A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.
A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.
Sodium chloride used in foods.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.
Subsequent admissions of a patient to a hospital or other health care institution for treatment.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
Works about controlled studies which are planned and carried out by several cooperating institutions to assess certain variables and outcomes in specific patient populations, for example, a multicenter study of congenital anomalies in children.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of nursing.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.
An Act prohibiting a health plan from establishing lifetime limits or annual limits on the dollar value of benefits for any participant or beneficiary after January 1, 2014. It permits a restricted annual limit for plan years beginning prior to January 1, 2014. It provides that a health plan shall not be prevented from placing annual or lifetime per-beneficiary limits on covered benefits. The Act sets up a competitive health insurance market.
A center in the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE which is primarily concerned with the collection, analysis, and dissemination of health statistics on vital events and health activities to reflect the health status of people, health needs, and health resources.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of VETERANS.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
A condition where the stomach wall becomes thickened, rubbery and loses its ability to distend. The stomach assumes a "leather bottle" shape. It is most often seen in adenocarcinoma of the stomach. The term is often used synonymously with diffuse adenocarcinoma of the stomach.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
The second largest of the TARSAL BONES. It articulates with the TIBIA and FIBULA to form the ANKLE JOINT.
Works about randomized clinical trials that compare interventions in clinical settings and which look at a range of effectiveness outcomes and impacts.
A plant family of the order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta (conifers). They are mainly resinous, aromatic evergreen trees.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
Two syndromes of oral, facial, and digital malformations. Type I (Papillon-Leage and Psaume syndrome, Gorlin-Psaume syndrome) is inherited as an X-linked dominant trait and is found only in females and XXY males. Type II (Mohr syndrome) is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait.
Compounds consisting of a short peptide chain conjugated with an acyl chain.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)
Water naturally or artificially infused with mineral salts or gases.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.
A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
Dietary sodium intake and mortality: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I), Lancet, 351, 781-785, ( ... And while the individual benefits of reducing sodium intake are variable, it has been theorized that dietary sodium reduction ... Normal-sodium diet compared with low-sodium diet in compensated congestive heart failure: is sodium an old enemy or a new ... They argue that an across the board reduction in dietary sodium may not be the right approach and the outcome may lead to ...
Table of Food and Drug Administration Actions on Dietary Supplements". Proposed Framework for Evaluating the Safety of Dietary ... Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 39 (47): 861-3. PMID 2122223. Dyer, JE (July 1991). "gamma-Hydroxybutyrate: a health- ... Sodium oxybate is the sodium salt of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). Its systematic chemical name is sodium 4-hydroxybutanoate, ... Sodium oxybate is the common name for the chemical; it has no international nonproprietary name (INN). As of April 2018 sodium ...
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans have been criticized for recommending a diet that contains less than 2.3 grams of sodium ( ... drinkers have reduced mortality risk? A systematic review and meta-analysis of alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality". ... "The Dietary Guidelines for Americans: What It Is, What It Is Not - 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines - health.gov". health.gov. ... "2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines". Health.gov. Wang, Dong D.; Hu, Frank B. (2017). "Dietary fat and risk of cardiovascular disease ...
Dietary sources of nitrosamines include US cured meats preserved with sodium nitrite as well as the dried salted fish eaten in ... This event preceded the beginning of a dramatic decline in gastric cancer mortality. Around 1970, it was found that ascorbic ... Sodium nitrite is an efficient drug in case of cyanide poisoning. It is used together with sodium thiosulfate. It is on the ... In the laboratory, sodium nitrite can be used to destroy excess sodium azide. 2 NaN3 + 2 NaNO2 + 4 H+ → 3 N2 + 2 NO + 4 Na+ + 2 ...
Urinary sodium excretion, blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, and mortality: a community-level prospective epidemiological ... on the release of the US report on Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for Sodium and Potassium". Vital Strategies. March 5, 2019. ... "We Eat Too Much Sodium Because Companies Keep Dumping It In Our Food". NPR. Retrieved June 20, 2019. "Statement from Dr. Tom ... The salt reduction effort is controversial, with some scientists stating that lower sodium intake may harm some people. The ...
Some birds die during forced molting and it has been recommended that the flock must be managed so that mortality does not ... Alternative methods of forced molting which do not use total food withdrawal, e.g. creating a dietary mineral imbalance, ... The most important among these include manipulation of minerals including sodium, calcium, iodine and zinc, with full or ... generally result in lower mortality rates. Temporary starvation of the hens is considered by many to be inhumane as well as a ...
"Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. DASH-Sodium ... the impact of weigh loss on mortality and morbidity is unknown. Their potential effectiveness is similar to and at times ... Dietary changes shown to reduce blood pressure include diets with low sodium, the DASH diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop ... "Effect of dose and duration of reduction in dietary sodium on blood pressure levels: systematic review and meta-analysis of ...
... sodium bicarbonate), and sodium benzoate.[78] Dietary recommendations. The U.S. Institute of Medicine set its Tolerable Upper ... Levels of 7 g per day or more in people with hypertension were associated with higher mortality and cardiovascular events, but ... Sodium was first isolated by Humphry Davy in 1807 by the electrolysis of sodium hydroxide. Among many other useful sodium ... Metallic sodium is used mainly for the production of sodium borohydride, sodium azide, indigo, and triphenylphosphine. A once- ...
These factors include reduced physical activity levels and excess dietary sodium intake from foods. In addition to hypertension ... Other important health indicators include leading cause of death, life expectancy, neo-natal mortality rate, and the maternal ... High degree of dietary acculturation is associated with poorer dietary habits. Immigration to the US is associated with ... Dietary acculturation is the change in eating patterns due to adopting new diets that occurs when members of the minority group ...
Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. New England ... Many studies further indicate a J-shaped relationship between blood pressure and mortality, whereby both very high and very low ... A low-sodium, high potassium diet is recommended, along with increasing physical activity to at least thirty minutes a day most ... The effects of both diet and sodium reduction work together, meaning the more you improve your diet to include less saturated ...
I.V. nitrogen scavenging therapy (with sodium benzoate and/or sodium phenylacetate) should normalize ammonia levels, but if ... Long-term management involves dietary protein restriction as well as arginine supplementation. In those with frequent episodes ... it is hard to estimate mortality rates or life expectancy. One 2003 study which followed 88 cases receiving two different kinds ...
... and all-cause mortality. Most dietary sodium in Canada is added by food manufacturers during processing, and regulations ... Dietary sodium can be measured in two ways. Total dietary sodium measures the amount (in grams or milligrams) of sodium in the ... the rest measure only sodium intake, which is less important overall than the combined effects of potassium and sodium. Dietary ... recommend reducing sodium intake by 25 - 30% from current levels. Increasing dietary potassium intake has been shown to have a ...
"Effects on Blood Pressure of Reduced Dietary Sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Diet". New England ... five studies were supportive of the evidence that reduced sodium intake lowers cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality, ... The DASH-Sodium study was a sequel to the original DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) study. Both studies were ... The recommended dietary intake of potassium is higher than that of sodium. Unfortunately, the average absolute intake of ...
"Low-Sodium Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Diet Reduces Blood Pressure, Arterial Stiffness, and Oxidative Stress in ... Despite this, patients with HFrEF and HFpEF appear to have comparable outcomes in terms of hospitalization and mortality.[1][62 ... Most HFpEF patients exhibit pulmonary hypertension which is significantly associated with increased morbidity and mortality.[32 ... Randomized trial to determine the effect of nebivolol on mortality and cardiovascular hospital admission in elderly patients ...
Fish oil dietary supplements (marine n-3 fatty acids) and reducing dietary sodium do not appear to help improve asthma control ... all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global ... Pogson Z, McKeever T (March 2011). "Dietary sodium manipulation and asthma". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): ... Mortality has decreased over the last few decades due to better recognition and improvement in care. In 2010 the death rate was ...
Ascorbate salts such as sodium ascorbate and calcium ascorbate are used in some dietary supplements. These release ascorbate ... cardiovascular mortality, or all-cause mortality.[6] However, a second analysis found an inverse relationship between ... In 2000 the North American Dietary Reference Intake chapter on vitamin C updated the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) to 90 ... Sodium-Dependent Active Transport-Sodium-Ascorbate Co-Transporters (SVCTs) and Hexose transporters (GLUTs)-are the two ...
Some people have cravings for salty foods due to the loss of sodium through their urine. Hyperpigmentation of the skin may be ... It may also be beneficial for the people with Addison's disease to increase their dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D. High ... The risk ratio for cause mortality in males and females is 2.19 and 2.86, respectively. Death from individuals with Addison's ... Absent or insufficient levels of aldosterone stimulation of the renal distal tubule leads to sodium wasting in the urine and H+ ...
"Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. DASH-Sodium ... "Key articles of dietary interventions that influence cardiovascular mortality". Pharmacotherapy. 32 (4): e54-87. doi:10.1002/j. ... "Normal-sodium diet compared with low-sodium diet in compensated congestive heart failure: is sodium an old enemy or a new ... April 2007). "Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the ...
Dietary causes include overconsumption of licorice-containing products. Glycyrrhetinic acid in licorice inhibits the 11-β-HSD2 ... Lifestyle changes such as a low sodium diet are also used for managing hypertension, and cessation of licorice intake is ... mineralocorticoid activity to achieve adequate blood pressure control and avoid end-organ damage and cardiovascular mortality. ... In this disorder, a gain of function mutation decreases ENaC degradation leading to increased renal absorption of sodium and ...
Non-dietary uses. Main article: Sodium chloride. Only about 6% of the salt manufactured in the world is used in food. Of the ... "mortality caused by levels of salt the association between sodium consumption and cardiovascular disease or mortality is U- ... "Dietary sodium". MedLinePlus. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2013.. ... Sodium consumption and health. Main article: Health effects of salt. Table salt is made up of just under 40% sodium by weight, ...
Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate , The National Academies Press. p. 124. doi: ... GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (10 January 2015). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all- ... Medicine, Institute of; Board, Food Nutrition; Intakes, Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference; ... cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease ...
... which cotransports sodium and glucose back into circulation. This leads to a decrease in the delivery of sodium chloride to the ... Ruilope, Luis (2017-04-19). "Faculty Opinions recommendation of BP Control and Long-Term Risk of ESRD and Mortality". doi: ... Some evidence suggests that limiting dietary protein could slow the progression of DN, but further evidence is needed to ... Due to the higher load of filtered glucose, there is an up-regulation in the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in the ...
Hummel S. L., Seymour E. M., Brook R. D., Kolias T. J., Sheth S. S., Rosenblum H. R., Weder A. B. (2012). "Low-Sodium Dietary ... ACE inhibitors do not appear to improve morbidity or mortality associated with HFpEF alone. However, they are important in the ... Despite this, patients with HFrEF and HFpEF appear to have comparable outcomes in terms of hospitalization and mortality. ... Evidence from a meta-analysis demonstrated significant reductions in all cause mortality with beta-blocker therapy, though ...
Ascorbate salts such as sodium ascorbate and calcium ascorbate are used in some dietary supplements. These release ascorbate ... cardiovascular mortality, or all-cause mortality (it did not provide subset analysis for trials that just used vitamin C). ... Sodium-Dependent Active Transport-Sodium-Ascorbate Co-Transporters (SVCTs) and Hexose transporters (GLUTs)-are the two ... First, within the normal range of dietary intake without additional dietary supplementation, are people who consume more ...
"Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension - Sodium Study (DASH-Sodium)". nhlbi.nih.gov. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ... There is some evidence that replacing animal proteins by plant-based proteins, such as nuts and seeds, reduces mortality risks ... The U.S. Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend eating a diet of 2300 mg of sodium a day or lower, with a recommendation of ... Study results indicate that the quantity of dietary sodium in the control diet was twice as powerful in its effect on blood ...
Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate , The National Academies Press. p. 124. doi: ... GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (10 January 2015). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all- ... ISBN 978-0-309-09169-5. Tsai, C.-J.; Leitzmann, M. F.; Willett, W. C.; Giovannucci, E. L. (2005-06-01). "Dietary carbohydrates ... Medicine, Institute of; Board, Food Nutrition; Intakes, Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference; ...
Dietary change, such as a low sodium diet and a vegetarian diet are beneficial. A long term (more than 4 weeks) low sodium diet ... Treating moderate to severe hypertension decreases death rates and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in people aged 60 and ... A major feature of the plan is limiting intake of sodium, although the diet is also rich in potassium, magnesium, calcium, as ... The first line of treatment for hypertension is identical to the recommended preventive lifestyle changes and includes dietary ...
If the electrolyte imbalance is due to influx of sodium chloride in the body, then it has been suggested to make dietary ... with the hypothesis that it may reduce the risk of AKI and mortality. Initial randomized trials in septic shock comparing ... The third scenarios that may lead to hyperchloremia is an increase in sodium chloride intake. This can be due to dietary intake ... due to increased sodium chloride intake Edema - due to influx in sodium in the body Weakness - due to loss of fluids Thirst - ...
Sodium, an electrolyte; common in food and manufactured beverages, typically as sodium chloride. Excessive sodium consumption ... Main article: Dietary fiber. Dietary fiber is a carbohydrate that is incompletely absorbed in humans and in some animals. Like ... Bjelakovic G; Nikolova, D; Gluud, LL; Simonetti, RG; Gluud, C (2007). "Mortality in randomized trials of antioxidant ... a b [1] Nutrient recommendations: Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). *^ Tolerable Upper Intake Levels For Vitamins And Minerals ( ...
"Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. DASH-Sodium ... "Global health risks: mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks" (PDF). World Health Organization. ... Dietary changes shown to reduce blood pressure include diets with low sodium, the DASH diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop ... February 2020). "Effect of dose and duration of reduction in dietary sodium on blood pressure levels: systematic review and ...
... and long-term mortality is decreased.[122] There however is some short-term mortality risk of less than 1% from the surgery.[ ... Dietary factors also influence the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks in excess is ... "Association Between Use of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors, Glucagon-like Peptide 1 Agonists, and Dipeptidyl ... Metformin is generally recommended as a first line treatment as there is some evidence that it decreases mortality;[7][25][104] ...
"Novothyrox (levothyroxine sodium tablets, USP)" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 March 2013. Retrieved 20 April ... The bioavailability of the drug is decreased by dietary fiber.[20] Greater than 99% of circulating thyroid hormones are bound ... As it is a medical emergency with a high mortality rate, it should be treated in the intensive care unit[11] with thyroid ... "Levothyroxine Sodium". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. ...
"Non-dietary risk factors for gastric dilatation-volvulus in large and giant breed dogs" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original ... Litter size at birth, stillborn, early neonatal mortality for poodles in the Norwegian Kennel Club[88][89]. Size. Average ... Addison's can cause fatal sodium/potassium imbalances, but if caught early and treated with lifelong medication, most dogs can ... Toy Poodles have one of the smallest litter size of all breeds.[88] The stillborn rate and early neonatal mortality (death ...
2006). "Low-fat dietary pattern and weight change over 7 years: the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial". JAMA ... Ingram DD, Mussolino ME.; Mussolino (2010). "Weight loss from maximum body weight and mortality: the Third National Health and ... 2006). "Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of invasive breast cancer: the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary ... 2006). "Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of colorectal cancer: the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary ...
20.0 20.1 Lewington S, Whitlock G, Clarke R, et al (December 2007). "Blood cholesterol and vascular mortality by age, sex, and ... Haines TH (2001). "Do sterols reduce proton and sodium leaks through lipid bilayers?". Prog. Lipid Res. 40 (4): 299-324. doi: ... Dietary cholesterol plays a smaller role in blood cholesterol levels in comparison to fat intake. A number of measures can be ... It also reduces the permeability of the plasma membrane to protons (positive hydrogen ions) and sodium ions.[6] ...
Main article: Dietary mineral. Dietary minerals in foods are large and diverse with many required to function while other trace ... Infant mortality. *Open-source healthcare software. *Public health informatics. *Social determinants of health *Health equity ... Food and Nutrition Board of Institute of Medicine (2005) Dietary Reference Intakes for Protein and Amino Acids, page 685, from ... These are found in many foods, but can also be taken in dietary supplements. ...
Dietary exposure to the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1, commonly produced by growth of the fungus Aspergillus flavus on improperly ... Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: Recommendations and Reports. 55 (8): 1-CE-4. JSTOR 24842334.. ... due to absorption into cells and production of nano-channels that obstruct vital ion channels that ferry potassium and sodium ...
Ascorbate salts such as sodium ascorbate and calcium ascorbate are used in some dietary supplements. These release ascorbate ... cardiovascular mortality, or all-cause mortality.[8] However, a second analysis found an inverse relationship between ... In 2000 the North American Dietary Reference Intake chapter on vitamin C updated the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) to 90 ... Sodium-Dependent Active Transport-Sodium-Ascorbate Co-Transporters (SVCTs) and Hexose transporters (GLUTs)-are the two ...
"Dietary carbohydrate intake and mortality: a prospective cohort study and meta-analysis". The Lancet Public Health. 3 (9): e419 ... "Dietary carbohydrate intake and mortality: a prospective cohort study and meta-analysis". Lancet Public Health (Meta-analysis ... but mortality increase was only associated with animal-based diets, whereas mortality was reduced with plant-based diets.[40][ ... eds.). Dietary intervention approaches to the treatment of obesity. Textbook of Obesity. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 295-309. ISBN ...
... sodium butyrate improved locomotor impairment and reduced early mortality rates.[23]. Valproic acid. In an inducible rat model ... Dietary SAM supplementation has also been shown to reduce oxidative stress and delay buildup of neurological hallmarks of AD ... Sodium Butyrate. Sodium butyrate treatment slowed neuronal degeneration in Drosophila models.[18] Sodium butyrate treatment ... sodium butyrate has not been used in human trials to date.. Sodium phenylbutyrate. Sodium phenylbutyrate increases SMN2 full ...
... , caloric restriction, or energy restriction, is a dietary regimen that reduces calorie intake without ... Lower-than-normal body mass index, high mortality[edit]. Caloric restriction diets typically lead to reduced body weight, yet ... The term "calorie restriction" as used in the study of aging refers to dietary regimens that reduce calorie intake without ... In some cases, dietary restriction requires mitochondrial respiration to increase longevity (chronological aging), and in some ...
Oh CK, Oh MC, Kim SH (2004). "The Depletion of Sodium Nitrite by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Kimchi". Journal of ... As food products or dietary supplements, probiotics are under preliminary research to evaluate if they provide any effect on ... clinical studies provide evidence for the potential of probiotics to lower the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and mortality ... Improved health through gut flora modulation appears to be directly related to long-term dietary changes.[7][73] Claims that ...
Higher dietary intake of animal protein, animal fat, and cholesterol may increase risk for microalbuminuria, a sign of kidney ... Despite expensive treatments, lupus nephritis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in people with relapsing or ... "A comparison of treating metabolic acidosis in CKD stage 4 hypertensive kidney disease with fruits and vegetables or sodium ... Brenner, B. M.; Meyer, T. W.; Hostetter, T. H. (1982-09-09). "Dietary protein intake and the progressive nature of kidney ...
"Dietary Reference Intakes Tables [Health Canada, 2005]". Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 21 July 2011.. ... Levels above or below this range increased mortality.[18] Animal research suggests that both excess and deficiency of vitamin D ... The recommended dietary allowance is 15 µg/d (600 IU per day; 800 IU for those over 70 years). Overdose has been observed at ... Evidence suggests that dietary vitamin D may be carried by lipoprotein particles into cells of the artery wall and ...
Borzelleca, J.F.; Peters, D.; Hall, W. (2006). "A 13-week dietary toxicity and toxicokinetic study with l-theanine in rats". ... mortality, body weight, food consumption and efficiency, clinical chemistry, hematology, or urinalysis in rats fed high doses ... UBP-302; Negative allosteric modulators: Barbiturates (e.g., pentobarbital, sodium thiopental). *Enflurane ... Bryan, Janet (2008). "Psychological effects of dietary components of tea: Caffeine and L-theanine". Nutrition Reviews. 66 (2): ...
Dietary. While some dietary factors have been associated with prostate cancer the evidence is still tentative.[34] Evidence ... Meclofenamate sodium (MS) is known for its anti-inflammatory activity, and apart from this, Boctor et al. [37] reported that it ... Hsing AW, Tsao L, Devesa SS (January 2000). "International trends and patterns of prostate cancer incidence and mortality". Int ... Heinze VM, Actis AB (February 2012). "Dietary conjugated linoleic acid and long-chain n-3 fatty acids in mammary and prostate ...
... dietary folate intake, and dietary folate sources among adult non-supplement users in the United States". J Am Coll Nutr. 24 (4 ... Some studies show iron-folic acid supplementation in children under five may result in increased mortality due to malaria; this ... the dietary folate equivalent (DFE) system was established. One DFE is defined as 1 μg of dietary folate. One μg of folic acid ... Institute of Medicine (1998). "Folate". Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin ...
"Mortality and Burden of Disease Estimates for WHO Member States in 2002" (xls). World Health Organization. 2002.. ... A low amount of thyroxine (one of the two thyroid hormones) in the blood, due to lack of dietary iodine to make it, gives rise ... In the cells of these tissues, iodide enters directly by sodium-iodide symporter (NIS). ... GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all- ...
Furthermore, the mortality rate of calves has many possible causes, and discriminating between them is difficult. The only ... Mitchell, Bruce D.; Banks, Peter B. (2005). "Do wild dogs exclude foxes? Evidence for competition from dietary and spatial ... Warning of poisonous sodium fluoroacetate baits. Strychnine is still used in all parts of Australia. ...
Dietary cholesterol needs be esterified in order to be absorbed from the gut. The enzyme, cholesterylester transfer protein ( ... Its development was halted in 2006 when phase III studies showed excessive all-cause mortality in the treatment group receiving ... Reductive amination with the bis-trifuoromethyl benzaldehyde in the presence of sodium triacetoxyborohydride followed by ... On December 2, 2006 Pfizer cut off torcetrapib's phase III trial because of "an imbalance of mortality and cardiovascular ...
AN has the highest mortality rate of any psychological disorder.[8] The mortality rate is 11 to 12 times greater than in the ... Tests include cholesterol, protein and electrolytes such as potassium, chlorine and sodium and tests specific to liver and ... On the other hand, individuals with good dietary management may develop anxiety, food aversion and eating disorders because of ... 2011). "Mortality rates in patients with anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders. A meta-analysis of 36 studies". Arch Gen ...
Aldosterone stimulates sodium retention and potassium excretion by the kidneys. Since sodium is the main ion that determines ... Appel LJ, Brands MW, Daniels SR, Karanja N, Elmer PJ, Sacks FM (February 2006). "Dietary approaches to prevent and treat ... "Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults ... Houston MC (January 1986). "Sodium and hypertension. A review". Archives of Internal Medicine. 1. 146 (1): 179-85. doi:10.1001/ ...
"Dietary Guidelines 2015-2020. Retrieved 2 May 2016.. *^ Hart, Katherine (2018). "4.6 Fad diets and fasting for weight loss in ... worsen disease processes and be a risk factor for high mortality rates.[47][52] Malnutrition can affect every function of the ... Dietary supplements, though widely used, are not considered a healthy option for weight loss.[27] Many are available, but very ... or treatment-related dietary changes, or reduced appetite associated with a disease or treatment can also cause unintentional ...
It can be in the form of sodium citrate or acid-citrate-dextrose. ... no known dietary interactions, wider therapeutic index, and ... Apixaban had no effect on mortality, recurrence of blood clots in blood vessels or major bleeding or minor bleeding, however ... has been shown to have superior safety and mortality benefits compared to FPP in lowering INR levels.[107] ...
In Mortality in British vegetarians,[114] a similar conclusion is drawn: British vegetarians have low mortality compared with ... "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin B12". National Institutes of Health: Office of Dietary Supplements. Retrieved November ... Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 - A report issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the U.S. Department of ... The recommended dietary allowance of B12 in the United States is, per day, 0.4 mcg (0-6 months), rising to 1.8 mcg (9-13 years ...
Embryonic development in unfertilized eggs may impact normal fertilization and embryonic mortality", MSU Poultry Dept. Spring ...
Toxicity, poisoning, and mortalityEdit. All parts of the plant are toxic and pose risks to human and mammalian health.[10][3][ ... Pokeweed is promoted in alternative medicine as a dietary supplement that can treat a wide range of maladies including mumps, ...
The Association Between Dietary Sodium Intake, ESRD, and All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes. ... The Association Between Dietary Sodium Intake, ESRD, and All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes ... The Association Between Dietary Sodium Intake, ESRD, and All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes ... The Association Between Dietary Sodium Intake, ESRD, and All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes ...
... sodium was independently associated with all-cause mortality and ESRD. Although we have not demonstrated causality, these ... The association between dietary sodium intake, ESRD, and all-cause mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes Diabetes Care. ... but it is unclear whether dietary sodium intake is associated with mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). ... Baseline urinary sodium excretion was estimated on a 24-h urine collection. The predictors of all-cause mortality and ESRD were ...
Mente has studied the role of dietary sodium and cardiovascular diseases. His team conducted the largest ever epidemiologic ... study of the impact of sodium intake on blood pressure, cardiovascular disease risk, and mortality in the Prospective Urban ... Mente has studied the role of dietary sodium and cardiovascular diseases. His team conducted the largest ever epidemiologic ... Andrew Mente - Dietary Fats and Cardiovascular Disease in PURE: A More Complete Picture. Low Carb Down Under , 6 months ago ...
All cause mortality. *SAF levels. *Association between SAF levels with serum levels of haemoglobin, albumin and total proteins ... Assessing Knowledge of Dietary Sodium Content and Implementation of Color-Coded Cue Cards and Dietary Sodium. *Diet, Sodium- ... Dietary Nitrate on Salivary Flow for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients. *Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma. *Dietary Supplement: Sodium ... Dietary Sodium (DS) Intervention to Reduce Tissue Sodium in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for Hemodialysis (HD) Patients. * ...
Association between dietary sodium intake and disease burden and mortality in Koreans between 1998 and 2016: The Korea National ... Association between dietary sodium intake and disease burden and mortality in Koreans betw ... mortality. @*[email protected]#Mean dietary sodium intake decreased over time, reaching 3,647 mg/day in 2016.Similarly, the population ... both low and high sodium intakes may be associated with an increased risk of mortality; therefore, the optimal sodium intake ...
High sodium intake predicted mortality and risk of coronary heart disease, independent of other cardiovascular risk factors, ... There was a significant interaction between sodium excretion and body mass index for cardiovascular and total mortality; sodium ... Urinary sodium excretion and cardiovascular mortality in Finland: a prospective study Lancet. 2001 Mar 17;357(9259):848-51. doi ... Interpretation: High sodium intake predicted mortality and risk of coronary heart disease, independent of other cardiovascular ...
Dietary sodium intake and cardiovascular mortality: controversy resolved? Curr Hypertens Rep2012;14:193-201. ... Dietary sodium, erythrocyte sodium concentration, sodium-stimulated lithium efflux and blood pressure. Clin Sci (Lond)1981;61( ... Relations between dietary sodium and potassium intakes and mortality from cardiovascular disease: the Japan Collaborative ... Effect of dietary sodium intake on blood lipids: results from the DASH-sodium trial. Hypertension2004;43:393-8. ...
Read chapter 11 Sodium Dietary Reference Intakes: Risk Characterization and Special Considerations for Public Health: As ... Sodium intake among persons aged ≥2 years-United States, 2013-2014. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 66(12):324-328. ... 9 Sodium: Dietary Reference Intakes for Toxicity 245-262 * 10 Sodium: Dietary Reference Intakes Based on Chronic Disease 263- ... Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium (2019) Chapter: 11 Sodium Dietary Reference Intakes: Risk Characterization ...
HF to evaluate the efficacy of a low sodium containing diet on a composite clinical outcome composed of of all-cause mortality ... SODIUM-HF: Study of Dietary Intervention Under 100 MMOL in Heart Failure (SODIUM-HF). This study is currently recruiting ... The Long Term Effects of Dietary Sodium Restriction on Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Heart Failure. ... General advice to limit dietary sodium as it is provided during routine clinic practice ...
Eating and drinking too much sodium can raise blood pressure. High blood pressure is a major risk factor for heart disease and ... Facts About Sodium Consumption and Sodium in Our Food Supply. *The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that ... Xu J, Murphy SL, Kochanek KD, Arias E. Mortality in the United States, 2015. NCHS data brief, no. 267 pdf icon[PDF - 274 KB]. ... The body needs a small amount of sodium to function, but most Americans consume too much sodium. High sodium consumption can ...
Sodium in Foods A major challenge to sodium intake reduction efforts is the widespread use of sodium in the U.S. food supply, ... CDC Grand Rounds: Dietary Sodium Reduction - Time for Choice. This is another in a series of occasional MMWR reports titled CDC ... dietary sodium through voluntary sodium-content reductions by the food industry. Coordinated by the New York City Health ... and current recommended levels of dietary sodium. Regardless of age or sex, sodium intake by most U.S. residents considerably ...
Increased dietary sodium is independently associated with greater mortality among prevalent hemodialysis patients. ... Compared with usual sodium intake, low- and excessive-sodium diets are associated with increased mortality: a meta-analysis. ... Time-dependent associations between total sodium removal and mortality in patients on peritoneal dialysis. ... Alkaline phosphatase and mortality in patients on peritoneal dialysis.. Liu X, Guo Q, Feng X, Wang J, Wu J, Mao H, Huang F, Yu ...
Poulter, N.R. . Dietary sodium intake and mortality: NHANES. Lancet. . 352, (9132), 987-988. Full Text Options: DOI Worldcat ... Alderman, Michael H., Cohen, Hillel, Madhavan, Shantha . Dietary sodium intake and mortality: the National Health and Nutrition ... Briefel, Ronette R., Johnson, Clifford L. Secular trends in dietary intake in the United States. Annual Review of Nutrition. . ... Loria, Catherine M., Obarzanek, Eva, Ernst, Nancy D. Choose and prepare foods with less salt: Dietary advice for all Americans ...
In summary, we show that 24hUNa, the best marker of dietary sodium intake, was negatively associated with all-cause mortality ... Relations between dietary sodium and potassium intakes and mortality from cardiovascular disease: the Japan Collaborative ... of dietary sodium intake is renally excreted (6), and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. ... Dietary Salt Intake and Mortality in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes. Elif I. Ekinci, Sophie Clarke, Merlin C. Thomas, John L. ...
... but excess sodium can lead to high blood pressure (also known as hypertension), which can harden your arteries and decrease ... By JANELLE PERALEZ GUNN and LAUREN E. OWENS Your body needs a small amount of sodium to work properly, ... Trends in the prevalence of excess dietary sodium intake - United States, 2003-2010. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly ... The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends that we consume no more than 2,300 milligrams of sodium per day -- about a ...
... sodium and potassium contribute to the fundamentals of physiolog... ... Dietary Reference Intakes for Adequacy: As essential nutrients, ... concentration with cardiovascular events and mortality in ... 9 Sodium: Dietary Reference Intakes for Toxicity 245-262 * 10 Sodium: Dietary Reference Intakes Based on Chronic Disease 263- ... Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium (2019) Chapter: 4 Potassium: Dietary Reference Intakes for Adequacy. ...
Dietary Sodium, Potassium, Saturated Fat, Alcohol, and Stroke Mortality Satoshi Sasaki, Xin-Hua Zhang, Hugo Kesteloot ... The Shifting Stroke BeltChanges in the Geographic Pattern of Stroke Mortality in the United States, 1962 to 1988 Michele L. ...
Dietary potassium deficiency activates thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransport along the distal nephron. This may ... explain, in part, the hypertension and cardiovascular mortality observed in individuals who consume a low-potassium diet. ... a) Gradual increases in dietary K+ content produced increases in plasma [K+] levels in mice. Colors are unrelated to colors ... We report that modest changes in both dietary and plasma potassium affect NCC in vivo. Kinase assay studies showed that ...
Review: In systolic heart failure, low-sodium diets increase mortality compared with normal-sodium diets Annals of Internal ... We Can Reduce Dietary Sodium, Save Money, and Save Lives Free Thomas R. Frieden, MD, MPH; Peter A. Briss, MD, MPH ... We Can Reduce Dietary Sodium, Save Money, and Save Lives. Ann Intern Med. ;152:526-527. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-152-8-201004200- ... New sodium reduction targets in the United Kingdom are being established and are expected to lead to a total 40% reduction in ...
Clinical Diabetes: "Dietary sodium intake in type 2 diabetes.". *Diabetes Care: "Dietary salt intake and mortality in patients ... Consuming too much sodium leaves you at even greater risk, because sodium can increase your blood pressure and also dampen the ... Canned, frozen, and boxed foods tend to be too high in sodium, which is used as a preservative. So protect your heart by ... Even so, you dont want to get too little sodium in your diet either. Some diabetes experts warn that you risk additional ...
DASH-Sodium Collaborative Research Group. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to ... Contribution of major diseases to disparities in mortality. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:1585-1592. [PubMed] ... Effect of dietary sodium restriction on taste responses to sodium chloride: a longitudinal study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1986;44:232- ... 6. Mattes RD, Donnelly D. Relative contributions of dietary sodium sources. J Am Coll Nutr. 1991;10:383-393. [PubMed] ...
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Source Reference: Cogswell M, et al "Usual sodium intakes compared with current dietary ... The Agriculture Departments "Dietary Guidelines 2010" advise Americans ages 2 and older to keep their daily sodium intake ... "Additional coordinated efforts involving the public and private sectors are needed to help U.S. residents follow sodium intake ... Steps to limit the publics over-consumption of salt include mandatory sodium targets for food companies and restaurants, ...
The scientific underpinning for recommended levels of dietary sodium and potassium intake is of great importance to healthcare ... Alderman MH, Cohen H, Madhavan S. Dietary sodium intake and mortality: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey ( ... Compared with usual sodium intake, low-and excessive-sodium diets are associated with increased mortality: a meta-analysis. Am ... Dietary sodium intake and subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease in overweight adults. JAMA. 1999;282:2027-34.PubMedCrossRef ...
The mineral water contains no sodium ions. The minerals can also be in a kit form for adding to water by an end user. ... 25) "DIETARY SODIUM, POTASSIUM, SATURATED FAT, ALCOHOL, AND STROKE MORTALITY by S. Sasaki, X. H. Zhang, H. Kesteloot in Stroke ... Sasaki et al., Dietary Sodium, Potassium, Saturated Fat, Alcohol, and Stroke Mortality, Stroke (May 1995) vol. 26, No. 5, pp. ... Sasaki et al., "Dietary Sodium, Potassium, Saturated Fat, Alcohol, and Stroke Mortality," Stroke (May 1995) vol. 26, No. 5, pp ...
Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A high dietary sodium intake is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. A pooled ... Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. DASH-Sodium ... cross-over seven-day dietary sodium manipulation with a high-sodium diet (6.9 to 8.1 g/day) and a very-low-sodium diet (0.5 g/ ... and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-sodium, have demonstrated that dietary sodium reduction could effectively ...
Jennings says dietary interventions, including sodium reduction, are extremely important in the management of hypertension. " ... all-cause mortality by 10-15 %. *coronary events (heart attack) by 20 % ... "There is a strong correlation between increased dietary sodium (salt) intake and elevated blood pressure. The South African and ... Salt, which is also referred to as "sodium chloride", consist of 40% sodium and 60% chloride. One teaspoon of salt is ...
Effect of dose and duration of reduction in dietary sodium on blood pressure levels - https://www.bmj.com/content/368/bmj.m315 ... 1.00) Carl gives us an update on the UKs covid-19 related mortality ... of NHS patients to look for patterns in covid-19 morbidity and mortality. ... Reduced Lung-Cancer Mortality with Volume CT Screening in a Randomized Trial - https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/ ...
phosphorus, sodium, chloride, comprehensive literature review, Dietary Reference Values (DRVs), dietary requirements, health ... Prospective cohort data show that low sodium intakes may be associated with increased mortality. Effects of sodium restriction ... For sodium and chloride, 23 articles were included. Eleven studies described the association between dietary intake of sodium ... The review on sodium chloride showed that sodium restriction increases activity of the renin-aldosterone-angiotensin system, ...
... but the mortality gap between hypertensive and normotensive adults remained high.{ref51} ... Comparative data from the NHANES I and III showed a decrease in mortality over time in hypertensive adults, ... Moderate dietary sodium restriction added to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition compared with dual blockade in lowering ... Comparative data from the NHANES I and III showed a decrease in mortality over time in hypertensive adults, but the mortality ...
... important in view of several recent observational studies that found higher rates of mortality at low dietary levels of sodium ... Excess dietary sodium contributes to high blood pressure, a leading cause of heart disease and stroke. When nearly 70 percent ... However most of our dietary sodium comes not from the salt shaker at the dinner table, but from processed and prepared foods ... Sacks was the Principal Investigator in the landmark Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Sodium-Trial, which ...
  • Evidence on the effect of sodium reduction on risk of cardiovascular disease, risk of hypertension, and blood pressure was synthesized in order to establish the sodium CDRR. (nap.edu)
  • Reducing sodium intake lowers blood pressure, with greater effects among people with hypertension. (cdc.gov)
  • Excess dietary sodium is a major contributor to hypertension (high blood pressure) and a critical public health issue in the United States ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In patients with type 2 diabetes, hypertension is associated with a range of adverse outcomes including cardiovascular disease (CVD) and premature mortality. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Your body needs a small amount of sodium to work properly, but excess sodium can lead to high blood pressure (also known as hypertension), which can harden your arteries and decrease blood flow to your heart. (livestrong.com)
  • This may explain, in part, the hypertension and cardiovascular mortality observed in individuals who consume a low-potassium diet. (nih.gov)
  • Because about one third of U.S. adults have hypertension and another 28% have levels above the desirable range (9) , and because sodium consumption contributes to the increase in blood pressure observed with increasing age (9) , reductions in salt intake will lead to substantial population-wide improvements in health. (annals.org)
  • Still-larger decreases in sodium intake than were examined in this study would probably result in even larger health improvements and cost savings and would be more cost-effective than using medications to lower blood pressure in people with hypertension (13) . (annals.org)
  • The Departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services recommend daily intake of less than 6 grams of salt (2300 mg of sodium), with a lower target of 3.7 gm/day of salt for most adults (persons over age 40, blacks, and persons with hypertension. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Hyponatremia (abnormally low sodium concentrations in blood) is common among older adults and in individuals with hypertension , kidney disease, and heart disease. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The National Academy of Medicine established a Chronic Disease Risk Reduction Intake (CDRR) for sodium of 2.3 g/day (5.8 g/day of salt) for adults based on evidence of potential long-term health benefits on blood pressure and risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease associated with reducing sodium intakes below this level. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Excess dietary sodium is a major contributor to hypertension, which is a leading preventable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Yet, current evidence fails to support a decrease in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality with moderate sodium restriction in patients with hypertension. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The South African and International Hypertension Guidelines recommend a reduced dietary sodium intake, together with a healthy diet and medication, as part of the treatment protocol for hypertension. (citizen.co.za)
  • A randomised clinical trial of hypertensive patients consuming 2,9 g of salt daily, following the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet, had a profound effect in lowering blood pressure in just 30 days. (citizen.co.za)
  • Are mortality rates associated with hypertension (high blood pressure) increasing or decreasing? (medscape.com)
  • Dr. Sacks was the Principal Investigator in the landmark Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Sodium-Trial , which rigorously examined the effect of sodium intake on blood pressure, concluding that the relation is strong and causal. (harvard.edu)
  • Optimal access to, as well as compliance with, hypertension detection and control services by low as well as high socioeconomic groups was found to have resulted in diminishing socioeconomic differences in hypertension and hypertension-related mortality in the stepped care intervention group. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the present study, we investigated ambulatory BP in relation to hyperuricaemia, dietary sodium intake and their interaction in children and adolescents with hypertension. (medworm.com)
  • Dietary sodium intake has been associated with important CVD and CKD progression risk factors such as hypertension and proteinuria in this population. (mendeley.com)
  • but more recently two achievements make a major impact on this subject, the quantitative measurement of dietary sodium intake and repeated recognition that the greater the daily sodium intake, the higher the prevalence of hypertension in populations. (ahajournals.org)
  • Indeed, sodium-dependent hypertension so-defined exists only in about one-third patients with essential hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
  • Perhaps these two observations (ie, reduction in deaths from stroke and CHD coincident with increased cardiac and renal failure and the relationship between salt intake of populations and hypertension), may be explained similarly by specific local target organ responses to therapy as well as long-term dietary salt-loading on certain target organs of the disease rather than solely by their respective effects on arterial pressure. (ahajournals.org)
  • New evidence published in the online journal Open Heart suggests that added sugars probably matter more than dietary sodium for risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of premature mortality in the developed world, and hypertension is its most important risk factor. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Controlling hypertension is a major focus of public health initiatives, and dietary approaches to address hypertension have historically focused on sodium. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If you're healthy and not at risk for developing hypertension, don't stress about sodium intake. (bodybuilding.com)
  • In this review article of nutritional factors in hypertension management, we aim to examine the role of nutritional factors individually and as components of whole dietary patterns. (hindawi.com)
  • Clinical and population-based studies show that several components of the diet such as sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, fiber, and fish oil affect blood pressure, and modification of these nutritional factors provide an important strategy to control blood pressure especially in the prehypertensive stage (SBP 120-139 mmHg and/or DBP 80-89 mmHg) or stage I hypertension (SBP 140-159 mmHg and/or DBP 90-99 mmHg). (hindawi.com)
  • And while the individual benefits of reducing sodium intake are variable, it has been theorized that dietary sodium reduction could eliminate hypertension for over a million Canadians, with a resulting savings of at least 430 million dollars annually in direct high blood pressure management costs (although this has never been confirmed through clinical trials). (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, the authors investigated the relationships of hypertension, antihypertensive treatment, and sodium intake on cognitive decline in older women. (eurekalert.org)
  • Sodium intake did not modify the risk for cognitive decline in women with hypertension or those taking antihypertensive medication. (eurekalert.org)
  • The federal government's current Dietary Guidelines for Americans call for no more than 1,500 mg of sodium per day for those ages 51 and older, blacks, or those who have diabetes, hypertension, or chronic kidney disease. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Given the abundance we have about excess sodium in diet and its relationship to hypertension and the ability of us as health professionals to recommend to patients that if they lower their blood pressure they will reduce their risk of heart disease and stroke, we are not distracted by these analyses [by the IOM] that have significant methodological flaws," AHA spokesperson Elliott Antman, MD, told MedPage Today . (medpagetoday.com)
  • There is an association between excess sodium and the development of hypertension," Antman said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • There is an association between hypertension and an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. (medpagetoday.com)
  • This study analyzed the sodium intake and hypertension, along with heart conditions in general. (realnatural.org)
  • This study also took the air out of the assumption that hypertension risk is increased with higher intakes of sodium in the diet. (realnatural.org)
  • Excessive intake of sodium is associated with hypertension. (encognitive.com)
  • A diet that includes modest salt restriction while increasing potassium intake serves as a strategy to prevent or control hypertension and decrease cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • 5 Excess sodium intake has been linked with increases in blood pressure, hypertension, stroke, and other cardiovascular disease. (prnewswire.com)
  • They cited a meta-analysis of 35 trials that found a 100 mmol reduction in 24-hour urinary sodium led to a 5.4 mm Hg reduction in systolic blood pressure among people with hypertension and a 2.4 mm Hg reduction among people who did not have hypertension. (cardiovascularbusiness.com)
  • Such reductions appear feasible and would serve to reduce the population level of blood pressure and incidence of hypertension and help prevent subsequent morbidity and mortality. (cardiovascularbusiness.com)
  • Time Course of Change in Blood Pressure From Sodium Reduction and the DASH Diet - Hypertension. (qualitycounts.com)
  • Obviously, improvements of all risk factors of heart disease have contributed to the more than 50 percent reduction in the mortality rates from coronary heart disease, adjusted for age, but the disproportionate contributor to this gain is better recognition and treatment of hypertension. (managedcaremag.com)
  • We frequently read that excessive salt (sodium) intake can cause or worsen hypertension (high blood pressure) and heart disease. (citizen.org)
  • Much less attention has been given to the extremely important, well-established role of the dietary consumption of potassium - a different type of salt naturally present in many fruits and vegetables - in decreasing the risk of hypertension. (citizen.org)
  • Evidence from multiple studies shows that large increases in dietary potassium - above the generally inadequate amounts currently consumed - can significantly lower blood pressure and reduce the occurrence of hypertension and one of its most serious consequences: strokes. (citizen.org)
  • The available data for several countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region indicates that hypertension and its associated complications constitute an important cause of morbidity and mortality [4,5]. (who.int)
  • Hypertension is a leading cause of global burden of heart diseases, stroke, renal failure, peripheral vascular disease, and premature mortality and disability [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The global burden of hypertension revealed that 25% of adults are living with hypertension and 9.2% of the total mortality is due to hypertension-related events [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • However, the burden of hypertension and prognostic association of BP with mortality follow comparable patterns in both modalities. (asnjournals.org)
  • The Guidelines were established so as to provide dietary advice that would improve the health of Americans and reduce their risk for chronic conditions, such as cancer, atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart disease, stroke, and renal disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium chloride is the chemical name for salt. (cdc.gov)
  • For context, the committee's findings are preceded by a brief summary of the approach taken to establish the potassium AIs in the Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate ( 2005 DRI Report ) ( IOM, 2005 ). (nap.edu)
  • Dietary potassium deficiency activates thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransport along the distal nephron. (nih.gov)
  • Sodium and chloride - major electrolytes of the fluid compartment outside of cells (i.e., extracellular) - work together to control extracellular volume and blood pressure. (oregonstate.edu)
  • In 2019, the National Academy of Medicine established an adequate intake ( AI ) for sodium of 1.5 grams (g)/day in adults, equivalent to 3.8 g/day of sodium chloride (salt). (oregonstate.edu)
  • Salt (sodium chloride) is essential for life. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Multiple mechanisms work in concert to tightly regulate the body's sodium and chloride concentrations. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Although this review emphasizes the function and requirements of sodium, sodium and chloride ions work together to control extracellular volume and blood pressure (1) . (oregonstate.edu)
  • Sodium (Na + ) and chloride (Cl - ) are the principal ions in the extracellular compartment, which includes blood plasma , interstitial fluid (fluid between cells), and transcellular fluid (e.g., cerebrospinal fluid , joint fluid). (oregonstate.edu)
  • Sodium and chloride are electrolytes that contribute to the maintenance of concentration and charge differences across cell membranes . (oregonstate.edu)
  • Absorption of sodium in the small intestine plays an important role in the absorption of chloride, amino acids , glucose , and water. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Salt, which is also referred to as "sodium chloride", consist of 40% sodium and 60% chloride. (citizen.co.za)
  • The aim of this review was to identify the scientific data from 1990 onwards upon which Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for phosphorus, sodium and chloride may potentially be based. (europa.eu)
  • For sodium and chloride, 23 articles were included. (europa.eu)
  • One article described the association between blood levels of chloride and mortality. (europa.eu)
  • The review on sodium chloride showed that sodium restriction increases activity of the renin-aldosterone-angiotensin system, whereas HDL or triglyceride concentrations are not affected. (europa.eu)
  • In a previous communication to this journal, one of us (J.K.) (1) studied the metabolism of a certain sodium malate mixture when employed as a dietary substitute for sodium chloride. (annals.org)
  • The Use of Sodium Malate Combinations as a Dietary Substitute for Sodium Chloride. (annals.org)
  • High salt (salt is sodium chloride - 2.5 g of salt contain 1 g of sodium) intake is a major determinant of blood pressure (BP) in individuals and populations [ 1 ]. (nature.com)
  • The 24 h urinary excretion of sodium is considered the reference method to assess salt consumption, since ~93% of the sodium ingested, mostly as salt (salt is sodium chloride - 2.5 g of salt contain 1 g of sodium), is eliminated by the kidney in the next 24 h [ 15 ]. (nature.com)
  • Sodium, primarily consumed as salt (sodium chloride), is commonly added to many processed and restaurant foods, while potassium is naturally present in many fresh foods. (webwire.com)
  • It covers a wide spectrum of subjects, embracing the science, engineering, technology, economics and history of all forms of sodium chloride salt and their uses. (saltinstitute.org)
  • It consists of two elements: sodium and chloride and it is the sodium that you should be concerned about. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Whether it is sea salt, kosher salt, table salt or any of the various new gourmet salts, they are all sodium chloride . (everydayhealth.com)
  • Baseline urinary sodium excretion was estimated on a 24-h urine collection. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Urinary sodium excretion was nonlinearly associated with all-cause mortality, such that individuals with the highest daily urinary sodium excretion, as well as the lowest excretion, had reduced survival. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Urinary sodium excretion was inversely associated with the cumulative incidence of ESRD, such that individuals with the lowest sodium excretion had the highest cumulative incidence of ESRD. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • [email protected]#Mean dietary sodium intake decreased over time , reaching 3,647 mg/day in 2016.Similarly, the population attributable fractions of stroke and IHD, and the number of CVDassociated deaths attributable to high sodium intake/excretion also decreased. (bvsalud.org)
  • We aimed to find out whether salt intake, measured by 24 h urinary sodium excretion, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease frequency and mortality, and all-cause mortality. (nih.gov)
  • We prospectively followed 1173 Finnish men and 1263 women aged 25-64 years with complete data on 24 h urinary sodium excretion and cardiovascular risk factors. (nih.gov)
  • The hazards ratios for coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality, associated with a 100 mmol increase in 24 h urinary sodium excretion, were 1.51 (95% CI 1.14-2.00), 1.45 (1.14-1.84), and 1.26 (1.06-1.50), respectively, in both men and women. (nih.gov)
  • The frequency of acute coronary events, but not acute stroke events, rose significantly with increasing sodium excretion. (nih.gov)
  • Baseline sodium excretion was estimated from 24-h urinary collections (24hU Na ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS In patients with type 2 diabetes, lower 24-h urinary sodium excretion was paradoxically associated with increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Various mechanisms act on the kidney to ensure that the amount of sodium lost via renal excretion compensates adequately for the amount of sodium consumed, thereby maintaining sodium homeostasis . (oregonstate.edu)
  • Eleven studies described the association between dietary intake of sodium in relation to urinary excretion or plasma/serum sodium concentration. (europa.eu)
  • However, due to the high variability of salt consumption in an individual between days and some infradian variability in urinary sodium excretion, independent of intake, many more collections on different days would be required to characterize the habitual individual's salt consumption [ 16 ]. (nature.com)
  • Validation and comparison of the Kawasaki formula to estimate 24 h urinary sodium excretion from a single morning spot urine sample in the PURE Study. (nature.com)
  • The present study aimed to determine the sodium intake in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women and identify the major food sources contributing to sodium intake and urine excretion. (jove.com)
  • The new research, a compilation of clinical studies that piggybacked onto a 2009 study done at UC-Davis, which accumulated numerous studies including 19,151 human subjects who were tested for their 24-hour urinary sodium excretion rates. (realnatural.org)
  • This study also accumulated an additional 129 studies, which included 50,060 human subjects, again being tested for their 24-hour sodium excretion rates. (realnatural.org)
  • The research also gauged sodium intake together with excretion rates. (realnatural.org)
  • This regulation takes place through the excretion of sodium outside of healthy levels. (realnatural.org)
  • To assess in adults the long term effects (mortality, cardiovascular events, blood pressure, quality of life, weight, urinary sodium excretion, other nutrients and use of anti-hypertensive medications) of advice to restrict dietary sodium using all relevant randomised controlled trials. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were reduced at 13 to 60 months in those given low sodium advice as compared with controls (systolic by 1.1 mm Hg, 95% CI 1.8 to 0.4, diastolic by 0.6 mm hg, 95% CI 1.5 to -0.3), as was urinary 24 hour sodium excretion (by 35.5 mmol/ 24 hours, 95% CI 47.2 to 23.9). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The studies estimated sodium intake based on urinary sodium excretion and collected multiple 24-hour urine samples from adults between 30 and 54 years old. (cardiovascularbusiness.com)
  • High sodium intake predicted mortality and risk of coronary heart disease, independent of other cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure. (nih.gov)
  • Study selection Randomised controlled trials and prospective cohort studies in non-acutely ill adults and children assessing the relations between sodium intake and blood pressure, renal function, blood lipids, and catecholamine levels, and in non-acutely ill adults all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and coronary heart disease. (bmj.com)
  • Increased sodium intake was associated with an increased risk of stroke (risk ratio 1.24, 95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.43), stroke mortality (1.63, 1.27 to 2.10), and coronary heart disease mortality (1.32, 1.13 to 1.53). (bmj.com)
  • Lower sodium intake is also associated with a reduced risk of stroke and fatal coronary heart disease in adults. (bmj.com)
  • None of the indicators included in the AHRQ Systematic Review (blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, kidney disease, kidney stone formation, mortality, and stroke) were considered sufficiently informative to determine potassium adequacy. (nap.edu)
  • We used the Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) Policy Model to quantify the benefits of potentially achievable population-wide reductions in dietary salt of up to 3 gm/day (1200 mg/day of sodium). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 7 To explore the potential impact of a modest reduction in dietary salt on population health, we used the Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) Policy Model, a computer simulation of heart disease in US adults ages 35-84, and an extension that assesses stroke. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, stroke morbidity and mortality remain high in Japan and the reasons for the lack of association between stroke and coronary heart disease outcomes have not been determined [ 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the age-adjusted stroke mortality rate has since markedly decreased compared with that of coronary heart disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our objective was to examine age-specific trends in mortality from coronary heart disease among U.S. adults age ≥35 years from 1980 until 2002. (onlinejacc.org)
  • The disquieting trend in mortality from coronary heart disease among younger adults is likely due to unfavorable trends in several risk factors for this disease. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Objectives The objective of our study was to examine age-specific mortality rates from coronary heart disease (CHD), particularly those among younger adults. (onlinejacc.org)
  • In the U.S., mortality rates from coronary heart disease (CHD) have continued to decline steadily since 1968 ( 1 ). (onlinejacc.org)
  • Clinical trials must be performed in diabetic patients to formally test the utility/risk of sodium restriction in this setting. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To this end, many treatment guidelines have promoted the potential utility of dietary salt restriction in patients with diabetes ( 1 , 2 ), as a means to reduce blood pressure levels and, with it, potentially modify the risk and severity of complications. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, any restriction in dietary sodium intake is also associated with activation of the sympathetic nervous system ( 3 ) and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system ( 4 ) and increased LDL cholesterol ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Interventional studies are necessary to determine if dietary salt has a causative role in determining adverse outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and the appropriateness of guidelines advocating salt restriction in this setting. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Effects of sodium restriction may be modified by race-ethnicity and salt-sensitivity status. (europa.eu)
  • Thus, guidelines advising restriction of sodium intake below 3 g/day may cause harm,' the authors write. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • However, several studies have demonstrated no benefit to sodium restriction when it comes to preventing heart disease or death. (bodybuilding.com)
  • New strategies are needed to reduce the amount of sodium in the food supply and to educate people about the importance of dietary sodium restriction," they wrote. (cardiovascularbusiness.com)
  • Given the evidence that pickled foods would deteriorate renal function, sodium restriction should be flagged for renal protection with the precise amount requiring further research. (bmj.com)
  • Dietary sodium restriction, appropriate use of icodextrin, and limited exposure of peritoneal membrane to bioincompatible solutions, as well as adaptation of the PD regimen to the peritoneal transport characteristics, are first-line therapeutic strategies to achieve adequate volume control with a potential long-term benefit on technique survival. (asnjournals.org)
  • In addition to the actions we can take individually to reduce sodium intake, many food manufacturers and restaurants are also taking steps to lower sodium in their products. (livestrong.com)
  • In their analysis of the impact of sodium reduction strategies in this issue, Smith-Spangler and colleagues provide compelling evidence that a policy-driven approach can reduce sodium intake, save money, and save lives (11) . (annals.org)
  • Smith-Spangler and colleagues conclude that strategies to reduce sodium intake on a population level in the United States can be both effective and cost-effective. (annals.org)
  • Intervention studies are warranted to investigate the potential benefit of dietary advice to reduce sodium intake in this population. (mendeley.com)
  • CDC is working with public and private-sector partners at the national, state, and local levels to educate the public about the health effects of sodium and to reduce sodium intake. (webwire.com)
  • The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, bibliographies of included studies and related systematic reviews were searched for unconfounded randomised trials in healthy adults aiming to reduce sodium intake over at least 6 months. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • When a patient is diagnosed as hypertensive and at high risk for CVD, the primary recommendation of doctors practicing western medicine is to significantly reduce sodium intake. (thepaleodiet.com)
  • The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that Americans consume less than 2,300 milligrams (mg) of sodium each day as part of a healthy eating pattern. (cdc.gov)
  • The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends that we consume no more than 2,300 milligrams of sodium per day -- about a teaspoon of table salt . (livestrong.com)
  • The average American consumes 3,400 milligrams of sodium , roughly 1.5 teaspoons of salt, per day. (harvard.edu)
  • The study contributed much of the scientific basis for the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, which recommends an upper-limit of daily sodium to 2,300 milligrams (one teaspoon of salt). (harvard.edu)
  • However, getting the potassium compensates for a certain amount of excess sodium, at least 2,300 milligrams a day, one might assume. (steadyhealth.com)
  • To add to that, existing evidence does not support a positive or negative effect of lowering sodium intake to less than 2,300 milligrams a day in terms of cardiovascular risk. (bodybuilding.com)
  • The study s findings are particularly troubling because U.S. adults consume an average of 3,300 milligrams of sodium per day, more than twice the current recommended limit for most Americans, said Elena Kuklina, M.D., Ph.D., an investigator on the study and a nutritional epidemiologist with CDC s Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention. (webwire.com)
  • The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for AmericansExternal Web Site Icon recommends limiting intake of sodium to 1,500 milligrams per day for people 51 and older, African Americans, and those who have high blood pressure, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease about half the U.S. population ages 2 and older. (webwire.com)
  • The dietary guidelines recommend that all other people consume less than 2,300 milligrams of sodium per day. (webwire.com)
  • The results indicated that consuming less than 3,000 milligrams of sodium per day was associated with a 27 percent increase in cardiovascular disease and death. (realnatural.org)
  • Consuming between 3,000 milligrams and 6,000 milligrams of sodium a day was associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease and death , while more than 6,000 milligrams per day was associated with a 15 percent increase in cardiovascular disease and mortality. (realnatural.org)
  • Current guidelines limit safe sodium consumption to 1,500 milligrams for those over 50, and less than 2,300 milligrams for those 50 or younger. (realnatural.org)
  • Yet this large study indicates that consuming between 3,000 and 6,000 milligrams of sodium per day decreases ones risk of heart conditions and death while consuming less than 3,000 and more than 6,000 increases risk. (realnatural.org)
  • This research determined that healthy sodium consumption ranges from 2,622 to 4,840 milligrams per day. (realnatural.org)
  • The upper level of this range is nearly twice the range recommended by current medical guidelines - with safe levels being defined as 1,500 to 2,500 milligrams of sodium (salt) per day. (realnatural.org)
  • Using a follow-up period of 56 months, the research illustrated that the risk of heart disease did not increase until sodium levels - salt intake - increased to nearly 7 grams per day (7,000 milligrams). (realnatural.org)
  • The food label will tell you how many milligrams (mg) of sodium are contained in each serving, and it will also tell you how much of the total daily allowance that represents. (everydayhealth.com)
  • OBJECTIVE Many guidelines recommend reduced consumption of salt in patients with type 1 diabetes, but it is unclear whether dietary sodium intake is associated with mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Hence, in this study we aimed to determine the association between dietary salt intake and 1 ) all-cause mortality and 2 ) end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in 2,807 patients with type 1 diabetes from the large nationwide multicenter cohort of Finnish adults with type 1 diabetes (the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy [FinnDiane] Study) ( 7 , 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Objective To assess the effect of decreased sodium intake on blood pressure, related cardiovascular diseases, and potential adverse effects such as changes in blood lipids, catecholamine levels, and renal function. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions High quality evidence in non-acutely ill adults shows that reduced sodium intake reduces blood pressure and has no adverse effect on blood lipids, catecholamine levels, or renal function, and moderate quality evidence in children shows that a reduction in sodium intake reduces blood pressure. (bmj.com)
  • An increase in sympathetic tone from the overconsumption of fructose is one likely mechanism for the sugar's ability to increase heart rate, cardiac output, renal sodium retention and vascular resistance, all of which may interact to elevate blood pressure and increase myocardial oxygen demand. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Pi homeostasis is regulated by the coordinated function of renal and intestinal sodium-dependent phosphate (NaPi) transporters with dietary Pi, parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , and fibroblast growth factor 23. (go.jp)
  • Consequently, we investigate the association between dietary behaviors and renal function decline among patients with diabetes. (bmj.com)
  • Independent dietary risk factors predicting poor renal outcomes were assessed. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions Our study suggests that excessive pickled foods deteriorate renal function more than other unhealthy dietary behaviors in patients with diabetes. (bmj.com)
  • Among unhealthy dietary behaviors, excessive pickled foods intake had the most impact on renal function decline in patients with diabetes even under stable metabolic control. (bmj.com)
  • 3 Though the broad development of new antidiabetic drugs has benefitted blood sugar control and decreased major adverse cardiac events and mortality, 4-8 renal function decline has remained a serious problem for patients with diabetes. (bmj.com)
  • Renal Specific Oral Nutritional Supplementation [RS-ONS] given to people on dialysis can help provide the required energy and protein, has also been shown to lower mortality, 1 improve serum albumin levels, 1, 2 and improve nutritional status. (abbottnutrition.com)
  • The Agriculture Department's "Dietary Guidelines 2010" advise Americans ages 2 and older to keep their daily sodium intake under 2,300 mg, but 88.2% of those targeted fail to meet that guideline, the report said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Adults can improve their health by knowing recommended limits for daily sodium intake, choosing foods like fresh or frozen fruits and vegetables, and unprocessed or minimally processed fish, meat or poultry, low-fat milk or plain yogurt, asking for foods with no or low salt at restaurants, and reading the nutrition labels of foods before purchasing can improve health for all adults. (webwire.com)
  • WASHINGTON -- Evidence is insufficient to conclude that lowering daily sodium intake below 2,300 mg per day either harms or improves cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause mortality, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) said Tuesday. (medpagetoday.com)
  • This may help patients taking sodium oxybate better align with daily sodium intake recommendations including those by the American Heart Association, 4 ' said Richard K. Bogan , MD, FCCP, FAASM, associate clinical professor at the University of South Carolina School of Medicine, a medical officer at SleepMed in Columbia, SC and lead investigator of the Phase 3 study. (prnewswire.com)
  • This is especially important in view of several recent observational studies that found higher rates of mortality at low dietary levels of sodium. (harvard.edu)
  • Publishing in the journal Diabetes Care, Australian researchers recently reported that diabetics with the highest levels of sodium in their urine had the lowest risk of dying over a 10-year period. (steadyhealth.com)
  • On the other hand, groups concerned with cardiovascular health and nutrition emphasize the overall negative effects of high levels of sodium in the North American diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the IOM found a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and risk of cardiovascular disease, it found inconsistent and insufficient evidence on the link between sodium intake below 2,300 mg per day and the risk of cardiovascular disease. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Average levels of sodium intake in the United States remain too high (28) and even appear to be increasing," the researchers wrote. (cardiovascularbusiness.com)
  • Association between serum albumin and mortality in dialysis patients is partly explained by inflammation, and not by malnutrition. (nih.gov)
  • Inconsistent evidence was found for the association of phosphorus intake and cancer types, but positive associations were found between serum inorganic phosphorus levels and mortality from cardiovascular causes, incident cardiovascular disease, heart failure and coronary artery calcification. (europa.eu)
  • Ambulatory blood pressure in relation to interaction between dietary sodium intake and serum uric acid in the young. (medworm.com)
  • Authors: Zhang W, Xu JZ, Lu XH, Li H, Wang D, Wang JG Abstract PURPOSE: We hypothesise that dietary sodium intake interacts with serum uric acid to influence blood pressure (BP) in children and adolescents. (medworm.com)
  • Four weeks of supplemental sodium had no effect on brachial flow-mediated dilation, or on the blood biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation, except for an increase in serum endothelin-1 (a biomarker of endothelial dysfunction). (wur.nl)
  • We analyzed morbidity and mortality at various levels of DNa, simultaneously accounting for interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) and for the mortality risk associated with lower predialysis serum sodium (SNa) levels. (asnjournals.org)
  • Additional sodium can also be removed by diffusive transport if the dialysate sodium (DNa) level is set below the predialysis serum sodium (SNa) concentration ( 2 , 3 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Evidence indicates that markers of PEW, such as low serum albumin level or inadequate protein intake, correlate with mortality. (abbottnutrition.com)
  • Consuming 2-3 servings of RS-ONS daily at home was shown to improve serum albumin levels and maintain anthropometric parameters in malnourished patients with CKD on hemodialysis compared to increased dietary intake. (abbottnutrition.com)
  • For every 100 mmol rise in 24hU Na , all-cause mortality was 28% lower (95% CI 6-45%, P = 0.02). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Total body sodium in an average 70-kg person is of about 4,200 mmol (~100 g), of which 40% is found in bone and 60% in the fluid inside and outside of cells (1) . (oregonstate.edu)
  • The scientific underpinning for recommended levels of dietary sodium and potassium intake is of great importance to healthcare providers and policy decision-makers. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, we investigated the BP effects of sodium and potassium intake in healthy humans in a broader (patho)physiological context, focusing also on endothelial function, arterial stiffness, fluid regulation and heart rate. (wur.nl)
  • The results of this study showed that increased sodium intake strongly raised office and ambulatory systolic BP (7-8 mmHg) whereas increased potassium intake lowered systolic BP (3-4 mmHg). (wur.nl)
  • Measures of arterial stiffness were not materially affected by increased sodium or potassium intake, possibly due to the relatively short intervention period. (wur.nl)
  • In the same study we investigated the effects of increased sodium and potassium intake on the functional measure of endothelial function (flow-mediated dilation), and on a comprehensive set of biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation (Chapter 3). (wur.nl)
  • They measured sodium and potassium intake using fasting urine samples. (realnatural.org)
  • The objective of this review was to provide a synthesis of the evidence on the effect of dietary salt and potassium intake on population blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, and mortality. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Randomized trials of the effect of dietary salt intake reduction or increased potassium intake on blood pressure, target organ damage, cardiovascular disease, and mortality were included. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Conversely, dietary potassium intake attenuates these effects, showing a linkage to reduction in stroke rates and cardiovascular disease risk. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Thus, the body of evidence supports population-wide sodium intake reduction and recommended increases in dietary potassium intake as outlined by current guidelines as an essential public health effort to prevent kidney disease, stroke, and cardiovascular disease. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Also searched for Dietary and Diet . (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • SODIUM-HF is a multicenter clinical trial in ambulatory patients with chronic HF to evaluate the efficacy of a low sodium containing diet on a composite clinical outcome composed of of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular hospitalizations and cardiovascular emergency department visits. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The hypothesis of this study is that patients following a low-sodium containing diet will have fewer clinical events (fewer hospital readmissions or emergency department visits, longer survival) than those randomized to Usual Care. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Lowering the sodium in your diet is possible if you know where you are most likely to find it. (livestrong.com)
  • The FDA guidance to the food industry to decrease the sodium content of major food sources of sodium in the US diet is a tremendous step forward to lower heart attacks and strokes in the US. (harvard.edu)
  • High sodium content in the US diet is caused mostly by foods prepared by the food industry for eating at home and at restaurants. (harvard.edu)
  • The FDA guidance is innovative in that for the first time it spells out short- and long-term strategies for the food industry that sets goals for less sodium in specific categories of foods that contribute a significant amount of the total sodium in the US diet. (harvard.edu)
  • 2 Just under 50% of CVD mortality in men is attributable to a less than optimal diet. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Thirty-six untreated Dutch individuals with mildly elevated BP on a fully controlled diet that was relatively low in sodium (2-3 g/d) and potassium (2-3 g/d) received capsules with sodium (3 g/d), potassium (3 g/d) or placebo, for 4 weeks each, in random order. (wur.nl)
  • The results showed a positive association between ultraprocessed food consumption and all-cause mortality: for every 10 percent increase of ultraprocessed foods in the diet, the risk for mortality went up by 14 percent. (foodinsight.org)
  • Americans who eat a diet high in sodium and low in potassium have a 50 percent increased risk of death from any cause, and about twice the risk of death from heart attacks, according to a study published today in the Archives of Internal Medicine. (webwire.com)
  • Sodium requirements are almost invariably satisfied by the normal diet. (encognitive.com)
  • People on anti-hypertensive medications were able to stop their medication more often on a reduced sodium diet as compared with controls, while maintaining similar blood pressure control. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Evidence from a large and small trial showed that a low sodium diet helps in maintenance of lower blood pressure following withdrawal of antihypertensives. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Dr. David McCarron , Research Associate in the Department of Nutrition, University of California-Davis and former Head of the Nephrology Division at Oregon Health & Science University, conducted the research which originally identified the effect of the DASH diet on high blood pressure, documented the amelioration of salt sensitivity when mineral intake was increased, and defined the normal range of human sodium intake. (saltinstitute.org)
  • Studying overall diet quality rather than isolated nutrients to characterize a population's dietary intake has gained wide acceptance in nutritional epidemiology. (mdpi.com)
  • Diet quality can be assessed by several different indices, with lower scores (i.e., less healthy diets) associated with significantly higher incidences of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and mortality [ 9 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Self-reported Adherence to a Low-Sodium Diet and Health Outcomes in Patients With Heart Failure. (posterpresentations.com)
  • Learn how to approach weight loss with an arsenal of complimentary diet and exercise habits, medication strategies and dietary supplements that target specific mechanisms to restore a healthy metabolism. (lifeextension.com)
  • The Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) provide nutritional advice (see diet) for Americans older than 2 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nominal purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans is to help health professionals and policymakers to advise Americans about healthy choices for their diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low dietary sodium intake increases the death risk in peritoneal dialysis. (nih.gov)
  • However, there is also evidence that reduced sodium intake is associated with activation of metabolic and neurohormonal pathways, including the sympathetic nervous system ( 4 ) and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) ( 4 ), as well as increases in total and LDL cholesterol ( 4 ) and reduced peripheral insulin sensitivity ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • When the RAAS doesn't function properly, it leads to sodium and water retention that increases vascular resistance and blood pressure, increasing the risk of CVD. (citizen.co.za)
  • 1 The mortality risk increases in male patients aged 45 years and older (FIGURE 1) . (uspharmacist.com)
  • There's absolutely no doubt that excessive sodium intake, especially without the potassium provided by fruits and vegetables, increases blood pressure. (steadyhealth.com)
  • The large study found, in fact, that the relationship between sodium and heart disease is more complicated than simply too much sodium increases heart disease - as has been communicated to many people. (realnatural.org)
  • Evidence from these studies demonstrates that high salt intake not only increases blood pressure but also plays a role in endothelial dysfunction, cardiovascular structure and function, albuminuria and kidney disease progression, and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the general population. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Some researchers have suggested "U" or "J" shaped relationships may exist between sodium intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk 56-58 , meaning that high sodium consumption increases the risk of CVD, but so does low sodium consumption. (thepaleodiet.com)
  • An activated sympathetic nervous system increases renin secretion, which in turn results in increased sodium and water retention, leading to elevation of blood pressure. (managedcaremag.com)
  • Additional adverse health outcomes, including gastric cancer , osteoporosis , and kidney stones , have also been linked to sodium overconsumption. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Background and objectives Recommendations to decrease the dialysate sodium (DNa) prescription demand analyses of patient outcomes. (asnjournals.org)
  • Data from the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) and a simultaneous report from the Hemodialysis Study have demonstrated that predialysis SNa concentrations are inversely associated with mortality ( 16 , 17 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • In 2013, the Institute of Medicine concluded there was insufficient evidence that following the U.S. recommended limit on sodium consumption improved health outcomes. (bodybuilding.com)
  • Thus, the committee concluded that the evidence on direct health outcomes does not support recommendations to lower sodium intake within these subgroups to, or even below, 1,500 mg per day. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The IOM called for further research into the link between sodium intake below 2,300 mg a day and outcomes both in the general populations and in subgroups. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Further evaluations to assess effects on morbidity and mortality outcomes are needed for populations as a whole and for patients with elevated blood pressure. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • PEW is a strong risk factor for adverse outcomes and mortality. (abbottnutrition.com)
  • Improving nutritional status by dietary and nondietary interventions is an important step toward improving outcomes in these patients. (abbottnutrition.com)
  • The average sodium intake among persons in the United States aged ≥2 years is 3,266 mg/day (excluding table salt) ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • the average sodium intake has increased over the past 30 years from already high levels to more than double the recommended amount (1, 2) . (annals.org)
  • The current average sodium intake of adults in the UK is 3.2 g per day. (encognitive.com)
  • The researchers said there was a direct linear association between average sodium intake and mortality. (cardiovascularbusiness.com)
  • Hence, in this study we explored the association between dietary salt intake, the best estimate of which is 24-h urine collection as ∼90% of dietary sodium intake is renally excreted ( 6 ), and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Sodium intake was estimated from three early-morning urine specimens using an equation validated for this study population. (mendeley.com)
  • What these researchers did differently was, instead of asking their study participants how much salt they ate every day, they measured urine samples to determine precisely how much excess sodium was being excreted. (steadyhealth.com)
  • The scientists measured urinary sodium and potassium levels among 101,945 of these people by sampling urine in the morning before breakfast. (realnatural.org)
  • In the United States, approximately 100 000 deaths each year have been attributed to excess sodium intake (8) . (annals.org)
  • Since that time, more data have been collected but the controversies continue and have slowed down the ability to implement sodium policies that are consistent with the current Dietary Guidelines for Americans," committee chair Brian Strom, MD, MPH, professor of public health and preventive medicine at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine in Philadelphia, wrote in the report's preface. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The Dietary Guidelines for Americans has been published every 5 years beginning in 1980, producing eight guidelines to date. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intended audience for the Dietary Guidelines for Americans are policymakers, nutrition scientists, and dieticians and other health professionals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Dietary Guidelines for Americans provide an evidence-base that is used by the Federal government to develop nutrition education materials for Americans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Federal law and regulation require that Federal government publications provide dietary guidance consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to these governmental audiences, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans are widely used by state and local governments, schools, commercial enterprises, community groups, the media, and the food industry to inform policy and program development intended to serve the general public. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2020-2025) were published. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2015-2020) were developed in three stages, beginning with a review of scientific evidence, followed by development of the guidelines, and finally with implementation of the guidelines. (wikipedia.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS In patients with type 1 diabetes, sodium was independently associated with all-cause mortality and ESRD. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Conclusions -Socioeconomic differences in stroke mortality are a problem common to all countries studied. (ahajournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: High sodium intake was associated with CVD and CKD progression risk factors in patients with predominantly early stages of CKD followed up in primary care. (mendeley.com)
  • Conclusions The mortality rates for CHD among younger adults may serve as a sentinel event. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Prospective cohort data show that low sodium intakes may be associated with increased mortality. (europa.eu)
  • Doing so makes it impossible to determine what specific foods or food components are more closely associated with increased mortality risk. (foodinsight.org)
  • If manufacturers gradually reduced the amount of sodium in processed and prepared foods, public consumption of sodium could be reduced to safer levels with little or no change in behavior on the part of the individual consumer. (cdc.gov)
  • How bad is consumption of sodium for an athlete? (bodybuilding.com)
  • We believe that high consumption of sodium does indeed produce long-term, adverse health effects in contemporary people 23-43 . (thepaleodiet.com)
  • This report therefore presents an international overview of socioeconomic differences in stroke mortality. (ahajournals.org)
  • Results -In all countries, manual classes had higher stroke mortality rates than nonmanual classes. (ahajournals.org)
  • In most countries, inequalities were much larger for stroke mortality than for ischemic heart disease mortality. (ahajournals.org)
  • There are probably large variations, however, in the contribution that different risk factors, such as tobacco and alcohol consumption, make to the stroke mortality excess of lower socioeconomic groups. (ahajournals.org)
  • Medical services can contribute to reducing socioeconomic differences in stroke mortality. (ahajournals.org)
  • Associations between socioeconomic status and stroke mortality have been observed for the United States, Australia, England and Wales (considered together), and Nordic countries. (ahajournals.org)
  • Higher stroke mortality rates of lower socioeconomic groups are probably related to several factors. (ahajournals.org)
  • Until now, the international literature did not include reports on socioeconomic differences in stroke mortality in France, Switzerland, or Mediterranean countries. (ahajournals.org)
  • 15 18 19 20 21 22 Since stroke shares several of its risk factors with IHD, socioeconomic differences in stroke mortality might also be small or even absent in southern European countries. (ahajournals.org)
  • If so, there would be a parallel with the situation in the United States and the northern part of Europe in the 1950s, when both IHD and stroke mortality rates were not yet clearly higher among lower socioeconomic groups. (ahajournals.org)
  • We hypothesized that there may be an association between consumption of ramen and stroke mortality. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, we investigated the association between the prevalence of ramen restaurants and stroke mortality in Japanese prefectures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We used Pearson's correlation coefficients to evaluate associations between the prevalence of each of four restaurant types (ramen, fast food, French or Italian, and udon or soba) and age- and sex-adjusted stroke mortality rates in each prefecture. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We obtained age- and sex-adjusted stroke mortality rates and the acute myocardial infarction mortality rate in each prefecture from the 2017 Trends in National Health published in Japan. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The prevalence of ramen restaurants in Japanese prefectures has a significant correlation with the stroke mortality rate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, stroke mortality in Eastern Japan is higher than that in Western Japan. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we investigated the association between the number of ramen restaurants in each Japanese prefecture and stroke mortality in that prefecture. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, we assessed the disease burden of CVD attributable to sodium intakes above 2,000 mg/day and prospectively investigated the association between dietary/urinary sodium levels and the risk of all-cause and CVD- mortality using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES). (bvsalud.org)
  • There may be a negative association between dietary magnesium intake and blood pressure. (essentialevidenceplus.com)
  • Accordingly, the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for adequacy serve as an important reference value with a variety of applications. (nap.edu)
  • The approach taken in the 2005 DRI Report predated the guidance and recommendations offered in the 2017 National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine report Guiding Principles for Developing Dietary Reference Intakes Based on Chronic Disease ( Guiding Principles Report ) ( NASEM, 2017 ). (nap.edu)
  • Panel on dietary reference intakes for electrolytes and water. (springer.com)
  • Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. (springer.com)
  • However, the precise relationship between dietary salt intake and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been previously explored. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, the precise relationship between salt intake and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been previously explored. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It is widely assumed that any blood pressure lowering associated with reduced dietary salt intake may be translated into protection from end-organ damage in the context of diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • There is a strong correlation between increased dietary sodium (salt) intake and elevated blood pressure. (citizen.co.za)
  • The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends no more than 5mg per person of salt per day, however many foods exceed that and the WHO estimates that the actual global dietary salt intake is almost double this, which is of concern," remarks Naidoo. (citizen.co.za)
  • Other health-based organizations that advocate for lowering daily dietary sodium intake -- including the U.S. Dietary Association, American Medical Association, American Public Health Association, and World Medical Association, point to data showing the relationship between salt intake and blood pressure, a marker of cardiovascular disease. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Research has shown that decreasing sodium to the lower end of the normal range by modification of water and salt intake is a personalizable strategy for decreasing cardiovascular risks. (mdedge.com)
  • In this blog post we report on a new study from the BODE 3 Programme that suggests that strategies to reduce the dietary salt intake of New Zealanders could produce major health gains and major cost savings for the publicly-funded health sector. (otago.ac.nz)
  • The body needs a small amount of sodium to function, but most Americans consume too much sodium. (cdc.gov)
  • Since 2010, some manufacturers have reduced sodium in some foods, and the amount of sodium consumed has decreased slightly in some groups of people. (cdc.gov)
  • Increased availability of lower sodium products and reductions in the amount of sodium in foods served or sold in the marketplace also are needed. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2005, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommended that adults in the U.S. consume no more than 2300 mg of sodium per day (5.8 grams of salt) 44 . (thepaleodiet.com)
  • We found that the largest benefit to health (from reducing heart attacks and strokes) came from the strategy of a "sinking lid" on the amount of food salt released to the national market to achieve an average adult intake of 2300 mg of sodium per day. (otago.ac.nz)
  • In adults a reduction in sodium intake significantly reduced resting systolic blood pressure by 3.39 mm Hg (95% confidence interval 2.46 to 4.31) and resting diastolic blood pressure by 1.54 mm Hg (0.98 to 2.11). (bmj.com)
  • The sodium AIs were derived using evidence from the lowest level of sodium intakes evaluated in trials and evidence from the best-designed balance study in adults, and were extrapolated to children and adolescents based on sedentary Estimated Energy Requirements (EERs). (nap.edu)
  • They calculate that a decrease of 9.5% in mean population sodium intake (similar to the decline experienced in the United Kingdom [14] ) would probably prevent hundreds of thousands of strokes and heart attacks and save more than $32 billion in medical expenses over the lifetimes of adults aged 40 to 85 years who are alive today (11) . (annals.org)
  • All segments of the population would benefit, with blacks benefiting proportionately more, women benefiting particularly from stroke reduction, older adults from reductions in CHD events, and younger adults from lower mortality rates. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies. (springer.com)
  • Comparative data from the NHANES I and III showed a decrease in mortality over time in hypertensive adults, but the mortality gap between hypertensive and normotensive adults remained high. (medscape.com)
  • This week's topics include dietary sodium content, mortality, and CVD risk in older adults, the ROX CONTROL HTN study, and more. (jwatch.org)
  • Additionally, people in specific groups (those 51 years of age or older, people with high blood pressure, diabetes, kidney disease and adults of African American ethnicity should consume no more than 1500 mg of sodium per day (3.8 grams of salt) 44 . (thepaleodiet.com)
  • MONDAY, April 24, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) can predict 30-day mortality for elderly adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), according to a study published online April 13 in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society . (mycme.com)
  • Background Trends for obesity, diabetes, blood pressure, and metabolic syndrome among young adults raise concerns about the mortality rates from CHD in this group. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Methods We used mortality data from 1980 to 2002 to calculate age-specific mortality rates from CHD for U.S. adults age ≥35 years. (onlinejacc.org)
  • The particularly unfavorable trends in several risk factors for CHD among young adults raises the possibility that the trends in the mortality rates from CHD among younger adults declined less than those in older ones ( 4-9 ). (onlinejacc.org)
  • In children, a reduction in sodium intake significantly reduced systolic blood pressure by 0.84 mm Hg (0.25 to 1.43) and diastolic blood pressure by 0.87 mm Hg (0.14 to 1.60). (bmj.com)
  • Degree of reduction in sodium intake and change in blood pressure were not related. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The causal link between sodium intake and high blood pressure levels is well-established ( 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The new FDA guidance is practical, implementing the strong scientific link between sodium intake and heart attacks and strokes. (harvard.edu)
  • Moreover, although nearly half of Americans ages 2 and older -- 47.6% -- are candidates to lower their intake even further, to 1,500 mg per day, about 99% of that group has an intake above that cutoff, according to data reported in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report . (medpagetoday.com)
  • Reducing sodium intakes that are above the CDRR is expected to reduce the risk of chronic disease. (nap.edu)
  • After tobacco control, the most cost-effective intervention to control chronic diseases might be reduction of sodium intake. (annals.org)
  • Mild chronic hyponatremia with long-term adverse health effects, such as attention deficits, gait instability, falls, and bone loss and fractures , has been associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. (oregonstate.edu)
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: An increased risk of mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is observed in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) even in early stages. (mendeley.com)
  • In addition, "while the current literature provides some evidence for adverse health effects of low sodium intake among individuals with diabetes, [chronic kidney disease], or preexisting [cardiovascular disease], the evidence on both the benefit and harm is not strong enough to indicate that these subgroups should be treated differently from the general U.S. population," the report, "Sodium Intake in Populations," found . (medpagetoday.com)
  • Hyperphosphatemia contributes to vascular calcification in patients with chronic kidney disease and hemodialysis patients and is independently associated with cardiac mortality. (go.jp)
  • Suboptimal dietary habits have been associated with mortality due to chronic disease [ 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • 5. Ditewig JB, Blok H, Havers J, van Veenendaal H. Effectiveness of self-management interventions on mortality, hospital readmissions, chronic heart failure hospitalization rate and quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure: a systematic review. (posterpresentations.com)
  • Overeating and harmful alcohol and tobacco use have been linked to the aetiology of various non-communicable diseases, which are among the leading global causes of morbidity and premature mortality. (essentialevidenceplus.com)
  • Randomized controlled studies demonstrated that dietary sodium reduction (by 1.8 to 3.2 g/day) could lower blood pressure in subjects with elevated blood pressure. (oregonstate.edu)
  • 1 Most of the sodium we consume is in the form of salt. (cdc.gov)
  • About 90% of Americans 2 years old or older consume too much sodium. (cdc.gov)
  • Based upon a study carried out in the US in 1991 on a total of 62 people, the presumption made is that most of the sodium Canadians consume (77%) comes from processed foods sold in grocery stores and in food service outlets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Americans consume on average 3,400 mg of sodium every day, the IOM said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Most Americans consume anywhere from 3,000 mg to 20,000 mg of sodium a day. (encognitive.com)
  • This "U" shaped relationship has led some scientists to suggest that we should consume more than the recommended daily allowance of sodium. (thepaleodiet.com)
  • Trends in the prevalence of excess dietary sodium intake - United States, 2003-2010. (livestrong.com)
  • We found no correlation between ramen restaurant prevalence and mortality from acute myocardial infarction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We then analyzed correlations between the prevalence of each type of restaurant and the age- and sex-adjusted stroke and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) mortality rates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Researchers assessed the prevalence and racial disparity of subjective cognitive and functional limitations and their impact on mortality in the hypertensive US population. (eurekalert.org)
  • The results show that the prevalence of cognitive and functional disability is larger in the US hypertensive population than the non-hypertensive population, and both are associated with greater mortality. (eurekalert.org)
  • Americans are consuming substantially more sodium than in the 1970s. (cdc.gov)
  • Loria, Catherine M., Obarzanek, Eva, Ernst, Nancy D. Choose and prepare foods with less salt: Dietary advice for all Americans . (umich.edu)
  • But because more than three fourths of Americans' sodium intake comes from processed foods and restaurant meals (16) , it is very difficult for individuals to limit their consumption to healthy levels. (annals.org)
  • Potassium seems to work best for people with high blood pressure, low potassium levels, high sodium intake, and for African Americans. (webmd.com)
  • They set the limit for most Americans ages 14-50 at 2,300 mg of sodium per day. (medpagetoday.com)
  • In their 2010 joint dietary guidelines, the Department of Health and Human Services and the Agriculture Department stated, "Because consumption of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, milk and milk products, and seafood is lower than recommended, intake by Americans of some nutrients is low enough to be of public health concern. (citizen.org)
  • The efforts of the US Federal Government to establish a scientific basis for human nutrition began with Wilbur Olin Atwater, who published the first dietary recommendations for Americans in 1894, notably stating that, "We live not upon what we eat, but upon what we digest. (wikipedia.org)
  • One consistent recommendation of these eight guidelines has been that Americans reduce their dietary consumption of fat and animal products, including meat, dairy, and eggs and to increase their dietary consumption of carbohydrates and plant foods, including fruits, vegetables, and grains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The AHA currently recommends the intake of less than 1,500 mg of sodium per day -- a recommendation the IOM now says there's no evidence to support. (medpagetoday.com)
  • 1,2 Xywav is an oxybate product with a unique composition of cations resulting in 92 percent less sodium - or approximately 1,000 to 1,500 mg/night - than sodium oxybate at the recommended dosage range of 6 to 9 grams. (prnewswire.com)
  • With sodium, the AI represents a level of intake that, based on the lack of adverse effects, appears to be adequate. (nap.edu)
  • While adverse effects of sodium and beneficial effects of potassium on BP have repeatedly been shown in human intervention studies, evidence on other vascular effects of these dietary minerals is still scarce. (wur.nl)
  • Available evidence suggests that low sodium intake may lead to higher risk of adverse events in patients with more advanced heart disease, an IOM report found. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Further, important new evidence from an extensive 20-year study of salt ingestion on mortality, supports the physiological argument that high dietary salt intakes produce adverse health effects 53-55 . (thepaleodiet.com)
  • Reducing average population sodium intake to 2,300 mg per day may save $18 billion in health care dollars and reduce cases of high blood pressure by 11 million annually. (cdc.gov)
  • The CDC asked the IOM to convene an expert panel to examine emerging evidence and assess the benefits and risks of reducing sodium intake below 2,300 mg a day. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The predictors of all-cause mortality and ESRD were determined by Cox regression and competing risk modeling, respectively. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • His team conducted the largest ever epidemiologic study of the impact of sodium intake on blood pressure, cardiovascular disease risk, and mortality in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, a study of over 100,000 individuals from 18 low, middle and high income countries on 5 continents. (thecookingapp.com)
  • BACKGROUND/[email protected]# Sodium intake is positively associated with blood pressure , which may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). (bvsalud.org)
  • High sodium consumption can raise blood pressure, and high blood pressure is a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium intake from processed and restaurant foods contributes to high rates of high blood pressure, heart attack, and stroke. (cdc.gov)
  • Because nearly 500,000 deaths each year are related to high blood pressure, reducing sodium intake could prevent thousands of deaths annually. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium reduction continues to be an effective and safe strategy to lower blood pressure. (cdc.gov)
  • Numerous scientific bodies and professional health organizations, including the American Heart Association,* the American Medical Association, † and the American Public Health Association, § support dietary sodium reduction to prevent and control high blood pressure. (cdc.gov)
  • For persons with prehypertension (i.e., blood pressure that is elevated above normal but not high enough for medical intervention), reduction of sodium intake might be particularly beneficial because lower blood pressure typically translates to lower risk for heart disease and stroke ( 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Among the interventions advocated to assist in achieving these targets, most guidelines recommend a reduced intake of salt, as dietary sodium intake is positively correlated with blood pressure levels in the general population ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Reducing dietary salt lowers blood pressure and cardiovascular risk. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Recent clinical trials and meta-analyses confirm the capacity of dietary sodium reduction and potassium supplementation to reduce blood pressure with no harmful effects on blood lipid levels in customary clinical settings. (springer.com)
  • Blood pressure is thought to be a good surrogate for cardiovascular disease events and the most important preventable risk factor for mortality and disability-adjusted life years. (springer.com)
  • Sodium, blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease: further evidence supporting the American Heart Association sodium reduction recommendations. (medscape.com)
  • Excess dietary sodium contributes to high blood pressure, a leading cause of heart disease and stroke. (harvard.edu)
  • Excess dietary sodium consumption is a risk factor for high blood pressure, stroke and cardiovascular disease. (essentialevidenceplus.com)
  • Elevated blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for CVD and the largest single contributor to global mortality. (wur.nl)
  • The researchers indicate 'sugar may be much more meaningfully related to blood pressure than sodium, as suggested by a greater magnitude of effect with dietary manipulation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • For this reason, sodium was long thought to increase blood pressure-a risk factor for heart disease, stroke, and kidney disease. (bodybuilding.com)
  • 1-3 While reducing sodium intake can lower blood pressure, the change is rather small and likely to have negligible effects on your health. (bodybuilding.com)
  • If you start noticing swelling in various parts of your body (due to excessive water retention), or a rise in your blood pressure (≥ 120/80), monitor your sodium intake more closely. (bodybuilding.com)
  • In general, people who reduce their sodium consumption, increase their potassium consumption, or do both, benefit from improved blood pressure and reduce their risk for developing other serious health problems. (webwire.com)
  • In addition to pharmacological therapies, nonpharmacological approach such as dietary modification plays an important role in controlling blood pressure. (hindawi.com)
  • Dietary modification is often discussed with patients and can provide a great benefit in blood pressure regulation. (hindawi.com)
  • The role of these dietary factors singly or in combination in blood pressure regulation and to what extent each contributes has been a subject of research for many decades, and despite this, it remains controversial. (hindawi.com)
  • The relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure changes has been a topic of discussion for decades. (hindawi.com)
  • There is some debate on the impact of sodium reduction upon blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have the evidence and it suggests that if we could reduce blood pressure, we would reduce a person's risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. (medpagetoday.com)
  • However, some studies have raised concern that low sodium intake may adversely affect certain risk factors like blood lipids and insulin resistance, thus potentially increasing the risk of heart disease. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Rather, the research has determined that the body self-adjusts and regulates to ones sodium intake - assuming ranges as mentioned above - yielding healthy blood levels. (realnatural.org)
  • An investigation, called the Intersalt Study, of 10 000 people from 32 countries, found that there was a very strong correlation between a high sodium consumption and high blood pressure, especially in sodium-sensitive people. (encognitive.com)
  • Often working in combination with other minerals such as potassium, sodium helps to manage the distribution and pH balance of these fluids inside the body and plays an important role in blood pressure regulation. (encognitive.com)
  • While sodium deficiencies are rare, supplements may be required in people with certain medical conditions such as Addison's disease, adrenal gland tumors, kidney disease, or low blood pressure. (encognitive.com)
  • Dietary fiber may slightly decrease blood pressure. (essentialevidenceplus.com)
  • Restricting sodium intake in elevated blood pressure over short periods of time reduces blood pressure. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Long term effects (on mortality, morbidity or blood pressure) of advice to reduce salt in patients with elevated or normal blood pressure are unclear. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • If this is confirmed, with no increase in cardiovascular events, then targeting of comprehensive dietary and behavioural programmes in patients with elevated blood pressure requiring drug treatment would be justified. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • AU - Hooper,L, AU - Bartlett,C, AU - Davey,S M, AU - Ebrahim,S, PY - 2003/6/14/pubmed PY - 2003/7/29/medline PY - 2003/6/14/entrez SP - CD003656 EP - CD003656 JF - The Cochrane database of systematic reviews JO - Cochrane Database Syst Rev IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: Restricting sodium intake in elevated blood pressure over short periods of time reduces blood pressure. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • His team conducted the largest ever epidemiologic study of the impact of sodium intake on blood pressure, cardiovascular disease risk, and mortality in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. (saltinstitute.org)
  • Previous trials showed a direct relationship between dietary sodium intake and blood pressure, according to the researchers. (cardiovascularbusiness.com)
  • However, they noted that there is controversy and mixed results on whether the blood pressure reduction associated with lower sodium intake has a beneficial effect on the incidence of cardiovascular disease and total mortality. (cardiovascularbusiness.com)
  • Sodium causes fluid to build up in your body and leads to many problems like raising blood pressure, swelling, and putting a strain on your heart and kidneys. (abbottnutrition.com)
  • Preventing cardiovascular disease is important to decrease the associated morbidity and mortality. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Among men and women age 35 to 54 years, the estimated annual percentage decrease in mortality slowed progressively. (onlinejacc.org)
  • In contrast, the estimated annual percentage decrease in mortality among those age ≥55 years was larger in more recent years than in earlier periods among both men and women. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Among women and men age ≥55 years, the estimated annual percentage decrease in mortality from CHD accelerated in more recent years compared with earlier periods. (onlinejacc.org)
  • 4,5 Conversely, why has it been so difficult to demonstrate that an individual hypertensive patient is sodium-dependent? (ahajournals.org)
  • ramen has a high sodium content. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One obvious culprit is table salt, which has a high sodium content. (encognitive.com)
  • Sodium oxybate carries warnings about its high sodium content, 10 and was previously the only product approved to treat both cataplexy and EDS in patients with narcolepsy 7 years of age and older 11 and designated as a standard of care for the treatment of cataplexy and EDS by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. (prnewswire.com)
  • When possible we conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the effect of lower sodium intake using the inverse variance method and a random effects model. (bmj.com)
  • Assessing the public health context of usual sodium intakes of the U.S. and Canadian populations requires an assessment of the distribution of intakes above the CDRR to determine what proportion of the population might benefit from reductions in usual sodium intakes. (nap.edu)
  • The sections that follow compare the sodium AIs and CDRRs established in this report to current sodium intakes in the U.S. and Canadian populations. (nap.edu)
  • Fall-related injuries are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in older populations. (essentialevidenceplus.com)
  • There is no doubt that monitoring sodium intake in specific populations is warranted, but to make the same assumption for those who are apparently healthy makes no sense to me. (bodybuilding.com)
  • An analysis of two randomized trials found that people who had a high sodium intake had an increased risk of mortality during a median follow-up period of 24 years. (cardiovascularbusiness.com)