Morals: Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.Moral Development: The process by which individuals internalize standards of right and wrong conduct.Moral Obligations: Duties that are based in ETHICS, rather than in law.Ethical Theory: A philosophically coherent set of propositions (for example, utilitarianism) which attempts to provide general norms for the guidance and evaluation of moral conduct. (from Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th ed)Virtues: Character traits that are considered to be morally praiseworthy. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Ethical Analysis: The use of systematic methods of ethical examination, such as CASUISTRY or ETHICAL THEORY, in reasoning about moral problems.Personhood: The state or condition of being a human individual accorded moral and/or legal rights. Criteria to be used to determine this status are subject to debate, and range from the requirement of simply being a human organism to such requirements as that the individual be self-aware and capable of rational thought and moral agency.Judgment: The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.Principle-Based Ethics: An approach to ethics that focuses on theories of the importance of general principles such as respect for autonomy, beneficence/nonmaleficence, and justice.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Retrospective Moral Judgment: The application of current standards of morality to past actions, institutions, or persons.Beginning of Human Life: The point at which religious ensoulment or PERSONHOOD is considered to begin.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Personal Autonomy: Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Bioethical Issues: Clusters of topics that fall within the domain of BIOETHICS, the field of study concerned with value questions that arise in biomedicine and health care delivery.Value of Life: The intrinsic moral worth ascribed to a living being. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Bioethics: A branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care.Life: The state that distinguishes organisms from inorganic matter, manifested by growth, metabolism, reproduction, and adaptation. It includes the course of existence, the sum of experiences, the mode of existing, or the fact of being. Over the centuries inquiries into the nature of life have crossed the boundaries from philosophy to biology, forensic medicine, anthropology, etc., in creative as well as scientific literature. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Human Characteristics: The fundamental dispositions and traits of humans. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Philosophy, MedicalEthical Relativism: The philosophical view that conceptions of truth and moral values are not absolute but are relative to the persons or groups holding them. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed)Philosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)Beneficence: The state or quality of being kind, charitable, or beneficial. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). The ethical principle of BENEFICENCE requires producing net benefit over harm. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Ethics, Clinical: The identification, analysis, and resolution of moral problems that arise in the care of patients. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Fast Foods: Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.Metaphor: The application of a concept to that which it is not literally the same but which suggests a resemblance and comparison. Medical metaphors were widespread in ancient literature; the description of a sick body was often used by ancient writers to define a critical condition of the State, in which one corrupt part can ruin the entire system. (From Med Secoli Arte Sci, 1990;2(3):abstract 331)Eugenics: The attempt to improve the PHENOTYPES of future generations of the human population by fostering the reproduction of those with favorable phenotypes and GENOTYPES and hampering or preventing BREEDING by those with "undesirable" phenotypes and genotypes. The concept is largely discredited. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Euthanasia: The act or practice of killing or allowing death from natural causes, for reasons of mercy, i.e., in order to release a person from incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or undignified death. (from Beauchamp and Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 5th ed)Ethicists: Persons trained in philosophical or theological ethics who work in clinical, research, public policy, or other settings where they bring their expertise to bear on the analysis of ethical dilemmas in policies or cases. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Bible: The book composed of writings generally accepted by Christians as inspired by God and of divine authority. (Webster, 3d ed)Biomedical Enhancement: The use of technology-based interventions to improve functional capacities rather than to treat disease.Guilt: Subjective feeling of having committed an error, offense or sin; unpleasant feeling of self-criticism. These result from acts, impulses, or thoughts contrary to one's personal conscience.Theology: The study of religion and religious belief, or a particular system or school of religious beliefs and teachings (from online Cambridge Dictionary of American English, 2000 and WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database, 1997)Paternalism: Interference with the FREEDOM or PERSONAL AUTONOMY of another person, with justifications referring to the promotion of the person's good or the prevention of harm to the person. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995); more generally, not allowing a person to make decisions on his or her own behalf.Codes of Ethics: Systematic statements of principles or rules of appropriate professional conduct, usually established by professional societies.Engineering: The practical application of physical, mechanical, and mathematical principles. (Stedman, 25th ed)Ethics, Professional: The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Religion and ScienceEmpathy: An individual's objective and insightful awareness of the feelings and behavior of another person. It should be distinguished from sympathy, which is usually nonobjective and noncritical. It includes caring, which is the demonstration of an awareness of and a concern for the good of others. (From Bioethics Thesaurus, 1992)Patient Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.Jehovah's Witnesses: Members of a religious denomination founded in the United States during the late 19th century in which active evangelism is practiced, the imminent approach of the millennium is preached, and war and organized government authority in matters of conscience are strongly opposed (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). Jehovah's Witnesses generally refuse blood transfusions and other blood-based treatments based on religious belief.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Dehumanization: The process by which a person or group of persons comes to be regarded or treated as lacking in human qualities.Altruism: Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.Double Effect Principle: Guideline for determining when it is morally permissible to perform an action to pursue a good end with knowledge that the action will also bring about bad results. It generally states that, in cases where a contemplated action has such double effect, the action is permissible only if: it is not wrong in itself; the bad result is not intended; the good result is not a direct causal result of the bad result; and the good result is "proportionate to" the bad result. (from Solomon, "Double Effect," in Becker, The Encyclopedia of Ethics, 1992)Wedge Argument: An assertion that an action apparently unobjectionable in itself would set in motion a train of events leading ultimately to an undesirable outcome. (From Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995)Postmodernism: A late 20th-century philosophical approach or style of cultural analysis that seeks to reveal the cultural or social construction of concepts conventionally assumed to be natural or universal. (from E.R. DuBose, The Illusion of Trust: Toward a Medical Theological Ethics in the Postmodern Age, Kluwer, 1995)

Persons and their copies. (1/615)

Is cloning human beings morally wrong? The basis for the one serious objection to cloning is that, because of what a clone is, clones would have much worse lives than non-clones. I sketch a fragment of moral theory to make sense of the objection. I then outline several ways in which it might be claimed that, because of what a clone is, clones would have much worse lives than non-clones. In particular, I look at various ideas connected with autonomy. I conclude that there is no basis to the claim that, because of what a clone is, clones would have much worse lives than non-clones. I therefore reject the claim that cloning human beings is morally wrong.  (+info)

Genetics and the British insurance industry. (2/615)

Genetics and genetic testing raise key issues for insurance and employment. Governmental and public concern galvanised the British insurance industry into developing a code of practice. The history of the development of the code, issues of genetic discrimination, access to medical information, consent and the dangers of withholding information and the impact on the equity of pooled risk are explored. Proactive steps by the Association of British Insurers suggest that moral reflection not legislation is the way forward.  (+info)

Indigenous peoples and the morality of the Human Genome Diversity Project. (3/615)

In addition to the aim of mapping and sequencing one human's genome, the Human Genome Project also intends to characterise the genetic diversity of the world's peoples. The Human Genome Diversity Project raises political, economic and ethical issues. These intersect clearly when the genomes under study are those of indigenous peoples who are already subject to serious economic, legal and/or social disadvantage and discrimination. The fact that some individuals associated with the project have made dismissive comments about indigenous peoples has confused rather than illuminated the deeper issues involved, as well as causing much antagonism among indigenous peoples. There are more serious ethical issues raised by the project for all geneticists, including those who are sympathetic to the problems of indigenous peoples. With particular attention to the history and attitudes of Australian indigenous peoples, we argue that the Human Genome Diversity Project can only proceed if those who further its objectives simultaneously: respect the cultural beliefs of indigenous peoples; publicly support the efforts of indigenous peoples to achieve respect and equality; express respect by a rigorous understanding of the meaning of equitable negotiation of consent, and ensure that both immediate and long term economic benefits from the research flow back to the groups taking part.  (+info)

Moral concerns of different types of patients in clinical BRCA1/2 gene mutation testing. (4/615)

PURPOSE: Implementing predictive genetic testing for a severe and common chronic disease such as breast cancer may raise unique ethical problems. Here we report on moral concerns experienced by patients in the setting of genetic counseling based on BRCA1/2 gene testing. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were members of breast or breast/ovarian cancer families in a consecutive series of 100 families who received counseling at a familial cancer clinic. The patients' moral concerns were identified using the grounded theory approach in the qualitative analysis of verbal transcripts of 45 counseling sessions. Included were sessions with patients who had breast and ovarian cancer, as well as their male and female relatives, before and after the specific BRCA1/2 gene mutation was identified in the family, and before and after those who opted for mutation analysis were informed of their carrier status. RESULTS: There is an association of BRCA1/2 gene mutation carrier status and specific topics of moral concern. The moral preoccupations of patients with breast and ovarian cancer (probable carriers) related to their being instrumental in the detection of the specific mutation segregating in the family. The preoccupations of possible carriers concerned their own offspring. Individuals who tested positive (proven carriers) were concerned with issues of confidentiality. Patients who tested negative (proven noncarriers) were concerned with helping siblings and other relatives. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of the moral concerns of subjects in the study sample may help health care providers be aware of the moral concerns of their own patients. This report may also contribute to the debate on predictive testing for familial adult-onset diseases from the patient's perspective.  (+info)

Equitable rationing of highly specialised health care services for children: a perspective from South Africa. (5/615)

The principles of equality and equity, respectively in the Bill of Rights and the white paper on health, provide the moral and legal foundations for future health care for children in South Africa. However, given extreme health care need and scarce resources, the government faces formidable obstacles if it hopes to achieve a just allocation of public health care resources, especially among children in need of highly specialised health care. In this regard, there is a dearth of moral analysis which is practically useful in the South African situation. We offer a set of moral considerations to guide the macro-allocation of highly specialised public health care services among South Africa's children. We also mention moral considerations which should inform micro-allocation.  (+info)

Protective truthfulness: the Chinese way of safeguarding patients in informed treatment decisions. (6/615)

The first part of this paper examines the practice of informed treatment decisions in the protective medical system in China today. The second part examines how health care professionals in China perceive and carry out their responsibilities when relaying information to vulnerable patients, based on the findings of an empirical study that I had undertaken to examine the moral experience of nurses in practice situations. In the Chinese medical ethics tradition, refinement [jing] in skills and sincerity [cheng] in relating to patients are two cardinal virtues that health care professionals are required to possess. This notion of absolute sincerity carries a strong sense of parental protectiveness. The empirical findings reveal that most nurses are ambivalent about telling the truth to patients. Truth-telling would become an insincere act if a patient were to lose hope and confidence in life after learning of his or her disease. In this system of protective medical care, it is arguable as to whose interests are being protected: the patient, the family or the hospital. I would suggest that the interests of the hospital and the family members who legitimately represent the patient's interests are being honoured, but at the expense of the patient's right to know.  (+info)

In defence of medical ethics. (7/615)

A number of recent publications by the philosopher David Seedhouse are discussed. Although medicine is an eminently ethical enterprise, the technical and ethical aspects of health care practices can be distinguished, therefore justifying the existence of medical ethics and its teaching as a specific part of every medical curriculum. The goal of teaching medical ethics is to make health care practitioners aware of the essential ethical aspects of their work. Furthermore, the contention that rational bioethics is a fruitless enterprise because it analyses non-rational social events seems neither theoretically tenable nor to be borne out by actual practice. Medical ethics in particular and bioethics in general, constitute a field of expertise that must make itself understandable and convincing to relevant audiences in health care.  (+info)

The virtue of nursing: the covenant of care. (8/615)

It is argued that the current confusion about the role and purpose of the British nurse is a consequence of the modern rejection and consequent fragmentation of the inherited nursing tradition. The nature of this tradition, in which nurses were inducted into the moral virtues of care, is examined and its relevance to patient welfare is demonstrated. Practical suggestions are made as to how this moral tradition might be reappropriated and reinvigorated for modern nursing.  (+info)

  • It is also true that, on some understandings, moral reasoning directed towards deciding what to do involves forming judgments about what one ought, morally, to do. (
  • This discovery has important consequences for our globalized world, as many individuals make moral judgments in both native and foreign languages," said Boaz Keysar , professor of psychology at UChicago. (
  • Despite recurring interest in the potential for affect to influence "rational" reasoning, in particular the effect of emotion on moral judgments, legal scholars and social scientists have conducted far less empirical research directly testing such questions than might be expected. (
  • Thus, to bring the legal academic discussion into the realm of the empirical, and to provide further data on the question of affective influences on moral and legal decision-making, I conducted two experimental studies examining mood's influence on moral judgments. (
  • To find out which of these complementary systems people use in making moral judgments, the researchers conducted an online study featuring 119 participants (the vast majority of whom were Australians). (
  • These findings suggest that political orientation is associated with the degree to which a person relies on either emotional/intuitive or logically reasoned processes while making moral judgments," the researchers conclude. (
  • They conclude there is no evidence one group is "more adept at, or better suited to, arriving at accurate or appropriate moral judgments. (
  • It has been a decade since the first brain imaging studies of moral judgments by Joshua Greene, Jorge Moll and their colleagues were reported. (
  • During this time, there have been rich philosophical and scientific discussions regarding a) whether brain imaging data can tell us anything about moral judgments, and b) what they do tell us if they can tell us something about moral judgments. (
  • Should the research on moral psychology be interpreted as suggesting new approaches for improving, or perhaps enhancing, moral intuitions, attitudes, judgments, and behavior or for reforming social institutions? (
  • This paper analyses how the socio-technical practices of market expansion can be affected by political contestation and individual moral judgements. (
  • However, these socio-technical market practices have struggled to cross and negotiate uneven political and social spaces, being subject to moral judgements and political contestation. (
  • He believes, however, that religious faith makes a difference in one's ethics, that Christian character is fundamental to decision-making, and that it is possible to arrive at judgements on today's complex moral problems in light of Christian faith. (
  • While moral reasoning can be undertaken on another's behalf, it is paradigmatically an agent's first-personal (individual or collective) practical reasoning about what, morally, they ought to do. (
  • Even though people make moral decisions every day, many Christians lack both the ability to evaluate these decisions and a community of discipleship to help inspire a morally faithful life. (
  • Ninety percent of Americans believe birth control is morally acceptable, putting it into the 'highly acceptable' category, which has little moral opposition -- the only such issue among the 19. (
  • Philosophical moral reflection might lead one to behave more morally permissibly but no morally better . (
  • The idea here is that philosophical moral reflection might lead one to avoid morally impermissible behavior while also reducing the likelihood of doing any more than is strictly morally required. (
  • Without that moral reflection, they would behave morally worse than the average person, but moral reflection helps them behave better than they otherwise would. (
  • For the simplicity of a first-pass analysis of moral weight, let's assume a variation on classical utilitarianism according to which the only thing that morally matters is the moment-by-moment character of a being's conscious experience. (
  • Given those assumptions, when we talk about the relative 'moral weight' of different species, we mean to ask something like 'How morally important is 10 seconds of a typical human's experience of [some injury], compared to 10 seconds of a typical rainbow trout's experience of [that same injury]? (
  • A new study from psychologists at the University of Chicago and Pompeu Fabra University in Barcelona finds that people using a foreign language take a relatively utilitarian approach to moral dilemmas, making decisions based on assessments of what's best for the common good. (
  • Genetic engineering is one of the great moral dilemmas of our time. (
  • Forty-five patients with schizophrenia and 27 healthy controls judged high-conflict moral dilemmas in response to 3rd-person (i.e. (
  • Second, realists hold that moral facts are independent of any beliefs or thoughts we might have about them. (
  • From the viewpoint of objectivism, moral facts do not merely represent the beliefs of the person making the claim, they are facts of the world. (
  • According to the viewpoint of subjectivism, moral facts (values, duties, and so forth) are entirely dependent on the beliefs of those who hold them. (
  • As a biblical and practical theologian with three decades of pastoral experience, who has also spent years teaching ethics to undergraduates, Gary Tyra approaches the topic with the practical goal of facilitating moral formation and encouraging an "everyday" moral faithfulness. (
  • I'm delighted to see Gary Tyra's book Pursuing Moral Faithfulness: Ethics and Christian Discipleship available to students and people in the church, connecting the life of Jesus and the moral life of the follower of Christ. (
  • This book includes chapters on the centrality of moral character and virtue, as well as on the contribution of theology to ethics. (
  • In the first part, we summarize our empirical research on the moral behavior of ethics professors. (
  • He then argues that, problems with philosophy of science and reason in general notwithstanding, 'moral questions' will have objectively right and wrong answers which are grounded in empirical facts about what causes people to flourish. (
  • Challenging the traditional philosophical notion that humans can never get an 'ought' from an 'is' (the so-called Hume's law ), Harris argues that moral questions are best pursued using not just philosophy, but the methods of science . (
  • My 2017 Report on Consciousness and Moral Patienthood tried to address the question of 'Which creatures are moral patients? (
  • WASHINGTON, D.C. -- The American public has become more tolerant on a number of moral issues, including premarital sex, embryonic stem cell research, and euthanasia. (
  • Previous research on moral judgement in healthy adults suggests a complex interplay of automatic, emotional and deliberative processing. (
  • We aimed to advance understanding of these processes by examining moral judgement in individuals with schizophrenia, a population characterised by social-cognitive deficits and interpersonal difficulties. (
  • Findings suggest that people with schizophrenia focus equally on outcomes across moral-judgement conditions that ought normally to elicit an outcome-action discrepancy, suggesting that they are less influenced by an automatic aversive response to harmful acts in dilemma scenarios, consistent with a dual-process model of moral judgement. (
  • He helps us see the need for balance in our lives between embodying biblical moral principles and virtues, and the need to consider carefully the results of our actions and be responsible for them. (
  • For example: suppose we conclude that fishes, pigs, and humans are all moral patients, and we estimate that, for a fixed amount of money, we can (in expectation) dramatically improve the welfare of (a) 10,000 rainbow trout, (b) 1,000 pigs, or (c) 100 adult humans. (
  • abstract = "Is presenting patients with moral reminders prior to psychological testing a fruitful deterrence strategy for symptom over-reporting? (
  • The present study uses fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) and a behavioral design inspired by research on moral hypocrisy ( 15 ) to examine the neural bases of honest and dishonest choices. (
  • Tyra argues that Christians can have confidence in their Christ-centered, Spirit-enabled ability to discern and do the will of God in any moral situation. (
  • And although their training has prepared them for how to handle these situations, sometimes what they did, or maybe didnt do, transgresses a deeply held belief and moral opinion. (
  • It might have positive effects, for example, if it leads us to discover moral truths on which we then act. (
  • The drone's promise of precision killing and perfect safety for operators is so seductive, in fact, that some scholars have raised a different moral question: Do drones threaten to lower the threshold for lethal violence? (
  • As the current election campaign has made unnervingly clear, liberals and conservatives largely operate in different moral universes . (
  • Or must we think of such a natural fact as the natural 'ground' for the (quite different) moral fact that we should do it, that is, as the fact in the world that makes it true that we should act this way? (
  • The Moral Landscape: How Science Can Determine Human Values is a 2010 book by Sam Harris , in which the author promotes a science of morality and argues that many thinkers have long confused the relationship between morality, facts, and science. (
  • Moral Values in Jainism are directed towards the deliverance of the person. (
  • But as I've pointed out before , this is not true -- a flawed exit poll question drastically exaggerated the importance of "moral values" for voters. (
  • The number of evangelical voters did not increase from 2000, and open-response questions about priorities did not receive nearly as many answers concerning "moral values" as did the flawed question. (
  • When we talk about "moral facts" typically we are referring to claims about values, duties, standards for behavior, and other evaluative prescriptions. (
  • Because there are diverse cultural moral values, moral values are not objective and moral diversity is justified. (
  • Unlike PTSD , which is rooted in a fear that a persons life is in danger, moral injury can result when a veteran is consumed with guilt or shame for something they did that goes against their values. (
  • It echoed much of the discussion about moral values following the election: to be against the right to choose an abortion is mostly presented in the media as the religious and moral position. (
  • That provides a psychological distance from emotional concerns when making moral decisions. (
  • In the new study, two experiments using the well-known "trolley dilemma" tested the hypothesis that when faced with moral choices in a foreign language, people are more likely to respond with a utilitarian approach that is less emotional. (
  • For present purposes, we may understand issues about what is right or wrong, or virtuous or vicious, as raising moral questions. (
  • Beyond these pleasures, however, she brings new depth of understanding to some of the most pressing moral issues of the moment, notably abortion. (
  • Q: I wonder if you may expand on your point about the specific examples given not being moral issues, to stop any further confusion (if you see any)? (
  • Perhaps that distaste for ambiguity drives those on the right to rely on their moral instincts to make quick, final decisions on troubling issues. (
  • Last November, Republican Senate candidates swept the South, ousted Tom Daschle, and won by bringing out "moral-issues" voters, all concerned by the matter of judges. (
  • The study was a combination of two separate studies: ORIENTATION ON MORAL ISSUES IN A METROPOLIS by Robert Angell, and THE MEANING OF WORK by Robert Kahn and Robert Weiss. (
  • On a list of 19 major moral issues of the day, Americans express levels of moral acceptance that are as high or higher than in the past on 12 of them, a group that also encompasses social mores such as polygamy, having a child out of wedlock, and divorce. (
  • Nevertheless, the extent to which affect can influence moral decisions is an important question for the law. (
  • Q: Ultimately I would say moral decisions are inconveniently subjective (observing how even those with supposedly objective versions of morality, like the religious, wax and wane is evidence for that). (
  • It affirms women as moral agents who have the capacity, right and responsibility to make decisions as to whether or not abortion is justified in their specific circumstances. (
  • Ethicists might in fact engage in moral reflection relevant to their personal lives no more often than do other professors. (
  • politics , social action 299 and morals . (
  • however, little attention has focused on the integrity of moral reasoning in the assessment of post-TBI social sequelae and the role of empathy and intelligence on moral maturity. (
  • Conclusions: Youth who sustained TBI during childhood have poorer moral reasoning abilities than their non-injured peers, potentially placing them at risk for poor social decision-making and socially maladaptive behaviour. (
  • Research design: In a quasi-experimental, cross-sectional research design, moral reasoning maturity and empathy in adolescents with mild-to-severe TBI (n=25) were compared to typically-developing peers (n=66). (
  • Although many progressives agree that "abortion should be safe, legal, and rare," the Open Letter goes further, maintaining that we have a moral imperative to ensure access to abortion services. (