HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Poliovirus: A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Adenoviruses, Human: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Ribonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Cell Extracts: Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Cell Nucleolus: Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.UridineCentrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Tissue Culture Techniques: A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Rhinovirus: A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE inhabiting primarily the respiratory tract of mammalian hosts. It includes over 100 human serotypes associated with the COMMON COLD.Dactinomycin: A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.RNA, Heterogeneous Nuclear: Nuclear nonribosomal RNA larger than about 1000 nucleotides, the mass of which is rapidly synthesized and degraded within the cell nucleus. Some heterogeneous nuclear RNA may be a precursor to mRNA. However, the great bulk of total hnRNA hybridizes with nuclear DNA rather than with mRNA.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Adenovirus Early Proteins: Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.RNA Precursors: RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.TritiumCell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Cytotoxins: Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Ribonucleoproteins, Small Nuclear: Highly conserved nuclear RNA-protein complexes that function in RNA processing in the nucleus, including pre-mRNA splicing and pre-mRNA 3'-end processing in the nucleoplasm, and pre-rRNA processing in the nucleolus (see RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEOLAR).Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Enterovirus B, Human: A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins: A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. Although considered ribonucleoproteins they are primarily classified by their protein component. They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Shigella flexneri: A bacterium which is one of the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) and sometimes of infantile gastroenteritis.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.RNA Cap-Binding Proteins: Proteins that specifically bind to RNA CAPS and form nuclear cap binding protein complexes. In addition to stabilizing the 5' end of mRNAs, they serve a diverse array of functions such as enhancing mRNA transport out of the CELL NUCLEUS and regulating MRNA TRANSLATION in the CYTOPLASM.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Connexins: A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.RNA, Small Nuclear: Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
When a cytocidal virus infects a permissive cell, the viruses kill the host cell through changes in cell morphology, in cell ... For example, HeLa CCL-2 is a common cell line used in a wide variety of research areas. To test the purity of the HeLa cells, ... discrepancy is due to the heterogeneous nature of the commercial HeLa cells as compared to the homogeneous nature of HeLa cells ... These CPEs included morphology changes and cell morbidity rates. Carson et al. determined that the ...
2004). "Chromosome-induced microtubule assembly mediated by TPX2 is required for spindle formation in HeLa cells". Nat. Cell ... "hTPX2 is required for normal spindle morphology and centrosome integrity during vertebrate cell division". Curr. Biol. 12 (23 ... 2004). "Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (33): 12130-5. ... Cell. Biol. 25 (23): 10516-27. doi:10.1128/MCB.25.23.10516-10527.2005. PMC 1291225 . PMID 16287863. Ma Y, Lin D, Sun W, et al ...
... morphology and STR analysis. One significant cell-line cross contaminant is the immortal HeLa cell line. As cells generally ... cells Cell-to-cell contact can stimulate cell cycle arrest, causing cells to stop dividing, known as contact inhibition. Cell- ... Plant cell lines Tobacco BY-2 cells (kept as cell suspension culture, they are model system of plant cell) Other species cell ... Cancer Cells in Culture Evolution of Cell Culture Surfaces Hypertext version of the Cell Line Data Base Microcarrier Cell ...
2004). "Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (33): 12130-5. ... 2006). "Prostate-derived sterile 20-like kinase 2 (PSK2) regulates apoptotic morphology via C-Jun N-terminal kinase and Rho ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. Raman M, Earnest S, Zhang K, et al. (2007). "TAO kinases mediate activation of ... 2006). "Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks". Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. ...
Measured HeLa cell mass». BioNumbers. دریافت‌شده در ۲۰۱۱-۱۰-۰۹. .. *↑ «Estimated HeLa cell mass». BioNumbers. دریافت‌شده در ... Fonseca, Agustin E.; Westgate, Mark E.; Grass, Lahcen; Dornbos, David L. (2003). "Tassel Morphology as an Indicator of ... Rout, M. P. (1993). "Isolation of the yeast nuclear pore complex". The Journal of Cell Biology. 123 (4): 771-783. doi:10.1083/ ... How big is a yeast cell and what is it's mass» (PDF). دریافت‌شده در ۲۰۱۱-۱۰-۰۹. .. ...
"Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... Pak DT, Yang S, Rudolph-Correia S, Kim E, Sheng M (August 2001). "Regulation of dendritic spine morphology by SPAR, a PSD-95- ... Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. Lee C, Wooldridge TR, Laimins LA (February 2007). " ...
... s represent a major sorting compartment of the endomembrane system in cells. In HeLa cells, endosomes are approximately ... They also have different morphology. Once endocytic vesicles have uncoated, they fuse with early endosomes. Early endosomes ... More pathways exist in specialized cells, such as melanocytes and polarized cells. For example, in epithelial cells, a special ... In cell biology, an endosome is a membrane-bounded compartment inside eukaryotic cells. It is a compartment of the endocytic ...
This gene was identified by its ability to suppress the tumorigenicity of Hela cells in nude mice. The protein encoded by this ... "Expression of an isoform of the novel signal transduction protein ST5 is linked to cell morphology". Oncogene. 18 (15): 2519-25 ... human chromosome 11 gene which is differentially regulated in tumorigenic and nontumorigenic somatic cell hybrids of HeLa cells ... "Differential expression of the human ST5 gene in HeLa-fibroblast hybrid cell lines mediated by YY1: evidence that YY1 plays a ...
"Measured HeLa cell mass". BioNumbers. Retrieved 2011-10-09. "Estimated HeLa cell mass". BioNumbers. Retrieved 2011-10-09. ... 2007). "The richest superclusters: I. Morphology". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 476 (2): 697-711. arXiv:0706.1122 . Bibcode: ... "How big is a yeast cell" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-08-08. Retrieved 2011-10-09. ""Rule of thumb" for cell ... "Cell dry weight - Green algae Dunaliella salina". BioNumbers. Retrieved 2011-10-14. "A quick introduction to elements of ...
"Roles for Endocytosis and Low pH in Herpes Simplex Virus Entry into HeLa and Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells". Journal of Virology ... "An anterograde rabies virus vector for high-resolution large-scale reconstruction of 3D neuron morphology". Brain Struct Funct ... WGA enters the cell by binding to Oligosaccharides, and is then taken up via endocytosis via a caveolae-dependent pathway. ... It was shown that pH and endocytosis are crucial for the HSV to infect a cell. Transport of the viral particles along the axon ...
When the endocytic pathway of HeLa cells is inhibited by overexpression of a mutant dynamin, Protein Kinase C is activated and ... and thus an embryonic morphology and phenotype in cell culture, which is suggestive that these interferon-γ treated blastocysts ... RT101 cells with perlecan knocked down by antisense did not show tumor formation in this system, however cells expressing the ... MeWo cells are characteristically less invasive than their clonal variant cell line 70W. One lab studied perlecan expression in ...
Infected insect cells (Sf9, Sf21, High Five strains) or mammalian cells (HeLa, HEK 293) allow production of glycosylated or ... The expression system C1 shows a low viscosity morphology in submerged culture, enabling the use of complex growth and ... and Schneider 2 cells and Schneider 3 cells from Drosophila melanogaster cells. With this system, cells do not lyse and several ... Cell lines used for this system include: Sf9, Sf21 from Spodoptera frugiperda cells, Hi-5 from Trichoplusia ni cells, ...
Nagata T, Nemoto Y, Hasezawa S (1992) Tobacco BY-2 cell line as the "HeLa" cell in the cell biology of higher plants. ... This knowledge is based on four concentrations of 2,4-D and comparison morphology of the sixth day of cultivation.Thus, 2,4-D ... Each of the cells has similar properties to the others. The model plant system is comparable to HeLa cells for human research. ... Tobacco BY-2 cells is a cell line of plant cells, which was established from a callus induced on a seedling of Nicotiana ...
In HeLa cells in vitro, the force generated by a half-deformed mitotic cell is on the order of 50 to 100 nanonewtons. Internal ... Cells abandon the spread or elongated shape characteristic of interphase and contract into a spherical morphology during ... Firstly, mitotic cell rounding in combination with maintenance of apical cell-cell junctions appears to be necessary for ... Clark, Andrew G; Paluch, Ewa (21 April 2011). "Mechanics and Regulation of Cell Shape During the Cell Cycle". Cell Cycle in ...
... famous for his innovation laborator Hela cell line) in his laboratory at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. Kamal, on her ... "Comparative morphology of normal mammary glands of four strains of mice varying in their susceptibility to breast cancer". In ... She was also responsible for establishing new research units in Carcinogenesis, Cell biology and Immunology. Her career ...
In 1991, he proposed that HeLa cells be defined as a new species, which was named Helacyton gartleri. Van Valen originated the ... "Homology and causes", Journal of Morphology 173 (1982), 305-312. "Species, sets, and the derivative nature of philosophy", ... "HeLa, a new microbial species". With Virginia C. Maiorana (1991). Evolutionary Theory, 10:71-74. "The extinction of the ...
A series of biochemical events leading to a characteristic cell morphology and death, which is not caused by damage to the cell ... Kunik T, Tzfira T, Kapulnik Y, Gafni Y, Dingwall C, Citovsky V (February 2001). "Genetic transformation of HeLa cells by ... Meristemic cell - Undifferentiated plants cells analogous to animal stem cells. Stem cell - Undifferentiated cells found in ... Cell type - Distinct morphological or functional form of cell. When a cell switches state from one cell type to another, it ...
HeLa cell[edit]. Apoptosis in HeLa[b] cells is inhibited by proteins produced by the cell; these inhibitory proteins target ... Biochemical events lead to characteristic cell changes (morphology) and death. These changes include blebbing, cell shrinkage, ... HeLa cells are an immortalized cancer cell line used frequently in research. The cell line was established by removing cells ... It can be interpreted by counting, measuring, and analyzing the cells of the Sub/G1 cell population.[91] When HeLA cells are ...
"Chromosome order in HeLa cells changes during mitosis and early G1, but is stably maintained during subsequent interphase ... "Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus". The Journal of Cell Biology. 145 (6): 1119 ... Each human cell contains around two metres of DNA, which must be tightly folded to fit inside the cell nucleus. However, in ... For example, the X-chromosome has shown to localize to the periphery more often in liver cells than in kidney cells. Another ...
... later studies indicate that Naa11 is not expressed in the human cell lines HeLa and HEK293 or in cancerous tissues, and NAA11 ... Patient fibroblasts displayed altered morphology, growth and migration characteristics and molecular studies indicate that this ... including cell migration, cell cycle control, DNA damage control, caspase-dependent cell death, p53 dependent apoptosis, cell ... Cell. 146 (4): 607-20. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2011.06.050. PMC 3182480 . PMID 21854985. Kuo HP, Lee DF, Chen CT, Liu M, Chou CK, ...
HeLa cells are an immortalized cancer cell line used frequently in research. The cell line was established by removing cells ... Biochemical events lead to characteristic cell changes (morphology) and death. These changes include blebbing, cell shrinkage, ... It can be interpreted by counting, measuring, and analyzing the cells of the Sub/G1 cell population. When HeLA cells are ... cells that are cultivated in distinct and specific conditions. An example of this can be seen in HeLa cells, whereby the cells ...
HeLa - helical computed tomography - helper T cell - hemagglutinin-neuraminidase - hemangiopericytoma - hemangiosarcoma - ... morphology - motexafin gadolinium - moxifloxacin - MPNST - MRI - MRSI - MS 209 - MS-275 - mucinous carcinoma - mucosa- ... cell - cell differentiation - cell motility - cell proliferation - cell respiration - cell adhesion - cellular adoptive ... systemic therapy T cell - T-3 - T-cell depletion - T-cell lymphoma - T138067 - T4N5 liposomal lotion - T900607 - TAC-101 - ...
2004). "Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (33): 12130-5. ... 2003). "Control of growth cone motility and morphology by LIM kinase and Slingshot via phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of ... 2003). "Cell cycle-associated changes in Slingshot phosphatase activity and roles in cytokinesis in animal cells". J. Biol. ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.01.031. PMC 2630706 . PMID 17350576. Kligys K, Claiborne JN, DeBiase PJ, et al. (2007). "The slingshot ...
2004). "Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (33): 12130-5. ... Defects in the outer dense fibers lead to abnormal sperm morphology and infertility. This gene encodes one of the major outer ... Cytogenet Cell Genet. 83 (3-4): 221-3. doi:10.1159/000015183. PMID 10072582. "Entrez Gene: ODF2 outer dense fiber of sperm ... tails 2". Kierszenbaum AL (2002). "Keratins: unraveling the coordinated construction of scaffolds in spermatogenic cells". Mol ...
... multiple esophageal cancer cell lines (TE11, YES2 ,YES5), and cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa, SiHa, and CaSki) showed ... Yang M, Bu Y, Wang C, Liu G, Song F (Sep 2010). "Growth inhibition, morphology change, and cell cycle alterations in NFBD1- ... The DDR of mammalian cells is made up of kinases, and mediator/adaptors factors. In mammalian cells the DRR is a network of ... Knock out MDC1 mice cells and silenced human cells were radiosensitive, failed to initiate Intra-S phase and G2/M checkpoints, ...
The plasmid T-DNA is integrated semi-randomly into the genome of the host cell,[7] and the tumor morphology genes on the T-DNA ... "Genetic transformation of HeLa cells by Agrobacterium". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... By altering the hormone balance in the plant cell, the division of those cells cannot be controlled by the plant, and tumors ... The ratio of auxin to cytokinin produced by the tumor genes determines the morphology of the tumor (root-like, disorganized or ...
Antiviral activity of compound was tested against morphology virus infected HeLa cell lines.. ...
Crystalline Structure and Morphology. The XRD pattern of the ZrO. 2. :. Yb. 3. +. -. Er. 3. +. nanopowder is shown in Fig. 1(a) ... Nanocrystals Incubated in HeLa Cells. Figure 6 shows the images obtained by the two-photon confocal microscope after HeLa cells ... HeLa cells were grown at a density of 5. ×. 10. 4. cells. /. mL. in six-well culture plates with coverslips at the bottom and ... nanoparticles in HeLa cells. We envision that this is a promising method for labeling different types of cancer cells for ...
HeLa Cells * Humans * Molecular Weight * Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid * Solutions Substances * Capsid Proteins ... Morphology of Single Fibres J Mol Biol. 1990 Oct 20;215(4):589-96. doi: 10.1016/S0022-2836(05)80170-6. ...
The cells were washed twice with PBS and then mounted onto slides. Cell morphology was examined under a fluorescence microscope ... Cell lines and cell culture. HeLa, HepG2, and MCF-7 cell lines were obtained from American Type Culture Collection and ... and HeLa cancer cell lines and the cytotoxic effect of sarsasapogenin in HeLa cells after 48-h incubation were determined using ... TAIII perturbs HeLa cell mitochondrial activities, which contributes to autophagy. A, changes of Δψm in cells treated with 5 ...
A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) assay and DAPI staining were used to detect the cellular morphology. Flow cytometry ... The results showed that dioscin significantly inhibited cell proliferation and caused DNA damage in HeLa and SiHa cells. The ... Our work thus demonstrated that dioscin notably induces apoptosis in HeLa and SiHa cells through adjusting ROS-mediated DNA ... the effects of dioscin against human cervical carcinoma HeLa and SiHa cells were further confirmed, and the possible mechanism( ...
a) The morphology of HeLa cells after treatment with 50 nM STS. The scale bar in (a) is 30 μm. Arrow indicates cell blebbing ... Effect of STS treatment on the NADH fluorescence lifetime of HeLa cells. (A) Two-photon FLIM micrographs of HeLa cells from the ... Normalized caspase 3 activity of HeLa cells after treatment of cells with 1 μM (b) and 50 nM (c) STS, respectively. Symbols ** ... The τm, a 1-to-a 2 ratio, τ1, and τ2 of NADH fluorescence of HeLa cells treated with 1 μM STS was plotted in the same figure ...
B) The cells were treated with 80 μmol/L oridonin for 24 h and the changes in cellular morphology were observed by fluorescence ... Effect of ROS on oridonin-induced autophagy in HeLa cells. (A-C) The cells were treated with 80 μmol/L oridonin for 24 h in the ... Treatment of HeLa cells with oridonin (20-160 μmol/L) inhibited the cell growth in time- and concentration-dependent manners. ... Effect of ROS on oridonin-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. The cells were treated with 80 μmol/L oridonin for 24 h in the ...
23 A-C demonstrate that MitoBloCK-6 does not inhibit cell growth or alter mitochondrial morphology in HeLa cells. (A) HeLa ... A) The effect of MitoBloCK-1 (MB-1) on HeLa cells was demonstrated with an MTT cell viability assay. Cultured cells were ... Briefly, HeLa or HEK293 cells were grown in 10 cm2 dishes to 80% confluency and then cells were treated with DMSO or MitoBloCK- ... Measurements of cell viability/toxicity were made with a MTT based toxicology assay kit (Sigma-Aldrich). HeLa cells were grown ...
8D). Closer examination of the spindle morphology in HeLa cells transfected with NuMA-WT (wild-type), NuMA-S1969A, and NuMA- ... Cell cycle synchronization of kinase inhibitor-treated HeLa cells was determined by flow cytometry analysis. HeLa cells were ... Western blot and flow cytometry analysis of nocodazole-arrested HeLa cells and HeLa cells collected by mitotic shake-off after ... HeLa cells were collected by mitotic shake-off and counted. Equal numbers of heavy and light HeLa cells were mixed, washed ...
Described here are probes for mitochondrial morphology, membrane potential, calcium flux, and autophagy. ... Figure 4. Imaging mitochondrial autophagy in live HeLa cells. Cells were transduced with CellLight® Mitochondria-RFP and Premo ... HeLa cells were transduced with CellLight® Mitochondria-GFP and loaded with 50 nM TMRM for 10 min at 37°C. (A-E) Images were ... including cell type, cell-cycle and differentiation stage, cellular energy level, and overall cell health. The simple act of ...
Assays for Cell Death.. For the nuclear morphology assays (18), 2 × 105 HeLa cells were cultured in 35-mm dishes containing ... A) Morphology of ASK1 transfected cells. HeLa cells were cotransfected with a β-gal expression vector and test plasmids as ... based cell morphology assay, 2 × 105 HeLa cells were cultured in 35-mm plates and cotransfected with a lacZ expression vector ( ... A HeLa cell morphology-based assay as in Fig. 2 was used to score for specific apoptosis. Plasmids used were the same as ...
Using goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC), the in vitro knockdown of LPL via shRNA or with Orlistat resulted in a similar ... Regulated Necrosis in HeLa Cells Induced by ZnPc Photodynamic Treatment: A New Nuclear Morphology ... Keywords: LPL gene; lactation; goat mammary epithelial cells; Orlistat LPL gene; lactation; goat mammary epithelial cells; ... Using goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC), the in vitro knockdown of LPL via shRNA or with Orlistat resulted in a similar ...
What is HeLa cell? Meaning of HeLa cell as a legal term. What does HeLa cell mean in law? ... Definition of HeLa cell in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... cadmium and arsenic on HeLa cells.. Effect of Chromium, Cadmium and Arsenic on Growth and Morphology of HeLa Cells ... HeLa cell legal definition of HeLa cell https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/HeLa+cell ...
The cell cycle fingerprint generated in HeLa cells was applied to five additional cancer cell lines, and we confirmed that as ... Although we followed changes in nuclear morphology and marker expression as the cells progressed through one cell cycle, ... 4B), which allowed us to construct the HeLa cell cycle HCI fingerprint. We confirmed that phenotypes observed in HeLa cell ... Well-level analysis of HeLa cell cycle progression. HeLa cells were synchronized by blocking DNA replication in early S phase. ...
HeLa cells is the oldest and most commonly used human cell line. ... HeLa cell is an immortal cell lines to be grown in the lab and ... The analysis method you use will depend on your cells morphology and growth conditions. Try the predefined setting first and ... HeLa cells were the first cell lines to be grown in the lab and are still used in countless biomedical research projects today ... HeLa cells were seeded at 1000 cells per well and allowed to grow overnight. Then they were treated with anisomycin (red ...
Biological-effects; Blood-analysis; Blood-cells; Catalysis; Cell-biology; Cell-differentiation; Cell-function; Cell-morphology ... in HeLa cells using shRNA. In cytochrome c deficient HeLa1.2 cells, electron transport was compromised due to the lack of ... A rapid and robust LC3-I/II conversion and mitochondria degradation were observed in HeLa1.2 cells treated with staurosporine ( ... Further, STS caused autophagy in mitochondria DNA-deficient p degrees HeLa1.2 cells in which both electron transport and ROS ...
Extracellular calcium regulates HeLa cell morphology during adhesion to gelatin: role of ... ... HeLa K) and its subclone, which is resistant to several drugs (HeLa CA). HeLa CA cells, obtained by treatment of HeLa K with ... HeLa cells susceptible and non-susceptible to HIV-1 were cloned and designated as P6 HeLa and N7 HeLa cells, respectively. P6 ... a hMSH2 deficient HeLa cell line (HeLa-MSH2-) was established by transfecting the HeLa cells with an antisense RNA expression ...
... regulates mitotic membrane morphology and spindle integrity in HeLa cells. Title: A requirement for epsin in mitotic membrane ... J Cell Biol, 2009 Aug 24. PMID 19704019, Free PMC Article * Solution structure of the epsin N-terminal homology (ENTH) domain ... A synthetic peptide containing the Epsin-1-(470-499) sequence could effectively block entry of HIV-1 virions into SupT1 T cells ...
An imaging system for a biological sample includes a sample container having at least one biological cell that is in contact ... HEK293 Human Embryonic Kidney Cells:. With HEK293 cells, comparable changes in cell morphology to those exhibited by HeLa cells ... human cells, non-human cells, mammalian cells, bacterial cells, yeast cells, fungal cells, algal cells and cell fragments. The ... HeLa cells, MDA-MB-231 cells, MCF-7 cells, HEK 293 cells, Jurkat, 3T3 a mouse fibroblast cells, Vero monkey cells, F11 rat ...
Lp02Δihf mutants display altered morphology in HeLa cells.As seen in Fig. 5, HeLa cell vacuoles containing Lp02 (panel A) and ... HeLa cell infection.HeLa cells were grown in minimal essential medium (MEM) as described previously (28). HeLa cells were ... including altered terminal vacuole morphology in HeLa cells and an absence of typical cyst morphology (e.g., absence of a thick ... TEM examination of HeLa cells infected with the IPTG-induced strain MGM002 (Lp02 constitutively expressing ihfA+ and infB+) ...
Cell lysis explanation free. What is Cell lysis? Meaning of Cell lysis medical term. What does Cell lysis mean? ... Looking for online definition of Cell lysis in the Medical Dictionary? ... Effect of Chromium, Cadmium and Arsenic on Growth and Morphology of HeLa Cells ... they must first be released from cell samples using a procedure called cell disruption or cell lysis.. Market profile: cell ...
The effects of Polyethyleneimine Exposure on Chromatin and Nuclear Morphology in Digitonine-Permeabilized HeLa Cell2011. *. ... In RNF4-depleted cells, both forms of TDG were efficiently degraded, suggesting that RNF4 was not the primary E3 ligase for ... Presentation] Molecular Studies on ATRA-Induced HL-60 Myeloid Leukemia Cell2011. *. Author(s). 河田仁、斉藤寿仁、他 ... Journal Article] SUMO-modification and elimination of the active DNA demethylation enzyme TDG in cultured human cells2014. *. ...
This fluorescence image gallery explores over 30 of the most common cell lines, labeled with a variety of fluorophores using ... HeLa cells were the first human cells to survive indefinitely in the laboratory. The cells exhibit epithelial morphology and ... Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma Cells (HeLa) - The HeLa line is one of the best-known cell lines in the world. Derived in 1951 ... The cells grow adherently and exhibit epithelial morphology. Epithelial cells are cells that exist in the body in sheets ...
Analysis of mitochondrial morphology.HeLa cells were transfected with the plasmid containing mitochondrially targeted DsRed ( ... Cells and cell culture.HEK293T, HeLa, PC-3, OVCAR-3, MCF7, IBR-3, and HaCaT cells were cultured in Dulbeccos modified Eagles ... C) Alterations in mitochondrial morphology were assessed by fluorescence imaging of mtDsRed-expressing HeLa cells depleted for ... Cell viability and cell proliferation.The percentage of viable cells was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- ...
Msx1 overexpression was induced in HeLa cells. Transient overexpression of Msx1 caused a change in cell morphology and a ... In brief, HeLa cells were seeded onto 96-well plates at a density of 3 × 103 cells per well. After 24 hours, the cells were ... Cell Culture, Antibodies, and Plasmids. Human cervical HeLa cells and human lung carcinoma H1299 cells were maintained in DMEM ... D, E6 colocalizes with Msx1 in the nucleus of Msx1-transfected HeLa cells. HeLa cells were transfected with pEGFP/Msx1 and then ...
  • Most cells require a surface or an artificial substrate (adherent or monolayer culture) whereas others can be grown free floating in culture medium (suspension culture). (wikipedia.org)
  • The bovine pulmonary artery endothelial ( BPAE ) cells presented in the digital image above were resident in an adherent culture stained for F-actin with Alexa Fluor 488 conjugated to phalloidin (green fluorescence), and for DNA with the bis-benzimidazole dye Hoechst 33258 (blue fluorescence). (fsu.edu)
  • These results suggest that Dock10 functions as a dual GEF for Cdc42 and Rac1, affecting cell morphology, spreading and actin cytoskeleton protrusions of adherent HeLa cells. (biologists.org)
  • Other adherent cultures cells can be grown on tissue culture plastic, which may be coated with extracellular matrix components (e.g. collagen or fibronectin ) to increase its adhesion properties and provide other signals needed for growth. (wikidoc.org)
  • HeLa-SFCs were resistant to multiple chemotherapeutic drugs and were more tumorigenic, as evidenced by the growth of tumors following injection of immunodeficient mice with 1 × 10 4 cells, compared with 1 × 10 6 parental HeLa cells required to grow tumors of similar size in the same time frame. (nature.com)
  • We further demonstrated that HeLa-SFCs expressed a higher level (6.9-fold) of the human papillomavirus oncogene E6, compared with that of parental HeLa cells. (nature.com)
  • Unlike the parental HeLa cells, the revertants expressed markedly reduced levels of the bone-liver-kidney, placental, and intestinal isoforms of alkaline phosphatase, exhibited a flat nonrefractile morphology, and failed to grow in suspension culture. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The present study examined whether this replicon, the JFH-1 replicon, can replicate in two non-hepatocyte-derived cell lines: HeLa cells established from human cervical carcinoma ( 6 ) and 293 cells established from human embryonic kidney ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • These studies confirm that Chk1 is essential to cell cycle progression and that elimination of Chk1 will be fatal in embryonic development. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To further test its role in vivo, we analyzed the gross embryonic morphology of zebrafish embryos in which gp78 was knocked down using morpholinos and in transgenic fish overexpressing wild-type gp78 or dominant-negative gp78. (umd.edu)
  • This fluorescence image gallery explores over 30 of the most common cell lines, labeled with a variety of fluorophores using both traditional staining methods as well as immunofluorescence techniques. (fsu.edu)
  • a) Morphology and fluorescence imaging ability of g‐C 3 N 4 nanosheets. (wiley.com)
  • For cells to divide successfully, a series of complex processes must occur in a timely and accurate manner, including DNA replication, condensation of chromosomes, maturation and separation of centrosomes, nuclear envelope breakdown, formation of a microtubule-based spindle lattice, sister chromatid separation and segregation, and cytokinesis. (sciencemag.org)
  • As such, a surveillance mechanism named the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) has evolved to protect cells from chromosome segregation errors during cell divisions. (springer.com)
  • 2012 ). The SAC monitors the state of attachment of chromosomes to microtubules of the mitotic spindle and halts the cell cycle until all chromosomes have achieved stable biorientation. (springer.com)
  • Formation of a bipolar spindle is indispensable for faithful chromosome segregation and cell division. (xenbase.org)
  • Garrett, hTPX2 is required for normal spindle morphology and centrosome integrity during vertebrate cell division. (xenbase.org)
  • Cilastatin attenuates cisplatin-induced cell death in proximal tubular cells without reducing the cytotoxic activity of cisplatin in tumor cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In addition to highly immuno-suppressive microenvironments caused by acidic and hypoxic conditions and enrichment of suppressive cells ( 11 - 13 ), fibrotic tumor stroma is an important factor limiting successes of cancer immunotherapy by acting as a physical barrier for CLs to access tumor cells ( 14 , 15 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Most of the tumor cells have a defect in the G 1 -S checkpoint that provides them a survival advantage. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, this defect also causes the tumor cells to be more dependent on the G 2 checkpoint when the cells encounter stimuli that threaten the genomic integrity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Abrogation of the G 2 checkpoint in the presence of DNA-damaging agents can lead to mitotic catastrophe in the tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • At the meantime, the photo-generated Pt(II) complex could serve as cytotoxic chemotherapeutics to kill the tumor cells and enhance the overall antitumor effect in a synergistic manner. (nature.com)
  • The mode of cytotoxic action of anticancer drugs often involves the induction of programmed cell death (PCD). (aacrjournals.org)
  • It was also shown that HSV-1 infection could induce programmed cell death through at least two separate pathways which were distinct from the necrotic route described above. (asm.org)
  • Antiviral activity of compound was tested against morphology virus infected HeLa cell lines. (nih.gov)
  • This study is also very similar to our method of study in that the methanol and aqueous extracts of the samples which were investigated in cytotoxicity way revealed that among the samples, Anabaena ISC 90 and Anabaena ISC 55 samples of the methanol extract and Anabaena 88 sample of the aqueous extract had a greater impact on HeLa cell lines. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • HeLa cells were the first cell lines to be grown in the lab and are still used in countless biomedical research projects today. (moleculardevices.com)
  • The laboratory technique of maintaining live cell lines (a population of cells descended from a single cell and containing the same genetic makeup) separated from their original tissue source became more robust in the middle 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numerous cell lines are well established as representative of particular cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • African Green Monkey Kidney Cell Lines - The African green monkey has been a common subject of scientific inquiry for many years and cells from the tissues of this species, Cercopithecus aethiops , along with those of the rhesus monkey, have been used to produce polio vaccines since the 1950s. (fsu.edu)
  • In addition, several normal and transformed African green monkey kidney cell lines are excellent candidates for transfection investigations with recombinant plasmids. (fsu.edu)
  • Two other transformed lines, COS-3 and COS-7, were also established by Gluzman, but COS-1 cells are unique in the fact that they contain a single integrated copy of the complete early region of SV40 DNA. (fsu.edu)
  • Culture characteristics of four permanent lines of human cancer cells. (atcc.org)
  • Functional replicons have previously been reported only for genotype 1, and efficient replications of these replicons have been accomplished only in limited human hepatocyte-derived cell lines ( 2 , 3 , 9 ). (asm.org)
  • Attempts to evaluate replication of the HCV replicon in non-hepatocyte-derived cell lines have been made previously ( 1 , 23 ). (asm.org)
  • Visible colonies were observed 3 weeks later in all three transfected cell lines (Fig. 1 ). (asm.org)
  • To estimate the correct size of replicating replicon RNA, Northern blot analysis was performed with the nine clones from each of the HeLa and 293 cell lines. (asm.org)
  • Use only Express Delivery (overnight) for cell lines. (addexbio.com)
  • Flagellates grown at the several temperatures retained infectivity for hamsters as well as for cultures of L, human heart, human liver, and HeLa cell lines. (ajtmh.org)
  • However, the mechanisms by which I-CRP exerts these effects and the type of cell death activated in these or other cell lines are still unknown. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The multiple therapeutic effects of natural compounds in traditional medicine motivate us to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of bulb of Allium atroviolaceum in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231, HeLa and HepG2 cell lines. (frontiersin.org)
  • Third, HeLa cell lines are very different. (virology.ws)
  • We monitored the cell morphology of these cell lines by microscopy, and confirmed to maintain their morphologic images in comparison with the original morphologic images from the above affiliation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • COMET assays showed that both drug candidates induced genomic damage in both cell lines. (rsc.org)
  • The U251 N PAX6 knock out cell lines generated can be used as a tool to study the molecular functions and mechanisms of PAX6 as a tumor suppressor with regard to tumor progression and treatment of glioblastoma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There are numerous well established cell lines representative of particular cell types. (wikidoc.org)
  • This study was aimed to evaluate the anticancer effects of Grailsine-Al-glycoside, the bioactive component of Rhizoma sparganii , on estrogen receptor-positive (ER + ) and estrogen receptor-negative (ER - ) cancer cell lines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study was intended to determine the anticancer activities of Grailsine-Al-glycoside from RS-W on ER + cancer cell lines, A549 and MCF-7, and ER - cancer cell lines, HeLa, and HepG-2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, 20 years after Henrietta Lacks' death, mounting evidence suggested that HeLa cells contaminated and overgrew other cell lines. (helacells.com)
  • In cytochrome c deficient HeLa1.2 cells, electron transport was compromised due to the lack of electron shuttle between mitochondrial respiratory complexes III and IV. (cdc.gov)
  • To establish a cause-effect relationship between the human mismatch repair pathway deficiency and the observed phenotypes, a hMSH2 deficient HeLa cell line (HeLa-MSH2-) was established by transfecting the HeLa cells with an antisense RNA expression plasmid. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Ratiometric imaging revealed decreased lysosomal pH in TRP-ML1-deficient cells, suggesting a disruption in lysosomal function. (rupress.org)
  • After application of five different iminothiazolidinone derivatives (Compound A-E) to HeLa cell line for 24, 48 and 72 h, antimitotic effects of all treatments were evaluated with mitotic index analysis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We generate distinct phenotypic fingerprints for each major cell cycle and mitotic compartment and use those fingerprints to screen a library of 310 commercially available chemotherapeutic agents. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Imaging fixed cells or tissue. (thermofisher.com)
  • After the cells of interest have been isolated from living tissue, they can subsequently be maintained under carefully controlled conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In practice, the term "cell culture" now refers to the culturing of cells derived from multicellular eukaryotes, especially animal cells, in contrast with other types of culture that also grow cells, such as plant tissue culture, fungal culture, and microbiological culture (of microbes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells can be isolated from solid tissues by digesting the extracellular matrix using enzymes such as collagenase, trypsin, or pronase, before agitating the tissue to release the cells into suspension. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term tissue culture arose because most of the early cells were derived from primary tissue explants, a technique that dominated the field for over 50 years. (fsu.edu)
  • Normal African Green Monkey Kidney Fibroblast Cells (CV-1) - The CV-1 cell line was initiated in March of 1964 by F. C. Jensen and his colleagues with a tissue section excised from the kidney of a normal adult male African green monkey ( Cercopithecus aethiops ). (fsu.edu)
  • In suitable tissue culture cells (for example, HeLa cells), the entire replication cycle is complete in only 6 to 8 hours and yields 10 4 to 10 5 progeny virions per cell. (sciencemag.org)
  • As infection of cells and tissue by Shigella spp. (prolekare.cz)
  • This replicon system provided higher colony formation efficiency and robust replication, not only in Huh7 cells but also in HepG2 and IMY-N9 cells ( 5 , 15 ), which were established by fusing human primary cultured hepatocytes and HepG2 cells ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • Determination of DNA content by flow cytometry demonstrated S and G2/M phase arrest of MCF-7 cell, correlated to Cdk1 downregulation, S phase arrest in MDA-MB-231 which is p53 and Cdk1 -dependent, sub-G0 cell cycle arrest in HeLa aligned with Cdk1 downregulation, G0/G1, S, G2/M phase arrest in HepG2 which is p53-dependent. (frontiersin.org)
  • Activating ATF6 promoted the development of functional vascular endothelial cells from stem cells in culture dishes, suggesting that manipulating ATF6 may facilitate the production of mesodermal tissues for research or therapy. (sciencemag.org)
  • This paper aims to critically discuss how the anticancer potential of HDAC inhibitors may elicit a response to human cancers through different cell pathways leading to cell death. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, the induction of autophagy has been also observed in malignant cells following treatment with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • MCF-7, T47-D, ZR-75) and HR-(MDA-MB-231) cells by transport studies conducted in the presence or absence of specific inhibitors. (jove.com)
  • The internalization of the conjugated nanoparticles in human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells was followed by two-photon confocal microscopy. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Su YY, Wei XP, Peng F, Zhong Y, Lu Y, Su S, Xu T, Lee ST, He Y (2012) Gold nanoparticles-decorated silicon nanowires as highly efficient near-infrared hyperthermia agents for cancer cells destruction. (springer.com)
  • Information about the mechanisms underlying the interactions of nanoparticles with living cells is crucial for their medical application and also provides indications of the putative toxicity of such materials. (wiley.com)
  • A nanothin SiO2 shell around these multifunctional nanoparticles leaves intact their morphology, magnetic and plasmonic properties but minimizes their toxicity. (nsti.org)
  • Size, surface charge and morphology of multi-shell nanoparticles were analyzed by dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy. (go.jp)
  • Protamine-functionalized multi-shell calcium phosphate nanoparticles can serve as an efficient and non-toxic gene carrier for cells. (go.jp)
  • This affects the Golgi morphology and microtubule nucleation and stability. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • One characteristic trait of SCVs is their localization to a juxtanuclear, Golgi apparatus-associated region of the host cell several hours postinfection ( 1 , 5 , 41 , 45 ). (asm.org)
  • Molecular events after antisense inhibition of hMSH2 in a HeLa cell line. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Inhibition of Chk1 provides an attractive opportunity for gene-targeted intervention that will abrogate the checkpoint and selectively enhance toxicity of the genotoxic drugs in the cancer cells ( 3 , 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • These results not only show that inhibition of Chk1 alone is sufficient to abrogate the DNA damage-induced G 2 checkpoint but also demonstrate that inhibition of Chk1 does not cause somatic cell death. (aacrjournals.org)
  • They were derived from cervical cancer cells taken in 1951 from Henrietta Lacks, a patient who later died from the disease. (moleculardevices.com)
  • Understanding the regulation and progression of the cell cycle is a critical component in combating a wide variety of human diseases, the most prominent being cancer ( 1 , 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • A complete switch from Mdm2 to E6-dependent degradation of p53 has been shown to occur in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells (9) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Therefore, combination TRAIL with other agents to overcome the low sensitivity and resistance of cancer cells to TRAIL has been a promising strategy to potentiate the therapeutic applications of TRAIL [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Huang X, Elsayed IH, Qian W et al (2006) Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods. (springer.com)
  • HeLa cells are used as a model system to demonstrate the relation between these particles and cancer cells. (wiley.com)
  • Our results support the need for further study of AuNPs for clinical development in cancer therapy since their efficacy is not limited in chronic hypoxic cells. (jove.com)
  • Ultrastructure of the cancer cell. (springer.com)
  • In dense ECM, the physical barrier function of the 3D matrix was enhanced, but the cytotoxic lymphocytes effectively killed cancer cells once they contacted with cancer cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Hence, the CACI-IMPACT platform, enabling high-throughput 3D co-culture of cytotoxic lymphocyte with cancer cells, has the potential to be used for pre-clinical evaluation of cytotoxic lymphocytes engineered for immunotherapy against solid tumors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Finally, their potential in photothermal treatment of cancer cells is investigated. (nsti.org)
  • Human lung cancer cell line H1299 and cervical cancer cell line HeLa S3 were obtained from American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA). H1299 cells were grown in RPMI 1640 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 1 m m sodium pyruvate, and 0.45% glucose at 37°C in a 5% CO 2 incubator. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Accumulating evidence supports the concept that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance. (nature.com)
  • These cells showed an expression pattern of CD44 high /CD24 low that resembles the CSC surface biomarker of breast cancer. (nature.com)
  • The concept of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is that tumors contain a small proportion of self-renewal and pluripotent cancer cells that are responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance. (nature.com)
  • 11 , 12 Although it is not clear whether oncogene expression in CSCs is different from that in other cancer cells, it is believed that these genes are vital for them. (nature.com)
  • Further, the combination of the extract with tamoxifen against MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 and combination with doxorubicin against HeLa and HeG2 demonstrated synergistic effect in most concentrations, suggests that the bulb of A. atroviolaceum may be useful for the treatment of cancer lonely or in combination with other drugs. (frontiersin.org)
  • EphA2, a member of the Eph receptor family, is frequently overexpressed in a variety of human cancers, including breast cancers, and promotes cancer cell motility and invasion independently of its ligand ephrin stimulation. (rupress.org)
  • The activation of RhoG recruits its effector ELMO2 and a Rac GEF Dock4 to form a complex with EphA2 at the tips of cortactin-rich protrusions in migrating breast cancer cells. (rupress.org)
  • In addition, the Dock4-mediated Rac activation is required for breast cancer cell migration. (rupress.org)
  • Our findings reveal a novel link between EphA2 and Rac activation that contributes to the cell motility and invasiveness of breast cancer cells. (rupress.org)
  • In addition, several recent studies have identified their roles in cancer cell migration and invasion. (rupress.org)
  • We have reported that TAK1 promotes TNF-α-induced metastasis of colon cancer cells ( 7 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Our previous studies revealed an inhibitory effect of ICD-85 (venom-derived peptides) on breast cancer cell line MDA-MB231 (22). (ac.ir)
  • In this study, we report characterization of UBE2T that was highly overexpressed in the great majority of breast cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Compounds 1 and 2 are cytotoxic against both human triple-negative breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB-231) and human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cancer cells and the activity is significantly improved by inclusion of the co-ligands 8HQ and Cl8HQ to the precursor complex Fe(L). Moreover, 1 and 2 are more active than 8HQ and Cl8HQ, particularly at lower incubation times tested, 24 and 48 h. (rsc.org)
  • In this work, we compare five approaches, one traditional and four deep-learning, for the semantic segmentation of the nuclear envelope of cervical cancer cells commonly known as HeLa cells. (crick.ac.uk)
  • Images of a HeLa cancer cell were semantically segmented with one traditional image-processing algorithm and four three deep learning architectures: VGG16, ResNet18, Inception-ResNet-v2, and U-Net. (crick.ac.uk)
  • On the other hand, liprin-β2 appears to play a role as tumor suppressor by inhibiting breast cancer cell motility and invasion. (cancerindex.org)
  • Cancer cells in hypoxic tumors are remarkably resistant to photodynamic therapy. (nature.com)
  • The cancer cells, now called HeLa cells, grew rapidly in cell culture and became the first human cell line. (helacells.com)
  • The cells of a human epithelial cancer cultivated en masse have been shown to support the multiplication of all three types of poliomyelitis virus. (helacells.com)
  • As the virus multiplied it caused in from 12 to 96 hours degeneration and destruction of the cancer cells. (helacells.com)
  • These forms are highly resistant to lysis by detergents and antibiotics and are hyperinfectious in cell-based infection models ( 14 , 19 , 26 , 27 ). (asm.org)
  • This lack of progress in the investigations regarding the virus is primarily attributable to a lack of efficient cell culture systems and small animal models of infection. (asm.org)
  • The dose of colibactin delivered to the cells varies with the number of infecting bacteria per cell (multiplicity of infection, or MOI). (bio-protocol.org)
  • Similarly to total destruction, this CPE is observed by seeding a confluent monolayer of host cell on a glass surface then introducing a viral infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cytopathic effect was observed in C6/36 cells after infection of ZIKV isolated from the progeny. (bvsalud.org)
  • The cytopathic effect (CPE) of HSV-1 infection was generally observed as the rounding up of cells almost immediately upon infection, and it tended to become more severe with increasing times of infection ( 33 ). (asm.org)
  • While it was clear that productive HSV-1 infection caused major biochemical alterations within the infected cells, which had various structural ramifications, the exact method by which the virus actually killed the cells was not well understood. (asm.org)
  • The observed death of cells following infection with wild-type HSV-1 likely resulted from some form of virus-induced necrosis leading to the classic manifestations of CPE. (asm.org)
  • Here, we show that this characteristic SCV positioning is not maintained by all SCVs during infection of HeLa cells. (asm.org)
  • Although widely used in transfections and vaccine production, Vero cells are also often utilized in the detection of verotoxins, a group of interrelated toxins produced by some strains of Escherichia coli that are a key cause of hemorrhagic colitic and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. (fsu.edu)
  • Transformed (Simian Virus 40) African Green Monkey Kidney Fibroblast Cells (COS-1) - The transformed COS-1 cell line was derived from the CV-1 fibroblast line, which was initiated in March, 1964 by F. C. Jensen and colleagues from the normal kidney of an adult African green monkey. (fsu.edu)
  • Developed by Yakov Gluzman, the COS-1 cell line differs from CV-1 due to transformation of the earlier line with an origin defective mutant of simian virus 40 ( SV40 ) that codes for wild type T-antigen. (fsu.edu)
  • Cells of this line contain HeLa marker chromosomes, and were derived via HeLa contamination. (atcc.org)
  • This line was originally thought to be derived from an epidermoid carcinoma of the larynx, but was subsequently found, based on isoenzyme analysis, HeLa marker chromosomes, and DNA fingerprinting, to have been established via HeLa cell contamination. (atcc.org)
  • ATCC confirmed this cell line is positive for the presence of human papilloma viral DNA sequences via PCR. (atcc.org)
  • The base medium for this cell line is ATCC-formulated Eagle's Minimum Essential Medium, Catalog No. 30-2003. (atcc.org)
  • A total of nine colonies for each line were cloned from pSGR-JFH1 RNA-transfected HeLa and 293 cells and expanded for further analysis. (asm.org)
  • The amount of replicon RNA in clones of each cell line varied among clones, particularly in HeLa clones. (asm.org)
  • CPEs can be used to test the purity of a certain cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, HeLa CCL-2 is a common cell line used in a wide variety of research areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • I brought with me a line of HeLa cells and used them for 30 years for our research on viruses. (virology.ws)
  • This was the cell line that I took with me to Columbia in 1982. (virology.ws)
  • The aim of the present study was to develop a PAX6 knock out cell line as a tool for molecular studies of the roles PAX6 have in attenuating glioblastoma tumor progression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Activation of tumor suppressor genes in nontumorigenic revertants of the HeLa cervical carcinoma cell line -- Boylan et al. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, the level of the polycistronic mRNAs encoding the viral E6 and E7 oncogenes were comparable in the parental HeLa cell line and the revertants. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It grew like no other cells and it became the most widely used cell line in the world and helped in many medical discoveries including the polio vaccination and currently spearing heading research in AIDS. (helacells.com)
  • It was the first human immortal cell line. (helacells.com)
  • Finally, we discuss the philosophical implications of the immortal HeLa cell line. (helacells.com)
  • Does glutamine supplementation increase radioresistance in squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix? (biomedsearch.com)