All deaths reported in a given population.
A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.
Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
An infant during the first month after birth.
Deaths that occur before LIFE EXPECTANCY is reached within a given population.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Deaths occurring from the 28th week of GESTATION to the 28th day after birth in a given population.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Official records of individual deaths including the cause of death certified by a physician, and any other required identifying information.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Number of fetal deaths with stated or presumed gestation of 20 weeks or more in a given population. Late fetal mortality is death after of 28 weeks or more.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
The use of severity-of-illness measures, such as age, to estimate the risk (measurable or predictable chance of loss, injury or death) to which a patient is subject before receiving some health care intervention. This adjustment allows comparison of performance and quality across organizations, practitioners, and communities. (from JCAHO, Lexikon, 1994)
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
An acronym for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, a scoring system using routinely collected data and providing an accurate, objective description for a broad range of intensive care unit admissions, measuring severity of illness in critically ill patients.
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.
Summarizing techniques used to describe the pattern of mortality and survival in populations. These methods can be applied to the study not only of death, but also of any defined endpoint such as the onset of disease or the occurrence of disease complications.
The status of health in urban populations.
Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.
Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.
Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the ABDOMINAL AORTA which gives rise to the visceral, the parietal, and the terminal (iliac) branches below the aortic hiatus at the diaphragm.
A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
The act of killing oneself.
A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and west of GUINEA. Its capital is Bissau.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Used for general articles concerning statistics of births, deaths, marriages, etc.
A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).
Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.
A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
The normal length of time of an organism's life.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.
Surgery performed on the heart.
The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.
Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.
The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.
Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The status of health in rural populations.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.
The tearing or bursting of the wall along any portion of the AORTA, such as thoracic or abdominal. It may result from the rupture of an aneurysm or it may be due to TRAUMA.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.
Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)
A progressive condition usually characterized by combined failure of several organs such as the lungs, liver, kidney, along with some clotting mechanisms, usually postinjury or postoperative.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
First aid or other immediate intervention for accidents or medical conditions requiring immediate care and treatment before definitive medical and surgical management can be procured.
The administrative process of discharging the patient, alive or dead, from hospitals or other health facilities.
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
The killing of one person by another.
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.
Phenomenon of workers' usually exhibiting overall death rates lower than those of the general population due to the fact that the severely ill and disabled are ordinarily excluded from employment.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.
Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The creation and maintenance of medical and vital records in multiple institutions in a manner that will facilitate the combined use of the records of identified individuals.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)
Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.
Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.

The expiry date of man: a synthesis of evolutionary biology and public health. (1/4576)

In industrialised countries, mortality and morbidity are dominated by age related chronic degenerative diseases. The health and health care needs of future populations will be heavily determined by these conditions of old age. Two opposite scenarios of future morbidity exist: morbidity might decrease ("compress"), because life span is limited, and the incidence of disease is postponed. Or morbidity might increase ("expand"), because death is delayed more than disease incidence. Optimality theory in evolutionary biology explains senescence as a by product of an optimised life history. The theory clarifies how senescence is timed by the competing needs for reproduction and survival, and why this leads to a generalised deterioration of many functions at many levels. As death and disease are not independent, future morbidity will depend on duration and severity of the process of senescence, partly determined by health care, palliating the disease severity but increasing the disease duration by postponing death. Even if morbidity might be compressed, health care needs will surely expand.  (+info)

Avoidable mortality in Europe 1955-1994: a plea for prevention. (2/4576)

OBJECTIVE: To analyse trends of avoidable mortality in Europe, emphasising causes of death amenable to primary prevention through reduction of exposures, secondary prevention through early detection and treatment, and tertiary prevention through improved treatment and medical care. DESIGN: Descriptive study of mortality from avoidable causes for the years 1955 through 1994, for ages 5-64 at time of death. Using the World Health Organisation Mortality Database, five year death rates were standardised to the world population. SETTING: 21 countries of Europe in four regions (northern, central, and southern Europe, Nordic countries). PARTICIPANTS: All causes of deaths for men and women, aged 5-64, at time of death. MAIN RESULTS: Between 1955-59 and 1990-94, the reduction in mortality was somewhat greater for avoidable causes than for all causes: 45.8% v 45.1% (women) and 39.3% v 32.6% among men. Reductions in mortality were greater for causes amenable to improved medical care: 77.9% among women and 76.3% among men. The smallest reduction in mortality was seen in women for causes amenable to secondary prevention (11.0%), and in men for causes amendable to primary prevention including tobacco related conditions (16.6%). From a geographical point of view, there were slight differences in trends between European regions, but overall the patterns were similar. CONCLUSIONS: The greatest reduction of avoidable mortality in Europe from 1955-94 came from causes amenable to improved treatment and medical care for both sexes. Further reductions of avoidable mortality can be achieved through implementation of primary and secondary prevention activities, such as tobacco control, reduction of occupational exposures, and universal access to breast and cervical cancer screening programmes.  (+info)

The meaning and use of the cumulative rate of potential life lost. (3/4576)

BACKGROUND: The 'years of potential life lost' (YPLL) is a public health measure in widespread use. However, the index does not apply to the comparisons between different populations or across different time periods. It also has the limit of being cross-sectional in nature, quantifying current burden but not future impact on society. METHODS: A new years-lost index is proposed-the 'cumulative rate of potential life lost' (CRPLL). It is a simple combination of the 'cumulative rate' (CR) and the YPLL. Vital statistics in Taiwan are used for demonstration and comparison of the new index with existing health-status measures. RESULTS: The CRPLL serves the purpose of between-group comparison. It can also be considered a projection of future impact, under the assumption that the age-specific mortality rates in the current year prevail. For a rare cause of death, it can be interpreted as the expected years (days) of potential life lost during a subject's lifetime. CONCLUSIONS: The CRPLL has several desirable properties, rendering it a promising alternative for quantifying health status.  (+info)

The European mesothelioma epidemic. (4/4576)

Projections for the period 1995-2029 suggest that the number of men dying from mesothelioma in Western Europe each year will almost double over the next 20 years, from 5000 in 1998 to about 9000 around 2018, and then decline, with a total of about a quarter of a million deaths over the next 35 years. The highest risk will be suffered by men born around 1945-50, of whom about 1 in 150 will die of mesothelioma. Asbestos use in Western Europe remained high until 1980, and substantial quantities are still used in several European countries. These projections are based on the fit of a simple age and birth cohort model to male pleural cancer mortality from 1970 to 1989 for six countries (Britain, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands and Switzerland) which together account for three-quarters of the population of Western Europe. The model was tested by comparing observed and predicted numbers of deaths for the period 1990-94. The ratio of mesothelioma to recorded pleural cancer mortality has been 1.6:1 in Britain but was assumed to be 1:1 in other countries.  (+info)

A historical cohort mortality study of workers exposed to asbestos in a refitting shipyard. (5/4576)

To investigate the risks of developing asbestos-related diseases we conducted a historical cohort mortality study on 249 ship repair workers (90 laggers and 159 boiler repairers) in a single U.S. Navy shipyard in Japan. We successfully identified the vital status of 87 (96.7%) laggers and 150 (94.3%) boiler repairers, and, of these, 49 (56.3%) and 65 (43.3%) died, respectively, during the follow-up period from 1947 till the end of 1996. Our in-person interviews with some of the subjects clarified that asbestos exposure was considered to be substantially high in the 1950-60s, decreased thereafter gradually but remained till 1979 in the shipyard. The laggers, who had handled asbestos materials directly, showed a significantly elevated SMR of 2.75 (95% C.I.: 1.08-6.48) for lung cancer. The risk developing the disease was greater in the laggers after a 20-year latency (SMR = 3.42). Pancreatic cancer yielded a greater SMR than unity (7.78, 90% C.I.: 2.07-25.19) in a longer working years group. Four laggers died from asbestosis. The boiler repairers, who had many chances for secondary exposure to asbestos and a few for direct exposure, showed no elevation of the SMR of lung cancer overall, but there was a borderline statistically significant SMR of 2.41 (90% C.I.: 1.05-5.45) in a longer working years group. One boiler repairer died from mesothelioma and four from asbestosis.  (+info)

Effects of calcium-channel blockade in older patients with diabetes and systolic hypertension. Systolic Hypertension in Europe Trial Investigators. (6/4576)

BACKGROUND: Recent reports suggest that calcium-channel blockers may be harmful in patients with diabetes and hypertension. We previously reported that antihypertensive treatment with the calcium-channel blocker nitrendipine reduced the risk of cardiovascular events. In this post hoc analysis, we compared the outcome of treatment with nitrendipine in diabetic and nondiabetic patients. METHODS: After stratification according to center, sex, and presence or absence of previous cardiovascular complications, 4695 patients (age, > or =60 years) with systolic blood pressure of 160 to 219 mm Hg and diastolic pressure below 95 mm Hg were randomly assigned to receive active treatment or placebo. Active treatment consisted of nitrendipine (10 to 40 mg per day) with the possible addition or substitution of enalapril (5 to 20 mg per day) or hydrochlorothiazide (12.5 to 25 mg per day) or both, titrated to reduce the systolic blood pressure by at least 20 mm Hg and to less than 150 mm Hg. In the control group, matching placebo tablets were administered similarly. RESULTS: At randomization, 492 patients (10.5 percent) had diabetes. After a median follow-up of two years, the systolic and diastolic blood pressures in the placebo and active-treatment groups differed by 8.6 and 3.9 mm Hg, respectively, among the diabetic patients. Among the 4203 patients without diabetes, systolic and diastolic pressures differed by 10.3 and 4.5 mm Hg, respectively, in the two groups. After adjustment for possible confounders, active treatment was found to have reduced overall mortality by 55 percent (from 45.1 deaths per 1000 patients to 26.4 deaths per 1000 patients), mortality from cardiovascular disease by 76 percent, all cardiovascular events combined by 69 percent, fatal and nonfatal strokes by 73 percent, and all cardiac events combined by 63 percent in the group of patients with diabetes. Among the nondiabetic patients, active treatment decreased all cardiovascular events combined by 26 percent and fatal and nonfatal strokes by 38 percent. In the group of patients receiving active treatment, reductions in overall mortality, mortality from cardiovascular disease, and all cardiovascular events were significantly larger among the diabetic patients than among the nondiabetic patients (P=0.04, P=0.02, and P=0.01, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Nitrendipine-based antihypertensive therapy is particularly beneficial in older patients with diabetes and isolated systolic hypertension. Thus, our findings do not support the hypothesis that the use of long-acting calcium-channel blockers may be harmful in diabetic patients.  (+info)

Association between serum fructosamine and mortality in elderly women: the study of osteoporotic fractures. (7/4576)

Serum fructosamine levels can be used to estimate long-term serum glucose values and can be measured in frozen serum. The authors examined whether fructosamine levels were associated with mortality in a cohort of 9,704 white women (> or = 65 years of age) recruited from September 1986 to October 1988 at four clinical centers in the United States. A random sample of women who had died during a mean of 6 years of follow-up (n = 55) was compared with randomly selected controls (n = 276, 54 of whom had died). Fructosamine assays were performed blinded to vital status. Hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals were adjusted for age, clinical center, smoking, hypertension, and serum albumin and cholesterol levels. Each standard deviation (46 micromol) increase in fructosamine level was associated with a 1.3-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-1.6, p = 0.04) increased rate of all-cause mortality, including a 1.5-fold (95% CI 1.0-2.1, p = 0.03) increase in cardiovascular disease mortality. Elevated fructosamine levels (>285 micromol/liter) were associated with a 4.3-fold (95% CI 1.6-12, p = 0.004) increased rate of cardiovascular mortality; in women without a history of diabetes, the hazard ratio was 4.6 (95% CI 1.3-16, p = 0.02). Fructosamine level, or another indicator of glycemia, should be included when the risk of cardiovascular disease among older patients is evaluated.  (+info)

Cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in men. (8/4576)

BACKGROUND: Cardiorespiratory fitness and body fatness are both related to health, but their interrelation to all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We examined the health benefits of leanness and the hazards of obesity while simultaneously considering cardiorespiratory fitness. DESIGN: This was an observational cohort study. We followed 21925 men, aged 30-83 y, who had a body-composition assessment and a maximal treadmill exercise test. There were 428 deaths (144 from CVD, 143 from cancer, and 141 from other causes) in an average of 8 y of follow-up (176742 man-years). RESULTS: After adjustment for age, examination year, cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, and parental history of ischemic heart disease, unfit (low cardiorespiratory fitness as determined by maximal exercise testing), lean men had double the risk of all-cause mortality of fit, lean men (relative risk: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.16, 3.69; P = 0.01). Unfit, lean men also had a higher risk of all-cause and CVD mortality than did men who were fit and obese. We observed similar results for fat and fat-free mass in relation to mortality. Unfit men had a higher risk of all-cause and CVD mortality than did fit men in all fat and fat-free mass categories. Similarly, unfit men with low waist girths (<87 cm) had greater risk of all-cause mortality than did fit men with high waist girths (> or =99 cm). CONCLUSIONS: The health benefits of leanness are limited to fit men, and being fit may reduce the hazards of obesity.  (+info)

Read chapter APPENDIX D: Differential Mortality Estimates Derived from Fertility History Data: Levels and Recent Trends in Fertility and Mortality in Colo...
The strength of natural selection is directly related to the degree of differential mortality in the population. If the probability of survival for an individual is a function of the value of a particular trait, then that trait is subject to selection pressures (assuming, of course, that the trait is heritable). Selection will not occur if the probability of mortality is the same for all individuals.. The relationship between mortality and a traits value need not be a linear one for selection to occur. The probability of mortality may increase with the trait value, decrease with the trait value, increase with extreme trait values, increase for intermediate trait values or density dependent; an infinite array of possibilities exist. ...
Downloadable! We study how mortality reductins and income growth interact, looking at their relationship prior to the Industrial Revolution, when income per capita was stagnant. We first present a model of individual medical spending giving a rationale for individual health expenditures even when medicine was not effective in postponing death. We then explain the rise of effective medicine by a learning process function of expenditures in health. The rise in effective medicine can then be linked to the take-off of the eighteenth century through life expectancy increases, and fostered capital accumulation. The rise of effective medicine has also an impact on the relation between growth and inequality and on the intergenerational persistence of differences in income. These channels are operative through differential mortality induced by medicine effectiveness that turns out to determines a differential in the propensity to save among income groups.
Relative to developed countries, there are far fewer women than men in parts of the developing world. Estimates suggest that more than 200 million women are demographically missing worldwide. To explain the global missing women phenomenon, research has mainly focused on excess female mortality in Asia.. However, as emphasized in our earlier research, at least 30 per cent of the missing women are missing from Africa. This paper employs a novel methodology to determine how the phenomenon of missing women is distributed across Africa. Moreover, it provides estimates of the extent of excess female mortality within different age groups and by disease category. The empirical results reiterate the importance of excess female mortality for women in Africa.. ...
Health Reports, volume 23, number 3. Cause-specific mortality by education in Canada: A 16-year follow-up study. Table 4 Age-standardized mortality rates per 100,000 person-years at risk for selected causes of death, by educational attainment, age group and sex, cohort members aged 25 or older at baseline, Canada 1991 to 2006
Downloadable (with restrictions)! This paper examines the impact of universal, free, and easily accessible primary healthcare on population health as measured by age-specific mortality rates, focusing on a nationwide socialized medicine program implemented in Turkey. The Family Medicine Program (FMP), launched in 2005, assigns each Turkish citizen to a specific state-employed family physician who offers a wide range of primary healthcare services that are free-of-charge. Furthermore, these services are provided at family health centers, which operate on a walk-in basis and are located within neighborhoods in close proximity to the patients. To identify the causal impact of the FMP, we exploit the variation in its introduction across provinces and over time. Our estimates indicate that the FMP caused the mortality rate to decrease by 25.6% among infants, 7.7% among the elderly, and 22.9% among children ages 1-4. These estimates translate into 2.6, 1.29, and 0.13 fewer deaths among infants, the elderly,
BACKGROUND: Until 1990, there was an upward trend in mortality from breast, lung, prostate, and colon cancers in the United Kingdom. With improvements in cancer treatment there has, in general, been a fall in mortality over the last 20 years. We evaluate regional cancer mortality trends in the United Kingdom between 1991 and 2007. METHODS: We analysed mortality trends for breast, lung, prostate, and colon cancers using data obtained from the EUREG cancer database. We have described changes in age-standardised rates (using European standard population) per 100,000 for cancer mortality and generated trends in mortality for the 11 regions using Joinpoint regression. RESULTS: Across all regions in the United Kingdom there was a downward trend in mortality for the four most common cancers in males and females. Overall, deaths from colon cancer decreased most rapidly and deaths from prostate cancer decreased at the slowest rate. Similar downward trends in mortality were observed across all regions of the
Purpose: Glycoprotein 2b3a inhibitors are still commonly utilized in patients receiving coronary interventions for stable CAD and in patients who are suffering unstable coronary syndromes (ACS). Early reports suggested improved survival in PCI with use of these agents. There is little information available on whether this mortality benefit extends more than one month after administration. In this study, we sought to determine if there is a difference in early and late mortality with administration of G2b3a inhibitors in CAD and ACS.. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed to locate randomized controlled trials of G2b3a inhibitors in patients undergoing PCI and suffering acute coronary syndromes (STEMI and ACS). Studies were included if there were reports of both 30 day and 180-365 day death rates. Meta-analyses were performed for early (,30 day), late (30-365 day) and total (0-365 day) mortality separately for stable and unstable CAD. A separate analysis of abciximab in ...
The Human Mortality Database (HMD) was created to provide detailed mortality and population data to researchers, students, journalists, policy analysts, and others interested in the history of human longevity. The project began as an outgrowth of earlier projects in the Department of Demography at the University of California, Berkeley, USA, and at the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research in Rostock, Germany (see history). It is the work of two teams of researchers in the USA and Germany (see research teams), with the help of financial backers and scientific collaborators from around the world (see acknowledgements). The Center on the Economics and Development of Aging (CEDA) French Institute for Demographic Studies (INED) has also supported the further development of the database in recent years. We seek to provide open, international access to these data. At present the database contains detailed population and mortality data for the following 39 countries or areas: ...
IHME research used de-identified death records from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and population counts from the U.S. Census Bureau, NCHS, and the Human Mortality Database and small area estimation models in order to estimate county-level mortality rates from all cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, ischemic stroke, and other types. This dataset provides estimates for age-standardized mortality rates by CVD type and sex at the county level for each state, the District of Columbia, and the United States as a whole for 1980-2014, as well as the changes in rates for each location during this period. Also included are data on the 10 counties with the highest and lowest mortality rates for each CVD type in 2014 and the top 10 causes of death by CVD type for each county. Study results were published in JAMA in May 2017 in Trends and patterns of geographic variations in cardiovascular mortality among US counties, ...
According to the National Center for Health Statistics, 2,278, 994 deaths occurred in the United States in 1994. This figure was 10,441 larger than that reported for 1993, and 103,381 more than the total for 1992. Although the number of deaths increased, the crude and age-adjusted death rates for 1994 suggest an overall improvement in the general mortality experienced by those in the U.S. The report, Advance Report of Final Mortality, 1994 presents trends and patterns in general mortality, life expectancy, and infant and maternal mortality. Also included are descriptive data on U.S. deaths and death rates, according to such demographic and medical characteristics as age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, educational attainment, State of residence, and causes of death. Data contained in this report are based on information from death certificates filed in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. ...
Buy our Recombinant Human Mortality Factor 4 like 2 protein. Ab105615 is a full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in SDS-PAGE…
This article was published in, and the following abstract copied from Social Science & Medicine.. The persistence of adult health and mortality socioeconomic inequalities and the equally stubborn reproduction of social class inequalities are salient features in modern societies that puzzle researchers in seemingly unconnected research fields. Neither can be satisfactorily explained with standard theoretical frameworks. In the domain of health and mortality, it is unclear if and to what an extent adult health and mortality disparities across socioeconomic status (SES) are the product of attributes of the positions themselves, the partial result of health conditions established earlier in life that influence both adult health and economic success, or the outcome of the reverse impact of health status on SES. In the domain of social stratification, the transmission of inequalities across generations has been remarkably resistant to satisfactory explanations. Although the literature on social ...
Majid Ezzati and colleagues analyze US county-level mortality data for 1961 to 1999, and find a steady increase in mortality inequality across counties between 1983 and 1999.
Persons with disabilities who experience problems accessing PDF files should contact [email protected] or call 301-458-4688. Worktable orig 250R lists death rates per 100,000 population for NCHS mortality tabulation list of 113 selected causes of death. Death rates are tabulated for 10-year age groups and by Hispanic origin and race for non-Hispanic population. Selected causes include such major conditions as heart disease, cancer, stroke, chronic respiratory diseases, pneumonia and influenza, diabetes, accidents (unintentional injuries), kidney conditions, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), septicemia (infection of the bloodstream), Alzheimers disease, birth defects, conditions originating in the perinatal period, complications related to pregnancy and childbirth, assault (homicide), intentional self-harm (suicide), anemia, chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, hypertension, and other major causes of death. A number of States did not provide complete confirmation of deaths from ...
In summary, OP models do not accurately describe the structure of the genetic covariance function when the genetic correlation is expected to decline significantly with age. We argued (see above) that it is these types of covariance functions that one might expect from natural stochastic processes. For relatively simple covariance structures, however, the OP models accurately estimate the surfaces (Figure 2). Flexibility from the range of allowable character process models allows a reasonable approximation to the actual covariance structure even when it is very irregular (Figure 3). Moreover, Figures 1, 2, 3 suggest that a significant strength of the character process model is its separation of variance functions from correlation functions. In all the examples, the majority of lack of fit is in the covariance (not variance) structure, suggesting the overall fit of the model is determined primarily by estimates of age-specific variances.. Age-specific mortality rates in Drosophila: In this ...
We identified eight large randomised trials which had usable post-trial data to assess legacy effects on mortality outcomes. The direct effects of the statins on mortality reduction observed during the trials were much larger than potential legacy effects observed post-trial, which suggests the rhetoric on legacy effects for statins in general may not reflect the empirical evidence. WOSCOPS was the only trial to show a possible post-trial legacy effect on all-cause and CVD-specific mortality. When we pooled data from all eight studies, we found no evidence overall of legacy effects on CVD mortality, but some evidence of possible legacy effects on all-cause mortality. In the exploratory subgroup analysis, there was some evidence of a difference in results for primary prevention compared with secondary prevention. Considering these subgroups separately, we found no evidence of legacy effects following secondary prevention trials, suggesting the importance of long-term/lifelong prevention in these ...
Our study, based on a cohort of 1 466 726 residents in Rome, and followed for 14 years, showed significant differences in mortality by occupational status and type of job both, in men and in women. Globally, we found stronger occupational inequalities in men than in women for all outcomes, except for CVD mortality. The bigger difference in mortality risk by type of job in men respect to women is coherent with reports in other settings.6 32 However, it is difficult to perform international comparison, because occupational status (ie, employed vs unemployed), and type of job (ie, skilled vs non-skilled workers), depend on the contextual productive tissue, on local legislation, and on the variables categorisation.. We found a disadvantage for all categories of occupation status in both sexes compared with the employed, except for students. This pattern, for men, was confirmed in the international literature,6 in particular in the context of other European countries, with a 64% increased risk in the ...
In all cross-shore gradient-dependent mortality models the mortality function M was determined either by the cross-shore location of the particle (ADG), or by the cross-shore location of the particle and scaled solar insolation (ADGI). The cross-shore dependence of M was similar to the horizontal diffusion function used in all models (Eq. (1)): equation(8) ADG model:M=m1+m0-m121-tanhy-y0yscale equation(9) ADGI model:M=I(t)Imaxm1+m0-m121-tanhy-y0yscalewhere. m0 is surfzone mortality, m1 is offshore mortality, y0 is the offshore edge of the surfzone, and yscale determines the cross-shore scale of the surfzone/offshore transition. Values for y0 and yscale BGJ398 mouse were 50 m and 5 m, respectively, the same values used to parameterize diffusivity (Eq. (1)). Note that in the ADG and ADGI models, mortality is not an intrinsic property of a given particle (as in the ADS and ADSI models). Instead, particles move through stationary cross-shore mortality gradients and take on different mortality rates ...
Methods Our analyses include all Asian and white deaths in the USA between 2006 and 2010, from the Center for Disease Control. Using the International Classification of Diseases (V.10), we code causes of deaths into 19 categories, based on the most common causes as well as causes particularly relevant to racial differences. We then create life tables and apply a newly-developed demographic method to determine whether Asians have longer life expectancy because they are less likely than whites to die of causes of death that strike at younger ages, or because they tend to outlive whites regardless of cause of death. ...
Five year age-standardised mortality rates by county, sex and cause are presented in this table. These allow comparison of mortality rates between populations of different age composition, and also of mortality rates over time. The age-standardised rate for an area is the number of deaths (per 100,000) that would occur if that area had the same age structure as the WHO European Standard Population and the local age-specific rates for that area applied. Confidence intervals for these rates are also presented. The data cover the years from 1980 to 2012. For 2012, year of registration data are used; for all previous years, statistics are based on year of occurrence. Note: For example, year 2011 contains 5-year mortality data aggregated for years 2007-2011. A total of 74 causes of death categories are reported. These are ordered according to the Eurostat 65 Cause of Death shortlist, along with 9 additional national categories. The classification system used for data up to and including 2006 is ICD9. ...
This report presents worldwide estimates of annual mortality from all cancers and for 18 specific cancer sites around 1985. Crude and age-standardized mortality rates and numbers of deaths were computed for 24 geographical areas. Of the estimated 5 million deaths from cancer excluding non-melanoma skin cancer, 56% occurred in developing...
Early recording of mortality rate in European cities proved highly useful in controlling the plague and other major epidemics.[14] Public health in industrialised countries was transformed when mortality rate as a function of age, sex and socioeconomic status emerged in the late 19th and 20th centuries.[15][16] This track record has led to the argument that inexpensive recording of vital statistics in developing countries may become the most effective means to improve global health.[17] Gathering official mortality statistics can be very difficult in developing countries, where many individuals lack the ability or knowledge to report incidences of death to National Vital Statistics Registries. This can lead to distortion in mortality statistics and a wrongful assessment of overall health. Studies conducted in northeastern Brazil, where underreporting of infant mortality is of huge concern, have shown that alternative methods of data collection, including the use of popular Death Reporters ...
METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured serum RA concentrations in 1499 patients with angiographically confirmed coronary artery disease (mean age, 61 years; male, 67%) recruited from October 2008 and December 2011 in the Guangdong Coronary Artery Disease Cohort. During a median (interquartile range) period of 4.4 (3.6 to 6.1) years of follow-up, there were 295 all-cause mortality, among which 208 had cardiovascular mortality. Serum RA level was significantly lower in participants with mortality (median 21 [11-47] nmol/L) than in those without mortality (median 39 [19-86] nmol/L). In multivariate analyses, the hazard ratios for total mortality among those in the lowest (referent) to highest quartiles of serum RA measured at study entry were 1.0, 0.83, 0.74, and 0.56, respectively (P-trend,0.001). For cardiovascular mortality, the comparable hazard ratios were 1.0, 0.76, 0.69, and 0.60 (P-trend,0.001). Furthermore, high RA levels (defined as ,median) were associated with lower risk of total mortality ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mortality in workers employed in pig abattoirs and processing plants. AU - Johnson, Eric S.. AU - Ndetan, Harrison. AU - Felini, Martha J.. AU - Faramawi, Mohammed F.. AU - Singh, Karan P.. AU - Choi, Kyung Mee. AU - Qualls-Hampton, Raquel. PY - 2011/8. Y1 - 2011/8. N2 - Objective: workers in slaughterhouses and processing plants that handle pigs, and pork butchers/meatcutters have been little studied for health risks associated with employment, in spite of the fact that they are potentially exposed to oncogenic and non-oncogenic transmissible agents and chemical carcinogens at work. We report here on an update of mortality in 510 workers employed in abattoirs and processing plants that almost exclusively handled pigs and pork products. Methods: standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were estimated for the cohort as a whole, and in subgroups defined by race and sex, using the corresponding US general population mortality rates for comparison. Study subjects were followed up from ...
( -- Nurses are the front-line caregivers to hospital patients, coordinating and providing direct care and delivering it safely and reliably. The goal for any hospital is to ensure that each of its patient-care units has an adequate number of nurses during every shift.
The associations between socioeconomic variables and mortality for 41,000 adults Vietnamese followed from January 1999 to March 2008 are estimated using Coxs proportionally hazard models. Also, we use decomposition techniques to investigate the relative importance of socioeconomic factors for explaining inequality in age-standardized mortality risk. The results confirm previously found negative association between mortality and income and education, for both men and women. We also found that marital status, at least for men, explain a large and growing part of the inequality. Finally, estimation results for relative education variables suggest that there exist positive spillover of education, meaning that that higher education of ones neighbors or spouse might reduce ones mortality risk.. ...
The national 10-year Development Programme for the Prevention and Care of Diabetes (DEHKO) was launched in Finland in 2000. The program focused on improving early diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and preventing diabetes-related complications. The FinDM database was established for epidemiological monitoring of diabetes and its complications. This study monitors mortality trends among people with diabetes during the DEHKO programme. A database obtained from a compilation of several administrative national health registers was used to study mortality in people with diabetes in 1998-2007. Relative excess mortality between people with and without diabetes was analyzed using Poisson regression models. The number of diabetic people in Finland increased by 66% from 1997 reaching 284 832 in 2007. Like among non-diabetic people, all-cause mortality decreased in people with diabetes. Overall excess mortality remained high in people with diabetes; in 2003-2007 RRs in the non-insulin treated was 1.82 for men and 1.95
BACKGROUND: We investigate the sex-age-specific changes in the mortality of a prospectively monitored rural population in South Africa. We quantify changes in the age pattern of mortality in a parsimonious way by estimating the eight parameters of the Heligman-Pollard (HP) model of age-specific mortality. In its traditional form this model is difficult to fit and does not account for uncertainty.. OBJECTIVE: 1. To quantify changes in the sex-age pattern of mortality experienced by a population with endemic HIV. 2. To develop and demonstrate a robust Bayesian estimation method for the HP model that accounts for uncertainty.. METHODS: Bayesian estimation methods are adapted to work with the HP model. Temporal changes in parameter values are related to changes in HIV prevalence.. RESULTS: Over the period when the HIV epidemic in South Africa was growing, mortality in the population described by our data increased profoundly with losses of life expectancy of ~15 years for both males and females. The ...
This is the first reported study of the mortality associated with LVD in an unselected population derived from the community as opposed to that of patients recruited for clinical trials. We have shown that significant LVD is associated with a substantial mortality rate of 21%, five times that of the general population with LVEF , 30% and six times that of patients with LVEF , 40%. Our study included subjects with both symptomatic and asymptomatic LVD, and is not directly comparable with other epidemiological studies of the mortality of CHF, the symptomatic end of the spectrum. At the same time, LVD in our study conferred an increment in mortality similar to that of the population in the Framingham heart studys 40 year follow-up, in which the CHF mortality rate was six times that of the age corrected normal population.3 The absolute five year all cause mortality rates in the Framingham cohort were higher (75% in men and 62% in women), as was the 34% one year mortality rate in another US study ...
Three interrelated projects together aim to develop an integrated, multifaceted understanding of the male-female health-survival paradox. Women - at least human women - tend to outlive men, but with higher disability levels at all ages. Building on our current research, we aim to analyze whether this paradox is universal or unique to our species, and whether it can be explained. Or, in other words, how much do male-female differences depend on context and species? Project 1: Male-Female Mortality Differences In this project, our focus is determining whether females, on average, always live longer than males. Our research will encompass demographic analyses to shed light on the supposed survival advantage of females by studying lifetables-from modern human populations, prehistoric human populations, and populations of nonhuman animals-that include estimates of age-specific death rates for males vs. females. We are: Analyzing thousands of years worth of human mortality data: The Paleodemographic ...
It has been well established in Australia that people who are socioeconomically disadvantaged experience higher rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality than other Australians. Further, there is evidence that the differential has widened, with relative CVD mortality inequality between Australians from the most disadvantaged areas and those from the least disadvantaged areas being higher in recent years than it was in the mid-1980s. A similar trend of widening socioeconomic inequalities in CVD mortality has also been observed in other OECD countries.This bulletin examines inequalities in CVD mortality over the 10-year period from 1992 to 2002 and hospitalisations over the period 1996-97 to 2003-04 for people aged 25-74 years to try to answer key questions in relation to mortality and significant morbidity requiring hospitalisation.. ...
Background: Earlier investigations have shown mortality effects of community socio-economic resources. However, the sex differences have not been clear and the estimates may well have been biased because of inadequate control for community factors affecting both the socio-economic resources and mortality. The objective of this study was to see whether effects appeared when time-invariant community characteristics were controlled by including community dummies (fixed effects) and whether there were differences between women and men.. Methods: Discrete-time hazard models for all-cause mortality were estimated for 1981-2002 for all Norwegians aged 60-89, using register data. There were 730000 deaths among 1.7 million people observed during 19 million person-years. Average education was measured for 433 municipalities for each of the 22 years.. Results: According to the simplest models, a high average education in the municipality is associated with increased mortality. Control for population size ...
County population figures and death statistics are acquired using CDC WONDER from the Underlying Cause of Death database. Conditions were queried for years 2006-2010 based on a selection of codes from the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), Version 10. The ICD-10 is the current global health information standard for mortality and morbidity statistics. The ICD has been maintained by the World Health Organization since its conception in 1948. A searchable, detailed list of current ICD- 10 Codes (Version 2010) is available from the World Health Organization.. Mortality rates were acquired from the source age-adjusted to the year 2000 U.S. standard. To recalculate age-adjusted mortality rates for unique service areas and aggregated county groupings, the following formula was used ...
Age-standardised mortality rates by county, sex and cause are presented. These allow comparison of mortality rates between populations of different age composition, and also of mortality rates over time. The age-standardised rate for an area is the number of deaths (per 100,000) that would occur if that area had the same age structure as the WHO European Standard Population and the local age-specific rates for that area applied. Confidence intervals for these rates are also presented. The data cover the years from 1980 to 2012. For 2012, year of registration data are used; for all previous years, statistics are based on year of occurrence. A total of 74 causes of death categories are reported. These are ordered according to the Eurostat 65 Cause of Death shortlist, along with 9 additional national categories. The classification system used for data up to and including 2006 is ICD9. From 2007, ICD10 is used. Caution should be exercised in comparing data up to 2006 with data from 2007 onwards. ...
During 2016, mortality improvement in older age groups offset large mortality increases, mostly due to external causes in middle age groups, according to the Society of Actuaries.
Lets go through a simple example to illustrate this concept. Lets pretend that the total number of cases of disease D diagnosed using stone-age test T 30 years ago was 100 in a population of 10,000 people. Of these cases, 90 died, giving us the case fatality of 90% and mortality of 9 per 1,000 population. Now, we have a new test for D, a super-Doppler-MRI-PET-cyberscan called über-T, a much more sensitive test than the old gold standard test T. And now we detect 1,000 cases of D in the population of 10,000 people. Of the 1,000 cases detected by über-T, 90 have died. The case fatality now has decreased dramatically from 90% to 9%, and we can pat ourselves on the back for a job well done, right? Not so fast, the population mortality from disease D has remained a steady 9 per 1,000 population ...
The original forms used different schedules, Form E (E), a variant on form E (WE), Form EE (EE), and a social questionairre (SE). The variable form used indicates which of these it is. Because the data were collected under different screen versions, not all variables in this release are fully compatible. Screen version is indicated in the variable source (EE=form EE version 1, SE=social form, WE=variant on form E version 1, E=form E version 1, i2=form EE version 2, i7=form EE version 3, il=form E version 2). Note that some variables may contain absurd values, so users should check for measurements that are outside of reasonable bounds. Birth place codes are given in the pdf file, birthcodes.pdf.. To report errors, or if you have questions or comments, e-mail [email protected] ...
BACKGROUND: Substantial reductions in adult mortality have been observed in South Africa since the mid-2000s, but there has been no formal evaluation of how much of this decline is attributable to the scale-up of antiretroviral treatment (ART), as previous models have not been calibrated to vital registration data. We developed a deterministic mathematical model to simulate the mortality trends that would have been expected in the absence of ART, and with earlier introduction of ART. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Model estimates of mortality rates in ART patients were obtained from the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS-Southern Africa (IeDEA-SA) collaboration ...
A study published in the Journal of Public Health finds that for each person in the U.S. who died after contracting COVID-19, an average of nearly 10 years of life had been lost. Researchers claim years of life lost is a more insightful measure than death count since it accounts for the ages of the deceased.
The objective of this study is to measure the effect on mortality rates in post-weaned pigs in a real GD farm case when a specific vaccine program with HIPRASUIS® GLÄSSER vaccine (HIPRA) was applied either in sows or piglets.. ...
RESULTS The affected subjects had a nearly 40% higher all-cause mortality risk in the 1st month after the storms, but the difference fell to ,6% by the end of the full observation period. The mortality risks of heart disease and nephritis also exhibited the largest differences immediately following the storms. Among the affected subjects, the all-cause mortality risk was higher for those who moved to a different county, with an especially large difference among those who moved to an affected county. ...
Read Healthcare :: Lower mortality rates associated with hospitals that rank highest on quality of care indicators | Spirit India
The mortality data distributed along with SEER*Stat are collected and maintained by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), part of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). The data covers all causes of death, not just cancer deaths.. SEER*Stat users can only access these data in client-server mode.. Use of the NCHS mortality data for publication purposes should include a citation of software and data source.. ...
As the result of dramatic political changes, civil wars, and a long-term refugee crisis from the end of the last to beginning of this century, the population of Serbia has experienced significant health problems. The aim of this study was to assess cancer mortality trends in Serbia. This nationwide study was carried out to analyze cancer mortality in Serbia during 1991-2015 using official data. The age-standardized mortality rates (per 100,000) were calculated by direct standardization, using the world standard population by Segi. The average annual percent change (AAPC) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were computed using joinpoint regression analysis. Age-period-cohort analysis was performed to address the possible underlying reasons for the observed temporal trends. Over the 25-year study period, there were 466,075 cancer deaths (266,043 males and 200,032 females) in Serbia. Overall cancer mortality increased between 1991 and 2009 in both males (by + 0.9% per year) and females (by + 0.8
Differential Mortality in the United States (A Study in Socio-Economic Epidemiology) by Kitagawa Evelyn M. (ISBN: 978-0-674-18844-0); Published by Harvard University Pressin Oct 2013. Compare book prices on to buy books from the lowest price among top online book retailers
Objectives. The present study aims to compare the direction and magnitude of sex differences in mortality and major health dimensions across Denmark, Japan and the US. Methods. The Human Mortality Database was used to examine sex differences in age-specific mortality rates. The Danish twin surveys, the Danish 1905-Cohort Study, the Health and Retirement Study, and the Nihon University Japanese Longitudinal Study of Aging were used to examine sex differences in health. Results. Men had consistently higher mortality rates at all ages in all three countries, but they also had a substantial advantage in handgrip strength compared with the same-aged women. Sex differences in activities of daily living (ADL) became pronounced among individuals aged 85+ in all three countries. Depression levels tended to be higher in women, particularly, in Denmark and the HRS, and only small sex differences were observed in the immediate recall test and Mini-Mental State Exam. Conclusions. The present study revealed ...
Age-adjusted death rates in the United States dropped significantly between 2005 and 2006 and life expectancy hit another record high, according to preliminary death statistics released today by CDC s National Center for Health Statistics.. The 2006 age-adjusted death rate fell to 776.4 deaths per 100,000 population from 799 deaths per 100,000 in 2005, the CDC report said. In addition, death rates for eight of the 10 leading causes of death in the United States all dropped significantly in 2006, it said. These included a very sharp drop in mortality from influenza and pneumonia.. The preliminary infant mortality rate for 2006 was 6.7 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, a 2.3 percent decline from the 2005 rate of 6.9. ...
Background: Since 2002, under the Bloomberg administration, New York City (NYC) has aggressively pursued and implemented a broad set of public health policies to reduce chronic disease. Limited research exists evaluating secular trends in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality against the backdrop of these policy initiatives.. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that CVD mortality trends declined more rapidly during the years 2002-2011 compared with the previous decade.. Methods: Using individual death certificates of NYC residents during 1990-2011, all-cause mortality rates were calculated in addition to the following cause-specific mortality rates: any CVD, atherosclerotic CVD (ACVD), coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, ischemic stroke. Mortality rates were age and sex standardized to the NYC year 2000 population. Joinpoint regression identified years in which mortality trends changed after excluding 116,285 deaths (10% of all deaths) occurring in 9 NYC hospitals (due to their participation in a ...
Australian mortality rates are higher in regional and remote areas than in major cities. The degree to which this is driven by variation in modifiable risk factors is unknown. We applied a risk prediction equation incorporating smoking, cholesterol and blood pressure to a national, population based survey to project all-causes mortality risk by geographic region. We then modelled life expectancies at different levels of mortality risk by geographic region using a risk percentiles model. Finally we set high values of each risk factor to a target level and modelled the subsequent shift in the population to lower levels of mortality risk and longer life expectancy. Survival is poorer in both Inner Regional and Outer Regional/Remote areas compared to Major Cities for men and women at both high and low levels of predicted mortality risk. For men smoking, high cholesterol and high systolic blood pressure were each associated with the mortality difference between Major Cities and Outer Regional/Remote areas-
Mortality rate; adult; female (per 1;000 female adults) in Micronesia was last measured at 152.04 in 2013, according to the World Bank. Adult mortality rate is the probability of dying between the ages of 15 and 60--that is, the probability of a 15-year-old dying before reaching age 60, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates between those ages.This page has the latest values, historical data, forecasts, charts, statistics, an economic calendar and news for Mortality rate - adult - female (per 1;000 female adults) in Micronesia.
Public health officials in Alameda County are asking local leaders to pause plans to move the county into its next phase of reopening as the novel coronavirus continues a statewide surge.. The Alameda County Public Health Department is pulling back a request to the countys Board of Supervisors to support a variance that would let the county move forward. A press release from Alameda Countys Office of Emergency Services announced that increases in COVID-19 cases and hospitalization rates have compelled the county to temporarily pause its reopening plans.. Alameda County has recorded 5,762 coronavirus cases since the beginning of the pandemic, the most of any Bay Area county. The county has added more than 700 cases to its count over the last seven days and has also recorded 13 additional deaths, bringing the COVID-19 death toll in Alameda County to 133.. We are concerned by the increase in local cases, disproportionate impact on communities of color, local impact of the outbreak at San Quentin ...
Mortality rate; under-5 (per 1;000) in Brazil was last measured at 16.40 in 2015, according to the World Bank. Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.This page has the latest values, historical data, forecasts, charts, statistics, an economic calendar and news for Mortality rate - under-5 (per 1;000) in Brazil.
There is a growing body of evidence that integrated packages of community-based interventions, a form of programming often implemented by NGOs, can have substantial child mortality impact. More countries may be able to meet Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 targets by leveraging such programming. Analysis of the mortality effect of this type of programming is hampered by the cost and complexity of direct mortality measurement. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) produces an estimate of mortality reduction by modelling the mortality effect of changes in population coverage of individual child health interventions. However, few studies to date have compared the LiST estimates of mortality reduction with those produced by direct measurement. Using results of a recent review of evidence for community-based child health programming, a search was conducted for NGO child health projects implementing community-based interventions that had independently verified child mortality reduction estimates, as well as
Given that the cohort effect can be interpreted as a special case of the interaction between two categorical variables, the equation above satisfies the assumption that there is no interaction 21. Any violation of that assumption can be detected from graphs presenting the age-specific mortality rate by period. Lack of parallelism between the curves suggests the presence of the cohort effect 22.. This study used weighted parameterization, as proposed by Holford 20, as an alternative solution to the non-identifiability problem.. Given that lung cancer is a chronic, non-communicable disease, rate is assumed in this model to be constant within each of the given age and period categories. Individuals are also assumed to be independent cases and, consequently, contributions to different cells in the data base are also independent. Accordingly, the APC models for rates can be adjusted using Poisson Regression for event counts. This methodology permits the use of an offset term log(nijk), which ...
More maps: Africa , Asia , Central America & the Caribbean , Europe , Middle East , North America , Oceania , South America , World , Development Relevance: The crude mortality rate is a good indicator of the general health status of a geographic area or population. The crude death rate is not appropriate for comparison of different populations or areas with large differences in age-distributions. Higher crude death rates can be found in some developed countries, despite high life expectancy, because typically these countries have a much higher proportion of older people, due to lower recent birth rates and lower age-specific mortality rates.. Limitations and Exceptions: Annual data series from United Nations Population Divisions World Population Prospects are interpolated data from 5-year period data. Therefore they may not reflect real events as much as observed data.. Statistical Concept and Methodology: The crude death rate is calculated as the number of deaths in a given period divided by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The intellectual disability mortality disadvantage. T2 - Diminishing with age?. AU - Landes, Scott D.. PY - 2017/3. Y1 - 2017/3. N2 - On average, adults with intellectual disability (ID) have higher mortality risk than their peers in the general population. However, the effect of age on this mortality disadvantage has received minimal attention. Using data from the 1986-2011 National Health Interview Survey-Linked Mortality Files (NHIS-LMF), discrete time hazard models were used to compare mortality risk for adults with and without ID by age and gender. Increased mortality risk was present for all adults with ID, but was most pronounced among younger age females. The mortality differential between those with and without ID diminished with increased age for both females and males. Findings support the argument that heterogeneity of frailty may explain differences in mortality risk between those with and without ID.. AB - On average, adults with intellectual disability (ID) have ...
Prostate cancer, according to the World Health Organization, is the second most common cause of cancer worldwide. With an estimated 1.1 million people affected by prostate cancer in 2012, composing 15% of all new cancer cases worldwide, this condition poses a significant burden of mortality and morbidity on society. Even though the burden of prostate cancer is present worldwide, there are disparities in mortality rates worldwide. While in Sub-Saharan Africa and Caribbean, the age-adjusted mortality rates are as high as 24 per 100,000, in Asia the age-adjusted mortality rates are as low 2.9 per 100,000. Specific countries in Sub-Saharan Africa like Uganda have a prostate cancer mortality rate as high as 38.8 per 100,000, which is close to the incidence rate of 48.2 per 100,000. Even though in the United Kingdom the incidence rate is much higher at 111.1 per 100,000, the mortality rate is comparable to that of Sub-Saharan Africa at 22.8 per 100,000. As demonstrated in this global review of prostate cancer
article{f694784f-8231-4893-a2d2-c04b98a02454, abstract = {Objective: Cigarette smoking has been reported as probable risk factor for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), a poorly understood disease in terms of aetiology. The extensive longitudinal data of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) were used to evaluate age-specific mortality rates from ALS and the role of cigarette smoking on the risk of dying from ALS. Methods: A total of 517,890 healthy subjects were included, resulting in 4,591,325 person-years. ALS cases were ascertained through death certificates. Cox hazard models were built to investigate the role of smoking on the risk of ALS, using packs/years and smoking duration to study dose-response. Results: A total of 118 subjects died from ALS, resulting in a crude mortality rate of 2.69 per 100,000/year. Current smokers at recruitment had an almost two-fold increased risk of dying from ALS compared to never smokers (HR = 1.89, 95% C.I. 1.14-3.14), ...
This dissertation consists of three comparative studies of health and mortality which address major topics in the field: persistent mortality disparities within the U.S., how mortality in the U.S. compares to other high-income countries, and early life determinants of adult morbidity in developing countries. The design of these studies is predicated on the belief that we can draw meaningful inferences from comparisons across populations. Chapter I examines the contribution of smoking to black-white mortality differences above age 50 from 1980-2005. This study shows that smoking-attributable mortality accounted for 20-40% of the black-white mortality gap among males between 1980-2005, but accounted for almost none of the black-white mortality gap among females. The results support the hypothesis that later initiation and lower rates of smoking cessation among black men may contribute to their higher levels of smoking-related mortality relative to white men. Chapter II provides a comprehensive assessment
Objectives The study investigated the relationship between shiftwork and mortality, both total mortality and cause-specific mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and diabetes.. Methods The cohort consisted of 2354 shiftworkers and 3088 dayworkers in two pulp and paper manufacturing plants. The mortality of the cohort was monitored from 1 January 1952 to 31 December 2001 by linkage to the national Cause of Death Register. Groups of workers defined by different durations of shiftwork exposure were compared with dayworkers by calculating standardized relative rates (SRR).. Results Death due to any cause (total mortality) was not higher among the shiftworkers than among the dayworkers [SRR 1.02, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.93-1.11]. A longer duration of shiftwork was associated with an increased risk of CHD, and shiftworkers with ,30 years of shiftwork had the highest risk of CHD (SRR 1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.49) Diabetes was more common as the number of shift years of exposure ...
To establish which major disorders are susceptible to increased mortality following acute admissions on weekends, compared with week days, and how this may be explained. Cohorts based on national administrative inpatient and mortality data for 14,168,443 hospitalised patients in England and 913,068 in Wales who were admitted for 66 disorders that were associated with at least 200 deaths within 30 days of acute admission. The main outcome measure was the weekend mortality effect (defined as the conventional mortality odds ratio for admissions on weekends compared with week days). There were large, statistically significant weekend mortality effects (| 20%) in England for 22 of the 66 conditions and in both countries for 14. These 14 were 4 of 13 cancers (oesophageal, colorectal, lung and lymphomas); 4 of 13 circulatory disorders (angina, abdominal aortic aneurysm, peripheral vascular disease and arterial embolism & thrombosis); one of 8 respiratory disorders (pleural effusion); 2 of 12 gastrointestinal
Importance: In China, diabetes prevalence has increased substantially in recent decades, but there are no reliable estimates of the excess mortality currently associated with diabetes. Objectives: To assess the proportional excess mortality associated with diabetes and estimate the diabetes-related absolute excess mortality in rural and urban areas of China. Design, Setting, and Participants: A 7-year nationwide prospective study of 512 869 adults aged 30 to 79 years from 10 (5 rural and 5 urban) regions in China, who were recruited between June 2004 and July 2008 and were followed up until January 2014. Exposures: Diabetes (previously diagnosed or detected by screening) recorded at baseline. Main Outcomes and Measures: All-cause and cause-specific mortality, collected through established death registries. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted mortality rate ratio (RR) comparing individuals with diabetes vs those without diabetes at baseline. Results: Among the 512 869 participants, the mean (SD)
Random glucose is widely measured in epidemiological studies and in the clinical setting when standardized fasting protocols and oral glucose tolerance testing or HbA1c measuring are not feasible. The relationship between random glucose and all-cause mortality has hardly been studied so far and was examined in the present study. We ascertained mortality status among 5955 persons aged 18-79 years and free of known diabetes when participating in the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (mean observation time 11.7 years, 458 deaths). Cox regression was applied to analyze the association of random serum glucose with all-cause mortality taken potential confounders into account. Relative mortality risks were estimated as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) modeling random glucose as categorical or continuous variable. Compared to random glucose levels of 4.3 - | 5.3 mmol/L, HRs (95% CIs) were 1.94 (0.85-4.45) for levels | 4.3 mmol/L and 1.16 (0.89-1.50), 1.20 (0.91
Find Psychological Testing and Evaluation Psychiatrists in Alameda County, California, get help from an Alameda County Psychological Testing and Evaluation Psychiatrist in Alameda County.
Gangelt, Germany is the first city to do random antibody testing. By testing 1,000 people, Gangelt was able to determine people who had the virus as well as those people recovered from the virus. The results will amaze you.
Ottawa - The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) today released the results of a study entitled Cancer and General Mortality in Port Hope, 1956 - 1997. The study, carried out by Health Canada and subjected to a scientific peer review by independent scientists, found that the overall cancer mortality rates in the town of Port Hope, Ontario are comparable to rates throughout the Province of Ontario.. The study was commissioned by the CNSC and conducted by scientists at Health Canada.. Using data from the Canadian Mortality Database (CMDB), the study compared rates of cancer and other causes of death in Port Hope with provincial death rates, comparing death rates back to as early as 1956. It also compared cancer mortality results with a previous cancer incidence study conducted for the Port Hope area, results of which were released in August 2000.. The findings of this recent study are consistent with the earlier cancer incidence report. On the whole, the study findings demonstrate that the ...
The impact of long-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on cause-specific mortality is poorly understood.To assess mortality risks associated with long-term NO2 exposure and evaluate confounding of this association.We examined the association between 12-month moving average NO2 exposure and cause-specific mortality in 14.1 million US Medicare beneficiaries between 2000 and 2008. Associations were examined using age, gender, and race-stratified and state-adjusted Poisson regression models. We assessed the potential for confounding by PM2.5 and behavioral covariates and unmeasured confounding by decomposing NO2 into its spatial and spatio-temporal components.We found significant associations between 12-month NO2 exposure and increased mortality from all-causes [risk ratio (RR): 1.052; 95% CI: 1.051, 1.054; per 10 ppb], cardiovascular (CVD) (1.133; 95% CI: 1.130, 1.137) and respiratory disease (1.050; 95% CI: 1.044, 1.056), all cancers (1.021; 95% CI: 1.017, 1.025), ischemic heart disease (IHD) ...
BACKGROUND: Monitoring the time trends in socioeconomic inequalities in mortality by cause is a key public health issue. The aim of this study was to compare methods to measure social inequalities in cause-specific mortality in the French population aged 25-55 years. More specifically, it compares bias and precision related to the use of occupational class declared at the last census (linked data) to the one declared at the time of death on the death certificate (unlinked data). METHODS: We used a representative sample of 1% of the French population. Causes of death were obtained by direct linkage with the French national death registry. Occupational class was classified into eight categories. Taking professionals and managers as the reference, relative risks of mortality by cause and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Poisson models for the 1983-1989, 1991-1997, and 2000-2006 periods. The relative risks were calculated with both linked data and exhaustive unlinked data. RESULTS: Over
Updated Iraq Survey Affirms Earlier Mortality Estimates. Mortality Trends Comparable to Estimates by Those Using Other Counting Methods
This study examines the relationship between economic opportunity and adolescent and young adult mortality in the United States. In addition, this study explores other variables, such as social support and rurality, and their link to young adult mortality rates. First, we examined the link between economic opportunity and all-cause mortality rates for youth ages 15 to 34 in the United States. Given the increasing racial and ethnic diversity of Americas youth, we pay particular attention to race/ethnic differences. We also examine the differences in mortality by gender.
While regional differences in life expectancy have flattened out in Switzerland, we investigate the effect of periurbanization on the geography of mortality. Using data from vital statistics and censuses, we find an increasing intra-urban differentiation of mortality since 1980, especially in the largest and most recently sprawling cities. A non-linear gradient, in which life expectancy is lower in city centres and rural areas than in urban agglomeration belts, has emerged. Age- and cause-specific mortality profiles suggest that lifestyles specific to the population of the city centres and related to the spatial concentration of disadvantaged groups play a dominant role in shaping this pattern. Considering mortality at ages 20-64, a multilevel model applied to census-linked mortality data shows how the mortality advantage observed in periurban areas can be explained by a concentration of highly educated individuals and of families. Excess mortality at ages 20-64 in city centres, by contrast, ...
Information on mortality rates for type 1 diabetes mellitus is difficult to ascertain without complete national registers of childhood diabetes, although age-specific mortality is probably double that... more
There were 3 major findings from this study (Central Illustration). First, runners had consistently lower risk of all-cause and CVD mortality compared with nonrunners. Second, running even at lower doses or slower speeds was associated with significant mortality benefits. Third, persistent running over time was more strongly associated with mortality reduction.. An earlier study found a 39% lower risk of all-cause mortality in 538 runners who were ≥50 years of age from the Runners Association database compared with 423 matched nonrunners from the Lipid Research Clinics database after adjustment for baseline age, sex, and functional ability (12). In our subsample of runners ≥50 years of age, we found 29% lower mortality risk, compared with nonrunners. The somewhat greater mortality benefits of running in the earlier study may be because runners from a running club were more likely to be health conscious, and physical activities other than running were not adjusted for in the ...
This paper documents a marked increase in the all-cause mortality of middle-aged white non-Hispanic men and women in the United States between 1999 and 2013. This change reversed decades of progress in mortality and was unique to the United States; no other rich country saw a similar turnaround. The midlife mortality reversal was confined to white non-Hispanics; black non-Hispanics and Hispanics at midlife, and those aged 65 and above in every racial and ethnic group, continued to see mortality rates fall. This increase for whites was largely accounted for by increasing death rates from drug and alcohol poisonings, suicide, and chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis. Although all education groups saw increases in mortality from suicide and poisonings, and an overall increase in external cause mortality, those with less education saw the most marked increases. Rising midlife mortality rates of white non-Hispanics were paralleled by increases in midlife morbidity. Self-reported declines in health, ...
He also said most of the structures were improvised and not appropriately designed to serve as health facilities. Health staff needed in emergency cases lived very far from the various hospitals as a result of lack of staff accommodation.. Bad Roads. Dr Kakari said easy and safe access to health facilities by the sick and expectant mothers was very crucial, however, the road infrastructure from the communities to the health centres were in a very deplorable state and that made the expectant mothers arrive at the hospital late.. To arrest the situation, he said, the metropolitan, municipal and district assemblies (MMDAs) have a critical role to play and, as a matter of urgency, they must rise up and assist to improve the bad road network to these health facilities.. He said that the biggest challenge, apart from the obsolete equipment, was staff accommodation. If the critical health staff are not accommodated within or near the health facility, it will be difficult for them to respond promptly ...
OBJECTIVES: Concern about the health hazards of exposure to workers in the ferroalloy industry has initiated this historical cohort study. The aim was to examine the mortality pattern among male employees in 12 Norwegian ferroalloy plants. METHODS: All men employed for at least six months who started their first employment during 1933-91 were eligible for the cohort. Deaths observed during 1962-90 were compared with expected figures calculated from national mortalities. Internal comparisons of rates were performed by Poisson regression analysis. The final cohort comprised 14,730 male employees who were observed for 288,886 person-years. RESULTS: Mortality from all causes of death was slightly increased (3390 deaths, standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 1.08, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.04-1.11). Regression analysis of total mortality showed a significant negative trend for the rate ratios with increasing duration of employment. An increased mortality was found among employees in urban ...
In a cohort of treated preventive cardiology clinic patients, WC predicted all-cause mortality after adjustment for commonly measured CV risk factors. Extrapolating from data presented in Table 3, a 10 cm difference in WC was associated with an increase in all-cause mortality of 20% for both genders, in DM prevalence of 40% and 50%, and CAD prevalence of 10% and 20%, for men and women, respectively. In contrast, BMI did not associate with all-cause mortality and CAD but did associate with DM prevalence. These data support the clinical utility of WC over BMI for mortality as well as DM and CAD risk prediction and support the use of obesity-specific interventions that target WC reduction and abdominal obesity rather than weight loss alone (e.g., exercise training) to improve CV outcomes in high risk populations.. The apparent lack of association of BMI with CAD and mortality demonstrated in this study is consistent with some reports (22,23,24,25), but it conflicts with population studies that have ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adrenomedullin refines mortality prediction by the BODE index in COPD: the BODE-A index.. AU - Stolz, D.. AU - Kostikas, K.. AU - Blasi, F.. AU - Boersma, W.. AU - Milenkovic, B.. AU - Lacoma, A.. AU - Louis, R.. AU - Aerts, J.G.. AU - Welte, T.. AU - Torres, A.. AU - Rohde, G.G.. AU - Boeck, L.. AU - Rakic, J.. AU - Scherr, A.. AU - Hertel, S.. AU - Giersdorf, S.. AU - Tamm, M.. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - The BODE index is well-validated for mortality prediction in COPD. of plasma proadrenomedullin, a surrogate for mature adrenomedullin, predicted 2-year mortality among inpatients with COPD exacerbation.We accuracy of initial proadrenomedullin level, BODE, and BODE components, combined, in predicting 1-year or 2-year all-cause mortality in a multinational observational cohort with stable, moderate to very severe COPD.Proadrenomedullin was significantly associated (P,0.001) with 1- mortality (4.7%) and 2-year mortality (7.8%), and comparably predictive regarding both (C ...
Discussion. TB has consistently been the leading cause of death in SA over the past two decades. From 1997 TB deaths increased, peaking in 2006 with 76 881 deaths (13% of total mortality). The number of deaths due to TB then steadily declined to 29 399 (6% of total mortality) in 2016. Reducing TB deaths to meet the End TB Strategy mortality target of a 95% reduction in TB mortality (from 2015) by 2035 is within our reach, but will require ongoing focus and effort.. From 1997 to 2006 there was a steady rise in reported TB-related mortality that can be attributed to migration, high levels of patients co-infected with TB and HIV, and the increasing burden of drug-resistant TB (DR-TB).[6-9] However, for a number of possible reasons, TB-related mortality started to decline in 2006 (Fig. 3 and Table 1). The first of these reasons is the intensified ART roll-out for adults, which resulted in marked declines in both HIV/AIDS and TB mortality after 2006.[10,11] According to National Department of Health ...
Background. Past research has shown that individuals who have had experiences of out-of-home care (OHC) in childhood have increased risks of premature mortality. Prior studies also suggest that these individuals are more likely to follow long-term trajectories that are characterised by economic, work-, and health-related disadvantages, compared to majority population peers. Yet, we do not know the extent to which such trajectories may explain their elevated mortality risks. The aim of this study is therefore to examine whether trajectories of economic, work-, and health-related disadvantages in midlife mediate the association between OHC experience in childhood and subsequent all-cause mortality.. Methods. Utilising longitudinal Swedish data from a 1953 cohort (n = 14,294), followed from birth up until 2008 (age 55), this study applies gender-specific logistic regression analysis to analyse the association between OHC experience in childhood (ages 0-19; 1953-1972) and all-cause mortality (ages ...
There is currently very limited data and evidence on the impacts of COVID-19 on people with disabilities and pre-existing health conditions, with no disability-disaggregated data on mortality rates available in the public sphere. However, reports from the media, disability advocates and disabled peoples organisations (DPOs) point to several emerging impacts, including primary and secondary impacts including on health, education, food security and livelihoods. Most of the available data is from high income countries (HICs) though reports from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are likely to emerge. Evidence was gathered by a rapid desk based review. Gaps are identified. The section concerned with lessons drawn from similar epidemics draws heavily on lessons learned from the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in 2014-2016, and touches on lessons from the Zika outbreak in 2015-2016 and the SARS pandemic in the early 2000s.10 It also touches briefly on SARS, MERS and H1N1 (swine flu). Primary and ...
Mental health effects on mortality were fully attenuated by physical health in men, and partially so in women. Neither mental nor physical health mediated the effect of each other on mortality risk for either gender. We conclude that physical health is a stronger predictor of mortality risk than mental health ...
Discussion. A brief explanation will be given of the meaning assigned to each of the factors studied before addressing the results. Vulnerability has diverse meanings depending on the disciplinary approach. However, within health sciences it is frequently used to denominate health problems, harm or negligence; from this perspective, vulnerability is intimately related to the differential risk, either observed or expected, and enables the definition of vulnerable populations in reference to the enhanced susceptibility to adverse effects on health 22. Biodiversity is the degree of variety in nature in terms of genes, species, or ecosystems present in a determined region 23. The relationship between diminished biodiversity and an increment in the occurrence of emergent and re-emergent infectious diseases has been described 24,25,26.. Urbanization is a social phenomenon characterized by the relative growth in the population residing in urban zones, along with underlying changes in inhabitants ...
LR- Volkswagens Emissions Fraud May Affect Mortality Rate in Europe - posted in Risks & Survival: Volkswagens Emissions Fraud May Affect Mortality Rate in Europe View the tweet
BACKGROUND: While there is a long history of measuring death and disability from injuries, modern research methods must account for the wide spectrum of disability that can occur in an injury, and must provide estimates with sufficient demographic, geographical and temporal detail to be useful for policy makers. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 study used methods to provide highly detailed estimates of global injury burden that meet these criteria. METHODS: In this study, we report and discuss the methods used in GBD 2017 for injury morbidity and mortality burden estimation. In summary, these methods included estimating cause-specific mortality for every cause of injury, and then estimating incidence for every cause of injury. Non-fatal disability for each cause is then calculated based on the probabilities of suffering from different types of bodily injury experienced. RESULTS: GBD 2017 produced morbidity and mortality estimates for 38 causes of injury. Estimates were produced in terms ...
... temporal shift in the rate of mortality Mortality rate or death rate Mortality salience, awareness of one's eventual death ... Mortality may also refer to: Fish mortality, a parameter used in fisheries population dynamics to account for the loss of fish ... Look up mortality in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Mortality is the state of being mortal, or susceptible to death; the ... a property of a Turing machine if it halts when run on any starting configuration Mortality rate, a measure for the rate at ...
Mortality. Atlantic Books Ltd. ISBN 978-1-4555-0275-2 Buckley, Christopher (30 August 2012) "Review of Mortality: Staying Power ... "Mortality by Christopher Hitchens - review" in The Observer Eaton, George (7 September 2012) "Mortality by Christopher Hitchens ... "The real struggle in Mortality is not with mortality. Hitchens cleaves to the logical conclusion of his materialism. He hints, ... Mortality is a 2012, posthumously published book by Anglo-American writer Christopher Hitchens. It comprises seven essays which ...
... is the mortality of children under the age of five. The child mortality rate, also under-five mortality rate, ... Wikiquote has quotations related to Child mortality. Scholia has a topic profile for Child mortality. "Child mortality ... Child mortality has been dropping as each country reaches a high stage of DTM. From 2000 to 2010, child mortality has dropped ... It encompasses neonatal mortality and infant mortality (the probability of death in the first year of life). Reduction of child ...
F with M being Natural mortality and F being Fishing mortality (combined mortality from landings plus discard mortality) you ... The mortality can be divided into two types: Natural mortality: the removal of fish from the stock due to causes not associated ... In fisheries models natural mortality is denoted by (M). Fishing mortality: the removal of fish from the stock due to fishing ... Mortality estimates are important to managers. Determining mortality rates are critical for determining abundance of fish ...
... is highly manipulated by one's self-esteem. Individuals with low self-esteem are more apt to experience the ... Mortality salience engages the conflict that humans have to face both their instinct to avoid death completely, and their ... One such study divided a group of judges into two groups-one that was asked to reflect upon their own mortality, and one group ... Mortality salience is the awareness by individuals that their death is inevitable. The term derives from terror management ...
... with use of the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist associated with reduced mortality at 30 days. Mortality directly related to ... Perioperative mortality has been defined as any death, regardless of cause, occurring within 30 days after surgery in or out of ... In this study the overall global mortality rate was 1·6 per cent at 24 hours (high HDI 1·1 per cent, middle HDI 1·9 per cent, ... Perioperative mortality figures can be published in league tables that compare the quality of hospitals. Critics of this system ...
Page on Old Mortality at the Walter Scott Digital Archive Old Mortality at Project Gutenberg Old Mortality public domain ... The title is a reference to a location mentioned in Old Mortality. "Old Mortality". Edinburgh University Library. Retrieved 15 ... The Tale of Old Mortality, ed. Mack, 372-82. "Introduction to Old Mortality" by Walter Scott (1830) "Craignethan Castle". ... Old Mortality is one of the Waverley novels by Walter Scott. Set in south west Scotland, it forms, along with The Black Dwarf, ...
"Ashen Mortality". Art For The Ears Zine. 10 November 1999. Retrieved 8 November 2016. "Tim Cooper 1969 - 2006: Ashen Mortality ... "ASHEN MORTALITY". RockDetector. Retrieved 8 November 2016. Spencer, John (14 August 1999). "Ashen Mortality - Your Caress". The ... Cummings, Tony (1 December 1993). "Review: Ashen Mortality - Ashen Mortality". Cross Rhythms. Retrieved 8 November 2016. ... Demos Ashen Mortality (1993) Separation (1994) DaRanco, Mike. "Biography: Ashen Mortality". AllMusic. Retrieved 8 November 2016 ...
In times of high infant mortality rates, women reproduced earlier in life. In times of extremely high infant mortality rates, ... measured by infant mortality rates. The study demonstrates that in times of historically low infant mortality rates, women ... people perceive themselves to be more susceptible to extrinsic mortality factors rather than intrinsic mortality factors. In ... Extrinsic mortality plays a significant role in evolutionary theories of aging, as well as the discussion of health barriers ...
List of countries by infant mortality rate List of countries by maternal mortality ratio Maternal mortality Miscarriage ... Infant mortality is the death of young children under the age of 1. This death toll is measured by the infant mortality rate ( ... Forms of infant mortality: Perinatal mortality is late fetal death (22 weeks gestation to birth) or death of a newborn up to ... The child mortality rate, but not the infant mortality rate, was an indicator used to monitor progress towards the Fourth Goal ...
Neonatal mortality rate, Postneonatal mortality rate, Infant mortality rate, and Maternal mortality rate (with example ... Other specific measures of mortality include: For any of these, a "sex-specific mortality rate" refers to "a mortality rate ... In 1990, the mortality rate of children under 5 years of age was 144 per thousand, but in 2015 the child mortality rate was 38 ... Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year; thus, a mortality rate of 9.5 (out of ...
Human Mortality Database, Short-term Mortality Fluctuation data series EuroMOMO Homepage CDC (US Center for Disease Control) ... After some periods with excess mortality, however, there has also been observed a decrease in overall mortality during the ... In May 2020, the Human Mortality Database project launched a new data series, the Short-term Mortality Fluctuation series (STMF ... European mortality monitoring activity), monitors mortality across 24 European countries in order to detect and measure excess ...
Neonatal mortality refers to death of a live-born baby within the first 28 days of life. Early neonatal mortality refers to the ... Perinatal mortality (PNM) refers to the death of a fetus or neonate and is the basis to calculate the perinatal mortality rate ... Neonatal mortality and postneonatal mortality (covering the remaining 11 months of the first year of life) are reflected in the ... Some definitions of the PNM include only the early neonatal mortality. Neonatal mortality is affected by the quality of in- ...
... refers to the art and science of determining likely future mortality rates. It is especially important in ...
Philip K. Hooper proved in 1966 that the mortality problem is undecidable. However, it can be shown that the set of Turing ... In computability theory, the mortality problem is a decision problem which can be stated as follows: Given a Turing machine, ... in the mortality problem the tape can have arbitrary content, including infinitely many non-blank symbols written on it. ...
... , also known as Extraction, is the debut studio album by the American Christian thrash metal band ... Extraction from Mortality gained notice among non-Christian metal fans, and Believer was signed to Roadrunner Records in 1990. ... For years Extraction from Mortality was hard to find, and copies sold for high prices in internet auctions. A label called M8 ... In 1989, Believer was signed to R.E.X. Records which published Extraction from Mortality. The album was mostly distributed to ...
... by maternal mortality ratio List of countries by death rate Maternal mortality Maternal Mortality Ratio vs Maternal Mortality ... The maternal mortality ratio is a key performance indicator (KPI) for efforts to improve the health and safety of mothers ... As of the 2015 data published in 2016, the countries that have seen an increase in the maternal mortality ratio since 1990 are ... With an exceptionally high mortality ratio compared to other U.S. states, the government of Texas created the Maternal ...
A mass mortality event (MME) is an incident that kills a vast number of individuals of a single species in a short period of ... Mass mortality events are not uncommon for saiga. In 1981, 70,000 died; in 1988 there were 200,000 deaths; and more recently, ... According to The Guardian, this was the largest avian mortality event on record in the region. Records of MMEs have been kept ... It was suggested, though not proven, that this gender-biased mortality was caused by Streptococcus sanguinis, a bacterium ...
The standardized mortality ratio is the ratio of observed deaths in the study group to expected deaths in the general ... Regarding occupational uses: Mortality tables are also often used when numbers of deaths for each age-specific stratum are not ... It is also used to study mortality rate in an occupationally exposed population: Do people who work in a certain industry, such ... An example might be a cohort study into cumulative exposure to arsenic from drinking water, whereby the mortality rates due to ...
The force of mortality μ(x) uniquely defines a probability density function fX(x). The force of mortality μ ( x ) {\ ... In actuarial science, force of mortality represents the instantaneous rate of mortality at a certain age measured on an ... To do this, integrate the force of mortality over the interval x to x + t ∫ x x + t μ ( y ) d y = ∫ x x + t − d d y ln ⁡ [ S ( ... In this case, the force of mortality is μ ( y ) = A + B c y for y ⩾ 0. {\displaystyle \mu (y)=A+Bc^{y}\quad {\text{for }}y\ ...
... may refer to: Morbidity and Mortality (journal), now known as Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, a ... or poor health Mortality (disambiguation) Mortality rate, a measure of the number of deaths in a given population This ... disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Morbidity and mortality. If an internal link led you here, you may ... weekly publication by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and mortality conference, a periodic conference ...
The risk of mortality (ROM) provides a medical classification to estimate the likelihood of inhospital death for a patient. The ... The ROM class is used for the evaluation of patient mortality. Case mix index Diagnosis codes Severity of illness Alemi, F., J ...
Guide to mortality statistics in England and Wales from the Wellcome Library Map of bills of mortality area (Use dmy dates from ... Bills of mortality were the weekly mortality statistics in London, designed to monitor burials from 1592 to 1595 and then ... The last surviving bill of mortality is believed to be from 28 September 1858. The area fixed in 1636, adding only St Mary le ... The population of the parishes in Bills of mortality area, as it was fixed in 1726, consisting of some 21,587 acres (87.36 km2 ...
... Retrieved June 20, 2014. "The Human Mortality Database". Human Mortality Database. Retrieved February ... "The Human Mortality Database (HMD)". DLab, University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved June 20, 2014. "The Berkeley Mortality ... "The Human Mortality Database". Retrieved June 20, 2014. "Human Mortality Database (ICPSR 00138)". Inter-university Consortium ... the Berkeley Mortality Database is now superseded by the Human Mortality Database, but the BMD is still available online ...
Late-life mortality plateau This is used synonymously with "mortality leveling-off", or rather to refer to the region where ... The rates of late-life mortality are important for pensions. For example, the mortality rates in late life (after age 85) are ... Late-life mortality deceleration is a well-established phenomenon in insects, which often spend much of their lives in a ... Given that mortality deceleration in humans had been observed in various studies, but disappeared on the careful analysis (of ...
Maternal death in fiction is a common theme encountered in literature, movies, and other media. The death of a mother during pregnancy, childbirth or immediately afterwards is a tragic event. The chances of a child surviving such an extreme birth are compromised. In literature, the death of a new mother is a powerful device: it removes one character and places the surviving child into an often hostile environment which has to be overcome. In Murasaki Shikibu's novel The Tale of Genji, Genji's first wife, Aoi no Ue was suffering form attacking of Lady Rokujō's spirit during her pregnancy. She died after giving birth to her son Yūgiri. In Cao Xueqin's novel Dream of the Red Chamber, Xiang Ling, the maid and concubine of Xue Pan, dies in childbirth, giving birth to her daughter Ning Xiner. However, this plot only appears in Gao E's continuation. The original author only demonstrates her fate is death, in a poem. In the Grimm Brothers' Snow White, Snow White's mother died in childbirth. Soon ...
Child mortality, which is also known as under-5 mortality, refers to the death of infants and children under the age of five. ... Under-five mortality rate Ghana excelled in taking action to bring down the under-five mortality rate, and as a result has seen ... Child Mortality in Ghana describes the child mortality in the country of Ghana. Like in other parts of the world, child ... Reduction of child mortality was the fourth of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals. Child Mortality Rate is the ...
The compensation law of mortality (or late-life mortality convergence) states that the relative differences in death rates ... The compensation law of mortality also represents a great challenge for many theories of aging and mortality, which usually ... The age at which this imaginary (extrapolated) convergence of mortality trajectories takes place is named the "species-specific ... Look up compensation law of mortality in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Ageing Biodemography of human longevity ...
It can be found as: RAMR = (Observed Mortality Rate/Predicted Mortality Rate)* Overall (Weighted) Mortality Rate In medical ... The risk adjusted mortality rate (RAMR) is a mortality rate that is adjusted for predicted risk of death. It is usually ... In the English NHS the Summary Hospital-level Mortality Indicator, the Hospital Standardised Mortality Rate and the Risk ... then we can utilize the above formula to find the risk adjusted mortality rate which will reflect the actual mortality rate of ...
The Mortality Medical Data System (MMDS) is used to automate the entry, classification, and retrieval of cause-of-death ... About the Mortality Medical Data System Johansson, L. A.; Westerling, R. (2002), "Comparing hospital discharge records with ... There are two Mortality Medical Indexing, Classification, and Retrieval components. SuperMICAR automates the MICAR data entry ... The system has facilitated the standardization of mortality information within the United States, and ACME has become the de ...
Overall mortality among both male and female smokers in the United States is about three times higher than that among similar ... Annual Cigarette Smoking-Related Mortality in the United States, 2005-2009. Disease. Male. Female. Total. ... The major causes of excess mortality among smokers are diseases that are related to smoking, including cancer and respiratory ... Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2013: 62(08);155 [accessed 2015 Aug 17]. ...
The Underlying Cause of Death database contains mortality and population counts for all U.S. counties. Data are based on death ...
Infant mortality rate - female (deaths/1,000 live births) 2020 country comparisons, country rankings, by Rank ... NOTE: The information regarding Infant mortality rate - female (deaths/1,000 live births) on this page is re-published from the ... No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Infant mortality rate - female (deaths/1,000 live births) information contained ... All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Infant mortality rate - female (deaths/1,000 live births) should be ...
Proportionate Mortality Ratio The data used for proportionate mortality ratio (PMR) analyses are a subset of the NCHS multiple ... For each state, a rank order is presented for each of several mortality measures. Depending on the specific mortality measures ... Since 2005, any state-level mortality statistics for less than 10 decedents are also omitted from tables and figures. ... industries for exposure agents related to elevated occupational lung disease mortality are presented. For further information ...
Cleansing the umbilical cord stump or skin with chlorhexidine at birth can significantly reduce newborn infection and mortality ... "Our review findings indicate that there is high-quality evidence that the risk of omphalitis and neonatal mortality is lower ... reduced neonatal mortality by 12% in community-based studies, and reduced the incidence of umbilical cord stump infection ( ... could help reduce infant mortality in developing countries by 12% and reduce omphalitis (umbilical cord stump infection) by 50 ...
Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births) from The World Bank: Data ... Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births). Estimates developed by the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation ...
Swaroop, S., Albrecht, R. M. & Grab, B. (‎1956)‎. Accident mortality among children. Bulletin of the World Health Organization ...
content/rand/blog/jcr:content/par/bloglist .topic.mortality The RAND Blog. Mortality. ... Mortality. commentary. Estimates of COVID-19s Fatality Rate Might Change. And Then Change Again.. With infections of the new ... Mortality. commentary. Americans Dying Twice as Fast as French from Treatable Conditions. Despite high per-capita expenditures ... The possible effects of families on health and mortality is an extremely complex topic. No single study or type of study is ...
Morbidity and Mortality. Survival correlates with gestational age for infants who are appropriate for gestational age (AGA). In ... Although the mortality rate has greatly diminished with the use of surfactants, the proportion of surviving infants with severe ... In the last decade, surfactants have been widely used to treat RDS, and mortality from RDS has been reduced by 50%. It had been ... NEC accounts for approximately 2,600 neonatal deaths annually, with a mortality rate of 15-30%. [91, 92, 93, 94] ...
Swaroop, S., Albrecht, R. M. & Grab, B. (‎1956)‎. Accident mortality among children. Bulletin of the World Health Organization ...
... infant mortality rate - Featured Topics from the National Center for Health Statistics ... Tags infant mortality rate, infant mortality rates QuickStats: Infant Mortality Rates by Race and Hispanic Ethnicity of Mother ... Categories Deaths, mortality. Tags 2013 final data, infant death, infant deaths, infant mortality rate, mortality patterns, ... Mortality in the United States, 2012. A new NCHS report presents 2012 U.S. final mortality data on deaths and death rates by ...
What caused the spike in mortality in England and Wales in January 2015?J R Soc Med2017;110:131-7. doi:10.1177/0141076817693600 ... The subsequent very high excess mortality was a consequence of the inability of the health and care system to match the surge ... What is driving all cause excess mortality? BMJ 2022; 376 :o100 doi:10.1136/bmj.o100 ... One of the largest spikes in "all cause excess mortality" since the Second World War was in January 2015. Research on the ...
Pneumonia and Influenza Mortality Surveillance from the National Center for Health Statistics Mortality Surveillance System. {{ ...
MAXIMUM 150 WORDS: Remember: front load your paragraphs! This content should include a strong opening sentence describing the health topic in the Eastern Mediterranean (include key words "Eastern Mediterranean" and health topic name for search engine optimization). You should focus on the issue as it relates to the Region and the magnitude of problem in the region, as well as a brief mention of current situation/problem.. ...
Mortality rate, infant, male (per 1,000 live births) from The World Bank: Data ... Mortality rate, infant, male (per 1,000 live births). Estimates developed by the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality ...
Does the fluid retention affect mortality? The current study, published in the September 29, 2007 issue of the Lancet, was ... However, lack of a difference in cardiovascular mortality among the TZDs brings into question the clinical relevance of these ... Cite this: Glitazones increase heart failure but not mortality in new meta-analysis - Medscape - Sep 27, 2007. ... Instead, they looked at overall cardiovascular mortality. This finding neither confirms nor refutes the hypothesis that TZDs ...
... Welcome to the California infant mortality dashboard based on state- and county-level data for 2007-2019. ...
... by state do not take into account other state specific population characteristics that may affect the level of mortality. When ...
Kaplan-Meier estimates of the 10-year cumulative total cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD mortality. CVD mortality is death ... as CVD mortality has declined relative to CVD morbidity in recent decades.10 ,11 This relative decline in mortality can be ... yielding a 10-year CVD mortality rate of 3.9% (95% CI 3.6% to 4.1%). The overall ratio of total CVD/CVD mortality was 5.4. Of ... 4 and using CVD mortality only can result in underestimation of the total CVD burden.5 Although mortality is a more robust ...
Morbidity and mortality meetings are common but there are few reports of hospital-wide mortality-review processes to provide ... Hospital mortality has been a key quality measure since Nightingale created league tables comparing mortality rates for London ... The hospital standardized mortality ratio fallacy: a narrative review. Med Care 2012;50:662-7. doi:10.1097/MLR.0b013e31824ebd9f ... The morbidity and mortality conference in university-affiliated pediatric departments in Canada. J Pediatr 2005;146:1-2. doi: ...
Subjective Mortality Risk and Bequests. Published in: Journal of Econometrics Volume 188, Issue 2 (October 2015), Pages 514 - ...
The Mortality issue. November/December 2022. Is there a limit to human life? Is old age a disease? Plus reprogramming aging ...
Maternal mortality lecture 0; url= ... International Education Week: Maternal mortality lecture. UT Health San Antonio is marking International Education Week with a ... International Education Week: Maternal mortality lecture Time & Date. Monday, November 5, 2018 ... The post International Education Week: Maternal mortality lecture appeared first on UT Health San Antonio. ...
Goal 3.1 Reduction of Maternal Mortality. By 2030, reduce the global maternal mortality rate to less than 70 deaths per 100,000 ... Maternal Mortality in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. A high number of women die every day due to complications ... Maternal mortality is a challenge for global public health services, which is why it was included as part of the Sustainable ... The World Health Organization (WHO) has defined maternal mortality as "the death of a woman during pregnancy or up to 42 days ...
Infant, Neonatal, and Postneonatal Mortality by Race:. Indiana Residents by County, 5 Year Totals, 2012-2016. ... Infant, Neonatal, and Postneonatal Mortality by Race:. Indiana Residents by County, 2016. ...
  • NCHS released a report last week that presents 2013 U.S. final mortality data on deaths and death rates by demographic and medical characteristics. (
  • The U.S. infant mortality rate plateaued during 2000-2005, then declined from 6.86 infant deaths per 1,000 live births in 2005 to 6.14 in 2010. (
  • That large parts of the health and care system will be overwhelmed is now inevitable, and in this wave particularly, covid deaths may only be a lesser part of the subsequent avoidable mortality. (
  • 3 The number of non covid deaths arising from "excess mortality" will undoubtedly rise dramatically over the next three months as a result of the health and care system being overwhelmed. (
  • Morbidity and mortality meetings are common but there are few reports of hospital-wide mortality-review processes to provide understanding of quality-of-care problems associated with patient deaths. (
  • Despite these concerns, mortality rates will remain an important quality indicator for several reasons: death is a highly visible and usually undesirable outcome, most deaths occur in hospitals 6 , 7 and increased mortality rate can be caused by poor-quality care. (
  • A natural step for hospitals tracking mortality rates is to create processes to investigate deaths and determine if care could be improved. (
  • By 2030, reduce the global maternal mortality rate to less than 70 deaths per 100,000 live births. (
  • Results - A total of 333,344 patients were studied, of whom 2826 died within 30 days of surgery (overall crude mortality rate 8.5 deaths per 1000). (
  • Hospitals doing a maternal mortality review are looking at how to respond to women,' said Deborah Kaplan, assistant commissioner of New York City's Bureau of Maternal, Infant and Reproductive Health, which is helping hospitals assess the city's 141 maternal deaths that occurred between 2001 and 2005. (
  • In brief, understanding the impact of extreme heat and air pollution on mortality can reduce premature deaths. (
  • Looking at the number of total deaths can help to overcome some of these differences in national practices whilst also providing a better view of the overall impact of COVID 19, by taking into account not just the possible underreporting of COVID 19 deaths but also indirect mortality caused, for example, by health systems not being able to cope with other conditions - acute and chronic. (
  • The excess mortality rate was +3% in July 2020 (10 000 excess deaths) and +6% in July 2021 (21 000 excess deaths). (
  • This information comes from data on excess mortality published by Eurostat today, based on a weekly deaths data collection. (
  • The article presents a handful of findings from the more detailed Statistics Explained articles on excess mortality and weekly deaths . (
  • Excess mortality refers to the number of deaths from all causes measured during a crisis, above what could be observed in 'normal' conditions. (
  • The excess mortality indicator draws attention to the magnitude of the health crisis by providing a comprehensive comparison of additional deaths amongst European countries and allows for further analysis of the causes. (
  • But India's reported mortality rate - calculated by the number of deaths per 100 confirmed cases - is surprisingly low compared to other countries with high infection rates. (
  • Infant mortality is measured by the Infant Mortality Rate, which is the number of infant deaths per 1,000 live births. (
  • According to the documentary "Unnatural Causes" ( ), produced by California Newsreel, "Infant mortality among white American women with a college degree or higher is about 4 deaths per thousand births. (
  • The Fetal Infant Mortality Review (FIMR) is designed to learn what can be done to prevent fetal and infant deaths occurring in the City of Milwaukee. (
  • While the majority of maternal deaths occur in developing countries, the United States is one of just 13 countries with a rising maternal mortality rate . (
  • Pneumonia and influenza (P&I) was listed as an underlying or contributing cause of death for 7.4% of all deaths reported through the 122 Cities Mortality Reporting System for the week ending February 3, 2007. (
  • In response to the United Nations' Millennium Development Goal (MDGs) which called, through MDG4,to "reduceby two thirds the under-5 child mortality, between 1990 and 2015", global organizations and many countries set targets and developed specific strategies to reduce child mortality and monitor progress.As a result, the number of deaths in children under-5 worldwide declined from 12.4 million in 1990 to 6.6 in 2012. (
  • In order to continue the progress in reducing under-5 child mortality worldwide, current efforts must continue and new strategies need to be implemented to focus on preventing neonatal deaths as they start to represent a larger proportion of under-5 child deaths. (
  • The maternal mortality ratio (MMR) is the number of maternal deaths during a given time period per 100,000 live births during the same time-period. (
  • The maternal mortality ratio can be calculated by dividing recorded (or estimated) maternal deaths by total recorded (or estimated) live births in the same period and multiplying by 100 000. (
  • Because maternal mortality is a relatively rare event, large sample sizes are needed if household surveys are used to identify recent maternal deaths in the household (e.g. last year). (
  • It should be noted, regarding the sisterhood method results in pregnancy-related mortality, that regardless of the cause of death, all deaths occurring during pregnancy, birth or the six weeks following the termination of the pregnancy are included in the numerator of the maternal mortality ratio. (
  • Reproductive Age Mortality Studies (RAMOS) is a special study that uses varied sources, depending on the context, to identify all deaths of women of reproductive age and ascertain which of these deaths are maternal or pregnancy-related. (
  • Mortality is the number of deaths from a particular disorder occurring in a specified group per year. (
  • Mortality is usually expressed as a total number of deaths. (
  • Post-Soviet Russia has become a net mortality society, steadily registering more deaths than births. (
  • The results of meta-analyses by setting showed chlorhexidine cord and skin care reduced the newborn infection rate by 23% in hospital-based studies, reduced neonatal mortality by 12% in community-based studies, and reduced the incidence of umbilical cord stump infection (omphalitis) by 52% in the community setting. (
  • Our review findings indicate that there is high-quality evidence that the risk of omphalitis and neonatal mortality is lower with chlorhexidine intervention compared with usual care in the community setting," the authors write. (
  • There is some uncertainty as to the effect of chlorhexidine applied to the umbilical cords of newborns in hospital settings on neonatal mortality. (
  • Regarding maternal vaginal chlorhexidine compared with usual care, the intervention "probably leads to no difference in neonatal mortality in hospital settings," they conclude. (
  • Earlier, at the 47th session of the Regional Committee, Member States had adopted the Regional Strategy on Reproductive Health for the accelerated reduction of maternal and neonatal mortality in the Region. (
  • We used the Lives Saved Tool, a linear mathematical model with input data from the Afghanistan Demographic Health Survey 2015, to calculate the additional maternal, neonatal and child mortality at 25%, 50%, 75% and 95% reduction in health coverage. (
  • However, two major challenges face the international community: The wide disparity in the risk of child death among countries, and the emerging role of neonatal death as a major component of child mortality. (
  • In particular, further reduction in neonatal mortality will depend heavily on improving maternal health (MDG5).The world leaders continue to support the MDGs. (
  • Prematurity is one of the most prevalent causes of neonatal mortality worldwide. (
  • Low-dose high-frequency simulation training reduces early neonatal mortality. (
  • Mduma E, Ersdal HL, Svensen E, Perlman J. Low-dose high-frequency simulation training reduces early neonatal mortality. (
  • Specifically, the report measures the impact on infant mortality differences of two major factors: the percentage of preterm births and gestational age-specific infant mortality rates. (
  • Ohio has one of the highest infant mortality rates in the country. (
  • Racial disparities in infant mortality rates persist even after taking education and income into account. (
  • We saw lowest mortality for any BMI, probably because the BMI is less related to cancer than to some other diseases. (
  • The COVID-19 ASDR varied substantially within country (e.g., a 5-fold difference among the highest and lowest mortality states in Germany). (
  • In France and Japan, the two countries with the lowest mortality rates of all the countries studied, an average citizen shares between 68 and 69 percent of their lifetime income. (
  • The lowest mortality rate was seen in Asian patients, followed by Black patients. (
  • to assess the incidence of mortality and lethality caused by COVID-19 from March 2020 to June 2021 in the State of Goiás, Brazil. (
  • The second wave from December 2020 to June 2021 was more lethal and had higher mortality rates than the first wave. (
  • 1. The maternal mortality ratio in the African Region, at an average of 940 per 100,000 live births, is the highest in the world. (
  • The infant mortality rate fell to 47 per 1000 live births in 2019 from 91 per 1000 live births in 2000 (4). (
  • The under-5 mortality rate decreased to 60 per 1000 live births in 2019 from 129 per 1000 live births in 2000 (4). (
  • The major causes of excess mortality among smokers are diseases that are related to smoking, including cancer and respiratory and vascular disease. (
  • What is driving all cause excess mortality? (
  • One of the largest spikes in "all cause excess mortality" since the Second World War was in January 2015. (
  • The subsequent very high excess mortality was a consequence of the inability of the health and care system to match the surge in demand with an appropriate surge response. (
  • Excess mortality in the EU climbed to +16% in July 2022 from +7% in both June and May. (
  • Excess mortality continued to vary across the EU Member States, with eight Member States recording values above the EU average. (
  • Several Member States have recorded an increase in excess mortality rate in July 2022 compared to the previous month, the highest such increases occurred in Greece (+24 percentage points (pp) ), Spain (+21 pp) and Italy (+20 pp. (
  • Although excess mortality was observed during most of the past two years across Europe, the peaks and intensity of outbreaks varied greatly between countries. (
  • For further analysis, you can read the Statistics Explained article on excess mortality and use the interactive tool by selecting the country you would like to analyse. (
  • Please note that while a substantial increase in excess mortality largely coincides with the COVID-19 outbreak, this indicator does not discriminate among the causes of death and does not identify differences between sex or age. (
  • We assessed the use of basic health services and estimated excess mortality resulting from the interruption to healthcare funding. (
  • Sustaining the current level of health services delivery is crucial to avoid excess, preventable morbidity and mortality in Afghanistan. (
  • The study also showed that the excess mortality was 22% higher during the pandemic, compared to other time periods. (
  • This study shows that excess mortality went up dramatically in the food/agriculture sector during the state's first shelter-in-place period. (
  • The disparities between childbirth mortality rates in different countries are great. (
  • The DRB release numbers for results using the Mortality Disparities in American Communities data are CBDRB-FY19-310 and CBDRB-FY19-400. (
  • Instead, they looked at overall cardiovascular mortality. (
  • The most recent ESC guidelines on cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention suggest that there is a fixed relationship between CVD mortality and the total burden of CVD events, defined as the composite of fatal and non-fatal CVD. (
  • 5 Although mortality is a more robust clinical outcome, cardiovascular morbidity is equally relevant to providers of healthcare, policy makers and insurance companies. (
  • The data presented in this analysis confirm that the current thresholds are indicative of increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk with both kidney filtration function and urine protein contributing to risk. (
  • So what we do is we separate into cardiovascular mortality, cancer mortality and other mortality. (
  • And for cardiovascular mortality results were very similar to what we saw for all-cause mortality, and so it was for the category of other mortality. (
  • I can just give you numbers for cardiovascular mortality. (
  • So in the '70s the lowest BMI…the BMI with the lowest cardiovascular mortality was 23.2, and then in the '90s 24, and then up to current date, 2003 to '13, it was 26.4. (
  • The CDC lists cardiovascular disease, hemorrhage, and embolism amongst the leading causes of maternal mortality that occur during the birth process. (
  • The risk and reality of this effect is not being clearly communicated in the public domain as part of the UK's "pandemic related mortality" reporting. (
  • Countries with higher all-cause mortality prior to the COVID-19 experienced higher COVID-19 mortality than countries with lower all-cause mortality prior to the pandemic. (
  • H1N1 mortality is similar to that of the 1918 Spanish Influenza pandemic, when American Indians and Alaska Natives died at a similar rate. (
  • an analysis of mortality and case fatality rates helps understand the COVID-19 pandemic behavior in Goiás. (
  • All-cause mortality (per 1,000 patient-years). (
  • Before 1990, the US had declining mortality rates that were comparable to many European nations . (
  • People with high levels of albumin in their urine were at markedly higher risk of mortality than people with low levels of albumin in the urine,' noted lead author Kunihiro Matsushita, MD, PhD, who is a postdoctoral fellow with the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health's Department of Epidemiology. (
  • Statbel has updated its provisional mortality figures until 3 April 2022. (
  • Based on the available information, some of the mortality increase in July 2022 compared to the same month of the past two years may be due to the heatwaves that have affected parts of Europe during the reference period. (
  • Over the past decade, maternal health experts and advocates have tried to raise the alarm about the dramatic increase in maternal mortality and morbidity. (
  • Sub-Saharan African countries such as Senegal share the lowest percentage of their lifetime income and have the highest mortality rate of all the countries studied. (
  • It should be noted that the Central-West region of Brazil is one of the regions with the lowest number of cases, but the states of this region together have the highest mortality rate of COVID-19 in the country. (
  • What our study shows is that there is no significant difference in mortality between patients with metabolic alkalosis and those with acidosis and normal pH. (
  • Join the P4HE Collaborative as we discuss pregnancy-related mortality through the lens of abortion access and other policy decisions. (
  • Highlight the state of pregnancy-related mortality in women and birthing people and racial/ethnic inequities. (
  • Explore next steps by identifying solutions that will reduce pregnancy-related mortality rates and address inequities. (
  • 4. It is in the interest of all Member States to identify possible strategies and initiatives for accelerating the reduction of maternal mortality. (
  • In turn, reduction in mortality may explain why hibernators have slower life history traits than non-hibernators of the same size. (
  • Individuals in expansion states experienced a 0.132 percentage point decline in annual mortality, a 9.4 percent reduction over the sample mean, as a result of the Medicaid expansions. (
  • In 2021, the SOA released a new mortality improvement model, MIM-2021. (
  • 2021) Deep-learning-assisted analysis of echocardiographic videos improves predictions of all-cause mortality. (
  • According to data from a 2011 cohort study, infants born at 23-25 weeks' gestation who received antenatal exposure to corticosteroids had a lower rate of mortality and complications compared with those who did not have such exposure to corticosteroids. (
  • These data provide information on mortality patterns among U.S. residents by such variables as sex, race and ethnicity, and cause of death. (
  • Welcome to the California infant mortality dashboard based on state- and county-level data for 2007-2019. (
  • Few data are available on the association between the present low levels of air pollution in Western Europe and mortality. (
  • That's the indication from the most recent data on maternal mortality here, which show black women are nearly eight times more likely to die during pregnancy or right after childbirth than white mothers. (
  • We use large-scale federal survey data linked to administrative death records to investigate the relationship between Medicaid enrollment and mortality. (
  • Medicaid and Mortality: New Evidence From Linked Survey and Administrative Data, " The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 136(3), pages 1783-1829. (
  • Medicaid and Mortality: New Evidence From Linked Survey and Administrative Data, " The Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol 136(3), pages 1783-1829. (
  • The maternal mortality ratio can be calculated from data collected through civil registration vital statistic (CVRS) systems, household surveys or other sources. (
  • Data on maternal mortality and other relevant variables are obtained through databases maintained by WHO, the United Nations Population Division, UNICEF, and The World Bank Group. (
  • For the remainder of countries/territories - those with no nationally representative eligible maternal mortality data - a statistical model is employed to predict maternal mortality levels. (
  • Case-control study by means of data bank linkage from the Mortality Information System (SIM, 2008-11) and the Information System on Births (SINASC) to identify risk factors for infant mortality in Palmas/TO. (
  • Data were evaluated by logistic regression according to a hierarchic model of infant mortality determination.139 cases and 417 controls participated in the study. (
  • Interim life tables, mortality and population data over the period 2009 to 2013 (centred on the 2011 Census) were aggregated to achieve a minimum sample size required for the calculation of small area level life expectancies using the Chiang II method. (
  • Using underlying cause of death and occupation data for 2011 to 2015 from Statistics South Africa, age-standardised mortality rates (ASMRs) were calculated for all persons of working age (15 to 64 years) by the direct method using theWorld Health Organization (WHO) standard population. (
  • High-risk TB occupations can be identified from mortality data. (
  • The Underlying Cause of Death database contains mortality and population counts for all U.S. counties. (
  • Key demographic trends in fertility, mortality, and migration are responsible for shifts in the overall structure of any population. (
  • Although adjusted for differences in age-distribution and population size, rankings by state do not take into account other state specific population characteristics that may affect the level of mortality. (
  • We investigated the ratio of total CVD to CVD mortality in a large population-based cohort. (
  • Methods CVD mortality and total CVD (fatal plus non-fatal CVD requiring hospitalisation) were analysed using Kaplan-Meier estimates among 24 014 men and women aged 39-79 years without baseline CVD or diabetes mellitus in the prospective population-based European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk cohort. (
  • This new version of the scales reflects historical U.S. population mortality experience through 2019. (
  • eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and albumin to creatinine ratio 10 mg/g or more are independent predictors of mortality risk in the general population,' the authors conclude. (
  • Population-level mortality burden. (
  • The Infant Mortality Rate is commonly accepted as a measure of the general health and well-being of a population. (
  • California's Latino population overall saw a 36% increase in mortality during the study period, 59% increase among Latino food and agricultural workers. (
  • The country's population has been shrinking, its mortality levels are nothing short of catastrophic, and its human resources appear to be dangerously eroding. (
  • ASMR for TB mortality decreased from 165.9 to 88.8 per 100,000 population from 2011 to 2015. (
  • The rate of mortality increases with lower eGFR. (
  • 15 ml/min/1.73m 2 , not on dialysis or with a transplant) have the highest mortality rates over time, while those in earlier stages of CKD had lower rates of mortality. (
  • Although the overall rheumatoid arthritis-related mortality rates have been decreasing in recent years, rates of mortality among patients with rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease remain stable. (
  • Although the overall rheumatoid arthritis-related mortality rates have been decreasing in recent years, rates of mortality among patients with rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) remain stable, except for in patients aged 65 to 84 years, for whom outcomes have improved, according to findings published in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society . (
  • Although Hispanic patients had lower RA-related rates of mortality than White patients, they had higher RA-ILD-related rates. (
  • Comparing the level of mortality across countries has proven difficult because of inherent limitations in the most commonly cited measures (e.g., case-fatality rates). (
  • Consistently strong public health measures may have lessened the level of mortality for some European and North American countries. (
  • Using CVD mortality to estimate total CVD risk leads to serious underestimation of risk, particularly in younger age groups, and particularly in women. (
  • 1 , 2 It is suggested that in high-risk individuals with a 10-year CVD mortality risk of ≥5%, as estimated using Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), total CVD is threefold higher, and possibly more in young men, and less in women and in older individuals. (
  • From a patient's perspective, total CVD risk is the most relevant parameter for initiating CVD prevention, 4 and using CVD mortality only can result in underestimation of the total CVD burden. (
  • Black smoke and PM10 were positively associated with increased risk of mortality. (
  • Additionally, an increase in albumin, a protein that is elevated in the urine when the kidneys are damaged, and a greater ratio of urinary albumin to creatinine (a product of creatine breakdown) were associated with significantly increased all-cause mortality risk. (
  • The risk of mortality was elevated by nearly 50 percent at 30 mg/gram albumin to creatinine ratio, which is the threshold for defining chronic kidney disease. (
  • In addition, mortality risk increased more than four-fold at high levels of albuminuria compared to an optimal level of 5 mg/gram. (
  • Importance - Previous research has demonstrated that patients undergoing elective surgery on the weekend had an adjusted risk of 30-day mortality that was significantly higher than that of patients operated upon during the week. (
  • Conclusions - Similar to previous studies in distinct health care systems, patients in Ontario undergoing elective surgery on the weekend experienced an increased risk of 30-day postoperative mortality. (
  • In fact, light drinkers have a lower combined risk of overall mortality or cancer compared to those who never drink, their research revealed. (
  • Low mortality rate is often associated with slow life history, and so far, has mainly been assessed through examinations of specific adaptations and lifestyles that limit mortality risk. (
  • Besides these molecular (such as oxidative stress tolerance), physiological/anatomical (such as chemical protection, horns and antlers) or lifestyle (such as arboreality) adaptations that reduce mortality risk, the organization of activity time budgets should be particularly important in shaping the variety of life histories observed in the wild. (
  • The post hoc analysis explores the "unexpected" increase in CV mortality associated with such dual antiplatelet therapy, compared with aspirin only, that had been seen in "asymptomatic" patients in the Clopidogrel for High Atherothrombotic Risk and Ischemic Stabilization Management and Avoidance (CHARISMA) study, observe the authors, led by Dr Thomas H Wang (Cleveland Clinic, OH). (
  • Cooks ranked a mortality risk ratio of 1.60 and just above those working in packaging (1.59 risk ratio), agriculture workers (1.55 risk ratio), bakers (1.50 risk ratio) and construction workers (1.49 risk ratio). (
  • Not only does risk come in higher for cooks but chefs, head cooks and bartenders came in with a higher-than average mortality rates. (
  • Since these babies are born before time, premature mortality is primarily related to the immaturity of the vital organs, making them prone to a higher risk of infections. (
  • Many children suffer an elevated risk of mortality and chronic malnutrition months after acute infectious illnesses. (
  • Our team is leading a multi-country network of clinical research centers from Sub-Saharan Africa, South East Asia, the UK, and the USA dedicated to identifying risk factors that increase mortality, hospital readmission, and poor recovery in children who are malnourished and suffering from acute infection. (
  • What is driving Gujarat's high mortality rate? (
  • In contrast, many of the largest countries and economies in these regions may continue to experience a high mortality level because of poor implementation and adherence to such measures. (
  • We have found that it often affects young, otherwise healthy vaccine recipients and that it is associated with a high mortality. (
  • Under-5 child mortality dropped in all regions of the world. (
  • Although the mortality rate has greatly diminished with the use of surfactants, the proportion of surviving infants with severe sequelae, such as chronic lung disease, cognitive delays, cerebral palsy, and neurosensory deficits (ie, deafness and blindness), has not improved as significantly. (
  • How Can You Address Maternal Mortality Inequities? (
  • Conclusions The relationship between 10-year total CVD and CVD mortality is dependent on age and sex, and cannot be estimated using a fixed multiplier. (
  • Conclusions Our institution-wide mortality review found many quality gaps among decedents, in particular inadequate discussion of goals of care. (
  • Overall mortality among both male and female smokers in the United States is about three times higher than that among similar people who never smoked. (
  • Black babies in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania-and across America-face much higher mortality rates than white babies. (
  • Undergoing elective surgery on the weekend was associated with a 1.96 times higher odds of 30-day mortality than weekday surgery (95% confidence interval, 1.36-2.84) in a propensity-matched analysis. (
  • Dr. L. Castrodale and his associates from the Alaska Division of Public Health theorize that the higher mortality rate among American Indians and Alaska Natives is be related to their higher prevalence of chronic health conditions, poor living conditions, and delayed access to care. (
  • The study revealed a 43.8% mortality or removal rate at 28 days after listing, suggesting the need for giving these patients a higher priority for transplant. (
  • In these countries, the mortality rate of children and young people up to the age of 20 is also higher than in the other countries studied. (
  • The mortality rates are lower than in sub-Saharan Africa, but higher than those of Western Europe, Australia, Japan and Taiwan. (
  • However, the organization of activity time budgets also needs to be considered, since some activities and the time afforded for performing them may expose animals to higher mortality risks such as increased predation and/or increased metabolic stress. (
  • But among African American women with the same level of education, infant mortality is about 10 per thousand births - almost three times higher. (
  • 2 , 5 , 13 ] A study found that mortality after cancer diagnosis was higher among male patients with breast cancer compared with their female counterparts. (
  • It was observed, higher scores of case fatality and mortality belonged to males and the elderly. (
  • Both RA and RA-ILD-related mortality rates were higher among women and older age groups. (
  • Nathan W. Klopmeier , Sarah M. Pesi , Gail Morris , and Mike Conner "Sinkholes as a Source of Wildlife Mortality," Southeastern Naturalist 17(4), (1 November 2018). (
  • Therefore, researchers sought to remedy this by describing RA and RA-ILD-related mortality trends and rates from 2005 to 2018, in the United States, stratified by demographics. (
  • Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate mortality odds ratios (MORs) for occupation groups, adjusting for age, sex, year of death, province of death, and smoking status. (
  • While some point to the state's high disease burden, others say that it's not unique to Gujarat - in fact Tamil Nadu has more diabetics than any other state, but its mortality rate is far lower. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Maternal mortality in Gujarat. (
  • Maternal mortality in Gujarat. (
  • The low-cost broad-spectrum antiseptic agent, which is active against common organisms causing perinatal infections, could help reduce infant mortality in developing countries by 12% and reduce omphalitis (umbilical cord stump infection) by 50%, according to the authors of a systematic literature review published March 4 in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews . (
  • A health center in Dayton is one of four in Ohio selected to pilot a prenatal care program designed to lower the state's infant mortality rate. (
  • Overall, there is a direct correlation between the maintenance of an exclusive human milk diet and lower mortality when compared to a bovine milk-based diet derived from dairy products. (
  • See Comparability of Cause-of-death Between ICD Revisions at . (
  • For about half of the countries included in the estimation process, country-reported estimates of maternal mortality are adjusted for the purposes of comparability of the methodologies. (
  • Researchers at Geisinger have found that a computer algorithm developed using echocardiogram videos of the heart can predict mortality within a year. (
  • The effect of particulates on acute mortality was independent of these pollutants. (
  • A new NCHS report investigates the reasons for the United States' high infant mortality rate when compared with European countries. (