-Briz, E; Ruiz Garcia, V; Cabello, JB; Bort-Marti, S; ... 1992). "A controlled trial of scheduled replacement of central venous and pulmonary-artery catheters". N. Engl. J. Med. 327 (15 ...

*Dietary fiber

... a randomized, controlled trial". Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 3 (4): 358-69. doi:10.1016/S1542-3565(04)00672-X. PMID 15822041.. ... In: Spiller GA (ed) Topics in dietary fiber research. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 127-68 ... "Dietary fiber intake and mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study". Arch Intern Med. 171 (12): 1061-68. doi:10.1001/ ... systematic review of randomized controlled trials". Ann Nutr Metab. 63 (1-2): 42-54. doi:10.1159/000350312. PMID 23887189.. ...

*Vitamin C

... a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". PLOS One. 8 (2): e56803. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...856803Y. doi:10.1371/journal. ... cardiovascular mortality, or all-cause mortality.[8] However, a second analysis found an inverse relationship between ... started publishing research on the topic and also published a book "Vitamin C and the Common Cold" in 1970.[28] A revised and ... The disease was shown to be prevented by citrus fruit in an early controlled trial by a Royal Navy surgeon, James Lind, in 1747 ...
Data & statistics on average life expectancy at birth among men and women in estonia: Life expectancy at birth for men and women 1991-2007 (Data: Estonian Statistical Office), Demographic Trends Population in Million Total Fertility rate (number of children per women) Life expectancy at birth for women in years Life expectancy at birth for men in years Net migration in the population in thousands Mean age of women at 1st child bearing population share of persons under 25 in % population share of persons aged 25-64 in % population share of persons aged 60-79 in % population ..., Average life expectancy at birth among men and women from 1959 to 2000 in Estonia....
Healthcare Clinical Trial Management Systems - Global Market Demand, Growth, Opportunities, Manufacturers, Analysis of Top Key Players and Forecast to 2025". PUNE, MAHARASHTRA, INDIA, February 13, 2018 /EINPresswire.com/ - Healthcare Clinical Trial Management Systems Market 2018 Description: In this report, the global Healthcare Clinical Trial Management Systems market is valued at USD XX million in 2017 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2017 and 2025.. Geographically, this report is segmented into several key Regions, with production, consumption, revenue (million USD), market share and growth rate of Healthcare Clinical Trial Management Systems in these regions, from 2013 to 2025 (forecast), covering ...
are research studies that test new ways to prevent detect treat or manage cancer or other diseases Clinical trials provide information about the safety and effectiveness of new approaches to see if they should become widely available Most of the standard cancer treatments used today were first shown to be effective through clinical trials Participation in a clinical trial may be an option for a person with cancer or someone at risk for developing cancer People decide for themselves whether or not they want to participate in a clinical trial The importance of clinical trials Clinical trials add to the progress that is being made against cancer They answer important scientific questions and lead to future research Many people with cancer are now living longer because of progress made through clinical trials Findings from past clinical trials have led to new and more effective drugs for specific types of cancer ...
The strength of natural selection is directly related to the degree of differential mortality in the population. If the probability of survival for an individual is a function of the value of a particular trait, then that trait is subject to selection pressures (assuming, of course, that the trait is heritable). Selection will not occur if the probability of mortality is the same for all individuals.. The relationship between mortality and a traits value need not be a linear one for selection to occur. The probability of mortality may increase with the trait value, decrease with the trait value, increase with extreme trait values, increase for intermediate trait values or density dependent; an infinite array of possibilities exist. ...
Downloadable! We study how mortality reductins and income growth interact, looking at their relationship prior to the Industrial Revolution, when income per capita was stagnant. We first present a model of individual medical spending giving a rationale for individual health expenditures even when medicine was not effective in postponing death. We then explain the rise of effective medicine by a learning process function of expenditures in health. The rise in effective medicine can then be linked to the take-off of the eighteenth century through life expectancy increases, and fostered capital accumulation. The rise of effective medicine has also an impact on the relation between growth and inequality and on the intergenerational persistence of differences in income. These channels are operative through differential mortality induced by medicine effectiveness that turns out to determines a differential in the propensity to save among income groups.
Given a potentially huge set of candidate criteria, our goal is to help users choose the most appropriate criteria from among the candidates. In this work, we assume that the candidate criteria exist in some document(s) in a given repository, either separately from different documents or together in the same document, and our technical objective is to rank these candidates according to their appropriateness to the task at hand. As mentioned previously, such task would be to put together a clinical trial protocol about some particular disease, treatment, or drug.. To provide a concrete idea of our problem, the following is a snippet of a clinical trial protocol, downloaded from the clinical trials website http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, and modified for presentation as an example. It shows the title, the objective of the clinical trial as well as the inclusion and exclusion criteria.. Title: Antioxidant Systems and Age-Related Macular Degeneration Objective:. The objective of ...
Relative to developed countries, there are far fewer women than men in parts of the developing world. Estimates suggest that more than 200 million women are demographically missing worldwide. To explain the global missing women phenomenon, research has mainly focused on excess female mortality in Asia.. However, as emphasized in our earlier research, at least 30 per cent of the missing women are missing from Africa. This paper employs a novel methodology to determine how the phenomenon of missing women is distributed across Africa. Moreover, it provides estimates of the extent of excess female mortality within different age groups and by disease category. The empirical results reiterate the importance of excess female mortality for women in Africa.. ...
Health Reports, volume 23, number 3. Cause-specific mortality by education in Canada: A 16-year follow-up study. Table 4 Age-standardized mortality rates per 100,000 person-years at risk for selected causes of death, by educational attainment, age group and sex, cohort members aged 25 or older at baseline, Canada 1991 to 2006
Differential Mortality in the United States (A Study in Socio-Economic Epidemiology) by Kitagawa Evelyn M. (ISBN: 978-0-674-18844-0); Published by Harvard University Pressin Oct 2013. Compare book prices on Bookwire.com to buy books from the lowest price among top online book retailers
Downloadable (with restrictions)! This paper examines the impact of universal, free, and easily accessible primary healthcare on population health as measured by age-specific mortality rates, focusing on a nationwide socialized medicine program implemented in Turkey. The Family Medicine Program (FMP), launched in 2005, assigns each Turkish citizen to a specific state-employed family physician who offers a wide range of primary healthcare services that are free-of-charge. Furthermore, these services are provided at family health centers, which operate on a walk-in basis and are located within neighborhoods in close proximity to the patients. To identify the causal impact of the FMP, we exploit the variation in its introduction across provinces and over time. Our estimates indicate that the FMP caused the mortality rate to decrease by 25.6% among infants, 7.7% among the elderly, and 22.9% among children ages 1-4. These estimates translate into 2.6, 1.29, and 0.13 fewer deaths ...
Despite the best intentions of the European Medicines Agency injunctions issued against it in two court cases have spilled over to chill other requests for clinical trial information. There are at least 100 pending requests seeking trial results. Over the past 24 hours researchers have received letters telling them the EMA cannot release documents it holds from clinical trials of medicines currently used in Europe.. The letter from the EMA states that "in the course of on-going legal proceedings before the General Court of the European Union, the Agency has been ordered to suspend the implementation of certain decisions granting access to documents submitted by marketing authorisation holders of medicinal products.". The legal proceedings are the cases brought by two pharmaceutical companies, InterMune and AbbVie, who challenged the Agencys decisions to grant access to clinical study reports from clinical trials of drugs from each of these companies. On 25th April the ...
Based on data from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study for 1979-85, life expectancies are estimated for white men and white women by education, by family income, and by employment status. Life expectancy varies directly with amount of schooling and with family income. Differences in life expectancy at age 25 between the highest and the...
Defining a sound strategy for patient recruitment is the primary theme of this, the tenth book in an evolving series of pragmatic texts written for the clinical trials professional. Because patient recruitment problems are the most important reason for the failure of clinical trials, a strong need exists for a source that gathers numerous ideas for patient recruitment. The authors provide examples of letters, brochures, announcements, and campaigns that can be sculpted to reach intended study populations. Another strength is the checklist-oriented tables and study-specific figures that are based on current clinical trials ...
BACKGROUND: Until 1990, there was an upward trend in mortality from breast, lung, prostate, and colon cancers in the United Kingdom. With improvements in cancer treatment there has, in general, been a fall in mortality over the last 20 years. We evaluate regional cancer mortality trends in the United Kingdom between 1991 and 2007. METHODS: We analysed mortality trends for breast, lung, prostate, and colon cancers using data obtained from the EUREG cancer database. We have described changes in age-standardised rates (using European standard population) per 100,000 for cancer mortality and generated trends in mortality for the 11 regions using Joinpoint regression. RESULTS: Across all regions in the United Kingdom there was a downward trend in mortality for the four most common cancers in males and females. Overall, deaths from colon cancer decreased most rapidly and deaths from prostate ...
GlobalDatas clinical trial report, "Atopic Dermatitis Global Clinical Trials Review, H1, 2017" provides an overview of Atopic Dermatitis clinical trials scenario. This report provides top line data relating to the clinical trials on Atopic Dermatitis. Report includes an overview of trial numbers and their average enrollment in top countries conducted across the globe. The report offers coverage of disease clinical trials by region, country (G7 & E7), phase, trial status, end points status and sponsor type. Report also provides prominent drugs for in-progress trials (based on number of ongoing trials). GlobalData Clinical Trial Reports are generated using GlobalDatas proprietary database - Pharma eTrack Clinical trials database. Clinical trials are collated from 80+ different clinical trial registries, conferences, journals, ...
Summary. GlobalDatas clinical trial report, Vitiligo Global Clinical Trials Review, H1, 2015″ provides an overview of Vitiligo clinical trials scenario. This report provides top line data relating to the clinical trials on Vitiligo. Report includes an overview of trial numbers and their average enrollment in top countries conducted across the globe. The report offers coverage of disease clinical trials by region, country (G7 & E7), phase, trial status, end points status and sponsor type. Report also provides prominent drugs for in-progress trials (based on number of ongoing trials). Global Data Clinical Trial Reports are generated using Global Data s proprietary database - Pharma eTrack Clinical trials database. Clinical trials are collated from 80+ different clinical trial registries, conferences, journals, news etc across the globe. Clinical trials ...
Summary. GlobalDatas clinical trial report, Vitiligo Global Clinical Trials Review, H1, 2015″ provides an overview of Vitiligo clinical trials scenario. This report provides top line data relating to the clinical trials on Vitiligo. Report includes an overview of trial numbers and their average enrollment in top countries conducted across the globe. The report offers coverage of disease clinical trials by region, country (G7 & E7), phase, trial status, end points status and sponsor type. Report also provides prominent drugs for in-progress trials (based on number of ongoing trials). Global Data Clinical Trial Reports are generated using Global Data s proprietary database - Pharma eTrack Clinical trials database. Clinical trials are collated from 80+ different clinical trial registries, conferences, journals, news etc across the globe. Clinical trials ...
GlobalDatas clinical trial report, Bronchiectasis Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2016" provides an overview of Bronchiectasis clinical trials scenario. This report provides top line data relating to the clinical trials on Bronchiectasis. Report includes an overview of trial numbers and their average enrollment in top countries conducted across the globe. The report offers coverage of disease clinical trials by region, country (G7 & E7), phase, trial status, end points status and sponsor type. Report also provides prominent drugs for in-progress trials (based on number of ongoing trials). GlobalData Clinical Trial Reports are generated using GlobalDatas proprietary database - Pharma eTrack Clinical trials database. Clinical trials are collated from 80+ different clinical trial registries, conferences, journals, news etc across the globe. Clinical trials ...
Press Release issued Jul 13, 2015: GlobalDatas clinical trial report, Cholera Global Clinical Trials Review, H1, 2015 provides an overview of Cholera clinical trials scenario. This report provides top line data relating to the clinical trials on Cholera. Report includes an overview of trial numbers and their average enrollment in top countries conducted across the globe. The report offers coverage of disease clinical trials by region, country (G7 & E7), phase, trial status, end points status and sponsor type. Report also provides prominent drugs for in-progress trials (based on number of ongoing trials). Global Data Clinical Trial Reports are generated using Global Datas proprietary database - Pharma eTrack Clinical trials database. Clinical trials are collated from 80+ different clinical trial registries, conferences, journals, news etc across the globe. Clinical ...
GlobalDatas clinical trial report, "Blepharospasm Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2018 provides an overview of Blepharospasm clinical trials scenario. This report provides top line data relating to the clinical trials on Blepharospasm. Report includes an overview of trial numbers and their average enrollment in top countries conducted across the globe. The report offers coverage of disease clinical trials by region, country (G7 & E7), phase, trial status, end points status and sponsor type. Report also provides prominent drugs for in-progress trials (based on number of ongoing trials). GlobalData Clinical Trial Reports are generated using GlobalDatas proprietary database - Pharma eTrack Clinical trials database. Clinical trials are collated from 80+ different clinical trial registries, conferences, journals, news etc across the globe. Clinical trials ...
Purpose: Glycoprotein 2b3a inhibitors are still commonly utilized in patients receiving coronary interventions for stable CAD and in patients who are suffering unstable coronary syndromes (ACS). Early reports suggested improved survival in PCI with use of these agents. There is little information available on whether this mortality benefit extends more than one month after administration. In this study, we sought to determine if there is a difference in early and late mortality with administration of G2b3a inhibitors in CAD and ACS.. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed to locate randomized controlled trials of G2b3a inhibitors in patients undergoing PCI and suffering acute coronary syndromes (STEMI and ACS). Studies were included if there were reports of both 30 day and 180-365 day death rates. Meta-analyses were performed for early (,30 day), late (30-365 day) and total (0-365 day) ...
Patients and Methods We assessed clinical trial participation patterns according to important SES (income, education) and demographic factors in a large sample of patients surveyed via an Internet-based treatment decision tool. Logistic regression, conditioning on type of cancer, was used. Attitudes toward clinical trials were assessed using prespecified items about treatment, treatment tolerability, convenience, and cost. Read more. ...
Results: 210 respondents, including adults and young people with eczema plus carers of children with eczema, which included family and friends. 68% (n=126/185) reported a wide range of 38 unwanted effects. Accounts highlighted the impact on quality of life of these unwanted effects and variations to eczema management that followed. 71% (90/126) of respondents stopped a leave-on emollient due to unwanted effects. Desired characteristics in emollients related to the absence of unwanted effects and product improvements ...
Trial registries serve as a readily accessible online resource for identifying unpublished trials and unreported outcomes. Since 2005, prospective trial registration has gained broad acceptance as an important means of enhancing transparency and tracking the existence of clinical trials at inception. Key stakeholders-including medical journal editors, legislators, and funding agencies-provide enforcement mechanisms that have greatly improved adherence to registration practices.. Basic protocol information on ongoing and completed trials of any intervention type can be retrieved via the World Health Organizations International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal (www.who.int/trialsearch/). This searches records from national and international trial registries that meet certain standards, including WHO Primary Registries and ClinicalTrials.gov. Users can search the main registry fields using key ...
The Human Mortality Database (HMD) was created to provide detailed mortality and population data to researchers, students, journalists, policy analysts, and others interested in the history of human longevity. The project began as an outgrowth of earlier projects in the Department of Demography at the University of California, Berkeley, USA, and at the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research in Rostock, Germany (see history). It is the work of two teams of researchers in the USA and Germany (see research teams), with the help of financial backers and scientific collaborators from around the world (see acknowledgements). The Center on the Economics and Development of Aging (CEDA) French Institute for Demographic Studies (INED) has also supported the further development of the database in recent years. We seek to provide open, international access to these data. At present the database contains detailed population and mortality data for the following 39 ...
In this study, Pizot and colleagues extracted information on breast cancer deaths from the World Health Organization database and calculated mortality rates over the years 1987-2013, stratifying results according to age groups. Overall, breast cancer mortality declined in 39 out of 47 countries, including the United States and most developed European nations. England and Wales had the sharpest drop in mortality, with a 46 percent decline. Pizot said this trend was to be expected, due to advances in detection and treatment over the past few decades.. Latin American nations experienced scattered increases in mortality; for example, Brazil and Colombia saw mortality rates increase in women of all age groups, while in Argentina and Chile mortality rates decreased in all women. South Korea had the most dramatic increase in breast cancer mortality, with an 83 percent increase overall and higher ...
Objectives. The present study aims to compare the direction and magnitude of sex differences in mortality and major health dimensions across Denmark, Japan and the US. Methods. The Human Mortality Database was used to examine sex differences in age-specific mortality rates. The Danish twin surveys, the Danish 1905-Cohort Study, the Health and Retirement Study, and the Nihon University Japanese Longitudinal Study of Aging were used to examine sex differences in health. Results. Men had consistently higher mortality rates at all ages in all three countries, but they also had a substantial advantage in handgrip strength compared with the same-aged women. Sex differences in activities of daily living (ADL) became pronounced among individuals aged 85+ in all three countries. Depression levels tended to be higher in women, particularly, in Denmark and the HRS, and only small sex differences were observed in the immediate recall test and ...
Reporting Clinical Trial Results To Inform Providers, Payers, And Consumers Conventional analyses of clinical trials can underestimate potential risks and benefits to patients. by Rodney A. Hayward, David
Phenylketonuria (PKU) Global Clinical Trials Review, H1, 2016" provides an overview of Phenylketonuria (PKU) clinical trials scenario. This report provides top line data relating to the clinical trials on Phenylketonuria (PKU). Report includes an overview of trial numbers and their average enrollment in top countries conducted across the globe. The report offers coverage of disease clinical trials by region, country (G7 & E7), phase, trial status, end points status and sponsor type. Report also provides prominent drugs for in-progress trials (based on number of ongoing trials). GlobalData Clinical Trial Reports are generated using GlobalDatas proprietary database - Pharma eTrack Clinical trials database. Clinical trials are collated from 80+ different clinical trial registries, conferences, journals, news etc across the globe. Clinical trials database ...
The Human Mortality Database (HMD) was created to provide detailed mortality and population data to researchers, students, journalists, policy analysts, and others interested in the history of human longevity. The project began as an outgrowth of earlier projects in the Department of Demography at the University of California, Berkeley, USA, and at the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research in Rostock, Germany. It is the work of two teams of researchers in the USA and Germany. The main goal of the database is to document the longevity revolution of the modern era and to facilitate research into its causes and consequences. At present, the database contains detailed data for a collection of 26 countries. The countries involved are Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, the total and civilian populations of England and Wales, Finland, France, Germany, West Germany, East Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lithunia, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cigarette smoking and prostate cancer mortality in four US States, 1999-2010. AU - Jones, Miranda. AU - Joshu, Corinne E.. AU - Kanarek, Norma F. AU - Navas Acien, Ana. AU - Richardson, Kelly A.. AU - Platz, Elizabeth A. PY - 2016/4/1. Y1 - 2016/4/1. N2 - Introduction In the United States, prostate cancer mortality rates have declined in recent decades. Cigarette smoking, a risk factor for prostate cancer death, has also declined. It is unknown whether declines in smoking prevalence produced detectable declines in prostate cancer mortality. We examined state prostate cancer mortality rates in relation to changes in cigarette smoking. Methods We studied men aged 35 years or older from California, Kentucky, Maryland, and Utah. Data on state smoking prevalence were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Mortality rates for prostate cancer and external causes (control condition) were ...
Glycotope Receives Regulatory Approval For Glycoexpress(TM) Technology And Initiates First Clinical Trial With Lead Antibody GT-MAB 2.5-GEX - read this article along with other careers information, tips and advice on BioSpace
The Early Phase Clinical Trials Team (EPCTT) was established in 2008 to focus on early phase trials and experimental medicine for priority cancers for the Anglia region.
IHME research used de-identified death records from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and population counts from the U.S. Census Bureau, NCHS, and the Human Mortality Database and small area estimation models in order to estimate county-level mortality rates from all cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, ischemic stroke, and other types. This dataset provides estimates for age-standardized mortality rates by CVD type and sex at the county level for each state, the District of Columbia, and the United States as a whole for 1980-2014, as well as the changes in rates for each location during this period. Also included are data on the 10 counties with the highest and lowest mortality rates for each CVD type in 2014 and the top 10 causes of death by CVD type for each county. Study results were published in JAMA in May 2017 in "Trends and patterns of geographic variations in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - UV, latitude, and spatial trends in prostate cancer mortality. T2 - All sunlight is not the same (United States). AU - Schwartz, Gary G.. AU - Hanchette, Carol L.. PY - 2006/9/1. Y1 - 2006/9/1. N2 - Objective: We showed previously that Caucasian mortality rates from prostate cancer for 1970-1979 are significantly inversely correlated with ultraviolet (UV) radiation. We now present the analysis of prostate cancer mortality data over a 45-year period (1950-1994) in order to examine the persistence of this pattern. Furthermore, because vitamin D synthesis does not occur during winter months at latitudes higher than 40° N, we examined this relationship above and below 40° N latitude. Methods: We used trend surface and linear regression analyses to characterize the relationship between prostate cancer mortality and UV radiation for U.S. counties at northern and southern latitudes. Results: For U.S. Caucasians, prostate cancer ...
Data & statistics on Lung cancer mortality by ethnic group age group and sex: Lung cancer mortality, by ethnic group, age group and sex, 2011, Lung Cancer Mortality Rates by Sex and Ethnicity 1987-1995 Age-adjusted lung cancer mortality rates by sex and ethnicity for the combined period 1990 through 1995, along with their 95% confidence intervals and the rate ratios of each group compared to White rates, are shown in Table 21. (See also Figures 6 and 7, pp. 28-29) Table 21: Lung Cancer Mortality Rates and Rate Ratios by Ethnicity and Sex, ..., That the lung cancer mortality rates in North Denver women were higher than rates in the remainder of the Metro area in all race/ethnicity groups; the differences were statistically significant for all races combined, and white non-Hispanics. For males, lung cancer mortality rates in North Denver were higher than other Metro area rates for all races ...
Cancer-specific survival estimates rely on precise and correct data on the cause of death; however, these data can be difficult to acquire, particularly in elderly patients where comorbidity is common. Furthermore, while some deaths are directly related to cancer, others are more complex, with cancer merely contributing. Another, more precise, method is to assess the relative mortality, i.e., mortality in patients compared to the general population. The aims of this study were to describe the relative mortality in soft tissue sarcoma, and to compare the relative mortality with the cancer-specific mortality. We included 1246 patients treated for soft tissue sarcoma and 6230 individually age- and sex-matched individuals from the general population. The relative mortality was estimated as rates, and rate ratios adjusted for comorbidity. Mortality rate ratios were computed using the Cox ...
Copenhagen, Denmark New clinical trial data just published in Pediatric Diabetes show that Levemir (insulin detemir), Novo Nordisk s basal insulin analogue, is
Age-adjusted death rates in the United States dropped significantly between 2005 and 2006 and life expectancy hit another record high, according to preliminary death statistics released today by CDC s National Center for Health Statistics.. The 2006 age-adjusted death rate fell to 776.4 deaths per 100,000 population from 799 deaths per 100,000 in 2005, the CDC report said. In addition, death rates for eight of the 10 leading causes of death in the United States all dropped significantly in 2006, it said. These included a very sharp drop in mortality from influenza and pneumonia.. The preliminary infant mortality rate for 2006 was 6.7 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, a 2.3 percent decline from the 2005 rate of 6.9. ...
Background: Since 2002, under the Bloomberg administration, New York City (NYC) has aggressively pursued and implemented a broad set of public health policies to reduce chronic disease. Limited research exists evaluating secular trends in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality against the backdrop of these policy initiatives.. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that CVD mortality trends declined more rapidly during the years 2002-2011 compared with the previous decade.. Methods: Using individual death certificates of NYC residents during 1990-2011, all-cause mortality rates were calculated in addition to the following cause-specific mortality rates: any CVD, atherosclerotic CVD (ACVD), coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, ischemic stroke. Mortality rates were age and sex standardized to the NYC year 2000 population. Joinpoint regression identified years in which mortality trends changed after excluding 116,285 ...
Mortality rate; adult; female (per 1;000 female adults) in Micronesia was last measured at 152.04 in 2013, according to the World Bank. Adult mortality rate is the probability of dying between the ages of 15 and 60--that is, the probability of a 15-year-old dying before reaching age 60, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates between those ages.This page has the latest values, historical data, forecasts, charts, statistics, an economic calendar and news for Mortality rate - adult - female (per 1;000 female adults) in Micronesia.
Crude death rate,Deaths: by certain causes,Deaths by certain causes as a % of total deaths,Deaths in first year of life as a % of total deaths,Deaths: total and in first year of life,Difference between female and male life expectancy,Life expectancy at 65 of female population: total and by healthy and unhealthy life years,Life expectancy at 65 of male population: total and by healthy and unhealthy life years,Healthy life years at 65: by sex,Infant mortality rate,Infant deaths: Late foetal and neonatal,Life expectancy at 65: by sex,Life expectancy at birth: total and by sex,Maternal mortality,Maternal mortality rate,Neonatal mortality rates and late foetal mortality rate
METHODS AND FINDINGS: We collected and harmonized data on mortality from four alcohol-related causes (alcoholic psychosis, dependence, and abuse; alcoholic cardiomyopathy; alcoholic liver cirrhosis; and accidental poisoning by alcohol) by age, sex, education level, and occupational class in 20 European populations from 17 different countries, both for a recent period and for previous points in time, using data from mortality registers. Mortality was age-standardized using the European Standard Population, and measures for both relative and absolute inequality between low and high socioeconomic groups (as measured by educational level and occupational class) were calculated. Rates of alcohol-related mortality are higher in lower educational and occupational groups in all countries. Both relative and absolute inequalities are largest in Eastern Europe, and Finland and Denmark also have very large absolute inequalities in alcohol-related ...
HEI funded the National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS) to characterize the effects of airborne particles less than 10 ?m in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) alone and in combination with gaseous air pollutants in a consistent way in a large number of cities. The study was designed to select multiple locations based on the specific criteria of population size and availability of PM10 data from the US Environmental Protection Agency?s Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) database, and to apply the same statistical procedures to all locations. Dr Jonathan Samet and his colleagues at Johns Hopkins University conducted a time-series study of mortality effects in large US cities representing various levels of PM10 and gaseous pollutants. In their analysis, the investigators first estimated risk in each city using the same method and then combined these results systematically to draw more information than any single city could provide. The 20 and 90 ...
Mortality rate; under-5 (per 1;000) in Brazil was last measured at 16.40 in 2015, according to the World Bank. Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.This page has the latest values, historical data, forecasts, charts, statistics, an economic calendar and news for Mortality rate - under-5 (per 1;000) in Brazil.
The value for Mortality rate, under-5 (per 1,000 live births) in Saudi Arabia was 14.50 as of 2015. As the graph below shows, over the past 43 years this indicator reached a maximum value of 161.00 in 1972 and a minimum value of 14.50 in 2015.. Definition: Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to age-specific mortality rates of the specified year.. Source: Estimates Developed by the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UNICEF, WHO, World Bank, UN DESA Population Division) at www.childmortality.org. Projected data are from the United Nations Population Divisions World Population Prospects; and may in some cases not be consistent with data before the current year.. See also:. ...
Previous studies on the clinical significance of elevated cardiac markers after PCI have produced a spectrum of results (2,3,6,9). Few question the importance of large periprocedural MI, but the inconsistency of data for an association of mortality with lower level CK-MB elevation has nurtured an ongoing debate whether enzyme elevation after otherwise successful PCI actually affects survival.. At least part of the confusion arises from inadequate definition of unsuccessful procedures and thus inability to appropriately adjust outcome data. For example, a recent meta-analysis of seven studies suggested a significant progressive dose-response relationship between CK-MB elevations and subsequent mortality (10). Unfortunately, three of the studies used for this analysis did not adjust for procedure success and two others excluded only patients who died or required emergency bypass surgery. Moreover, one of these studies included patients with abrupt closure or large spontaneous ...
There is a growing body of evidence that integrated packages of community-based interventions, a form of programming often implemented by NGOs, can have substantial child mortality impact. More countries may be able to meet Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 targets by leveraging such programming. Analysis of the mortality effect of this type of programming is hampered by the cost and complexity of direct mortality measurement. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) produces an estimate of mortality reduction by modelling the mortality effect of changes in population coverage of individual child health interventions. However, few studies to date have compared the LiST estimates of mortality reduction with those produced by direct measurement. Using results of a recent review of evidence for community-based child health programming, a search was conducted for NGO child health projects implementing community-based ...
Cancer is a major health issue in the United States. Reliable estimates of yearly cancer mortality counts are essential for resourcing and planning. The American Cancer Society has used several methods of forecasting to estimate the future cancer burden and researchers are continually working to develop new methods with improved performance. There have been studies comparing different models for predicting the US cancer mortality counts. This study explores and compares several different models for cancer mortality count predictions at the state level, principally for the state of Virginia. Results of the comparisons appear to show the final improved model to perform better than the others; however, at the state level even the improved model can produce undesirable results.
According to the National Center for Health Statistics, 2,278, 994 deaths occurred in the United States in 1994. This figure was 10,441 larger than that reported for 1993, and 103,381 more than the total for 1992. Although the number of deaths increased, the crude and age-adjusted death rates for 1994 suggest an overall improvement in the general mortality experienced by those in the U.S. The report, Advance Report of Final Mortality, 1994 presents trends and patterns in general mortality, life expectancy, and infant and maternal mortality. Also included are descriptive data on U.S. deaths and death rates, according to such demographic and medical characteristics as age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, educational attainment, State of residence, and causes of death. Data contained in this report are based on information from death certificates filed in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. ...
Objectives The aims of this study are to identify the patterns of excess winter mortality (due to diseases of the circulatory system) and to analyse the association between the excess winter deaths...
Introduction. Key mortality indicators, such as age-specific death rates, life expectancy at birth and the leading causes of death in a population, are essential for population health assessment. Data on these standard international mortality indicators are needed in developing countries for comparative analysis, health policy, monitoring and evaluation, and epidemiological research. However, in such countries vital registration systems, which are the optimal source of these data, are seldom fully functional. 1 This is the case in Viet Nam, a densely populated developing country of 88 million people located in south-eastern Asia whose population structure is rapidly changing because of declining fertility and mortality and a transition in causes of death. 2 The countrys population distribution is also changing as a result of socioeconomic development and rapid urbanization. Thus, accurate measures of mortality by age, sex and cause of death ...
The understanding of the current chikungunya burden depends on a better understanding of the mortality associated with this arboviruses. Our findings show excess mortality during chikungunya epidemics in three most affected states in Brazil. The correlation between the incidence of chikungunya and increase in all-cause mortality reinforce the possibility that chikungunya virus has an impact on mortality rates. Similar results have already been found in other chikungunya epidemics in the past decades2,3,4. Incidence of dengue virus was high in all studied areas in the years 2011-2013, used as a baseline5. Therefore, we suggest that the excess deaths should be related to chikungunya infections and not another arbovirus that occurs at the same season. This is the first time that the excess mortality associated with chikungunya by age group has been calculated, and the results are very close to that found in the Reunion Islands ...
Background Prolonged television (TV) viewing time is unfavourably associated with mortality outcomes, particularly for cardiovascular disease, but the impact on life expectancy has not been quantifi ed. The authors estimate the extent to which TV viewing time reduces life expectancy in Australia, 2008. Methods The authors constructed a life table model that incorporates a previously reported mortality risk associated with TV time. Data were from the Australian Bureau of Statistics and the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study, a national population-based observational survey that started in 1999-2000. The authors modelled impacts of changes in population average TV viewing time on life expectancy at birth. Results The amount of TV viewed in Australia in 2008 reduced life expectancy at birth by 1.8 years (95% uncertainty interval (UI): 8.4 days to 3.7 years) for men and 1.5 years (95% UI: 6.8 days to 3.1 years) for women. Compared with persons who watch no TV, ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Climate change affects surface concentrations of air pollutants, such as fine particulate matter (PM2.5, particulate matter ≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) and ozone (O3), which are associated with increases in human morbidity and premature mortality. Exposure to PM2.5 is associated with an increased relative risk of lung cancer, cardiopulmonary and all-cause mortalities while O3 exposure is associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular, respiratory and all-cause mortality.. Research indicates that 21st century climate change (under the moderate SRES A1B climate change scenario) increases global all-cause premature mortalities associated with PM2.5 by approximately 100,000 deaths and respiratory disease mortality associated with O3 by 6,300 deaths annually. The relative change in premature mortality as the percent change between "present" and "future" simulations is about a 4 % increase in global all-cause mortality ...
Hertel-Fernandez, Alexander Warren, Giusti, Alejandro Esteban & Sotelo, Juan Manuel. (‎2007)‎. The Chilean infant mortality decline: improvement for whom? Socioeconomic and geographic inequalities in infant mortality, 1990-2005. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 85 (‎10)‎, 798 - 804. World Health Organization. http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.06.041848 ...
The results of this study indicate that limiting sitting to ,3 h/day and limiting television viewing to ,2 h/day may increase life expectancy at birth in the USA by approximately 2.0 and 1.4 years, respectively, assuming a causal relationship. The PAF provides a theoretical estimate of the effects of a risk factor on an outcome at the population level, in this case, all-cause mortality. The results indicate that sedentary behaviours are accounting for between 1.4 and 2.0 years of life expectancy at birth. This should not be interpreted to mean that people who are more sedentary can expect to live 1.4 or 2.0 years less than someone who does not engage in these behaviours as much. Life expectancy is a population statistic and it does not apply to individuals. A recent meta-analysis of television viewing and all-cause mortality estimated that the RR of all-cause mortality was 1.13 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.18)/2 h of daily television viewing, which corresponded with ...
The short-term effects of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality in 30 European cities participating in the Air Pollution on Health: a European Approach (APHEA)-2 project were investigated.. The association was examined using hierarchical models implemented in two stages. In the first stage, data from each city were analysed separately, whereas in the second stage, the city-specific air pollution estimates were regressed on city-specific covariates to obtain overall estimates and to explore sources of possible heterogeneity.. A significant association of NO2 with total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality was found, with stronger effects on cause-specific mortality. There was evidence of confounding in respiratory mortality with black smoke and sulphur dioxide. The effect of NO2 on total and cardiovascular mortality was observed mainly in western and southern European cities, and was ...
In this paper, we investigated inequalities in the distribution of neonatal and postneonatal mortality in rural areas of Iran over the course of 16 years. Our findings showed that despite notable decreases in neonatal and postneonatal mortality rates over the study period, inequalities in distribution of these measures in Iran persisted, and higher neonatal and postneonatal mortality rates were still reported in areas of lower socioeconomic status.. The regression models built to evaluate neonatal mortality rates showed that the proportions of births occurring in hospitals and literate women of reproductive age were associated with lower mortality rates; additionally, higher neonatal mortality rates were observed in areas with a higher proportion of infants classified as having low birth weight. Moreover, in the evaluation of postneonatal mortality rates, the proportion of births occurring ...
Alan Gaby, MD. Author: Zittermann A, et al.. Reference: Effect of vitamin D on all-cause mortality in heart failure (EVITA): a 3-year randomized clinical trial with 4000 IU vitamin D daily. Eur Heart J 2017;38:2279-2286.. Design: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.. Participants: Four hundred patients (median age, 55 years) with heart failure (New York Heart Association class II or III) and a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) level below 30 ng/ml.. Study Medication and Dosage: Vitamin D (4,000 IU per day) or placebo for 3 years.. Primary Outcome Measures: The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes included hospitalization, need for implantation of a mechanical circulatory support device, heart transplantation, and hypercalcemia.. Key Findings: At baseline, the median 25(OH)D level was 13 ng/ml; this increased to around 40 ng/ml in the vitamin D group and did not change in the ...
We examined mortality risks between corticosteroid users and non-users among patients with perforated diverticular disease. One-year mortality risk for current users of corticosteroids was 47.6%, double that of non-users after adjustment for confounders. One-year mortality risk was even higher for new corticosteroid users: 52.5%. Thus, corticosteroid use was clearly associated with an increased mortality risk for patients with perforated diverticular disease, continuing until at least 1 year after diagnosis, regardless of corticosteroid dose.. This is the first large cohort study comparing mortality risks between corticosteroid users and non-users among patients with perforated diverticular disease. The advantage of the cohort approach is the ability to calculate absolute mortality risks, which can inform clinical practice. Our study showed that corticosteroid use is a strong indicator for 1-year ...
Background Infant mortality can be an essential signal of people wellness within a nation. HA14-1 using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. Simulation-based Bayesian kriging was used HA14-1 to produce maps of all-cause and cause-specific mortality risk. Results Infant mortality increased significantly over the study period, mainly due to the effect of the HIV epidemic. There was a high burden of neonatal mortality (especially perinatal) with several hot spots observed in close proximity to health facilities. Significant risk factors for all-cause infant mortality were mothers death in first 12 months (most commonly due to HIV), death of earlier sibling and increasing quantity of household deaths. Becoming given birth to to a Mozambican mother posed a significant risk for infectious and parasitic deaths, particularly acute diarrhoea and malnutrition. Conclusions This study demonstrates the use of Bayesian geostatistical ...
Trehalose is a disaccharide of glucose found in diverse organisms and is suggested to act as a stress protectant against heat, cold, desiccation, anoxia, and oxidation. Here, we demonstrate that treatment of [nematode worms of the species] Caenorhabditis elegans with trehalose starting from the young-adult stage extended the mean life span by over 30% without any side effects. Surprisingly, trehalose treatment starting even from the old-adult stage shortly thereafter retarded the age-associated decline in survivorship and extended the remaining life span by 60%. Demographic analyses of age-specific mortality rates revealed that trehalose extended the life span by lowering age-independent vulnerability. Moreover, trehalose increased the reproductive span and retarded the age-associated decrease in pharyngeal-pumping rate and the accumulation of lipofuscin.. .... The life span-extending effect of trehalose was abolished in long-lived insulin/IGF-1-like receptor (daf-2) mutants. ... These ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - National record linkage study of mortality for a large cohort of opioid users ascertained by drug treatment or criminal justice sources in England, 2005-2009. AU - Pierce, Matthias AU - Bird, Sheila M.. AU - Hickman, Matthew AU - Millar, Tim PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - BackgroundGlobally, opioid drug use is an important cause of premature mortality. In many countries, opioid using populations are ageing. The current study investigates mortality in a large cohort of opioid users; with a focus on testing whether excess mortality changes with age.Methods198,247 opioid users in England were identified from drug treatment and criminal justice sources (April, 2005 to March, 2009) and linked to mortality records. Mortality rates and standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated by age-group and gender.ResultsThere were 3974 deaths from all causes (SMR 5.7, 95% ...
This paper examines the relation between unemployment and CVD mortality in European Union countries during the first decade of the 21st century. Two separate studies are summarized, focusing on increased heart disease and stroke mortality rates as potential outcomes of the greatly extended unemployment rate during 2000 - 2010 and especially the Great Recession of 2007 - 2009. Unemployment rates and mortality from two cardiovascular illnesses are viewed in pooled cross-sectional analyses over the range of EU countries. In addition to the unemployment rate, other economic variables, expressing the Recession, are studied in relation to cardiovascular mortality over multiple years in a pooled cross-sectional time-series analysis with random effects. The principal finding is that increases in the unemployment rate are related to increased heart disease and stroke mortality. Controlling for other labour market variables, such as ...
Two undercover Alameda County sheriffs investigators survived what could have been a fatal overdose of fentanyl last week following an accidental exposure while on duty, sheriffs officials said Tuesday. The investigators, a sergeant and a detective, are part of the Alameda County Narcotics Task Force. The pair on Friday entered a motel room in Hayward, where officials said the detective immediately began to feel ill. A preliminary review of the incident suggested that the detective was exposed to a microscopic dust cloud of the opioid, according to a statement from the Alameda County Sheriffs Office.
Background: The fourth Millennium Development Goal calls for a two-thirds reduction in under-5 mortality between 1990 and 2015. Under-5 mortality rate is declining, but many countries are still far from achieving the goal. Effective child health interventions that could reduce child mortality exist, but national decision-makers lack contextual information for priority setting in their respective resource-constrained settings. We estimate the potential health impact of increasing coverage of 14 selected health interventions on child mortality in Ethiopia (2011-2015). We also explore the impact on life expectancy and inequality in the age of death (Ginihealth).. Methods and Findings: We used the Lives Saved Tool to estimate potential impact of scaling-up 14 health interventions in Ethiopia (2011-2015). Interventions are scaled-up to 1) government target levels, 2) 90% coverage and 3) 90% coverage of the five interventions with the highest ...
The trends in mortality from aortic aneurysms in the United States from 1951 through 1981 were studied. Annual age-specific and age-adjusted mortality for aortic aneurysms were calculated for white males, white females, nonwhite males, and nonwhite females. For all four groups, a constant increase in age-adjusted mortality was noted for the period 1951 to 1968 (an average annual increase of 17% for white males, 12% for white females, 14% for nonwhite males, and 15% for nonwhite females), plateauing in 1968, with a slight decline noted after 1968. The increase corresponded to an increase in the total number of U.S. aortic aneurysm deaths from about 2500 to approximately 14,000. The decline was most notable for dissecting aneurysms. Analysis of the age-specific rates by birth cohort suggests that mortality is increasing with each subsequent cohort. Analysis of specific aneurysm types (dissecting, thoracic, abdominal, and not otherwise ...
This research quantifies the lag effects and vulnerabilities of temperature effects on cardiovascular disease in Changsha-a subtropical climate zone of China. A Poisson regression model within a distributed lag nonlinear models framework was used to examine the lag effects of cold- and heat-related CVD mortality. The lag effect for heat-related CVD mortality was just 0-3 days. In contrast, we observed a statistically significant association with 10-25 lag days for cold-related CVD mortality. Low temperatures with 0-2 lag days increased the mortality risk for those ≥65 years and females. For all ages, the cumulative effects of cold-related CVD mortality was 6.6% (95% CI: 5.2%-8.2%) for 30 lag days while that of heat-related CVD mortality was 4.9% (95% CI: 2.0%-7.9%) for 3 lag days. We found that in Changsha city, the lag effect of hot temperatures is short while the lag effect of cold temperatures is long. ...
Overall, all-cancer mortality (R = .3745, P = .0001) and treatable cancer mortality were significantly associated with unemployment (R = .1256, P = .0265), whereas untreatable cancer mortality was not (R = .0820, P = .1919). Lag analysis indicated that the associations of mortality with unemployment were maintained for 5 years after unemployment increases for breast cancer in women, colorectal cancer in women, lung cancer in men, and overall cancer mortality.. Effect of Universal Health Coverage. Countries with universal health coverage were defined as those with legislation mandating universal health coverage, , 90% health-care coverage, and , 90% skilled birth attendance. In analysis adjusting for universal health coverage status, no significant associations were found between cancer mortality and unemployment within the first year of an increase in unemployment for any of the six subtypes, all cancers, or ...
p,Childhood mortality rates are important summary indicators of social development, quality of life, overall health, maternal health and welfare. Childhood deaths are mainly caused by preventable and communicable diseases and poor coverage of health, especially in the case of underdeveloped countries. This implies the socioeconomic nature of the issue besides its intrinsic health nature. This study identifies the socioeconomic factors causing childhood mortality in Ethiopia based on the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 2005. Identifying the important factors will help in policy formulation and intervention designing, should the country meet reduction of the infant and child mortality rates to the one set by the Millennium Development Goals. This study employs a probit model to identify these socioeconomic factors and finds maternal education, maternal age at first birth, age of the child and size of the household to significantly and ...
We have shown that alteplase given within 6 hours of ischemic stroke does not lead to any significant change in overall mortality at 18 months. However there was some evidence in our exploratory analysis that the effect of alteplase on mortality differed by time to randomization. Consistent with previous findings that earlier treatment leads to better functional outcome at 3 to 6 months (although no clear difference in mortality is evident at that time point),11 treatment ,3 hours after stroke was associated with better 18-month survival than later treatment, although this association was attenuated after adjustment for predicted prognosis and could have been attributable to confounding or chance.. There was support for our hypothesis that patients with a good prognosis after acute stroke might not gain a survival advantage from alteplase. In our analysis, patients with a poor prognosis had greater reduction in long-term mortality than ...
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is a strong predictor of total mortality among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between nutritional indices and cardiovascular (CV) mortality among patients with ESRD by using data from the US Renal Data System (USRDS) Dialysis Morbidity and Mortality Study Wave I (DMMS-1). METHODS: Demographic and medical data were abstracted from 5,058 patients who participated in the USRDS DMMS-1. Nutritional measurements of interest included subjective assessment of malnutrition, serum albumin level, body mass index (BMI), and cholesterol level. The USRDS provided follow-up data on mortality through July 1998. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the risk for CV death associated with nutritional markers. RESULTS: The risk for CV death was 39% greater for each 1-g/dL (10-g/L) decrement in serum albumin ...
The life expectancy of Indigenous people in both New Zealand and the United States of America is higher than for Indigenous Australians, and the difference to the total population is not as great as in Australia. In 1995-1997 the New Zealand Maori population had a life expectancy at birth of 67 years for males and 72 years for females, 7 years lower than for the total male population and 8 years lower than the total female population. In 1996-1998 the American Indian and Alaska Native population of the United States of America had a life expectancy at birth of 67 years for males and 74 years for females, 6 years lower than for the total male population and 5 years lower than the total female population. ...
Studies on the association between physical activity and fatal prostate cancer have produced inconclusive results. The Puerto Rico Heart Health Program was a cohort study of a randomly selected sample of 9824 men age 35 to 79 years at baseline who were followed for mortality until 2002. Multiple examinations collected information on lifestyle, diet, body composition, exercise, urban-rural residence, and smoking habits. Physical activity status was measured using the Framingham Physical Activity Index, an assessment of occupational, leisure-time, and other physical activities measured as usual activity over the course of a 24-hour day. Physical activity was stratified into quartiles. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association of physical activity with prostate cancer mortality. Other covariates included age, education, urban-rural residence, smoking, and body mass index. Compared with the lowest level of physical activity (Q1), the risk of ...
Environ Health Perspect: 11/22/13. Background: Diesel engine exhaust (DEE) has recently been classified as a known human carcinogen.. Objective: To derive a meta-exposure-response curve (ERC) for DEE and lung cancer mortality and estimate lifetime excess risks (ELRs) of lung cancer mortality based on assumed occupational and environmental exposure scenarios.. Methods: We conducted a meta-regression of lung cancer mortality and cumulative exposure to elemental carbon (EC), a proxy measure of DEE, based on relative risk (RR) estimates reported by three large occupational cohort studies (including two studies of workers in the trucking industry and one study of miners). Based on the derived risk function, we calculated ELRs for several lifetime occupational and environmental exposure scenarios, and also calculated the fractions of annual lung cancer deaths attributable to DEE. Read more. ...
OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of vitamin D status with all-cause mortality in a Norwegian population and the potential influences of existing chronic diseases on the association. DESIGN A population-based prospective cohort study. SETTING Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway. PARTICIPANTS A random sample (n=6613) of adults aged 20 years or older in a cohort. METHODS Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were measured in blood samples collected at baseline (n=6377). Mortality was ascertained from the Norwegian National Registry. Cox regression models were applied to estimate the HRs with 95% CIs for all-cause mortality in association with serum 25(OH)D levels after adjustment for a wide spectrum of confounding factors as well as chronic diseases at baseline. RESULTS The median follow-up time was 18.5 years, during which 1539 subjects died. The HRs for all-cause mortality associated with the first quartile level of 25(OH)D ...
Objectives. This study examined socioeconomic differentials in risk of death from a number of specific causes in a large cohort of White men in the United States. Methods. For 300 685 White men screened for the multiple Risk Factors Intervention Trial between 1973 and 1975, data were collected on median income of White households in the zip...
Sources: "Alameda County Health Data Profile 2014", "Alameda County Public Health Department", thepulseofoakland.com, www.cablackhealthnetwork.org, pacinst.org. (This is a sample of our findings. For a full packet of health statistics, visit the store and see the sales desk.). - African people have the highest rates of hospitalization for hypertension. - From infancy to 64 years, African people die at rates at least two times higher than white people. - African people have the highest rates of death from all cancers as well as unintentional injury of anyone in Alameda County.. - African people have the second highest rates of death from heart disease, stroke and chronic lower respiratory diseases. Pacific Islanders have the highest rates. - African people in Alameda County have the lowest life expectancy of any group at 74.7 years of age and African men as a group have an even lower life expectancy at 71.1 years. This is compared to 86.7 years in Piedmont.. - African people experience the most ...
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the associations of serum magnesium (Mg) concentrations with total and cause-specific mortality in a nationally representative sample of US adults. We investigate the dose-response relationships of baseline serum Mg concentrations with risk of mortalities in a large, nationally representative sample of US adults.. METHODS: We analyzed prospective data of 14,353 participants aged 25-74 years with measures of serum Mg concentrations at baseline (1971-1975) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study (NHEFS). Mortality data was linked through December 31, 2011. We estimated the mortality hazard ratios (HRs), for participants within serum Mg categories of ,0.7, 0.7-0.74, 0.75-0.79, 0.8-0.89 (referent), 0.9-0.94, 0.95-0.99, and ≥1.0 mmol/L using weighted multivariate-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models.. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 28.6 years, 9012 deaths occurred, ...
Objectives: To investigate the mortality and cancer incidence of Australian nuclear test participants, and to identify any association with exposure to ionising radiation.. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was carried out in which the mortality and cancer incidence rates of participants (n = 10 983) were compared with rates in the general male Australian population. Dose reconstructions were carried out by a panel of health physicists. Mortality and cancer rates were compared with the general population and between groups of subjects categorised by assessed radiation exposure.. Results: All-cause mortality was not raised. Mortality and incidence were significantly raised for cancers of the head and neck, lung, colon and rectum, and prostate, and for all cancers combined. For oesophageal cancer, melanoma, all leukaemias and non-chronic lymphatic leukaemia (non-CLL leukaemia), incidence was significantly raised, but ...
Alameda County Genealogy has a list of cemeteries with links to sites with informaion about the Alameda County cemeteries. DUBLIN: Dublin Cemetery 925-452-2100 6600 Donlon Way EL CERRITO: Sunset View Cemetery & Mortuary 510-525-5111 101 Colusa Ave FREMONT: Cedar Lawn Cemetary 48800 Warm Springs Blvd., Fremont, California. Phone: 408-263-2868 & 510-656-5565 FREMONT /IRVINGTON: Irvington Memorial Cemetery 41001 Chapel Way, Fremont, California. Phone:510-656-5800 HAYWARD: Lone Tree Cemetery, 24591 Fairview Ave, Hayward, CA 94541, Phone: (510) 582-1274, Located in the lower foothills of Hayward /Fairview township, at the Junction of Hansen Rd & Fairview Ave. Very old burials, since 1868, as well as current. Mausoleum, cremation, and ground burials, private family mausoleums. Probably open daily. Closed overnight. HAYWARD: Holy Sepulchre Cemetery, (510) 581-2488 1051 Harder Rd (Southern part of Hayward). BillionGraves Google map, headstone photos, searchable database. Hayward / UNION CITY: Chapel of ...
Heat-related mortalities will witness a two-fold increase in urban areas of India by 2080, a study done by the Indian Institute of Management-Ahmedabad (IIM-A) predicts.. The IIM study titled as Predicted increase in heat- related mortality under climate change in urban India also asked the Indian policy-makers to plan and respond to the challenge of climate change in the country, which recorded more than 2000 deaths in summer this year.. "Urban areas in India are projected to witness two-fold or more increase in heat-related mortality under the projected future climate," the study conducted by IIM-A researcher Amit Garg, Vimal Mishra of Indian Institute of Gandhinagar and a member of Delhi-based NGO Council for Energy, Environment and Water, Hem Dholakia said.. The study, which is based on data collected from 52 Urban centres, said the mortality is projected to increase 71 to 140 per cent in the late 21st century.. "We find that increase in heat-related ...
ARRIBAS-MONZON, Federico et al. Effects of air pollution on daily mortality in Zaragoza, Spain, 1991-1995. Salud pública Méx [online]. 2001, vol.43, n.4, pp.289-297. ISSN 0036-3634.. Objective. To analyze the short-term impact of air pollution on daily mortality in the City of Zaragoza (Spain). Material and methods. This ecologic study was conducted in Zaragoza, Spain, from 1991 to 1993. Poisson autoregressive models were constructed to assess the association between air particulate matter and sulphur dioxide SO2 and daily deaths. Four outcome variables were studied: overall mortality (excluding external deaths), mortality in subjects over 69 years of age, mortality due to respiratory disease, and mortality due to cardiovascular disease. A sample size was not obtained. Data analysis was conducted using the statistical software EGRET and SPSS. Results. SO2 levels were significantly associated with ...
No. 91 January 1995 AIDS MORTALITY IN NORTH CAROLINA, 1988-92 Elizabeth Barnett, Ph.D. ABSTRACT JM* 24 W95 .. f. 3RARY Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has emerged as a leading cause of death for young adults in the United States. A detailed examination of AIDS mortality in North Carolina has not previously been published. In this report, sociodemographic patterns of AIDS mortality in North Carolina were investigated for the 5-year period 1988-1992. Young adults aged 25-44 accounted for 78 percent of AIDS deaths in North Carolina during the study period. AIDS mortality rates were higher among men than women, and much higher among blacks compared to whites. AIDS mortality increased rapidly among adults aged 25-44 during the 5- year study period, becoming the leading cause of death among black men, the second leading cause of death among black women, and the fourth leading cause of death among white men by 1992. AIDS ...
Background: Several studies have demonstrated associations between daily mortality and ambient particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter (fine particles or PM2.5). Few, however, have examined the relative toxicities of PM2.5 constituents, including elemental carbon and organic carbon (EC and OC, respectively), nitrates and transition metals. There is also little information about whether associations between PM2.5 constituents and mortality are modified by socioeconomic and demographic factors.. Aim: To examine associations of daily cardiovascular mortality with PM2.5 and its constituents after stratification by gender, race/ethnicity and education, using data from six California counties during 2000 to 2003.. Methods: The association of daily counts of cardiovascular mortality with PM2.5 components was analysed using time-series regression analyses. Poisson models with natural splines were used to control for time-varying ...
BACKGROUND:. Heart disease and stroke remain the first and third leading killers of all Americans, with a disproportionate share of the burden borne by African Americans. Cardiovascular and total mortality are known to be higher among African Americans than among white Americans, but reasons for these differences remain unknown. In addition, well-documented declines in CVD and coronary disease mortality in the past three decades have not been shared equally between blacks and whites. Age-adjusted death rates were identical in both groups in 1980, but by 1994 the rate among African Americans was 14% higher than in whites. The race difference in magnitude of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality is greater in women than men and higher in middle age, such that CHD deaths tend to occur in blacks about 5 years earlier than in whites. Excess cerebrovascular disease incidence and mortality in blacks are even greater than the differences noted in ...
The global economic crisis has been associated with increased unemployment and reduced public-sector expenditure on health care. In a study reported in The Lancet, Maruthappu et al found that the global economic crisis beginning in 2008 was also associated with a large excess in cancer mortality during 2008 to 2010.. Study Details. The study included data from the World Bank and the World Health Organization. Analysis of mortality data included breast cancer in women, prostate cancer in men, and colorectal cancer in men and women as "treatable cancer" and lung and pancreatic cancers as "untreatable cancer." Multivariable regression analyses controlling for country-specific demographics and infrastructure with time-lag analyses were used to assess the relationship between unemployment, public-sector expenditure on health care, and cancer mortality with and without universal health coverage. Trend analysis was used to project mortality rates ...
Objective To investigate the combined effects on adult mortality of overweight and smoking in late adolescence.. Design Record linkage study with Cox proportional hazard ratios adjusted for muscle strength, socioeconomic position, and age.. Setting Swedish military service conscription register, cause of death register, and census data.. Participants 45 920 Swedish men (mean age 18.7, SD 0.5) followed for 38 years.. Main outcome measures Body mass index (underweight (BMI ,18.5), normal weight (18.5-24.9), overweight (25-29.9), and obesity (≥30)), muscle strength, and self reported smoking (non-smoker, light smoker (1-10 cigarettes/day), heavy smoker (,10/day)) at mandatory military conscription tests in 1969-70. All cause mortality.. Results Over 1.7 million person years, 2897 men died. Compared with normal weight men (incidence rate 17/10 000 person years, 95% confidence interval 16 to 18), risk of mortality was increased in overweight (hazard ratio 1.33, ...
BackgroundObservational studies report that influenza vaccination reduces winter mortality risk from any cause by 50% among the elderly. Influenza vaccination c
Background: Physical activity (PA) is considered a cornerstone of diabetes mellitus management to prevent complications, but conclusive evidence is lacking. Methods: This prospective cohort study and meta-analysis of existing studies investigated the association between PA and mortality in individuals with diabetes. In the EPIC study (European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition), a cohort was defined of 5859 individuals with diabetes at baseline. Associations of leisure-time and total PA and walking with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and total mortality were studied using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models. Fixed-and random-effects meta-analyses of prospective studies published up to December 2010 were pooled with inverse variance weighting. Results: In the prospective analysis, total PA was associated with lower risk of CVD and total mortality. Compared with physically inactive persons, the lowest ...
In this article we present results from MCAPS, the largest study of potential health effects of chronic exposure to air pollution on morbidity and mortality to date, with 4.88 million deaths during more than 92 million person-years of follow-up. In comparison, a total of 20,765 deaths in the subcohort of the American Cancer Society (Krewski et al. 2000) were included in the analyses of air pollution and mortality, less than one-tenth the number in our study. However, CPS-II had an extensive set of individual-level risk factors. Given the availability of 1,006 air pollution monitors and mortality data from 4,568 ZIP codes within 668 urban counties, we have stratified the analyses geographically, choosing strata that broadly reflected differing source mixes and background disease patterns. This stratification also controls for potential confounders that vary on broad geographic scales.. Our estimated associations between long-term exposure to PM2.5 and ...
Objectives To examine trends in prostate cancer incidence and mortality in England and Wales between 1971 and 1998, using a newly developed and validated national cancer database and the national mortality database.. Methods Age-standardized incidence and death rates were calculated directly and trends in relative survival rates among men with prostate cancer registered during 1971-1990 were examined.. Results The annual number of new cases of prostate cancer registered in England and Wales increased by 179% between 1971 and 1993, from 6174 to 17 210. Directly age-standardized incidence rates increased by 104% between 1971 and 1993, from 29 to 59 per 100 000. The number of deaths from prostate cancer increased by 113% between 1971 and 1998, from 4027 to 8570. Directly age-standardized death rates increased by 49% between 1971 and 1995 and then decreased by 8% between 1995 and 1998, an overall increase of 38% (20 to 27 per 100 000) between 1971 and 1998. The relative survival ...
Infant mortality rates remained high in late nineteenth century cities. Industries and residences tended to locate near one another in these cities creating a complex mixture of land uses throughout much of the city. A lack of regulation, beyond nuisance codes, allowed the dumping of household and industrial wastes into street gutters only to have those wastes wash away to the nearest waterway or seep into the groundwater supply. This paper asks if land use is a factor affecting infant mortality patterns in 1880 Baltimore, MD. Using 1880 Vital Statistics Death Records, the 1876 Hopkins Atlas, and the 1890 Sanborn Fire Insurance Atlas, the geographic information system constructed displays the spatial distribution of individual infant deaths and laud use at the block level. The analysis of the resulting infant death and land use data uses spatial statistics, grid, and visual analysis. Industrial land uses in 1880 Baltimore do not appear to significantly affect the infant ...
Outputs from the 2011 Indigenous Mortality project that have been produced include: - the creation of linked files between the 2011-2012 death registrations data and the 2011 Census of Population and Housing;. - input into the compilation of life tables and life expectancy estimates as released in the ABS publication, Life Tables for Aboriginal and Torres strait Islander Australians, 2010-2012 , (cat. no. 3302.0.55.003);. - the release of an information paper containing aggregate statistics from the examination of social and demographic characteristics associated with differences in Indigenous status identification, see Information Paper: Death registrations to Census linkage project - Key Findings for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, 2011-2012 (cat. no. 3302.0.55.005); - the release of an information paper outlining the methods used to conduct the linking of death registrations to the Census of Population and Housing and an assessment of linking quality, see Information Paper: ...
Objectives: Given the concern that mortality rates may be increased in geriatric patients exposed to atypical antipsychotic agents, we assessed mortality rates for adult patients with schizophrenia assigned to an investigational antipsychotic (olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, or ziprasidone), a control antipsychotic (haloperidol or chlorpromazine), or placebo in preapproval clinical development programs to assess relative risk with atypical antipsychotics as compared to typical antipsychotics or placebo.. Method: We reviewed safety data (from clinical trials conducted from approximately 1982 to 2002) for 16,791 adult patients with schizophrenia (DSM-III or DSM-IV criteria) in U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Summary Basis of Approval (SBA) reports for 6 antipsychotic drugs. Mortality rates were calculated for each treatment group (investigational agent, active control, orplacebo) on the basis of patient exposure years (PEY) and ...
Healthcare in Laos was poor in the early 1990s. Although diets are not grossly inadequate, chronic moderate vitamin and protein deficiencies are common, particularly among upland ethnic groups. Poor sanitation and the prevalence of several tropical diseases further eroded the health of the population. Western medical care is available in few locations, and the quality and experience of practitioners are, for the most part, marginal, a situation that has not improved much since the 1950s. The life expectancy at birth for men and women in Laos was estimated in 1988 at forty-nine years, the same as in Cambodia but at least ten years lower than in any other Southeast Asian nation. High child and infant mortality rates strongly affected this figure, with the Ministry of Public Health estimating the infant mortality rate at 109 per 1,000 and the under-five mortality rate at 180 per 1,000 in 1988. The United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF-see Glossary) believed ...
Background: Influenza and pneumococcal vaccination are recommended in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A recent study from Tayside found a reduced risk of all cause mortality with vaccination in COPD patients.. Objectives: We used The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database to test this hypothesis in a different data source.. Methods: We searched the THIN database for patients with COPD. Vaccination status against pneumococcus and their annual influenza vaccination status were determined. Mortality rates were calculated in the periods December-March, April-November. Relative risks for the effect of vaccination on all cause mortality were estimated by Poisson regression, adjusting for age, sex, year and serious co-morbidities.. Results: We found 177,120 patients with COPD, mean age of 65 years, with an average of 6.8 years follow up between 1988 and 2006. Vaccination rates against influenza rose from ,30% prior to 1995 to ,70% in ...

Systematic review of long-term lifestyle interventions to prevent weight gain and morbidity in adults - Database of Abstracts...Systematic review of long-term lifestyle interventions to prevent weight gain and morbidity in adults - Database of Abstracts...

... demonstrated significant weight loss and improvement in metabolic syndrome and diabetes compared with no treatment control for ... mortality /prevention & control; Middle Aged; Obesity /mortality /prevention & control; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic; ... Full reports of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled before-and-after studies of lifestyle interventions (diet, ... A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of adding drug therapy, exercise, behaviour therapy or combinations of ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK78387/

Decreased mortality and infectious morbidity in adult burn patients given enteral glutamine supplements: A prospective,...Decreased mortality and infectious morbidity in adult burn patients given enteral glutamine supplements: A prospective,...

... controlled, randomized clinical trial* ... randomized clinical trial.SettingBurn center.PatientsForty-five ... Mortality rate was significantly lower in glutamine than in control: intention to treat, two vs. 12 (p < .05); per protocol ... control, respectively), positive blood culture was three times more frequent in control than in glutamine treatment (4.3 vs. ... InterventionsPatients were randomized to receive either glutamine or an isonitrogenous control mixture until complete healing ...
more infohttps://insights.ovid.com/article/00003246-200310000-00004

Pharmacological interventions for hypertensive emergencies.Pharmacological interventions for hypertensive emergencies.

Hypertension / complications, drug therapy*, mortality. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Chemical. Reg. No./Substance: 0/ ... MAIN RESULTS: Fifteen randomized controlled trials (representing 869 patients) met the inclusion criteria. Two trials included ... OBJECTIVES: To answer the following two questions using randomized controlled trials (RCTs): 1) does anti-hypertensive drug ... All studies (except one) were open-label trials. Seven drug classes were evaluated in those trials: nitrates (9 trials), ACE- ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Pharmacological-interventions-hypertensive-emergencies/18254026.html

A meta-analysis of hemodialysis catheter locking solutions in the prevention of catheter-related infection.A meta-analysis of hemodialysis catheter locking solutions in the prevention of catheter-related infection.

... is associated with increased all-cause mortality and morbidity in hemodialysis patients and may be reduced by using ... Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Renal Dialysis / mortality. Research Design. Thrombosis / etiology, prevention & control ... Bacterial Infections / etiology*, mortality, prevention & control*. Catheterization, Peripheral / instrumentation*. Catheters, ... of studies identified from a search conducted in February 2007 of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/meta-analysis-hemodialysis-catheter-locking/18215701.html

Postnatal hydrocortisone for preventing o... & related info | MendeleyPostnatal hydrocortisone for preventing o... & related info | Mendeley

Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. *Survival Rate. *Treatment Outcome. *bronchopulmonary dysplasia treatment ... mortality, or the combined outcome of BPD or mortality. Hydrocortisone in the doses used in these eight studies had few ... METHODS: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of postnatal hydrocortisone therapy to prevent or treat BPD were sought. Data ... In all trials treatment was started in the first week of life; there were no trials of treatment started in infants who were ...
more infohttps://www.mendeley.com/research-papers/postnatal-hydrocortisone-preventing-treating-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-preterm-infants-systematic-r/

Levosimendan in High Risk Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govLevosimendan in High Risk Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Levosimendan to Reduce Mortality in High Risk Cardiac Surgery Patients. A Multicentre Randomized Controlled Trial. ... MedlinePlus related topics: Heart Failure U.S. FDA Resources Further study details as provided by Giovanni Landoni, Università ... a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2010 Feb;24(1):51-7. doi: 10.1053/j.jvca.2009.05. ... Effects of levosimendan on mortality and hospitalization. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. Crit Care Med. 2012 ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00994825?recr=Open&cond=%22Cardiac+Output%2C+Low%22&rank=6

Garlic for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality in Hypertensive Patients - PubMedGarlic for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality in Hypertensive Patients - PubMed

... evidence to determine if garlic provides a therapeutic advantage versus placebo in terms of reducing the risk of mortality and ... Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH ... Clinicaltrials.gov was searched for ongoing trials. Selection criteria: Randomized, placebo-controlled trials of any garlic ... Main results: The search identified two randomized controlled trials for inclusion. One trial included 47 hypertensive patients ...
more infohttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22895963/

Randomized, Controlled, Prospective Trial of the Use of a Mesh to Prevent Parastomal HerniaRandomized, Controlled, Prospective Trial of the Use of a Mesh to Prevent Parastomal Hernia

Mortality was 0. No mesh intolerance was reported. In the clinical follow-up (median: 29 months, range: 13-49), 11/27 (40.7%) ... Randomized, Controlled, Prospective Trial of the Use of a Mesh to Prevent Parastomal Hernia ... Randomized, controlled, prospective study. Patients were scheduled for permanent end colostomy surgery to treat cancer of the ... hernias in the control group compared with 6/27 (22.2%) in the study group (P = 0.08).Conclusions:Parastomal placement of a ...
more infohttps://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00000658-200904000-00008

Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Adventist HealthCareColorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Adventist HealthCare

... reduces CRC mortality. In addition, there is solid evidence... ... The now-classic randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that ... This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have ... Although there is no randomized controlled trial (RCT) to assess reduction of CRC incidence or mortality by colonoscopy, some ... Table 3. Randomized Controlled Screening Trials to Assess Outcome: Sigmoidoscopya. Site. Population Size (Intervention). FSG ...
more infohttps://www.adventisthealthcare.com/health/library/topic/?id=ncicdr0000062753

Esophageal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Adventist HealthCareEsophageal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Adventist HealthCare

Magnitude of Effect: Impact on cancer mortality not known.. Study Design: Evidence obtained from a randomized controlled trial. ... This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have ... A randomized controlled trial has found that radiofrequency ablation of Barrett esophagus with severe dysplasia may lead to ... A randomized controlled trial [18] assessed whether radiofrequency ablation (vs. sham ablation) could eradicate dysplastic ...
more infohttps://www.adventisthealthcare.com/health/library/topic/?id=ncicdr0000062880

Childhood Vascular Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] | HealthLink BCChildhood Vascular Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] | HealthLink BC

Since that time, the results of a randomized controlled trial have been reported.[7] In 2014, the U.S. Food and Drug ... The mortality associated with this tumor is primarily from the extensive coagulopathy associated with Kasabach-Merritt ... This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have ... Léauté-Labrèze C, Hoeger P, Mazereeuw-Hautier J, et al.: A randomized, controlled trial of oral propranolol in infantile ...
more infohttps://www.healthlinkbc.ca/health-topics/ncicdr0000774170

Using meta-analysis Archives - The James Lind Library The James Lind LibraryUsing meta-analysis Archives - The James Lind Library The James Lind Library

A randomized controlled trial of acetyl salicylic acid in the secondary prevention of mortality from myocardial infarction. BMJ ... Combinations of data from randomized control trials. Discussion. Proceedings of Current Topics in Biostatistics and ... Randomized controlled trials of fetal monitoring 1973-1977. In: Thalhammer O, Baumgarten K, Pollak A, eds. Perinatal Medicine. ... Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. New England Journal of Medicine 316:450-455.. View. ...
more infohttps://www.jameslindlibrary.org/research-topics/using-meta-analysis/

Checklists to improve patient safety have mixed results | The HospitalistChecklists to improve patient safety have mixed results | The Hospitalist

Study design: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with pooled estimates of 30-day mortality. ... No study has systematically reviewed randomized trials or summarized the quality of evidence on this topic. ... The impact of checklists on inpatient safety outcomes: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. J Hosp Med. 2017 ... A random-effects model using pooled data from the three studies assessing 30-day mortality showed lower mortality associated ...
more infohttps://www.the-hospitalist.org/hospitalist/article/157054/critical-care

Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] | CignaStomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] | Cigna

A randomized controlled trial (RCT) showed that short-term treatment with amoxicillin and omeprazole reduced the incidence of ... A chemoprevention trial in China reported a statistically significant reduction in the gastric cancer mortality rate after ... This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have ... 1 trial); vitamin A plus beta-carotene (1 trial); beta-carotene plus vitamin C (1 trial); beta-carotene plus vitamin E (1 trial ...
more infohttps://www.cigna.com/healthwellness/hw/medical-topics/stomach-cancer-prevention-ncicdr0000062830

Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] | CignaLiver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] | Cigna

Benefits Based on fair evidence, screening of persons at elevated risk does not result in a decrease in mortality from ... A randomized controlled trial studied 5,581 men aged 30 to 69 years who were chronic carriers of HBV between 1989 and 1995 in ... This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have ... Zhang BH, Yang BH, Tang ZY: Randomized controlled trial of screening for hepatocellular carcinoma. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 130 ...
more infohttps://www.cigna.com/individuals-families/health-wellness/hw/medical-topics/liver-cancer-screening-ncicdr0000062840

Reducing Your Risk of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) - Health LibraryReducing Your Risk of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) - Health Library

Primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases with statin therapy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern ... Cancer incidence and mortality after treatment with folic acid and vitamin B12. JAMA. 2009;302(19):2119-2126. ... 12/4/2009 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance.http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T233210/Folic-Acid: Ebbing M, ... Control Blood Glucose Levels If You have Diabetes. High blood glucose levels can cause damage to smaller blood vessels and ...
more infohttp://healthlibrary.epnet.com/GetContent.aspx?token=38405ca3-6cab-4817-9cba-dc64dc5c69f1&chunkiid=20290

Epidural Anesthesia-Analgesia and Patient Outcomes: A PerspectiveEpidural Anesthesia-Analgesia and Patient Outcomes: A Perspective

... and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) [13, 14] on this topic provide mixed results on whether epidural anesthesia-analgesia ... 2. Effect on Mortality. The overall effect of epidural anesthesia-analgesia on perioperative mortality is controversial. ... Randomized controlled trials are considered the "gold standard" for determining causality (i.e., cause and effect relationship ... However, there are several limitations of the randomized controlled trial study design when using it to address the "regional ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/aan/2014/948164/

Screening for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) | Effective Health Care ProgramScreening for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) | Effective Health Care Program

Of these, only 1 was a randomized controlled trial; the other 47 studies utilized quasi-experimental study designs. Sixteen of ... Health Topics Consumers Products & Tools Research Methods Get Involved Browse Products About News Contact Us Email Updates ... However, there is insufficient evidence on other outcomes of universal MRSA screening, including morbidity, mortality, harms, ... Designs should also permit assessment of effects of specific bundles of screening and infection control interventions and ...
more infohttps://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/topics/mrsa-screening-2010/research

topic:Stress found 5498 records • Arctic Healthtopic:"Stress" found 5498 records • Arctic Health

For lifestyle and pharmacological interventions, evidence from randomized, controlled trials and systematic reviews of trials ... Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) can reduce mortality and morbidity, but low compliance rates are seen. To explore ... Burnout, Professional - prevention & control - psychology Female Humans Internal-External Control Middle Aged Quebec Risk ... Stress, Psychological - complications - prevention & control Teaching Time and Motion Studies Workload - psychology Abstract. ...
more infohttps://arctichealth.org/en/list?q=topic%3A%22Stress%22&p=1&ps=&sort=title_sort+asc

topic:Health promotion found 1642 records • Arctic Healthtopic:"Health promotion" found 1642 records • Arctic Health

Patient Education as Topic Practice Guidelines as Topic Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic Risk Reduction Behavior Abstract ... Changes in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality were the primary outcomes of interest. However, for lifestyle interventions, ... Patient Education as Topic Prognosis Program Evaluation Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic Treatment Outcome Abstract. To ... Patient Education as Topic Program Evaluation Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic Severity of Illness Index Abstract. The ...
more infohttps://arctichealth.org/en/list?q=topic%3A%22Health+promotion%22&p=1&ps=&sort=title_sort+asc&topic_facet=Female

AACE Position Statement: Low Testosterone Levels May Be a Marker of Cardiovascular Illness, Not a Causal FactorAACE Position Statement: Low Testosterone Levels May Be a Marker of Cardiovascular Illness, Not a Causal Factor

The AACE committee noted that randomized controlled trials on this topic have not been adequately powered to examine the ... effects of TRT on cardiovascular events or mortality. The two retrospective reports on this topic had major flaws, and a more ... including that none are randomized trials designed to measure cardiovascular endpoints.. Additional studies-such as the results ... 4. Laughlin GA, Barrett-Connor E, Bergstrom J. Low serum testosterone and mortality in older men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 ...
more infohttps://www.endocrineweb.com/amp/20476

Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] | HealthLink BCBreast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] | HealthLink BC

The Raloxifene Use for the Heart trial was a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effects of raloxifene on ... None of these primary prevention trials was designed to detect differences in breast cancer mortality. ... This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have ... two large randomized placebo-controlled trials were done. The Fracture Intervention Trial (FIT) treated 6,194 postmenopausal ...
more infohttps://www.healthlinkbc.ca/health-topics/ncicdr0000062779

Cancer Screening Overview (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI]
	
	
	
	

		 | UW Health | Madison, WICancer Screening Overview (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] | UW Health | Madison, WI

The highest level of evidence and greatest benefit from screening is mortality reduction in a randomized controlled trial. For ... This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have ... The highest level of evidence is taken as mortality reduction in controlled, randomized clinical trials. The results of ... The strongest design is the randomized controlled trial. It is, however, not always practical to conduct such a trial to ...
more infohttps://www.uwhealth.org/health/topic/nci/cancer-screening-overview-pdq-screening-health-professional-information-nci/ncicdr0000062758.html

ChocolateChocolate

CK: Even in randomized controlled trials-what other factors might wise consumers keep in mind when evaluating research? (Im ... Topics. 5-a-Day AAFP(American Academy of Family Physicians) AAP(American Academy of Pediatrics) Acrylamide ACSH(American ... as well as whether they evaluate clinically significant outcomes like disease and mortality vs. isolated biomarkers or other ... Study-a randomized controlled trial, by Daniela Mastroiacovo, Catherine Kwik-Uribe, Davide Grassi, Stefano Necozione, Angelo ...
more infohttps://www.foodpolitics.com/tag/chocolate/

Exercise and Physical Activity in the Prevention and Treatment of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease | Arteriosclerosis,...Exercise and Physical Activity in the Prevention and Treatment of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease | Arteriosclerosis,...

A meta-analysis of 44 randomized controlled trials including 2674 participants6 demonstrated average reductions in systolic and ... although no trial has documented a reduction in morbitiy and mortality. The HF-ACTION Trial (Heart Failure: A CHF Trial ... Statement directed to this topic.18 Exercise performance, measured as peak oxygen uptake, in 426 heart failure patients ... A meta-analysis of 51 randomized, controlled trials including 8440 patients examined the effect of exercise-based cardiac ...
more infohttp://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/23/8/1319.long
  • The available literature consisted mainly of observational studies with insufficient controls for secular trends and confounding to support causal inference, particularly because other interventions were inconsistently bundled together with MRSA screening. (ahrq.gov)
  • EN was associated with an increased rate of overall morbidity compared with no nutritional supplementation in one observational study (43.3% versus 28.1%, p not reported), but was associated with a lower morbidity rate in one retrospective study (65.3% versus 92.7%, p not reported). (york.ac.uk)
  • In view of the review's limitations (search, reporting, methods, validity assessment) and that part of the conclusion was based on one small, randomised controlled trial of unknown quality, the authors' conclusion may not be reliable. (york.ac.uk)
  • Available at: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/coronary-heart-disease. (epnet.com)
  • there were no trials of treatment started in infants who were chronically ventilator-dependent after the first week of life with established or evolving BPD. (mendeley.com)
  • There are no randomised trials to substantiate the use of hydrocortisone in chronically ventilator-dependent infants with established or evolving BPD. (mendeley.com)
  • We have used a 5% nationally random sample of Medicare beneficiaries (1997-2001) to examine the association between the presence or absence of postoperative epidural analgesia and perioperative (7- and 30-day) mortality [ 6 - 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Mortality event data were reported in 7 trials. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed trial quality using the risk of bias tool. (nih.gov)
  • Importance: Topic creator, Breakthrough, Impact The Canon of Medicine Author: Avicenna (Ibn Sina) Publication data: The Canon of Medicine, 1025 Description: This fourteen-volume medical encyclopedia was the first of its kind and remained the most popular medical textbook in both Europe and the Islamic world up until the 17th century and continued to be in use as late as the 19th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Importance: Topic creator, Breakthrough, Impact Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus Author: William Harvey Publication data: 1628 Description: The work in which Harvey explained the circulation of the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Importance: Impact Mortality in relation to smoking: 50 years' observation on male British doctors Authors: R. Doll, R. Peto, J. Boreham, I. Sutherland Publication data: BMJ 2004;328:1519-33. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experts in the area were also contacted to identify trials not found in the electronic search. (nih.gov)
  • Several cancers found on screening were known to be indolent and might be harmless for a long period without affecting cancer mortality. (uwhealth.org)
  • No difference in mortality or neurodevelopmental status at 12 months was found between the two groups. (who.int)
  • The authors of the review concluded that diet alone and with the addition of exercise and/or behaviour therapy demonstrated significant weight loss and improvement in metabolic syndrome and diabetes compared with no treatment control for at least two years. (nih.gov)
  • In this setting the mortality rate is distressingly high despite improvements in intensive care treatment, but survivors have an acceptable quality of life. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The second trial could not be meta-analysed as they did not report the number of people randomized to each treatment group. (nih.gov)
  • We examined phase 3 trials conducted between 1990 and 2010 to address the role of systemic treatment for SCLC. (nih.gov)
  • The overall effect of epidural anesthesia-analgesia on perioperative mortality is controversial. (hindawi.com)
  • EN was associated with a shorter duration of hospital stay (13.9 versus 14.8 mean days, statistical significance not reported) compared with the control. (york.ac.uk)
  • Cyclical versus non-cyclical EN. (york.ac.uk)
  • A search of the gray literature included databases with regulatory information, clinical trial registries, abstracts and conference papers, grants and federally funded research, and information from manufacturers. (ahrq.gov)