The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon morphine.
Analogs or derivatives of morphine.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.
Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.
Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
An opioid analgesic related to MORPHINE but with less potent analgesic properties and mild sedative effects. It also acts centrally to suppress cough.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
Pain during the period after surgery.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.
Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.
Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).
A narcotic antagonist with some agonist properties. It is an antagonist at mu opioid receptors and an agonist at kappa opioid receptors. Given alone it produces a broad spectrum of unpleasant effects and it is considered to be clinically obsolete.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
An opioid analgesic made from MORPHINE and used mainly as an analgesic. It has a shorter duration of action than morphine.
A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)
An enkephalin analog that selectively binds to the MU OPIOID RECEPTOR. It is used as a model for drug permeability experiments.
Central gray matter surrounding the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT in the MESENCEPHALON. Physiologically it is probably involved in RAGE reactions, the LORDOSIS REFLEX; FEEDING responses, bladder tonus, and pain.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A semisynthetic derivative of CODEINE.
The first mixed agonist-antagonist analgesic to be marketed. It is an agonist at the kappa and sigma opioid receptors and has a weak antagonist action at the mu receptor. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1991, p97)
Compounds based on a partially saturated iminoethanophenanthrene, which can be described as ethylimino-bridged benzo-decahydronaphthalenes. They include some of the OPIOIDS found in PAPAVER that are used as ANALGESICS.
One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.
A narcotic used as a pain medication. It appears to be an agonist at kappa opioid receptors and an antagonist or partial agonist at mu opioid receptors.
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Delta opioid receptors bind endorphins and enkephalins with approximately equal affinity and have less affinity for dynorphins.
A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.
A drug that is derived from opium, which contains from 0.3-1.5% thebaine depending on its origin. It produces strychnine-like convulsions rather than narcosis. It may be habit-forming and is a controlled substance (opiate) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Part 1308.12 (1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.
An opioid analgesic with actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE, apart from an absence of cough suppressant activity. It is used in the treatment of moderate to severe pain, including pain in obstetrics. It may also be used as an adjunct to anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1092)
The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few - MORPHINE; CODEINE; and PAPAVERINE - have clinical significance. Opium has been used as an analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic.
One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.
A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Kappa opioid receptors bind dynorphins with a higher affinity than endorphins which are themselves preferred to enkephalins.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
A genus of Eurasian herbaceous plants, the poppies (family PAPAVERACEAE of the dicotyledon class Magnoliopsida), that yield OPIUM from the latex of the unripe seed pods.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
An opioid antagonist with properties similar to those of NALOXONE; in addition it also possesses some agonist properties. It should be used cautiously; levallorphan reverses severe opioid-induced respiratory depression but may exacerbate respiratory depression such as that induced by alcohol or other non-opioid central depressants. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p683)
Bluish-colored region in the superior angle of the FOURTH VENTRICLE floor, corresponding to melanin-like pigmented nerve cells which lie lateral to the PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY.
An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.
Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.
A narcotic analgesic morphinan used as a sedative in veterinary practice.
A narcotic analgesic proposed for severe pain. It may be habituating.
A widely used local anesthetic agent.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief.
An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.
A derivative of the opioid alkaloid THEBAINE that is a more potent and longer lasting analgesic than MORPHINE. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use.

Effect of morphine and naloxone on priming-induced audiogenic seizures in BALB/c mice. (1/3881)

1 Morphine (1-200 mg/kg s.c.) reduced the incidence and prolonged the latency of priming-induced audiogenic siezures in a dose-dependent manner. 2 This effect was reversed by naloxone (1 and 2 mg/kg) although naloxone was itself inactive. 3 This priming-induces seizure model may be useful in the study of tolerance and physical dependence.  (+info)

Spinal antinociceptive synergism between morphine and clonidine persists in mice made acutely or chronically tolerant to morphine. (2/3881)

Morphine (Mor) tolerance has been attributed to a reduction of opioid-adrenergic antinociceptive synergy at the spinal level. The present experiments tested the interaction of intrathecally (i.t.) administered Mor-clonidine (Clon) combinations in mice made acutely or chronically tolerant to Mor. ICR mice were pretreated with Mor either acutely (40 nmol i.t., 8 h; 100 mg/kg s.c., 4 h) or chronically (3 mg/kg s.c. every 6 h days 1 and 2; 5 mg/kg s.c. every 6 h days 3 and 4). Antinociception was detected via the hot water (52.5 degrees C) tail-flick test. After the tail-flick latencies returned to baseline levels, dose-response curves were generated to Mor, Clon, and Mor-Clon combinations in tolerant and control mice. Development of tolerance was confirmed by significant rightward shifts of the Mor dose-response curves in tolerant mice compared with controls. Isobolographic analysis was conducted; the experimental combined ED50 values were compared statistically against their respective theoretical additive ED50 values. In all Mor-pretreated groups, the combination of Mor and Clon resulted in significant leftward shifts in the dose-response curves compared with those of each agonist administered separately. In all tolerant and control groups, the combination of Mor and Clon produced an ED50 value significantly less than the corresponding theoretical additive ED50 value. Mor and Clon synergized in Mor-tolerant as well as in control mice. Spinally administered adrenergic/opioid synergistic combinations may be effective therapeutic strategies to manage pain in patients apparently tolerant to the analgesic effects of Mor.  (+info)

Discriminative stimulus effects of naltrexone after a single dose of morphine in the rat. (3/3881)

The discriminative stimulus effects of an acute morphine (MOR) --> naltrexone (NTX) combination were characterized and compared with the stimulus effects of NTX-precipitated and spontaneous withdrawal from chronic MOR administration. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6-8) were trained to discriminate between two drug treatments in a discrete-trial avoidance/escape procedure: MOR (10 mg./kg, s.c., 4 h) --> NTX (0.3 mg/kg, s.c., 0.25 h) versus saline (SAL, 1 ml/kg, s. c., 4 h) --> NTX (0.3 mg/kg, s.c., 0.25 h). Subjects responded only on the SAL --> NTX-appropriate lever when SAL was given 3.75 h after MOR or 3.75 h before any dose of NTX (0.3-100 mg/kg). Responding was dose dependent and MOR --> NTX-appropriate when NTX (0.01-0.1 mg/kg) followed MOR. Full MOR --> NTX-appropriate responding was dependent on the pretreatment dose and time of MOR, with full effects observed only when MOR (10 mg/kg) was given 3 to 4 h before NTX. While subjects were maintained on either 20- or 40 mg/kg/day of MOR via osmotic pump, NTX produced full dose-dependent, MOR --> NTX-appropriate responding. When the MOR-filled pumps were removed, partial MOR --> NTX-appropriate responding occurred, peaking at 6 to 12 h. The physical withdrawal signs produced by NTX after acute or during chronic MOR exposure were of smaller magnitude compared with the ones that occurred during abrupt withdrawal from chronic MOR. A qualitatively unique "withdrawal" stimulus that is dose- and time-dependent appears to be the basis of this MOR --> NTX discrimination.  (+info)

Extinction of responding maintained by timeout from avoidance. (4/3881)

The resistance to extinction of lever pressing maintained by timeout from avoidance was examined. Rats were trained under a concurrent schedule in which responses on one lever postponed shock on a free-operant avoidance (Sidman) schedule (response-shock interval = 30 s) and responses on another lever produced 2 min of signaled timeout from avoidance on a variable-ratio 15 schedule. Following extended training (106 to 363 2-hr sessions), two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1 two different methods of extinction were compared. In one session, all shocks were omitted, and there was some weakening of avoidance but little change in timeout responding. In another session, responding on the timeout lever was ineffective, and under these conditions timeout responding showed rapid extinction. The within-session patterns produced by extinction manipulations were different than the effects of drugs such as morphine, which also reduces timeout responding. In Experiment 2 shock was omitted for many consecutive sessions. Response rates on the avoidance lever declined relatively rapidly, with noticeable reductions within 5 to 10 sessions. Extinction of the timeout lever response was much slower than extinction of avoidance in all 4 rats, and 2 rats continued responding at baseline levels for more than 20 extinction sessions. These results show that lever pressing maintained by negative reinforcement can be highly resistant to extinction. The persistence of responding on the timeout lever after avoidance extinction is not readily explained by current theories.  (+info)

Modulation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity by acute and chronic morphine administration in rat hippocampus: differential regulation of alpha and beta isoforms. (5/3881)

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) has been shown to be involved in the regulation of opioid receptor signaling. The present study showed that acute morphine treatment significantly increased both Ca2+/calmodulin-independent and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent activities of CaMK II in the rat hippocampus, with little alteration in the protein level of either alpha or beta isoform of CaMK II. However, chronic morphine treatment, by which rats were observed to develop apparent tolerance to morphine, significantly down-regulated both Ca2+/calmodulin-independent and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent activities of CaMK II and differentially regulated the expression of alpha and beta isoforms of CaMK II at protein and mRNA levels. Application of naloxone or discontinuation of morphine treatment after chronic morphine administration, which induced the withdrawal syndrome of morphine, resulted in the overshoot of CaMK II (at both protein and mRNA levels) and its kinase activity. The phenomena of overshoot were mainly observed in the beta isoform of CaMK II but not in the alpha isoform. The effects of both acute and chronic morphine treatments on CaMK II could be completely abolished by the concomitant application of naloxone, indicating that the effects of morphine were achieved through activation of opioid receptors. Our data demonstrated that both acute and chronic morphine treatments could effectively modulate the activity and the expression of CaMK II in the hippocampus.  (+info)

Presynaptic inhibition of GABA(B)-mediated synaptic potentials in the ventral tegmental area during morphine withdrawal. (6/3881)

Opioids increase the firing of dopamine cells in the ventral tegmental area by presynaptic inhibition of GABA release. This report describes an acute presynaptic inhibition of GABAB-mediated IPSPs by mu- and kappa-opioid receptors and the effects of withdrawal from chronic morphine treatment on the release of GABA at this synapse. In slices taken from morphine-treated guinea pigs after washing out the morphine (withdrawn slices), a low concentration of a mu receptor agonist increased, rather than decreased, the amplitude of the GABAB IPSP. In withdrawn slices, after blocking A1-adenosine receptors with 8-cyclopentyl-1, 3-dipropylxantine, mu-opioid receptor activation inhibited the IPSP at all concentrations and increased the maximal inhibition. In addition, during withdrawal, there was a tonic increase in adenosine tone that was further increased by forskolin or D1-dopamine receptor activation, suggesting that metabolism of cAMP was the source of adenosine. The results indicate that during acute morphine withdrawal, there was an upregulation of the basal level of an opioid-sensitive adenylyl cyclase. Inhibition of this basal activity by opioids had two effects. First, a decrease in the formation of cAMP that decreased adenosine tone. This effect predominated at low mu receptor occupancy and increased the amplitude of the IPSP. Higher agonist concentrations inhibited transmitter release by both kinase-dependent and -independent pathways. This study indicates that the consequences of the morphine-induced upregulation of the cAMP cascade on synaptic transmission are dependent on the makeup of receptors and second messenger pathways present on any given terminal.  (+info)

Effects and interactions of opioids on plasma exudation induced by cigarette smoke in guinea pig bronchi. (7/3881)

The effects of opioids on cigarette smoke-induced plasma exudation were investigated in vivo in the main bronchi of anesthetized guinea pigs, with Evans blue dye as a plasma marker. Acute inhalation of cigarette smoke increased plasma exudation by 216% above air control values. Morphine, 0.1-10 mg/kg but not 30 mg/kg, inhibited the exudation but had no significant effect on substance P-induced exudation. Both 10 and 30 mg/kg of morphine increased exudation in air control animals, an effect inhibited by antihistamines but not by a tachykinin neurokinin type 1-receptor antagonist. Naloxone inhibited all morphine responses. Cigarette smoke-induced plasma exudation was inhibited by a mu-opioid-receptor agonist (DAMGO) but not by agonists at delta (DPDPE)- or kappa (U-50488H)-receptors. None of these agonists affected exudation in air control animals. DPDPE prevented the inhibition by DAMGO of cigarette smoke-induced plasma exudation, and the combination of DAMGO and DPDPE increased exudation in air control animals. Prevention of inhibition and the combination-induced increase were inhibited by antihistamines or the mast cell-stabilizing drug sodium cromoglycate. U-50488H did not alter the response to either DAMGO or DPDPE. We conclude that, in guinea pig main bronchi in vivo, mu-opioid-receptor agonists inhibit cigarette smoke-induced plasma exudation via a prejunctional mechanism. Plasma exudation induced by mu- and delta-receptor interactions is due to endogenous histamine release from mast cells.  (+info)

Morphine preconditioning attenuates neutrophil activation in rat models of myocardial infarction. (8/3881)

Previous results from our laboratory have suggested that morphine can attenuate neutrophil activation in patients with acute myocardial infarction. To elucidate if morphine preconditioning (PC) has the same effects via activation of neutrophil endopeptidase 24.11 (NEP), we measured serum levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), gp100MEL14 and NEP in adult Wistar rats subjected to ten different protocols (n = 10 for each) at baseline, immediately after and 2 h after morphine PC. All groups were subjected to 30 min of occlusion and 2 h of reperfusion. Similarly, morphine-induced PC was elicited by 3-min drug infusions (100 micrograms/kg) interspersed with 5-min drug-free periods before the prolonged 30-min occlusion. Infarct size (IS), as a percentage of the area at risk (AAR), was determined by triphenyltetrazolium staining. Pretreatment with morphine increased NEP activities (9.86 +/- 1.98 vs. 5.12 +/- 1.10 nmol/mg protein in control group; p < 0.001). Naloxone (mu-opioid receptor antagonist) (4.82 +/- 1.02 nmol/mg protein) and phosphoramidon (NEP inhibitor) (4.66 +/- 1.00 nmol/mg protein) inhibited morphine-activated NEP, whereas glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive potassium channel antagonist) and chelerythrine (protein kinase C inhibitor) had no effects. The ICAM-1 and gp100MEL14 of the third sampling were lowest for those with morphine PC (280 +/- 30 ng/ml and 2.2 +/- 0.7 micrograms/ml; p < 0.001), but naloxone (372 +/- 38 ng/ml and 3.8 +/- 0.9 micrograms/ml) and phosphoramidon (382 +/- 40 ng/ml and 4.2 +/- 1.1 micrograms/ml) abolished the above phenomenon. IS/AAR were definitely lowest for those with morphine PC (24 +/- 7%; p < 0.05). Morphine preconditioning increases NEP activities to attenuate shedding of gp100MEL14 and to ICAM-1 and, thus, provides myocardial protection.  (+info)

Morphine is a potent opioid analgesic (pain reliever) derived from the opium poppy. It works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, blocking the transmission of pain signals and reducing the perception of pain. Morphine is used to treat moderate to severe pain, including pain associated with cancer, myocardial infarction, and other conditions. It can also be used as a sedative and cough suppressant.

Morphine has a high potential for abuse and dependence, and its use should be closely monitored by healthcare professionals. Common side effects of morphine include drowsiness, respiratory depression, constipation, nausea, and vomiting. Overdose can result in respiratory failure, coma, and death.

Morphine dependence is a medical condition characterized by a physical and psychological dependency on morphine, a potent opioid analgesic. This dependence develops as a result of repeated use or abuse of morphine, leading to changes in the brain's reward and pleasure pathways. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) outlines the following criteria for diagnosing opioid dependence, which includes morphine:

A. A problematic pattern of opioid use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by at least two of the following, occurring within a 12-month period:

1. Opioids are often taken in larger amounts or over a longer period than was intended.
2. There is a persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control opioid use.
3. A great deal of time is spent in activities necessary to obtain the opioid, use the opioid, or recover from its effects.
4. Craving, or a strong desire or urge to use opioids.
5. Recurrent opioid use resulting in a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home.
6. Continued opioid use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of opioids.
7. Important social, occupational, or recreational activities are given up or reduced because of opioid use.
8. Recurrent opioid use in situations in which it is physically hazardous.
9. Continued opioid use despite knowing that a physical or psychological problem is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by opioids.
10. Tolerance, as defined by either of the following:
a. A need for markedly increased amounts of opioids to achieve intoxication or desired effect.
b. A markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of an opioid.
11. Withdrawal, as manifested by either of the following:
a. The characteristic opioid withdrawal syndrome.
b. The same (or a closely related) substance is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms.

Additionally, it's important to note that if someone has been using opioids for an extended period and suddenly stops taking them, they may experience withdrawal symptoms. These can include:

- Anxiety
- Muscle aches
- Insomnia
- Runny nose
- Sweating
- Diarrhea
- Nausea or vomiting
- Abdominal cramping
- Dilated pupils

If you or someone you know is struggling with opioid use, it's essential to seek professional help. There are many resources available, including inpatient and outpatient treatment programs, support groups, and medications that can help manage withdrawal symptoms and cravings.

Morphine derivatives are substances that are synthesized from or structurally similar to morphine, a natural opiate alkaloid found in the opium poppy. These compounds share many of the same pharmacological properties as morphine and are often used for their analgesic (pain-relieving), sedative, and anxiolytic (anxiety-reducing) effects.

Examples of morphine derivatives include:

1. Hydrocodone: A semi-synthetic opioid that is often combined with acetaminophen for the treatment of moderate to severe pain.
2. Oxycodone: A synthetic opioid that is used for the management of moderate to severe pain, either alone or in combination with other medications.
3. Hydromorphone: A potent semi-synthetic opioid that is used for the treatment of severe pain, typically in a hospital setting.
4. Oxymorphone: A synthetic opioid that is similar to hydromorphone in its potency and use for managing severe pain.
5. Codeine: A naturally occurring opiate alkaloid that is less potent than morphine but still has analgesic, cough suppressant, and antidiarrheal properties. It is often combined with other medications for various therapeutic purposes.
6. Fentanyl: A synthetic opioid that is significantly more potent than morphine and is used for the management of severe pain, typically in a hospital or clinical setting.

It's important to note that while these derivatives can be beneficial for managing pain and other symptoms, they also carry a risk of dependence, addiction, and potentially life-threatening side effects such as respiratory depression. As a result, their use should be closely monitored by healthcare professionals and prescribed cautiously.

Analgesics, opioid are a class of drugs used for the treatment of pain. They work by binding to specific receptors in the brain and spinal cord, blocking the transmission of pain signals to the brain. Opioids can be synthetic or natural, and include drugs such as morphine, codeine, oxycodone, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, fentanyl, and methadone. They are often used for moderate to severe pain, such as that resulting from injury, surgery, or chronic conditions like cancer. However, opioids can also produce euphoria, physical dependence, and addiction, so they are tightly regulated and carry a risk of misuse.

Drug tolerance is a medical concept that refers to the decreased response to a drug following its repeated use, requiring higher doses to achieve the same effect. This occurs because the body adapts to the presence of the drug, leading to changes in the function or expression of targets that the drug acts upon, such as receptors or enzymes. Tolerance can develop to various types of drugs, including opioids, benzodiazepines, and alcohol, and it is often associated with physical dependence and addiction. It's important to note that tolerance is different from resistance, which refers to the ability of a pathogen to survive or grow in the presence of a drug, such as antibiotics.

Narcotics, in a medical context, are substances that induce sleep, relieve pain, and suppress cough. They are often used for anesthesia during surgical procedures. Narcotics are derived from opium or its synthetic substitutes and include drugs such as morphine, codeine, fentanyl, oxycodone, and hydrocodone. These drugs bind to specific receptors in the brain and spinal cord, reducing the perception of pain and producing a sense of well-being. However, narcotics can also produce physical dependence and addiction, and their long-term use can lead to tolerance, meaning that higher doses are required to achieve the same effect. Narcotics are classified as controlled substances due to their potential for abuse and are subject to strict regulations.

Naloxone is a medication used to reverse the effects of opioids, both illicit and prescription. It works by blocking the action of opioids on the brain and restoring breathing in cases where opioids have caused depressed respirations. Common brand names for naloxone include Narcan and Evzio.

Naloxone is an opioid antagonist, meaning that it binds to opioid receptors in the body without activating them, effectively blocking the effects of opioids already present at these sites. It has no effect in people who have not taken opioids and does not reverse the effects of other sedatives or substances.

Naloxone can be administered via intranasal, intramuscular, intravenous, or subcutaneous routes. The onset of action varies depending on the route of administration but generally ranges from 1 to 5 minutes when given intravenously and up to 10-15 minutes with other methods.

The duration of naloxone's effects is usually shorter than that of most opioids, so multiple doses or a continuous infusion may be necessary in severe cases to maintain reversal of opioid toxicity. Naloxone has been used successfully in emergency situations to treat opioid overdoses and has saved many lives.

It is important to note that naloxone does not reverse the effects of other substances or address the underlying causes of addiction, so it should be used as part of a comprehensive treatment plan for individuals struggling with opioid use disorders.

Opioid mu receptors, also known as mu-opioid receptors (MORs), are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds to opioids, a class of chemicals that include both natural and synthetic painkillers. These receptors are found in the brain, spinal cord, and gastrointestinal tract, and play a key role in mediating the effects of opioid drugs such as morphine, heroin, and oxycodone.

MORs are involved in pain modulation, reward processing, respiratory depression, and physical dependence. Activation of MORs can lead to feelings of euphoria, decreased perception of pain, and slowed breathing. Prolonged activation of these receptors can also result in tolerance, where higher doses of the drug are required to achieve the same effect, and dependence, where withdrawal symptoms occur when the drug is discontinued.

MORs have three main subtypes: MOR-1, MOR-2, and MOR-3, with MOR-1 being the most widely studied and clinically relevant. Selective agonists for MOR-1, such as fentanyl and sufentanil, are commonly used in anesthesia and pain management. However, the abuse potential and risk of overdose associated with these drugs make them a significant public health concern.

Narcotic antagonists are a class of medications that block the effects of opioids, a type of narcotic pain reliever, by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and blocking the activation of these receptors by opioids. This results in the prevention or reversal of opioid-induced effects such as respiratory depression, sedation, and euphoria. Narcotic antagonists are used for a variety of medical purposes, including the treatment of opioid overdose, the management of opioid dependence, and the prevention of opioid-induced side effects in certain clinical situations. Examples of narcotic antagonists include naloxone, naltrexone, and methylnaltrexone.

Analgesia is defined as the absence or relief of pain in a patient, achieved through various medical means. It is derived from the Greek word "an-" meaning without and "algein" meaning to feel pain. Analgesics are medications that are used to reduce pain without causing loss of consciousness, and they work by blocking the transmission of pain signals to the brain.

Examples of analgesics include over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and naproxen (Aleve). Prescription opioid painkillers, such as oxycodone (OxyContin, Percocet) and hydrocodone (Vicodin), are also used for pain relief but carry a higher risk of addiction and abuse.

Analgesia can also be achieved through non-pharmacological means, such as through nerve blocks, spinal cord stimulation, acupuncture, and other complementary therapies. The choice of analgesic therapy depends on the type and severity of pain, as well as the patient's medical history and individual needs.

Spinal injections, also known as epidural injections or intrathecal injections, are medical procedures involving the injection of medications directly into the spinal canal. The medication is usually delivered into the space surrounding the spinal cord (the epidural space) or into the cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds and protects the spinal cord (the subarachnoid space).

The medications used in spinal injections can include local anesthetics, steroids, opioids, or a combination of these. The purpose of spinal injections is to provide diagnostic information, therapeutic relief, or both. They are commonly used to treat various conditions affecting the spine, such as radicular pain (pain that radiates down the arms or legs), disc herniation, spinal stenosis, and degenerative disc disease.

Spinal injections can be administered using different techniques, including fluoroscopy-guided injections, computed tomography (CT) scan-guided injections, or with the help of a nerve stimulator. These techniques ensure accurate placement of the medication and minimize the risk of complications.

It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for specific information regarding spinal injections and their potential benefits and risks.

Pain measurement, in a medical context, refers to the quantification or evaluation of the intensity and/or unpleasantness of a patient's subjective pain experience. This is typically accomplished through the use of standardized self-report measures such as numerical rating scales (NRS), visual analog scales (VAS), or categorical scales (mild, moderate, severe). In some cases, physiological measures like heart rate, blood pressure, and facial expressions may also be used to supplement self-reported pain ratings. The goal of pain measurement is to help healthcare providers better understand the nature and severity of a patient's pain in order to develop an effective treatment plan.

Codeine is a opiate analgesic, commonly used for its pain-relieving and cough suppressant properties. It is typically prescribed for mild to moderately severe pain, and is also found in some over-the-counter cold and cough medications. Codeine works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, which helps to reduce the perception of pain. Like other opiates, codeine can produce side effects such as drowsiness, constipation, and respiratory depression, and it carries a risk of dependence and addiction with long-term use. It is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when taking codeine, and to inform them of any other medications you are taking, as well as any medical conditions you may have.

Substance Withdrawal Syndrome is a medically recognized condition that occurs when an individual who has been using certain substances, such as alcohol, opioids, or benzodiazepines, suddenly stops or significantly reduces their use. The syndrome is characterized by a specific set of symptoms that can be physical, cognitive, and emotional in nature. These symptoms can vary widely depending on the substance that was being used, the length and intensity of the addiction, and individual factors such as genetics, age, and overall health.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association, provides the following diagnostic criteria for Substance Withdrawal Syndrome:

A. The development of objective evidence of withdrawal, referring to the specific physiological changes associated with the particular substance, or subjective evidence of withdrawal, characterized by the individual's report of symptoms that correspond to the typical withdrawal syndrome for the substance.

B. The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

C. The symptoms are not better explained by co-occurring mental, medical, or other substance use disorders.

D. The withdrawal syndrome is not attributable to another medical condition and is not better accounted for by another mental disorder.

The DSM-5 also specifies that the diagnosis of Substance Withdrawal Syndrome should be substance-specific, meaning that it should specify the particular class of substances (e.g., alcohol, opioids, benzodiazepines) responsible for the withdrawal symptoms. This is important because different substances have distinct withdrawal syndromes and require different approaches to management and treatment.

In general, Substance Withdrawal Syndrome can be a challenging and potentially dangerous condition that requires professional medical supervision and support during the detoxification process. The specific symptoms and their severity will vary depending on the substance involved, but they may include:

* For alcohol: tremors, seizures, hallucinations, agitation, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, and insomnia.
* For opioids: muscle aches, restlessness, lacrimation (tearing), rhinorrhea (runny nose), yawning, perspiration, chills, mydriasis (dilated pupils), piloerection (goosebumps), nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps.
* For benzodiazepines: anxiety, irritability, insomnia, restlessness, confusion, hallucinations, seizures, and increased heart rate and blood pressure.

It is essential to consult with a healthcare professional if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of Substance Withdrawal Syndrome. They can provide appropriate medical care, support, and referrals for further treatment as needed.

Postoperative pain is defined as the pain or discomfort experienced by patients following a surgical procedure. It can vary in intensity and duration depending on the type of surgery performed, individual pain tolerance, and other factors. The pain may be caused by tissue trauma, inflammation, or nerve damage resulting from the surgical intervention. Proper assessment and management of postoperative pain is essential to promote recovery, prevent complications, and improve patient satisfaction.

Analgesics are a class of drugs that are used to relieve pain. They work by blocking the transmission of pain signals in the nervous system, allowing individuals to manage their pain levels more effectively. There are many different types of analgesics available, including both prescription and over-the-counter options. Some common examples include acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Advil or Motrin), and opioids such as morphine or oxycodone.

The choice of analgesic will depend on several factors, including the type and severity of pain being experienced, any underlying medical conditions, potential drug interactions, and individual patient preferences. It is important to use these medications as directed by a healthcare provider, as misuse or overuse can lead to serious side effects and potential addiction.

In addition to their pain-relieving properties, some analgesics may also have additional benefits such as reducing inflammation (like in the case of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs) or causing sedation (as with certain opioids). However, it is essential to weigh these potential benefits against the risks and side effects associated with each medication.

When used appropriately, analgesics can significantly improve a person's quality of life by helping them manage their pain effectively and allowing them to engage in daily activities more comfortably.

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. It is a complex phenomenon that can result from various stimuli, such as thermal, mechanical, or chemical irritation, and it can be acute or chronic. The perception of pain involves the activation of specialized nerve cells called nociceptors, which transmit signals to the brain via the spinal cord. These signals are then processed in different regions of the brain, leading to the conscious experience of pain. It's important to note that pain is a highly individual and subjective experience, and its perception can vary widely among individuals.

Opioid receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) found in the cell membranes of certain neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system. They bind to opioids, which are chemicals that can block pain signals and produce a sense of well-being. There are four main types of opioid receptors: mu, delta, kappa, and nociceptin. These receptors play a role in the regulation of pain, reward, addiction, and other physiological functions. Activation of opioid receptors can lead to both therapeutic effects (such as pain relief) and adverse effects (such as respiratory depression and constipation).

Naltrexone is a medication that is primarily used to manage alcohol dependence and opioid dependence. It works by blocking the effects of opioids and alcohol on the brain, reducing the euphoric feelings and cravings associated with their use. Naltrexone comes in the form of a tablet that is taken orally, and it has no potential for abuse or dependence.

Medically, naltrexone is classified as an opioid antagonist, which means that it binds to opioid receptors in the brain without activating them, thereby blocking the effects of opioids such as heroin, morphine, and oxycodone. It also reduces the rewarding effects of alcohol by blocking the release of endorphins, which are natural chemicals in the brain that produce feelings of pleasure.

Naltrexone is often used as part of a comprehensive treatment program for addiction, along with counseling, behavioral therapy, and support groups. It can help individuals maintain abstinence from opioids or alcohol by reducing cravings and preventing relapse. Naltrexone is generally safe and well-tolerated, but it may cause side effects such as nausea, headache, dizziness, and fatigue in some people.

It's important to note that naltrexone should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, and it is not recommended for individuals who are currently taking opioids or who have recently stopped using them, as it can cause withdrawal symptoms. Additionally, naltrexone may interact with other medications, so it's important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting naltrexone therapy.

Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is a method of pain management that allows patients to self-administer doses of analgesic medication through a controlled pump system. With PCA, the patient can press a button to deliver a predetermined dose of pain medication, usually an opioid, directly into their intravenous (IV) line.

The dosage and frequency of the medication are set by the healthcare provider based on the patient's individual needs and medical condition. The PCA pump is designed to prevent overinfusion by limiting the amount of medication that can be delivered within a specific time frame.

PCA provides several benefits, including improved pain control, increased patient satisfaction, and reduced sedation compared to traditional methods of opioid administration. It also allows patients to take an active role in managing their pain and provides them with a sense of control during their hospital stay. However, it is essential to monitor patients closely while using PCA to ensure safe and effective use.

Nalorphine is defined as a morphine derivative that antagonizes the effects of opiate agonists, such as morphine and heroin, by competing for binding sites in the central nervous system. It was initially used as an analgesic but has since been replaced by other drugs due to its potential for abuse and adverse psychological effects. Currently, it is primarily used in research and to reverse opioid overdose.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Heroin is a highly addictive drug that is processed from morphine, a naturally occurring substance extracted from the seed pod of the Asian opium poppy plant. It is a "downer" or depressant that affects the brain's pleasure systems and interferes with the brain's ability to perceive pain.

Heroin can be injected, smoked, or snorted. It is sold as a white or brownish powder or as a black, sticky substance known as "black tar heroin." Regardless of how it is taken, heroin enters the brain rapidly and is highly addictive.

The use of heroin can lead to serious health problems, including fatal overdose, spontaneous abortion, and infectious diseases like HIV and hepatitis. Long-term use of heroin can lead to physical dependence and addiction, a chronic disease that can be difficult to treat.

Hydromorphone is a potent semi-synthetic opioid analgesic, which is chemically related to morphine but is approximately 8 times more potent. It is used for the relief of moderate to severe pain and is available in various forms such as tablets, extended-release tablets, solutions, and injectable formulations. Common brand names include Dilaudid and Exalgo. Hydromorphone works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, reducing the perception of pain and decreasing the emotional response to pain. As with other opioids, hydromorphone carries a risk for dependence, addiction, and abuse.

Fentanyl is a potent synthetic opioid analgesic, which is similar to morphine but is 50 to 100 times more potent. It is a schedule II prescription drug, typically used to treat patients with severe pain or to manage pain after surgery. It works by binding to the body's opioid receptors, which are found in the brain, spinal cord, and other areas of the body.

Fentanyl can be administered in several forms, including transdermal patches, lozenges, injectable solutions, and tablets that dissolve in the mouth. Illegally manufactured and distributed fentanyl has also become a major public health concern, as it is often mixed with other drugs such as heroin, cocaine, and counterfeit pills, leading to an increase in overdose deaths.

Like all opioids, fentanyl carries a risk of dependence, addiction, and overdose, especially when used outside of medical supervision or in combination with other central nervous system depressants such as alcohol or benzodiazepines. It is important to use fentanyl only as directed by a healthcare provider and to be aware of the potential risks associated with its use.

The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is a region in the midbrain, surrounding the cerebral aqueduct (a narrow channel connecting the third and fourth ventricles within the brain). It is a column of neurons that plays a crucial role in the modulation of pain perception, cardiorespiratory regulation, and defensive behaviors. The PAG is involved in the descending pain modulatory system, where it receives input from various emotional and cognitive areas and sends output to the rostral ventromedial medulla, which in turn regulates nociceptive processing at the spinal cord level. Additionally, the PAG is implicated in the regulation of fear, anxiety, and stress responses, as well as sexual behavior and reward processing.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Oxycodone is a semi-synthetic opioid analgesic, which means it's a painkiller that's synthesized from thebaine, an alkaloid found in the poppy plant. It's a strong pain reliever used to treat moderate to severe pain and is often prescribed for around-the-clock treatment of chronic pain. Oxycodone can be found in various forms, such as immediate-release tablets, extended-release tablets, capsules, and solutions.

Common brand names for oxycodone include OxyContin (extended-release), Percocet (oxycodone + acetaminophen), and Roxicodone (immediate-release). As an opioid, oxycodone works by binding to specific receptors in the brain, spinal cord, and gut, reducing the perception of pain and decreasing the emotional response to pain.

However, it's important to note that oxycodone has a high potential for abuse and addiction due to its euphoric effects. Misuse or prolonged use can lead to physical dependence, tolerance, and withdrawal symptoms upon discontinuation. Therefore, it should be taken exactly as prescribed by a healthcare professional and used with caution.

Pentazocine is a synthetic opioid analgesic, chemically unrelated to other opiates or opioids. It acts as an agonist at the kappa-opioid receptor and as an antagonist at the mu-opioid receptor, which means it can produce pain relief but block the effects of full agonists such as heroin or morphine. Pentazocine is used for the management of moderate to severe pain and is available in oral, intramuscular, and intravenous formulations. Common side effects include dizziness, lightheadedness, sedation, nausea, and vomiting.

Morphinans are a class of organic compounds that share a common skeletal structure, which is based on the morphine molecule. The morphinan structure consists of a tetracyclic ring system made up of three six-membered benzene rings (A, C, and D) fused to a five-membered dihydrofuran ring (B).

Morphinans are important in medicinal chemistry because many opioid analgesics, such as morphine, hydromorphone, oxymorphone, and levorphanol, are derived from or structurally related to morphinans. These compounds exert their pharmacological effects by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, which are involved in pain perception, reward, and addictive behaviors.

It is worth noting that while all opiates (drugs derived from the opium poppy) are morphinans, not all morphinans are opiates. Some synthetic or semi-synthetic morphinans, such as fentanyl and methadone, do not have a natural origin but still share the same basic structure and pharmacological properties.

Enkephalins are naturally occurring opioid peptides that bind to opiate receptors in the brain and other organs, producing pain-relieving and other effects. They are derived from the precursor protein proenkephalin and consist of two main types: Leu-enkephalin and Met-enkephalin. Enkephalins play a role in pain modulation, stress response, mood regulation, and addictive behaviors. They are also involved in the body's reward system and have been implicated in various physiological processes such as respiration, gastrointestinal motility, and hormone release.

Nalbuphine is a synthetic opioid analgesic, which means it is a medication used to treat pain. It works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, reducing the perception of pain. Nalbuphine has both agonist and antagonist properties at different types of opioid receptors. Specifically, it acts as an agonist at kappa opioid receptors and as a partial antagonist at mu opioid receptors.

Nalbuphine is often used to manage moderate to severe pain, either alone or in combination with other medications. It can be administered through various routes, including intravenously, intramuscularly, or subcutaneously. Common side effects of nalbuphine include dizziness, sedation, sweating, and nausea.

It's important to note that opioids like nalbuphine can be habit-forming and should be used with caution under the guidance of a healthcare provider. Misuse or abuse of these medications can lead to serious health consequences, including addiction, overdose, and death.

Opioid delta receptors, also known as delta opioid receptors (DORs), are a type of G protein-coupled receptor found in the nervous system and other tissues throughout the body. They belong to the opioid receptor family, which includes mu, delta, and kappa receptors. These receptors play an essential role in pain modulation, reward processing, and addictive behaviors.

Delta opioid receptors are activated by endogenous opioid peptides such as enkephalins and exogenous opioids like synthetic drugs. Once activated, they trigger a series of intracellular signaling events that can lead to inhibition of neuronal excitability, reduced neurotransmitter release, and ultimately, pain relief.

Delta opioid receptors have also been implicated in various physiological processes, including immune function, respiratory regulation, and gastrointestinal motility. However, their clinical use as therapeutic targets has been limited due to the development of tolerance and potential adverse effects such as sedation and respiratory depression.

In summary, delta opioid receptors are a type of opioid receptor that plays an essential role in pain modulation and other physiological processes. They are activated by endogenous and exogenous opioids and trigger intracellular signaling events leading to various effects, including pain relief. However, their clinical use as therapeutic targets is limited due to potential adverse effects.

Meperidine is a synthetic opioid analgesic (pain reliever) that works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, blocking the transmission of pain signals. It is also known by its brand name Demerol and is used to treat moderate to severe pain. Meperidine has a rapid onset of action and its effects typically last for 2-4 hours.

Meperidine can cause various side effects such as dizziness, sedation, nausea, vomiting, sweating, and respiratory depression (slowed breathing). It also has a risk of abuse and physical dependence, so it is classified as a Schedule II controlled substance in the United States.

Meperidine should be used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare provider due to its potential for serious side effects and addiction. It may not be suitable for people with certain medical conditions or those who are taking other medications that can interact with meperidine.

Thebaine is a naturally occurring alkaloid found in the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) and is defined medically as follows:

A benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, Thebaine is a potent opioid agonist with complex pharmacology. It acts as an antagonist at mu and delta receptors while exhibiting agonist activity at kappa receptors. Due to its strong physiological effects and potential for abuse, thebaine has limited therapeutic use. However, it serves as a crucial intermediate in the semi-synthesis of various opioid analgesics, such as oxycodone, hydrocodone, and nalbuphine.

Please note that this definition is intended for informational purposes only and should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment.

Pain threshold is a term used in medicine and research to describe the point at which a stimulus begins to be perceived as painful. It is an individual's subjective response and can vary from person to person based on factors such as their pain tolerance, mood, expectations, and cultural background.

The pain threshold is typically determined through a series of tests where gradually increasing levels of stimuli are applied until the individual reports feeling pain. This is often used in research settings to study pain perception and analgesic efficacy. However, it's important to note that the pain threshold should not be confused with pain tolerance, which refers to the maximum level of pain a person can endure.

Oxymorphone is a semi-synthetic opioid analgesic, which is a strong painkiller. It is derived from thebaine, a constituent of opium. Medically, it is used to treat moderate to severe pain and is available under various brand names such as Opana and Numorphan.

Oxymorphone works by binding to the mu-opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, which results in pain relief, relaxation, and sedation. It has a high potential for abuse and addiction due to its euphoric effects, and its use should be closely monitored and controlled.

Like other opioids, oxymorphone can cause physical dependence and withdrawal symptoms if discontinued abruptly after prolonged use. Common side effects of oxymorphone include dizziness, lightheadedness, sedation, nausea, vomiting, constipation, and sweating. Serious side effects may include respiratory depression, low blood pressure, and decreased heart rate.

It is important to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking oxymorphone and to report any bothersome or worsening side effects promptly.

Epidural analgesia is a type of regional anesthesia used to manage pain, most commonly during childbirth and after surgery. The term "epidural" refers to the location of the injection, which is in the epidural space of the spinal column.

In this procedure, a small amount of local anesthetic or narcotic medication is injected into the epidural space using a thin catheter. This medication blocks nerve impulses from the lower body, reducing or eliminating pain sensations without causing complete loss of feeling or muscle movement.

Epidural analgesia can be used for both short-term and long-term pain management. It is often preferred in situations where patients require prolonged pain relief, such as during labor and delivery or after major surgery. The medication can be administered continuously or intermittently, depending on the patient's needs and the type of procedure being performed.

While epidural analgesia is generally safe and effective, it can have side effects, including low blood pressure, headache, and difficulty urinating. In rare cases, it may also cause nerve damage or infection. Patients should discuss the risks and benefits of this procedure with their healthcare provider before deciding whether to undergo epidural analgesia.

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

Opium is defined as the dried latex obtained from incisions made in the unripe seedpods of the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). It contains a number of alkaloids, including morphine, codeine, and thebaine. Opium has been used for its pain-relieving, euphoric, and sedative effects since ancient times. However, its use is highly regulated due to the risk of addiction and other serious side effects.

Endorphins are a type of neurotransmitter, which are chemicals that transmit signals in the nervous system and brain. The term "endorphin" comes from "endogenous morphine," reflecting the fact that these substances are produced naturally within the body and have effects similar to opiate drugs like morphine.

Endorphins are released in response to stress or pain, but they also occur naturally during exercise, excitement, laughter, love, and orgasm. They work by interacting with the opiate receptors in the brain to reduce the perception of pain and promote feelings of pleasure and well-being. Endorphins also play a role in regulating various physiological processes, including appetite, mood, and sleep.

In summary, endorphins are natural painkillers and mood elevators produced by the body in response to stress, pain, or enjoyable activities.

Methadone is a synthetic opioid agonist, often used as a substitute for heroin or other opiates in detoxification programs or as a long-term maintenance drug for opiate addiction. It works by changing how the brain and nervous system respond to pain signals. It also helps to suppress the withdrawal symptoms and cravings associated with opiate dependence.

Methadone is available in various forms, including tablets, oral solutions, and injectable solutions. It's typically prescribed and dispensed under strict medical supervision due to its potential for abuse and dependence.

In a medical context, methadone may also be used to treat moderate to severe pain that cannot be managed with other types of medication. However, its use in this context is more limited due to the risks associated with opioid therapy.

Opioid receptors, also known as opiate receptors, are a type of G protein-coupled receptor found in the nervous system and other tissues. They are activated by endogenous opioid peptides, as well as exogenous opiates and opioids. There are several subtypes of opioid receptors, including mu, delta, and kappa.

Kappa opioid receptors (KORs) are a subtype of opioid receptor that are widely distributed throughout the body, including in the brain, spinal cord, and gastrointestinal tract. They are activated by endogenous opioid peptides such as dynorphins, as well as by synthetic and semi-synthetic opioids such as salvinorin A and U-69593.

KORs play a role in the modulation of pain, mood, and addictive behaviors. Activation of KORs has been shown to produce analgesic effects, but can also cause dysphoria, sedation, and hallucinations. KOR agonists have potential therapeutic uses for the treatment of pain, addiction, and other disorders, but their use is limited by their side effects.

It's important to note that opioid receptors and their ligands (drugs or endogenous substances that bind to them) are complex systems with many different actions and effects in the body. The specific effects of KOR activation depend on a variety of factors, including the location and density of the receptors, the presence of other receptors and signaling pathways, and the dose and duration of exposure to the ligand.

Subcutaneous injection is a route of administration where a medication or vaccine is delivered into the subcutaneous tissue, which lies between the skin and the muscle. This layer contains small blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissues that help to absorb the medication slowly and steadily over a period of time. Subcutaneous injections are typically administered using a short needle, at an angle of 45-90 degrees, and the dose is injected slowly to minimize discomfort and ensure proper absorption. Common sites for subcutaneous injections include the abdomen, thigh, or upper arm. Examples of medications that may be given via subcutaneous injection include insulin, heparin, and some vaccines.

The spinal cord is a major part of the nervous system, extending from the brainstem and continuing down to the lower back. It is a slender, tubular bundle of nerve fibers (axons) and support cells (glial cells) that carries signals between the brain and the rest of the body. The spinal cord primarily serves as a conduit for motor information, which travels from the brain to the muscles, and sensory information, which travels from the body to the brain. It also contains neurons that can independently process and respond to information within the spinal cord without direct input from the brain.

The spinal cord is protected by the bony vertebral column (spine) and is divided into 31 segments: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. Each segment corresponds to a specific region of the body and gives rise to pairs of spinal nerves that exit through the intervertebral foramina at each level.

The spinal cord is responsible for several vital functions, including:

1. Reflexes: Simple reflex actions, such as the withdrawal reflex when touching a hot surface, are mediated by the spinal cord without involving the brain.
2. Muscle control: The spinal cord carries motor signals from the brain to the muscles, enabling voluntary movement and muscle tone regulation.
3. Sensory perception: The spinal cord transmits sensory information, such as touch, temperature, pain, and vibration, from the body to the brain for processing and awareness.
4. Autonomic functions: The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system originate in the thoracolumbar and sacral regions of the spinal cord, respectively, controlling involuntary physiological responses like heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and respiration.

Damage to the spinal cord can result in various degrees of paralysis or loss of sensation below the level of injury, depending on the severity and location of the damage.

A drug interaction is the effect of combining two or more drugs, or a drug and another substance (such as food or alcohol), which can alter the effectiveness or side effects of one or both of the substances. These interactions can be categorized as follows:

1. Pharmacodynamic interactions: These occur when two or more drugs act on the same target organ or receptor, leading to an additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effect. For example, taking a sedative and an antihistamine together can result in increased drowsiness due to their combined depressant effects on the central nervous system.
2. Pharmacokinetic interactions: These occur when one drug affects the absorption, distribution, metabolism, or excretion of another drug. For example, taking certain antibiotics with grapefruit juice can increase the concentration of the antibiotic in the bloodstream, leading to potential toxicity.
3. Food-drug interactions: Some drugs may interact with specific foods, affecting their absorption, metabolism, or excretion. An example is the interaction between warfarin (a blood thinner) and green leafy vegetables, which can increase the risk of bleeding due to enhanced vitamin K absorption from the vegetables.
4. Drug-herb interactions: Some herbal supplements may interact with medications, leading to altered drug levels or increased side effects. For instance, St. John's Wort can decrease the effectiveness of certain antidepressants and oral contraceptives by inducing their metabolism.
5. Drug-alcohol interactions: Alcohol can interact with various medications, causing additive sedative effects, impaired judgment, or increased risk of liver damage. For example, combining alcohol with benzodiazepines or opioids can lead to dangerous levels of sedation and respiratory depression.

It is essential for healthcare providers and patients to be aware of potential drug interactions to minimize adverse effects and optimize treatment outcomes.

Intraventricular injections are a type of medical procedure where medication is administered directly into the cerebral ventricles of the brain. The cerebral ventricles are fluid-filled spaces within the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This procedure is typically used to deliver drugs that target conditions affecting the central nervous system, such as infections or tumors.

Intraventricular injections are usually performed using a thin, hollow needle that is inserted through a small hole drilled into the skull. The medication is then injected directly into the ventricles, allowing it to circulate throughout the CSF and reach the brain tissue more efficiently than other routes of administration.

This type of injection is typically reserved for situations where other methods of drug delivery are not effective or feasible. It carries a higher risk of complications, such as bleeding, infection, or damage to surrounding tissues, compared to other routes of administration. Therefore, it is usually performed by trained medical professionals in a controlled clinical setting.

"Papaver" is the genus name for the poppy plant family, which includes several species of plants that are known for their showy flowers and often contain medicinal alkaloids. The most well-known member of this family is probably Papaver somniferum, also known as the opium poppy. This particular species contains a number of pharmacologically active compounds, including morphine, codeine, and papaverine, which have been used in various medical contexts for their analgesic, sedative, and vasodilatory effects. However, it's worth noting that the use of Papaver somniferum and its derivatives is tightly regulated due to their potential for abuse and addiction.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

Levallorphan is a opioid antagonist and agonist, often used as an analgesic (pain reliever) and antitussive (cough suppressant). It works by binding to the opioid receptors in the brain, blocking the effects of certain opioid agonists such as morphine while also acting as a weak agonist itself. This means that it can both block the pain-relieving effects and produce some of the unwanted side effects of opioids, such as respiratory depression. It is used in clinical settings to reverse or reduce the effects of opioid overdose, and also for the treatment of severe cough.

It's important to note that Levallorphan has a complex pharmacology and its use should be restricted to medical professionals due to its potential for abuse and dependence.

The locus coeruleus (LC) is a small nucleus in the brainstem, specifically located in the rostral pons and dorsal to the fourth ventricle. It is the primary site of noradrenaline (norepinephrine) synthesis, storage, and release in the central nervous system. The LC projects its neuronal fibers widely throughout the brain, including the cerebral cortex, thalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, and spinal cord. It plays a crucial role in various physiological functions such as arousal, attention, learning, memory, stress response, and regulation of the sleep-wake cycle. The LC's activity is associated with several neurological and psychiatric conditions, including anxiety disorders, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease.

Hyperalgesia is a medical term that describes an increased sensitivity to pain. It occurs when the nervous system, specifically the nociceptors (pain receptors), become excessively sensitive to stimuli. This means that a person experiences pain from a stimulus that normally wouldn't cause pain or experiences pain that is more intense than usual. Hyperalgesia can be a result of various conditions such as nerve damage, inflammation, or certain medications. It's an important symptom to monitor in patients with chronic pain conditions, as it may indicate the development of tolerance or addiction to pain medication.

In medicine, "intractable pain" is a term used to describe pain that is difficult to manage, control or relieve with standard treatments. It's a type of chronic pain that continues for an extended period, often months or even years, and does not respond to conventional therapies such as medications, physical therapy, or surgery. Intractable pain can significantly affect a person's quality of life, causing emotional distress, sleep disturbances, and reduced mobility. It is essential to distinguish intractable pain from acute pain, which is typically sharp and short-lived, resulting from tissue damage or inflammation.

Intractable pain may be classified as:

1. Refractory pain: Pain that persists despite optimal treatment with various modalities, including medications, interventions, and multidisciplinary care.
2. Incurable pain: Pain caused by a progressive or incurable disease, such as cancer, for which no curative treatment is available.
3. Functional pain: Pain without an identifiable organic cause that does not respond to standard treatments.

Managing intractable pain often requires a multidisciplinary approach involving healthcare professionals from various fields, including pain specialists, neurologists, psychiatrists, psychologists, and physical therapists. Treatment options may include:

1. Adjuvant medications: Medications that are not primarily analgesics but have been found to help with pain relief, such as antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and muscle relaxants.
2. Interventional procedures: Minimally invasive techniques like nerve blocks, spinal cord stimulation, or intrathecal drug delivery systems that target specific nerves or areas of the body to reduce pain signals.
3. Psychological interventions: Techniques such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), mindfulness meditation, and relaxation training can help patients cope with chronic pain and improve their overall well-being.
4. Physical therapy and rehabilitation: Exercise programs, massage, acupuncture, and other physical therapies may provide relief for some types of intractable pain.
5. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM): Techniques like yoga, tai chi, hypnosis, or biofeedback can be helpful in managing chronic pain.
6. Lifestyle modifications: Dietary changes, stress management, and quitting smoking may also contribute to improved pain management.

Etorphine is a potent synthetic opioid analgesic drug that is primarily used for the immobilization and veterinary purposes in large animals. It is not commonly used in human medicine due to its high potency and potential for serious side effects, including respiratory depression and death. In medical context, etorphine is classified as a Schedule II controlled substance in the United States, due to its high abuse potential.

Etorphine works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, which leads to pain relief, sedation, and decreased breathing rate. It is typically administered via injection and its effects can last for several hours. In veterinary medicine, etorphine may be used to immobilize animals such as elephants, rhinos, and large deer species for medical procedures or relocation.

It's important to note that due to its high potency and potential for serious side effects, etorphine should only be administered by trained professionals in a controlled setting.

Tramadol is a centrally acting synthetic opioid analgesic, chemically unrelated to other opioids but with actions similar to those of morphine. It is used to manage moderate to moderately severe pain and is available in immediate-release and extended-release formulations. Tramadol has multiple mechanisms of action including binding to mu-opioid receptors, inhibiting the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin, and weakly inhibiting monoamine oxidase A and B. Common side effects include dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting, and somnolence. Respiratory depression is less frequent compared to other opioids, but caution should still be exercised in patients at risk for respiratory compromise. Tramadol has a lower potential for abuse than traditional opioids, but it can still produce physical dependence and withdrawal symptoms upon discontinuation.

Bupivacaine is a long-acting local anesthetic drug, which is used to cause numbness or loss of feeling in a specific area of the body during certain medical procedures such as surgery, dental work, or childbirth. It works by blocking the nerves that transmit pain signals to the brain.

Bupivacaine is available as a solution for injection and is usually administered directly into the tissue surrounding the nerve to be blocked (nerve block) or into the spinal fluid (epidural). The onset of action of bupivacaine is relatively slow, but its duration of action is long, making it suitable for procedures that require prolonged pain relief.

Like all local anesthetics, bupivacaine carries a risk of side effects such as allergic reactions, nerve damage, and systemic toxicity if accidentally injected into a blood vessel or given in excessive doses. It should be used with caution in patients with certain medical conditions, including heart disease, liver disease, and neurological disorders.

Intravenous injections are a type of medical procedure where medication or fluids are administered directly into a vein using a needle and syringe. This route of administration is also known as an IV injection. The solution injected enters the patient's bloodstream immediately, allowing for rapid absorption and onset of action. Intravenous injections are commonly used to provide quick relief from symptoms, deliver medications that are not easily absorbed by other routes, or administer fluids and electrolytes in cases of dehydration or severe illness. It is important that intravenous injections are performed using aseptic technique to minimize the risk of infection.

Pruritus is a medical term derived from Latin, in which "prurire" means "to itch." It refers to an unpleasant sensation on the skin that provokes the desire or reflex to scratch. This can be caused by various factors, such as skin conditions (e.g., dryness, eczema, psoriasis), systemic diseases (e.g., liver disease, kidney failure), nerve disorders, psychological conditions, or reactions to certain medications.

Pruritus can significantly affect a person's quality of life, leading to sleep disturbances, anxiety, and depression. Proper identification and management of the underlying cause are essential for effective treatment.

Clonidine is an medication that belongs to a class of drugs called centrally acting alpha-agonist hypotensives. It works by stimulating certain receptors in the brain and lowering the heart rate, which results in decreased blood pressure. Clonidine is commonly used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure), but it can also be used for other purposes such as managing withdrawal symptoms from opioids or alcohol, treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and preventing migraines. It can be taken orally in the form of tablets or transdermally through a patch applied to the skin. As with any medication, clonidine should be used under the guidance and supervision of a healthcare provider.

Buprenorphine is a partial opioid agonist medication used to treat opioid use disorder. It has a lower risk of respiratory depression and other adverse effects compared to full opioid agonists like methadone, making it a safer option for some individuals. Buprenorphine works by binding to the same receptors in the brain as other opioids but with weaker effects, helping to reduce cravings and withdrawal symptoms. It is available in several forms, including tablets, films, and implants.

In addition to its use in treating opioid use disorder, buprenorphine may also be used to treat pain, although this use is less common due to the risk of addiction and dependence. When used for pain management, it is typically prescribed at lower doses than those used for opioid use disorder treatment.

It's important to note that while buprenorphine has a lower potential for abuse and overdose than full opioid agonists, it still carries some risks and should be taken under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

... also known as dextro-morphine is the "unnatural" enantiomer of the opioid drug (-)-morphine. Unlike "natural" levo- ... morphine is as an analgesic. (+)-Morphine derives its antianalgesic effects by being a selective-agonist of the Toll-like ... morphine, unnatural dextro-morphine is not present in Papaver somniferum and is the product of laboratory synthesis. In ... stereoselective action of dextro-morphine over levo-morphine on glia in the mouse spinal cord". The Journal of Pharmacology and ...
... also known as morphine diacetate, diamorphine, or diacetyl morphine) is an ester of morphine and a morphine prodrug, ... Morphine and its major metabolites, morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine-6-glucuronide, can be detected in blood, plasma, hair, ... Morphine is metabolized primarily into morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) via glucuronidation by ... morphine. Extended-release morphine can be administered together with "rescue doses" of immediate-release morphine as needed in ...
Morphine (Russian: Морфий, romanized: Morphiy) is a 2008 Russian film directed by Aleksei Balabanov, using the script by Sergei ... he has his nurse Anna give him morphine to negate the effects. Gradually he slips into addiction. Songs performed by Alexander ... director of Morphine "Кинокомпания СТВ :: Морфий (2008) :: Пресса". 2009-02-11. Archived from the original on 2009-02-11. ...
Moreover, the proposal hopes that Afghan morphine can contribute to decreasing the acute global morphine shortage and provide ... Afghan morphine or "Poppy for Medicine" is an alternative development solution put forward to combat the poverty and public ... Licensing opium poppy cultivation in order to locally manufacture and market Afghan morphine, according to this proposal, would ... proposes licensing poppy cultivation in order to make Afghan morphine and other poppy-based medicines and to avoid diversion of ...
... (Morphine methobromide, Morphine bromomethylate, Morphosan) a derivative of morphine. It is an opioid ... It is a quaternary ammonium salt formed by reaction of morphine with methyl bromide and a controlled substance. 21 CFR 1308.11 ...
"Sister Morphine" is a song written by Marianne Faithfull, Mick Jagger and Keith Richards. Faithfull released the original ... "Marianne Faithfull - Something Better / Sister Morphine (Vinyl) at Discogs". Discogs. Archived from the original on 16 November ... Virgin Records compact disc 39525-2, 1994, liner notes "Something Better / Sister Morphine , Marianne Faithfull Official". ... "Sister Morphine" appeared on the A-side. In addition, the French, US and Netherlands editions of the single actually featured ...
Orchestra Morphine mostly performed music from The Night, but also included some other Morphine and Hypnosonics material as ... "About Morphine". Retrieved December 20, 2022. The Other Side Morphine data at AllMusic Twinemen on Myspace ( ... Founding members have reformed into the band Vapors of Morphine, maintaining much of the original style and sound. Morphine ... In 2009, Colley and Deupree began regularly performing Morphine songs and new material as Members of Morphine (alternately, the ...
Look up morphine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Morphine is a potent opiate analgesic drug. Morphine may also refer to: ... Morphine (band), an American alternative rock band Morphine (film), a 2008 Russian film by Aleksei Balabanov "Morphine", a song ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Morphine. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to ... by Kish Mauve from Black Heart "Morphine", a song by Michael Jackson from Blood on the Dance Floor: HIStory in the Mix Morpheus ...
... is a metabolite of morphine produced by UGT2B7. It is not active as an opioid agonist, but does have ... Probenecid and inhibitors of P-glycoprotein can enhance uptake of morphine-3-glucuronide and, to a lesser extent, morphine-6- ... Vindenes V, Ripel A, Handal M, Boix F, Mørland J (July 2009). "Interactions between morphine and the morphine-glucuronides ... prodrug to morphine marking the same activity profile as the drug of this article Buprenorphine-3-glucuronide Morphine-6- ...
... (genomorphine) is an active opioid metabolite of morphine. Morphine itself, in trials with rats, is 11-22 ... Morphine-N-oxide can also form as a decomposition product of morphine outside the body and may show up in assays of opium and ... Codeine-N-oxide Morphine-6-glucuronide Morphine-3-glucuronide Anvisa (2023-03-31). "RDC Nº 784 - Listas de Substâncias ... However, pretreatment with amiphenazole or tacrine increases the potency of morphine-N-oxide in relation to morphine ( ...
... morphine. Morphine sulfate pentahydrade (trade names including Dolcontin) has a higher molecular mass than morphine base, and ... Extended-release morphine can be administered together with "rescue doses" of immediate-release morphine pro re nata in case of ... "Morphine, slow release (By mouth)". University of Maryland Medical Center. UK, Cancer Research. "Morphine (Morphgesic SR, MXL, ... Extended-release (or slow-release) formulations of morphine are those whose effect last substantially longer than bare morphine ...
"Morphine: Yes". Q. No. 104. May 1995. p. 109. Garelick, Jon (March 23, 1995). "Morphine: Yes". Rolling Stone. No. 704. Archived ... " - Morphine - Yes" (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved June 13, 2021. " - Morphine - Yes" (in French). ... " - Morphine - Yes". Hung Medien. Retrieved June 13, 2021. " - Morphine - Yes". Hung Medien. ... Yes (CD liner). Morphine. Rykodisc. 1995. RCD 10320.{{cite AV media notes}}: CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) (link) ...
... (M6G) is a major active metabolite of morphine. M6G is formed from morphine by the enzyme UGT2B7. It has ... Renal tubular transport of morphine, morphine-6-glucuronide, and morphine-3-glucuronide in the isolated perfused rat kidney. JT ... Osborne, R J; Joel, SP; Slevin, ML (1986). "Morphine intoxication in renal failure: the role of morphine-6-glucuronide". Br Med ... Osborne, R; Joel, S; Grebenik, K; Trew, D; Slevin, M (1993). "The pharmacokinetics of morphine and morphine glucuronides in ...
In enzymology, a morphine 6-dehydrogenase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction morphine + NAD(P ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is morphine:NAD(P)+ 6-oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include naloxone ... Yamano S, Nishida F, Toki S (1986). "Guinea-pig liver morphine 6-dehydrogenase as a naloxone reductase". Biochem. Pharmacol. 35 ... Yamano S, Kageura E, Ishida T, Toki S (1985). "Purification and characterization of guinea pig liver morphine 6-dehydrogenase ...
... was first released on May 16, 2006, by the Chicago-based band Kill Hannah and then again released in August ... Original release (May 16, 2006) "Lips Like Morphine" - 3:44 ""Rebel Yell" - 4:41 (Billy Idol cover) "Goodnight, Goodbye" - 3:40 ... "Kennedy (Hilton Is the New Kennedy Redo)" - 5:21 Corrected release (June 13, 2006) "Lips Like Morphine" - 3:44 "Rebel Yell" - 4 ...
"Dreamworks' Morphine Serves Up A Shot Of Noir". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. February 8, 1997 - via Google Books. ... Good is the first album by the Boston-based alternative rock trio Morphine. It was released in 1992 on the Accurate/Distortion ... Morphine Mark Sandman - vocals, 2-string slide bass, organ, guitar, tritar Dana Colley - baritone saxophone, tenor saxophone, ... "Morphine , Biography & History". AllMusic. Buckley, Peter (November 26, 2003). The Rough Guide to Rock. Rough Guides. ISBN ...
... is an American rock band founded in 2009 by the remaining members of the alternative rock band Morphine, ... of Morphine?", inspiring the band's name as it is currently known. Vapors of Morphine have toured through the United States, ... Vapors of Morphine". Archived from the original on 2 February 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2016. "About - Vapors of Morphine". ... Ten years earlier, Morphine's frontman Mark Sandman had suddenly died of a massive heart attack while performing in that venue ...
The Best of Morphine, 1992-1995 is a greatest hits compilation by alternative rock band Morphine, released by Rykodisc in ... "The Best of Morphine Uncut review". Uncut. April 1, 2003. Retrieved December 21, 2022. The Best of Morphine, 1992-1995 (US) (CD ... The Best of Morphine: 1992-1995 at AllMusic. Retrieved September 26, 2011. Carr, Eric. "The Best of Morphine 1992-1995 ... In Europe, all Morphine albums appeared on Rykodisc, which made it possible to release the Best Of album with a career spanning ...
Morphine Total Syntheses @ Wilson T (2006). "Synthesis of Morphine Alkaloids" (PDF). Professor Scott E. Denmark ... Gates' total synthesis of morphine provided a proof of the structure of morphine proposed by Robinson in 1925. This synthesis ... The first morphine total synthesis, devised by Marshall D. Gates, Jr. in 1952 remains a widely used example of total synthesis ... Morphine's synthesis remains a serious challenge to this day. {{cite book}}: ,journal= ignored (help) Gates M, Tschudi G (April ...
"Morphine". iTunes. Retrieved March 20, 2017. "I Still Recall". iTunes. Retrieved March 20, 2017. "Dear Me". iTunes. Retrieved ...
The term "morphine", used in English and French, was given by the French physicist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac. A significant ... Morphine and codeine are strong narcotic pain killers. There are alkaloids that do not have strong psychoactive effect ... "Morphine". DrugBank. Retrieved 12 February 2013. "Yohimbine". DrugBank. Archived from the original on 30 January 2013. ... Their characteristic examples are atropine, nicotine, and morphine. This group also includes some alkaloids that besides the ...
"Morphine". Trouser Press. Retrieved December 14, 2022. Like Swimming (CD liner). Morphine. DreamWorks/Rykodisc. 1997. DRMD- ... It was Morphine's first album (out of two) released as part of their multi-album deal with DreamWorks and the last album ... Morphine Mark Sandman - vocals, 2-string slide bass, tritar, keyboards, Mellotron, guitar Dana Colley - baritone and tenor ... like swimming morphine soundscan. {{cite magazine}}: Cite magazine requires ,magazine= (help); ,last= has generic name (help) " ...
ISBN 978-3-527-62600-7. Busse GD, Triggle DJ (2006). "The history of opium and morphine". Morphine. New York: Chelsea House ... By 1805, morphine had already been isolated by the German chemist Friedrich Sertürner and in the 1870s it was discovered that ... It was long been known that opium, a sticky mixture of alkaloids (including codeine, morphine, noscapine, thebaine, and ... Other plant-derived drugs, used medicinally and/or recreationally include morphine, cocaine, quinine, tubocurarine, muscarine, ...
Morphine? Too many antidotes - too much commonness, ostentation in that. Daturin? I did not like to ask how much of that was ... Ludlow, for he took a teaspoonful of morphine in a glass of whisky every day - and while he persisted in doing that it was only ...
Morphine is the prototype of opioid analgesics Propranolol is the prototype of the beta blockers Chlorpromazine is the ... ISBN 978-0-7295-3929-6. "Morphine". DrugBank. 16 October 2018. Retrieved 16 October 2018. "Pharmacology Glossary". "Propranolol ...
"Morphine Memories To Fill 'Sandbox'". Billboard. October 12, 2004. Retrieved December 8, 2022. Sandbox: The Music of Mark ... But when they tried to release Sandbox, Morphine's former label Rykodisc filed a lawsuit, claiming they owned several of the ... "Morphine". Trouser Press. Retrieved December 8, 2022. Keresman, Mark (December 1, 2004). "Sandbox review". Riverfront Times. ... After Sandman's death in 1999, remaining Morphine members Dana Colley and Billy Conway, among others, opened up Sandman's home ...
"Morphine: B-Sides And Otherwise". Music. B-Sides and Otherwise (CD liner). Morphine. Rykodisc. 1997. RCD 10387.{{cite AV media ... In 1996, when Morphine's record contract with Rykodisc was sold off to DreamWorks at the band's request, the band still owed ... "Morphine: B-Sides and Otherwise Pitchfork review". Pitchfork Media. Archived from the original on November 23, 2001. Retrieved ... Morphine Mark Sandman - vocals, 2-string slide bass, organ, guitar, knobs Dana Colley - baritone saxophone, tenor saxophone, ...
A formal total synthesis of (.+-.)-morphine". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 114 (24): 9688-9689. doi:10.1021/ ...
"Morphine Manifesto". International Association for the Study of Pain. Retrieved 14 June 2014. "Palliative care- the missing ... "Morphine Manifesto Released". IBNLive. Archived from the original on 15 June 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2014. Pallium India, ... "Morphine Manifesto". Worldwide Palliative Care Alliance. Archived from the original on 15 June 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2014. ... "MR Rajagopal: The man who spearheaded efforts to improve access to morphine". The Economic Times. Retrieved 14 June 2014. " ...
Morphine also known as dextro-morphine is the "unnatural" enantiomer of the opioid drug (-)-morphine. Unlike "natural" levo- ... morphine is as an analgesic. (+)-Morphine derives its antianalgesic effects by being a selective-agonist of the Toll-like ... morphine, unnatural dextro-morphine is not present in Papaver somniferum and is the product of laboratory synthesis. In ... stereoselective action of dextro-morphine over levo-morphine on glia in the mouse spinal cord". The Journal of Pharmacology and ...
Morphine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before taking morphine,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to morphine, any other medications, or any of the ... Morphine may be habit forming, especially with prolonged use. Take morphine exactly as directed. Do not take more of it, take ... Morphine may harm or cause death to other people who take your medication, especially children. Keep morphine in a safe place ...
A preclinical study shows that resveratrol may enhance response to morphine in morphine-tolerant rats. ... They found that the pain-relieving response to morphine was only about 20% of normal in the morphine-tolerant rats, whereas in ... A potential mechanism of action for resveratrol for improving the morphine response is that long-term morphine infusion ... also may have an ability to preserve the pain-relieving effect of morphine in rats that are morphine tolerant, a study suggests ...
Conversion From Parenteral Morphine to Oral Morphine Sulfate. For conversion from parenteral to oral morphine sulfate, anywhere ... Morphine sulfate is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to morphine, morphine salts, or any components of ... Conversion From Controlled-Release Oral Morphine to Oral Morphine Sulfate For a given dose, the same total amount of morphine ... The milk:plasma morphine AUC ratio is about 2.5:1. The amount of morphine sulfate delivered to the infant depends on the plasma ...
... morphine lengthened the duration of pain in rats with a nerve injury. ... Morphine treatment after a nerve injury doubled the duration of pain in rats, scientists report the week of May 30 in the ... PAIN PILLS Morphine treatment extended the duration of nerve pain in rats, a result that raises questions about the effects of ... Morphine may make pain last longer. Rat study suggests further drawback to opioids ...
Testing Status of Morphine sulfate M930001. Testing Status of Morphine sulfate M930001. CASRN: 64-31-3. Related: MORPHINE (57- ... Morphine sulphate. Organ Systems Toxicity. *test article received on day 1 Immunotoxicity (Subcutaneous Implantation) (IMM20005 ...
Morphine di-TMS derivative; Morphine bis-O-TMS; Morphine, bis-TMS; Morphine, diTMS; Morphine, bis(trimethylsilyl) derivative; ... Morphine, 2TMS derivative. *Formula: C23H35NO3Si2 ... Morphine, TMS; Hydromorphone, bis-TMS; Hydromorphone bis-O-TMS ... Other names: Morphinan, 7,8-didehydro-4,5-epoxy-17-methyl-3,6-bis[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]-, (5α,6α)-; Morphine, bis(trimethylsilyl ...
Conversion from Parenteral Morphine to Morphine Sulfate Tablets For conversion from parenteral morphine to Morphine Sulfate ... Morphine Sulfate Tablets *15 mg: Each tablet contains 15 mg morphine sulfate, USP (equivalent to 11.25 mg morphine) and is a ... Conversion from Morphine Sulfate Tablets to Extended-Release Morphine For a given dose, the same total amount of morphine ... Morphine Sulfate Tablets contain morphine, a Schedule II controlled substance. As an opioid, Morphine Sulfate Tablets expose ...
Morphine Rectal Morphine rectal is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Morphine is in a class of medications called opiate ... Morphine Injection Morphine injection is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Morphine is in a class of medications called ... Morphine Morphine is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Morphine extended-release tablets and capsules are only used ... ... Morphine overdose Morphine is a very strong painkiller. It is one of a number of chemicals called opioids or ... used for pain ...
Morphine treatment increases gastric acid secretion and IL-6-mediated delayed gastric emptying, which leads to accumulation of ... Schematic diagram of morphine-induced delayed gastric emptying and gastric inflammation (IMAGE) Elsevier ... Omeprazole prevents morphine-induced gastric damage by regulating acid secretion and inflammation. ...
... January 15th, 2007 Josh Umbehr Military Medicine Inventor Troy Hurtubise has taken a page ... Its many features include compartments for emergency morphine and salt, a knife and emergency light. Built into the forearms ... Why are we talking about it? Because it has emergency compartments for morphine. Sweet. ...
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Current drugs shortage notification for Morphine PCA Vials including reason for shortage, estimated resupply dates, and ... Morphine PCA Vials Shortage. Last Updated: August 1, 2016. Status: Resolved. Reason for the Shortage * *Hospira has morphine ... Morphine sulfate is an opiate agonist labeled for analgesia.[2] Hospiras preservative-free morphine sulfate PCA vials are for ... Carefully determine each patients need for morphine PCA.. *For hospitals using Hospira PCA pumps, there is a shortage of empty ...
... a pharmacy is not liable under a theory of illegal drug dealing for the death of a man who overdosed on prescription morphine ...
... 2020 - published on ... Finally, the Medical Morphine market report offers a complete and detailed study of global Medical Morphine market by using ... You can edit or delete your press release Medical Morphine Market Competitive Insights, Demand and Scope 2020 here. Delete ... The Medical Morphine market can be divided based on product types and Its sub-type, major applications and Third Party usage ...
MarBelle has a strange compulsion to watch as many films as he can get his hands on and find jobs that give him a legitimate excuse to drill filmmakers about their work. Directors Notes is the multi-decade incarnation of this disorder and remains so much cheaper than film school ...
Morphine indications, usages and related health products lists ... Where to buy Morphine brand or generic online:. Buy Morphine ... Morphine information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Mallinckrodt, ... Injectable; Injection; Morphine Sulfate 1 mg / ml*Injectable; Injection; Morphine Sulfate 2 mg / ml*Solution; Oral; Morphine ... Tablets, Extended Release; Oral; Morphine Sulfate 100 mg*Tablets, Extended Release; Oral; Morphine Sulfate 15 mg*Tablets, ...
Home , News & Events , Science News , Science News from 2016 , Designer Agent Blocks Pain in Mice Without Morphines Side ... Compared to existing opioid pain relievers, like morphine, the new agent, called PZM21, was not "reinforcing" or prone to ... Designer Agent Blocks Pain in Mice Without Morphines Side Effects. Structure-based molecule selectively targets brain ... Evidence suggested that the undesirable side effects of morphine-like opiates work on the receptor through a molecular ...
Then came that wonderful dependency on morphine that I had been on since the beginning. For the last three weeks I have been ...
... both morphine and PDGF-BB, or morphine, PDGF-BB and imatinib, or morphine and imatinib. Interestingly, analgesic responses were ... To this end, animals were treated with either morphine alone, or with morphine plus a fusion construct comprising PDGFR-β and ... Conversely, PDGF-BB doesnt alter mor-phine analgesia or baseline responses, or change the rate of morphine tolerance ... Starting imatinib treatment a few days after the initiation of morphine therapy also reversed established tolerance to morphine ...
General availability of oral morphine in the public health sector (Noncommunicable diseases). This indicator is available in ... General availability of oral morphine in the public health sector (Noncommunicable diseases) ...
Before taking morphine, *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to morphine, any other medications, or any of the ... Morphine may be habit forming, especially with prolonged use. Take morphine exactly as directed. Do not take more of it, take ... Morphine may harm or cause death to other people who take your medication, especially children. Keep morphine in a safe place ... Morphine is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Morphine extended-release tablets and capsules are only used to relieve ...
Although sex differences in the sensitivity to morphine are widely characterized in rodents, the underlying causes are not ... A number of studies reported striking differences in antinociceptive responses to morphine as a function of sex. ... Sex-specific differences in levels of morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide, and morphine antinociception in rats Pain. 2002 Jan;95( ... In rats, morphine is metabolized by glucuronidation to morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G). M3G was found to be a functional ...
On morphine, it was found that the rats spent more time in a compartment where they were administered morphine, while their ... Experimental Painkiller Could Match Strength of Morphine Without Addiction. February 4, 2016. Lauren Santye, Assistant Editor ... The new drug was found to produce longer pain relief without slowing breathing in the rats, while morphine showed significant ... A newly developed painkiller could match the strength of morphine while preventing addiction, according to the results of a ...
Administration of oral morphine (100μg/kg) to non-ventilated premature infants has the potential for harm without analgesic ... Pain study tests morphine for effectiveness on premature babies. By Julie Griffiths on 02 January 2019 Pain relief Research ... Although morphine is often used to sedate ventilated infants, its analgesic effect is unclear and the researchers aimed to ... Administration of oral morphine (100μg/kg) to non-ventilated premature infants has the potential for harm without analgesic ...
"Groupon is powerful like morphine is powerful," Mason said. "If you use it too much, youll overdose and die. But take it in ... Share All sharing options for: Groupon Founder Says Groupon Is Like Morphine. New CEO Says Its Just Misunderstood. ... Groupon Founder Says Groupon Is Like Morphine. New CEO Says Its Just Misunderstood.. ...
Use this online Opioid dosage calculator to calculate the daily Morphine Equivalent Dose (MED) based on the Opioid taken by the ...
  • Taking certain medications during your treatment with morphine injection may increase the risk that you will experience serious or life-threatening breathing problems, sedation, or coma. (
  • The propulsive rate of methylene blue in intestinal tract was significantly decreased after the treatment with morphine, sufentanil and dezocine (45.6%, 43.7%, and 42.1% respectively) compared to control group(57.1%), while the difference among the 3 drug groups were not significant. (
  • KADIAN ® contains morphine sulfate, an opioid agonist and a Schedule II controlled substance, with an abuse liability similar to other opioid analgesics. (
  • KADIAN ® capsules are an extended-release oral formulation of morphine sulfate indicated for the management of moderate to severe pain when a continuous, around-the-clock opioid analgesic is needed for an extended period of time. (
  • KADIAN ® (morphine sulfate) capsules are an opioid analgesic supplied in 10 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg, 50 mg, 60 mg, 80 mg, 100 mg, and 200 mg strengths for oral administration. (
  • Morphine may cause serious or life-threatening breathing problems, especially during the first 24 to 72 hours of your treatment and any time your dose is increased. (
  • Morphine tolerance counteracts analgesic efficacy and drives dose escalation. (
  • Morphine tolerance is the primary cause of diminished pain control and dose escalation, which makes the related side effects more serious and widespread [ 1 ]. (
  • Morphine tolerance refers to the gradual decrease in the potency of a drug following its long-term administration at a fixed dose and usually requires higher and higher doses to maintain the initial level of analgesia [ 2 ]. (
  • These problems can occur at any time during use, but the risk is higher when first starting morphine and after a dose increase, if you are older, or have an existing problem with your lungs. (
  • To quantitate dose- and time-related magnitudes of interactive effects of morphine (MOR) and isoflurane (ISO) in horses and to characterize pharmacokinetics of MOR in plasma and the ventilatory response to MOR during administration of ISO. (
  • A missed dose of morphine can also cause adverse effects. (
  • For a person addicted to morphine, the withdrawal effects with start within 6 to 12 hours after the last dose of the drug. (
  • To lower your risk, your doctor should have you take the smallest dose of morphine that works, and take it for the shortest possible time. (
  • About 7 to 10% of a dose of morphine is excreted in the feces via the bile. (
  • The sustained-release suppositories given 12-hourly provide equivalent pain control to the sustained-release tablets given orally at the same dose and frequency, or to morphine administered s.c. at a dose approximately 40% of the daily rectal dose. (
  • At steady-state, the sustained-release tablets produce peak morphine levels approximately 4 to 5 hours post-dose and therapeutic levels persist for a 12-hourly period. (
  • Morphine and sufentanil may dose dependently increase the contractile tension and contraction ability of isolated rat small intestine smooth muscle, while dezocine has no significant effect on intestine smooth muscle contraction. (
  • The acetaminophen/morphine combination group received initial intravenous doses of 1.5 g acetaminophen and 3 mg morphine, with dose- adjustment increments of 0.25 g for acetaminophen and 0.5 mg for morphine. (
  • The investigators calculated the effective dose in 50% of patients (ED 50 ) for analgesic efficacy (defined as achieving a pain score ≤ 3 on a scale of 0 to 10) for acetaminophen only, morphine only, and the combination of acetaminophen and morphine. (
  • CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain provides recommendations about the types of opioid formulations at initiation, starting dosages, morphine milligram equivalent dosage calculation methods, dose titrating considerations, and tapering methods. (
  • An awful lot of things influence morphine analgesia," says Tony Dickinson, a pharmacologist at University College London. (
  • Since then, various delivery systems for morphine have been developed, including epidural injection and pumps that allow patient-controlled analgesia. (
  • Erowid Reference 1797 : LSD-25 antagonism of morphine analgesia. (
  • LSD-25 antagonism of morphine analgesia. (
  • LSD did not significantly alter the onset or duration of morphine analgesia but doses of 250-500 mcg/kg enhanced the Straub tail phenomenon induced by 50 mg/kg morphine tartrate. (
  • In man, morphine produces a variety of effects including analgesia, constipation from decreased gastrointestinal motility, suppression of the cough reflex, respiratory depression from reduced responsiveness of the respiratory centre to CO2, nausea and vomiting via stimulation of the CTZ, changes in mood including euphoria and dysphoria, sedation, mental clouding, and alterations of the endocrine and autonomic nervous systems. (
  • When administered every 12 hours, the sustained-release tablets provide equivalent analgesia to morphine oral solution given 4-hourly. (
  • Morphine sulfate is the drug of choice for narcotic analgesia because of its reliable and predictable effects, safety profile, and ease of reversibility with naloxone. (
  • Opioid analgesics, such as morphine, continue to be the mainstay for managing severe and chronic pain. (
  • Morphine belongs to a class of drugs known as opioid analgesics. (
  • DBL Morphine Sulfate Injection is a pain reliever that belongs to a group of medicines called opioid analgesics. (
  • Morphine is a natural product that is the prototype for the class of natural and synthetic opioid analgesics. (
  • The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration says morphine is the standard against which other analgesics are measured. (
  • exp chest pain OR exp myocardial infarction OR myocard$.mp OR infarct$.mp OR AND (exp morphine OR OR OR OR analg$.mp OR exp analgesics, opioid) AND (exp clinical trials OR exp randomized controlled trials OR randomized controlled] LIMIT to human AND English. (
  • CNS Depression: Morphine should be used only with caution and in reduced dosage during concomitant administration of other opioid analgesics, general anesthetics, phenothiazines and other tranquilizers, sedative-hypnotics, tricyclic antidepressants and other CNS depressants (including alcohol). (
  • When opiates like morphine are withdrawn, the effects of this withdrawal include not only dope sickness but also strong cravings for more of the drug. (
  • The greatest relief for the morphine addict is to wake up fresh, without the dulled, cloudy feeling of opiates in one's body. (
  • Addiction to morphine, other opiates or other drugs can come to an end. (
  • The National Institute on Drug Abuse says many opiates, including morphine, can cause physical and psychological addiction with prolonged use. (
  • The most serious adverse effects of morphine hydrochloride are bronchospasm, respiratory depression, bile tract spasms, hypersensitivity reactions and general asthenia up to syncope. (
  • Morphine produces both its therapeutic and its adverse effects by interaction with one or more classes of specific opioid receptors located throughout the body. (
  • Other studies had shown that opioids like morphine also activate those same cells, he said. (
  • For example, understanding the activity of opioids like morphine in angiogenesis may lead to new drugs that selectively relieve pain without stimulating angiogenesis. (
  • Tell me, sister morphine, when are you coming round again? (
  • Tell me, sister morphine, how long have I been lying here? (
  • So far, the yeast strains created can only perform the last steps of a long process that can lead to morphine and other narcotic drugs. (
  • Morphine is a highly potent opiate (narcotic) analgesic that is used to treat moderate to moderately severe chronic pain. (
  • As with many other narcotic pain relievers, morphine use in the United States has increased dramatically in the last several years. (
  • Kalpna Gupta, Ph.D., assistant professor in the hematology, oncology and transplantation division of the uUniversity's department of medicine and lead author of the study, found that doses of morphine similar to doses given to cancer patients activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in human endothelial cells (cells that form blood vessels). (
  • The doses of morphine did nothing. (
  • This study aims to identify the prevalence of prescription errors of injectable solution morphine and tramadol solution of patients aged 60 years or more, hospitalized in the Adult Hospitalization Unit of the University Hospital (HU) Canoas. (
  • University of Minnesota Cancer Center researchers have found that morphine, which is routinely given to cancer patients to manage severe pain, actually stimulates signals in endothelial cells that in turn prompt tumors to grow in mice. (
  • The researchers also found that morphine promotes endothelial cell survival by activating Akt, the key survival-signaling pathway inside these cells. (
  • They found that morphine use delayed the effects of Plavix for up to two hours. (
  • Morphine injection may be habit forming, especially with prolonged use. (
  • Use morphine injection exactly as directed. (
  • Your doctor will probably tell you not to use morphine injection. (
  • But with an injection of morphine, they are able to spend three times as long on the plate before it begins to feel too hot. (
  • Snails exposed to a field of 60 hertz for 15 minutes after an injection of morphine were able to tolerate only 8 seconds, rather than 15, on the warm plate. (
  • Preservative-free morphine may also be given by a doctor as an injection into the area around the spinal cord ( epidural ) or into the fluid-filled space that contains the spinal cord ( intrathecal ). (
  • Morphine injection should only be used when your doctor decides that other treatment options are not able to effectively manage your pain or you cannot tolerate them. (
  • Morphine injection poses risks of abuse, misuse and addiction which can lead to overdose and death. (
  • Morphine injection can cause life-threatening or fatal breathing problems (slow, shallow, unusual or no breathing), even when used as recommended. (
  • This leaflet provides important information about using DBL Morphine Sulfate Injection. (
  • You should also speak to your doctor or pharmacist if you would like further information or if you have any concerns or questions about using DBL Morphine Sulfate Injection. (
  • 1. Why am I being treated with DBL Morphine Sulfate Injection? (
  • DBL Morphine Sulfate Injection contains the active ingredient morphine sulfate pentahydrate. (
  • DBL Morphine Sulfate Injection is used most commonly for short-term relief of severe pain. (
  • 2. What should I know before treatment with DBL Morphine Sulfate Injection? (
  • If you have not told your doctor or pharmacist about any of the above, tell them before you are given DBL Morphine Sulfate Injection. (
  • Morphine is readily absorbed when given orally, rectally or by s.c. or i.m. injection. (
  • With repeated regular dosing, oral morphine is about 1/3 as potent as when given by i.m. injection and rectal sustained-release suppositories have approximately 40% the potency of s.c. morphine. (
  • The propulsive rate of methylene blue in rat intestinal tract was measured 30 minutes after intraperitoneal injection of morphine, sufentanil and dezocine. (
  • We used 496 prescriptions containing the drugs morphine solution for injection and tramadol solution for injection. (
  • LOS ANGELES (AP) - Scientists have figured out all the steps to make morphine and similar painkillers without using opium poppies, opening the door for home-brewed drugs and even wider abuse. (
  • Morphinans are alkaloids which include the painkiller drugs morphine and codeine. (
  • Poppy plant varieties that are unable to produce morphine or codeine carry mutations in the STORR gene that inhibit the morphine production pathway. (
  • This company produced morphine, codeine, synthetic and semisynthetic narcotics from the raw materials gum opium and poppy straw concentrate. (
  • The efficacy and safety profile of morphine hydrochloride is well established based on the extensive clinical experience in the treatment of severe and most severe pain. (
  • Morphine is an opioid medication used for moderate to severe pain relief . (
  • Researchers writing this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences report that rats given morphine took longer to recover from injury and had more severe pain. (
  • Drug abuse is not a problem in patients with severe pain in which morphine is appropriately indicated. (
  • Low-rock" and "Fuck-rock" are two descriptors enigmatic Morphine front man Mark Sandman used to describe his band's beat-inspired blues-jazz-rock holy racket. (
  • Morphine was formed by formed by vocalist/bassist Mark Sandman , saxophonist Dana Colley and drummer Jerome Deupree in Cambridge, Mass in 1989. (
  • Singer Mark Sandman coined the phrase "low rock" to describe the sonorous, languid groove he created with the acclaimed Boston band Morphine. (
  • Morphine use can lead to physical dependence, even when taken as prescribed by a doctor because of the way it works in the brain. (
  • Drug Dependence: As with other opioids, tolerance and physical dependence tend to develop upon repeated administration of morphine and there is potential for abuse of the drug and for development of strong psychological dependence. (
  • Morphine overdose occurs when a person intentionally or accidentally takes too much of the medicine. (
  • If a person uses too much morphine, the dangerous effects of an overdose include cold, clammy skin, low blood pressure, slow pulse rate and even coma and death. (
  • Morphine has a risk for abuse and addiction, which can lead to overdose and death. (
  • Taking crushed, chewed, or dissolved forms of sustained-action morphine could cause a fatal overdose. (
  • There are thousands of rehabs in the US and other countries that treat the effects of morphine addiction with substitute drugs. (
  • A person's withdrawal symptoms may be prevented but the person does not recover from the morphine addiction. (
  • The potential for morphine addiction is very high, both physically and psychologically. (
  • Although morphine was originally touted as a cure for many maladies, even for alcohol and opium addiction, by the 1870s physicians had become increasingly aware of its own addictive properties. (
  • Over 400,000 Danes each year are prescribed powerful morphine-based drugs. (
  • In 2013, 415,000 Danes were prescribed at least one prescription for strong painkillers - opioid-based drugs containing morphine or morphine-like substances - by their general practitioner. (
  • When informed of the high number of painkiller prescriptions being written, Sundhedsstyrelsen sector head Anette Lykke Petri said in a statement that 400,000 Danes being treated with a morphine drugs was something to think about. (
  • Morphine is considered one of the most effective drugs for managing severe and chronic pain, but its potential for an overuse disorder must also be taken into consideration when deciding on an appropriate treatment plan. (
  • The researchers said that their findings call for further investigation of the role of morphine and similar opioid drugs in tumor growth in patients. (
  • Be sure you know how to take morphine and what other drugs you should avoid taking with it. (
  • Morphine has unfavorable side effects including analgesic tolerance. (
  • The mechanisms underlying morphine tolerance remain disputed, which has prevented the development of therapies to maximize and sustain analgesic efficacy. (
  • Morphine tolerance is an adaptive process induced by chronic morphine that has been shown to result from complex alterations at the molecular level with μ opioid receptors (MORs), as well as at the synaptic, cellular, and circuit levels. (
  • This review covers some of the most striking microRNA functions involved in morphine tolerance and presents limitations on our knowledge of their physiological roles. (
  • Morphine tolerance is an adaptive process that has been proposed to result from complex alterations at the molecular level with μ opioid receptors (MORs), as well as at the synaptic, cellular, and circuit levels, in both the peripheral and central nervous systems. (
  • Thus, chronic administration of opioids modifies neuronal MOR function through a variety of mechanisms including receptor phosphorylation, signaling, multimerization, and trafficking, which may underlie tolerance to morphine. (
  • Downregulation of MORs and neuroadaptation may be the main mechanisms of morphine tolerance [ 11 , 12 ]. (
  • The miRNAs that may be involved in morphine tolerance are summarized in Table 1 . (
  • The possible miRNAs for morphine tolerance. (
  • As tolerance builds over time, greater amounts of morphine must be taken in order to experience the same effects. (
  • We previously demonstrated that extracellular vesicle (EV)-induced primary ciliogenesis contributes to the development of morphine tolerance. (
  • Intranasal delivery of ADEVs loaded with anti-miR -106b decreased the expression of miR-106b in astrocytes , inhibited primary ciliogenesis, and prevented the development of tolerance in morphine -administered mice . (
  • Intranasal delivery of ADEVs loaded with anti-miR -106b ameliorates morphine -mediated primary ciliogenesis and prevents morphine tolerance. (
  • Our findings bring new insights into the mechanisms underlying primary cilium -mediated morphine tolerance and pave the way for developing ADEV-mediated small RNA delivery strategies for preventing substance use disorders. (
  • In contrast to natural morphine, the unnatural enantiomer has no affinity or efficacy for the mu opioid receptor and therefore has no analgesic effects. (
  • However, 50, 250 and 500 mcg/kg LSD antagonized the analgesic effects of morphine and amidone. (
  • For children who have trouble swallowing the capsule, ask the doctor about using a different form of morphine instead. (
  • Opioid induced bowel dysfunction is the most common side effect of preoperatively administrated morphine, fentanyl and its derivative. (
  • Le but de ce travail était d'évaluer la qualité de l'analgésie chez des parturientes ayant bénéficié d'une césarienne pratiquée sous rachianesthésie associant bupivacaïne, fentanyl et morphine. (
  • Les critères d'inclusion étaient être opérée pour césarienne en chirurgie programmée ou en urgence relative, être sous rachianesthésie réalisée avec l'association bupivacaïne, fentanyl et morphine. (
  • Le protocole bupivacaïne-fentanyl-morphine en intrathécal procure une analgésie efficace et durable. (
  • Fass environmental information for Morfin Meda (morphine) from Meda (downloaded 2023-03-16). (
  • Morphine is a very strong painkiller. (
  • New research suggests that combining the powerful painkiller morphine with Plavix may decrease the effectiveness of the blood thinner, raising concerns about use of the medications following a heart attack. (
  • Morphine derives its antianalgesic effects by being a selective-agonist of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), which due to not binding to opioid receptors allows it to effectively reverse the analgesic properties of (-)-morphine. (
  • Kavaliers and Prato have used this system to test the effects of different magnetic fields on the snails' responses to morphine. (
  • At that point, the craving effects created by the drug may drive a person back to use more morphine. (
  • As these drug toxins leave the body, the deadening effects of the morphine that was abused fade away, leaving a person brighter and more able to think clearly. (
  • It is possible to recover from the damaging effects of morphine. (
  • In a second part of the study, Dr Grace and colleagues used a drug to block the glial cells and found this switched off the pain-amplifying effects of morphine. (
  • This study demonstrates for the first time that morphine-induced effects on blood vessel cells can lead to angiogenesis-dependent tumor growth in mice. (
  • Scott ME, Orr R. Effects of diamorphine, methadone, morphine, and pentazocine in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. (
  • This study was designed to investigate the effects of dezocine, morphine and sufentanil on both intestinal smooth muscle contraction and propulsion in rats. (
  • ok just got off the lortabs 10's and now i'm on the morphine tabs, 15mg. (
  • In 1853, the hypodermic needle was developed and the use of morphine became more widespread. (
  • Despite the widespread use of morphine to treat pain in many medical conditions like cancer, little was known about how this drug affects blood vessels or cancer," says Gupta. (
  • Considering how accessible, widespread and socially acceptable opium, morphine, and heroin concoctions were at this time, this number seems rather low. (
  • While you are using morphine, discuss with your health care provider your pain treatment goals, length of treatment, and other ways to manage your pain. (
  • Using morphine with other medicines that can make you feel drowsy such as sleeping tablets (e.g. benzodiazepines), other pain relievers, antihistamines, antidepressants, antipsychotics, gabapentinoids (e.g. gabapentin and pregabalin), cannabis and alcohol may result in severe drowsiness, decreased awareness, breathing problems, coma and death. (
  • Even scientists are years away from lab-made morphine that's strong enough to treat pain. (
  • Morphine has been used medically since the early 19th century and is still one of the most commonly prescribed pain medications today. (
  • The use of morphine as an opioid analgesic can provide relief and pain management that may otherwise be unbearable. (
  • Morphine makes chronic nerve pain worse, according to a new animal study, but some experts question whether its findings are relevant to humans. (
  • Putting two and two together, Dr Grace and his colleagues hypothesised that injured rats would end up having worse pain when treated with morphine. (
  • It seems morphine works quite well initially, but as the immune system ramps up, this starts to oppose the pain-relieving properties of morphine and morphine starts to induce pain in its own right. (
  • Morphine is said to be the most powerful pain reliever medicine has to offer and sets the standard by which all other opiate potency is tested. (
  • In 1818, French physician Francois Magendie published a paper that described how morphine brought pain relief and much-needed sleep to an ailing young girl. (
  • 2 Many new pain relievers have been synthesized since the crystallization of morphine from opium almost 200 years ago. (
  • If you or someone you know has become addicted to the pain relief powers of morphine please contact our toll-free helpline at 678-251-3189 . (
  • Gupta cautions that there is currently no scientific data that indicates morphine or similar pain medications will lead to increased growth of cancers in humans. (
  • His thrombolytic therapy is commenced and in the meantime you wonder whether his pain would be best alleviated by either morphine or diamorphine. (
  • There are no significant clinical differences between diamorphine and morphine in patients with chest pain. (
  • Do not use the sustained-action form of morphine to relieve pain that is mild or that will go away in a few days. (
  • Likewise, the rising use of pain relievers to ease torment in medical procedures is supposed to fuel the worldwide medical morphine market development. (
  • In addition, the expanded predominance of muscular diseases like elbow torment, joint pain, fibromyalgia, and osteoporosis is the key explanation driving the medical morphine market esteem extension. (
  • Those patients are also usually suffering from intense pain, which is where the morphine typically comes into play. (
  • Combining Morphine With Acetaminophen for Postsurgical Pain - Medscape - Jan 14, 2014. (
  • Herein, we aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms and potential EV-mediated therapeutic approach to inhibit morphine -mediated primary ciliogenesis. (
  • Morphine was discovered in 1804 by German chemist Friedrich Sertürner , who named it after the Greek god of dreams, Morpheus. (
  • Sertuner named that substance morphine, after Morpheus, the Greek god of dreams, for its tendency to cause sleep. (
  • Identify methods for calculating morphine milligram equivalent dosage. (
  • Morphine is much of the time viewed as one of the most proficient painkillers. (
  • In December 1914, the United States Congress passed the Harrison Narcotics Act which called for control of each phase of the preparation and distribution of medicinal opium, morphine, heroin, cocaine, and any new derivative that could be shown to have similar properties. (
  • While acknowledging the limitations of opioids, Dr Mark Connor, a professor of pharmacology at Macquarie University, was not convinced by the idea that morphine can effect humans in the way seen in the rat experiment. (
  • To the contrary, in rats, (+)-morphine acts as an antianalgesic and is approximately 71,000 times more potent as an antianalgesic than (-)-morphine is as an analgesic. (
  • This effect lasted for up to two to three months in rats after they were treated for just five days with morphine, co-author Dr Peter Grace, an Australian neuroscientist at the University of Colorado, said. (
  • The rats were then treated with morphine for five days. (
  • The rats that had received the injury but no morphine recovered after about four to five weeks like we expected,' Dr Grace said. (
  • Sadly, the band's time together was cut short in 1999 when Sandman suffered a heart attack in Italy while onstage with Morphine and died on the way to the hospital. (
  • Such tablets may contain as much as twice the labeled level of active morphine ingredient. (
  • Morphine acts in the brain and spinal cord. (
  • Morphine works by binding to the central nervous system and opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord to activate the reward pathways, creating feelings of pleasure and relaxation. (
  • Poppy plants have been farmed for centuries for opium, from which morphine is derived. (
  • According to the findings of this new research, combining Plavix and morphine may be counterproductive. (
  • The expansion in cardiovascular issues and joint inflammation is projected to straightforwardly affect restorative morphine interest, which is utilized to decrease joint agony and post-careful distress. (
  • A significant decrease in morphine-6-hemisuccinate/human serum albumin immunoglobulin-G antibody levels was noted in 21 workers who submitted blood specimens during both test periods. (
  • Vendal retard 30 mg- film-coated tablets is a prolonged released formulation containing morphine hydrochloride. (
  • Withdrawal symptoms may occur following abrupt discontinuation of morphine therapy or upon administration of an opioid antagonist. (
  • You must not drink alcohol while using morphine. (
  • are allergic to any medicine containing morphine, any of the ingredients listed at the end of this leaflet, or any other similar medicines. (
  • I've been reading up on the period of history known as The Great Binge (1870-1914) in which patent medicines were abundant, laudanum was freely sold over the counter and morphine/heroin based cough syrups and other opiate formulations were freely handed out to women and children for minor things like menstrual cramps and colic. (
  • Morphine dependency can be effectively treated with a combination of medications, counseling, and other supportive therapies. (
  • Read the Medication Guide provided by your pharmacist before you start using morphine and each time you get a refill. (
  • Of the 496 prescriptions evaluated, 130 (26.21%) medication prescription errors were found, 49 errors involving morphine and 81 involving tramadol. (
  • At Caron Treatment Centers, we specialize in treating individuals struggling with substance use disorders including morphine dependency. (