Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Ureter: One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Organogenesis: Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Cell Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.Fibroblast Growth Factor 10: A fibroblast growth factor that is a mitogen for KERATINOCYTES. It activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B and is involved in LUNG and limb development.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Odontogenesis: The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).Hyphae: Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Hair Follicle: A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Hedgehog Proteins: A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Branchial Region: A region, of SOMITE development period, that contains a number of paired arches, each with a mesodermal core lined by ectoderm and endoderm on the two sides. In lower aquatic vertebrates, branchial arches develop into GILLS. In higher vertebrates, the arches forms outpouchings and develop into structures of the head and neck. Separating the arches are the branchial clefts or grooves.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Tooth Germ: The collective tissues from which an entire tooth is formed, including the DENTAL SAC; ENAMEL ORGAN; and DENTAL PAPILLA. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Submandibular Gland: One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)Feathers: Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.WingCytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Endoderm: The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.Gastrula: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.Ear, Inner: The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Adherens Junctions: Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mucor: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order Mucorales. It is primarily saprophytic, but may cause MUCORMYCOSIS in man from spores germinating in the lungs.Nerve Tissue ProteinsMicrofilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Gastrulation: A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Time-Lapse Imaging: Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.Notochord: A cartilaginous rod of mesodermal cells at the dorsal midline of all CHORDATE embryos. In lower vertebrates, notochord is the backbone of support. In the higher vertebrates, notochord is a transient structure, and segments of the vertebral column will develop around it. Notochord is also a source of midline signals that pattern surrounding tissues including the NEURAL TUBE development.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.MSX1 Transcription Factor: A homeodomain protein that interacts with TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN. It represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES and plays a critical role in ODONTOGENESIS.Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Hepatocyte Growth Factor: Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Neural Tube: A tube of ectodermal tissue in an embryo that will give rise to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, including the SPINAL CORD and the BRAIN. Lumen within the neural tube is called neural canal which gives rise to the central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain. For malformation of the neural tube, see NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.Craniofacial Abnormalities: Congenital structural deformities, malformations, or other abnormalities of the cranium and facial bones.Mice, Inbred ICRCell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Vulva: The external genitalia of the female. It includes the CLITORIS, the labia, the vestibule, and its glands.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Developmental Biology: The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.Ectodysplasins: Transmembrane proteins belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that play an essential role in the normal development of several ectodermally derived organs. Several isoforms of the ectodysplasins exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the MRNA for the protein. The isoforms ectodysplasin A1 and ectodysplasin A2 are considered biologically active and each bind distinct ECTODYSPLASIN RECEPTORS. Genetic mutations that result in loss of function of ectodysplasin result in ECTODERMAL DYSPLASIA 1, ANHIDROTIC.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.T-Box Domain Proteins: Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Myosin Type II: The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.Limb Buds: Distinct regions of mesenchymal outgrowth at both flanks of an embryo during the SOMITE period. Limb buds, covered by ECTODERM, give rise to forelimb, hindlimb, and eventual functional limb structures. Limb bud cultures are used to study CELL DIFFERENTIATION; ORGANOGENESIS; and MORPHOGENESIS.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Somites: Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).rho GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Mammary Glands, Human: Glandular tissue in the BREAST of human that is under the influence of hormones such as ESTROGENS; PROGESTINS; and PROLACTIN. In WOMEN, after PARTURITION, the mammary glands secrete milk (MILK, HUMAN) for the nourishment of the young.Genes, Lethal: Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.Mice, Inbred C57BLTailNeurulation: An early embryonic developmental process of CHORDATES that is characterized by morphogenic movements of ECTODERM resulting in the formation of the NEURAL PLATE; the NEURAL CREST; and the NEURAL TUBE. Improper closure of the NEURAL GROOVE results in congenital NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Pupa: An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Quail: Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Palate: The structure that forms the roof of the mouth. It consists of the anterior hard palate (PALATE, HARD) and the posterior soft palate (PALATE, SOFT).Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7: A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.Embryology: The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Receptors, Notch: A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Oligonucleotides, Antisense: Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.PAX2 Transcription Factor: A paired box transcription factor that is essential for ORGANOGENESIS of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and KIDNEY.Photoreceptor Cells, Invertebrate: Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 2: A fibroblast growth factor receptor that is found in two isoforms. One receptor isoform is found in the MESENCHYME and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2. A second isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 is found mainly in EPITHELIAL CELLS and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 7 and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 10. Mutation of the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 can result in craniosynostotic syndromes (e.g., APERT SYNDROME; and CROUZON SYNDROME).Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Frizzled Receptors: A family of seven-pass transmembrane cell-surface proteins that combines with LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 or LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 to form receptors for WNT PROTEINS. Frizzled receptors often couple with HETEROTRIMERIC G PROTEINS and regulate the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Dictyostelium: A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Metamorphosis, Biological: Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.Endocardium: The innermost layer of the heart, comprised of endothelial cells.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Eye ProteinsFibroblast Growth Factor 8: A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Gene Targeting: The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.Chitin: A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cardiovascular Abnormalities: Congenital, inherited, or acquired anomalies of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, including the HEART and BLOOD VESSELS.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.

Stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. (1/8937)

The essential role of vitamin A and its metabolites, retinoids, in kidney development has been demonstrated in vitamin A deficiency and gene targeting studies. Retinoids signal via nuclear transcription factors belonging to the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) families. Inactivation of RARaplpha and RARbeta2 receptors together, but not singly, resulted in renal malformations, suggesting that within a given renal cell type, their concerted function is required for renal morphogenesis. At birth, RARalpha beta2(-) mutants displayed small kidneys, containing few ureteric bud branches, reduced numbers of nephrons and lacking the nephrogenic zone where new nephrons are continuously added. These observations have prompted us to investigate the role of RARalpha and RARbeta2 in renal development in detail. We have found that within the embryonic kidney, RARalpha and RARbeta2 are colocalized in stromal cells, but not in other renal cell types, suggesting that stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. Analysis of RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys at embryonic stages revealed that nephrons were formed and revealed no changes in the intensity or distribution of molecular markers specific for different metanephric mesenchymal cell types. In contrast the development of the collecting duct system was greatly impaired in RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys. Fewer ureteric bud branches were present, and ureteric bud ends were positioned abnormally, at a distance from the renal capsule. Analysis of genes important for ureteric bud morphogenesis revealed that the proto-oncogene c-ret was downregulated. Our results suggest that RARalpha and RARbeta2 are required for generating stromal cell signals that maintain c-ret expression in the embryonic kidney. Since c-ret signaling is required for ureteric bud morphogenesis, loss of c-ret expression is a likely cause of impaired ureteric bud branching in RARalpha beta2(-) mutants.  (+info)

FGF8 induces formation of an ectopic isthmic organizer and isthmocerebellar development via a repressive effect on Otx2 expression. (2/8937)

Beads containing recombinant FGF8 (FGF8-beads) were implanted in the prospective caudal diencephalon or midbrain of chick embryos at stages 9-12. This induced the neuroepithelium rostral and caudal to the FGF8-bead to form two ectopic, mirror-image midbrains. Furthermore, cells in direct contact with the bead formed an outgrowth that protruded laterally from the neural tube. Tissue within such lateral outgrowths developed proximally into isthmic nuclei and distally into a cerebellum-like structure. These morphogenetic effects were apparently due to FGF8-mediated changes in gene expression in the vicinity of the bead, including a repressive effect on Otx2 and an inductive effect on En1, Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression. The ectopic Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression domains formed nearly complete concentric rings around the FGF8-bead, with the Wnt1 ring outermost. These observations suggest that FGF8 induces the formation of a ring-like ectopic signaling center (organizer) in the lateral wall of the brain, similar to the one that normally encircles the neural tube at the isthmic constriction, which is located at the boundary between the prospective midbrain and hindbrain. This ectopic isthmic organizer apparently sends long-range patterning signals both rostrally and caudally, resulting in the development of the two ectopic midbrains. Interestingly, our data suggest that these inductive signals spread readily in a caudal direction, but are inhibited from spreading rostrally across diencephalic neuromere boundaries. These results provide insights into the mechanism by which FGF8 induces an ectopic organizer and suggest that a negative feedback loop between Fgf8 and Otx2 plays a key role in patterning the midbrain and anterior hindbrain.  (+info)

A Wnt5a pathway underlies outgrowth of multiple structures in the vertebrate embryo. (3/8937)

Morphogenesis depends on the precise control of basic cellular processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation. Wnt5a may regulate these processes since it is expressed in a gradient at the caudal end of the growing embryo during gastrulation, and later in the distal-most aspect of several structures that extend from the body. A loss-of-function mutation of Wnt5a leads to an inability to extend the A-P axis due to a progressive reduction in the size of caudal structures. In the limbs, truncation of the proximal skeleton and absence of distal digits correlates with reduced proliferation of putative progenitor cells within the progress zone. However, expression of progress zone markers, and several genes implicated in distal outgrowth and patterning including Distalless, Hoxd and Fgf family members was not altered. Taken together with the outgrowth defects observed in the developing face, ears and genitals, our data indicates that Wnt5a regulates a pathway common to many structures whose development requires extension from the primary body axis. The reduced number of proliferating cells in both the progress zone and the primitive streak mesoderm suggests that one function of Wnt5a is to regulate the proliferation of progenitor cells.  (+info)

The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping. (4/8937)

Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut.  (+info)

The cardiac homeobox gene Csx/Nkx2.5 lies genetically upstream of multiple genes essential for heart development. (5/8937)

Csx/Nkx2.5 is a vertebrate homeobox gene with a sequence homology to the Drosophila tinman, which is required for the dorsal mesoderm specification. Recently, heterozygous mutations of this gene were found to cause human congenital heart disease (Schott, J.-J., Benson, D. W., Basson, C. T., Pease, W., Silberbach, G. M., Moak, J. P., Maron, B. J., Seidman, C. E. and Seidman, J. G. (1998) Science 281, 108-111). To investigate the functions of Csx/Nkx2.5 in cardiac and extracardiac development in the vertebrate, we have generated and analyzed mutant mice completely null for Csx/Nkx2.5. Homozygous null embryos showed arrest of cardiac development after looping and poor development of blood vessels. Moreover, there were severe defects in vascular formation and hematopoiesis in the mutant yolk sac. Interestingly, TUNEL staining and PCNA staining showed neither enhanced apoptosis nor reduced cell proliferation in the mutant myocardium. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated that, among 20 candidate genes examined, expression of ANF, BNP, MLC2V, N-myc, MEF2C, HAND1 and Msx2 was disturbed in the mutant heart. Moreover, in the heart of adult chimeric mice generated from Csx/Nkx2.5 null ES cells, there were almost no ES cell-derived cardiac myocytes, while there were substantial contributions of Csx /Nkx2.5-deficient cells in other organs. Whole-mount &bgr;-gal staining of chimeric embryos showed that more than 20% contribution of Csx/Nkx2. 5-deficient cells in the heart arrested cardiac development. These results indicate that (1) the complete null mutation of Csx/Nkx2.5 did not abolish initial heart looping, (2) there was no enhanced apoptosis or defective cell cycle entry in Csx/Nkx2.5 null cardiac myocytes, (3) Csx/Nkx2.5 regulates expression of several essential transcription factors in the developing heart, (4) Csx/Nkx2.5 is required for later differentiation of cardiac myocytes, (5) Csx/Nkx2. 5 null cells exert dominant interfering effects on cardiac development, and (6) there were severe defects in yolk sac angiogenesis and hematopoiesis in the Csx/Nkx2.5 null embryos.  (+info)

Requirement of a novel gene, Xin, in cardiac morphogenesis. (6/8937)

A novel gene, Xin, from chick (cXin) and mouse (mXin) embryonic hearts, may be required for cardiac morphogenesis and looping. Both cloned cDNAs have a single open reading frame, encoding proteins with 2,562 and 1,677 amino acids for cXin and mXin, respectively. The derived amino acid sequences share 46% similarity. The overall domain structures of the predicted cXin and mXin proteins, including proline-rich regions, 16 amino acid repeats, DNA-binding domains, SH3-binding motifs and nuclear localization signals, are highly conserved. Northern blot analyses detect a single message of 8.9 and 5.8 kilo base (kb) from both cardiac and skeletal muscle of chick and mouse, respectively. In situ hybridization reveals that the cXin gene is specifically expressed in cardiac progenitor cells of chick embryos as early as stage 8, prior to heart tube formation. cXin continues to be expressed in the myocardium of developing hearts. By stage 15, cXin expression is also detected in the myotomes of developing somites. Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that the mXin protein is colocalized with N-cadherin and connexin-43 in the intercalated discs of adult mouse hearts. Incubation of stage 6 chick embryos with cXin antisense oligonucleotides results in abnormal cardiac morphogenesis and an alteration of cardiac looping. The myocardium of the affected hearts becomes thickened and tends to form multiple invaginations into the heart cavity. This abnormal cellular process may account in part for the abnormal looping. cXin expression can be induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in explants of anterior medial mesoendoderm from stage 6 chick embryos, a tissue that is normally non-cardiogenic. This induction occurs following the BMP-mediated induction of two cardiac-restricted transcription factors, Nkx2.5 and MEF2C. Furthermore, either MEF2C or Nkx2.5 can transactivate a luciferase reporter driven by the mXin promoter in mouse fibroblasts. These results suggest that Xin may participate in a BMP-Nkx2.5-MEF2C pathway to control cardiac morphogenesis and looping.  (+info)

Insect evolution: Redesigning the fruitfly. (7/8937)

Homeotic mutations in Drosophila can result in dramatic phenotypes that suggest the possibility for rapid morphological evolution, but dissection of the genetic pathway downstream of Ultrabithorax is beginning to reveal how wing morphology may have evolved by more gradual transformations.  (+info)

Ultrabithorax function in butterfly wings and the evolution of insect wing patterns. (8/8937)

BACKGROUND: . The morphological and functional evolution of appendages has played a critical role in animal evolution, but the developmental genetic mechanisms underlying appendage diversity are not understood. Given that homologous appendage development is controlled by the same Hox gene in different organisms, and that Hox genes are transcription factors, diversity may evolve from changes in the regulation of Hox target genes. Two impediments to understanding the role of Hox genes in morphological evolution have been the limited number of organisms in which Hox gene function can be studied and the paucity of known Hox-regulated target genes. We have therefore analyzed a butterfly homeotic mutant 'Hindsight', in which portions of the ventral hindwing pattern are transformed to ventral forewing identity, and we have compared the regulation of target genes by the Ultrabithorax (Ubx) gene product in Lepidopteran and Dipteran hindwings. RESULTS: . We show that Ubx gene expression is lost from patches of cells in developing Hindsight hindwings, correlating with changes in wing pigmentation, color pattern elements, and scale morphology. We use this mutant to study how regulation of target genes by Ubx protein differs between species. We find that several Ubx-regulated genes in the Drosophila haltere are not repressed by Ubx in butterfly hindwings, but that Distal-less (Dll) expression is regulated by Ubx in a unique manner in butterflies. CONCLUSIONS: . The morphological diversification of insect hindwings has involved the acquisition of different sets of target genes by Ubx in different lineages. Changes in Hox-regulated target gene sets are, in general, likely to underlie the morphological divergence of homologous structures between animals.  (+info)

Axial pattern flaps are pedicle grafts which incorporate a direct cutaneous artery and vein at their base. While not a true axial pattern flap, branches of the saphenous artery are the direct cutaneous artery for the reverse saphenous conduit axial pattern flap. The direct cutaneous artery and vein extend along the length of the flap for a variable distance and the terminal branches supply the subdermal, cutaneous, and subpapillary plexuses. The reverse saphenous conduit axial pattern flap is indicated for reconstruction of wounds of the distal pelvic limb.. In a 2015 study investigating the outcome of axial pattern flaps in 49 dogs and 24 cats, postoperative complications were reported in 89% of animals. The most common complications included dehiscence (50% of axial pattern flaps in dogs and 75% of axial pattern flaps in cats), flap swelling (43% of axial pattern flaps in dogs and 50% of axial pattern flaps in cats), necrosis (46% of axial pattern flaps in dogs and 15% of axial pattern flaps ...
Axial pattern flaps are pedicle grafts which incorporate a direct cutaneous artery and vein at their base. The cutaneous branch of the thoracodorsal artery is the direct cutaneous artery for the thoracodorsal axial pattern flap. The direct cutaneous artery and vein extend along the length of the flap for a variable distance and the terminal branches supply the subdermal, cutaneous, and subpapillary plexuses. The thoracodorsal axial pattern flap is indicated for reconstruction of wounds of the ipsilateral thoracic limb and thoracic wall.. In a 2015 study investigating the outcome of axial pattern flaps in 49 dogs and 24 cats, postoperative complications were reported in 89% of animals. The most common complications included dehiscence (50% of axial pattern flaps in dogs and 75% of axial pattern flaps in cats), flap swelling (43% of axial pattern flaps in dogs and 50% of axial pattern flaps in cats), necrosis (46% of axial pattern flaps in dogs and 15% of axial pattern flaps in cats), infection ...
Ming, C. H., Wasserman, D., Hartwig, S., & Osenblum, N. D. (2004). P38MAPK Acts in the BMP7-dependent stimulatory pathway during Epithelial Cell Morphogenesis and is regulated by Smadl1. Journal Of Biological Chemistry, 279(13), 12051-12059. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
The developmental activities of morphogens depend on the gradients that they form in the extracellular matrix. Here, we show that differences in the binding of fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7) and FGF10 to heparan sulfate (HS) underlie the formation of different gradients that dictate distinct activities during branching morphogenesis. Reducing the binding affinity of FGF10 for HS by mutating a single residue in its HS-binding pocket converted FGF10 into a functional mimic of FGF7 with respect to gradient formation and regulation of branching morphogenesis. In particular, the mutant form of FGF10 caused lacrimal and salivary gland epithelium buds to branch rather than to elongate. In contrast, mutations that reduced the affinity of the FGF10 for its receptor affected the extent, but not the nature, of the response. Our data may provide a general model for understanding how binding to HS regulates other morphogenetic gradients.. ...
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The increasing repertoire of microRNAs expressed during organ development and their role in regulating organ morphogenesis provide a compelling need to develop methods to assess microRNA function using various in vitro and in vivo experimental models
The cellular changes constituting morphogenesis are executed by structural molecules involved with adhesion and cytoskeletal structure. The actin based cytoskeleton, rho/racGTPases, as well as the cadherin-catenin complex have been implicated in epithelial folding and convergent-extension (Sullivan and Theurkauf, 1995; Lu and Settleman, 1998; Tepass, 1999), although a detailed model placing functional interconnections between the different molecules has not yet materialized. The present paper demonstrates that a finely adjusted level of DE-cadherin is required for optic placode morphogenesis, and that β-catenin, as well as EGFR signaling, is involved in this process. Reduction in DE-cadherin results in dissociation of the placode around the time when it normally invaginates, suggesting that the forces exerted on the epithelial sheet while folding may disrupt cell contacts. A similar phenotype was described for other epithelial invaginations, including the Malpighian tubules and stomatogastric ...
Snail1, Snail2, and E47 promote mammary epithelial branching morphogenesis.: Several E-box-binding transcription factors regulate individual and collective cell
Plant morphogenesis and its regulation have fascinated researchers for more than two centuries. Among determinants of morphogenesis mechanical signals appear as an important cue. The fact that plants respond to mechanical stimuli was reported by Darwin in the 1850s. As described by Iida in this research topic, mechanical stimuli were used in traditional agriculture practices like mugifumi. In the past 40 years, the study of mechanical signaling in plants has regained interest because of its implication in fundamental processes of organo- and morphogenesis and their potential as an innovative means of controlling plant growth. The focus of this research topic is the quantification of mechanical signals and of their effects on plant growth, the ecological significance of mechanoperception and thigmomorphogenesis. The papers in this research topic summarize the current state of knowledge, present new experimental results, identify areas where further investigation is warranted, and propose investigative
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Research groupsGene regulation and morphogenesis Control of epithelial morphogenesis in vertebrates Dr Juan Ramón Martínez ..
The CXB set of recombinant inbred mouse strains provided an opportunity to observe the effects of reassorted subsets of genes on the shape of the mandible. The distances between 12 landmarks in all paired combinations were calculated to evaluate genetic control in small regions. The genetic relationships between interlandmark distances revealed genes to have most of their effects in localized regions, and the greater heritabilities usually to apply to those distances between adjacent landmarks. Interrelationships between measurements are usually explicable on a developmental basis. It is proposed that genes of this sort bring about the changes seen in organ shape during evolution. A model plan for the organization of gene activation during morphogenesis is described.
The roles of cellular orientation during trabecular and ventricular wall morphogenesis are unknown and so are the underlying mechanisms that regulate cellular orientation. Myocardial-specific Numb and Numblike double-knockout (MDKO) hearts display a variety of defects including in cellular orientation patterns of mitotic spindle orientation trabeculation and ventricular compaction. Furthermore Numb- and Numblike-null cardiomyocytes exhibit cellular behaviors distinct from those of control cells during trabecular morphogenesis based on single-cell lineage tracing. We investigated how Numb regulates cellular orientation and behaviors and determined that N-cadherin levels and membrane localization are reduced in MDKO hearts. To determine how Numb regulates N-cadherin membrane localization we generated an mCherry:Numb knockin line and found that Numb localized to diverse endocytic organelles but mainly to the recycling endosome. Consistent with this localization cardiomyocytes in MDKO did not ...
The morphogenesis of epithelial tissues and organs is profoundly dependent on the extracellular matrix (ECM), especially the specialized forms of ECM known as basement membranes (BMs) (Miner and Yurchenco, 2004). Active remodeling of BMs by tissues is essential for many developmental events, and aberrant cell-ECM interactions underlie tumorigenesis and metastasis of epithelial tissues (Larsen et al., 2006). Developing axons often grow over BM substrates, and BM components play central roles both in tissue morphogenesis and in axon guidance (Hinck, 2004). Yet, rather than a passive scaffold for tissue morphogenesis, the ECM can be regarded as an active participant in tissue morphogenesis and cell signaling (Nelson and Bissell, 2006).. C. elegans embryonic epidermal morphogenesis is an example of an organogenesis process that involves multiple interactions between an epithelial sheet, underlying muscle, and an intervening BM (Chisholm and Hardin, 2005). In late embryogenesis, epidermal cells ...
The overall objective of the four projects in this program of research is to develop and exploit biosensors and image analysis techniques to delineate the mecha...
Background: Increasing the complexity of in vitro systems to mimic three-dimensional tissues and the cellular interactions within them will increase the reliability of data that were previously collected with in vitro systems. In vivo vascularization is based on complex and clearly defined cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions, where the extracellular matrix (ECM) seems to play a very important role. The aim of this study was to monitor and visualize the subcellular and molecular interactions between endothelial cells (ECs), fibroblasts, and their surrounding microenvironment during vascular morphogenesis in a three-dimensional coculture model. Methods: Quantitative and qualitative analyses during the generation of a coculture tissue construct consisting of endothelial cells and fibroblasts were done using transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Results: Dynamic interactions were found in cocultures between ECs, between fibroblasts (FBs), between ECs and FBs, and between the cells
Systemic steroid hormone and intracellular signaling pathways are known to act cooperatively during the development of vertebrate and invertebrate epithelia. However, the mechanism of this interaction is poorly understood. Morphogenesis of Drosophila leg imaginal disc epithelia is regulated both by the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (ecdysone) and the RhoA GTPase signaling pathway. Recent evidence suggests that these pathways act cooperatively to control imaginal disc morphogenesis. Thus, leg imaginal disc morphogenesis is an excellent system in which to study the interaction of steroid hormone and intracellular signaling pathways. We have identified mutations in three genes, 12-5, 18-5, and 31-6, with roles in the morphogenesis of leg epithelia. Of particular interest, these mutations interact genetically with each other, mutations in the RhoA signaling pathway, and the ecdysone regulated Sb-sbd (Stubble) transmembrane serine protease. This suggests that the 12-5, 18-5, and 31-6 gene products may
Kaplan N.A., Colosimo P.F., Liu X., Tolwinski N.S. (2011). Complex interactions between GSK3 and aPKC in drosophila embryonic epithelial morphogenesis. PLoS ONE 6 (4) : e18616. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone. ...
We propose to combine computational and experimental approaches to investigate the mechanisms of epithelial morphogenesis, defined as the set of processes that...
Branching morphogenesis, the creation of branched structures in the body, is a key feature of animal and plant development. This book brings together, for the first time, expert researchers working on
Four of the mutants examined (tpm1Δ, sac6Δ, pfy1-111, and myo2-66) displayed a clear reduction in viability when the morphogenesis checkpoint was crippled by elimination of Swe1p (Fig. 2 B). This strongly suggests that the actin perturbations caused by the mutants triggered the checkpoint response, as confirmed below.. Intriguingly, the degree of growth benefit provided by Swe1p varied depending on the growth temperature, in a mutant-specific manner. The difference between the growth of different mutants in combination with swe1Δ was most extreme at the temperatures shown in Fig. 2 B but was often reduced at other (7°C higher or lower) temperatures. In the most dramatic example, growth of myo2-66 swe1Δ cells was impaired relative to myo2-66 cells at 29°C, but not at 28°C (Fig. 2 B). This was unexpected because the strain grows slowly and has impaired actin organization at both temperatures. One problem in interpreting growth assays for very sick strains is the accumulation of suppressor ...
This book, the last volume in the Social Morphogenesis series, examines whether or not a Morphogenic society can foster new modes of human relations that could exercise a form of relational steering, protecting and promoting a nuanced version of the good life for all. It analyses the way in which the intensification of morphogenesis and…
J:173573 Haara O, Fujimori S, Schmidt-Ullrich R, Hartmann C, Thesleff I, Mikkola ML, Ectodysplasin and Wnt pathways are required for salivary gland branching morphogenesis. Development. 2011 Jul;138(13):2681-91 ...
J:152818 Melnick M, Phair RD, Lapidot SA, Jaskoll T, Salivary gland branching morphogenesis: a quantitative systems analysis of the Eda/Edar/NFkappaB paradigm. BMC Dev Biol. 2009;9:32 ...
Invasive growth is a complex morphogenetic program in which proliferative responses are integrated by apparently independent events such as migration, survival, matrix degradation, and induction of cell polarity. In the first step of this sequence (Figure 1), a cell within a colony or solid tissue is instructed to disrupt cadherin-based intercellular junctions and acquire a fibroblastoid, motile phenotype, initiating detachment from the primary site of accretion. This dramatic reshaping is accompanied by cytoskeletal rearrangements and enhanced production of matrix proteases, which digest basal lamina components and facilitate cell movement through the surrounding environment. During this phase, invading cells must induce a constant and dynamic remodeling of integrin-mediated adhesive contacts with the ECM, which provides a mechanical support for cell migration and prevents the induction of apoptosis. Cell depolarization and invasion are followed by stimulation of cell growth, which allows new regions
Receptor tyrosine kinase that transduces signals from the extracellular matrix into the cytoplasm by binding to hepatocyte growth factor/HGF ligand. Regulates many physiological processes including proliferation, scattering, morphogenesis and survival. Ligand binding at the cell surface induces autophosphorylation of MET on its intracellular domain that provides docking sites for downstream signaling molecules. Following activation by ligand, interacts with the PI3-kinase subunit PIK3R1, PLCG1, SRC, GRB2, STAT3 or the adapter GAB1. Recruitment of these downstream effectors by MET leads to the activation of several signaling cascades including the RAS-ERK, PI3 kinase-AKT, or PLCgamma-PKC. The RAS-ERK activation is associated with the morphogenetic effects while PI3K/AKT coordinates prosurvival effects. During embryonic development, MET signaling plays a role in gastrulation, development and migration of muscles and neuronal precursors, angiogenesis and kidney formation. In adults, participates in ...
MPATH:458] normal [MPATH:1] cell and tissue damage [MPATH:2] cell death [MPATH:4] necrosis [MPATH:14] degenerative change [MPATH:25] tissue specific degenerative process [MPATH:33] intracellular and extracellular accumulation [MPATH:47] intracellular and extracellular depletion [MPATH:55] developmental and structural abnormality [MPATH:57] agenesis [MPATH:58] aplasia [MPATH:59] branching morphogenesis defect [MPATH:60] communication defect [MPATH:64] dysplasia [MPATH:72] growth acceleration [MPATH:73] growth arrest [MPATH:82] persistent embryonic structure [MPATH:86] organ specific developmental defect [MPATH:107] congestion [MPATH:119] hemorrhage and non-specified extravasation [MPATH:125] thrombosis [MPATH:126] growth and differentiation defect [MPATH:127] atrophy [MPATH:133] hypoplasia [MPATH:134] hyperplasia [MPATH:159] hypertrophy [MPATH:160] metaplasia [MPATH:175] healing and repair [MPATH:176] connective tissue replacement [MPATH:179] fibrin deposition [MPATH:180] fibroblast proliferation ...
MPATH:458] normal [MPATH:1] cell and tissue damage [MPATH:2] cell death [MPATH:4] necrosis [MPATH:14] degenerative change [MPATH:25] tissue specific degenerative process [MPATH:33] intracellular and extracellular accumulation [MPATH:47] intracellular and extracellular depletion [MPATH:55] developmental and structural abnormality [MPATH:57] agenesis [MPATH:58] aplasia [MPATH:59] branching morphogenesis defect [MPATH:60] communication defect [MPATH:64] dysplasia [MPATH:72] growth acceleration [MPATH:73] growth arrest [MPATH:82] persistent embryonic structure [MPATH:86] organ specific developmental defect [MPATH:107] congestion [MPATH:119] hemorrhage and non-specified extravasation [MPATH:125] thrombosis [MPATH:126] growth and differentiation defect [MPATH:127] atrophy [MPATH:133] hypoplasia [MPATH:134] hyperplasia [MPATH:159] hypertrophy [MPATH:160] metaplasia [MPATH:175] healing and repair [MPATH:176] connective tissue replacement [MPATH:179] fibrin deposition [MPATH:180] fibroblast proliferation ...
Plays a critical role in epithelial cell morphogenesis, polarity, adhesion and cytoskeletal organization in the lens (PubMed:26231217).
View Notes - bicd130_06_lecture9r from BICD 130 at UCSD. BICD 130 Embryos, Genes, and Development MORPHOGENESIS Establishment of form and position in the developing organism: Rearrangement of cell
Although in previous chapters in some cases we have attempted a theoretical analysis of some aspects of morphogenesis, the main purpose of these chapters was to describe the up-to-date factual...
This book series Cardiovascular Molecular Morphogenesis publishes works devoted to the development of the heart and blood vessels. Since both the developing embryo vessels and adult blood vessels are of great current interest, such ...
Morphogenesis of Endothelium von Gabor M. Rubanyi und Buchbewertungen gibt es auf ReadRate.com. Bücher können hier direkt online erworben werden.
We specialize in developing light sheet microscopy, a novel fluorescent imaging technique, to study the early development of several major modal organisms. The technique gently images fast biological processes that are extremely sensitive. Focused on the zebrafish, we are interested in the investigation of its organogenesis with special emphasis on the function and morphogenesis of the cardiovascular system and the endoderm. We believe that multi-disciplinary approaches are required to tackle questions in modern life sciences. With our background in biology, physics, microscopy, and informatics we develop custom optical imaging, manipulation, and image analysis tools to pursue research in the broad field of embryonic organ morphogenesis. We strive for a comprehensive solution by developing and optimizing all aspects of modern optical imaging from sample preparation to image analysis.. Follow us on YouTube ,. ...
Involved in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in kidney and lung morphogenesis that include epithelial differentiation and branching morphogenesis. May play a role in the specification or differentiation of one or more subsets of epicardial cell types.
Loss of pluripotency, and the coordination of cell fate specification, epithelial-to-mesencymal transition (EMT) and cell movement drive the formation of the three germ layers; ectoderm, mesoderm & endoderm.
Cells with high-level Neurog3 (Neurog3HI) exit the cell cycle, egress from the epithelium and cluster tightly with each other to form the nascent islets of Langerhans
The transcriptional modifications in response to EGFR inhibition mirror, presumably, the modifications in the action of transcription factors. We identified the
click the speakers name to view other papers and abstracts submitted by this speaker) Jolle Kirpensteijn, DVM, PhD, DACVS, DECVS ...
Understanding metabolic‐pathway function during tumour development is leading directly to new ideas for therapeutic intervention. J. Brugge (Boston, MA, USA) uses three‐dimensional mammary cell‐culture models to investigate mammary morphogenesis. Mammary‐lumen formation requires Bim‐mediated apoptosis; however, in the absence of Bim, inner cells undergo rampant autophagy and eventually die through non‐apoptotic cell death (Mailleux et al, 2007). Cells that are deprived of extracellular matrix in vitro have reduced ATP levels and high levels of ROS owing to defects in glucose uptake. However, oncogenes such as ErbB2 can elevate ATP levels by rescuing glucose metabolism. Interestingly, antioxidants can also elevate ATP levels by rescuing the ROS inhibition of fatty‐acid oxidation. Therefore, Brugge suggests that the survival of tumour cells outside their natural matrix niches requires alterations that prevent apoptosis and rescue metabolic defects caused by a loss of glucose uptake. ...
Our lab is interested in the system level properties of pattern forming systems in and of cells. Towards this end we use cell biology, microscopy, molecular biology and computer simulations to tackle this exciting and complex problem ...
Abstract Cells of multicellular organisms are semi-fluid creatures. Even when they form specific cell-cell adhesions, they cannot create a defined shape or a tissue-specific architecture. Cartilaginous organs, such as ears and noses, exemplify the fact that form is imprinted in the extracellular matrix (ECM), which leads to the conclusion that cells must have the ability to shape the ECM in which they reside. This seems to be true for most tissues. The role of the ECM as an integrator of cells into functional assemblies with defined architecture is unique to multicellular organisms. The evolution of multicellularity became possible as a consequence of cells acquiring two new properties: first, cell surface macromolecular complexes that function in cell-cell binding; and, second, an ECM that integrates cells into three-dimensional structures. These two new properties allowed the evolution of the two basic types of cells-epithelial and mesenchymal. The appearance of the latter, a fibroblast-like ...
Multicellular morphogenesis is a sequential process of deformations in three-dimensional (3D) space. The coordination of 3D tissue deformations correlates with geometric cell patterns, where individual cells are characterized by their biochemical states such as protein synthesis, mRNA transcription and gene methylation. During morphogenesis, such cell patterning can be dynamically rearranged because of the regulatory nature of signalling molecules inside and outside cells. As an example, because the signalling molecules diffuse away from a localized source, they assume a distribution with a steady gradient within a tissue [1,2]. By reading the local levels of the signal concentrations, the cells determine their positions and differentiate to form the global tissue pattern. The global pattern can be robustly organized in the entire tissue by balancing molecular production and degradation [3]. Furthermore, the diffusivity of signalling molecules can be physically affected by the geometry of their ...
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Case Study 2: Turings model of chemical morphogenesis. Outline of the ideas. The ODEs of chemical reactions. The isolated cell and its linear stability. The model of tissue and diffusive communication between cells. Analysis of the diffusive, pattern forming instability in the case of a ring of cells. The conditions needed for pattern formation ...
Recombinant protein of human dishevelled associated activator of morphogenesis 1 (DAAM1), 20 ug available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Morphogenesis in a developing organism depends on the mechanics of the structural elements of the organism. In plants, typical experiments involve indenting tissues with a probe and measuring the force needed to reach a ...
A lecture course on morphogenesis for fourth-year Moscow State University Specialist Diploma students specializing in embryology is described. The main goal of the course is to give the students an extensive theoretical background based on the tenets of the modern theory of Self-Organization and to show them how important this theory is for the proper understanding of developmental events. The corresponding mathematics are bound as tightly as possible to the actual morphogenetic processes. All of the lectures take the format of an active dialogue between the students and a tutor.
It has long been suggested that the generation of biological patterns depends in part on gradients of diffusible substances. In an attempt to bridge the gap between this largely theoretical concept and experimental embryology, we have examined the physiology of diffusion gradients in an actual embryonic field. In particular, we have generated in the chick wing bud concentration gradients of the morphogenetically active retinoid TTNPB, (E)-4-[2-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthalenyl)-1-prope nyl] benzoic acid, a synthetic vitamin A compound. Upon local application of TTNPB the normal 234 digit pattern is duplicated in a way that correlates with the geometry of the underlying TTNPB gradient; low doses of TTNPB lead to a shallow gradient and an additional digit 2, whereas higher doses result in a steep, far-reaching gradient and patterns with additional digits 3 and 4. The experimentally measured TTNPB distribution along the anteroposterior axis, can be modeled by a local source and ...
GO:0032835 glomerulus development --, regulation of glomerulus development GO:NEW --,negative regulation of glomerulus development GO:NEW --,positive regulation of glomerulus development GO:NEW Also as an extension to SF#2912058 requested 10/12/09 GO:0001658 branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis --,regulation of branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis GO:NEW --,negative regulation of branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis GO:NEW --,positive regulation of branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis GO:NEW SF 2914121 [YAF 17/12/09] David Added: regulation of branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis ; GO:0090189/ positive regulation of branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis ; GO:0090190/ negative regulation of branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis ; GO:0090191 regulation of glomerulus development ; GO:0090192/ positive regulation of glomerulus development ; GO:0090193/ negative regulation of glomerulus development ; GO:0090194. ...
"Morphogenesis", Scar Symmetry did not embark on tours. The band released a statement on September 11, 2008 announcing that they ...
Miura, T (2008). "Modeling Lung Branching Morphogenesis". Multiscale Modeling of Developmental Systems. Current Topics in ... In the embryo this structure is developed in the process of branching morphogenesis, and is generated by the repeated splitting ... The four genes mostly associated with branching morphogenesis in the lung are the intercellular signalling protein - sonic ...
"Hepatitis B virus morphogenesis". World J. Gastroenterol. 13 (1): 65-73. PMC 4065877 . PMID 17206755 ...
"Morphogenesis by symbiogenesis" (PDF). International Microbiology. 1 (4): 319-326. PMID 10943381. Archived from the original ...
Nakaya Y, Sheng G (2013). "EMT in developmental morphogenesis". Cancer Lett. 341 (1): 9-15. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2013.02.037. ...
Lecture Notes in Morphogenesis. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-35938-5. ISBN 978-3-642-35937-8.. ...
Morphogenesis of Lung Cancer. 2. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. pp. 107-29. Bae HM, Min HS, Lee SH, Kim DW, Chung DH, Lee JS, ...
Turing's 1952 paper, On the Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis,[26] gave a chemical and physical basis for many of the patterns ... Turing, A. M. (1952). "The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological ...
Salas, María L.; Andrés, Germán (2013). "African swine fever virus morphogenesis". Virus Research. 173: 29-41. doi:10.1016/j. ... Fernando; Costas, Javier Benavente (2004). "374Avian Reovirus Morphogenesis Occurs Within Viral Factories and Begins with the ... concentrates the viral components required for the genome replication and the morphogenesis of new virus particles, so it ... associations of cell organelles for viral replication and morphogenesis". Biol Cell. 97 (2): 147-72. doi:10.1042/bc20040058. ...
Turing, A. M. (1952). "The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 237 (641): 37- ...
Morphogenesis and Maturation of Retroviruses. 214. Edited by H.-G. Kräusslich. Springer. Chapter 7, 219-235, 1996. Bergeron, D ... Cohen, E.A., Subbramanian, R.A. and Göttlinger, H. Role of auxiliary proteins in retroviral morphogenesis. Current topics in ...
A biomechanical model for the study of plant morphogenesis: Coleochaete orbicularis, a 2D study species. Lionel Dupuy, Jonathan ...
Turing, A. M. (14 August 1952). "The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: ... August 14 - Alan Turing's paper "The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis" is published, putting forward a reaction-diffusion ... hypothesis of pattern formation, considered a seminal piece of work in morphogenesis. August 28 - Alan Hodgkin and Andrew ...
Schmechel DE, Rakic P (1979). "A Golgi study of radial glial cells in developing monkey telencephalon: morphogenesis and ... Zerlin M, Levison SW, Goldman JE (1995). "Early patterns of migration, morphogenesis, and intermediate filament expression of ... "Specification and Morphogenesis of Astrocytes". Science. 330 (6005): 774-8. Bibcode:2010Sci...330..774F. doi:10.1126/science. ...
The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis. Phil. Trans. Royal Society, vol. B237, pp. 37-72. (proposes reaction-diffusion, a type of ...
"Auxin patterns Solanum lycopersicum leaf morphogenesis".. *^ Projects changing respectively plant growth and plant flowers ...
Kent, G.C.& Miller, L. (1997). «Early Vertebrate Morphogenesis». Comparative anatomy of the vertebrates (8th ed. utg.). London ...
Hirohashi S, Kanai Y (July 2003). "Cell adhesion system and human cancer morphogenesis". Cancer Sci. 94 (7): 575-81. doi: ...
Holder N, Klein R (1999). "Eph receptors and ephrins: effectors of morphogenesis". Development. 126 (10): 2033-44. PMID ...
regulation of cell morphogenesis. • collateral sprouting. • negative regulation of substrate adhesion-dependent cell spreading ... Holder N, Klein R (1999). "Eph receptors and ephrins: effectors of morphogenesis". Development. 126 (10): 2033-44. PMID ...
"The morphogenesis of evolutionary developmental biology" (PDF). International Journal of Developmental Biology. 47: 467-477. ...
Vittet D (November 2014). "Lymphatic collecting vessel maturation and valve morphogenesis". Microvascular Research. 96: 31-7. ...
3.3.8 Development: Growth, Differentiation, and Morphogenesis 3.3.9 Heredity: the Transmission of Traits ...
Muñoz, J. J.; Conte, V.; Miodownik, M. (2010). "Stress-dependent morphogenesis: Continuum mechanics and truss systems". ... "A deformation gradient decomposition method for the analysis of the mechanics of morphogenesis". Journal of Biomechanics. 40 (6 ...
middle ear morphogenesis. • embryonic skeletal joint morphogenesis. • urogenital system development. • metanephric mesenchyme ... mesonephric duct morphogenesis. • transcription, DNA-templated. • stem cell differentiation. • odontogenesis. • mesonephros ... embryonic digit morphogenesis. • metanephric epithelium development. • negative regulation of apoptotic process. • negative ... embryonic hindlimb morphogenesis. • osmosensory signaling pathway. • peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation. • signal transduction ...
An apicosome initiates self-organizing morphogenesis of human pluripotent stem cells. Kenichiro Taniguchi, Yue Shao, Ryan F. ... An apicosome initiates self-organizing morphogenesis of human pluripotent stem cells. View ORCID ProfileKenichiro Taniguchi ... Self-organizing properties of mouse pluripotent cells initiate morphogenesis upon implantation. Cell. 156:1032-1044. doi: ... Epiblast cavity formation is essential for the morphogenesis and survival of the embryo as it implants in the uterine wall. ...
van der Put P.J. (1998) Inorganic Morphogenesis. In: The Inorganic Chemistry of Materials. Springer, Boston, MA. * DOI https:// ...
This book series Cardiovascular Molecular Morphogenesis publishes works devoted to the development of the heart and blood ... This book series Cardiovascular Molecular Morphogenesis publishes works devoted to the development of the heart and blood ...
... 1) evolutionary development of the structure of an organism or part. 2) embryological development of the ... Morphogenesis may be radical by the realization of inventions or entirely new ideas about institutions or technologies, or it ... In response to changing environmental conditions morphogenesis may be adaptive (see adaptation). As a consequence of POSITIVE ...
Morphogenesis at criticality. Dmitry Krotov, Julien O. Dubuis, Thomas Gregor, and William Bialek ...
Pitx2 regulates gonad morphogenesis. Joaquín Rodríguez-León, Concepción Rodríguez Esteban, Mercè Martí, Belén Santiago-Josefat ... Pitx2 regulates gonad morphogenesis. Joaquín Rodríguez-León, Concepción Rodríguez Esteban, Mercè Martí, Belén Santiago-Josefat ... Pitx2 regulates gonad morphogenesis. Joaquín Rodríguez-León, Concepción Rodríguez Esteban, Mercè Martí, Belén Santiago-Josefat ... We illustrate how Pitx2 activity directs asymmetrical gonad morphogenesis by controlling mitotic spindle orientation of the ...
Morphogenesis, the shaping of an organism by embryological processes of differentiation of cells, tissues, and organs and the ... biological development: Morphogenesis. …regarded as growth or not? As was pointed out earlier, morphogenesis refers to all ... Turing, Alan: morphogenesisLearn about Alan Turings explanation of morphogenesis.. © Open University. ... pattern, comprise the processes called morphogenesis. The processes of morphogenesis are relatively simple mechanical acts: (1 ...
Branching morphogenesis, the creation of branched structures in the body, is a key feature of animal and plant development. ... Embryo Mammalia Neuron Vertebrate animals botanics botany cancer development fungi morphogenesis plant plant development plants ... Branching morphogenesis, the creation of branched structures in the body, is a key feature of animal and plant development. ... Physical Mechanisms of Branching Morphogenesis in Animals Vincent Fleury, Tomoko Watanabe, Thi-Hanh Nguyen, Mathieu Unbekandt, ...
MOrphogenesis is an EP by industrial black metal band ...And Oceans. It is a compilation including Mare Liberum (Demo) and a ...
... Jamie A. Davies Anatomy Building, Edinburgh University Medical School, Teviot Place, ... Its morphogenesis begins on the meeting of two tissues, the epithelial ureteric bud and the metanephrogenic mesenchyme; a ...
Tissue morphogenesis requires that cytoskeletal machines generate forces that change cell shape and deform the tissue. The ... Given that tissue morphogenesis fundamentally involves movement, we have developed a system to visualize and quantify the ... One of the most dramatic examples of tissue morphogenesis occurs during embryonic development, when primitive planar tissues ... and otherwise sculpted into a precise form in a process called tissue morphogenesis. ...
... both on tissue morphogenesis, that were not printed in the BPS 2018 abstracts... ... Research highlights: Morphogenesis. I would like to describe two excellent talks given at BPS 2018, both on tissue ... 1) Sevan Hopyan gave a talk entitled "Volumetric Morphogenesis in the Mouse Embryo" in the Mechanobiology subgroup on Saturday ... and that this exchange could help drive the morphogenesis of the arch. They modeled these cells in analogy to bubbles in a foam ...
Make research projects and school reports about Morphogenesis easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia ... morphogenesis (mor-foh-jen-i-sis) n. the development of form and structure of the body and its parts.. ... morphogenesis A Dictionary of Earth Sciences © A Dictionary of Earth Sciences 1999, originally published by Oxford University ... morphogenesis A Dictionary of Biology © A Dictionary of Biology 2004, originally published by Oxford University Press 2004. ...
The Cellular Basis of Morphogenesis. Editors. * Leon W. Browder Series Title. Developmental Biology. Series Volume. 2. ...
EGF receptor signaling in prostate morphogenesis and tumorigenesis.. Kim HG1, Kassis J, Souto JC, Turner T, Wells A. ... The paracrine interaction between stromal and epithelial cells is critical for androgen regulation, morphogenesis, epithelial ...
We illustrate how Pitx2 activity directs asymmetrical gonad morphogenesis by controlling mitotic spindle orientation of the ... asymmetrical gonad morphogenesis results in only one functional ovary. The disposition of paired organs along the left-right ...
Seminar: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Optic Cup Morphogenesis. Kristen Kwan, Assistant Professor of Human Genetics, ... University of Utah will be delivering a seminar on Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Optic Cup Morphogenesis on Wednesday, ...
SOX17 links gut endoderm morphogenesis and germ layer segregation.. Viotti M1, Nowotschin S2, Hadjantonakis AK2. ... Our results mechanistically link gut endoderm morphogenesis and germ layer segregation, two central and conserved features of ... Working model of cell behaviors during gut endoderm morphogenesis and germ layer segregation in mice ... is necessary for gut endoderm morphogenesis and the assembly of the basement membrane that separates gut endoderm from mesoderm ...
Abstract Cells of multicellular organisms are semi-fluid creatures. Even when they form specific cell-cell adhesions, they cannot create a defined shape or a tissue-specific architecture. Cartilaginous organs, such as ears and noses, exemplify the fact that form is imprinted in the extracellular matrix (ECM), which leads to the conclusion that cells must have the ability to shape the ECM in which they reside. This seems to be true for most tissues. The role of the ECM as an integrator of cells into functional assemblies with defined architecture is unique to multicellular organisms. The evolution of multicellularity became possible as a consequence of cells acquiring two new properties: first, cell surface macromolecular complexes that function in cell-cell binding; and, second, an ECM that integrates cells into three-dimensional structures. These two new properties allowed the evolution of the two basic types of cells-epithelial and mesenchymal. The appearance of the latter, a fibroblast-like ...
Morphogenesis, Environmental Stress and Reverse Evolution. Editors: Guex, Jean, S. Torday, John, Miller Jr., William B. (Eds.) ... Steps of Morphogenesis and Iterative Evolution of Imperforate Larger Foraminifera in Shallow Carbonate Shelves During Mesozoic ...
... our findings demonstrate that intrinsic autophagy is an important regulator of lung development and morphogenesis and may ...
Gastrulation: A Paradigm for Tissue Morphogenesis * The Generation of Tools and Development of Methods for Live Imaging Mouse ... we are investigating the mechanisms driving their cell-type specification and the coordination with tissue morphogenesis. ...
... the activities and mechanisms are essential to achieving deeper insight into this fundamental feature of morphogenesis. That ...
Autophagy is required for lung development and morphogenesis. Behzad Yeganeh,1 Joyce Lee,1,2 Leonardo Ermini,1 Irene Lok,1 ... Transcriptional control of lung morphogenesis. Physiol Rev. 2007;87(1):219-244.. View this article via: PubMed CrossRef Google ... Yuan B, Li C, Kimura S, Engelhardt RT, Smith BR, Minoo P. Inhibition of distal lung morphogenesis in Nkx2.1(-/-) embryos. Dev ... During lung morphogenesis, the mesenchymal lung compartment "thins" to accommodate the developing airways and air sacs, whereas ...
Cadherin cell-adhesion proteins mediate many facets of tissue morphogenesis. The dynamic regulation of cadherins in response to ... Regulation of cadherin-mediated adhesion in morphogenesis Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2005 Aug;6(8):622-34. doi: 10.1038/nrm1699. ... Cadherin cell-adhesion proteins mediate many facets of tissue morphogenesis. The dynamic regulation of cadherins in response to ...
  • Such a genetic approach to the study of ontogeny was pioneered by W addington ( 1940 ) to analyze wing morphogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster and later allowed the understanding of the process of segmentation in this insect ( N üsslein-Volhard and W ieschaus 1980 ). (genetics.org)
  • To form a complex organ, simple tissues must be folded, stretched, compressed, and otherwise sculpted into a precise form in a process called tissue morphogenesis. (mit.edu)
  • One of the most dramatic examples of tissue morphogenesis occurs during embryonic development, when primitive planar tissues are folded to generate separate layers that will give rise to different parts of the body during gastrulation. (mit.edu)
  • Tissue morphogenesis requires that cytoskeletal machines generate forces that change cell shape and deform the tissue. (mit.edu)
  • The molecular mechanism by which the cytoskeleton generates force is not known for many of the diverse cell shape changes and tissue movements that underlie morphogenesis. (mit.edu)
  • Given that tissue morphogenesis fundamentally involves movement, we have developed a system to visualize and quantify the dynamics of molecules, cells, and tissues during gastrulation. (mit.edu)
  • I would like to describe two excellent talks given at BPS 2018, both on tissue morphogenesis, that were not printed in the BPS 2018 abstracts publication. (biophysics.org)
  • At a tissue level, ignoring the means of control, morphogenesis arises because of cellular proliferation and motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, we are investigating the mechanisms driving their cell-type specification and the coordination with tissue morphogenesis. (mskcc.org)
  • Cadherin cell-adhesion proteins mediate many facets of tissue morphogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • There will be invited presentations by leading researchers in craniofacial morphogenesis, and the meeting will also feature sessions on the functional genomics of craniofacial syndromes, development of animal models and the application of tissue engineering in regeneration and repair. (grc.org)
  • This GRC will be held in conjunction with the "Craniofacial Morphogenesis and Tissue Regeneration (GRS)" Gordon Research Seminar (GRS). (grc.org)
  • Using synthetic biology to engineer patterning and morphogenesis will both enhance our basic understanding of how development works, and provide important technologies for advanced tissue engineering. (portlandpress.com)
  • Thus, in addition to maintaining tissue-specific cytodifferentiation and function, a basement membrane promotes the expression of tissue-like morphogenesis. (unt.edu)
  • A multifunctional 3D co-culture system for studies of mammary tissue morphogenesis and stem cell biology. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Here, we provide a general account of our current understanding of the HCV lifecycle and a review of recent studies focusing on the morphogenesis of HCV particles within cell culture systems. (frontiersin.org)
  • He and his students have developed the first mathematical models for cardiovascular growth and morphogenesis and were the first to measure stress, strain and interstitial pressure in the heart of the early chick embryo. (nanohub.org)
  • Epiblast cavity formation is essential for the morphogenesis and survival of the embryo as it implants in the uterine wall. (rupress.org)
  • 1) Sevan Hopyan gave a talk entitled "Volumetric Morphogenesis in the Mouse Embryo" in the Mechanobiology subgroup on Saturday. (biophysics.org)
  • The complex interplay of these morphogen gradients regulates the activity of genes in different regions of the embryo and ultimately brings about the differentiation of the tissues and organs appropriate to the different regions of the embryo, i.e. morphogenesis. (encyclopedia.com)
  • An important class of molecules involved in morphogenesis are transcription factor proteins that determine the fate of cells by interacting with DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2006 ). Molecular biology based research over the last decade has uncovered numerous transcription factors, signaling networks, and matricellular proteins essential in controlling embryonic morphogenesis (Camenisch et al. (wiley.com)
  • Although many proteins have been identified recently as regulators of dendritic morphogenesis, the intracellular signaling pathways that control these processes are not well understood. (jneurosci.org)
  • Plant morphogenesis is brought about chiefly through differential growth. (britannica.com)
  • Tiller age was an important factor interfering with the morphogenetic responses of marandu palisadegrass, indicating that there is an ontogenetic effect on plant morphogenesis that should be considered further in future studies of this nature. (scielo.br)
  • In addition, being a highly complex plant organ, the gynoecium is well suited to serving as a model system for use in the investigation of plant morphogenesis and development. (frontiersin.org)
  • Developmental signaling pathways implicated in morphogenesis include Wnt, Hedgehog, and ephrins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The morphogenesis of the lung, as well as the injury repair of the adult lung, is tightly controlled by a network of signaling pathways with key transcriptional factors. (mdpi.com)
  • Kristen Kwan, Assistant Professor of Human Genetics, University of Utah will be delivering a seminar on Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Optic Cup Morphogenesis on Wednesday, June 24th at Noon in the the Moran Eye Center auditorium. (utah.edu)
  • Hence, a search for genes involved in the control of leaf morphogenesis by attempting to isolate gene products spatially restricted to this organ would identify those related to the execution of leaf functions rather than to the developmental mechanisms responsible for leaf architecture. (genetics.org)
  • Basic science insights will improve knowledge about the mechanisms underlying craniofacial morphogenesis, and translation of these findings will improve the clinical management of developmental disorders of the head and face. (grc.org)
  • The development of natural tissues, organs and bodies depends on mechanisms of patterning and of morphogenesis, typically (but not invariably) in that order, and often several times at different final scales. (portlandpress.com)
  • The aim of this study was to monitor and visualize the subcellular and molecular interactions between endothelial cells (ECs), fibroblasts, and their surrounding microenvironment during vascular morphogenesis in a three-dimensional coculture model. (mdpi.com)
  • Our prior studies established an essential role for Cdc42 in vascular network assembly, demonstrating that the genetic inactivation of Cdc42 yields defective vascular morphogenesis due to impaired migration of endothelial precursor cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Morphogenesis may be radical by the realization of inventions or entirely new ideas about institutions or technologies, or it may be gradual by elaborating (refining and adding on to) existing structures ( see growth , development , organisation , morphostasis ). (ac.be)
  • We illustrate how Pitx2 activity directs asymmetrical gonad morphogenesis by controlling mitotic spindle orientation of the developing gonad cortex and how, by modulating cyclinD1 expression during asymmetric ovarian development, Pitx2 appears to control gonad organ size. (pnas.org)
  • All together our observations indicate that the effects elicited by Pitx2 during the development of the female chick ovary are critical for cell topology, growth, fate, and ultimately organ morphogenesis and function. (pnas.org)
  • Morphogenesis , the shaping of an organism by embryological processes of differentiation of cells, tissues, and organs and the development of organ systems according to the genetic "blueprint" of the potential organism and environmental conditions. (britannica.com)
  • Morphogenesis also describes the development of unicellular life forms that do not have an embryonic stage in their life cycle, or describes the evolution of a body structure within a taxonomic group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Where Thompson explained animal body shapes as being created by varying rates of growth in different directions, for instance to create the spiral shell of a snail, Turing correctly predicted a mechanism of morphogenesis, the diffusion of two different chemical signals, one activating and one deactivating growth, to set up patterns of development, decades before the formation of such patterns was observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • morphogenesis The development, through growth and differentiation, of form and structure in an organism. (encyclopedia.com)
  • morphogenesis (mor-foh- jen -i-sis) n. the development of form and structure of the body and its parts. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Taken together, our findings demonstrate that intrinsic autophagy is an important regulator of lung development and morphogenesis and may contribute to the BPD phenotype when impaired. (jci.org)
  • Cellular morphogenesis is important throughout much of early development in multicellular animals. (sciencemag.org)
  • Our intention was to isolate as many mutants as possible showing abnormal leaves (1) to define the spectrum of possible perturbations in leaf morphogenesis, (2) to determine the number of genes whose mutations disturb the process, and (3) to choose for further studies those mutants whose phenotype and/or genetic interactions with others would suggest they are involved in the control of leaf development. (genetics.org)
  • The longstanding model of gynoecium morphogenesis in Arabidopsis holds that apically localized auxin biosynthesis in the gynoecium results in an apical to basal gradient of auxin that serves to specify along its length the development of style, ovary, and gynophore in a concentration-dependent manner. (frontiersin.org)
  • For a transcription factor to be considered directly involved in heart development, it must be expressed in developing heart tissues and exert an influence on processes that impact the morphogenesis of the developing heart. (ahajournals.org)
  • Here we report that endophilin A1, with a well-established role in clathrin-mediated synaptic vesicle endocytosis at the presynaptic terminal, also localizes to dendritic spines and is required for spine morphogenesis, synapse formation and synaptic function. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A longer morphogenetic window can result in a more complex leaf, as is evident in the clausa mutant, whereas a shorter morphogenesis stage results in a simplified leaf form, as in the case of the Arabidopsis simple leaf and the tomato La-2/ + mutant. (biologists.org)
  • Kennedy, B. and Malicki, J. (2009), What drives cell morphogenesis: A look inside the vertebrate photoreceptor. (wiley.com)
  • Since Robert DeHaan's seminal chapter "Morphogenesis of the Vertebrate Heart" published in Organogenesis (Holt Rinehart & Winston, NY) in 1965, there have been surprisingly few books devoted to the subject of cardiovascular morpho- genesis, despite the enormous growth of interest that occurred nationally and internationally. (springer.com)
  • Dendritic morphogenesis requires an intrinsic differentiation program that is further guided by extracellular cues and electrical activity. (jneurosci.org)
  • Combined with a dynamic and talented team of PhD students trained in microbiology, biotechnology and engineering, we are making inroads into questions of the role of self-organization in cell morphogenesis or how physical principles drive cell shape . (iiserpune.ac.in)
  • The Editorial Board of this new series believes the time has come for a book series dedicated to cardiovas- cular morphogenesis that will serve not only as an important archival and didactic reference source for those who have recently come into the field but also as a guide to the evolution of a field that is clearly coming of age. (springer.com)
  • The Banff International Research Station will host the " Material Evolution from plasticity to morphogenesis" workshop in Banff from June 11, 2017 to June 18, 2017. (birs.ca)
  • During female chick embryogenesis, and in contrast to males where both testes develop symmetrically, asymmetrical gonad morphogenesis results in only one functional ovary. (pnas.org)
  • In this context, we summarize our current understanding of the role of Sox family transcriptional factors in the morphogenesis of lung, their oncogenic potential in lung cancer, and their potential impact in the diagnosis, prognosis, and targeted therapy of lung cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • Liu, X. The Role of S ox Genes in Lung Morphogenesis and Cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • Morphogenesis of these unique three-dimensional structures was initiated by cell-directed remodelling of the exogenous matrix leading to reorganization of cells into matrixensheathed aggregates by 24 h after plating. (unt.edu)
  • During head and foot regeneration and during budding the first detectable change in the cell distribution is an increase in the number of nerve cells at the site of morphogenesis. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Spore morphogenesis (reviewed by N eiman 2005 ) initiates with enlargement of the outer surface of the spindle pole body (SPB) to form the meiotic outer plaque. (genetics.org)