Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Morphine Dependence: Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon morphine.Morphine Derivatives: Analogs or derivatives of morphine.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Drug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Naloxone: A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.Receptors, Opioid, mu: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Analgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Codeine: An opioid analgesic related to MORPHINE but with less potent analgesic properties and mild sedative effects. It also acts centrally to suppress cough.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Receptors, Opioid: Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.Naltrexone: Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.Analgesia, Patient-Controlled: Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).Nalorphine: A narcotic antagonist with some agonist properties. It is an antagonist at mu opioid receptors and an agonist at kappa opioid receptors. Given alone it produces a broad spectrum of unpleasant effects and it is considered to be clinically obsolete.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Heroin: A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Hydromorphone: An opioid analgesic made from MORPHINE and used mainly as an analgesic. It has a shorter duration of action than morphine.Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Enkephalin, Ala(2)-MePhe(4)-Gly(5)-: An enkephalin analog that selectively binds to the MU OPIOID RECEPTOR. It is used as a model for drug permeability experiments.Periaqueductal Gray: Central gray matter surrounding the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT in the MESENCEPHALON. Physiologically it is probably involved in RAGE reactions, the LORDOSIS REFLEX; FEEDING responses, bladder tonus, and pain.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Oxycodone: A semisynthetic derivative of CODEINE.Pentazocine: The first mixed agonist-antagonist analgesic to be marketed. It is an agonist at the kappa and sigma opioid receptors and has a weak antagonist action at the mu receptor. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1991, p97)Morphinans: Compounds based on a partially saturated iminoethanophenanthrene, which can be described as ethylimino-bridged benzo-decahydronaphthalenes. They include some of the OPIOIDS found in PAPAVER that are used as ANALGESICS.Enkephalins: One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.Nalbuphine: A narcotic used as a pain medication. It appears to be an agonist at kappa opioid receptors and an antagonist or partial agonist at mu opioid receptors.Receptors, Opioid, delta: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Delta opioid receptors bind endorphins and enkephalins with approximately equal affinity and have less affinity for dynorphins.Meperidine: A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.Thebaine: A drug that is derived from opium, which contains from 0.3-1.5% thebaine depending on its origin. It produces strychnine-like convulsions rather than narcosis. It may be habit-forming and is a controlled substance (opiate) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Part 1308.12 (1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Oxymorphone: An opioid analgesic with actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE, apart from an absence of cough suppressant activity. It is used in the treatment of moderate to severe pain, including pain in obstetrics. It may also be used as an adjunct to anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1092)Analgesia, Epidural: The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Opium: The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few - MORPHINE; CODEINE; and PAPAVERINE - have clinical significance. Opium has been used as an analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic.Endorphins: One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.Methadone: A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)Receptors, Opioid, kappa: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Kappa opioid receptors bind dynorphins with a higher affinity than endorphins which are themselves preferred to enkephalins.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Papaver: A genus of Eurasian herbaceous plants, the poppies (family PAPAVERACEAE of the dicotyledon class Magnoliopsida), that yield OPIUM from the latex of the unripe seed pods.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Levallorphan: An opioid antagonist with properties similar to those of NALOXONE; in addition it also possesses some agonist properties. It should be used cautiously; levallorphan reverses severe opioid-induced respiratory depression but may exacerbate respiratory depression such as that induced by alcohol or other non-opioid central depressants. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p683)Locus Coeruleus: Bluish-colored region in the superior angle of the FOURTH VENTRICLE floor, corresponding to melanin-like pigmented nerve cells which lie lateral to the PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Pain, Intractable: Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.Etorphine: A narcotic analgesic morphinan used as a sedative in veterinary practice.Tramadol: A narcotic analgesic proposed for severe pain. It may be habituating.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Pruritus: An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief.Clonidine: An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.Buprenorphine: A derivative of the opioid alkaloid THEBAINE that is a more potent and longer lasting analgesic than MORPHINE. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use.
Effect of morphine and naloxone on priming-induced audiogenic seizures in BALB/c mice. (1/3881)1 Morphine (1-200 mg/kg s.c.) reduced the incidence and prolonged the latency of priming-induced audiogenic siezures in a dose-dependent manner. 2 This effect was reversed by naloxone (1 and 2 mg/kg) although naloxone was itself inactive. 3 This priming-induces seizure model may be useful in the study of tolerance and physical dependence. (+info)
Spinal antinociceptive synergism between morphine and clonidine persists in mice made acutely or chronically tolerant to morphine. (2/3881)Morphine (Mor) tolerance has been attributed to a reduction of opioid-adrenergic antinociceptive synergy at the spinal level. The present experiments tested the interaction of intrathecally (i.t.) administered Mor-clonidine (Clon) combinations in mice made acutely or chronically tolerant to Mor. ICR mice were pretreated with Mor either acutely (40 nmol i.t., 8 h; 100 mg/kg s.c., 4 h) or chronically (3 mg/kg s.c. every 6 h days 1 and 2; 5 mg/kg s.c. every 6 h days 3 and 4). Antinociception was detected via the hot water (52.5 degrees C) tail-flick test. After the tail-flick latencies returned to baseline levels, dose-response curves were generated to Mor, Clon, and Mor-Clon combinations in tolerant and control mice. Development of tolerance was confirmed by significant rightward shifts of the Mor dose-response curves in tolerant mice compared with controls. Isobolographic analysis was conducted; the experimental combined ED50 values were compared statistically against their respective theoretical additive ED50 values. In all Mor-pretreated groups, the combination of Mor and Clon resulted in significant leftward shifts in the dose-response curves compared with those of each agonist administered separately. In all tolerant and control groups, the combination of Mor and Clon produced an ED50 value significantly less than the corresponding theoretical additive ED50 value. Mor and Clon synergized in Mor-tolerant as well as in control mice. Spinally administered adrenergic/opioid synergistic combinations may be effective therapeutic strategies to manage pain in patients apparently tolerant to the analgesic effects of Mor. (+info)
Discriminative stimulus effects of naltrexone after a single dose of morphine in the rat. (3/3881)The discriminative stimulus effects of an acute morphine (MOR) --> naltrexone (NTX) combination were characterized and compared with the stimulus effects of NTX-precipitated and spontaneous withdrawal from chronic MOR administration. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6-8) were trained to discriminate between two drug treatments in a discrete-trial avoidance/escape procedure: MOR (10 mg./kg, s.c., 4 h) --> NTX (0.3 mg/kg, s.c., 0.25 h) versus saline (SAL, 1 ml/kg, s. c., 4 h) --> NTX (0.3 mg/kg, s.c., 0.25 h). Subjects responded only on the SAL --> NTX-appropriate lever when SAL was given 3.75 h after MOR or 3.75 h before any dose of NTX (0.3-100 mg/kg). Responding was dose dependent and MOR --> NTX-appropriate when NTX (0.01-0.1 mg/kg) followed MOR. Full MOR --> NTX-appropriate responding was dependent on the pretreatment dose and time of MOR, with full effects observed only when MOR (10 mg/kg) was given 3 to 4 h before NTX. While subjects were maintained on either 20- or 40 mg/kg/day of MOR via osmotic pump, NTX produced full dose-dependent, MOR --> NTX-appropriate responding. When the MOR-filled pumps were removed, partial MOR --> NTX-appropriate responding occurred, peaking at 6 to 12 h. The physical withdrawal signs produced by NTX after acute or during chronic MOR exposure were of smaller magnitude compared with the ones that occurred during abrupt withdrawal from chronic MOR. A qualitatively unique "withdrawal" stimulus that is dose- and time-dependent appears to be the basis of this MOR --> NTX discrimination. (+info)
Extinction of responding maintained by timeout from avoidance. (4/3881)The resistance to extinction of lever pressing maintained by timeout from avoidance was examined. Rats were trained under a concurrent schedule in which responses on one lever postponed shock on a free-operant avoidance (Sidman) schedule (response-shock interval = 30 s) and responses on another lever produced 2 min of signaled timeout from avoidance on a variable-ratio 15 schedule. Following extended training (106 to 363 2-hr sessions), two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1 two different methods of extinction were compared. In one session, all shocks were omitted, and there was some weakening of avoidance but little change in timeout responding. In another session, responding on the timeout lever was ineffective, and under these conditions timeout responding showed rapid extinction. The within-session patterns produced by extinction manipulations were different than the effects of drugs such as morphine, which also reduces timeout responding. In Experiment 2 shock was omitted for many consecutive sessions. Response rates on the avoidance lever declined relatively rapidly, with noticeable reductions within 5 to 10 sessions. Extinction of the timeout lever response was much slower than extinction of avoidance in all 4 rats, and 2 rats continued responding at baseline levels for more than 20 extinction sessions. These results show that lever pressing maintained by negative reinforcement can be highly resistant to extinction. The persistence of responding on the timeout lever after avoidance extinction is not readily explained by current theories. (+info)
Modulation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity by acute and chronic morphine administration in rat hippocampus: differential regulation of alpha and beta isoforms. (5/3881)Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) has been shown to be involved in the regulation of opioid receptor signaling. The present study showed that acute morphine treatment significantly increased both Ca2+/calmodulin-independent and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent activities of CaMK II in the rat hippocampus, with little alteration in the protein level of either alpha or beta isoform of CaMK II. However, chronic morphine treatment, by which rats were observed to develop apparent tolerance to morphine, significantly down-regulated both Ca2+/calmodulin-independent and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent activities of CaMK II and differentially regulated the expression of alpha and beta isoforms of CaMK II at protein and mRNA levels. Application of naloxone or discontinuation of morphine treatment after chronic morphine administration, which induced the withdrawal syndrome of morphine, resulted in the overshoot of CaMK II (at both protein and mRNA levels) and its kinase activity. The phenomena of overshoot were mainly observed in the beta isoform of CaMK II but not in the alpha isoform. The effects of both acute and chronic morphine treatments on CaMK II could be completely abolished by the concomitant application of naloxone, indicating that the effects of morphine were achieved through activation of opioid receptors. Our data demonstrated that both acute and chronic morphine treatments could effectively modulate the activity and the expression of CaMK II in the hippocampus. (+info)
Presynaptic inhibition of GABA(B)-mediated synaptic potentials in the ventral tegmental area during morphine withdrawal. (6/3881)Opioids increase the firing of dopamine cells in the ventral tegmental area by presynaptic inhibition of GABA release. This report describes an acute presynaptic inhibition of GABAB-mediated IPSPs by mu- and kappa-opioid receptors and the effects of withdrawal from chronic morphine treatment on the release of GABA at this synapse. In slices taken from morphine-treated guinea pigs after washing out the morphine (withdrawn slices), a low concentration of a mu receptor agonist increased, rather than decreased, the amplitude of the GABAB IPSP. In withdrawn slices, after blocking A1-adenosine receptors with 8-cyclopentyl-1, 3-dipropylxantine, mu-opioid receptor activation inhibited the IPSP at all concentrations and increased the maximal inhibition. In addition, during withdrawal, there was a tonic increase in adenosine tone that was further increased by forskolin or D1-dopamine receptor activation, suggesting that metabolism of cAMP was the source of adenosine. The results indicate that during acute morphine withdrawal, there was an upregulation of the basal level of an opioid-sensitive adenylyl cyclase. Inhibition of this basal activity by opioids had two effects. First, a decrease in the formation of cAMP that decreased adenosine tone. This effect predominated at low mu receptor occupancy and increased the amplitude of the IPSP. Higher agonist concentrations inhibited transmitter release by both kinase-dependent and -independent pathways. This study indicates that the consequences of the morphine-induced upregulation of the cAMP cascade on synaptic transmission are dependent on the makeup of receptors and second messenger pathways present on any given terminal. (+info)
Effects and interactions of opioids on plasma exudation induced by cigarette smoke in guinea pig bronchi. (7/3881)The effects of opioids on cigarette smoke-induced plasma exudation were investigated in vivo in the main bronchi of anesthetized guinea pigs, with Evans blue dye as a plasma marker. Acute inhalation of cigarette smoke increased plasma exudation by 216% above air control values. Morphine, 0.1-10 mg/kg but not 30 mg/kg, inhibited the exudation but had no significant effect on substance P-induced exudation. Both 10 and 30 mg/kg of morphine increased exudation in air control animals, an effect inhibited by antihistamines but not by a tachykinin neurokinin type 1-receptor antagonist. Naloxone inhibited all morphine responses. Cigarette smoke-induced plasma exudation was inhibited by a mu-opioid-receptor agonist (DAMGO) but not by agonists at delta (DPDPE)- or kappa (U-50488H)-receptors. None of these agonists affected exudation in air control animals. DPDPE prevented the inhibition by DAMGO of cigarette smoke-induced plasma exudation, and the combination of DAMGO and DPDPE increased exudation in air control animals. Prevention of inhibition and the combination-induced increase were inhibited by antihistamines or the mast cell-stabilizing drug sodium cromoglycate. U-50488H did not alter the response to either DAMGO or DPDPE. We conclude that, in guinea pig main bronchi in vivo, mu-opioid-receptor agonists inhibit cigarette smoke-induced plasma exudation via a prejunctional mechanism. Plasma exudation induced by mu- and delta-receptor interactions is due to endogenous histamine release from mast cells. (+info)
Morphine preconditioning attenuates neutrophil activation in rat models of myocardial infarction. (8/3881)Previous results from our laboratory have suggested that morphine can attenuate neutrophil activation in patients with acute myocardial infarction. To elucidate if morphine preconditioning (PC) has the same effects via activation of neutrophil endopeptidase 24.11 (NEP), we measured serum levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), gp100MEL14 and NEP in adult Wistar rats subjected to ten different protocols (n = 10 for each) at baseline, immediately after and 2 h after morphine PC. All groups were subjected to 30 min of occlusion and 2 h of reperfusion. Similarly, morphine-induced PC was elicited by 3-min drug infusions (100 micrograms/kg) interspersed with 5-min drug-free periods before the prolonged 30-min occlusion. Infarct size (IS), as a percentage of the area at risk (AAR), was determined by triphenyltetrazolium staining. Pretreatment with morphine increased NEP activities (9.86 +/- 1.98 vs. 5.12 +/- 1.10 nmol/mg protein in control group; p < 0.001). Naloxone (mu-opioid receptor antagonist) (4.82 +/- 1.02 nmol/mg protein) and phosphoramidon (NEP inhibitor) (4.66 +/- 1.00 nmol/mg protein) inhibited morphine-activated NEP, whereas glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive potassium channel antagonist) and chelerythrine (protein kinase C inhibitor) had no effects. The ICAM-1 and gp100MEL14 of the third sampling were lowest for those with morphine PC (280 +/- 30 ng/ml and 2.2 +/- 0.7 micrograms/ml; p < 0.001), but naloxone (372 +/- 38 ng/ml and 3.8 +/- 0.9 micrograms/ml) and phosphoramidon (382 +/- 40 ng/ml and 4.2 +/- 1.1 micrograms/ml) abolished the above phenomenon. IS/AAR were definitely lowest for those with morphine PC (24 +/- 7%; p < 0.05). Morphine preconditioning increases NEP activities to attenuate shedding of gp100MEL14 and to ICAM-1 and, thus, provides myocardial protection. (+info)
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Author: Hecq J-D, Godet M, Gillet P, Jamart J, Galanti L, Year: 2014, Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term stability of morphine hydrochloride in 0.9% NaCl infusion polyolefin bags and polypropylene syringes after storage at 5°C ± 3°C and to evaluate the influence of initial freezing and microwave thawing on this stability. Ten polyolefin bags and five polypropylene syringes containing 100 mL of 1 mg/mL of morphine hydrochloride solution in 0.9% NaCl were prepared under aseptic conditions. Five polyolefin bags were frozen at -20°C for 90 days bef
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of inhaled anesthetics on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of morphine. AU - Steffey, Eugene. AU - Eisele, J. H.. AU - Baggot, J. D.. AU - Woliner, M. J.. AU - Jarvis, K. A.. AU - Elliott, A. R.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - We determined the magnitude and duration of the effect of morphine (1.0 mg/kg intravenous bolus) on isoflurane and halothane minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) in six dogs anesthetized on two occasions in cross-over fashion. Plasma morphine concentration-time profiles and changes in PaCO2 were determined after morphine injection. After morphine injection, the end- tidal anesthetic dose was manipulated over the course of a 4-h observation period to account for the decline in plasma morphine concentration and to maintain an anesthetic level equivalent to 1.0 MAC isoflurane or halothane alone. Morphine decreased the MAC of halothane and isoflurane. The magnitude of MAC decrease was related to time after morphine injection and was ...
After inducing morphine tolerance in rats, the researchers tested the animals spinal cord responses to morphine, with or without resveratrol. The results showed significant enhancement of morphines effects in animals receiving resveratrol. In morphine-tolerant rats, the pain-relieving response to morphine was about 20 percent of normal. In rats receiving resveratrol, morphine responses were restored to about 60 percent of normal.. In preserving the pain-relieving effects of morphine, resveratrol appeared to work in two ways. It reversed the increase in expression of a type of neurotransmitter (N-methyl D-aspartate, or NMDA) receptors associated with morphine tolerance. Resveratrol also blocked the increase of inflammation-promoting substances, called cytokines, in rats with morphine tolerance.. The results add to other recent experimental evidence suggesting that resveratrol can maintain the pain-relieving effect of morphine. It also adds new information on how that effect may ...
Morphine administration during pregnancy causes several behavioral abnormalities in offspring animals. In the present study the effects of maternal morphine consumption on development of neural tube in Wistar rats (250-300 g) were investigated. Female rats (n = 8 were crossed with male rats and pregnant ones were treated with oral morphine (0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 mg/ml of water) until the 10th day of pregnancy. On the day 10, the animals were anesthetized by diethyle ether and the embryos were taken out surgically. The embryos were fixed in formaline 10% for a week and then cross sectional procedure performed. The sections were stained with H&E. The results showed that: administration of morphine resulted in severe reduction in neural tube development in embryos. Morphine at a dose of 0.01 mg/ml showed the maximum effect. In conclusion, it is clear that morphine consumption in pregnant rats resulted in delay in neural tube development that may be true in humans.
Morphine is a strong analgesic drug. Apart from that, morphine gives an intense, intoxicating effect. This is why it’s used for both medical and recreational purposes. Morphine is made from opium; the dried sap of the poppy plant. Opium contains a combination of opiates, including morphine. Morphine and heroin are closely related, as morphine can be made into heroin. First, morphine is extracted from opium, followed by a chemical reaction that turns it into heroin. Therefore, heroin has a very similar effect to morphine. The main difference is that heroin passes the blood-brain barrier more easily, resulting in it kicking in faster than morphine does. In the Netherlands, morphine isn’t often used in a recreational context. However, in America, the situation is completely different. In this article, you can read about the history, usage, biochemistry and the risks of recreational use of morphine. We also discuss the mafia-like role that the pharmaceutic industry plays when it comes to
Introduction Morphine is the most effective pain-relieving drug, but it can cause unwanted side effects. Direct neuraxial administration of morphine to spinal cord not only can provide effective, reliable pain relief but also can prevent the development of supraspinal side effects. However, repeated neuraxial administration of morphine may still lead to morphine tolerance. Methods To better understand the mechanism that causes morphine tolerance, we induced tolerance in rats at the spinal cord level by giving them twice-daily injections of morphine (20 µg/10 µL) for 4 days. We confirmed tolerance by measuring paw withdrawal latencies and maximal possible analgesic effect of morphine on day 5. We then carried out phosphoproteomic analysis to investigate the global phosphorylation of spinal proteins associated with morphine tolerance. Finally, pull-down assays were used to identify phosphorylated types and sites of 14-3-3 proteins, and bioinformatics was applied to predict biological networks impacted
Morphine is an opioid analgesic drug commonly used for pain relief in cancer patients. demonstrate that morphine contributes to chemoresistance via expanding the population of cancer stem cells and promotes tumor growth thereby revealing Specnuezhenide a novel role of morphine and providing some new guides in clinical use of morphine. = 5) nalmefene (= 5) morphine (= 5) or nalmefene plus morphine (= 5) right after tumor cell implantation. Due to the potential desensitization of opioid receptors the dose of morphine and nalmefene were increased stepwise (5 10 and 15 mg/kg s.c. for every two weeks). For drug combination the nalmefene dose was one-tenth of the morphine dose because this ratio is generally considered to result in a complete antagonism of antinociceptive effects of morphine . The body weight of the Specnuezhenide animals and the two perpendicular diameters (a and b) were recorded every 3 days. Tumor volume (V) was calculated according to the following formula: V = (a*b*b)/2 . ...
Hypothesis:. Oral morphine will produce more reliable peak plasma morphine concentrations and more reliable analgesia than codeine, which is currently the drug of choice.. Background:. Codeine is the most commonly used oral opiate for analgesia in children. Codeine is a pro-drug that requires activation by the isozyme CYP2D6. Genetically determined variations in the activity of CYP2D6 can result in inappropriately low analgesic efficacy due to inadequate conversion of the drug in poor-metabolizers and conversely, adverse reactions such as respiratory depression and death in ultra-metabolizers. In some ethnic groups as many as 40% of patients may be susceptible to concentration-dependent toxicity from greater than expected metabolism of codeine to morphine. We hypothesize that oral morphine is a feasible and safe alternative to codeine. The primary aim of this study is to define and trial an appropriate dose of morphine to provide children with effective and reliable perioperative analgesia ...
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Problem statement: The present study was performed to determine the effect of Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of W-7, a specific calmodulin inhibitor, on the analgesic effect and development of tolerance to antinociceptive effect of acute and chronic morphine administration respectively. Approach: This study was carried out on male wistar rats, weighing 200-250 g. For acute experimental protocol, Morphine was injected intraperitonealy in a single dose (5 mg kg-1). For chronic experimental protocol, Morphine was administered daily (15 mg kg-1 for 8 days). The threshold to thermal nociceptive stimuli was measured by tail-flick test. In acute and chronic experiments, W-7 (0.25, 0.5 and 1 μmol/rat) was injected through ICV at different paradigms. Maximal Possible Effect percentage (MPE%) was considered as analgesia index. Results: Our result showed that W-7 (0.25, 0.5 and 1 μmol/rat) injections before acute morphine administration significantly reduced the analgesic effect of
Generic Morphine Sulphate MAGNUS MR 30mg/2ml / Amps Therapeutic Class:Narcotic analgesic Composition:Magnus MR 2ml vial containing morphine sulphate 30 mg/2mlDescription:Morphine applies an agonist effect at saturable opioid receptors in the CNS and other tissues & acts as opioid analgesic. Morphine is an analgesic drug used to treat acute and chronic pain. Obesity is frequently associated with pain of various origins (e.g. arthritis, fibromyalgia, cancer), which increases the need for analgesic drugs. Obesity changes drug pharmacokinetics, and for certain drugs, specific modalities of prescription have been proposed for obese patients. However, scant data are available regarding the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of morphine in obesity. Prescription of morphine depends on pain relief but the occurrence of respiratory adverse effects correlates with obesity, and is not currently taken into account. Variations in the volume of distribution, elimination half-life and oral clearance of ...
Diabetes is one of the most common diseases in all societies including Iran. One of its important complications is the neuropathic pain, which can be relieved by opioid drugs such as morphine. Opioid therapy is restricted due to development of tolerance and physical or mental dependence. In this study, the effect of diabetes on morphine analgesia and development of morphine tolerance and dependence was investigated. Experimental diabetes was induced by alloxan (120 mg/kg, s.c.) in rats. Morphine sulfate (7 mg/kg, i.p.) application for 5 days developed tolerance in animals. On 5th day, 30 min after the injection of morphine, the acute and chronic pain was evaluated in diabetic and non-diabetic animals using hot plate and formalin test. In addition, withdrawal signs (jumping, chewing, urine and feces) were recorded for ten minutes using naloxone (2 mg/kg, s.c.). The results showed that the anti-nociceptive effect of morphine for acute pain markedly reduced, but slightly enhanced for chronic pain model.
Fan, X., Zhang, J., Zhang, X., Yue, W. and Ma, L. (2002) Acute and chronic morphine treatments and morphine withdrawal differentially regulate GRK2 and GRK5 gene expression in rat brain. Neuro-pharmacology, 43, 809-816.
Morphine is an extremely strong opiate analgesic drug and is the most important active agent in opium and the prototypical opioid.. It is also a natural endocrine product in humans and other animals. Like other opioids, diacetylmorphine or commonly know as heroin, morphine targets directly the central nervous system (CNS) to alleviate pain, and at synapses of the nucleus accumbens in particular.. Morphine is extremely addictive when compared to other substances; physical, tolerance and psychological dependences build up very rapidly. Withdrawal from morphine causes nausea, tearing, yawning, chills, and sweating lasting up to three days. Morphine crosses the placental barrier, and babies born to morphine-using mothers go through withdrawal.. Addictive drugs, for instance Morphine trigger the brains reward systems.. The promise of reward is very powerful, causing the individual to yearn for Morphine and to center his or her attention activities on the taking of Morphine. The capacity to ...
OUTLINE: This is a multicenter study.. Patients complete a pain questionnaire over 1 week before undergoing radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Patients also complete questionnaires about pain, physical performance, quality of life (QOL), and anxiety at baseline.. Bone metastases are removed by radiofrequency ablation (RFA). After surgery, patients receive acetaminophen and patient-controlled analgesic (PCA) morphine sulfate. PCA morphine sulfate continues with a dose increase of 50% bolus every 24 hours. Patients with maximum pain less than or equal to that at inclusion receive standard morphine sulfate therapy instead.. Data concerning the total dose of PCA morphine sulfate; minimum, average, and maximum pain intensity; side effects and complications of RFA; and total dose of morphine sulfate (or equivalent) is collected daily.. Pain is assessed at 4 and 8 weeks after RFA. Patients complete follow-up questionnaires about physical performance, QOL, and anxiety at 12 weeks. Patients also undergo a CT ...
Methods Effect of morphine treatment on acute pancreatitis in caerulein, L-arginine and ethanol-palmitoleic acid models was evaluated after induction of the disease. Inflammatory response, gut permeability and bacterial translocation were compared. Experiments were repeated in mu (µ) opioid receptor knockout mice (MORKO) and in wild-type mice in the presence of opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone to evaluate the role of µ-opioid receptors in morphines effect on acute pancreatitis. Effect of morphine treatment on pathways activated during pancreatic regeneration like sonic Hedgehog and activation of embryonic transcription factors like pdx-1 and ptf-1 were measured by immunofluorescence and quantitative PCR. ...
Thesis, English, COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN THE EFFICACY OF TRANSDERMAL FENTANYL PATCHES INTRATHECAL MORPHINE AND INTRAMUSCULAR MORPHINE IN THE RELIEF OF ACUTE POSTOPERATIVE PAIN AFTER MAJOR ONCOLOGICAL SURGERY for Othman Ahmed Hassan
The present study was designed to determine whether the p53 tumor-suppressor protein is involved in the development of antinociceptive tolerance to morphine. When the doses of morphine (mg/kg per injection) were subcutaneously given into mice as pretreatment twice daily for 2 days (first day (30) and second day (60)), intrathecal (i.t.) administration of morphine (0.1nmol) was inactive due to antinociceptive tolerance in the 0.5% formalin test on the third day. Tolerance to i.t. morphine was significantly suppressed by i.t. injection of pifithrin-alpha (1 and 10nmol), an inhibitor of p53 activation, benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD-fmk) (1 and 10nmol), a non-selective caspase inhibitor, or N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) (2 and 20nmol), a non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, 5min before each morphine treatment during the induction, with none given on the test day. Moreover, p53 expression in the spinal cord had increased significantly 14h ...
Several literature reports indicate that morphine administered subcutaneously during the early gestational period in mice and hamsters produced neurological, soft tissue and skeletal abnormalities. With one exception, the effects that have been reported were following doses that were maternally toxic and the abnormalities noted were characteristic of those observed when maternal toxicity is present. In one study, following subcutaneous infusion of doses greater than or equal to 0.15 mg/kg to mice, exencephaly, hydronephrosis, intestinal hemorrhage, split supraoccipital, malformed sternebrae, and malformed xiphoid were noted in the absence of maternal toxicity. In the hamster, morphine sulfate given subcutaneously on gestation day 8 produced exencephaly and cranioschisis. In rats treated with subcutaneous infusions of morphine during the period of organogenesis, no teratogenicity was observed. No maternal toxicity was observed in this study, however, increased mortality and growth retardation ...
D. D. Doblar, S. M. Muldoon, P. H. Abbrecht, Joel Baskoff, R. L. Watson; Epidural Morphine Following Epidural Local Anesthesia: Effect on Ventilatory and Airway Occlusion Pressure Responses to CO2. Anesthesiology 1981;55(4):423-428. Download citation file:. ...
States of abnormal pain induced by injuries to peripheral nerves share common features with opioid antinociceptive tolerance including mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity. Sustained administration of morphine in humans and in animals induces a state of abnormal pain (i.e., hyperalgesia) and may be associated with the development opioid antinociceptive tolerance. Persistent neuropathic pain states and opioid induced abnormal pain require descending facilitation arising from the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM). Cholecystokinin (CCK), a pronociceptive peptide, may be up-regulated following opioid treatment and nerve injury in the brain and spinal cord. Therefore, it is hypothesized that CCK in the RVM may be up-regulated by sustained opioid administration and my consequently drive descending pain facilitatory mechanisms to produce hypersensitivity and antinociceptive tolerance.Acute systemic morphine administration produced a potentiation of CCK release in the RVM as measured using ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prenatal morphine exposure enhances seizure susceptibility but suppresses long-term potentiation in the limbic system of adult male rats. AU - Velíšek, Libor. AU - Stanton, Patric K.. AU - Moshé, Solomon L.. AU - Vathy, Ilona. PY - 2000/6/30. Y1 - 2000/6/30. N2 - The present study examined the effects of prenatal morphine exposure on NMDA-dependent seizure susceptibility in the entorhinal cortex (EC), and on activity-dependent synaptic plasticity at Schaffer collateral and perforant path synapses in the hippocampus. During perfusion with Mg2+-free ACSF, an enhancement of epileptiform discharges was found in the EC of slices from prenatally morphine-exposed male rats. A submaximal tetanic stimulation (2x50 Hz/1 s) in control slices elicited LTP at the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses, but neither LTP nor LTD was evoked at the perforant path-DG synapses. In slices from prenatally morphine-exposed adult male rats, long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission was not observed ...
exon 3 (mE3M mice), while the other two selectively truncated C-terminal tails encoded by either exon 4 (mE4M mice) or exon 7 (mE7M mice). Studies of these mice revealed divergent roles for the C termini in morphine-induced behaviors, highlighting the importance of C-terminal variants in complex morphine actions. In mE7M-B6 mice, the exon 7-associated truncation diminished morphine tolerance and reward without altering physical dependence, whereas the exon 4-associated truncation in mE4M-B6 mice facilitated morphine tolerance and reduced morphine dependence without affecting morphine reward. mE7M-B6 mutant mice lost morphine-induced receptor desensitization in the brain stem and hypothalamus, consistent with exon 7 involvement in morphine tolerance. In cell-based studies, exon 7-associated variants shifted the bias of several mu opioids toward β-arrestin 2 over G protein activation compared with the exon 4-associated variant, suggesting an interaction of exon 7-associated C-terminal tails with ...
Scientists studying induced nerve injury in rodents have found that the analgesic effects of morphine can decline over time. When morphine is used in combination with carbamazepine, which prevents epileptic seizures, this loss of drug efficacy may be reversed.. There has been mixed efficacy in general using opioids to treat neuropathic pain. The pain relief brought about by morphine can diminish over time. In this study, when carbamazepine was added to the morphine regimen, opioid induced hyperalgesia was reversed. As reported in PLOS ONE, the combination of drugs administered to rodents showed that "the dampening of the analgesic effects of morphine on neuropathic pain behavior in vivo can be countered with the addition of CBZ.". To read the article, click here.. To read the journal article, click here.. Posted on September 16, 2014. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Thermal sensitivity as a measure of spontaneous morphine withdrawal in mice. AU - Balter,Rebecca E.. AU - Dykstra,Linda A.. PY - 2013/5/1. Y1 - 2013/5/1. N2 - Introduction: Opioid withdrawal syndrome is a critical component of opioid abuse and consists of a wide array of symptoms including increases in pain sensitivity (hyperalgesia). A reliable preclinical model of hyperalgesia during opioid withdrawal is needed to evaluate possible interventions to alleviate withdrawal. The following study describes a method for assessing increases in thermal sensitivity on the hotplate in a mouse model of spontaneous morphine withdrawal. Methods: C57BL/6J mice received 5.5. days of 30, 56, or 100. mg/kg morphine or saline (s.c., twice daily). In Experiment I, thermal sensitivity data were collected at baseline and at 8, 24, 32, 48. h and 1. week following the final injection. Thermal sensitivity was assessed by examining latency to respond on a hotplate across a range of temperatures (50, 52, ...
In this study we used viral-mediated gene transfer and epitope tagging to examine the effects of acute opiate administration on the localization of wild-type and mutant opioid receptors in physiologically relevant nucleus accumbens neurons in vivo. Under the conditions used, recombinant receptors were expressed in widely separated neurons, allowing us to resolve individual receptor-expressing cell bodies and associated processes by light microscopy. We also used immunoelectron microscopy to examine at higher resolution the effects of morphine on the density and distribution of endogenously expressed MOR within specific subcellular compartments in the same population of neurons.. Our studies of receptor localization in cell bodies support previous observations (namely, that acute morphine administration fails to induce detectable internalization in MOR in this compartment; Sternini et al., 1996; Keith et al., 1998; Trafton et al., 2000; He et al., 2002). The present results also indicate that the ...
Morphine-induced hyperalgesia (MIH) is a severe adverse effect accompanying repeated morphine treatment, causing a paradoxical decrease in nociceptive threshold. Previous reports associated MIH with a decreased expression of the Cl- extruder KCC2 in the superficial dorsal horn (SDH) of the spinal cord, weakening spinal GABAA/glycine-mediated postsynaptic inhibition. Here, we tested whether the administration of small molecules enhancing KCC2, CLP257 and its pro-drug CLP290, may counteract MIH. MIH was typically expressed within 6-8 days of morphine treatment. Morphine-treated rats exhibited decreased withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulation and increased vocalizing behavior to subcutaneous injections. Chloride extrusion was impaired in SDH neurons measured as a depolarizing shift in E GABA under Cl- load. Delivering CLP257 to spinal cord slices obtained from morphine-treated rats was sufficient to restore Cl- extrusion capacity in SDH neurons. In vivo co-treatment with morphine and oral ...
The effects described below are common to all morphine-containing products.. Central Nervous System. The principal actions of therapeutic value of morphine are analgesia and sedation (i.e., sleepiness and anxiolysis).. The precise mechanism of the analgesic action is unknown. However, specific CNS opiate receptors and endogenous compounds with morphine-like activity have been identified throughout the brain and spinal cord and are likely to play a role in the expression of analgesic effects.. Morphine produces respiratory depression by direct action on brain stem respiratory centers. The mechanism of respiratory depression involves a reduction in the responsiveness of the brain stem respiratory centers to increases in carbon dioxide tension, and to electrical stimulation.. Morphine depresses the cough reflex by direct effect on the cough center in the medulla. Antitussive effects may occur with doses lower than those usually required for analgesia. Morphine causes miosis, even in total darkness. ...
FDA remains committed to taking enforcement actions against unapproved drugs in an effort to ensure that drugs used by patients are safe and effective, while at the same time ensuring that such actions do not impose an undue burden on patients. Currently, there are no approved morphine sulfate oral solution 20 mg/ml products being marketed in the U.S. FDA has heard from the pain management community that the impending market removal of unapproved morphine sulfate oral solution 20 mg/ml products announced in the Warning Letters would impose unacceptable hardship on palliative care patients, their families and caregivers. In light of this information, FDA will extend the enforcement discretion set forth in the Warning Letters to ensure that palliative care patients have access to morphine sulfate oral solution 20 mg/ml. The period of enforcement discretion will be extended until 180 days after any firm receives approval for a morphine sulfate oral solution 20 mg/ml product or if FDA determines ...
Morphine is an alkaloid from the plant extracts of opium poppy. Although morphine is highly effective for the treatment of pain, it is also known to be intensely addictive. We now know that the most important brain-reward circuit involves dopamine (DA) -containing neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the midbrain and their target areas in the limbic forebrain, in particular, the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and frontal regions of cerebral cortex. Morphine can cause indirect excitation of VTA dopamine neurons by reducing inhibitory synaptic transmission mediated by GABAergic neurons. The chronic use of morphine is characterized by adaptive changes in neurons and neuronal communication; such adaptations (e.g., superactivation of adenylyl cyclase) must underlie altered behaviour associated with morphine dependence and withdrawal syndrome, as well as drug-induced craving and relapse to drug use ...
Medical management of newborn infants often necessitates recurrent painful procedures, which may alter nociceptive pathways during a critical developmental period and adversely effect neuropsychological outcomes. To mitigate the effects of repeated painful stimuli, opioid administration for peri-procedural analgesia and ICU (intensive care unit) sedation is common in the NICU (neonatal intensive care unit). A growing body of basic and animal evidence suggests potential long-term harm associated with neonatal opioid therapy. Morphine increases apoptosis in human microglial cells, and animal studies demonstrate long-term changes in behavior, brain function, and spatial recognition memory following morphine exposure. This comprehensive review examines existing preclinical and clinical evidence on the long-term impacts of neonatal pain and opioid therapy.
In December 1804, Friedrich Sertürner first discovered morphine as the first alkaloid derived from the opium poppy in Paderborn, Germany. Sertürner named the drug as morphium after the Greek god Morpheus because it provides a feeling of sleepiness.. He administered the drug to himself, along with three young boys, three dogs, and a mouse. Unfortunately, he and the boys almost died because of morphine. In 1817, the Sertürner and Company first marketed morphine to the general public as a pain reliever. They claimed that the drug can even cure opium and alcohol addiction.. However, in 1822 morphine was first used a poison in France when Dr. Edme Castaing was convicted of using the drug to his patient.. Five years later, in 1827, commercial productions of morphine become rampant in Darmstadt, Germany under the pharmaceutical company Merck. Sales from morphine contributed a lot to the early growth of their company.. On the other hand, in 1850, Alexander Wood experimented with the drug and injected ...
In December 1804, Friedrich Sertürner first discovered morphine as the first alkaloid derived from the opium poppy in Paderborn, Germany. Sertürner named the drug as morphium after the Greek god Morpheus because it provides a feeling of sleepiness.. He administered the drug to himself, along with three young boys, three dogs, and a mouse. Unfortunately, he and the boys almost died because of morphine. In 1817, the Sertürner and Company first marketed morphine to the general public as a pain reliever. They claimed that the drug can even cure opium and alcohol addiction.. However, in 1822 morphine was first used a poison in France when Dr. Edme Castaing was convicted of using the drug to his patient.. Five years later, in 1827, commercial productions of morphine become rampant in Darmstadt, Germany under the pharmaceutical company Merck. Sales from morphine contributed a lot to the early growth of their company.. On the other hand, in 1850, Alexander Wood experimented with the drug and injected ...
Hi ive had fibro for 5 yrs now and been on various meds, currently codeine, pregablin, paracetamol, sertraline. Im keen to try morphine as been on other pain relief for yrs now and feel like its not working anymore. Ive just changed drs as my old drs was bad for being seen and when i asked about morphine i was told id have to be referred to a pain clinic and that it would be their decision if i had any kind of morphine although the dr said morphine isnt very good for fibro yet ive heard of others being given it no issues. I suffer horrible muscle spasms in my back and legs and my current meds just arnt helping. Im scared if i mention morphine that my dr will think im some druggy. Dont know what to do or anything.... Pls pls anyone with any experience of morphine for fibro pls help ...
Additive Synthesizers are rare enough that they exist in an atmosphere of mystique, rumour and fear. Some say that Additive Synthesis is so complicated that it makes FM synthesis appear to have the engineering complexity of a spoon. Fortunately the reality is a lot less scary, Morphine is only slightly more complex to master than a spoon and you will be feeding yourself in no time. Probably the best analogy is to consider Morphine a multi-sampler that can generate its own synthetic samples. So how does Morphine do this? Any sound can be represented by an infinite series of harmonics (sine waves) that vary constantly in amplitude and phase. Morphine captures this harmonic variation as a series of snapshots, just like the still frames in a movie and then by playing back this harmonic movie, in real-time, almost any sound can be re/created in synthetic form. So there you have synthesis in Morphine, not so scary. The hardest part will be learning the jargon in this manual. If Morphine is a ...
I was surprised by all the heavy-duty drugs I was given this week. This is the kind of stuff you read about in newspapers - morphine and cocaine! My previous history as a drug user is easily told. I never tried any heavy recreational drugs and the few times - twice perhaps - that I smoked marijuana, I really hated it. Since those bad experiences some 25 years ago, its been clear to me that drugs are scary and that my mind doesnt need additional excitement. My mind creates sufficient excitement on its own.. Now let me tell you about Mr. Morphine. Mr. Morphine is a guy who suddenly appears after Ive had 12.5 milliliters of that clear, opium-based, liquid my doctor gave me. Mr. Morphine is a super hero like what you would find in an old Marvel Comic. He has a purple dress and a red cape, and he can fly through the air with his fist clenched. Mr Morphine can do anything and deal with any problem. He looks out for me, fights my fights for me. Above all, he stands up to the high-speed accelerator - ...
Morphine Sulfate 120 mg Actavis, This medication is used to help relieve moderate to severe pain. Morphine belongs to a class of drugs known as opioid (narcotic) analgesics. It works in the brain to change how your body feels and responds to pain.
Morphine sulfate in doses of 90 to 150 micrograms/3 microliters evoke a prominent behavioral syndrome characterized by 1) periodic bouts of spontaneous agitation during which the rat scratches and bites at the skin of the caudal dermatomes and 2) vigorous agitation, vocalization and coordinated efforts to bite and escape evoked by a light tactile stimulus applied to the flank, suggestive of a pain state (allodynia). The phenomenon is not reversed by naltrexone or is it subject to tolerance. The ordering of activity of an opioid alkaloid related agent in producing this touch-evoked agitation is: noroxymorphone-3-glucuronide, morphine-3-glucuronide, morphine-3-ethereal sulfate, dihydromorphine, noroxymorphone dihydrate, hydromorphone, dihydrocodeine tartrate, morphine sulfate, dihydroisomorphine, morphine-HCl, 6-acetylmorphine, N-normorphine-HCl and (+)-morphine. The following agents were essentially without effect at the highest doses examined: 3,6-diacetylmorphine, N-normeperidine-HCl, ...
MEDICATION GUIDE Morphine Sulfate (mor-pheen) (CII) Oral Solution IMPORTANT: Keep Morphine Sulfate Oral Solution in a safe place away from children. Accidental use by a child is a medical emergency and
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Morphine Sulfate Actavis is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Morphine Sulfate Actavis is available on the Drugs.com website.
Next, the spinal pharmacology of intravenously administered morphine antinociception was examined. Animals received 2.5 mg/kg morphine administered intravenously, followed in 20 min by intrathecal injection of saline or a drug, and followed in 15 min by a second intrathecal injection of saline or a greater dose of the same drug. By this method, two doses of drug were studied in each experiment. Drugs studied were the [Greek small letter alpha]2-adrenergicantagonist idazoxan (2.5-45.0 [micro sign]g), the muscarinic antagonist atropine (5 - 40 [micro sign]g), the nonspecific NOS inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine(NMMA; 2-36 [micro sign]g), the neuronal NOS specific inhibitor 1-(2-trifluoromethylphenyl) imidazole (TRIM; 2.5 - 45.0 [micro sign]g), and the NO scavenger 2-(4-Carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium (PTIO; 2.5 - 45.0 [micro sign]g). To study the interaction between intravenously administered morphine and increased spinal availability of NO, other animals, ...
Morphine is an opiate painkiller that was first described in the 16th century by Swiss Physician Paracelsus. Although not directly what we think of today as morphine, as this was not synthesized until the early 1800s, Paracelsus described the substance as a potent drug that could help to alleviate pain, but also suggested that it only be used sparingly.. It is interesting because we often times think of the notion of addiction as a modern understanding, but even back in the 16th century individuals were aware of the potential for abuse of opiates, and because of this Paracelsus suggested sparing usage, and that the substance be only used for medical applications.. In 1817 the first known morphine product became available for public consumption and with this introduction to the general public, morphine began to exhibit its addictive properties. Many individuals fell into morphine addiction, as they were totally unaware that it could create addiction, and very quickly it was discovered that the ...
4.4. Ventilatory Responses to Hypoxic Challenges in Morphine-Treated Rats- Episode H1. H1 elicited markedly smaller increases in fr in MOR rats although resting fr was not diminished. As such, morphine elicited latent effects on systems including those within the carotid bodies that drive the hypoxic responses. Our data are consistent with evidence that the negative effects of opioids in humans may be latent since the morphine metabolite, M6G, does not affect resting ventilatory parameters whereas it substantially blunts the ventilatory response to hypercapnic challenge . Since morphine did not markedly blunt the increase in Vt during H1, it is evident that it did not negatively affect neural drive to the chest muscles or diaphragm. This is supported by the finding that Ti in MOR rats (elevated immediately prior to exposure to hypoxia) decreased substantially during H1. Taken together, our data support the concept that morphine affected brainstem centers responsible for generating breathing ...
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Morphine methylbromide (Morphine methobromide, Morphine bromomethylate, Morphosan) a derivative of morphine. It is an opioid listed as a Schedule I Narcotic with an ACSCN of 9305 and a 2014 aggregate national production quota of 5 grammes. It is a salt of morphine with a freebase conversion ratio of 0.75.controlled substance. 21 C.F.R. 1308.11 http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/quotas/conv_factor/index.html http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/quotas/conv_factor/index. ...
Rationale: Opioids are commonly used to relieve dyspnea, but clinical data are mixed and practice varies widely. Objectives: Evaluate the effect of morphine on dyspnea and ventilatory drive under well-controlled laboratory conditions. Methods: Six healthy volunteers received morphine (0.07 mg/kg) and placebo intravenously on separate days (randomized, blinded). We measured two responses to a CO2 stimulus: (1) perceptual response (breathing discomfort; described by subjects as "air hunger") induced by increasing partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO2) during restricted ventilation, measured with a visual analog scale (range, "neutral" to "intolerable"); and (2) ventilatory response, measured in separate trials during unrestricted breathing. Measurements and Main Results: We determined the PetCO2 that produced a 60% breathing discomfort rating in each subject before morphine (median, 8.5 mm Hg above resting PetCO2). At the same PetCO2 after morphine administration, median breathing ...
Purpose: The WHO guidelines on cancer pain management recommend a sequential three-step analgesic ladder. However, conclusive data are lacking as to whether moderate pain should be treated with either step II weak opioids or low-dose step III strong opioids. Patients and Methods: In a multicenter, 28-day, open-label randomized controlled study, adults with moderate cancer pain were assigned to receive either a weak opioid or low-dose morphine. The primary outcome was the number of responder patients, defined as patientswith a 20% reduction in pain intensity on the numerical rating scale. Results: A total of 240 patients with cancer (118 in the low-dose morphine and 122 in the weak-opioid group) were included in the study. The primary outcome occurred in 88.2% of the low-dose morphine and in 57.7% of the weak-opioid group (odds risk, 6.18; 95% CI, 3.12 to 12.24; P,001). The percentage of responder patients was higher in the low-dose morphine group, as early as at 1 week. Clinically meaningful (, ...
Vapors of Morphine is an American rock band founded in 2009 by the surviving members of the alternative rock band Morphine Dana Colley and Jerome Deupree and blues guitarist Jeremy Lyons. The band was officially formed in 2009, when Dana Colley was asked to bring a group to Nel Nome Del Rock Festival in Palestrina, Italy. Ten years earlier, Morphines frontman Mark Sandman had suddenly died of a massive heart attack while performing in that venue. After some deliberation, Colley invited Jeremy Lyons to sing and play the 2-string slide bass, along with drummer Jerome Deupree. Lyons asked a friend to build a 2-string bass for him and started learning the Morphine repertoire. The process wasnt easy as Lyons had to master a new instrument while singing below his natural voice range. In the beginning, they couldnt agree on a name, and they alternated between "Members of Morphine & Jeremy Lyons" and the "Elastic Waste Band," which eventually morphed into "The Ever Expanding Elastic Waste Band". ...
"Morphine". DrugBank. Retrieved 12 February 2013.. *^ "Yohimbine". DrugBank. Archived from the original on 30 January 2013. ... The term "morphine", used in English and French, was given by the French physicist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac. ... The first individual alkaloid, morphine, was isolated in 1804 from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). ... morphine), antibacterial (e.g. chelerythrine), and antihyperglycemic activities (e.g. piperine). Many have found ...
ISBN 978-3-527-62600-7. Busse GD, Triggle DJ (2006). "The history of opium and morphine". Morphine. New York: Chelsea House ... Already in 1805 was morphine isolated by the German chemist Friedrich Sertürner and in the 1870s it was discovered that boiling ... It was long been known that opium, a sticky mixture of alkaloids (including codeine, morphine, noscapine, thebaine, and ... Other plant-derived drugs, used medicinally and/or recreationally include morphine, cocaine, quinine, tubocurarine, muscarine, ...
Morphine. 2-3 hours Methotrexate. 3-10 hours (lower doses), 8-15 hours (higher doses) ...
The colour change from morphine is proposed to be a result of two molecules of morphine and two molecules of formaldehyde ...
Example: Morphine has the structure shown on the right. The standard InChI for morphine is InChI=1S/C17H19NO3/c1-18-7-6-17-10-3 ... m0/s1 and the standard InChIKey for morphine is BQJCRHHNABKAKU-KBQPJGBKSA-N. ...
Morphine group. (Phenanthrenes. Includes opioids). *Codeine. *Morphine. *Narcotoline. *Neopine. *Perparin. *Papaverrubine D ( ...
In the autumn of 1997, Danila Bagrov (Sergei Bodrov Jr.) returns to his small hometown of Priozersk following his demobilization from the Russian Army after the First Chechen War. On his way home, he ends up in a fight with security guards, after he accidentally walks onto the set of a music video for the band Nautilus Pompilius. He is arrested and brought to the local militsiya precinct. The officer in charge releases Danila on the condition that he will find another job within a week. After Danila arrives home his mother, very concerned for Danila, insists that he go to St. Petersburg to meet up with his successful older brother Viktor and ask for his help. Danila travels to St. Petersburg, but his attempts to make contact with Viktor are unsuccessful. Instead, he wanders around the city. He befriends Kat (Mariya Zhukova), an energetic drug addict, and "The German" Hoffman (Yury Kuznetsov), a homeless street vendor whom Danila helps after a thug attempts to extort him. Unbeknown to their ...
Morphine; 20:37 . . (+7) . . . 188.8.131.52. (talk). *(diff , hist) . . m Morphine; 20:36 . . (-8) . . . ClueBot NG. ( ... Morphine; 22:06 . . (+32) . . . 184.108.40.206. (talk). *(diff , hist) . . m Morphine; 21:00 . . (-9) . . . ClueBot NG. ... Morphine; 21:00 . . (+9) . . . 220.127.116.11. (talk). *(diff , hist) . . Morphine; 20:52 . . (-8) . . . Besieged. (talk ... Morphine; 20:51 . . (+18) . . . 18.104.22.168. (talk). *(diff , hist) . . Morphine; 20:41 . . (+2) . . . 22.214.171.124 ...
"Superfly Sister" e a faixa título eram de 1991; "Morphine", "Ghosts" e "Is It Scary" de 1993. Michael revisou as faixas em ...
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Morphine and related compounds. *Pethidine (meperidine). *Prodine. *Psychochemical compounds *Ditran-B (JB-329) ...
"Morphine", "Superfly Sister", "Ghosts" en "Is It Scary"). De rest van de cd bestond uit remixen van de successen van HIStory. ...
Morphine" ist ein Outtake des Albums HIStory (1995). Der Titel „Ghosts" war zum ersten Mal 1996 bei den Uraufführungen des ... Der Song „Morphine" handelt von Drogensucht. Zurückzuführen ist dieses Thema auf die Dangerous World Tour. Während der Tour ...
", "Morphine", "Superfly Sister", "Ghosts" a "Is It Scary").Také vznikl 40 minutový filmový videoklip Michael Jackson Ghosts ...
Morphine 2.08 1 Off the Wall 1.04 2.02 2.09 1.10 1.07 1.15 2.03 2.11 1.04 2.14 1.18 2.03 12 ...
"Staff Picks: Morphine, Martyrs, Microphones". The Paris Review. Retrieved 2019-08-01 ...
Glen Allen, VA: Morphine Records. 1997.. *^ a b c d "Antestor interview". Art for the Ears. Open Publishing. December 12, 1998 ... American-based label Morphine Records would subsequently distribute bootleg copies of the album in 1997. In an interview, ... the drummer Armoth said: "...we were in contact with a label called Morphine Records. But that was about signing a deal for the ...
R05DA05 Opium alkaloids with morphine. R05DA06 Normethadone. R05DA07 Noscapine. R05DA08 Pholcodine. R05DA09 Dextromethorphan. ...
Sunshine A, Laska E (November 1975). "Nefopam and morphine in man". Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 18 (5 Pt 1): 530-4 ... potency of nefopam to morphine indicates that 20 mg of nefopam HCl is the approximate analgesic equal of 12 mg of morphine with ... comparable analgesic efficacy to morphine, or oxycodone, while Nefopam tends to produce fewer side effects, ...
"Morphine Addiction Withdrawal Symptoms and Treatment". rehabinfo. Archived from the original on March 18, 2013. Retrieved March ... Addiction to many sedatives and analgesics, such as diazepam, morphine, etc. ...
He turns off Tennyson's morphine drip. But a few tense moments later, he turns it back on, saying, "[T]his is Trudy, the woman ... Monk Takes Manhattan") by turning Warrick Tennyson's morphine back on after he had turned it off claiming Trudy would have ...
Friedrich Sertürner, discovered morphine in 1804. *Jim L. Smithson, Arkansas politician. *Joseph Swan, inventor of the ...
He resorted once again to using morphine. He died suddenly on the morning of 8 May 1903. [e] ... By September the pain was so extreme that he resorted to morphine injections. However he was sufficiently concerned by the ...
Pacifici GM, Gustafsson LL, Säwe J, Rane A (April 1986). "Metabolic interaction between morphine and various benzodiazepines". ... Benzodiazepines including nitrazepam may inhibit the glucuronidation of morphine, leading to increased levels of and ... prolongation of the effects of morphine in rat experiments. Nitrazepam is a nitrobenzodiazepine. It is a 1,4 benzodiazepine, ...
Morphine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before taking morphine,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to morphine, any other medications, or any of the ... Morphine may be habit forming, especially with prolonged use. Take morphine exactly as directed. Do not take more of it, take ... Morphine may harm or cause death to other people who take your medication, especially children. Keep morphine in a safe place ...
... HCI. Topic: morphine. This sight is in the makings for now. It will eventually show a report on Morphine showing ...
"Sister Morphine" is a song written by Marianne Faithfull, Mick Jagger and Keith Richards. Faithfull released the original ... In some territories such as the Netherlands, Italy and Japan, "Sister Morphine" appeared on the A-side. In addition, the ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sister_Morphine&oldid=876054465" ...
Morphine methylbromide (Morphine methobromide, Morphine bromomethylate, Morphosan) a derivative of morphine. It is an opioid ... It is a salt of morphine with a freebase conversion ratio of 0.75.controlled substance.   ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Morphine_methylbromide&oldid=768973364" ...
Morphine was isolated from opium by the German chemist F.W.A. Sertürner... ... morphine: Narcotic analgesic drug used in medicine in the form of its hydrochloride, sulfate, acetate, and tartrate salts. ... The cause of death in morphine overdoses is usually respiratory failure. Nausea is caused by morphines stimulation of the ... Morphine, narcotic analgesic drug used in medicine in the form of its hydrochloride, sulfate, acetate, and tartrate salts. ...
A review of morphine and morphine-6-glucuronides pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships in experimental and clinical ... Nor-Binaltorphimine Blocks the Adverse Effects of Morphine after Spinal Cord Injury. Aceves M et al. J Neurotrauma. (2017) ... Pruritus after intrathecal morphine for cesarean delivery: incidence, severity and its relation to serum serotonin level. ... Blockade of prelimbic glutamate receptor reduces the reinforcing effect of morphine.. Aboutalebi F, Alaei H, Oryan S, Radahmadi ...
Sister Morphine. BMJ 2009; 339 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b3806 (Published 16 September 2009) Cite this as: BMJ 2009;339: ...
Morphine and other opiates have been known to mankind for centuries. Applications of the drug have been varied ranging from ... Morphine as a medicine. Morphine soon began to gain popularity as a pain reliever. The drug was commercially produced in the ... Soldiers who had been injured during war became some of the first people to develop morphine addiction and morphine dependence ... Morphine restriction. During the mid-19th century, both opium and cocaine addiction were on the rise and laudanum (an opium ...
Listen free to Morphine - The Night (The Night, So Many Ways and more). 11 tracks (50:05). Discover more music, concerts, ...
Leg broken, in safe location ontop of Berezino willing to crawl as well. Skype (DustyMuffin74) is possible also steam if you like. Online now 4EST...
Morphine is a very strong painkiller. It is one of a number of chemicals called opioids or opiates, which were originally ... Morphine is a very strong painkiller. It is one of a number of chemicals called opioids or opiates, which were originally ... Morphine. In: Aronson JK, ed. Meylers Side Effects of Drugs. 16th ed. Waltham, MA: Elsevier; 2016:1111-1127. ... Morphine overdose occurs when a person intentionally or accidentally takes too much of the medicine. ...
Amanda Peterson, best known for her role in the film Cant Buy Me Love, died of an accidental morphine overdose, according to a ... Amanda Peterson: Cant Buy Me Love Actress Died of Accidental Morphine Overdose. Kimberly Ripley September 4, 2015 ...
... euphoria-inducing painkillers that are very similar to opiates such as morphine. This approach is significant because releasing ...
... dopamine may contribute to morphine analgesia, but that dopamine is not required for morphine-induced reward as measured by ... Dopamine-deficient mice have a rightward shift in the dose-response curve to morphine on the tail-flick test (a pain ... We found that dopamine-deficient mice are unable to mount a normal locomotor response to morphine, but a small dopamine- ... There is a large literature supporting the idea that dopamine release is responsible for the pleasurable effects of morphine, ...
KILLED BY MORPHINE. Order Reprints, Todays Paper,Subscribe ... KILLED BY MORPHINE.. APRIL 6, 1886. Continue reading the main ...
... is a type of painkiller used for moderate to severe pain. It is classified as a strong opioid analgesic (also ... This is because morphine is a controlled drug.. *Do not just stop taking morphine suddenly as you will probably suffer from ... Before taking morphine, make sure that your Doctor is aware if any of the following apply to you:. *If you have heart, liver or ... Morphine is used to relieve moderate to severe pain and also in easing severe coughs. It works by affecting the nerves and ...
Diet in Morphine Addiction. Br Med J 1945; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.4428.705-d (Published 17 November 1945) Cite ...
Trace amounts of morphine had been found in human urine and cells. But studies using living animals yielded inconclusive ... Aside from detecting morphine in relevant organs, such as the brain and spinal cord, future studies should identify enzymes ... Zenk's team plans on using more sensitive techniques to look for traces of morphine in tissues. He'd also like to ... Because it's a fact that morphine is found, we have to consider that there must be a function for it, Zenk says. ...
Orchestra Morphine. has no aliases.. Artist credits. This is a list of all the different ways Orchestra Morphine. is credited ...
Lyrics to Mile High by Morphine: Nothings going to shake me / Nothings going to bring me down / Nothings going to shake me ...
... morphine, addiction, opiate - Answer: Hey rmp, Morphine is very similar to oxycodone. When comparing milligram ... ... Home › Q & A › Questions › Morphine worse then Oxy?. Morphine worse then Oxy?. Asked. 2 Aug 2011 by rmp5604. Active. 2 Aug 2011 ... Morphine is very similar to oxycodone. When comparing milligram to milligram, oxycodone is just a little stonger than morphine ... morphine, addiction, opiate. Details:. Hi all, this is my second question here. I have been finding stuff around the house that ...
... morphine, withdrawal - Answer: Forced? Taper? Sick? Yes. you will get sick either way, so you should ... ... Home › Q & A › Questions › Morphine withdrawal please.... Morphine withdrawal please help?. Asked. 5 Jun 2012 by Katharine23. ... pain, morphine, withdrawal. Details:. Hi. I am being forced to stop taking 120mg of morphine. Ive taken it every day for last ... Side Effects of Morphine (detailed). Search for questions. Still looking for answers? Try searching for what you seek or ask ...
Does this mean i have an allergy to morphine or does this happen to everyone? If it is an allergy what do i do now? Thanks ... The next time i had morphine was about a month later (shoulder again) and i got a rash all over my body so they gave me an shot ... So 6 weeks ago i had surgery on my shoulder and told the doctors about the reaction to the morphine they said theyd put a red ... About 4 months ago i was given morphine before they put my shoulder back in and i developed a raised itchy rash where they had ...
... 596-15-6 MORPHINE ACETATE
Post Tagged with: "morphine" Unpacking the Hidden Perils of Prescription Opioids. The experiences of a young adult taking the ... But while both drugs are opiates - drugs with morphine-like effects derived from opium - and have similar effects[Read More…] ...
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- A team of international researchers headed up by the University of Michigan has used noninvasive transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to release endogenous opioids - the human body's most powerful, euphoria-inducing painkillers that are very similar to opiates such as morphine. (extremetech.com)
- Like other opioids, morphine is a potent, potentially addictive pain reliever. (scientificamerican.com)
- Itching is one of the most prevalent side effects of powerful, pain-killing drugs like morphine, oxycodone and other opioids. (redorbit.com)
- In this case, opioids such as morphine first activate MOR1D, and that receptor subsequently connects to GRPR to relay itch signals. (redorbit.com)
- Chen's team plans to look more closely at other opioid receptors to learn what they do, but he also hopes to quickly determine whether blocking MOR1D might alleviate itch people taking morphine or other opioids. (redorbit.com)
- This form of morphine is used to treat breakthrough pain in cancer patients who have been receiving opioids on a regular basis to treat their baseline pain. (oncolink.org)
- Now, researchers from the University of Adelaide in Australia and the University of Colorado have found a way to block addiction to opioids like morphine and heroin, while increasing pain relief at the same time. (foxnews.com)
- Laboratory studies have shown the drug (+)-naloxone selectively blocks the immune response to morphine, shutting down the need to keep taking opioids. (foxnews.com)
- Opioids such as morphine stop pain, but can also be addictive. (newscientist.com)
- Controlled substance: Morphine sulfate is a Schedule II controlled substance with an abuse liability similar to other opioids. (nih.gov)
- About 70% of morphine is used to make other opioids such as hydromorphone, oxymorphone, and heroin. (wikipedia.org)
- Adverse effects of opioids Common and short term Itch Nausea Vomiting Constipation Drowsiness dry mouth Other Opioid dependence Dizziness Decreased sex drive Loss of appetite impaired sexual function Decreased testosterone levels Depression Immunodeficiency opioid-induced abnormal pain sensitivity Irregular menstruation Increased risk of falls Slowed breathing Like loperamide and other opioids, morphine acts on the myenteric plexus in the intestinal tract, reducing gut motility, causing constipation. (wikipedia.org)
- Clinical studies consistently conclude that morphine, like other opioids, often causes hypogonadism and hormone imbalances in chronic users of both sexes. (wikipedia.org)
- Morphine and other opiates have been known to mankind for centuries. (news-medical.net)
- Injecting salutaridine yielded a five-ringed opiate called thebaine, and injecting thebaine generated three similarly structured opiates: codeine, oripavine and morphine. (scientificamerican.com)
- I've as yet to learn about the difference between morphine/codeine and other opiates. (medhelp.org)
- Morphine along with other opiates is a highly addictive substance which results in a rapid tolerance and an equally rapid form of dependency. (medic8.com)
- Lateral flow, one-step immunoassay for the qualitative detection of morphine/opiates in human urine. (bio-medicine.org)
- Biologists in California and Canada have created strains of yeast that can feast on sugar and make opiates - the key ingredients in pain relievers like morphine. (pbs.org)
- The team named tested the proteins - dubbed "mambalgins - on mice, and found that the ASIC-blocking snake venom was as effective as some opiates, including morphine, in dulling pain. (theweek.com)
- Nor-Binaltorphimine Blocks the Adverse Effects of Morphine after Spinal Cord Injury. (nih.gov)
- Dopamine-deficient mice have a rightward shift in the dose-response curve to morphine on the tail-flick test (a pain sensitivity assay), suggesting either a decreased sensitivity to the analgesic effects of morphine and/or basal hyperalgesia. (nature.com)
- What are the effects of morphine? (medic8.com)
- Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of morphine in the pediatric population. (mayoclinic.org)
- The most serious adverse effects of morphine hydrochloride are bronchospasm, respiratory depression, bile tract spasms, hypersensitivity reactions and general asthenia up to syncope. (who.int)
- Persistent side-effects of morphine include mental impairment, euphoria, decreased appetite, reduction of physical performance, chronic constipation, and reduced or eliminated sex drive. (ehow.co.uk)
- It is important to talk to your doctor carefully about the long-term effects of morphine before beginning such a treatment. (ehow.co.uk)
- The gastrointestinal effects of morphine are mediated primarily by μ-opioid receptors in the bowel. (wikipedia.org)
- Soldiers who had been injured during war became some of the first people to develop morphine addiction and morphine dependence was nicknamed 'Soldier's Disease. (news-medical.net)
- As a result, this study does not prove that mammals make morphine naturally, or that the compound would serve any specific purpose, such as pain relief or addiction, Evans says. (scientificamerican.com)
- Addiction - Quitting morphine. (drugs.com)
- I started taking methadone 8 months ago due to withdrawing from a oxy and morphine addiction (5? (drugs.com)
- We're told Joe Jackson recently wanted to put Michael in a rehab facility in Palmdale, California for what he considered an "addiction" to morphine and prescription drugs. (tmz.com)
- But there are people who are prescribed drugs such as morphine for a specific medical condition who enjoy the relaxed 'high' that they get which then leads to tolerance and finally, addiction. (medic8.com)
- People who work in healthcare are also at risk of morphine addiction, often as a result of the highly stressful nature of their job. (medic8.com)
- If morphine is prescribed for medical reasons then careful monitoring will reduce the risk of tolerance and addiction. (medic8.com)
- This is as powerful as a heroin addiction: when you think how hard it is to give that up you then realise the extent of the grip morphine has on a person both physically and psychologically. (medic8.com)
- Morphine is not usually life threatening but it is so addictive that it has one of the highest rates of relapse for all forms of drug addiction. (medic8.com)
- A potential new treatment to prevent morphine addiction is at hand. (newscientist.com)
- The discovery offers hope that morphine can be used to relieve pain without running the risk of addiction. (newscientist.com)
- Rats given plus-naloxone before receiving morphine did not exhibit behaviour linked to addiction. (newscientist.com)
- Using a heat sensitivity test, the team also showed that the rodents given plus-naloxone still experienced pain relief from the morphine, despite lacking signs of addiction. (newscientist.com)
- Drug use eventually causes a state of morphinomania or addiction to morphine. (botanical-online.com)
- While this statement isn't necessarily a factual inaccuracy, the historical record on Dr. Pemberton shows that he was probably more concerned with his own morphine addiction than 'making the world happier. (businessinsider.com)
- It also recognizes morphine, and in the brain, this causes the immune cells to hijack the reward pathways and drive pathological rewards to morphine," ultimately amplifying addiction. (foxnews.com)
- Perhaps in the future we might have a coformulation - morphine providing pain relief and then a drug like ours to stop TLR4 activity, modifying pain but also stopping the addiction. (foxnews.com)
- Morphine has a risk for abuse and addiction , which can lead to overdose and death. (webmd.com)
- Morphine has a high potential for addiction and abuse. (wikipedia.org)
- Other derivatives of morphine include the analgesics methylmorphine ( codeine ), ethylmorphine, dihydrocodeinone, and dihydromorphinone and the emetic apomorphine. (britannica.com)
- Took an awful long time to figure that I was SENSITIVE to morphine/codeine. (medhelp.org)
- The new study, published today in the journal Nature Chemical Biology, represents a coup for scientists and drug companies that currently rely on extracting drugs like morphine and codeine directly from poppies and other plants, a process that's expensive and can yield impurities that cause harmful side-effects. (pbs.org)
- Glucose, a sugar compound, sits at the bottom, while the top level is filled with morphine, codeine and other members of a drug family known as benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs). (pbs.org)
- P lants of the order Ranunculales, especially members of the species Papaver, accumulate a large variety of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids with about 2500 structures, but only the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) and Papaver setigerum are able to produce the analgesic and narcotic morphine and the antitussive codeine. (opioids.com)
- Morphine is a very strong painkiller. (medlineplus.gov)
- Morphine is a type of painkiller used for moderate to severe pain. (sportsinjuryclinic.net)
- Mammals may possess the biochemical machinery to produce morphine--a painkiller found in the opium poppy, according to a new study. (scientificamerican.com)
- All dosage forms of the opioid painkiller combination product Embeda (morphine sulfate and naltrexone hydrochloride) have been recalled -- and will probably remain off the market for "many months," its manufacturer said. (medpagetoday.com)
- Morphine is a painkiller, usually for chronic or severe pain as a result of a terminal illness but it is a highly addictive drug which can lead to dependency. (medic8.com)
- Newser) - Morphine, a painkiller often prescribed to ease cancer patients' suffering, may in fact encourage the spread of the disease. (newser.com)
- Morphine is a opiate (narcotic) analgesic painkiller that changes the way your body processes pain. (ehow.co.uk)
- As a painkiller, morphine affects the central nervous system, triggering the brain's reward system to relieve pain, states the Narconon website. (ehow.co.uk)
- Morphine was isolated from opium by the German chemist F.W.A. Sertürner in about 1804. (britannica.com)
- Morphine, an opium alkaloid , can be converted into heroin , which shows a considerably stronger euphoric effect and is so powerfully addictive that its manufacture is legally prohibited in many countries. (britannica.com)
- Morphine is extracted from the dried milky exudate of the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy ( Papaver somniferum ). (britannica.com)
- The important constituents of opium are morphine (10 percent), papaverine (1. (britannica.com)
- Salutaridine is an intermediate on the morphine-synthesis pathway in the opium poppy. (scientificamerican.com)
- Although many new pain relievers have been synthesized since the crystallization of morphine from opium almost 200 years ago, "morphine remains the standard against which all new medications for postoperative pain relief are compared," notes Jonathan Moss, M.D., Ph.D., professor of anesthesia and critical care at the University of Chicago. (medgadget.com)
- The isolation of morphine from crude opium was one of the most important discoveries of nineteenth century medicine. (medgadget.com)
- The primary source of morphine is isolation from poppy straw of the opium poppy. (wikipedia.org)
- Licensing opium poppy cultivation in order to locally manufacture and market Afghan morphine, according to this proposal, would create the economic conditions to empower poverty stricken rural Afghans and cut their ties with the illicit poppy trade. (wikipedia.org)
- One alternative development policy, put forward by the Senlis Council, proposes licensing poppy cultivation in order to make Afghan morphine and other poppy-based medicines and to avoid diversion of opium to illegal traffickers. (wikipedia.org)
- There are various brands of each form of morphine medication and the directions for usage will vary slightly between each type. (sportsinjuryclinic.net)
- This form of morphine is taken with or without food, either as needed for pain or as a regularly scheduled medication decided by your care provider. (oncolink.org)
- Do not use the sustained-action form of morphine to relieve pain that is mild or that will go away in a few days. (webmd.com)
- For children who have trouble swallowing the capsule, ask the doctor about using a different form of morphine instead. (webmd.com)
- Morphine may cause serious or life-threatening breathing problems, especially during the first 24 to 72 hours of your treatment and any time your dose is increased. (medlineplus.gov)
- Your doctor may adjust your dose of morphine during your treatment to control your pain as well as possible. (empowher.com)
- Members of Michael Jackson 's family told us the singer was given a " heavy dose of morphine " prior to his death, and family members were alarmed. (tmz.com)
- Use with extreme caution in patients receiving MAO inhibitors within 14 days prior (may result in unpredictable, severe reactions-↓ initial dose of morphine to 25% of usual dose). (unboundmedicine.com)
- However, elderly patients are more likely to have age-related lung, liver, kidney, or heart problems, which may require caution and an adjustment in the dose for patients receiving morphine in order to avoid potentially serious side effects. (mayoclinic.org)
- However, elderly patients are more likely to have age-related kidney, liver, or lung problems, which may require caution and an adjustment in the dose for patients receiving morphine injection. (mayoclinic.org)
- She gave him his intravenous dose of morphine at 1330 BST - earlier than usual. (allnurses.com)
- I was following instructions by the GP for the second dose of morphine and that was given verbally over the phone,' she said. (allnurses.com)
- Rats show a significant degree of tolerance to a second dose of morphine, with the degree of tolerance increasing the longer the delay between the two doses of morphine. (sciencemag.org)
- To lower your risk, your doctor should have you take the smallest dose of morphine that works, and take it for the shortest possible time. (webmd.com)
- Do not confuse the dose of morphine liquid in milligrams (mg) with the dose in milliliters (mL). (webmd.com)
- In the setting of breathlessness at rest or on minimal exertion from conditions such as advanced cancer or end-stage cardiorespiratory diseases, regular, low-dose sustained-release morphine significantly reduces breathlessness safely, with its benefits maintained over time. (wikipedia.org)
- Taking certain other medications during your treatment with morphine may increase the risk that you will experience breathing problems or other serious, life-threatening breathing problems, sedation, or coma. (medlineplus.gov)
- If you take morphine with any of these medications and you develop any of the following symptoms, call your doctor immediately or seek emergency medical care: unusual dizziness, lightheadedness, extreme sleepiness, slowed or difficult breathing, or unresponsiveness. (medlineplus.gov)
- Drinking alcohol, taking prescription or nonprescription medications that contain alcohol, or using street drugs during your treatment with morphine increases the risk that you will experience breathing problems or other serious, life-threatening side effects. (medlineplus.gov)
- Do not drink alcohol, take any prescription or nonprescription medications that contain alcohol, or use street drugs during your treatment with other morphine products. (medlineplus.gov)
- Morphine is in a class of medications called opiate (narcotic) analgesics. (empowher.com)
- tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to morphine, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in morphine suppositories. (empowher.com)
- do not use rectal morphine if you are taking a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor such as isocarboxazid (Marplan), phenelzine (Nardil), procarbazine (Matulane), selegiline (Eldepryl), and tranylcypromine (Parnate) or if you have stopped taking any of these medications within the past 2 weeks. (empowher.com)
- Strong pain medications such as morphine and ketamine did not help. (dictionary.com)
- Opiate drugs, such as morphine and hydrocodone, are frequently prescribed medications to aid patients in need of chronic pain relief - but they often come at a cost. (foxnews.com)
- Other Schedule II substances include morphine , the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications Adderall and Ritalin and cocaine - when used as a topical anesthetic to treat cancer. (redorbit.com)
- The presence of an alkaloid called tetrahydropapaveroline (THP) in brain tissue and urine has led to speculation that it may be a precursor to morphine made naturally inside the body. (scientificamerican.com)
- Although the latter stages of morphine production are conserved between plants and mammals, the early stages differ: the first alkaloid intermediate in mammals, preceding salutaridine, has an extra hydroxyl (OH) group compared to that in plants. (scientificamerican.com)
- Morphine overdose occurs when a person intentionally or accidentally takes too much of the medicine. (medlineplus.gov)
- Amanda Peterson, best known for her role in the film Can't Buy Me Love, died of an accidental morphine overdose, according to a coroner's report. (webpronews.com)
- Taking crushed, chewed, or dissolved forms of sustained-action morphine could cause a fatal overdose. (webmd.com)
- The antidote for morphine overdose is naloxone. (reference.com)
- Morphine overdose can occur intentionally or accidentally. (reference.com)
- The antidote for a morphine overdose is the medicine naloxone, according to MedlinePlus. (reference.com)
- Take care when prescribing and administering morphine sulfate oral solution to avoid dosing errors due to confusion between different concentrations and between mg and mL, which could result in accidental overdose and death. (nih.gov)
- A dopamine D1 receptor agonist improved learning and memory in morphine-treated rats. (nih.gov)
- Novel Opioid Receptor Agonists with Reduced Morphine-like Side Effects. (nih.gov)
- Manzanedo, C., Aguilar, M. A., Rodriguez-Arias, M. & Minarro, J. Effects of dopamine antagonists with different receptor blockade profiles on morphine-induced place preference in male mice. (nature.com)
- Failure of intravenous morphine to serve as an effective instrumental reinforcer in dopamine D2 receptor knock-out mice. (nature.com)
- In the new study, his team found that the opioid receptor MOR1D induced itching in the mice on morphine by activating GRPR. (redorbit.com)
- Without the key, MOR1 can't activate GRPR even though the receptor is activated by morphine. (redorbit.com)
- The team did a series of experiments looking at addictive behaviour in rats and mice that had been given either morphine alone, or a drug called plus-naloxone - which blocks the TLR-4 receptor - followed by morphine. (newscientist.com)
- In a study published in the journal Nature , researchers reveal how they deciphered the atomic structure of the "morphine receptor" in the brain to create a drug compound that blocks pain just as well as morphine, but without the harmful side effects that can lead to patient death. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Rather than trying to change the structure of morphine, the researchers of the new study looked at how they could develop a new opioid from scratch by using information about the structure of the brain's morphine receptor - the mu-opioid receptor. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Morphine , narcotic analgesic drug used in medicine in the form of its hydrochloride, sulfate, acetate, and tartrate salts. (britannica.com)
- Analgesic and soporific, especially through its derivatives, morphine and heroin. (botanical-online.com)
- M orphine-6Beta-glucuronide (M6G), a metabolite of morphine that the brain can produce, is an opiate agonist that appears to have a greater analgesic potency than morphine. (opioids.com)
- Morphine sulfate is an opioid agonist indicated for the relief of moderate to severe acute and chronic pain where an opioid analgesic is appropriate. (nih.gov)
- A new letter issued to Glenmark Generics, Lannett Company, Lehigh Valley Technologies, Mallinckrodt Inc. Parmaceuticals Group, Boehringer Ingelheim Roxane, and Cody Laboratories offered the companies a reminder that the limitation on their unmoderated production of unapproved morphine sulfate would expire on July 24, 2010. (medpagetoday.com)
- Allergies imply something altogether different and one CAN develop an allergy to drugs such as morphine and THAT YOU don't want happening. (medhelp.org)
- Opioid drugs such as morphine are known to target opioid receptors in the central nervous system, which block pain signals to the brain and flood it with the "feel-good" chemical dopamine. (newscientist.com)
- I've abused prescription drugs in the past, but never morphine. (dailystrength.org)
- We know that drugs like morphine drive a reward system that causes elevations of dopamine in the brain," Dr. Mark Hutchinson, ARC Research Fellow at the University of Adelaide's School of Medical Sciences and the study's lead author, told FoxNews.com. (foxnews.com)
- Be sure you know how to take morphine and what other drugs you should avoid taking with it. (webmd.com)
- Morphine belongs to a class of drugs known as opioid analgesics. (webmd.com)
- After complaints from doctors and patient advoctates that there were no approved alternatives on the market, the FDA subsequently notified the the makers of unapproved drugs that enforcement of the order would be postponed until 180 days after the approval of a then-pending morphine sulfate product. (medpagetoday.com)
- Knowing what to expect from long-term use of morphine may affect your decision to continue the drug for extended periods, per Drugs.com. (ehow.co.uk)
- Do not just stop taking morphine suddenly as you will probably suffer from withdrawal symptoms. (sportsinjuryclinic.net)
- Because it's a fact that morphine is found, we have to consider that there must be a function for it,' Zenk says. (scientificamerican.com)
- Taken together, if a distinct M6G signaling mechanism does exist, the fact that morphine can be converted into a more water soluble compound that might be more potent would not be an accident. (opioids.com)
- The structure of morphine proposed in the 1920s by J.M. Gulland and R. Robinson was confirmed in 1952 by its total synthesis, accomplished by M. Gates and G. Tschudi. (britannica.com)
- According to Shoichet, scientists have previously tried to alter the structure of morphine itself in an attempt to abolish its harmful side effects, while maintaining its pain-relieving effects. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Morphine is used to relieve moderate to severe pain and also in easing severe coughs. (sportsinjuryclinic.net)
- Rectal morphine is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. (empowher.com)
- Morphine has a medical application in that it is designed to relieve severe or chronic pain caused by a terminal illness, e.g. cancer. (medic8.com)
- Morphine acts on the central nervous system (CNS) to relieve pain. (mayoclinic.org)
- NEW YORK - Cancer patients who got morphine at the touch of a button to relieve pain stopped using the drug sooner, and used little more than half the narcotic than patients who got a continuous infusion, a researcher says. (latimes.com)
- Morphine sulfate abuse-deterrent formulations for the treatment of chronic pain. (nih.gov)
- Morphine is a widely used pain killer, but its addictiveness means it has to be administered with caution , and often cannot be used for protracted periods of chronic pain. (newscientist.com)
- Now more than 230 tons of morphine is used each year for medical purposes including pain relief for patients with chronic pain or advanced medical illness and post-operative analgesia. (medgadget.com)
- Usually available in pill or injection-ready formulations, morphine is still one of the most effective painkillers in medical use today, and is often prescribed for long-term use for people suffering from chronic pain. (ehow.co.uk)
- Morphine is prescribed long term for chronic, debilitating pain--often associated with back problems such as a herniated disk--that interferes with a person's quality of life. (ehow.co.uk)
- Morphine sulfate oral solution 100 mg per 5 mL (20 mg/mL) is indicated for the relief of moderate to severe acute and chronic pain in opioid-tolerant patients. (nih.gov)
- Morphine is used primarily to treat both acute and chronic severe pain. (wikipedia.org)
- Featuring interviews with Ben Harper, John Medeski, Josh Homme (Queens of the Stone Age), Mike Watt (The Stooges), Les Claypool (Primus), and Seth Mnookin (a Vanity Fair contributor), Cure for Pain: The Mark Sandman Story tracks the life and career of Morphine front man Mark Sandman. (vanityfair.com)
- Now, scientists have identified the enzymes that perform a previously unknown step in the chemical pathway, which will allow yeast to make morphine. (sciencenews.org)
- In the last week of January, the FDA approved the first morphine sulfate solution, marking the official start of the countdown before administrative action would be taken against other companies still marketing the drug without approval. (medpagetoday.com)
- But there is is no such anticipated shortage of the morphine sulfate solution, the FDA said in its latest letters. (medpagetoday.com)
- In the study, 32 patients got a continuous infusion of morphine through an intravenous line, the standard treatment, Chapman said. (latimes.com)
- Patients who controlled their morphine used the drug an average of about 13 days, while those who received a continuous intravenous infusion averaged more than 17 days. (latimes.com)
- Arymo ER--a new abuse-deterrent morphine formulation. (nih.gov)
- Morphine sulfate oral liquid formulation is available through retail/mail order pharmacy. (oncolink.org)
- Vendal retard 30 mg- film-coated tablets is a prolonged released formulation containing morphine hydrochloride. (who.int)
- Morphine is also available as a slow-release formulation for opiate substitution therapy (OST) in Austria, Bulgaria, and Slovenia, for addicts who cannot tolerate either methadone or buprenorphine. (wikipedia.org)
- Morphine, for example, is an excellent drug for the control of severe pain, but it can depress respiration, and too much of it can cause death. (britannica.com)
- Similarly, in 1970, the Controlled Substances Act which classifies morphine as a schedule II drug, was passed. (news-medical.net)
- This is because morphine is a controlled drug. (sportsinjuryclinic.net)
- and colleagues detected traces of morphine in the urine of mice after injecting chemical precursors of the drug. (scientificamerican.com)
- Scientists have speculated for decades that animals naturally synthesize morphine because specialized receptors in the brain respond to the drug. (scientificamerican.com)
- Hi, welcome to the forum, your history is suggestive of that you are having drug allergy to morphine. (medhelp.org)
- There are reports Jackson OD'd yesterday on Demerol, a drug similar to morphine. (tmz.com)
- In many ways, morphine is an excellent drug for use in developing countries. (pbs.org)
- The fact that what stands between them and the relief of that pain is a drug that costs $2 a week, I think is just really unconscionable," says Meg O'Brien, head of the Global Access to Pain Relief Initiative, a nonprofit that advocates greater access to morphine. (pbs.org)
- Indian generic drug manufacturer CIPLA supplies the morphine and pays all the other expenses. (pbs.org)
- That is the open road to the morphine habit and drug addictions of all sorts. (dictionary.com)
- Clinical trials to test the effectiveness of combining morphine with a drug like plus-naloxone could begin as soon as 18 months from now. (newscientist.com)
- Morphine is an opiate drug used to treat moderate-severe pain. (patientslikeme.com)
- BRENTWOOD - A nurse facing charges that she allegedly deprived morphine from a resident at a Portsmouth nursing home and kept the drug for herself has agreed to plead guilty instead of going to trial, according to court papers filed by her lawyer. (unionleader.com)
- The shorter time on the drug is important because it means an earlier end to confusion, sedation and other unpleasant reactions that accompany morphine treatment, he said. (latimes.com)
- But the study authors are optimistic that a drug called methylnaltrexone, developed in the 1980s to prevent morphine-induced constipation, could counteract this effect. (newser.com)
- Dependence on morphine is one of the most serious side-effects of long-term use of the drug, since potentially severe withdrawals can occur if morphine use is suddenly stopped. (ehow.co.uk)
- The U.S. National Institute of Health states that long-term morphine even affects the size and shape of the very receptors the drug binds to in the brain, resulting in increased dependence over long periods of time. (ehow.co.uk)
- The ADON and the PM nurse before me took the Morphine out of narcotics and administered it without authorization from pharmacy, although they did have the MD order. (allnurses.com)
- In the recovery room, hours later, my post-operative fog dissolved into sunshine as a nurse gave me a "PC" (patient controlled pump) for morphine. (acupuncturetoday.com)
- A nurse said, 'He wants more morphine. (courant.com)
- Perez was working as a licensed practical nurse at The Edgewood Centre in Portsmouth on May 19 when she took a quantity of morphine prescribed to a male resident, according to a court complaint. (unionleader.com)
- A nurse who injected a terminally ill teenager with morphine twice in five minutes has insisted she was acting on instructions and in his best interests. (allnurses.com)
- ANN ARBOR, Mich. - Prosecutors have charged a nurse with stealing morphine by siphoning it from a dying woman's bedside at the University of Michigan hospital. (foxnews.com)
- Morphine produces a relaxed, drowsy state and many side effects that result from the depression of the respiratory, circulatory, and gastrointestinal systems. (britannica.com)
- Dr. wants to change to morphine, what can I expect, same side effects as oxy. (dailystrength.org)
- I guess morphine has about the same side effects as oxycontin. (dailystrength.org)
- KatB has not reported any side effects for Morphine. (patientslikeme.com)
- Other effects that persist over long-term use of morphine are the drug's primary side effects. (ehow.co.uk)
- Aside from relieving pain, morphine produces a host of psychological and physical side effects that are important to be aware of. (ehow.co.uk)
- It's a tricky one to get right, the additive synth, but it seems that Morphine has been injected with Image-Line's famous usability formula. (musicradar.com)
- The designer of Morphine has found a solution that retains the depth and complexity of a fully additive instrument without giving up some semblance of user-friendliness. (musicradar.com)
- While an additive instrument doesn't need filtering, Morphine offers a PWM Filter for each of the four generators. (musicradar.com)
- To test the hypothesis that dopamine is an essential mediator of various opiate-induced responses, we administered morphine to mice unable to synthesize dopamine. (nature.com)
- We found that dopamine-deficient mice are unable to mount a normal locomotor response to morphine, but a small dopamine-independent increase in locomotion remains. (nature.com)
- In contrast, dopamine-deficient mice display a robust conditioned place preference for morphine when given either caffeine or l -dihydroxyphenylalanine (a dopamine precursor that restores dopamine throughout the brain) during the testing phases. (nature.com)
- Together, these data demonstrate that dopamine is a crucial component of morphine-induced locomotion, dopamine may contribute to morphine analgesia, but that dopamine is not required for morphine-induced reward as measured by conditioned place preference. (nature.com)
- Locomotor responses to morphine in dopamine-deficient and control mice. (nature.com)
- Gysling, K. & Wang, R. Y. Morphine-induced activation of A10 dopamine neurons in the rat. (nature.com)
- Their brains also showed a significantly lower release of dopamine than in rats that only received morphine. (newscientist.com)
- Serturner named his compound morphine, after the Greek God of dreams, Morpheus. (news-medical.net)
- We have] patients who've been established and well-controlled on morphine, and running out and not having access to that medication now. (pbs.org)
- And many doctors are reluctant to prescribe morphine, fearing their patients will become addicted - something that studies have shown rarely happens. (pbs.org)
- Tata Memorial Hospital, a modern and well-equipped medical center in Mumbai, has no problems getting morphine for patients. (pbs.org)
- One big reason, says director Priya Kulkarni, is a result of patients' own concerns about morphine. (pbs.org)
- The self-administering group also used only 53% as much morphine as the other patients. (latimes.com)