Insurance providing for payment of a stipulated sum to a designated beneficiary upon death of the insured.
The protection of genetic information about an individual, family, or population group, from unauthorized disclosure.
Organizations which assume the financial responsibility for the risks of policyholders.
All deaths reported in a given population.
Adverse or favorable selection bias exhibited by insurers or enrollees resulting in disproportionate enrollment of certain groups of people.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.
A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.
Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.
The practice of assisting women in childbirth.
The death of the female parent.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Scattering of a beam of electromagnetic or acoustic RADIATION, or particles, at small angles by particles or cavities whose dimensions are many times as large as the wavelength of the radiation or the de Broglie wavelength of the scattered particles. Also know as low angle scattering. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed) Small angle scattering (SAS) techniques, small angle neutron (SANS), X-ray (SAXS), and light (SALS, or just LS) scattering, are used to characterize objects on a nanoscale.
Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The abrupt and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant under one year of age, remaining unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. (Pediatr Pathol 1991 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-84)
Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
Hospital units equipped for childbirth.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Coordination of coverage eligibility of those individuals who are entitled to MEDICAID and MEDICARE.
Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)
The compulsory portion of Medicare that is known as the Hospital Insurance Program. All persons 65 years and older who are entitled to benefits under the Old Age, Survivors, Disability and Health Insurance Program or railroad retirement, persons under the age of 65 who have been eligible for disability for more than two years, and insured workers (and their dependents) requiring renal dialysis or kidney transplantation are automatically enrolled in Medicare Part A.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
Summarizing techniques used to describe the pattern of mortality and survival in populations. These methods can be applied to the study not only of death, but also of any defined endpoint such as the onset of disease or the occurrence of disease complications.
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
Mechanical food dispensing machines.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Individuals who donate their services to the hospital.

The expiry date of man: a synthesis of evolutionary biology and public health. (1/4576)

In industrialised countries, mortality and morbidity are dominated by age related chronic degenerative diseases. The health and health care needs of future populations will be heavily determined by these conditions of old age. Two opposite scenarios of future morbidity exist: morbidity might decrease ("compress"), because life span is limited, and the incidence of disease is postponed. Or morbidity might increase ("expand"), because death is delayed more than disease incidence. Optimality theory in evolutionary biology explains senescence as a by product of an optimised life history. The theory clarifies how senescence is timed by the competing needs for reproduction and survival, and why this leads to a generalised deterioration of many functions at many levels. As death and disease are not independent, future morbidity will depend on duration and severity of the process of senescence, partly determined by health care, palliating the disease severity but increasing the disease duration by postponing death. Even if morbidity might be compressed, health care needs will surely expand.  (+info)

Avoidable mortality in Europe 1955-1994: a plea for prevention. (2/4576)

OBJECTIVE: To analyse trends of avoidable mortality in Europe, emphasising causes of death amenable to primary prevention through reduction of exposures, secondary prevention through early detection and treatment, and tertiary prevention through improved treatment and medical care. DESIGN: Descriptive study of mortality from avoidable causes for the years 1955 through 1994, for ages 5-64 at time of death. Using the World Health Organisation Mortality Database, five year death rates were standardised to the world population. SETTING: 21 countries of Europe in four regions (northern, central, and southern Europe, Nordic countries). PARTICIPANTS: All causes of deaths for men and women, aged 5-64, at time of death. MAIN RESULTS: Between 1955-59 and 1990-94, the reduction in mortality was somewhat greater for avoidable causes than for all causes: 45.8% v 45.1% (women) and 39.3% v 32.6% among men. Reductions in mortality were greater for causes amenable to improved medical care: 77.9% among women and 76.3% among men. The smallest reduction in mortality was seen in women for causes amenable to secondary prevention (11.0%), and in men for causes amendable to primary prevention including tobacco related conditions (16.6%). From a geographical point of view, there were slight differences in trends between European regions, but overall the patterns were similar. CONCLUSIONS: The greatest reduction of avoidable mortality in Europe from 1955-94 came from causes amenable to improved treatment and medical care for both sexes. Further reductions of avoidable mortality can be achieved through implementation of primary and secondary prevention activities, such as tobacco control, reduction of occupational exposures, and universal access to breast and cervical cancer screening programmes.  (+info)

The meaning and use of the cumulative rate of potential life lost. (3/4576)

BACKGROUND: The 'years of potential life lost' (YPLL) is a public health measure in widespread use. However, the index does not apply to the comparisons between different populations or across different time periods. It also has the limit of being cross-sectional in nature, quantifying current burden but not future impact on society. METHODS: A new years-lost index is proposed-the 'cumulative rate of potential life lost' (CRPLL). It is a simple combination of the 'cumulative rate' (CR) and the YPLL. Vital statistics in Taiwan are used for demonstration and comparison of the new index with existing health-status measures. RESULTS: The CRPLL serves the purpose of between-group comparison. It can also be considered a projection of future impact, under the assumption that the age-specific mortality rates in the current year prevail. For a rare cause of death, it can be interpreted as the expected years (days) of potential life lost during a subject's lifetime. CONCLUSIONS: The CRPLL has several desirable properties, rendering it a promising alternative for quantifying health status.  (+info)

The European mesothelioma epidemic. (4/4576)

Projections for the period 1995-2029 suggest that the number of men dying from mesothelioma in Western Europe each year will almost double over the next 20 years, from 5000 in 1998 to about 9000 around 2018, and then decline, with a total of about a quarter of a million deaths over the next 35 years. The highest risk will be suffered by men born around 1945-50, of whom about 1 in 150 will die of mesothelioma. Asbestos use in Western Europe remained high until 1980, and substantial quantities are still used in several European countries. These projections are based on the fit of a simple age and birth cohort model to male pleural cancer mortality from 1970 to 1989 for six countries (Britain, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands and Switzerland) which together account for three-quarters of the population of Western Europe. The model was tested by comparing observed and predicted numbers of deaths for the period 1990-94. The ratio of mesothelioma to recorded pleural cancer mortality has been 1.6:1 in Britain but was assumed to be 1:1 in other countries.  (+info)

A historical cohort mortality study of workers exposed to asbestos in a refitting shipyard. (5/4576)

To investigate the risks of developing asbestos-related diseases we conducted a historical cohort mortality study on 249 ship repair workers (90 laggers and 159 boiler repairers) in a single U.S. Navy shipyard in Japan. We successfully identified the vital status of 87 (96.7%) laggers and 150 (94.3%) boiler repairers, and, of these, 49 (56.3%) and 65 (43.3%) died, respectively, during the follow-up period from 1947 till the end of 1996. Our in-person interviews with some of the subjects clarified that asbestos exposure was considered to be substantially high in the 1950-60s, decreased thereafter gradually but remained till 1979 in the shipyard. The laggers, who had handled asbestos materials directly, showed a significantly elevated SMR of 2.75 (95% C.I.: 1.08-6.48) for lung cancer. The risk developing the disease was greater in the laggers after a 20-year latency (SMR = 3.42). Pancreatic cancer yielded a greater SMR than unity (7.78, 90% C.I.: 2.07-25.19) in a longer working years group. Four laggers died from asbestosis. The boiler repairers, who had many chances for secondary exposure to asbestos and a few for direct exposure, showed no elevation of the SMR of lung cancer overall, but there was a borderline statistically significant SMR of 2.41 (90% C.I.: 1.05-5.45) in a longer working years group. One boiler repairer died from mesothelioma and four from asbestosis.  (+info)

Effects of calcium-channel blockade in older patients with diabetes and systolic hypertension. Systolic Hypertension in Europe Trial Investigators. (6/4576)

BACKGROUND: Recent reports suggest that calcium-channel blockers may be harmful in patients with diabetes and hypertension. We previously reported that antihypertensive treatment with the calcium-channel blocker nitrendipine reduced the risk of cardiovascular events. In this post hoc analysis, we compared the outcome of treatment with nitrendipine in diabetic and nondiabetic patients. METHODS: After stratification according to center, sex, and presence or absence of previous cardiovascular complications, 4695 patients (age, > or =60 years) with systolic blood pressure of 160 to 219 mm Hg and diastolic pressure below 95 mm Hg were randomly assigned to receive active treatment or placebo. Active treatment consisted of nitrendipine (10 to 40 mg per day) with the possible addition or substitution of enalapril (5 to 20 mg per day) or hydrochlorothiazide (12.5 to 25 mg per day) or both, titrated to reduce the systolic blood pressure by at least 20 mm Hg and to less than 150 mm Hg. In the control group, matching placebo tablets were administered similarly. RESULTS: At randomization, 492 patients (10.5 percent) had diabetes. After a median follow-up of two years, the systolic and diastolic blood pressures in the placebo and active-treatment groups differed by 8.6 and 3.9 mm Hg, respectively, among the diabetic patients. Among the 4203 patients without diabetes, systolic and diastolic pressures differed by 10.3 and 4.5 mm Hg, respectively, in the two groups. After adjustment for possible confounders, active treatment was found to have reduced overall mortality by 55 percent (from 45.1 deaths per 1000 patients to 26.4 deaths per 1000 patients), mortality from cardiovascular disease by 76 percent, all cardiovascular events combined by 69 percent, fatal and nonfatal strokes by 73 percent, and all cardiac events combined by 63 percent in the group of patients with diabetes. Among the nondiabetic patients, active treatment decreased all cardiovascular events combined by 26 percent and fatal and nonfatal strokes by 38 percent. In the group of patients receiving active treatment, reductions in overall mortality, mortality from cardiovascular disease, and all cardiovascular events were significantly larger among the diabetic patients than among the nondiabetic patients (P=0.04, P=0.02, and P=0.01, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Nitrendipine-based antihypertensive therapy is particularly beneficial in older patients with diabetes and isolated systolic hypertension. Thus, our findings do not support the hypothesis that the use of long-acting calcium-channel blockers may be harmful in diabetic patients.  (+info)

Association between serum fructosamine and mortality in elderly women: the study of osteoporotic fractures. (7/4576)

Serum fructosamine levels can be used to estimate long-term serum glucose values and can be measured in frozen serum. The authors examined whether fructosamine levels were associated with mortality in a cohort of 9,704 white women (> or = 65 years of age) recruited from September 1986 to October 1988 at four clinical centers in the United States. A random sample of women who had died during a mean of 6 years of follow-up (n = 55) was compared with randomly selected controls (n = 276, 54 of whom had died). Fructosamine assays were performed blinded to vital status. Hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals were adjusted for age, clinical center, smoking, hypertension, and serum albumin and cholesterol levels. Each standard deviation (46 micromol) increase in fructosamine level was associated with a 1.3-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-1.6, p = 0.04) increased rate of all-cause mortality, including a 1.5-fold (95% CI 1.0-2.1, p = 0.03) increase in cardiovascular disease mortality. Elevated fructosamine levels (>285 micromol/liter) were associated with a 4.3-fold (95% CI 1.6-12, p = 0.004) increased rate of cardiovascular mortality; in women without a history of diabetes, the hazard ratio was 4.6 (95% CI 1.3-16, p = 0.02). Fructosamine level, or another indicator of glycemia, should be included when the risk of cardiovascular disease among older patients is evaluated.  (+info)

Cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in men. (8/4576)

BACKGROUND: Cardiorespiratory fitness and body fatness are both related to health, but their interrelation to all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We examined the health benefits of leanness and the hazards of obesity while simultaneously considering cardiorespiratory fitness. DESIGN: This was an observational cohort study. We followed 21925 men, aged 30-83 y, who had a body-composition assessment and a maximal treadmill exercise test. There were 428 deaths (144 from CVD, 143 from cancer, and 141 from other causes) in an average of 8 y of follow-up (176742 man-years). RESULTS: After adjustment for age, examination year, cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, and parental history of ischemic heart disease, unfit (low cardiorespiratory fitness as determined by maximal exercise testing), lean men had double the risk of all-cause mortality of fit, lean men (relative risk: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.16, 3.69; P = 0.01). Unfit, lean men also had a higher risk of all-cause and CVD mortality than did men who were fit and obese. We observed similar results for fat and fat-free mass in relation to mortality. Unfit men had a higher risk of all-cause and CVD mortality than did fit men in all fat and fat-free mass categories. Similarly, unfit men with low waist girths (<87 cm) had greater risk of all-cause mortality than did fit men with high waist girths (> or =99 cm). CONCLUSIONS: The health benefits of leanness are limited to fit men, and being fit may reduce the hazards of obesity.  (+info)

Read chapter APPENDIX D: Differential Mortality Estimates Derived from Fertility History Data: Levels and Recent Trends in Fertility and Mortality in Colo...
The strength of natural selection is directly related to the degree of differential mortality in the population. If the probability of survival for an individual is a function of the value of a particular trait, then that trait is subject to selection pressures (assuming, of course, that the trait is heritable). Selection will not occur if the probability of mortality is the same for all individuals.. The relationship between mortality and a traits value need not be a linear one for selection to occur. The probability of mortality may increase with the trait value, decrease with the trait value, increase with extreme trait values, increase for intermediate trait values or density dependent; an infinite array of possibilities exist. ...
Downloadable! We study how mortality reductins and income growth interact, looking at their relationship prior to the Industrial Revolution, when income per capita was stagnant. We first present a model of individual medical spending giving a rationale for individual health expenditures even when medicine was not effective in postponing death. We then explain the rise of effective medicine by a learning process function of expenditures in health. The rise in effective medicine can then be linked to the take-off of the eighteenth century through life expectancy increases, and fostered capital accumulation. The rise of effective medicine has also an impact on the relation between growth and inequality and on the intergenerational persistence of differences in income. These channels are operative through differential mortality induced by medicine effectiveness that turns out to determines a differential in the propensity to save among income groups.
Relative to developed countries, there are far fewer women than men in parts of the developing world. Estimates suggest that more than 200 million women are demographically missing worldwide. To explain the global missing women phenomenon, research has mainly focused on excess female mortality in Asia.. However, as emphasized in our earlier research, at least 30 per cent of the missing women are missing from Africa. This paper employs a novel methodology to determine how the phenomenon of missing women is distributed across Africa. Moreover, it provides estimates of the extent of excess female mortality within different age groups and by disease category. The empirical results reiterate the importance of excess female mortality for women in Africa.. ...
Health Reports, volume 23, number 3. Cause-specific mortality by education in Canada: A 16-year follow-up study. Table 4 Age-standardized mortality rates per 100,000 person-years at risk for selected causes of death, by educational attainment, age group and sex, cohort members aged 25 or older at baseline, Canada 1991 to 2006
Downloadable (with restrictions)! This paper examines the impact of universal, free, and easily accessible primary healthcare on population health as measured by age-specific mortality rates, focusing on a nationwide socialized medicine program implemented in Turkey. The Family Medicine Program (FMP), launched in 2005, assigns each Turkish citizen to a specific state-employed family physician who offers a wide range of primary healthcare services that are free-of-charge. Furthermore, these services are provided at family health centers, which operate on a walk-in basis and are located within neighborhoods in close proximity to the patients. To identify the causal impact of the FMP, we exploit the variation in its introduction across provinces and over time. Our estimates indicate that the FMP caused the mortality rate to decrease by 25.6% among infants, 7.7% among the elderly, and 22.9% among children ages 1-4. These estimates translate into 2.6, 1.29, and 0.13 fewer deaths among infants, the elderly,
BACKGROUND: Until 1990, there was an upward trend in mortality from breast, lung, prostate, and colon cancers in the United Kingdom. With improvements in cancer treatment there has, in general, been a fall in mortality over the last 20 years. We evaluate regional cancer mortality trends in the United Kingdom between 1991 and 2007. METHODS: We analysed mortality trends for breast, lung, prostate, and colon cancers using data obtained from the EUREG cancer database. We have described changes in age-standardised rates (using European standard population) per 100,000 for cancer mortality and generated trends in mortality for the 11 regions using Joinpoint regression. RESULTS: Across all regions in the United Kingdom there was a downward trend in mortality for the four most common cancers in males and females. Overall, deaths from colon cancer decreased most rapidly and deaths from prostate cancer decreased at the slowest rate. Similar downward trends in mortality were observed across all regions of the
Purpose: Glycoprotein 2b3a inhibitors are still commonly utilized in patients receiving coronary interventions for stable CAD and in patients who are suffering unstable coronary syndromes (ACS). Early reports suggested improved survival in PCI with use of these agents. There is little information available on whether this mortality benefit extends more than one month after administration. In this study, we sought to determine if there is a difference in early and late mortality with administration of G2b3a inhibitors in CAD and ACS.. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed to locate randomized controlled trials of G2b3a inhibitors in patients undergoing PCI and suffering acute coronary syndromes (STEMI and ACS). Studies were included if there were reports of both 30 day and 180-365 day death rates. Meta-analyses were performed for early (,30 day), late (30-365 day) and total (0-365 day) mortality separately for stable and unstable CAD. A separate analysis of abciximab in ...
The Human Mortality Database (HMD) was created to provide detailed mortality and population data to researchers, students, journalists, policy analysts, and others interested in the history of human longevity. The project began as an outgrowth of earlier projects in the Department of Demography at the University of California, Berkeley, USA, and at the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research in Rostock, Germany (see history). It is the work of two teams of researchers in the USA and Germany (see research teams), with the help of financial backers and scientific collaborators from around the world (see acknowledgements). The Center on the Economics and Development of Aging (CEDA) French Institute for Demographic Studies (INED) has also supported the further development of the database in recent years. We seek to provide open, international access to these data. At present the database contains detailed population and mortality data for the following 39 countries or areas: ...
IHME research used de-identified death records from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and population counts from the U.S. Census Bureau, NCHS, and the Human Mortality Database and small area estimation models in order to estimate county-level mortality rates from all cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, ischemic stroke, and other types. This dataset provides estimates for age-standardized mortality rates by CVD type and sex at the county level for each state, the District of Columbia, and the United States as a whole for 1980-2014, as well as the changes in rates for each location during this period. Also included are data on the 10 counties with the highest and lowest mortality rates for each CVD type in 2014 and the top 10 causes of death by CVD type for each county. Study results were published in JAMA in May 2017 in Trends and patterns of geographic variations in cardiovascular mortality among US counties, ...
According to the National Center for Health Statistics, 2,278, 994 deaths occurred in the United States in 1994. This figure was 10,441 larger than that reported for 1993, and 103,381 more than the total for 1992. Although the number of deaths increased, the crude and age-adjusted death rates for 1994 suggest an overall improvement in the general mortality experienced by those in the U.S. The report, Advance Report of Final Mortality, 1994 presents trends and patterns in general mortality, life expectancy, and infant and maternal mortality. Also included are descriptive data on U.S. deaths and death rates, according to such demographic and medical characteristics as age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, educational attainment, State of residence, and causes of death. Data contained in this report are based on information from death certificates filed in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. ...
Buy our Recombinant Human Mortality Factor 4 like 2 protein. Ab105615 is a full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in SDS-PAGE…
This article was published in, and the following abstract copied from Social Science & Medicine.. The persistence of adult health and mortality socioeconomic inequalities and the equally stubborn reproduction of social class inequalities are salient features in modern societies that puzzle researchers in seemingly unconnected research fields. Neither can be satisfactorily explained with standard theoretical frameworks. In the domain of health and mortality, it is unclear if and to what an extent adult health and mortality disparities across socioeconomic status (SES) are the product of attributes of the positions themselves, the partial result of health conditions established earlier in life that influence both adult health and economic success, or the outcome of the reverse impact of health status on SES. In the domain of social stratification, the transmission of inequalities across generations has been remarkably resistant to satisfactory explanations. Although the literature on social ...
Majid Ezzati and colleagues analyze US county-level mortality data for 1961 to 1999, and find a steady increase in mortality inequality across counties between 1983 and 1999.
Persons with disabilities who experience problems accessing PDF files should contact [email protected] or call 301-458-4688. Worktable orig 250R lists death rates per 100,000 population for NCHS mortality tabulation list of 113 selected causes of death. Death rates are tabulated for 10-year age groups and by Hispanic origin and race for non-Hispanic population. Selected causes include such major conditions as heart disease, cancer, stroke, chronic respiratory diseases, pneumonia and influenza, diabetes, accidents (unintentional injuries), kidney conditions, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), septicemia (infection of the bloodstream), Alzheimers disease, birth defects, conditions originating in the perinatal period, complications related to pregnancy and childbirth, assault (homicide), intentional self-harm (suicide), anemia, chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, hypertension, and other major causes of death. A number of States did not provide complete confirmation of deaths from ...
In summary, OP models do not accurately describe the structure of the genetic covariance function when the genetic correlation is expected to decline significantly with age. We argued (see above) that it is these types of covariance functions that one might expect from natural stochastic processes. For relatively simple covariance structures, however, the OP models accurately estimate the surfaces (Figure 2). Flexibility from the range of allowable character process models allows a reasonable approximation to the actual covariance structure even when it is very irregular (Figure 3). Moreover, Figures 1, 2, 3 suggest that a significant strength of the character process model is its separation of variance functions from correlation functions. In all the examples, the majority of lack of fit is in the covariance (not variance) structure, suggesting the overall fit of the model is determined primarily by estimates of age-specific variances.. Age-specific mortality rates in Drosophila: In this ...
We identified eight large randomised trials which had usable post-trial data to assess legacy effects on mortality outcomes. The direct effects of the statins on mortality reduction observed during the trials were much larger than potential legacy effects observed post-trial, which suggests the rhetoric on legacy effects for statins in general may not reflect the empirical evidence. WOSCOPS was the only trial to show a possible post-trial legacy effect on all-cause and CVD-specific mortality. When we pooled data from all eight studies, we found no evidence overall of legacy effects on CVD mortality, but some evidence of possible legacy effects on all-cause mortality. In the exploratory subgroup analysis, there was some evidence of a difference in results for primary prevention compared with secondary prevention. Considering these subgroups separately, we found no evidence of legacy effects following secondary prevention trials, suggesting the importance of long-term/lifelong prevention in these ...
Our study, based on a cohort of 1 466 726 residents in Rome, and followed for 14 years, showed significant differences in mortality by occupational status and type of job both, in men and in women. Globally, we found stronger occupational inequalities in men than in women for all outcomes, except for CVD mortality. The bigger difference in mortality risk by type of job in men respect to women is coherent with reports in other settings.6 32 However, it is difficult to perform international comparison, because occupational status (ie, employed vs unemployed), and type of job (ie, skilled vs non-skilled workers), depend on the contextual productive tissue, on local legislation, and on the variables categorisation.. We found a disadvantage for all categories of occupation status in both sexes compared with the employed, except for students. This pattern, for men, was confirmed in the international literature,6 in particular in the context of other European countries, with a 64% increased risk in the ...
In all cross-shore gradient-dependent mortality models the mortality function M was determined either by the cross-shore location of the particle (ADG), or by the cross-shore location of the particle and scaled solar insolation (ADGI). The cross-shore dependence of M was similar to the horizontal diffusion function used in all models (Eq. (1)): equation(8) ADG model:M=m1+m0-m121-tanhy-y0yscale equation(9) ADGI model:M=I(t)Imaxm1+m0-m121-tanhy-y0yscalewhere. m0 is surfzone mortality, m1 is offshore mortality, y0 is the offshore edge of the surfzone, and yscale determines the cross-shore scale of the surfzone/offshore transition. Values for y0 and yscale BGJ398 mouse were 50 m and 5 m, respectively, the same values used to parameterize diffusivity (Eq. (1)). Note that in the ADG and ADGI models, mortality is not an intrinsic property of a given particle (as in the ADS and ADSI models). Instead, particles move through stationary cross-shore mortality gradients and take on different mortality rates ...
Methods Our analyses include all Asian and white deaths in the USA between 2006 and 2010, from the Center for Disease Control. Using the International Classification of Diseases (V.10), we code causes of deaths into 19 categories, based on the most common causes as well as causes particularly relevant to racial differences. We then create life tables and apply a newly-developed demographic method to determine whether Asians have longer life expectancy because they are less likely than whites to die of causes of death that strike at younger ages, or because they tend to outlive whites regardless of cause of death. ...
Five year age-standardised mortality rates by county, sex and cause are presented in this table. These allow comparison of mortality rates between populations of different age composition, and also of mortality rates over time. The age-standardised rate for an area is the number of deaths (per 100,000) that would occur if that area had the same age structure as the WHO European Standard Population and the local age-specific rates for that area applied. Confidence intervals for these rates are also presented. The data cover the years from 1980 to 2012. For 2012, year of registration data are used; for all previous years, statistics are based on year of occurrence. Note: For example, year 2011 contains 5-year mortality data aggregated for years 2007-2011. A total of 74 causes of death categories are reported. These are ordered according to the Eurostat 65 Cause of Death shortlist, along with 9 additional national categories. The classification system used for data up to and including 2006 is ICD9. ...
This report presents worldwide estimates of annual mortality from all cancers and for 18 specific cancer sites around 1985. Crude and age-standardized mortality rates and numbers of deaths were computed for 24 geographical areas. Of the estimated 5 million deaths from cancer excluding non-melanoma skin cancer, 56% occurred in developing...
Early recording of mortality rate in European cities proved highly useful in controlling the plague and other major epidemics.[14] Public health in industrialised countries was transformed when mortality rate as a function of age, sex and socioeconomic status emerged in the late 19th and 20th centuries.[15][16] This track record has led to the argument that inexpensive recording of vital statistics in developing countries may become the most effective means to improve global health.[17] Gathering official mortality statistics can be very difficult in developing countries, where many individuals lack the ability or knowledge to report incidences of death to National Vital Statistics Registries. This can lead to distortion in mortality statistics and a wrongful assessment of overall health. Studies conducted in northeastern Brazil, where underreporting of infant mortality is of huge concern, have shown that alternative methods of data collection, including the use of popular Death Reporters ...
METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured serum RA concentrations in 1499 patients with angiographically confirmed coronary artery disease (mean age, 61 years; male, 67%) recruited from October 2008 and December 2011 in the Guangdong Coronary Artery Disease Cohort. During a median (interquartile range) period of 4.4 (3.6 to 6.1) years of follow-up, there were 295 all-cause mortality, among which 208 had cardiovascular mortality. Serum RA level was significantly lower in participants with mortality (median 21 [11-47] nmol/L) than in those without mortality (median 39 [19-86] nmol/L). In multivariate analyses, the hazard ratios for total mortality among those in the lowest (referent) to highest quartiles of serum RA measured at study entry were 1.0, 0.83, 0.74, and 0.56, respectively (P-trend,0.001). For cardiovascular mortality, the comparable hazard ratios were 1.0, 0.76, 0.69, and 0.60 (P-trend,0.001). Furthermore, high RA levels (defined as ,median) were associated with lower risk of total mortality ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mortality in workers employed in pig abattoirs and processing plants. AU - Johnson, Eric S.. AU - Ndetan, Harrison. AU - Felini, Martha J.. AU - Faramawi, Mohammed F.. AU - Singh, Karan P.. AU - Choi, Kyung Mee. AU - Qualls-Hampton, Raquel. PY - 2011/8. Y1 - 2011/8. N2 - Objective: workers in slaughterhouses and processing plants that handle pigs, and pork butchers/meatcutters have been little studied for health risks associated with employment, in spite of the fact that they are potentially exposed to oncogenic and non-oncogenic transmissible agents and chemical carcinogens at work. We report here on an update of mortality in 510 workers employed in abattoirs and processing plants that almost exclusively handled pigs and pork products. Methods: standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were estimated for the cohort as a whole, and in subgroups defined by race and sex, using the corresponding US general population mortality rates for comparison. Study subjects were followed up from ...
( -- Nurses are the front-line caregivers to hospital patients, coordinating and providing direct care and delivering it safely and reliably. The goal for any hospital is to ensure that each of its patient-care units has an adequate number of nurses during every shift.
The associations between socioeconomic variables and mortality for 41,000 adults Vietnamese followed from January 1999 to March 2008 are estimated using Coxs proportionally hazard models. Also, we use decomposition techniques to investigate the relative importance of socioeconomic factors for explaining inequality in age-standardized mortality risk. The results confirm previously found negative association between mortality and income and education, for both men and women. We also found that marital status, at least for men, explain a large and growing part of the inequality. Finally, estimation results for relative education variables suggest that there exist positive spillover of education, meaning that that higher education of ones neighbors or spouse might reduce ones mortality risk.. ...
The national 10-year Development Programme for the Prevention and Care of Diabetes (DEHKO) was launched in Finland in 2000. The program focused on improving early diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and preventing diabetes-related complications. The FinDM database was established for epidemiological monitoring of diabetes and its complications. This study monitors mortality trends among people with diabetes during the DEHKO programme. A database obtained from a compilation of several administrative national health registers was used to study mortality in people with diabetes in 1998-2007. Relative excess mortality between people with and without diabetes was analyzed using Poisson regression models. The number of diabetic people in Finland increased by 66% from 1997 reaching 284 832 in 2007. Like among non-diabetic people, all-cause mortality decreased in people with diabetes. Overall excess mortality remained high in people with diabetes; in 2003-2007 RRs in the non-insulin treated was 1.82 for men and 1.95
BACKGROUND: We investigate the sex-age-specific changes in the mortality of a prospectively monitored rural population in South Africa. We quantify changes in the age pattern of mortality in a parsimonious way by estimating the eight parameters of the Heligman-Pollard (HP) model of age-specific mortality. In its traditional form this model is difficult to fit and does not account for uncertainty.. OBJECTIVE: 1. To quantify changes in the sex-age pattern of mortality experienced by a population with endemic HIV. 2. To develop and demonstrate a robust Bayesian estimation method for the HP model that accounts for uncertainty.. METHODS: Bayesian estimation methods are adapted to work with the HP model. Temporal changes in parameter values are related to changes in HIV prevalence.. RESULTS: Over the period when the HIV epidemic in South Africa was growing, mortality in the population described by our data increased profoundly with losses of life expectancy of ~15 years for both males and females. The ...
This is the first reported study of the mortality associated with LVD in an unselected population derived from the community as opposed to that of patients recruited for clinical trials. We have shown that significant LVD is associated with a substantial mortality rate of 21%, five times that of the general population with LVEF , 30% and six times that of patients with LVEF , 40%. Our study included subjects with both symptomatic and asymptomatic LVD, and is not directly comparable with other epidemiological studies of the mortality of CHF, the symptomatic end of the spectrum. At the same time, LVD in our study conferred an increment in mortality similar to that of the population in the Framingham heart studys 40 year follow-up, in which the CHF mortality rate was six times that of the age corrected normal population.3 The absolute five year all cause mortality rates in the Framingham cohort were higher (75% in men and 62% in women), as was the 34% one year mortality rate in another US study ...
Three interrelated projects together aim to develop an integrated, multifaceted understanding of the male-female health-survival paradox. Women - at least human women - tend to outlive men, but with higher disability levels at all ages. Building on our current research, we aim to analyze whether this paradox is universal or unique to our species, and whether it can be explained. Or, in other words, how much do male-female differences depend on context and species? Project 1: Male-Female Mortality Differences In this project, our focus is determining whether females, on average, always live longer than males. Our research will encompass demographic analyses to shed light on the supposed survival advantage of females by studying lifetables-from modern human populations, prehistoric human populations, and populations of nonhuman animals-that include estimates of age-specific death rates for males vs. females. We are: Analyzing thousands of years worth of human mortality data: The Paleodemographic ...
It has been well established in Australia that people who are socioeconomically disadvantaged experience higher rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality than other Australians. Further, there is evidence that the differential has widened, with relative CVD mortality inequality between Australians from the most disadvantaged areas and those from the least disadvantaged areas being higher in recent years than it was in the mid-1980s. A similar trend of widening socioeconomic inequalities in CVD mortality has also been observed in other OECD countries.This bulletin examines inequalities in CVD mortality over the 10-year period from 1992 to 2002 and hospitalisations over the period 1996-97 to 2003-04 for people aged 25-74 years to try to answer key questions in relation to mortality and significant morbidity requiring hospitalisation.. ...
Background: Earlier investigations have shown mortality effects of community socio-economic resources. However, the sex differences have not been clear and the estimates may well have been biased because of inadequate control for community factors affecting both the socio-economic resources and mortality. The objective of this study was to see whether effects appeared when time-invariant community characteristics were controlled by including community dummies (fixed effects) and whether there were differences between women and men.. Methods: Discrete-time hazard models for all-cause mortality were estimated for 1981-2002 for all Norwegians aged 60-89, using register data. There were 730000 deaths among 1.7 million people observed during 19 million person-years. Average education was measured for 433 municipalities for each of the 22 years.. Results: According to the simplest models, a high average education in the municipality is associated with increased mortality. Control for population size ...
County population figures and death statistics are acquired using CDC WONDER from the Underlying Cause of Death database. Conditions were queried for years 2006-2010 based on a selection of codes from the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), Version 10. The ICD-10 is the current global health information standard for mortality and morbidity statistics. The ICD has been maintained by the World Health Organization since its conception in 1948. A searchable, detailed list of current ICD- 10 Codes (Version 2010) is available from the World Health Organization.. Mortality rates were acquired from the source age-adjusted to the year 2000 U.S. standard. To recalculate age-adjusted mortality rates for unique service areas and aggregated county groupings, the following formula was used ...
Age-standardised mortality rates by county, sex and cause are presented. These allow comparison of mortality rates between populations of different age composition, and also of mortality rates over time. The age-standardised rate for an area is the number of deaths (per 100,000) that would occur if that area had the same age structure as the WHO European Standard Population and the local age-specific rates for that area applied. Confidence intervals for these rates are also presented. The data cover the years from 1980 to 2012. For 2012, year of registration data are used; for all previous years, statistics are based on year of occurrence. A total of 74 causes of death categories are reported. These are ordered according to the Eurostat 65 Cause of Death shortlist, along with 9 additional national categories. The classification system used for data up to and including 2006 is ICD9. From 2007, ICD10 is used. Caution should be exercised in comparing data up to 2006 with data from 2007 onwards. ...
During 2016, mortality improvement in older age groups offset large mortality increases, mostly due to external causes in middle age groups, according to the Society of Actuaries.
Lets go through a simple example to illustrate this concept. Lets pretend that the total number of cases of disease D diagnosed using stone-age test T 30 years ago was 100 in a population of 10,000 people. Of these cases, 90 died, giving us the case fatality of 90% and mortality of 9 per 1,000 population. Now, we have a new test for D, a super-Doppler-MRI-PET-cyberscan called über-T, a much more sensitive test than the old gold standard test T. And now we detect 1,000 cases of D in the population of 10,000 people. Of the 1,000 cases detected by über-T, 90 have died. The case fatality now has decreased dramatically from 90% to 9%, and we can pat ourselves on the back for a job well done, right? Not so fast, the population mortality from disease D has remained a steady 9 per 1,000 population ...
The original forms used different schedules, Form E (E), a variant on form E (WE), Form EE (EE), and a social questionairre (SE). The variable form used indicates which of these it is. Because the data were collected under different screen versions, not all variables in this release are fully compatible. Screen version is indicated in the variable source (EE=form EE version 1, SE=social form, WE=variant on form E version 1, E=form E version 1, i2=form EE version 2, i7=form EE version 3, il=form E version 2). Note that some variables may contain absurd values, so users should check for measurements that are outside of reasonable bounds. Birth place codes are given in the pdf file, birthcodes.pdf.. To report errors, or if you have questions or comments, e-mail [email protected] ...
BACKGROUND: Substantial reductions in adult mortality have been observed in South Africa since the mid-2000s, but there has been no formal evaluation of how much of this decline is attributable to the scale-up of antiretroviral treatment (ART), as previous models have not been calibrated to vital registration data. We developed a deterministic mathematical model to simulate the mortality trends that would have been expected in the absence of ART, and with earlier introduction of ART. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Model estimates of mortality rates in ART patients were obtained from the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS-Southern Africa (IeDEA-SA) collaboration ...
A study published in the Journal of Public Health finds that for each person in the U.S. who died after contracting COVID-19, an average of nearly 10 years of life had been lost. Researchers claim years of life lost is a more insightful measure than death count since it accounts for the ages of the deceased.
The objective of this study is to measure the effect on mortality rates in post-weaned pigs in a real GD farm case when a specific vaccine program with HIPRASUIS® GLÄSSER vaccine (HIPRA) was applied either in sows or piglets.. ...
RESULTS The affected subjects had a nearly 40% higher all-cause mortality risk in the 1st month after the storms, but the difference fell to ,6% by the end of the full observation period. The mortality risks of heart disease and nephritis also exhibited the largest differences immediately following the storms. Among the affected subjects, the all-cause mortality risk was higher for those who moved to a different county, with an especially large difference among those who moved to an affected county. ...
Read Healthcare :: Lower mortality rates associated with hospitals that rank highest on quality of care indicators | Spirit India
The mortality data distributed along with SEER*Stat are collected and maintained by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), part of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). The data covers all causes of death, not just cancer deaths.. SEER*Stat users can only access these data in client-server mode.. Use of the NCHS mortality data for publication purposes should include a citation of software and data source.. ...
Differential Mortality in the United States (A Study in Socio-Economic Epidemiology) by Kitagawa Evelyn M. (ISBN: 978-0-674-18844-0); Published by Harvard University Pressin Oct 2013. Compare book prices on to buy books from the lowest price among top online book retailers
Objectives. The present study aims to compare the direction and magnitude of sex differences in mortality and major health dimensions across Denmark, Japan and the US. Methods. The Human Mortality Database was used to examine sex differences in age-specific mortality rates. The Danish twin surveys, the Danish 1905-Cohort Study, the Health and Retirement Study, and the Nihon University Japanese Longitudinal Study of Aging were used to examine sex differences in health. Results. Men had consistently higher mortality rates at all ages in all three countries, but they also had a substantial advantage in handgrip strength compared with the same-aged women. Sex differences in activities of daily living (ADL) became pronounced among individuals aged 85+ in all three countries. Depression levels tended to be higher in women, particularly, in Denmark and the HRS, and only small sex differences were observed in the immediate recall test and Mini-Mental State Exam. Conclusions. The present study revealed ...
Age-adjusted death rates in the United States dropped significantly between 2005 and 2006 and life expectancy hit another record high, according to preliminary death statistics released today by CDC s National Center for Health Statistics.. The 2006 age-adjusted death rate fell to 776.4 deaths per 100,000 population from 799 deaths per 100,000 in 2005, the CDC report said. In addition, death rates for eight of the 10 leading causes of death in the United States all dropped significantly in 2006, it said. These included a very sharp drop in mortality from influenza and pneumonia.. The preliminary infant mortality rate for 2006 was 6.7 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, a 2.3 percent decline from the 2005 rate of 6.9. ...
Background: Since 2002, under the Bloomberg administration, New York City (NYC) has aggressively pursued and implemented a broad set of public health policies to reduce chronic disease. Limited research exists evaluating secular trends in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality against the backdrop of these policy initiatives.. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that CVD mortality trends declined more rapidly during the years 2002-2011 compared with the previous decade.. Methods: Using individual death certificates of NYC residents during 1990-2011, all-cause mortality rates were calculated in addition to the following cause-specific mortality rates: any CVD, atherosclerotic CVD (ACVD), coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, ischemic stroke. Mortality rates were age and sex standardized to the NYC year 2000 population. Joinpoint regression identified years in which mortality trends changed after excluding 116,285 deaths (10% of all deaths) occurring in 9 NYC hospitals (due to their participation in a ...
Australian mortality rates are higher in regional and remote areas than in major cities. The degree to which this is driven by variation in modifiable risk factors is unknown. We applied a risk prediction equation incorporating smoking, cholesterol and blood pressure to a national, population based survey to project all-causes mortality risk by geographic region. We then modelled life expectancies at different levels of mortality risk by geographic region using a risk percentiles model. Finally we set high values of each risk factor to a target level and modelled the subsequent shift in the population to lower levels of mortality risk and longer life expectancy. Survival is poorer in both Inner Regional and Outer Regional/Remote areas compared to Major Cities for men and women at both high and low levels of predicted mortality risk. For men smoking, high cholesterol and high systolic blood pressure were each associated with the mortality difference between Major Cities and Outer Regional/Remote areas-
Mortality rate; adult; female (per 1;000 female adults) in Micronesia was last measured at 152.04 in 2013, according to the World Bank. Adult mortality rate is the probability of dying between the ages of 15 and 60--that is, the probability of a 15-year-old dying before reaching age 60, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates between those ages.This page has the latest values, historical data, forecasts, charts, statistics, an economic calendar and news for Mortality rate - adult - female (per 1;000 female adults) in Micronesia.
Public health officials in Alameda County are asking local leaders to pause plans to move the county into its next phase of reopening as the novel coronavirus continues a statewide surge.. The Alameda County Public Health Department is pulling back a request to the countys Board of Supervisors to support a variance that would let the county move forward. A press release from Alameda Countys Office of Emergency Services announced that increases in COVID-19 cases and hospitalization rates have compelled the county to temporarily pause its reopening plans.. Alameda County has recorded 5,762 coronavirus cases since the beginning of the pandemic, the most of any Bay Area county. The county has added more than 700 cases to its count over the last seven days and has also recorded 13 additional deaths, bringing the COVID-19 death toll in Alameda County to 133.. We are concerned by the increase in local cases, disproportionate impact on communities of color, local impact of the outbreak at San Quentin ...
Mortality rate; under-5 (per 1;000) in Brazil was last measured at 16.40 in 2015, according to the World Bank. Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.This page has the latest values, historical data, forecasts, charts, statistics, an economic calendar and news for Mortality rate - under-5 (per 1;000) in Brazil.
There is a growing body of evidence that integrated packages of community-based interventions, a form of programming often implemented by NGOs, can have substantial child mortality impact. More countries may be able to meet Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 targets by leveraging such programming. Analysis of the mortality effect of this type of programming is hampered by the cost and complexity of direct mortality measurement. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) produces an estimate of mortality reduction by modelling the mortality effect of changes in population coverage of individual child health interventions. However, few studies to date have compared the LiST estimates of mortality reduction with those produced by direct measurement. Using results of a recent review of evidence for community-based child health programming, a search was conducted for NGO child health projects implementing community-based interventions that had independently verified child mortality reduction estimates, as well as
Given that the cohort effect can be interpreted as a special case of the interaction between two categorical variables, the equation above satisfies the assumption that there is no interaction 21. Any violation of that assumption can be detected from graphs presenting the age-specific mortality rate by period. Lack of parallelism between the curves suggests the presence of the cohort effect 22.. This study used weighted parameterization, as proposed by Holford 20, as an alternative solution to the non-identifiability problem.. Given that lung cancer is a chronic, non-communicable disease, rate is assumed in this model to be constant within each of the given age and period categories. Individuals are also assumed to be independent cases and, consequently, contributions to different cells in the data base are also independent. Accordingly, the APC models for rates can be adjusted using Poisson Regression for event counts. This methodology permits the use of an offset term log(nijk), which ...
More maps: Africa , Asia , Central America & the Caribbean , Europe , Middle East , North America , Oceania , South America , World , Development Relevance: The crude mortality rate is a good indicator of the general health status of a geographic area or population. The crude death rate is not appropriate for comparison of different populations or areas with large differences in age-distributions. Higher crude death rates can be found in some developed countries, despite high life expectancy, because typically these countries have a much higher proportion of older people, due to lower recent birth rates and lower age-specific mortality rates.. Limitations and Exceptions: Annual data series from United Nations Population Divisions World Population Prospects are interpolated data from 5-year period data. Therefore they may not reflect real events as much as observed data.. Statistical Concept and Methodology: The crude death rate is calculated as the number of deaths in a given period divided by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The intellectual disability mortality disadvantage. T2 - Diminishing with age?. AU - Landes, Scott D.. PY - 2017/3. Y1 - 2017/3. N2 - On average, adults with intellectual disability (ID) have higher mortality risk than their peers in the general population. However, the effect of age on this mortality disadvantage has received minimal attention. Using data from the 1986-2011 National Health Interview Survey-Linked Mortality Files (NHIS-LMF), discrete time hazard models were used to compare mortality risk for adults with and without ID by age and gender. Increased mortality risk was present for all adults with ID, but was most pronounced among younger age females. The mortality differential between those with and without ID diminished with increased age for both females and males. Findings support the argument that heterogeneity of frailty may explain differences in mortality risk between those with and without ID.. AB - On average, adults with intellectual disability (ID) have ...
Prostate cancer, according to the World Health Organization, is the second most common cause of cancer worldwide. With an estimated 1.1 million people affected by prostate cancer in 2012, composing 15% of all new cancer cases worldwide, this condition poses a significant burden of mortality and morbidity on society. Even though the burden of prostate cancer is present worldwide, there are disparities in mortality rates worldwide. While in Sub-Saharan Africa and Caribbean, the age-adjusted mortality rates are as high as 24 per 100,000, in Asia the age-adjusted mortality rates are as low 2.9 per 100,000. Specific countries in Sub-Saharan Africa like Uganda have a prostate cancer mortality rate as high as 38.8 per 100,000, which is close to the incidence rate of 48.2 per 100,000. Even though in the United Kingdom the incidence rate is much higher at 111.1 per 100,000, the mortality rate is comparable to that of Sub-Saharan Africa at 22.8 per 100,000. As demonstrated in this global review of prostate cancer
article{f694784f-8231-4893-a2d2-c04b98a02454, abstract = {Objective: Cigarette smoking has been reported as probable risk factor for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), a poorly understood disease in terms of aetiology. The extensive longitudinal data of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) were used to evaluate age-specific mortality rates from ALS and the role of cigarette smoking on the risk of dying from ALS. Methods: A total of 517,890 healthy subjects were included, resulting in 4,591,325 person-years. ALS cases were ascertained through death certificates. Cox hazard models were built to investigate the role of smoking on the risk of ALS, using packs/years and smoking duration to study dose-response. Results: A total of 118 subjects died from ALS, resulting in a crude mortality rate of 2.69 per 100,000/year. Current smokers at recruitment had an almost two-fold increased risk of dying from ALS compared to never smokers (HR = 1.89, 95% C.I. 1.14-3.14), ...
This dissertation consists of three comparative studies of health and mortality which address major topics in the field: persistent mortality disparities within the U.S., how mortality in the U.S. compares to other high-income countries, and early life determinants of adult morbidity in developing countries. The design of these studies is predicated on the belief that we can draw meaningful inferences from comparisons across populations. Chapter I examines the contribution of smoking to black-white mortality differences above age 50 from 1980-2005. This study shows that smoking-attributable mortality accounted for 20-40% of the black-white mortality gap among males between 1980-2005, but accounted for almost none of the black-white mortality gap among females. The results support the hypothesis that later initiation and lower rates of smoking cessation among black men may contribute to their higher levels of smoking-related mortality relative to white men. Chapter II provides a comprehensive assessment
Objectives The study investigated the relationship between shiftwork and mortality, both total mortality and cause-specific mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and diabetes.. Methods The cohort consisted of 2354 shiftworkers and 3088 dayworkers in two pulp and paper manufacturing plants. The mortality of the cohort was monitored from 1 January 1952 to 31 December 2001 by linkage to the national Cause of Death Register. Groups of workers defined by different durations of shiftwork exposure were compared with dayworkers by calculating standardized relative rates (SRR).. Results Death due to any cause (total mortality) was not higher among the shiftworkers than among the dayworkers [SRR 1.02, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.93-1.11]. A longer duration of shiftwork was associated with an increased risk of CHD, and shiftworkers with ,30 years of shiftwork had the highest risk of CHD (SRR 1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.49) Diabetes was more common as the number of shift years of exposure ...
To establish which major disorders are susceptible to increased mortality following acute admissions on weekends, compared with week days, and how this may be explained. Cohorts based on national administrative inpatient and mortality data for 14,168,443 hospitalised patients in England and 913,068 in Wales who were admitted for 66 disorders that were associated with at least 200 deaths within 30 days of acute admission. The main outcome measure was the weekend mortality effect (defined as the conventional mortality odds ratio for admissions on weekends compared with week days). There were large, statistically significant weekend mortality effects (| 20%) in England for 22 of the 66 conditions and in both countries for 14. These 14 were 4 of 13 cancers (oesophageal, colorectal, lung and lymphomas); 4 of 13 circulatory disorders (angina, abdominal aortic aneurysm, peripheral vascular disease and arterial embolism & thrombosis); one of 8 respiratory disorders (pleural effusion); 2 of 12 gastrointestinal
Importance: In China, diabetes prevalence has increased substantially in recent decades, but there are no reliable estimates of the excess mortality currently associated with diabetes. Objectives: To assess the proportional excess mortality associated with diabetes and estimate the diabetes-related absolute excess mortality in rural and urban areas of China. Design, Setting, and Participants: A 7-year nationwide prospective study of 512 869 adults aged 30 to 79 years from 10 (5 rural and 5 urban) regions in China, who were recruited between June 2004 and July 2008 and were followed up until January 2014. Exposures: Diabetes (previously diagnosed or detected by screening) recorded at baseline. Main Outcomes and Measures: All-cause and cause-specific mortality, collected through established death registries. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted mortality rate ratio (RR) comparing individuals with diabetes vs those without diabetes at baseline. Results: Among the 512 869 participants, the mean (SD)
Random glucose is widely measured in epidemiological studies and in the clinical setting when standardized fasting protocols and oral glucose tolerance testing or HbA1c measuring are not feasible. The relationship between random glucose and all-cause mortality has hardly been studied so far and was examined in the present study. We ascertained mortality status among 5955 persons aged 18-79 years and free of known diabetes when participating in the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (mean observation time 11.7 years, 458 deaths). Cox regression was applied to analyze the association of random serum glucose with all-cause mortality taken potential confounders into account. Relative mortality risks were estimated as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) modeling random glucose as categorical or continuous variable. Compared to random glucose levels of 4.3 - | 5.3 mmol/L, HRs (95% CIs) were 1.94 (0.85-4.45) for levels | 4.3 mmol/L and 1.16 (0.89-1.50), 1.20 (0.91
Find Psychological Testing and Evaluation Psychiatrists in Alameda County, California, get help from an Alameda County Psychological Testing and Evaluation Psychiatrist in Alameda County.
Gangelt, Germany is the first city to do random antibody testing. By testing 1,000 people, Gangelt was able to determine people who had the virus as well as those people recovered from the virus. The results will amaze you.
Ottawa - The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) today released the results of a study entitled Cancer and General Mortality in Port Hope, 1956 - 1997. The study, carried out by Health Canada and subjected to a scientific peer review by independent scientists, found that the overall cancer mortality rates in the town of Port Hope, Ontario are comparable to rates throughout the Province of Ontario.. The study was commissioned by the CNSC and conducted by scientists at Health Canada.. Using data from the Canadian Mortality Database (CMDB), the study compared rates of cancer and other causes of death in Port Hope with provincial death rates, comparing death rates back to as early as 1956. It also compared cancer mortality results with a previous cancer incidence study conducted for the Port Hope area, results of which were released in August 2000.. The findings of this recent study are consistent with the earlier cancer incidence report. On the whole, the study findings demonstrate that the ...
BACKGROUND: Monitoring the time trends in socioeconomic inequalities in mortality by cause is a key public health issue. The aim of this study was to compare methods to measure social inequalities in cause-specific mortality in the French population aged 25-55 years. More specifically, it compares bias and precision related to the use of occupational class declared at the last census (linked data) to the one declared at the time of death on the death certificate (unlinked data). METHODS: We used a representative sample of 1% of the French population. Causes of death were obtained by direct linkage with the French national death registry. Occupational class was classified into eight categories. Taking professionals and managers as the reference, relative risks of mortality by cause and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Poisson models for the 1983-1989, 1991-1997, and 2000-2006 periods. The relative risks were calculated with both linked data and exhaustive unlinked data. RESULTS: Over
Updated Iraq Survey Affirms Earlier Mortality Estimates. Mortality Trends Comparable to Estimates by Those Using Other Counting Methods
Information on mortality rates for type 1 diabetes mellitus is difficult to ascertain without complete national registers of childhood diabetes, although age-specific mortality is probably double that... more
There were 3 major findings from this study (Central Illustration). First, runners had consistently lower risk of all-cause and CVD mortality compared with nonrunners. Second, running even at lower doses or slower speeds was associated with significant mortality benefits. Third, persistent running over time was more strongly associated with mortality reduction.. An earlier study found a 39% lower risk of all-cause mortality in 538 runners who were ≥50 years of age from the Runners Association database compared with 423 matched nonrunners from the Lipid Research Clinics database after adjustment for baseline age, sex, and functional ability (12). In our subsample of runners ≥50 years of age, we found 29% lower mortality risk, compared with nonrunners. The somewhat greater mortality benefits of running in the earlier study may be because runners from a running club were more likely to be health conscious, and physical activities other than running were not adjusted for in the ...
This paper documents a marked increase in the all-cause mortality of middle-aged white non-Hispanic men and women in the United States between 1999 and 2013. This change reversed decades of progress in mortality and was unique to the United States; no other rich country saw a similar turnaround. The midlife mortality reversal was confined to white non-Hispanics; black non-Hispanics and Hispanics at midlife, and those aged 65 and above in every racial and ethnic group, continued to see mortality rates fall. This increase for whites was largely accounted for by increasing death rates from drug and alcohol poisonings, suicide, and chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis. Although all education groups saw increases in mortality from suicide and poisonings, and an overall increase in external cause mortality, those with less education saw the most marked increases. Rising midlife mortality rates of white non-Hispanics were paralleled by increases in midlife morbidity. Self-reported declines in health, ...
He also said most of the structures were improvised and not appropriately designed to serve as health facilities. Health staff needed in emergency cases lived very far from the various hospitals as a result of lack of staff accommodation.. Bad Roads. Dr Kakari said easy and safe access to health facilities by the sick and expectant mothers was very crucial, however, the road infrastructure from the communities to the health centres were in a very deplorable state and that made the expectant mothers arrive at the hospital late.. To arrest the situation, he said, the metropolitan, municipal and district assemblies (MMDAs) have a critical role to play and, as a matter of urgency, they must rise up and assist to improve the bad road network to these health facilities.. He said that the biggest challenge, apart from the obsolete equipment, was staff accommodation. If the critical health staff are not accommodated within or near the health facility, it will be difficult for them to respond promptly ...
OBJECTIVES: Concern about the health hazards of exposure to workers in the ferroalloy industry has initiated this historical cohort study. The aim was to examine the mortality pattern among male employees in 12 Norwegian ferroalloy plants. METHODS: All men employed for at least six months who started their first employment during 1933-91 were eligible for the cohort. Deaths observed during 1962-90 were compared with expected figures calculated from national mortalities. Internal comparisons of rates were performed by Poisson regression analysis. The final cohort comprised 14,730 male employees who were observed for 288,886 person-years. RESULTS: Mortality from all causes of death was slightly increased (3390 deaths, standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 1.08, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.04-1.11). Regression analysis of total mortality showed a significant negative trend for the rate ratios with increasing duration of employment. An increased mortality was found among employees in urban ...
In a cohort of treated preventive cardiology clinic patients, WC predicted all-cause mortality after adjustment for commonly measured CV risk factors. Extrapolating from data presented in Table 3, a 10 cm difference in WC was associated with an increase in all-cause mortality of 20% for both genders, in DM prevalence of 40% and 50%, and CAD prevalence of 10% and 20%, for men and women, respectively. In contrast, BMI did not associate with all-cause mortality and CAD but did associate with DM prevalence. These data support the clinical utility of WC over BMI for mortality as well as DM and CAD risk prediction and support the use of obesity-specific interventions that target WC reduction and abdominal obesity rather than weight loss alone (e.g., exercise training) to improve CV outcomes in high risk populations.. The apparent lack of association of BMI with CAD and mortality demonstrated in this study is consistent with some reports (22,23,24,25), but it conflicts with population studies that have ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adrenomedullin refines mortality prediction by the BODE index in COPD: the BODE-A index.. AU - Stolz, D.. AU - Kostikas, K.. AU - Blasi, F.. AU - Boersma, W.. AU - Milenkovic, B.. AU - Lacoma, A.. AU - Louis, R.. AU - Aerts, J.G.. AU - Welte, T.. AU - Torres, A.. AU - Rohde, G.G.. AU - Boeck, L.. AU - Rakic, J.. AU - Scherr, A.. AU - Hertel, S.. AU - Giersdorf, S.. AU - Tamm, M.. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - The BODE index is well-validated for mortality prediction in COPD. of plasma proadrenomedullin, a surrogate for mature adrenomedullin, predicted 2-year mortality among inpatients with COPD exacerbation.We accuracy of initial proadrenomedullin level, BODE, and BODE components, combined, in predicting 1-year or 2-year all-cause mortality in a multinational observational cohort with stable, moderate to very severe COPD.Proadrenomedullin was significantly associated (P,0.001) with 1- mortality (4.7%) and 2-year mortality (7.8%), and comparably predictive regarding both (C ...
Discussion. TB has consistently been the leading cause of death in SA over the past two decades. From 1997 TB deaths increased, peaking in 2006 with 76 881 deaths (13% of total mortality). The number of deaths due to TB then steadily declined to 29 399 (6% of total mortality) in 2016. Reducing TB deaths to meet the End TB Strategy mortality target of a 95% reduction in TB mortality (from 2015) by 2035 is within our reach, but will require ongoing focus and effort.. From 1997 to 2006 there was a steady rise in reported TB-related mortality that can be attributed to migration, high levels of patients co-infected with TB and HIV, and the increasing burden of drug-resistant TB (DR-TB).[6-9] However, for a number of possible reasons, TB-related mortality started to decline in 2006 (Fig. 3 and Table 1). The first of these reasons is the intensified ART roll-out for adults, which resulted in marked declines in both HIV/AIDS and TB mortality after 2006.[10,11] According to National Department of Health ...
Background. Past research has shown that individuals who have had experiences of out-of-home care (OHC) in childhood have increased risks of premature mortality. Prior studies also suggest that these individuals are more likely to follow long-term trajectories that are characterised by economic, work-, and health-related disadvantages, compared to majority population peers. Yet, we do not know the extent to which such trajectories may explain their elevated mortality risks. The aim of this study is therefore to examine whether trajectories of economic, work-, and health-related disadvantages in midlife mediate the association between OHC experience in childhood and subsequent all-cause mortality.. Methods. Utilising longitudinal Swedish data from a 1953 cohort (n = 14,294), followed from birth up until 2008 (age 55), this study applies gender-specific logistic regression analysis to analyse the association between OHC experience in childhood (ages 0-19; 1953-1972) and all-cause mortality (ages ...
There is currently very limited data and evidence on the impacts of COVID-19 on people with disabilities and pre-existing health conditions, with no disability-disaggregated data on mortality rates available in the public sphere. However, reports from the media, disability advocates and disabled peoples organisations (DPOs) point to several emerging impacts, including primary and secondary impacts including on health, education, food security and livelihoods. Most of the available data is from high income countries (HICs) though reports from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are likely to emerge. Evidence was gathered by a rapid desk based review. Gaps are identified. The section concerned with lessons drawn from similar epidemics draws heavily on lessons learned from the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in 2014-2016, and touches on lessons from the Zika outbreak in 2015-2016 and the SARS pandemic in the early 2000s.10 It also touches briefly on SARS, MERS and H1N1 (swine flu). Primary and ...
Mental health effects on mortality were fully attenuated by physical health in men, and partially so in women. Neither mental nor physical health mediated the effect of each other on mortality risk for either gender. We conclude that physical health is a stronger predictor of mortality risk than mental health ...
Discussion. A brief explanation will be given of the meaning assigned to each of the factors studied before addressing the results. Vulnerability has diverse meanings depending on the disciplinary approach. However, within health sciences it is frequently used to denominate health problems, harm or negligence; from this perspective, vulnerability is intimately related to the differential risk, either observed or expected, and enables the definition of vulnerable populations in reference to the enhanced susceptibility to adverse effects on health 22. Biodiversity is the degree of variety in nature in terms of genes, species, or ecosystems present in a determined region 23. The relationship between diminished biodiversity and an increment in the occurrence of emergent and re-emergent infectious diseases has been described 24,25,26.. Urbanization is a social phenomenon characterized by the relative growth in the population residing in urban zones, along with underlying changes in inhabitants ...
LR- Volkswagens Emissions Fraud May Affect Mortality Rate in Europe - posted in Risks & Survival: Volkswagens Emissions Fraud May Affect Mortality Rate in Europe View the tweet
BACKGROUND: While there is a long history of measuring death and disability from injuries, modern research methods must account for the wide spectrum of disability that can occur in an injury, and must provide estimates with sufficient demographic, geographical and temporal detail to be useful for policy makers. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 study used methods to provide highly detailed estimates of global injury burden that meet these criteria. METHODS: In this study, we report and discuss the methods used in GBD 2017 for injury morbidity and mortality burden estimation. In summary, these methods included estimating cause-specific mortality for every cause of injury, and then estimating incidence for every cause of injury. Non-fatal disability for each cause is then calculated based on the probabilities of suffering from different types of bodily injury experienced. RESULTS: GBD 2017 produced morbidity and mortality estimates for 38 causes of injury. Estimates were produced in terms ...
Background: Russian adults have extraordinarily high rates of premature death. Retrospective enquiries to the families of about 50 000 deceased Russians had found excess vodka use among those dying from external causes (accident, suicide, violence) and eight particular disease groupings. We now seek prospective evidence of these associations. Methods: In three Russian cities (Barnaul, Byisk, and Tomsk), we interviewed 200 000 adults during 1999-2008 (with 12 000 re-interviewed some years later) and followed them until 2010 for cause-specific mortality. In 151 000 with no previous disease and some follow-up at ages 35-74 years, Poisson regression (adjusted for age at risk, amount smoked, education, and city) was used to calculate the relative risks associating vodka consumption with mortality. We have combined these relative risks with age-specific death rates to get 20-year absolute risks. Findings: Among 57 361 male smokers with no previous disease, the estimated 20-year risks of death at ages 35-54
I have read with interest the large and long follow-up study by McCallum et al1 concerning the risk of low serum chloride on the mortality in 12 968 patients with hypertension. They concluded that an increase of the serum chloride by 1 mEq/L was associated with a 1.5% reduction of the all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality, and non-CVD mortality after adjusting for confounding variables. The authors recognized a bias by excluding 2000 individuals without data on the serum chloride, and also accepted that the association between low serum chloride and mortality remains unclear. Although the statistical power was satisfactory and time-dependent Cox … ...
BACKGROUND: Russian adults have extraordinarily high rates of premature death. Retrospective enquiries to the families of about 50,000 deceased Russians had found excess vodka use among those dying from external causes (accident, suicide, violence) and eight particular disease groupings. We now seek prospective evidence of these associations. METHODS: In three Russian cities (Barnaul, Byisk, and Tomsk), we interviewed 200,000 adults during 1999-2008 (with 12,000 re-interviewed some years later) and followed them until 2010 for cause-specific mortality. In 151,000 with no previous disease and some follow-up at ages 35-74 years, Poisson regression (adjusted for age at risk, amount smoked, education, and city) was used to calculate the relative risks associating vodka consumption with mortality. We have combined these relative risks with age-specific death rates to get 20-year absolute risks. FINDINGS: Among 57,361 male smokers with no previous disease, the estimated 20-year risks of death at ages 35-54
Purpose and Background Large age is connected with improved postoperative mortality, however the factors that forecast mortality in older knee and hip replacement recipients arent known. of osteoarthritis), preoperative anemia, serious renal insufficiency, and usage of bloodstream transfusions were connected with higher mortality. Large body mass index got a protective impact in individuals after hip alternative. Interpretation Postoperative mortality can be low in healthful old joint alternative recipients. Comorbidities and practical restrictions preoperatively are connected with higher mortality and warrant consideration before proceeding with joint alternative surgery. Capability to walk is crucial for maintaining self-reliance in day to day activities. Problems in strolling and impaired function will also be solid predictors of mortality in older buy JTT-705 (Dalcetrapib) people (Keeler et al. 2010, Hardy et buy JTT-705 (Dalcetrapib) al. 2011). Joint disease is among most frequent known ...
Median survival in NH was 2.2 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9-2.4). Yearly mortality rate throughout the three-year observation period was 31.8%. Mortality was associated with higher age and comorbidity at BL, and more severe dementia, higher ADL-dependency, less severe psychotic symptoms, and a lower BMI throughout the study period. Of the organizational variables, living on a ward with more residents resulted in a higher risk of mortality.. Conclusion. In conclusion, the NH mortality rate remained stable throughout the three-year study period with about one third of the residents deceasing each year. Individual resident characteristics appeared to be more important than organizational variables for predicting mortality risk. The finding of an association between ward size and mortality risk deserves further investigation in future studies.. OPEN ACCESS ...
Lower-than-normal body mass index, high mortality[edit]. Caloric restriction diets typically lead to reduced body weight, yet ... In some studies, low body weight has been associated with increased mortality, particularly in late middle-aged or elderly ... One study linked a body mass index lower than 18 in women with increased mortality from noncancer, non−cardiovascular disease ... body weight in the elderly can be caused by pathological conditions associated with aging and predisposing to higher mortality ...
Mortality and competition[edit]. Little information is available on longevity in hen harriers. The longest lived known bird is ... Early mortality mainly results from predation. Predators of eggs and nestlings include raccoons, skunks, badgers, foxes, crows ...
Mortality[edit]. In captivity, members of this species have survived to 33 years old and, in the wild, have lived to at least ... Mortality in adults is quite low, with the survival rate usually being 80-100% annually, unless they are hunted by humans.[30] ...
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 56 (44): 1157-61. PMID 17989644.. *^ a b "The Global Burden of Disease 2004 Update" (PDF ... Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 51 (14): 300-3. PMID 12002168.. *^ Streppel MT, Boshuizen HC, Ocké MC, Kok FJ, Kromhout ... Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 57 (45): 1226-8. PMID 19008791.. *^ Never Say Die, an ABC News special by Peter Jennings ... Mortality[edit]. Smoking is the cause of about 5 million deaths per year.[29] This makes it the most common cause of ...
Reduced mortality and morbidity[edit]. In the short term, weight loss from bariatric surgeries is associated with reductions in ... 34] It is considered one of the safest procedures performed today with a mortality rate of 0.05%. [35] ... A National Institute of Health symposium held in 2013 that summarized available evidence found a 29% mortality reduction, a 10- ... and a mortality reduction from 40% to 23%.[2] The U.S. National Institutes of Health recommends bariatric surgery for obese ...
Correlation with cardiovascular mortality risk[edit]. This section needs more medical references for verification or relies too ... This resting heart rate is often correlated with mortality. For example, all-cause mortality is increased by 1.22 (hazard ratio ... Zhang GQ, Zhang W (2009). "Heart rate, lifespan, and mortality risk". Ageing Res. Rev. 8 (1): 52-60. doi:10.1016/j.arr.2008.10. ... and featuring 9,454 patients followed for a median period of 5.2 years found a four-fold increase in mortality in subjects with ...
Diseases and mortality[edit]. The Canada lynx is known to host several parasites including Cylicospirura felineus, Taenia ... along with high infant mortality rates), and increase when hares were abundant.[59][60][61] Kittens weigh from 175 to 235 g ( ... a study in northern Maine identified predation by fishers as the leading cause of Canada lynx mortality over twelve years, ... while trapping is a relatively insignificant cause of mortality.[1] Hybridization between Canada lynxes and bobcats has been ...
Mortality[edit]. Average longevity of PBGVs in the 2000 Club of America survey was 12.7 years (standard deviation 3.9).[2] ...
The morbidity rate ranges from 30% to 100% and the mortality rate from 40% to 100%; however, the typical mortality rate is ... Morbidity, mortality, and immunity[edit]. RHD is extremely hard to locate in the wild since about 75% of rabbits with RHD will ... Within a few years of RHD's first appearance in Europe it had caused the largest mortality in domestic and wild rabbits in ... Due to this difficulty, the morbidity and mortality estimates for RHD have a broad range. ...
Mortality[edit]. While eastern screech owls have lived for over 20 years in captivity, wild birds seldom, if ever, live that ... G. (1938). "Wildlife mortality on Iowa highways". American Midland Naturalist. The University of Notre Dame. 20 (3): 527-539. ... Mortality rates of young and nestling owls may be as high as 70% (usually significantly less in adult screech owls). Many ... "Road mortality of saw-whet and screech-owls on the Cape May peninsula" (PDF). Journal of Raptor Research. 27 (4): 210-213. ...
COVID-19 mortality: March 12-23[edit]. *March 12: King County COVID-19 cumulative deaths associated with Life Care Center of ...
Mortality factors[edit]. Adult peafowl can usually escape ground predators by flying into trees. Large animals such as leopards ...
Excess mortality in Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin[edit]. Main article: Excess mortality in the Soviet Union under Joseph ...
Anthropogenic mortality[edit]. Electrocution was the greatest cause of mortality in 68% of 25 published studies and accounted, ... Larsen, R.S. & Stensrud, O.H. (1987) Dispersal and mortality of juvenile eagle owls released from captivity in southeast Norway ... On the other hand, mortality levels in the Eifel region appear to remain quite high due to anthropogenic factors. There are ... Martinez, J. A., Martinez, J. E., Manosa, S., Zuberogoitia, I., & Calvo, J. F. (2006). "How to manage human-induced mortality ...
Mortality[edit]. Babies who receive no breast milk are almost six times more likely to die by the age of one month than those ... Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 63 (33): 725-8. PMC 5779438. PMID 25144543. Archived from the original on 27 April 2017. ...
... infant mortality rate). Major causes of infant mortality include dehydration, infection, congenital malformation and SIDS.[12] ... Garrett, Eilidh (2007). Infant Mortality: A Continuing Social Problem. Ashgate Pub Co. ISBN 0-7546-4593-2.. [page needed] ... Infant mortality is the death of an infant in the first year of life, often expressed as the number of deaths per 1000 live ... Kuehn, B. M. (2008). "Infant Mortality". JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association. 300 (20): 2359-2359. doi: ...
90% mortality rate[edit]. Adding to the part about 85% of aquarium fish are caught using cyanide technique: What does the ... According to the NOAA, "corals can survive a bleaching event, but they are under more stress and are subject to mortality" ([1] ... author mean by fish caught using the cyanide method have a 90% mortality rate? Everything dies eventually..... Do they mean ...
Infant mortality rate[edit]. The infant mortality rate in Estonia has decreased considerably during the past decades. In 1970 ... The lowest infant mortality rate was recorded in 2011: 2.6. Life expectancy at birth[edit]. Life expectancy in Estonia is lower ...
Toxicity, poisoning, and mortality[edit]. All parts of the plant are toxic and pose risks to human and mammalian health.[10][3] ...
While research is ongoing on the causes of maternal mortality in Texas, maternal mortality in the US has been linked to chronic ... The diverse demography of Texas has been identified as one factor contributing to this mortality rate, with mortality being ... "Maternal mortality and morbidity in the United States: where are we now?". Journal of Women's Health.. ... From 2000 to 2010, the maternal mortality rate in Texas increased from 17.7 (for every 100,000 live births) to 18.6.[3] It must ...
Mortality[edit]. The oldest known redstart to be banded was over 10 years of age. Other adults have been known to live up to ...
Reduction in Infant Mortality Rate[edit]. When the couple started holding people[17] health assemblies they found that ... Chairman, Child Mortality Evaluation Committee, Govt. of Maharashtra[47]. *Member, National ASHA Mentoring Group, Ministry of ... Home Based Neonatal Care (HBNC) model developed by Bang has resulted in reduction in infant mortality in the study villages of ... In May 2017, the High Court of Bombay invited Abhay Bang to provide suggestions about how to reduce child mortality and ...
Mortality[edit]. Major mortality factors include predation, disease, infanticide, habitat loss, poisoning, trapping, and ... Roads may be easy routes for dispersal, but those with heavy automobile use may increase mortality.[12][19] Roads, streams, and ... Lactating females were the most common killers.[39] Mortality of young was highest due to heavy predation during the winter and ... but males more than 3 years old experience high mortality. Females may live longer than males.[9] According to Hoogland and ...
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 68 (35): 762-765. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6835a3. PMC 6730892. PMID 31487273.. ... "Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System , Maternal and Infant Health , CDC". 2020-02-04. Retrieved 2020-04-24.. ... Maternal mortality-a sentinel event[edit]. In a September 2016 ACOG/SMFM consensus, published concurrently in the journal ... Maternal morbidity and mortality[edit]. The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) estimated that 289,000 women died of ...
Janss, G.F.E. (2000). "Avian mortality from power lines: a morphologic approach of a species-specific mortality". Biological ... Mortality factors[edit]. Black-eared kites in Japan were found to accumulate nearly 70% of mercury accumulated from polluted ... Viñuela, Javier (1999). "Sibling aggression, hatching asynchrony, and nestling mortality in the black kite ( Milvus migrans ... Mendelssohn, H.; Paz, U. (1977). "Mass mortality of birds of prey caused by Azodrin, an organophosphorus insecticide". ...
Mortality[edit]. Mortality units[edit]. According to the WHO/IRTAD, Traffic accident data are often compared between countries ... Mortality statistic[edit]. Within EU (with 28 countries), road safety impact several locomotion mode. ... Mortality from Road Crashes in 193 Countries: A Comparison with Other Leading Causes of Death, University of Michigan ...
Predictor of atherosclerosis mortality[edit]. Studies in 2006 suggests that an abnormal ABPI may be an independent predictor of ... mortality, as it reflects the burden of atherosclerosis.[15][16] It thus has potential for screening for coronary artery ...
Longevity and mortality[edit]. Farmed bile bears live to an average age of five years old whereas healthy captive bears can ... The wound is vulnerable to infection, and bile can leak back into the abdomen, causing high mortality rates. Sometimes, the ...
Approach to mortality[edit]. Academic John Kitterman says audiences see Panic Room as a way to confront their fears and to ... Kitterman says the film hides the truth of mortality, especially by making everywhere in the film visible to audiences. He ...
Mortality[edit]. Wingsuit flying is a recent activity.. Extreme sports by their nature can be extremely dangerous, conducive to ...
Maternal Mortalityplus icon *ERASE MM Programplus icon *Maternal Mortality Review Information Application ... About the Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System (PMSS). CDC conducts national pregnancy-related mortality surveillance to ... The Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System (PMSS) defines a pregnancy-related death as the death of a woman while pregnant or ... Maternal Mortality Review is a process by which a multidisciplinary committee at the state or local-level identifies and ...
National Mortality Followback Survey plus icon *Datasets and Related Documentation. * Results and Productsplus icon *Background ... Mortality Dataplus icon * Datasets and Related Documentationplus icon *Public Use Data Files ... National-level mortality data help track the characteristics of those who have died, monitor and make decisions about public ... Mortality in the United States, 2018 Drug Overdose Deaths in the United States, 1999-2018. ...
"Review of Mortality: Staying Power" in The New York Times. *^ Tóibín, Colm (31 August 2012) "Mortality by Christopher Hitchens ... "The real struggle in Mortality is not with mortality. Hitchens cleaves to the logical conclusion of his materialism. He hints, ... In a glowing review of Mortality in The New York Times, Christopher Buckley described Hitchens seven essays as "diamond-hard ... Mortality is a 2012, posthumously published book by Anglo-American writer Christopher Hitchens, comprising seven essays which ...
Proportionate Mortality Ratio The data used for proportionate mortality ratio (PMR) analyses are a subset of the NCHS multiple ... For each state, a rank order is presented for each of several mortality measures. Depending on the specific mortality measures ... Since 2005, any state-level mortality statistics for less than 10 decedents are also omitted from tables and figures. ... industries for exposure agents related to elevated occupational lung disease mortality are presented. For further information ...
Many of us are dying in this mortality, that is many of us are being freed from the world. This mortality is a bane to the Jews ... You cannot lose your son by the law and the chance of mortality, what would you do if you were ordered to kill your son? The ... But perhaps someone may object and say: Now in the present mortality this is a source of sorrow to me that I who had been ... It troubles some that we have this mortality in common with others. But what in this world do we not have in common with others ...
... s list the percentage of people that have purchased life insurance that are expected to still be alive ... What Is a Mortality Table? A mortality table shows the rate of deaths occurring in a defined population during a selected time ... Accuracy of Ultimate Mortality Tables As is the case for other types of statistical data, the accuracy of ultimate mortality ... What Is Ultimate Mortality Table? Ultimate mortality tables list the percentage of life insurance purchasers expected to still ...
Morbidity and Mortality, lead character Carolyn climaxes some Rod McKuen-esque romantic poesy with the pronouncement, I ... Morbidity and Mortality Moments into Courtney Barons new play, Morbidity and Mortality, lead character Carolyn climaxes some ... Moments into Courtney Barons new play, "Morbidity and Mortality," lead character Carolyn climaxes some Rod McKuen-esque ... Morbidity and Mortality Magic Theater Northside; 154 seats; $40 top * Production: A Magic Theater production of a play in one ...
"Epidemiology of Caffeine Consumption and Association of Coffee Drinking with Total and Cause-specific Mortality" presents an in ... "Caffeine Consumption And Mortality." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 21 Feb. 2013. Web.. 24 Jun. 2019. ,https://www. ... Liebert, M. (2013, February 21). "Caffeine Consumption And Mortality." Medical News Today. Retrieved from. https://www. ... interview exploring the many factors that could contribute to the association between coffee, disease, and mortality. Dr. ...
Mortality. O why should the spirit of mortal be proud? Like a fast-flitting meteor, a fast-flying cloud, A flash of the ...
Birth of a Surgeon: Data: Global Maternal Mortality. See the top ten best -- and worst -- countries for maternal mortality. ... More Attention, But Less Funding for Reducing Maternal Mortality. The sluggish gains made in reducing maternal mortality over ... Birth of a Surgeon: Audio: Maternal Mortality in the U.S. vs. Africa. Hear about the imbalance of high-tech maternal health ... The 2009 update of Birth of a Surgeon captures one womans story on the frontlines of improving maternal mortality in Africa. ...
Washington Offices and Barbara Jordan Conference Center: 1330 G Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005 , Phone 202-347-5270 , Email Alerts: , , Filling the need for trusted information on national health issues, the Kaiser Family Foundation is a nonprofit organization based in San Francisco, California. ...
What does RIVM do with the weekly mortality figures?. RIVM publishes weekly mortality figures as part of the mortality monitor ... Weekly mortality. What is the difference between weekly mortality figures published by CBS and by the National Institute for ... What does CBS do with the weekly mortality figures?. Every Friday, CBS publishes an update of its weekly mortality figures on ... CBS receives mortality data on a daily basis from municipal registers. In general, some time elapses between the actual date of ...
Mortality Staid.. From The Philadelphia Record.. OCT. 15, 1895. Continue reading the main story Share This Page Continue ... A version of this archives appears in print on October 15, 1895, on Page 2 of the New York edition with the headline: Mortality ...
Infant mortality rate is the number of infant deaths per 1,000 live births and is a good indicator of a countrys health and ... Infant Mortality Rate. Infant mortality rate is the number of infant deaths per 1,000 live births and is a good indicator of a ... What is the child mortality rate under five years old in the United Kingdom. ?. Asked by Wiki User ... Philadelphias maternal mortality rate 23.8 deaths per 100,000 live births compared to the US rate of 15.2 and Pennsylvania ...
Insel discusses the magnitude and reasons for this excess mortality. ... The increase in mortality was reported in studies from the developed and the developing world as well as studies from countries ... Mortality in Mental Disorders and Global Disease Burden Implications: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry. ... Unfortunately, reductions in mortality are not shared equally in this country across racial, ethnic, and socio-economic groups ...
Our struggle against mortality can take productive forms of course, as when we seek to leave great legacies in the material ... But first: a reflection on mortality, a fact of life even more inevitable than taxes that modernity still cant seem to come to ...
To reduce infant mortality, then, we need to prevent premature births, and if that fails, improve care of premature babies once ... Comparing infant mortality rates between countries is fraught with uncertainty-after all, its hard to argue that every ... According to a 2002 analysis by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, at least a third of all infant mortality in the ... Defined as death before one year of age, infant mortality frequently gets framed in the United States as a problem of ...
Weekly Mortality-Vaccination. Order Reprints, Todays Paper,Subscribe ...
How the state handles it: North Dakotas maternal mortality review panel meets once a year to discuss cases but has not issued ... How the state handles it: Mothers deaths are reviewed by the same panel that examines infant and child mortality. A one-page ... How the state handles it: Oklahomas maternal mortality review team meets quarterly to review three or four cases at a time, ... How the state handles it: Louisiana has had a maternal mortality review program since 1992 but updated its process in 2010. Its ...
Ethiopia has more than halved its child mortality rates since 1990 through campaigns to increase the number of health workers ... ADDIS ABABA (Reuters) - Ethiopia has more than halved its child mortality rates since 1990 through campaigns to increase the ... Twenty years ago the mortality rate for those aged under five was about 20 percent. ...
This study, despite its conclusions about mortality rates, proves that regular PSA screening gives patients the best chance of ... the study set out to determine the effectiveness of screening with regard to prostate cancer mortality rates. Despite the fact ... decrease in prostate cancer mortality rates in the segment that underwent regular screening. Dr. Samadi says, It is important ...
This article appeared in the Emerging-Market Indicators section of the print edition under the headline Maternal mortality ...
STATUSDETERMINANTS OF SOCIAL STATUSPSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORSBIBLIOGRAPHY Source for information on Social Class and Mortality: ... "Widening Ethnic Mortality Disparities in New Zealand 1981-99." Social Science & Medicine 61 (10): 2233-2251. ... Morbidity and mortality patterns reflect social status. Inferior status for racial and ethnic minority populations started with ... "What Is the Contribution of Smoking and Socioeconomic Position to Ethnic Inequalities in Mortality in New Zealand?" Lancet 368 ...
... Jay Bhattacharya, Alan M. Garber, Thomas MaCurdy. NBER Working Paper No. ... Cause-Specific Mortality among Medicare Enrollees, Jayanta Bhattacharya, Alan M. Garber, Thomas E. MaCurdy. in Inquiries in the ... To produce such estimates, we relate annual mortality rates to a set of individual characteristics, applying a statistical ... The framework can also be extended to analyze the mortality and utilization associated with use of specific procedures. ...
INFANT MORTALITY AND STILLBIRTHS. Br Med J 1912; 2 doi: (Published 31 August 1912) Cite ...
The mortality gap persists for at least 9 months after admission. I referred to three earlier studies, including one by Card, ... How could mortality improve at the micro level, and not at the macro level? Increasing utilization of health services is not ... Its worth noting that the later Card paper itself notes that the aggregate figures show no mortality improvement:. As is true ... We estimate a nearly 1-percentage-point drop in 7-day mortality for patients at age 65, equivalent to a 20% reduction in deaths ...
Influenza and Infant Mortality. Br Med J 1972; 4 doi: (Published 18 November 1972) ...
Our results are consistent with those of other studies in the economics and public health literatures measuring the mortality ... "Air Pollution and Procyclical Mortality," Journal of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol 3(3), pages ... Prior research demonstrates that mortality rates increase during economic booms and decrease during economic busts, but little ... Controlling for CO, particulate matter (PM10), and ozone (O3) attenuates the relationship between overall mortality and the ...
INDIANA MORTALITY REPORT. 2015. Technical Notes. Age-Adjusted Death Rate: When comparing rates over time or across different ... Indiana Mortality Reports prior to 1999 used the 1940 standard million population for age adjusting. Beginning with the 1999 ... Tabulation Lists: The ICD-10 mortality tabulation lists were created by a team of health statisticians and medical officers. ... The "List of 113 Selected Causes of Death" is used for the general analysis of mortality and for ranking leading causes of ...
... infant mortality there is rising fast at a time when it is falling in almost every other part of the world. ... Infant Mortality Soars in Venezuela With hospitals suffering a catastrophic lack of supplies, the countrys babies are dying at ...
  • Moments into Courtney Baron's new play, 'Morbidity and Mortality,' lead character Carolyn climaxes some Rod McKuen-esque romantic poesy with the pronouncement, 'I masturbate to the thought of having sex with the doctor who killed my baby. (
  • Morbidity and Mortality" does have its plusses. (
  • The "social gradient" pattern of morbidity and mortality also argues against agenetic explanation. (
  • [ 14 ] Recent studies from the US highlighted the high early cardiovascular morbidity and mortality following LT and have identified preoperative factors and liver disease aetiology as significant predictors. (
  • The first known actuarial table concerning mortality rates was constructed by Sir Edmund Halley in 1694 . (
  • One study, conducted by Dr. Jacob A. Udell of the Brigham and Women´s Hospital of the Harvard Medical School in Boston and his colleagues, found that living alone was connected with increased mortality and cardiovascular risk for particular age groups. (
  • Along with death and survival rates among age groups and sexes, mortality tables may also list survival and death rates in relation to weight, ethnicity, and region. (
  • Underlying mortality assumptions are projections of expected death rates used by actuaries to estimate insurance premiums and pension obligations. (
  • Underlying mortality assumptions are the modeled projections of expected death rates used by actuaries. (
  • This is based on mortality tables, which are statistical tables of expected annual mortality rates. (
  • The infant mortality rates for Brazil is 12 deaths per 1000 live births. (
  • This is an important insight because it means that mortality may be reduced by addressing the high rates of behaviors such as smoking, substance use, physical inactivity, and poor diet that contribute to chronic and deadly medical conditions. (
  • The National Longitudinal Mortality Study (NLMS) consists of a database developed for the purpose of studying the effects of demographic and socio-economic characteristics on differentials in U.S. mortality rates. (
  • To provide an analytical research database for the purpose of studying the effect of demographic and socio-economic differentials on U.S. mortality rates. (
  • Comparing infant mortality rates between countries is fraught with uncertainty-after all, it's hard to argue that every country's figures are reliable. (
  • ADDIS ABABA (Reuters) - Ethiopia has more than halved its child mortality rates since 1990 through campaigns to increase the number of health workers and clinics throughout the country, government and aid officials said on Friday. (
  • Does Prostate Cancer Screening Reduce Mortality Rates? (
  • 1,500 of whom were screened for prostate cancer every three years, with the rest functioning as a control, the study set out to determine the effectiveness of screening with regard to prostate cancer mortality rates . (
  • Conducted across seven countries in Europe and involving over 162,000 subjects, nearly twenty times the test group of the more recent BMJ study, the NEJM study showed a substantial 27% decrease in prostate cancer mortality rates in the segment that underwent regular screening. (
  • He was disturbed by these mortality rates, and eventually developed a theory of infection, in which he theorized that decaying matter on the hands of doctors, who had recently conducted autopsies, was brought into contact with the genitals of birthgiving women during the medical examinations at the maternity clinic. (
  • He points out several times that actual mortality rates were higher than reported ones, because during childbed fever epidemics, the maternity ward was overwhelmed with dying women, who were then transferred to the general hospital, and therefore not registered at the maternity ward, when dying. (
  • Racial, ethnic, and class disparities in health outcomes are wide and persistent, and they cut across the full range of indicators of disease prevalence and mortality rates in all nations of the world. (
  • For more than 150 years, researchers have known that when mortality rates associated with various causes are plotted against measures of class or socioeconomic status-typically income, education, or occupation-a graded pattern emerges, with mortality increasing as socioeconomic status decreases. (
  • shows heart disease -related mortality rates among white American women plotted against income. (
  • This figure also shows that at comparable points of income, black women have higher mortality rates. (
  • To produce such estimates, we relate annual mortality rates to a set of individual characteristics, applying a statistical model with a flexible functional form to data obtained from a random sample of Medicare eligibility and hospital insurance files, covering the years 1986-1990. (
  • Finkelstein & McKnight use data from the 1960s to see whether geographic areas with lower insurance coverage rates prior to the enactment of MEdicare experienced improvements in mortality following the enactment of Medicare relative to areas with higher pre-1965 coverage rates. (
  • Prior research demonstrates that mortality rates increase during economic booms and decrease during economic busts, but little analysis has been conducted investigating the role of environmental risks as potential mechanisms for this relationship. (
  • We investigate the contribution of air pollution to the procyclicality of deaths by combining state-level data on overall, cause-specific, and age-specific mortality rates with state-level measures of ambient concentrations of three types of pollutants and the unemployment rate. (
  • After controlling for demographic variables and state and year fixed-effects, we find a significant positive correlation between carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations and mortality rates. (
  • Interestingly, in Finland a country with one of the lowest infant mortality rates, expectant mothers receive from the state a cardboard box fitted with a firm mattress. (
  • It is said that the baby box has helped Finland achieve one of the world's lowest infant mortality rates( Helena Lee, BBC news: Why do Finnish Babies Sleep in Cardboard Boxes? (
  • The more prosperous countries, such as Canada , and the United States , have lower mortality rates because of better health care (though that can be argued quite nicely). (
  • Thank you to Mr. Armstrong , the dear old man who taught me much about mortality rates , third world countries , and just what it means to be a good little human . (
  • And in others, child mortality rates have not changed in the last 50 years, especially in African countries such as Lesotho, Nigeria and Madagascar. (
  • February 5, 2008 (Honolulu) - Antibiotic treatment significantly reduces rates of pneumonia infection and subsequent mortality in patients with ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT), according to an interim analysis of the first prospective randomized multicenter study to examine this issue, presented here at the Society of Critical Care Medicine 37th Critical Care Congress. (
  • If some patients were positive for pneumonia and received appropriate antimicrobial treatment, this may have been the reason for the decreased mortality rates. (
  • We suspected an aggregation bias and examined whether the increase in aggregate mortality rates could be due to the changing composition of this age group. (
  • Contrary to Case and Deaton's figure ( 1 ), we find there is not a steady increase in mortality rates for this age group. (
  • Moreover, stratifying age-adjusted mortality rates by sex shows a marked increase only for women and not men, contrary to the article's headline. (
  • Fig. 1 A shows the unadjusted mortality rates over the 1999-2013 time period. (
  • C ) Raw death rate, along with trend in death rate attributable by change in age distribution alone, had age-specific mortality rates been at the 2013 level throughout. (
  • We took the 2013 mortality rates for each age and computed a weighted average rate each year using the number of individuals in each age group. (
  • We then age-adjusted the mortality rates published in the Case and Deaton paper ( 1 ). (
  • We find that age-adjustment is not sensitive to the age distribution used to normalize the mortality rates. (
  • Calculating the age-adjusted rates separately for each sex reveals a crucial result ( Fig. 2 C ). The mortality rate among women increased markedly, but the corresponding group of men nearly reversed its 1999-2005 increase over the 2005-2013 period. (
  • We explored patterns in relationships with age, sex, and income and calculated age-standardized mortality rates for each country in addition to crude death rates. (
  • Age-standardized IHD mortality rates per 100 000 people per year were much higher in Ukraine (324) and Kazakhstan (97) than in United States (60), Brazil (54), and the United Kingdom (46), with much less difference in other causes of death. (
  • Changes in ( A ) crude death rates and ( B ) age-standardized mortality rates between 2005 and 2015. (
  • Age-standardized mortality rates per 100 000 people from ischemic heart disease (red line), stroke (light blue line), cirrhosis and other liver diseases (green line), chronic lower respiratory tract diseases (yellow line), lung cancer (blue line), transport accidents (orange line), and infectious diseases (purple line). (
  • LONDON (Reuters) - Medical progress and global efforts to reduce infant and child mortality have reversed historical trends and mean that death rates among adolescents are now higher than in children, researchers said on Tuesday. (
  • To find changes in mortality, they calculated death rates averaged over three five-year periods - 1955 to 1959, 1978 to 1982, and 2000 to 2004. (
  • It notes sub-Saharan Africa is the region with the highest child mortality rates in the world, with 98 deaths per 1,000 live births. (
  • Maternal mortality rates in the U.S. are unacceptably high (17.4 deaths per 100,000 births) and exceed those in other developed countries. (
  • Global maternal mortality rates are declining in most countries but are unchanged in the U.S. and even increasing for some groups. (
  • Extending Medicaid coverage from 60 days after childbirth to one year will improve maternal mortality rates. (
  • In 2017, the highest infant mortality rates in the EU were registered in Malta and Romania (both 6.7 deaths per 1 000 live births) and Bulgaria (6.4 deaths), and the lowest in Cyprus (1.3 deaths) and Finland (2.0 deaths). (
  • In developing nations, however, lack of infant screening leads to unusually high rates of infant mortality. (
  • Nigeria has one of the highest rates of mortality of pregnant mothers, and GBS and other pathogens contribute to these deaths," Manning said. (
  • Recent studies have demonstrated that income inequality is related to mortality rates. (
  • Age-standardized total and cause-specific mortality rates in 1990 were obtained for each state. (
  • In turn, both social trust and group membership were associated with total mortality, as well as rates of death from coronary heart disease, malignant neoplasms, and infant mortality. (
  • The United States is often ranked behind other industrialized countries, in part because of the infant mortality rates. (
  • It's equally hard to take seriously those who actively oppose wind farm projects on the basis of prospective bird mortality without having first done everything they can to their own homes and businesses to reduce existing mortality rates. (
  • Note how similar it is to the map of maternal mortality rates on the facing page - making sure that all births are overseen by health workers is the single most important means of preventing maternal and newborn deaths. (
  • Pakistani, Black Caribbean and Black African babies (6.7, 6.6 and 6.3 deaths per 1,000 live births respectively) had the highest infant mortality rates. (
  • The infant deaths rates in this bulletin may differ slightly from those published in Deaths Registered in England and Wales, 2013 (DR) and Childhood, Infant and Perinatal Mortality in England and Wales, 2013 (CIPM) . (
  • Substantial inequalities in infant mortality rates are known to exist between white and ethnic minority groups in England and Wales (Gray et al. (
  • Following the introduction of levodopa in the late 1960's, many studies reported improved or normalized mortality rates in PD. (
  • When levodopa was introduced in the late 1960's, PD patients realized remarkable symptomatic benefits and in multiple subsequent cross-sectional studies levodopa appeared to ameliorate or normalize mortality rates in PD [ 2 - 7 ]. (
  • As one author reports, however, the majority of studies over the past 30 years have demonstrated that levodopa treatment in PD does not normalize mortality rates and these patients continue to die at a rate in excess of their peers [ 9 ]. (
  • Annual rates of growth and mortality often differ by species group, ownership, and geographic region. (
  • In its stress test for the Atlas trade, S&P noted that its qualitative view took into account "the remote likelihood of a terrorism event, a tsunami, a nuclear detonation, a repeat of the 1918 pandemic in today's environment, or a world war, all of which might counter the ongoing improvement in mortality rates over the past four decades. (
  • CNN's investigation of pediatric open heart mortality rates at St. Mary's Medical Center in West Palm Beach, Florida, showed that the hospital had a much higher death rate than the national average. (
  • We wanted to further explain how mortality rates are calculated. (
  • Definition: Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to age-specific mortality rates of the specified year. (
  • Definition: Adult mortality rate is the probability of dying between the ages of 15 and 60--that is, the probability of a 15-year-old dying before reaching age 60, if subject to age-specific mortality rates of the specified year between those ages. (
  • The EMCDDA, in collaboration with national experts, has defined an epidemiological indicator with two components at present: deaths directly caused by illegal drugs (drug-induced deaths) and mortality rates among problem drug users. (
  • The report also ranked the states based on th e disparity in infant mortality rates between those mothers with college degrees and those without. (
  • Tennessee and the District of Columbia had the highest discrepancy in infant mortality rates between college and non-college educated mothers. (
  • Mortality is a 2012, posthumously published book by Anglo-American writer Christopher Hitchens , comprising seven essays which first appeared in Vanity Fair concerning his struggle with oesophageal cancer, with which he was diagnosed during his 2010 book tour [1] and to which he succumbed in December 2011. (
  • Widow of Christopher Hitchens: Excerpt from Mortality. (
  • Mortality, by virtue of its ultimate unavoidability, raises questions about the very meaning of life, making it as challenging a subject as any tackled by Christopher Hitchens in his brilliant career. (
  • Mortality is a 2012, posthumously published book by Anglo-American writer Christopher Hitchens. (
  • Bowcott, Owen (1 July 2010) "Author Christopher Hitchens diagnosed with cancer" from The Guardian Grimes, William (16 December 2011) "Christopher Hitchens, Polemicist Who Slashed All, Freely, Dies at 62" in The New York Times Buckley, Christopher (30 August 2012) "Review of Mortality: Staying Power" in The New York Times Christopher Hitchens contributor page at Vanity Fair: Hitchens, Christopher (2012). (
  • In a well-written language, it synthesizes the sociological theory of social inequality and an empirical study of mortality differences that has been performed at the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research (Rostock, Germany). (
  • Expressed in ratios, melanoma mortality increased from 3.4 per 100 thousand residents in 2000 to 4.7 per 100 thousand in 2012. (
  • Infant mortality is an important indicator of the health of a nation, and the recent stagnation (since 2000) in the U.S. infant mortality rate has generated concern among researchers and policy makers," the NCHS report said. (
  • Infant mortality continues to decline at national level, with a decrease of 30 % since 2000 and an infant mortality rate of 3.2 per mille. (
  • Life expectancy at birth was 78.8 years, and the infant mortality rate was 5.58 deaths per 1,000 live births. (
  • Infant mortality rate is the number of infant deaths per 1,000 live births and is a good indicator of a country's health and economic status. (
  • Babies born in 2013 had an infant mortality rate of 3.8 deaths per 1,000 live births, compared to 3.9 deaths per 1,000 live births for babies born in 2012. (
  • Term babies had a significantly lower infant mortality rate (1.4 deaths per 1,000 live births) and pre-term babies had a significantly higher rate (21.1 deaths per 1,000 live births) compared to the overall rate. (
  • The infant mortality rate presented in DR, 2013 (4.4 deaths per 1,000 live births) was based on deaths that were registered in 2013. (
  • PMSS is used to calculate the pregnancy-related mortality ratio, an estimate of the number of pregnancy-related deaths for every 100,000 live births. (
  • Since the Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System was implemented, the number of reported pregnancy-related deaths in the United States steadily increased from 7.2 deaths per 100,000 live births in 1987 to 17.3 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2017. (
  • The mortality rate in Derbyshire was 68.7 per 1000 live births. (
  • The infant mortality rate of Austria is 4.16 deaths per 1000 live births. (
  • The World Bank says the infant mortality rate in East Timor is 44.46 deaths per 1000 live births. (
  • Philadelphia's maternal mortality rate 23.8 deaths per 100,000 live births compared to the US rate of 15.2 and Pennsylvania rate of 9.01. (
  • The infant mortality rate was 11.5 deaths per 100 live births in Saudi Arabia. (
  • The infant mortality rate in Japan is 2 deaths per 1000 live births. (
  • In 2013, the infant mortality rate in Argentina was 12 deaths per 1000 live births. (
  • Last year, a widely distributed report from the group Save the Children , funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, tied the United States with Malta and Slovakia for the second-worst infant-mortality rate among developed nations (at about six per 1,000 live births). (
  • Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the leading cause of infant mortality after the first 30 days of life in the United States, with a rate of 53.9 deaths per 100 000 live births. (
  • Decreasing the infant mortality rate from 6.7 to 5.7 deaths per 1000 live births by 2018 in Virginia. (
  • this was equivalent to an infant mortality rate of 3.6 deaths per 1 000 live births. (
  • The value for Mortality rate, under-5 (per 1,000 live births) in Saudi Arabia was 14.50 as of 2015. (
  • Definition: Neonatal mortality rate is the number of neonates dying before reaching 28 days of age, per 1,000 live births in a given year. (
  • The infant mortality rate is the ratio between the number of deaths of children less than one year of age during the year and the live births of that same year (in per mille). (
  • According to the latest Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (2006), Pakistan's maternal mortality ratio stands at 276 for every 100,000 live births, and is among the highest in South Asia. (
  • Epidemiology of Caffeine Consumption and Association of Coffee Drinking with Total and Cause-specific Mortality" presents an in-depth interview exploring the many factors that could contribute to the association between coffee, disease, and mortality. (
  • However, there are few sources of nationally representative information that can be used to develop life tables that incorporate cause-specific mortality. (
  • Cause-Specific Mortality among Medicare Enrollees , Jayanta Bhattacharya, Alan M. Garber, Thomas E. MaCurdy. (
  • Air Pollution and Procyclical Mortality, " Journal of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol 3(3), pages 667-706. (
  • Air Pollution and Procyclical Mortality ," Journal of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists , University of Chicago Press, vol. 3(3), pages 667-706. (
  • Air Pollution and Procyclical Mortality ," UNCG Economics Working Papers 13-7, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics. (
  • Air Pollution and Procyclical Mortality ," NBER Working Papers 18959, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc. (
  • Infant mortality in the United States declined by 2 percent in 2006 according to a report issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention this week. (
  • The Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System (PMSS) defines a pregnancy-related death as the death of a woman while pregnant or within 1 year of the end of pregnancy from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy. (
  • The value for Mortality rate, adult, female (per 1,000 female adults) in Saudi Arabia was 80.18 as of 2014. (
  • The infant mortality rate in the US currently stands at 6.86 infant deaths per 1,000. (
  • How the state handles it: A 2018 law created a statewide maternal mortality review panel that includes government officials and experts in health care. (
  • In 2018, infant mortality reduction stakeholders met to update the Infant Mortality Strategic Plan. (
  • The Human Mortality Database (HMD) was created to provide detailed mortality and population data to researchers, students, journalists, policy analysts, and others interested in the history of human longevity. (
  • Users should consult the data owners directly (via Human Mortality Database ) for details on obtaining these resources. (
  • The graph above shows trends in pregnancy-related mortality ratios between 1987 and 2017 (the latest available year of data). (
  • The Credit Insurance Experience Committee has completed their work on the 2017 Credit Life Mortality Study. (
  • In 2017, feto-infant mortality, which is the sum of infant deaths and stillbirths, amounted to 1,062 deaths for the whole country. (
  • The infant mortality rate amounts to 3.6 per mille in 2017 compared to 4.8 at the beginning of the century. (
  • Since 2014, Namibia Child Mortality Rate fell by 2.2% year on year. (
  • At 11.61 Units (Deaths) Per Thousand Children Aged 5-14 in 2019, the country was number 32 among other countries in Child Mortality Rate. (
  • In 2019, the country was number 37 comparing other countries in Child Mortality Rate with 10.2 Units (Deaths) Per Thousand Children Aged 5-14. (
  • The information underlying ultimate mortality tables is called survivorship data and takes into account many risk factors. (
  • The profitability of insurance products depends partly on companies' accurately analyzing the data behind ultimate mortality tables. (
  • Ultimate mortality tables usually remove the first few years of life insurance data from the analysis, in an attempt to more accurately show the rate of mortality after removing so-called selection effects. (
  • In addition, some may include an aggregate mortality table, with death-rate data on the entire study population that has purchased life insurance, without a categorization based on age or time of purchase. (
  • The data in an aggregate table depends on the combined statistics of several, if not many, individual mortality tables. (
  • As is the case for other types of statistical data, the accuracy of ultimate mortality depends on the breadth of data in the survey. (
  • The accuracy of an insurance company's ultimate mortality table may not be as accurate as one compiled by an organization that's able to compile data sets from multiple insurers. (
  • For example, the Society of Actuaries typically produces an ultimate mortality table each year that is based on a fairly wide data set. (
  • Aggregate Mortality Table is data on the death rate of everyone who has purchased life insurance, without categorization based on age or time of purchase. (
  • CBS receives mortality data on a daily basis from municipal registers. (
  • In addition to the socio-economic and mortality data available, extensive geographical and demographic summary information at the census tract level, may be incorporated into NLMS records. (
  • In fact, the data show no such discontinuity: mortality changes smoothly with age. (
  • As is true for health insurance more generally (see Levy and Meltzer [2004]), it has proven more difficult to identify the health impacts of Medicare.9 Most existing studies have focused on mor- tality as an indicator of health.10 An early study by Lichtenberg (2001) used Social Security Administration (SSA) life table data to test for a trend-break in the age profile of mortality at age 65. (
  • The "List of 39 Selected Causes of Death," which is used to show mortality data for geographic areas, was created by combining categories in the "List of 113 Selected Causes of Death. (
  • The best available datasets from Denmark and the USA, as two very different countries, are used to analyze the age pattern of social mortality differences, the Danish register data covering the whole Danish population between 1980 and 2002. (
  • This study is the most comprehensive analysis of socioeconomic mortality differences in the literature, in terms of data quantity, quality, and the statistical method of event-history modeling. (
  • Methods and Results We analyzed mortality data submitted to the World Health Organization from 2005 to 2015 by individual countries. (
  • In 5 illustrative countries which provided detailed data, we analyzed trends of mortality from IHD and 3 noncommunicable diseases (lung cancer, stroke, and chronic lower respiratory tract diseases) and examined the simultaneous trends in important cardiovascular risk factors. (
  • These are the 16 countries who provided longitudinal mortality data. (
  • Viner's team used the WHO mortality database to analyze data for 50 rich and poor nations between 1955 and 2004. (
  • Last week, for the first time since 2007, the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) reported new data on maternal mortality in the United States. (
  • The findings are robust to the use of state- rather than county-level data and to a variety of alternative specifications, although the attenuation of the unemployment-mortality relationship after controlling for pollution is insubstantial when including county-specific linear trends. (
  • These data support the notion that income inequality leads to increased mortality via disinvestment in social capital. (
  • By linking the 3 data sources, figures can be reported for infant mortality by gestational age and ethnicity, as well as other risk factors including: birthweight, mother's age at birth of child, marital status and socio-economic status (based on the most advantaged parent's occupation). (
  • In order to offer their customers increased protection against impersonation of the deceased (IOD) fraud, Tracesmart have considerably increased the coverage of mortality data they hold. (
  • From a service standpoint this data means we can improve and enhance much of our portfolio, especially our identity verification and mortality screening services. (
  • The study commenced in 1972 with multiple follow-up surveys to 1996 and continuous mortality follow-up data to 2011 for a total of 38 years. (
  • In those subjects where CRP data was available, persistent insomnia was associated with a 58 percent increased mortality risk (after adjustments for confounding factors). (
  • We also want to help readers better understand the responses and our reporting and how to find more information about mortality data. (
  • It describes the features of the Fonte web-based interface which allow the Member States to report their mortality data to the EMCDDA. (
  • understanding the evolutionary context for variation in human mortality patterns requires an evolutionarily relevant comparative baseline. (
  • This omission is odd given that age-specific mortality patterns are an essential driving force in the evolution of life histories ( 9 ). (
  • They looked at patterns of mortality by age group, sex and cause of death - divided into infectious diseases, chronic diseases and injury. (
  • Fitness versus physical activity patterns in predicting mortality in men," American Journal of Medicine , vol. 117, no. 12, pp. 912-918, 2004. (
  • Cancer incidence and mortality patterns were assessed for the periods 1958-89 and 1952-89 respectively, in a cohort of 2,026 subjects who had been employed for at least one year between 1900 and 1989 in three Swedish leather tanneries. (
  • Social differences in health and mortality constitute a persistent finding in epidemiological, demographic, and sociological research. (
  • This book provides a comprehensive, thoughtful and critical discussion of all aspects involved in the relationship between socioeconomic status, health and mortality. (
  • Experts say maternal health and mortality are directly related to access to health services. (
  • Macroeconomic Conditions, Health and Mortality ," NBER Working Papers 11007, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc. (
  • Macroeconomic Conditions, Health and Mortality ," Chapters , in: Andrew M. Jones (ed. (
  • Consistent with Fig. 1 C , the adjusted mortality rate increased from 1999 to 2005 and then stopped. (
  • Update July 1st, 2015: St. Mary's has posted a new risk adjusted mortality rate of 4.7% for its Pediatric Congenital Cardiac Surgery program. (
  • 1. St. Mary's Medical Center says it has a 5.3% risk-adjusted mortality rate. (
  • St. Mary's is unclear about the time frame for its self-reported 5.3% risk-adjusted mortality rate. (
  • A select mortality table depicts the death rate of individuals who recently purchased life insurance. (
  • A mortality table shows the rate of deaths occurring in a defined population during a selected time interval or survival from birth to any given age. (
  • The infant mortality rate of the United States is 6 deaths per 1000 in 2013. (
  • In Texas, the infant mortality rate is 5.5 for whites, 10.9 for Blacks and 5.5 for Hispanics in 2010. (
  • High infant mortality rate is associated with poverty and poor health care. (
  • According to study results, living alone correlated with a higher four-year mortality and cardiovascular rate. (
  • The surprising truth about America's infant-mortality rate. (
  • Better and more affordable medical care actually has worsened the rate of prematurity, and likely the rate of infant mortality, by making fertility treatment widespread. (
  • Twenty years ago the mortality rate for those aged under five was about 20 percent. (
  • Controlling for CO, particulate matter (PM10), and ozone (O3) attenuates the relationship between overall mortality and the unemployment rate by 30 percent. (
  • With 5.4 per 100 thousand residents, Norway (not a member of the EU) has the highest mortality rate in Europe. (
  • Mortality rate is the term used in reference to the ratio of the total number of deaths to the total population. (
  • Countries with a high population and low GNP often have a high mortality rate, especially as far as infant s are concerned. (
  • Overall mortality rate was 22.6% (n = 210). (
  • We quantify the rate and amount of mortality reduction by comparing a variety of human populations to the evolved human mortality profile, here estimated as the average mortality pattern for ethnographically observed hunter-gatherers. (
  • Using this baseline as the standard for comparison provides the necessary means of gauging the rate and timing of mortality improvement in a broad evolutionary context. (
  • To better understand the evolutionary significance of the great changes in human mortality profiles and to more accurately describe the rate and magnitude of mortality reduction, we make a number of basic comparisons between the evolved human mortality profile and those of human populations from the present and recent historical contexts. (
  • A ) Observed increase in raw mortality rate among 45- to 54-y-old non-Hispanic whites, unadjusted for age. (
  • We calculated the change in the group mortality rate due solely to the change in the underlying age of the population. (
  • Fig, 1 C shows that the changing composition in age alone explains about half the change in the mortality rate of this group since 1999 and all of the change since 2005. (
  • Fig. 2 A shows adjustment to a uniform age distribution over ages 45-54, where the mortality rate is calculated each year by dividing the number of deaths for each age between 45 and 54 by the population of that age and then taking the average. (
  • Two decades ago, he says, Niger had the highest rate of under-five mortality in the world. (
  • extending the analysis to the last 20 years, the infant mortality rate was almost halved (6.8 deaths per 1 000 in 1997). (
  • If the United States had Sweden's distribution of births by gestational age, nearly 8,000 infant deaths would be averted each year and the U.S. infant mortality rate would be one-third lower. (
  • Hip fractures are associated with a mortality rate of 14 percent to 36 percent in the year following the fracture and can negatively affect a patient's independence and quality of life. (
  • Two numbers are necessary to calculate a mortality rate: How many surgeries were performed and how many patients died. (
  • Do the math, and that's a 3% mortality rate. (
  • 3. Is this the number of surgeries the hospital used to calculate its mortality rate? (
  • To make matters even more complicated, St. Mary's told the Palm Beach Post newspaper that St. Mary's determined its mortality rate "through 70 eligible [Society of Thoracic Surgeons] cases. (
  • Bottom line: To calculate a mortality rate, you must know how many index operations were done, and we have no idea. (
  • The report also shows that the infant mortality rate for black women was 2.4 times that of white women. (
  • Valuation Mortality Table is a statistical chart used by insurers to calculate the statutory reserve and cash surrender values of life insurance policies. (
  • Projections of the future burden of mesothelioma mortality were calculated, however statistical uncertainties in the formulation of the model could not be taken into account. (
  • Intermittent insomnia also appeared to be associated with mortality although statistical adjustments for factors such as body mass index, smoking status, and regular physical activity, showed that excess risk was not present. (
  • This publication presents a major meta-analysis of 'value of a statistical life' (VSL) estimates derived from surveys where people around the world have been asked about their willingness to pay for small reduction in mortality risks. (
  • Studies with more recent baselines showed greater relative risk of mortality, meaning that rather than finding a decrease in health disparities in recent years compared to studies with baselines before 1970, the excessive mortality was actually greater in recent cohorts. (
  • However, it is still unknown if socioeconomic mortality differences increase or decrease with age. (
  • We expected that the duration of mechanical ventilation but not mortality would decrease with treatment of VAT," noted the lead author, Saad Nseir, MD, from the Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire, Lille, France. (
  • This puts a stop to the decrease of infant mortality, with 41 more cases than in 2016. (
  • Findings showed that in the 1950s, mortality in the one to four age group far exceeded that of all other age groups in all regions studied. (
  • Our findings confirm that PD is associated with increased mortality in both men and women. (
  • The findings held for mortality that was cardiovascular - rather than cancer-related. (
  • The increased incidence of soft tissue sarcomas adds support to previous findings of an excess mortality in this diagnosis among leather tanners. (
  • Considerable racial/ethnic disparities in pregnancy-related mortality exist. (
  • Across the board, the interviewees admitted they lacked current information and training on infant mortality, disparities and cultural competence. (
  • I didn't initially ask participants about how racism impacts infant mortality, but the providers I spoke with believe it plays a major role in why we're seeing disparities that lead to negative outcomes. (
  • Earlier work by Finkelstein using this same strategy documents significant increases on hospital spending and utilization, but the work of Finkelstein & McKnight finds no corresponding improvement in mortality. (
  • The content of the socio-economic variables available offers researchers the potential to answer questions on mortality differentials for a variety of important socio-economic and demographic subgroups not covered as extensively in other databases. (
  • Based on the expected size of the Annual Social and Economic Supplements to be conducted, the expected number of deaths to be added to the NLMS through the updating process will increase the mortality content of the study to over 550,000 cases out of a total number of approximately 3.8 million records. (
  • We estimate a nearly 1-percentage-point drop in 7-day mortality for patients at age 65, equivalent to a 20% reduction in deaths for this severely ill patient group. (
  • The basic idea is that if health insurance significantly affects mortality in the short run, the dramatic increase in health insurance coverage at age 65 as a result of Medicare should translate into a reduction in mortality at age 65 relative to the overall trend by age. (
  • The health and economic implications of mortality reduction have been given substantial attention, but the observed malleability of human mortality has not been placed in a broad evolutionary context. (
  • The bulk of this mortality reduction has occurred since 1900 and has been experienced by only about 4 of the roughly 8,000 human generations that have ever lived. (
  • It was hypothesized, in this study, that income inequality is related to reduction in social cohesion and that disinvestment in social capital is in turn associated with increased mortality. (
  • Unlike the majority of other mortality studies, we found that women have a greater reduction in lifespan compared to men. (
  • Social capital, income inequality, and mortality. (
  • 1 Whether the actual risk of a woman dying from pregnancy-related causes has increased is unclear, and in recent years, the pregnancy-related mortality ratios have been relatively stable. (
  • Cause-specific standardized incidence and mortality ratios (SIRs and SMRs) were calculated. (
  • Unfortunately, reductions in mortality are not shared equally in this country across racial, ethnic, and socio-economic groups. (
  • Moreover, mortality improvement in humans is on par with or greater than the reductions in mortality in other species achieved by laboratory selection experiments and endocrine pathway mutations. (
  • 5 ) show that the extensions in longevity are occurring because of rapid and steady progress in lowering mortality at all ages, and that the limits of these reductions are difficult to predict. (
  • The social, economic, and health implications of the reductions in mortality have been discussed extensively ( 6 ⇓ - 8 ). (
  • Navrud, Ståle and Henrik Lindhjem (2011), Valuing Mortality Risk Reductions in Regulatory Analysis of Environmental, Health and Transport Policies: Policy Implications , OECD, Paris. (
  • To reduce infant mortality, then, we need to prevent premature births, and if that fails, improve care of premature babies once born. (
  • A doctor in Nigeria and a professor at Michigan State University have teamed up to reduce infant mortality in the African nation. (
  • CDC conducts national pregnancy-related mortality surveillance to better understand the risk factors for and causes of pregnancy-related deaths in the United States. (
  • Finding more than a doubling of the relative risk of mortality, the authors ask a second question: how many deaths would be averted by eliminating this increased mortality? (
  • These are symptoms evaluated in two new studies that examined the influence of loneliness on increased risk of mortality. (
  • however, for those who were 80 years and up, living alone didn´t increase their risk of mortality. (
  • In conclusion, living alone was independently associated with an increased risk of mortality and CV death in an international cohort of stable middle-aged outpatients with or at risk of atherothrombosis," wrote the authors in the report. (
  • Thus-at the risk of oversimplifying-infant mortality in the United States principally is a problem of premature birth, which today complicates just over one in 10 pregnancies. (
  • According to a study recently published in the BMJ journal Gut , the presence of "invisible blood" in one's stool may indicate a higher risk of all-cause mortality. (
  • As Libby and colleagues explain in their paper, previous studies have found a correlation between the presence of blood in one's stool and the risk of premature mortality independently of bowel cancer. (
  • However, the most surprising finding was that a positive test result also increased all-cause mortality risk by 58 percent. (
  • More recent reports (1999-2004) have demonstrated a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in PD patients ranging from 1.52 in a community-based Norwegian study [ 10 ] to a relative mortality risk of 3.38 in door-to-door survey in Ilan County, Taiwan [ 11 ]. (
  • Some factors such as severity of Parkinson's symptoms [ 12 ] and the presence of dementia [ 12 - 14 ] appear to increase mortality risk in PD. (
  • The study also determined that serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), an independent risk factor for mortality, was higher in subjects with persistent insomnia. (
  • CRP levels are themselves associated with increased mortality, but even after adjusting for that factor, the mortality risk remained at 36 percent for subjects with persistent insomnia. (
  • These bonds, also called Mortality Catastrophe Bonds (MCBs), enable insurers to transfer extreme mortality risk to capital markets. (
  • In such trades, investors buy notes with principal and interest payments exposed to the risk of an adverse mortality experience of a portfolio of lives. (
  • Companies bearing mortality risk obviously worry that in an extreme event, like a pandemic, they will have to pay out more than their mortality tables tell them they should expect," said Stephen Rooney, a partner and co-head of Mayer Brown's global insurance industry practice. (
  • Depending on the bond, that can mean a 20%-40% uptick in mortality for a set region beyond what has been typical, said Ghalid Bagus, a principal and consulting actuary at Milliman Financial Risk Management, a firm that provides actuary analysis to major bond issuers in the sector. (
  • I. M. Lee and R. S. Paffenbarger Jr., "Do physical activity and physical fitness avert premature mortality? (
  • WASHINGTON (Reuters) - The United States ranks 30th in terms of infant mortality, an important measure of the quality of healthcare, according to a report released on Tuesday. (
  • Citation: Baxter-Gilbert JH, Riley JL, Lesbarrères D, Litzgus JD (2015) Mitigating Reptile Road Mortality: Fence Failures Compromise Ecopassage Effectiveness. (
  • This was a cohort study , looking at the link between vitamin D levels in the blood and mortality (death). (
  • Researchers have identified an association between persistent insomnia and increased inflammation and mortality. (
  • Influences of cardiorespiratory fitness and other precursors on cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in men and women," Journal of the American Medical Association , vol. 276, no. 3, pp. 205-210, 1996. (
  • Ultimate mortality tables list the percentage of life insurance purchasers expected to still be alive at each given age, beginning with age 0, which represents 100% of the population, up to age 120. (
  • It calculates mortalities for both men and women in the U.S., and it also includes a blended table with the ultimate mortality of the entire U.S. population. (
  • Indiana Mortality Reports prior to 1999 used the 1940 standard million population for age adjusting. (
  • But the strong international focus on reducing infant and child mortality has not been matched by a similar efforts in older groups, they said, even though more than two-fifths of the world's population is in the five to 24 years age group. (
  • To learn more about the MacArthur Foundation's support of efforts to comply with the UN's Millennium Development Goals and reduce maternal mortality worldwide, visit . (
  • Before the introduction of levodopa, mortality in idiopathic PD was 2.9 times higher than that of the general population adjusted for age, gender, and race [ 1 ]. (
  • Source: Estimates Developed by the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UNICEF, WHO, World Bank, UN DESA Population Division) at (
  • An issue that warrants their attention is infant mortality, a key indicator of the well-being and effectiveness of a country's health care system. (
  • The reasons for the overall increase in pregnancy-related mortality are unclear. (
  • The increase in mortality was reported in studies from the developed and the developing world as well as studies from countries with relatively high levels of mental health care. (
  • In PNAS, Case and Deaton ( 1 ) show a figure illustrating the "marked increase in the all-cause mortality of middle-aged white non-Hispanic men and women in the United States between 1999 and 2013. (
  • These trends are likely to continue because mortality in children younger than five years is expected to decline further, and injury-related mortality is expected to increase in the next 25 years," said Russell Viner from the University College London institute of child health, who led the study. (
  • There has been an increase in mesothelioma mortality in Great Britain, with 1705 deaths recorded in 2006. (
  • The sluggish gains made in reducing maternal mortality over the past eight years may be reversed amid the global economic crisis. (
  • The current plan for the NLMS is to integrate information on mortality into the NLMS every two years from 1998 through 2011 with research on the resulting database to continue, at least, through 2011. (
  • The authors conclude that in its first 10 years, the establishment of universal health insurance for the elderly had no discernable impact on their mortality. (
  • Much of Mortality first appeared as essays in Vanity Fair , for which Hitchens had been writing about everything but sports for what turned out to be the last 20 years of his life. (
  • The reality of mortality, if it can be said, literally fell into my hands a few years ago. (
  • Some authors found that levodopa reduced PD mortality during the first 6 years of therapy, with mortality returning to near prelevodopa levels after 12 years of treatment [ 8 ]. (
  • Mortality amongst all males is expected to keep increasing, reaching a peak at around 2,040 deaths in the year 2016, with a rapid decline following the peak year. (

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