Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.
Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.
Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.
Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.
Abnormal or excessive excitability with easily triggered anger, annoyance, or impatience.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.
Inorganic compounds that contain lithium as an integral part of the molecule.
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)
A syndrome characterized by depressions that recur annually at the same time each year, usually during the winter months. Other symptoms include anxiety, irritability, decreased energy, increased appetite (carbohydrate cravings), increased duration of sleep, and weight gain. SAD (seasonal affective disorder) can be treated by daily exposure to bright artificial lights (PHOTOTHERAPY), during the season of recurrence.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.
Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.
A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).
The act of killing oneself.
A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.
Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.
A neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by one or more of the following essential features: immobility, mutism, negativism (active or passive refusal to follow commands), mannerisms, stereotypies, posturing, grimacing, excitement, echolalia, echopraxia, muscular rigidity, and stupor; sometimes punctuated by sudden violent outbursts, panic, or hallucinations. This condition may be associated with psychiatric illnesses (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; MOOD DISORDERS) or organic disorders (NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME; ENCEPHALITIS, etc.). (From DSM-IV, 4th ed, 1994; APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A combination of distressing physical, psychologic, or behavioral changes that occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Symptoms of PMS are diverse (such as pain, water-retention, anxiety, cravings, and depression) and they diminish markedly 2 or 3 days after the initiation of menses.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.
A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
Electrically induced CONVULSIONS primarily used in the treatment of severe AFFECTIVE DISORDERS and SCHIZOPHRENIA.
Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.
Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
A lithium salt, classified as a mood-stabilizing agent. Lithium ion alters the metabolism of BIOGENIC MONOAMINES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, and affects multiple neurotransmission systems.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Standardized objective tests designed to facilitate the evaluation of personality.
Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.
Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
The study of the effects of drugs on mental and behavioral activity.
The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders in individuals 13-18 years.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
Depression in POSTPARTUM WOMEN, usually within four weeks after giving birth (PARTURITION). The degree of depression ranges from mild transient depression to neurotic or psychotic depressive disorders. (From DSM-IV, p386)
A false belief regarding the self or persons or objects outside the self that persists despite the facts, and is not considered tenable by one's associates.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
A serotonin receptor subtype found distributed through the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM where they are involved in neuroendocrine regulation of ACTH secretion. The fact that this serotonin receptor subtype is particularly sensitive to SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS such as BUSPIRONE suggests its role in the modulation of ANXIETY and DEPRESSION.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).
Aid for consistent recording of data such as tasks completed and observations noted.
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.
Physiological changes that occur in bodies after death.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.
One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Disruptions of the rhythmic cycle of bodily functions or activities.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
A glutamate antagonist (RECEPTORS, GLUTAMATE) used as an anticonvulsant (ANTICONVULSANTS) and to prolong the survival of patients with AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS.
Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Prolonged separation of the offspring from the father.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
A serotonin receptor subtype found widely distributed in peripheral tissues where it mediates the contractile responses of variety of tissues that contain SMOOTH MUSCLE. Selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonists include KETANSERIN. The 5-HT2A subtype is also located in BASAL GANGLIA and CEREBRAL CORTEX of the BRAIN where it mediates the effects of HALLUCINOGENS such as LSD.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)
The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.
An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.
The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.
Special hospitals which provide care to the mentally ill patient.
A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Dibenzothiazepines are a class of heterocyclic chemical compounds that contain a dibenzothiazepine ring structure, which have been used in the development of various pharmaceutical drugs, particularly as tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, and anticonvulsants, but their use has declined due to side effects and the development of newer drugs.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.
Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.
Disorders whose essential features are the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the individual or to others. Individuals experience an increased sense of tension prior to the act and pleasure, gratification or release of tension at the time of committing the act.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of TRYPTOPHAN to 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN in the presence of NADPH and molecular oxygen. It is important in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN.
Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.
The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.
An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.
Organized services to provide mental health care.
Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.
A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
Persons admitted to health facilities which provide board and room, for the purpose of observation, care, diagnosis or treatment.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Products resulting from the conversion of one language to another.
Relationship between individuals when one individual threatens or becomes aggressive and the other individual remains passive or attempts to escape.
A type of anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected panic attacks that last minutes or, rarely, hours. Panic attacks begin with intense apprehension, fear or terror and, often, a feeling of impending doom. Symptoms experienced during a panic attack include dyspnea or sensations of being smothered; dizziness, loss of balance or faintness; choking sensations; palpitations or accelerated heart rate; shakiness; sweating; nausea or other form of abdominal distress; depersonalization or derealization; paresthesias; hot flashes or chills; chest discomfort or pain; fear of dying and fear of not being in control of oneself or going crazy. Agoraphobia may also develop. Similar to other anxiety disorders, it may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.
A structurally and mechanistically diverse group of drugs that are not tricyclics or monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most clinically important appear to act selectively on serotonergic systems, especially by inhibiting serotonin reuptake.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.
A thyroid hormone transport protein found in serum. It binds about 75% of circulating THYROXINE and 70% of circulating TRIIODOTHYRONINE.
Learned expectation that one's responses are independent of reward and, hence, do not predict or control the occurrence of rewards. Learned helplessness derives from a history, experimentally induced or naturally occurring, of having received punishment/aversive stimulation regardless of responses made. Such circumstances result in an impaired ability to learn. Used for human or animal populations. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.
Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.
Hormones produced by the GONADS, including both steroid and peptide hormones. The major steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL and PROGESTERONE from the OVARY, and TESTOSTERONE from the TESTIS. The major peptide hormones include ACTIVINS and INHIBINS.
A risk factor for suicide attempts and completions, it is the most common of all suicidal behavior, but only a minority of ideators engage in overt self-harm.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of VETERANS.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.
Neurotic reactions to unusual, severe, or overwhelming military stress.
Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)
A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The study of the patterns of ridges of the skin of the fingers, palms, toes, and soles.
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
A disorder associated with three or more of the following: eating until feeling uncomfortably full; eating large amounts of food when not physically hungry; eating much more rapidly than normal; eating alone due to embarrassment; feeling of disgust, DEPRESSION, or guilt after overeating. Criteria includes occurrence on average, at least 2 days a week for 6 months. The binge eating is not associated with the regular use of inappropriate compensatory behavior (i.e. purging, excessive exercise, etc.) and does not co-occur exclusively with BULIMIA NERVOSA or ANOREXIA NERVOSA. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Hospital department responsible for the organization and administration of psychiatric services.
A form of therapy in which two or more patients participate under the guidance of one or more psychotherapists for the purpose of treating emotional disturbances, social maladjustments, and psychotic states.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Behavioral, psychological, and social relations among various members of the nuclear family and the extended family.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.
Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
A furancarbonitrile that is one of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS used as an antidepressant. The drug is also effective in reducing ethanol uptake in alcoholics and is used in depressed patients who also suffer from tardive dyskinesia in preference to tricyclic antidepressants, which aggravate this condition.
Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.
The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.
A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.
Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.
The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
A major deviation from normal patterns of behavior.
Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.
Sudden temporary alterations in the normally integrative functions of consciousness.
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.

Recurrence in affective disorder: analyses with frailty models. (1/1210)

The risk of recurrence in affective disorder is influenced by the number of prior episodes and by a person's tendency toward recurrence. Newly developed frailty models were used to estimate the effect of the number of episodes on the rate of recurrence, taking into account individual frailty toward recurrence. The study base was the Danish psychiatric case register of all hospital admissions for primary affective disorder in Denmark during 1971-1993. A total of 20,350 first-admission patients were discharged with a diagnosis of major affective disorder. For women with unipolar disorder and for all kinds of patients with bipolar disorder, the rate of recurrence was affected by the number of prior episodes even when the effect was adjusted for individual frailty toward recurrence. No effect of episodes but a large effect of the frailty parameter was found for unipolar men. The authors concluded that the risk of recurrence seems to increase with the number of episodes of bipolar affective disorder in general and for women with unipolar disorder.  (+info)

The use of atypical antipsychotics in the management of schizophrenia. (2/1210)

Long-term drug treatment of schizophrenia with conventional antipsychotics has limitations: an estimated quarter to one third of patients are treatment-resistant; conventional antipsychotics have only a modest impact upon negative symptoms (poverty of thought, social withdrawal and loss of affect); and adverse effects, particularly extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). Newer, so-called atypical, antipsychotics such as olanzapine, risperidone, sertindole and clozapine (an old drug which was re-introduced in 1990) are claimed to address these limitations. Atypical agents are, at a minimum, at least as effective as conventional drugs such as haloperidol. They also cause substantially fewer extrapyramidal symptoms. However, some other adverse effects are more common than with conventional drugs. For example, clozapine carries a significant risk of serious blood disorders, for which special monitoring is mandatory; it also causes troublesome drowsiness and increased salivation more often than conventional agents. Some atypical agents cause more weight gain or QT prolongation than older agents. The choice of therapy is, therefore, not straightforward. At present, atypical agents represent an advance for patients with severe or intolerable EPS. Most published evidence exists to support the use of clozapine, which has also been shown to be effective in schizophrenia refractory to conventional agents. However, the need for compliance with blood count monitoring and its sedative properties make careful patient selection important. The extent of any additional direct benefit offered by atypical agents on negative symptoms is not yet clear. The lack of a depot formulation for atypical drugs may pose a significant practical problem. To date, only two double-blind studies in which atypical agents were compared directly have been published. Neither provides compelling evidence for the choice of one agent over another. Atypical agents are many times more expensive than conventional drugs. Although drug treatment constitutes only a small proportion of the costs of managing schizophrenia, the additional annual cost of the use of atypical agents in, say, a quarter of the likely U.K. schizophrenic population would be about 56 M pound sterling. There is only limited evidence of cost-effectiveness. Atypical antipsychotics are not currently licensed for other conditions where conventional antipsychotics are commonly used, such as behaviour disturbance or dementia in the elderly. Their dose, and place in treatment in such cases have yet to be determined.  (+info)

Affective symptoms in multiple system atrophy and Parkinson's disease: response to levodopa therapy. (3/1210)

The objective was to determine the extent to which psychiatric disturbances (especially mood disorders) generally considered poor prognostic factors, are present in patients with striatonigral (SND) type multiple system atrophy (MSA) compared with patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). The Hamilton depression scale (HAM-D), brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS), and Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) were administered to clinically probable non-demented patients with SND-type MSA and patients with IPD matched for age and motor disability, at baseline and after receiving levodopa. At baseline total HAM-D score was greater in patients with IPD. Overall, BPRS score did not differ between the two groups; however, patients with IPD scored higher on anxiety items of the BPRS, and patients with MSA had higher scores on the item indicating blunted affect. After levodopa, both groups improved significantly in UPDRS and HAM-D total scores (just significant for patients with MSA). Patients with IPD improved significantly in total BPRS score but patients with MSA did not. At baseline patients with IPD were more depressed and anxious than patients with MSA who, by contrast, showed blunted affect. After levodopa, depression and anxiety of patients with IPD improved significantly whereas the affective detachment of patients with MSA did not change. Major neuronal loss in the caudate and ventral striatum, which are part of the lateral orbitofrontal and limbic circuits, may be responsible for the blunted affect not responsive to levodopa therapy found in patients with MSA.  (+info)

Disagreement in patient and carer assessment of functional abilities after stroke. (4/1210)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to describe differences between functional ability assessments made by stroke patients and their informal carers and to investigate the psychological associates of the difference in assessments. METHODS: A prospective design was used, with repeated assessments of function, mood, and carer strain. Thirty hospital stroke patients and their main carer were interviewed 3 times: within 1 month of stroke, 1 month after discharge, and 6 months after discharge. RESULTS: There were significant differences between patient and carer assessments at all 3 time points, with patient self-assessment less disabled than carer assessment (at least P<0.02). The disagreement in assessment was unrelated to patient or carer mood (P>0.05) but greater disagreement was associated with greater carer strain (P<0.05). The source of the disagreement in functional ability assessment remains unclear. CONCLUSIONS: The method of assessment affects the rating of functional abilities after stroke. Carer strain is potentially increased when the patient or carer makes an unrealistic assessment of the patient's level of independence.  (+info)

A prospective multicentre study in Sweden and Norway of mental distress and psychiatric morbidity in head and neck cancer patients. (5/1210)

A Swedish/Norwegian head and neck cancer study was designed to assess prospectively the levels of mental distress and psychiatric morbidity in a heterogeneous sample of newly diagnosed head and neck cancer patients. A total of 357 patients were included. The mean age was 63 years, and 72% were males. The patients were asked to answer the HAD scale (the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale) six times during 1 year. The number of possible or probable cases of anxiety or depression disorder was calculated according to standardized cut-offs. Approximately one-third of the patients scored as a possible or probable case of a major mood disorder at each measurement point during the study year. There were new cases of anxiety or depression at each time point. The anxiety level was highest at diagnosis, while depression was most common during treatment. Females were more anxious than males at diagnosis, and patients under 65 years of age scored higher than those over 65. Patients with lower performance status and more advanced disease reported higher levels of mental distress and more often scored as a probable or possible cases of psychiatric disorder. Our psychometric analyses supported the two-dimensional structure and stability of the HAD scale. The HAD scale seems to be the method of choice for getting valid information about the probability of mood disorder in head and neck cancer populations. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity found in this study emphasizes the importance of improved diagnosis and treatment.  (+info)

Schizophrenia and major affective disorder among Medicaid recipients with HIV/AIDS in New Jersey. (6/1210)

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to identify and characterize seriously mentally ill patients with HIV infection. METHODS: Medicaid beneficiaries with HIV/AIDS were identified through the merging of New Jersey HIV/AIDS Registry and Medicaid eligibility files. Claims histories were used to classify individuals as having schizophrenia, major affective disorder, or no serious mental illness. RESULTS: Of 8294 individuals, 476 (5.7%) were classified as having schizophrenia, and 564 (6.8%) were classified as having major affective disorder. Those with serious mental illness were more likely than other groups to be injection drug users and to have claims indicative of substance abuse. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with serious mental illness are a significant but little-recognized subgroup of those with HIV infection.  (+info)

Underlying personality differences between alcohol/substance-use disorder patients with and without an affective disorder. (7/1210)

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), a popular personality test, was used to profile the personalities of in-patient alcoholics/substance-use disorder patients who had, and those who did not have, a concurrent affective disorder diagnosis. The MBTI divides individuals into eight categories: Extroverts and Introverts, Sensors and Intuitives, Thinkers and Feelers, and Judgers and Perceivers. Alcohol/substance-use disorder patients with no affective disorder differed from a normative population only in being significantly more often Sensing and significantly less often Intuitive single-factor types. The Extroverted/Sensing/ Feeling/Judging four-factor type was also significantly over-represented in this group, compared to a normative population. In contrast, mood-disordered alcohol/substance-use disorder patients were significantly more often Introverted, Sensing, Feeling, and Perceiving and significantly less often Extroverted, Intuitive, Thinking, and Judging single-factor types. They were also significantly more often Introverted/Sensing/ Feeling/Perceiving and Introverted/Intuitive/Feeling/Perceiving four-factor types. 'Pure' alcohol/ substance-use disorder patients differed from alcohol/substance-use disorder patients with a mood disorder in that they were significantly more often Extroverted and Thinking and significantly less often Introverted and Feeling single-factor types; and significantly less often were an Introverted/Sensing/ Feeling/Perceiving four-factor type. The above results may have psychogenetic, diagnostic, and psychotherapeutic implications.  (+info)

Role of the serotonergic system in the pathogenesis of major depression and suicidal behavior. (8/1210)

Phylogenetically, the serotonergic system is one of the oldest transmitter systems in the brain. Combining a complex and widespread innervation of most cortical and subcortical structures, with over a dozen receptor subtypes, there is a diversity of signaling opportunities and functional roles that explain the association of serotonin with many different types of psychopathological conditions. The role of the serotonergic system in mood disorders and in the predisposition for suicidal behavior are reviewed in this paper. Effects on the serotonergic system underlie the antidepressant action of many types of medications and must be integrated into a neurobiological model of mood disorders.  (+info)

Mood disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by significant and persistent changes in mood, affect, and emotional state. These disorders can cause disturbances in normal functioning and significantly impair an individual's ability to carry out their daily activities. The two primary types of mood disorders are depressive disorders (such as major depressive disorder or persistent depressive disorder) and bipolar disorders (which include bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, and cyclothymic disorder).

Depressive disorders involve prolonged periods of low mood, sadness, hopelessness, and a lack of interest in activities. Individuals with these disorders may also experience changes in sleep patterns, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem. In severe cases, they might have thoughts of death or suicide.

Bipolar disorders involve alternating episodes of mania (or hypomania) and depression. During a manic episode, individuals may feel extremely elated, energetic, or irritable, with racing thoughts, rapid speech, and impulsive behavior. They might engage in risky activities, have decreased sleep needs, and display poor judgment. In contrast, depressive episodes involve the same symptoms as depressive disorders.

Mood disorders can be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Proper diagnosis and treatment, which may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both, are essential for managing these conditions and improving quality of life.

Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a mental health condition that causes extreme mood swings that include emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows (depression). When you become depressed, you may feel sad or hopeless and lose interest or pleasure in most activities. When your mood shifts to mania or hypomania (a less severe form of mania), you may feel euphoric, full of energy, or unusually irritable. These mood swings can significantly affect your job, school, relationships, and overall quality of life.

Bipolar disorder is typically characterized by the presence of one or more manic or hypomanic episodes, often accompanied by depressive episodes. The episodes may be separated by periods of normal mood, but in some cases, a person may experience rapid cycling between mania and depression.

There are several types of bipolar disorder, including:

* Bipolar I Disorder: This type is characterized by the occurrence of at least one manic episode, which may be preceded or followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes.
* Bipolar II Disorder: This type involves the presence of at least one major depressive episode and at least one hypomanic episode, but no manic episodes.
* Cyclothymic Disorder: This type is characterized by numerous periods of hypomania and depression that are not severe enough to meet the criteria for a full manic or depressive episode.
* Other Specified and Unspecified Bipolar and Related Disorders: These categories include bipolar disorders that do not fit the criteria for any of the other types.

The exact cause of bipolar disorder is unknown, but it appears to be related to a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurochemical factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy, and lifestyle changes to help manage symptoms and prevent relapses.

Anxiety disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or anxiety that interfere with daily activities. They include several different types of disorders, such as:

1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): This is characterized by chronic and exaggerated worry and tension, even when there is little or nothing to provoke it.
2. Panic Disorder: This is characterized by recurring unexpected panic attacks and fear of experiencing more panic attacks.
3. Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD): Also known as social phobia, this is characterized by excessive fear, anxiety, or avoidance of social situations due to feelings of embarrassment, self-consciousness, and concern about being judged or viewed negatively by others.
4. Phobias: These are intense, irrational fears of certain objects, places, or situations. When a person with a phobia encounters the object or situation they fear, they may experience panic attacks or other severe anxiety responses.
5. Agoraphobia: This is a fear of being in places where it may be difficult to escape or get help if one has a panic attack or other embarrassing or incapacitating symptoms.
6. Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD): This is characterized by excessive anxiety about separation from home or from people to whom the individual has a strong emotional attachment (such as a parent, sibling, or partner).
7. Selective Mutism: This is a disorder where a child becomes mute in certain situations, such as at school, but can speak normally at home or with close family members.

These disorders are treatable with a combination of medication and psychotherapy (cognitive-behavioral therapy, exposure therapy). It's important to seek professional help if you suspect that you or someone you know may have an anxiety disorder.

A mental disorder is a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior. It's associated with distress and/or impaired functioning in social, occupational, or other important areas of life, often leading to a decrease in quality of life. These disorders are typically persistent and can be severe and disabling. They may be related to factors such as genetics, early childhood experiences, or trauma. Examples include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. It's important to note that a diagnosis should be made by a qualified mental health professional.

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), also simply referred to as depression, is a serious mental health condition characterized by the presence of one or more major depressive episodes. A major depressive episode is a period of at least two weeks during which an individual experiences a severely depressed mood and/or loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities, accompanied by at least four additional symptoms such as significant changes in appetite or weight, sleep disturbances, psychomotor agitation or retardation, fatigue or loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt, difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decisions, and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide.

MDD can significantly impair an individual's ability to function in daily life, and it is associated with increased risks of suicide, substance abuse, and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of MDD is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from a complex interplay of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of psychotherapy (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy) and medication (such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants).

In medical and psychological terms, "affect" refers to a person's emotional or expressive state, mood, or dispositions that are outwardly manifested in their behavior, facial expressions, demeanor, or speech. Affect can be described as being congruent or incongruent with an individual's thoughts and experiences.

There are different types of affect, including:

1. Neutral affect: When a person shows no apparent emotion or displays minimal emotional expressiveness.
2. Positive affect: When a person exhibits positive emotions such as happiness, excitement, or enthusiasm.
3. Negative affect: When a person experiences and displays negative emotions like sadness, anger, or fear.
4. Blunted affect: When a person's emotional response is noticeably reduced or diminished, often observed in individuals with certain mental health conditions, such as schizophrenia.
5. Flat affect: When a person has an almost complete absence of emotional expressiveness, which can be indicative of severe depression or other mental health disorders.
6. Labile affect: When a person's emotional state fluctuates rapidly and frequently between positive and negative emotions, often observed in individuals with certain neurological conditions or mood disorders.

Clinicians may assess a patient's affect during an interview or examination to help diagnose mental health conditions, evaluate treatment progress, or monitor overall well-being.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a publication of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) that provides diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. It is widely used by mental health professionals in the United States and around the world to diagnose and classify mental health conditions.

The DSM includes detailed descriptions of symptoms, clinical examples, and specific criteria for each disorder, which are intended to facilitate accurate diagnosis and improve communication among mental health professionals. The manual is regularly updated to reflect current research and clinical practice, with the most recent edition being the DSM-5, published in 2013.

It's important to note that while the DSM is a valuable tool for mental health professionals, it is not without controversy. Some critics argue that the manual medicalizes normal human experiences and that its categories may be too broad or overlapping. Nonetheless, it remains an essential resource for clinicians, researchers, and policymakers in the field of mental health.

A depressive disorder is a mental health condition characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest or pleasure in activities. It can also include changes in sleep, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem, as well as thoughts of death or suicide. Depressive disorders can vary in severity and duration, with some people experiencing mild and occasional symptoms, while others may have severe and chronic symptoms that interfere with their ability to function in daily life.

There are several types of depressive disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), persistent depressive disorder (PDD), and postpartum depression. MDD is characterized by symptoms that interfere significantly with a person's ability to function and last for at least two weeks, while PDD involves chronic low-grade depression that lasts for two years or more. Postpartum depression occurs in women after childbirth and can range from mild to severe.

Depressive disorders are thought to be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy (talk therapy), and lifestyle changes.

Antimanic agents are a class of medications primarily used to treat mania, a symptom of bipolar disorder. These agents help to control and reduce the severity of manic episodes, which can include symptoms such as elevated or irritable mood, increased energy, decreased need for sleep, racing thoughts, and impulsive or risky behavior.

The most commonly used antimanic agents are mood stabilizers, such as lithium and valproate (Depakote), and atypical antipsychotics, such as olanzapine (Zyprexa), risperidone (Risperdal), quetiapine (Seroquel), and aripiprazole (Abilify). These medications work by altering the levels or activity of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine.

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is also considered an effective antimanic treatment for severe mania that has not responded to medication. ECT involves applying electrical currents to the brain while the patient is under anesthesia, which induces a seizure and can help to reduce symptoms of mania.

It's important to note that antimanic agents should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare provider, as they can have significant side effects and interactions with other medications. Additionally, a comprehensive treatment plan for bipolar disorder typically includes psychotherapy, education, and support to help manage the condition and prevent future episodes.

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales are standardized assessment tools used by mental health professionals to evaluate and rate the severity of a person's psychiatric symptoms and functioning. These scales provide a systematic and structured approach to measuring various aspects of an individual's mental health, such as mood, anxiety, psychosis, behavior, and cognitive abilities.

The purpose of using Psychiatric Status Rating Scales is to:

1. Assess the severity and improvement of psychiatric symptoms over time.
2. Aid in diagnostic decision-making and treatment planning.
3. Monitor treatment response and adjust interventions accordingly.
4. Facilitate communication among mental health professionals about a patient's status.
5. Provide an objective basis for research and epidemiological studies.

Examples of Psychiatric Status Rating Scales include:

1. Clinical Global Impression (CGI): A brief, subjective rating scale that measures overall illness severity, treatment response, and improvement.
2. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS): A comprehensive scale used to assess the symptoms of psychosis, including positive, negative, and general psychopathology domains.
3. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) or Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS): Scales used to evaluate the severity of depressive symptoms.
4. Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS): A scale used to assess the severity of manic or hypomanic symptoms.
5. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) or Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R): Scales that measure a broad range of psychiatric symptoms and psychopathology.
6. Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF): A scale used to rate an individual's overall psychological, social, and occupational functioning on a hypothetical continuum of mental health-illness.

It is important to note that Psychiatric Status Rating Scales should be administered by trained mental health professionals to ensure accurate and reliable results.

Antidepressive agents are a class of medications used to treat various forms of depression and anxiety disorders. They act on neurotransmitters, the chemical messengers in the brain, to restore the balance that has been disrupted by mental illness. The most commonly prescribed types of antidepressants include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). These medications can help alleviate symptoms such as low mood, loss of interest in activities, changes in appetite and sleep patterns, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, and thoughts of death or suicide. It is important to note that antidepressants may take several weeks to reach their full effectiveness and may cause side effects, so it is essential to work closely with a healthcare provider to find the right medication and dosage.

Affective disorders, psychotic are a category of mental health conditions characterized by significant disturbances in mood, thinking, and behavior. These disorders combine the symptoms of both mood disorders (such as depression or bipolar disorder) and psychotic disorders (such as schizophrenia).

In psychotic affective disorders, individuals experience severe changes in their mood, such as prolonged periods of depression or mania, along with psychotic features like hallucinations, delusions, or disorganized thinking and speech. These symptoms can significantly impair a person's ability to function in daily life and may require intensive treatment, including medication and therapy.

Examples of psychotic affective disorders include:

1. Psychotic Depression: A severe form of major depressive disorder that includes psychotic symptoms like delusions or hallucinations, often with a theme of guilt or worthlessness.
2. Bipolar Disorder with Psychotic Features: During manic or depressive episodes, some individuals with bipolar disorder may experience psychotic symptoms such as delusions or hallucinations. These symptoms can vary in intensity and may require hospitalization and intensive treatment.
3. Schizoaffective Disorder: A mental health condition that includes features of both schizophrenia and a mood disorder, such as depression or bipolar disorder. Individuals with this disorder experience psychotic symptoms like hallucinations and delusions, along with significant changes in mood.

It is essential to seek professional help if you suspect you or someone you know may have a psychotic affective disorder. Early intervention and treatment can significantly improve outcomes and quality of life.

Irritable mood is not a formal medical diagnosis, but it is often described as a symptom in various mental health conditions. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) does not have a specific definition for irritable mood. However, the term "irritable" is used to describe a mood state in several psychiatric disorders such as:

1. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD): In MDD, an individual may experience an irritable mood along with other symptoms like depressed mood, loss of interest or pleasure, changes in appetite and sleep, fatigue, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt, difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decisions, and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide.
2. Bipolar Disorder: In bipolar disorder, an individual may experience irritable mood during a manic or hypomanic episode. During these episodes, the person may also have increased energy, decreased need for sleep, racing thoughts, rapid speech, distractibility, and excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have a high potential for painful consequences.
3. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD): This disorder is characterized by severe and recurrent temper outbursts that are grossly out of proportion to the situation and occur at least three times per week, along with an irritable or angry mood most of the time between temper outbursts.
4. Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD): In PMDD, an individual may experience irritability, anger, and increased interpersonal conflicts in addition to other symptoms like depressed mood, anxiety, and physical symptoms during the late luteal phase of their menstrual cycle.

It is essential to consult a mental health professional if you or someone else experiences persistent irritable mood or any other symptoms that may indicate an underlying mental health condition.

Depression is a mood disorder that is characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities. It can also cause significant changes in sleep, appetite, energy level, concentration, and behavior. Depression can interfere with daily life and normal functioning, and it can increase the risk of suicide and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of depression is not known, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. There are several types of depression, including major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder, postpartum depression, and seasonal affective disorder. Treatment for depression typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy.

Psychotic disorders are a group of severe mental health conditions characterized by distorted perceptions, thoughts, and emotions that lead to an inability to recognize reality. The two most common symptoms of psychotic disorders are hallucinations and delusions. Hallucinations are when a person sees, hears, or feels things that aren't there, while delusions are fixed, false beliefs that are not based on reality.

Other symptoms may include disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, catatonic behavior, and negative symptoms such as apathy and lack of emotional expression. Schizophrenia is the most well-known psychotic disorder, but other types include schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder, brief psychotic disorder, shared psychotic disorder, and substance-induced psychotic disorder.

Psychotic disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain chemistry imbalances, trauma, and substance abuse. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and support services to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional health conditions or diseases alongside a primary illness or condition. These co-occurring health issues can have an impact on the treatment plan, prognosis, and overall healthcare management of an individual. Comorbidities often interact with each other and the primary condition, leading to more complex clinical situations and increased healthcare needs. It is essential for healthcare professionals to consider and address comorbidities to provide comprehensive care and improve patient outcomes.

Substance-related disorders, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), refer to a group of conditions caused by the use of substances such as alcohol, drugs, or medicines. These disorders are characterized by a problematic pattern of using a substance that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. They can be divided into two main categories: substance use disorders and substance-induced disorders. Substance use disorders involve a pattern of compulsive use despite negative consequences, while substance-induced disorders include conditions such as intoxication, withdrawal, and substance/medication-induced mental disorders. The specific diagnosis depends on the type of substance involved, the patterns of use, and the presence or absence of physiological dependence.

Anxiety: A feeling of worry, nervousness, or unease, typically about an imminent event or something with an uncertain outcome. In a medical context, anxiety refers to a mental health disorder characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or panic that interfere with daily activities. It can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, or substance abuse disorders. Anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and phobias.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "An attempted suicide is a non-fatal self-directed, potentially injurious behavior with intent to die as a result of the behavior. It's a clear expression of intention to die."

It's important to note that anyone who has attempted suicide requires immediate professional medical attention and support. They should be assessed for their level of suicidal ideation and any underlying mental health conditions, and provided with appropriate care and treatment. If you or someone you know is struggling with thoughts of suicide, please reach out to a healthcare provider or a trusted mental health professional immediately.

Lithium compounds refer to chemical substances that contain the element lithium (Li) combined with one or more other elements. Lithium is an alkali metal with the atomic number 3 and is highly reactive, so it is typically found in nature combined with other elements to form stable compounds.

Lithium compounds have a variety of uses, including in the production of ceramics, glass, and lubricants. However, they are perhaps best known for their use in psychiatric medicine, particularly in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) is the most commonly prescribed lithium compound for this purpose.

Lithium compounds work by affecting the levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, including serotonin and dopamine. They can help to reduce the severity and frequency of manic episodes in people with bipolar disorder, as well as potentially having a mood-stabilizing effect. It is important to note that lithium compounds must be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, as they can have serious side effects if not properly monitored.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with hyperactivity is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects both children and adults. The condition is characterized by symptoms including:

1. Difficulty paying attention or staying focused on a single task
2. Impulsivity, or acting without thinking
3. Hyperactivity, or excessive fidgeting, restlessness, or talking

In order to be diagnosed with ADHD with hyperactivity, an individual must exhibit these symptoms to a degree that is developmentally inappropriate and interferes with their daily functioning. Additionally, the symptoms must have been present for at least six months and be present in multiple settings (e.g., at home, school, work).

It's important to note that ADHD can manifest differently in different people, and some individuals may experience predominantly inattentive or impulsive symptoms rather than hyperactive ones. However, when the hyperactive component is prominent, it is referred to as ADHD with hyperactivity.

Effective treatments for ADHD with hyperactivity include a combination of medication (such as stimulants) and behavioral therapy. With appropriate treatment, individuals with ADHD can learn to manage their symptoms and lead successful, fulfilling lives.

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is not specifically defined in the latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DS-5), which is used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental conditions. However, it is classified as a recurrent major depressive disorder with a seasonal pattern.

According to the DSM-5, a seasonal pattern is defined as: "There has been a regular temporal relationship between the onset of major depressive episodes in major depressive disorder and a particular time of the year (e.g., always starts in fall or winter)." This means that someone with SAD experiences depressive symptoms during specific seasons, most commonly in late fall or winter, but in some cases, also in spring or summer.

The symptoms of SAD may include:

* Feeling depressed most of the day, nearly every day
* Losing interest in activities you once enjoyed
* Having low energy
* Having problems sleeping
* Experiencing changes in appetite or weight
* Feeling sluggish or agitated
* Having difficulty concentrating
* Feeling hopeless, worthless or guilty
* Having thoughts of death or suicide

These symptoms must be more severe than just feeling "blue" or having a bad day. They also must cause significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. Additionally, the symptoms must not be due to substance use or another medical condition.

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by disturbances in thought, perception, emotion, and behavior. It often includes hallucinations (usually hearing voices), delusions, paranoia, and disorganized speech and behavior. The onset of symptoms typically occurs in late adolescence or early adulthood. Schizophrenia is a complex, chronic condition that requires ongoing treatment and management. It significantly impairs social and occupational functioning, and it's often associated with reduced life expectancy due to comorbid medical conditions. The exact causes of schizophrenia are not fully understood, but research suggests that genetic, environmental, and neurodevelopmental factors play a role in its development.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric condition that can occur in people who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event such as a natural disaster, serious accident, war combat, rape, or violent personal assault. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), PTSD is characterized by the following symptoms, which must last for more than one month:

1. Intrusion symptoms: These include distressing memories, nightmares, flashbacks, or intense psychological distress or reactivity to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event.
2. Avoidance symptoms: Persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event, including thoughts, feelings, conversations, activities, places, or people.
3. Negative alterations in cognitions and mood: This includes negative beliefs about oneself, others, or the world; distorted blame of self or others for causing the trauma; persistent negative emotional state; decreased interest in significant activities; and feelings of detachment or estrangement from others.
4. Alterations in arousal and reactivity: This includes irritable behavior and angry outbursts, reckless or self-destructive behavior, hypervigilance, exaggerated startle response, problems with concentration, and sleep disturbance.
5. Duration of symptoms: The symptoms must last for more than one month.
6. Functional significance: The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

It is essential to note that PTSD can occur at any age and can be accompanied by various physical and mental health problems, such as depression, substance abuse, memory problems, and other difficulties in cognition. Appropriate treatment, which may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both, can significantly improve the symptoms and overall quality of life for individuals with PTSD.

A phobic disorder is a type of anxiety disorder characterized by an excessive and irrational fear or avoidance of specific objects, situations, or activities. This fear can cause significant distress and interfere with a person's daily life. Phobic disorders are typically classified into three main categories: specific phobias (such as fear of heights, spiders, or needles), social phobia (or social anxiety disorder), and agoraphobia (fear of open spaces or situations where escape might be difficult).

People with phobic disorders often recognize that their fear is excessive or unreasonable, but they are unable to control it. When exposed to the feared object or situation, they may experience symptoms such as rapid heartbeat, sweating, trembling, and difficulty breathing. These symptoms can be so distressing that individuals with phobic disorders go to great lengths to avoid the feared situation, which can have a significant impact on their quality of life.

Treatment for phobic disorders typically involves cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which helps individuals identify and challenge their irrational thoughts and fears, as well as exposure therapy, which gradually exposes them to the feared object or situation in a safe and controlled environment. In some cases, medication may also be recommended to help manage symptoms of anxiety.

Psychotropic drugs, also known as psychoactive drugs, are a class of medications that affect the function of the central nervous system, leading to changes in consciousness, perception, mood, cognition, or behavior. These drugs work by altering the chemical neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, which are involved in regulating mood, thought, and behavior.

Psychotropic drugs can be classified into several categories based on their primary therapeutic effects, including:

1. Antipsychotic drugs: These medications are used to treat psychosis, schizophrenia, and other related disorders. They work by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps reduce hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking.
2. Antidepressant drugs: These medications are used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, and some chronic pain conditions. They work by increasing the availability of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, or dopamine in the brain, which helps improve mood and reduce anxiety.
3. Mood stabilizers: These medications are used to treat bipolar disorder and other mood disorders. They help regulate the ups and downs of mood swings and can also be used as adjunctive treatment for depression and anxiety.
4. Anxiolytic drugs: Also known as anti-anxiety medications, these drugs are used to treat anxiety disorders, panic attacks, and insomnia. They work by reducing the activity of neurotransmitters such as GABA, which can help reduce anxiety and promote relaxation.
5. Stimulant drugs: These medications are used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. They work by increasing the availability of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, which helps improve focus, concentration, and alertness.

It is important to note that psychotropic drugs can have significant side effects and should only be used under the close supervision of a qualified healthcare provider.

Suicide is defined in the medical field as the intentional taking of one's own life. It is a complex phenomenon with various contributing factors, including psychological, biological, environmental, and sociocultural elements. Suicide is a significant global public health concern that requires comprehensive understanding, prevention, and intervention strategies. If you or someone you know is struggling with thoughts of self-harm or suicide, it's essential to seek help from a mental health professional immediately.

A psychological interview is a clinical assessment tool used by mental health professionals to gather information about a person's cognitive, emotional, and behavioral status. It is a structured or unstructured conversation between the clinician and the client aimed at understanding the client's symptoms, concerns, personal history, current life situation, and any other relevant factors that contribute to their psychological state.

The interview may cover various topics such as the individual's mental health history, family background, social relationships, education, occupation, coping mechanisms, and substance use. The clinician will also assess the person's cognitive abilities, emotional expression, thought processes, and behavior during the interview to help form a diagnosis or treatment plan.

The psychological interview is an essential component of a comprehensive mental health evaluation, as it provides valuable insights into the individual's subjective experiences and helps establish a therapeutic relationship between the clinician and the client. It can be conducted in various settings, including hospitals, clinics, private practices, or community centers.

Dysthymic disorder, also known as persistent depressive disorder, is a chronic type of depression where a person's moods are regularly low. It is characterized by depressed mood that occurs for most of the day, for at least two years, and is accompanied by at least two other symptoms such as appetite or sleep changes, low energy, low self-esteem, difficulty making decisions, or feelings of hopelessness.

To meet the diagnostic criteria, the symptoms cannot be explained by substance abuse or a medical condition, and they must cause significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. Dysthymic disorder typically has a chronic course, but it may respond to treatment, including psychotherapy and medication.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

There is no formal medical definition for "child of impaired parents." However, it generally refers to a child who has at least one parent with physical, mental, or psychological challenges that impact their ability to care for themselves and/or their children. These impairments may include substance abuse disorders, mental illnesses, chronic medical conditions, or developmental disabilities.

Children of impaired parents often face unique challenges and stressors in their lives, which can affect their emotional, social, and cognitive development. They may have to take on additional responsibilities at home, experience neglect or abuse, or witness disturbing behaviors related to their parent's impairment. As a result, these children are at higher risk for developing mental health issues, behavioral problems, and academic difficulties.

Support services and interventions, such as family therapy, counseling, and community resources, can help mitigate the negative effects of growing up with impaired parents and improve outcomes for these children.

Catatonia is a state of neurogenic motor immobility and behavioral abnormality manifested by stupor, mutism, negativism, rigidity, posturing, stereotypy, agitation, or Grimmacing. It can be a symptom associated with various neurological and mental disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, or brain injury. Catatonic symptoms can also occur as a side effect of certain medications.

The diagnosis of catatonia is typically made based on the observation of characteristic clinical symptoms and the exclusion of other potential causes through medical evaluation. Treatment for catatonia may include medication, such as benzodiazepines or electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), depending on the underlying cause and severity of the symptoms.

Cognitive disorders are a category of mental health disorders that primarily affect cognitive abilities including learning, memory, perception, and problem-solving. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as brain injury, degenerative diseases, infection, substance abuse, or developmental disabilities. Examples of cognitive disorders include dementia, amnesia, delirium, and intellectual disability. It's important to note that the specific definition and diagnostic criteria for cognitive disorders may vary depending on the medical source or classification system being used.

Psychological stress is the response of an individual's mind and body to challenging or demanding situations. It can be defined as a state of emotional and physical tension resulting from adversity, demand, or change. This response can involve a variety of symptoms, including emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physiological components.

Emotional responses may include feelings of anxiety, fear, anger, sadness, or frustration. Cognitive responses might involve difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, or negative thinking patterns. Behaviorally, psychological stress can lead to changes in appetite, sleep patterns, social interactions, and substance use. Physiologically, the body's "fight-or-flight" response is activated, leading to increased heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and other symptoms.

Psychological stress can be caused by a wide range of factors, including work or school demands, financial problems, relationship issues, traumatic events, chronic illness, and major life changes. It's important to note that what causes stress in one person may not cause stress in another, as individual perceptions and coping mechanisms play a significant role.

Chronic psychological stress can have negative effects on both mental and physical health, increasing the risk of conditions such as anxiety disorders, depression, heart disease, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, it's essential to identify sources of stress and develop effective coping strategies to manage and reduce its impact.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) is a complex of symptoms that occur in the latter part of the luteal phase (the second half) of the menstrual cycle, typically starting 5-11 days before the onset of menses, and remitting shortly after the onset of menstruation. The symptoms can be physical, psychological, or behavioral and vary from mild to severe. They include but are not limited to: bloating, breast tenderness, cramps, headaches, mood swings, irritability, depression, anxiety, fatigue, changes in appetite, and difficulty concentrating.

The exact cause of PMS is not known, but it appears to be related to hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle, particularly fluctuations in estrogen and progesterone levels. Some women may be more susceptible to these hormonal shifts due to genetic factors, neurotransmitter imbalances, or other health conditions.

Treatment for PMS often involves a combination of lifestyle changes (such as regular exercise, stress management, and dietary modifications), over-the-counter pain relievers, and, in some cases, hormonal medications or antidepressants. It's important to consult with a healthcare provider for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a mental health disorder characterized by the presence of obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are recurrent and persistent thoughts, urges, or images that are intrusive, unwanted, and often distressing. Compulsions are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that an individual feels driven to perform in response to an obsession or according to rigid rules, and which are aimed at preventing or reducing anxiety or distress, or preventing some dreaded event or situation. These obsessions and/or compulsions cause significant distress, take up a lot of time (an hour or more a day), and interfere with the individual's daily life, including social activities, relationships, and work or school performance. OCD is considered a type of anxiety disorder and can also co-occur with other mental health conditions.

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a mental health disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, affect, and mood, as well as marked impulsivity that begins by early adulthood and is present in various contexts.

Individuals with BPD often experience intense and fluctuating emotions, ranging from profound sadness, anxiety, and anger to feelings of happiness or calm. They may have difficulty managing these emotions, leading to impulsive behavior, self-harm, or suicidal ideation.

People with BPD also tend to have an unstable sense of self, which can lead to rapid changes in their goals, values, and career choices. They often struggle with feelings of emptiness and boredom, and may engage in risky behaviors such as substance abuse, reckless driving, or binge eating to alleviate these feelings.

Interpersonal relationships are often strained due to the individual's fear of abandonment, intense emotional reactions, and difficulty regulating their emotions. They may experience idealization and devaluation of others, leading to rapid shifts in how they view and treat people close to them.

Diagnosis of BPD is typically made by a mental health professional using criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is published by the American Psychiatric Association. Treatment for BPD may include psychotherapy, medication, and support groups to help individuals manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Autistic Disorder, also known as Autism or Classic Autism, is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects communication and behavior. It is characterized by:

1. Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, including:
* Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity;
* Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction;
* Deficits in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships.
2. Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities, as manifested by at least two of the following:
* Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech;
* Insistence on sameness, inflexible adherence to routines, or ritualized patterns of verbal or nonverbal behavior;
* Highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus;
* Hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory aspects of the environment.
3. Symptoms must be present in the early developmental period (but may not become fully manifest until social demands exceed limited capacities) and limit or impair everyday functioning.
4. Symptoms do not occur exclusively during the course of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder or other psychotic disorders.

Autistic Disorder is part of the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which also include Asperger's Syndrome and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). The current diagnostic term for this category of conditions, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), is Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a medical treatment most commonly used in cases of severe or treatment-resistant major depression, bipolar disorder, and catatonia. In ECT, a brief electrical current is passed through the brain, intentionally triggering a seizure. The purpose and specific effects of this procedure are not fully understood, but it's believed to cause changes in brain chemistry that can help relieve symptoms of certain mental health conditions.

The treatment is typically administered under general anesthesia and is usually given two to three times a week for a total of six to twelve treatments. While ECT has been associated with certain risks, such as memory loss and confusion, it is generally considered safe when performed by trained medical professionals. It's important to note that ECT should only be used in cases where other treatment options have been exhausted or have proven ineffective.

A Personality Inventory is a standardized test used in psychology to assess an individual's personality traits and characteristics. It typically consists of a series of multiple-choice questions or statements that the respondent must rate according to their level of agreement or disagreement. The inventory measures various aspects of an individual's behavior, attitudes, and temperament, providing a quantifiable score that can be compared to normative data to help diagnose personality disorders, assess personal strengths and weaknesses, or provide insights into an individual's likely responses to different situations. Examples of well-known personality inventories include the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the California Psychological Inventory (CPI).

Antipsychotic agents are a class of medications used to manage and treat psychosis, which includes symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, paranoia, disordered thought processes, and agitated behavior. These drugs work by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is believed to play a role in the development of psychotic symptoms. Antipsychotics can be broadly divided into two categories: first-generation antipsychotics (also known as typical antipsychotics) and second-generation antipsychotics (also known as atypical antipsychotics).

First-generation antipsychotics, such as chlorpromazine, haloperidol, and fluphenazine, were developed in the 1950s and have been widely used for several decades. They are generally effective in reducing positive symptoms of psychosis (such as hallucinations and delusions) but can cause significant side effects, including extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), such as rigidity, tremors, and involuntary movements, as well as weight gain, sedation, and orthostatic hypotension.

Second-generation antipsychotics, such as clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, and aripiprazole, were developed more recently and are considered to have a more favorable side effect profile than first-generation antipsychotics. They are generally effective in reducing both positive and negative symptoms of psychosis (such as apathy, anhedonia, and social withdrawal) and cause fewer EPS. However, they can still cause significant weight gain, metabolic disturbances, and sedation.

Antipsychotic agents are used to treat various psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder with psychotic features, delusional disorder, and other conditions that involve psychosis or agitation. They can be administered orally, intramuscularly, or via long-acting injectable formulations. The choice of antipsychotic agent depends on the individual patient's needs, preferences, and response to treatment, as well as the potential for side effects. Regular monitoring of patients taking antipsychotics is essential to ensure their safety and effectiveness.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Sleep disorders are a group of conditions that affect the ability to sleep well on a regular basis. They can include problems with falling asleep, staying asleep, or waking up too early in the morning. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as stress, anxiety, depression, medical conditions, or substance abuse.

The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) recognizes over 80 distinct sleep disorders, which are categorized into the following major groups:

1. Insomnia - difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep.
2. Sleep-related breathing disorders - abnormal breathing during sleep such as obstructive sleep apnea.
3. Central disorders of hypersomnolence - excessive daytime sleepiness, including narcolepsy.
4. Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders - disruption of the internal body clock that regulates the sleep-wake cycle.
5. Parasomnias - abnormal behaviors during sleep such as sleepwalking or night terrors.
6. Sleep-related movement disorders - repetitive movements during sleep such as restless legs syndrome.
7. Isolated symptoms and normal variants - brief and occasional symptoms that do not warrant a specific diagnosis.

Sleep disorders can have significant impacts on an individual's quality of life, productivity, and overall health. If you suspect that you may have a sleep disorder, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional or a sleep specialist for proper evaluation and treatment.

In the context of medicine and psychology, "temperament" refers to a person's natural disposition or character, which is often thought to be inherited and relatively stable throughout their life. It is the foundation on which personality develops, and it influences how individuals react to their environment, handle emotions, and approach various situations.

Temperament is composed of several traits, including:

1. Activity level: The degree of physical and mental energy a person exhibits.
2. Emotional intensity: The depth or strength of emotional responses.
3. Regularity: The consistency in biological functions like sleep, hunger, and elimination.
4. Approach/withdrawal: The tendency to approach or avoid new situations or people.
5. Adaptability: The ease with which a person adapts to changes in their environment.
6. Mood: The general emotional tone or baseline mood of an individual.
7. Persistence: The ability to maintain focus and effort on a task despite challenges or distractions.
8. Distractibility: The susceptibility to being diverted from a task by external stimuli.
9. Sensitivity: The degree of responsiveness to sensory input, such as touch, taste, sound, and light.
10. Attention span: The length of time a person can concentrate on a single task or activity.

These traits combine to create an individual's unique temperamental profile, which can influence their mental and physical health, social relationships, and overall well-being. Understanding temperament can help healthcare professionals tailor interventions and treatments to meet the specific needs of each patient.

Emotions are complex psychological states that involve three distinct components: a subjective experience, a physiological response, and a behavioral or expressive response. Emotions can be short-lived, such as a flash of anger, or more long-lasting, such as enduring sadness. They can also vary in intensity, from mild irritation to intense joy or fear.

Emotions are often distinguished from other psychological states, such as moods and temperament, which may be less specific and more enduring. Emotions are typically thought to have a clear cause or object, such as feeling happy when you receive good news or feeling anxious before a job interview.

There are many different emotions that people can experience, including happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust, and shame. These emotions are often thought to serve important adaptive functions, helping individuals respond to challenges and opportunities in their environment.

In medical contexts, emotions may be relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of various mental health conditions, such as depression, anxiety disorders, and bipolar disorder. Abnormalities in emotional processing and regulation have been implicated in many psychiatric illnesses, and therapies that target these processes may be effective in treating these conditions.

Lithium carbonate is a medical inorganic salt that is commonly used as a medication, particularly in the treatment of bipolar disorder. It works by stabilizing mood and reducing the severity and frequency of manic episodes. Lithium carbonate is available in immediate-release and extended-release forms, and it is typically taken orally in the form of tablets or capsules.

The medical definition of lithium carbonate is: "A white, crystalline powder used as a mood-stabilizing drug, primarily in the treatment of bipolar disorder. It acts by reducing the availability of sodium and potassium ions within nerve cells, which alters the electrical activity of the brain and helps to regulate mood. Lithium carbonate is also used in the treatment of cluster headaches and to reduce aggression in patients with behavioral disorders."

It's important to note that lithium carbonate requires careful medical supervision due to its narrow therapeutic index, meaning there is a small range between an effective dose and a toxic one. Regular monitoring of blood levels is necessary to ensure safe and effective treatment.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Personality tests are psychological assessments used to measure an individual's personality traits, characteristics, and behaviors. These tests are designed to evaluate various aspects of an individual's personality, such as their temperament, interpersonal style, emotional stability, motivation, values, and preferences. The results of these tests can help healthcare professionals, researchers, and organizations better understand a person's behavior, predict their performance in different settings, and identify potential strengths and weaknesses.

There are several types of personality tests, including self-report measures, projective tests, and objective tests. Self-report measures, such as the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) or the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI), ask individuals to rate themselves on a series of statements or questions about their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Projective tests, like the Rorschach Inkblot Test or the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), present ambiguous stimuli that respondents must interpret, revealing unconscious thoughts, feelings, and motivations. Objective tests, such as the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) or the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF), use a standardized set of questions to assess specific personality traits and characteristics.

It is important to note that while personality tests can provide valuable insights into an individual's behavior, they should not be used as the sole basis for making important decisions about a person's life, such as employment or mental health treatment. Instead, these tests should be considered one piece of a comprehensive assessment that includes other sources of information, such as interviews, observations, and collateral reports.

Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are a group of conditions that affect the development and functioning of the brain, leading to delays in many areas of development. The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) has replaced the term "pervasive developmental disorders" with "autism spectrum disorder" and "other neurodevelopmental disorders."

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction across multiple contexts, as well as restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. The symptoms of ASD can range from mild to severe, and the condition affects approximately 1 in 54 children in the United States.

Other neurodevelopmental disorders that were previously classified as PDDs include:

1. Intellectual disability (ID): a condition characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disorder used to be referred to as "mental retardation."
2. Communication disorders: these are disorders that affect an individual's ability to communicate, including language disorders, speech sound disorders, and stuttering.
3. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
4. Specific learning disorder: a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to learn and use specific academic skills, such as reading, writing, or mathematics.
5. Motor disorders: these are disorders that affect an individual's movement and coordination, including developmental coordination disorder, stereotypic movement disorder, and tic disorders.

The medical definition of 'Child Development Disorders, Pervasive' has been replaced with more specific diagnoses in the DSM-5 to better reflect the diverse nature of these conditions and improve diagnostic accuracy and treatment planning.

In the context of medicine and psychology, personality is a complex concept that refers to the unique patterns of thoughts, behaviors, and emotions that define an individual and differentiate them from others. It is the set of characteristics that influence how we perceive the world, how we relate to other people, and how we cope with stress and challenges.

Personality is thought to be relatively stable over time, although it can also evolve and change in response to life experiences and maturation. It is shaped by a combination of genetic factors, environmental influences, and developmental experiences.

There are many different theories and models of personality, including the Five Factor Model (FFM), which identifies five broad domains of personality: openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Other approaches to understanding personality include psychoanalytic theory, humanistic psychology, and trait theory.

It's important to note that while the term "personality" is often used in everyday language to describe someone's behavior or demeanor, in medical and psychological contexts it refers to a more complex and multifaceted construct.

Psychometrics is a branch of psychology that deals with the theory and technique of psychological measurement, such as the development and standardization of tests used to measure intelligence, aptitude, personality, attitudes, and other mental abilities or traits. It involves the construction and validation of measurement instruments, including the determination of their reliability and validity, and the application of statistical methods to analyze test data and interpret results. The ultimate goal of psychometrics is to provide accurate, objective, and meaningful measurements that can be used to understand individual differences and make informed decisions in educational, clinical, and organizational settings.

Psychopharmacology is a branch of psychopharmacology that deals with the study of the effects of drugs on mood, thinking, and behavior. It involves researching how various substances interact with the brain and nervous system to produce changes in perception, cognition, consciousness, and emotion. This field also includes the development and testing of medications used to treat mental disorders, as well as the study of the potential misuse and abuse of drugs. Psychopharmacologists may work in academia, research institutions, or the pharmaceutical industry, and they often collaborate with other healthcare professionals, such as psychiatrists and neurologists, to develop and implement treatment plans for patients.

Adolescent Psychiatry is a branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders in adolescents, which are individuals typically ranging in age from 13 to 18 years old. This field requires specialized knowledge, training, and expertise in the unique developmental, emotional, and behavioral challenges that adolescents face. Adolescent psychiatrists provide comprehensive assessments, including medical and psychological evaluations, and develop individualized treatment plans that may involve psychotherapy, medication management, and/or coordination with other healthcare professionals and community resources. They also work closely with families to help them understand their adolescent's mental health needs and support their recovery process.

Serotonin plasma membrane transport proteins, also known as serotonin transporters (SERTs), are membrane-spanning proteins that play a crucial role in the regulation of serotonergic neurotransmission. They are responsible for the reuptake of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) from the synaptic cleft back into the presynaptic neuron, thereby terminating the signal transmission and allowing for its recycling or degradation.

Structurally, SERTs belong to the family of sodium- and chloride-dependent neurotransmitter transporters and contain 12 transmembrane domains with intracellular N- and C-termini. The binding site for serotonin is located within the transmembrane domain, while the substrate-binding site is formed by residues from both the transmembrane and extracellular loops.

Serotonin transporters are important targets for various psychotropic medications, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). These drugs act by blocking the SERT, increasing synaptic concentrations of serotonin, and enhancing serotonergic neurotransmission. Dysregulation of serotonin transporters has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and substance abuse.

Postpartum depression is a type of depressive disorder that occurs in a woman after giving birth (the postpartum period). The symptoms are similar to those of other forms of depression, such as low mood, loss of interest or pleasure in activities, changes in appetite and sleep patterns, feelings of guilt or worthlessness, difficulty thinking, concentrating or making decisions, and thoughts of death or suicide. However, in postpartum depression, these symptoms are more severe and last longer than those typically experienced after childbirth. Postpartum depression can make it difficult for a woman to care for herself or her baby and can affect the bonding between mother and child. It is important to seek medical help if you think you may be experiencing postpartum depression. Treatment may include counseling, medication, or a combination of both.

A delusion is a fixed, false belief that is firmly held despite evidence to the contrary and is not shared by others who hold similar cultural or religious beliefs. Delusions are a key symptom of certain psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and delusional disorder. They can also be seen in other medical conditions, such as dementia, brain injury, or substance abuse.

Delusions can take many forms, but some common types include:

* Persecutory delusions: the belief that one is being targeted or harmed by others
* Grandiose delusions: the belief that one has special powers, talents, or importance
* Erotomanic delusions: the belief that someone, often of higher social status, is in love with the individual
* Somatic delusions: the belief that one's body is abnormal or has been altered in some way
* Religious or spiritual delusions: the belief that one has a special relationship with a deity or religious figure

Delusions should not be confused with overvalued ideas, which are strongly held beliefs based on subjective interpretation of experiences or evidence. Overvalued ideas may be shared by others and can sometimes develop into delusions if they become fixed and firmly held despite contradictory evidence.

Neuropsychological tests are a type of psychological assessment that measures cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and perception. These tests are used to help diagnose and understand the cognitive impact of neurological conditions, including dementia, traumatic brain injury, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and other disorders that affect the brain.

The tests are typically administered by a trained neuropsychologist and can take several hours to complete. They may involve paper-and-pencil tasks, computerized tasks, or interactive activities. The results of the tests are compared to normative data to help identify any areas of cognitive weakness or strength.

Neuropsychological testing can provide valuable information for treatment planning, rehabilitation, and assessing response to treatment. It can also be used in research to better understand the neural basis of cognition and the impact of neurological conditions on cognitive function.

A serotonin receptor, specifically the 5-HT1A subtype, is a type of G protein-coupled receptor found in the central and peripheral nervous systems. These receptors are activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) and play important roles in regulating various physiological processes, including neurotransmission, neuronal excitability, and neuroendocrine function.

The 5-HT1A receptor is widely distributed throughout the brain and spinal cord, where it is involved in modulating mood, anxiety, cognition, memory, and pain perception. Activation of this receptor can have both inhibitory and excitatory effects on neuronal activity, depending on the location and type of neuron involved.

In addition to its role in normal physiology, the 5-HT1A receptor has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, and drug addiction. As a result, drugs that target this receptor have been developed for the treatment of these conditions. These drugs include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which increase the availability of serotonin in the synaptic cleft and enhance 5-HT1A receptor activation, as well as direct agonists of the 5-HT1A receptor, such as buspirone, which is used to treat anxiety disorders.

The "age of onset" is a medical term that refers to the age at which an individual first develops or displays symptoms of a particular disease, disorder, or condition. It can be used to describe various medical conditions, including both physical and mental health disorders. The age of onset can have implications for prognosis, treatment approaches, and potential causes of the condition. In some cases, early onset may indicate a more severe or progressive course of the disease, while late-onset symptoms might be associated with different underlying factors or etiologies. It is essential to provide accurate and precise information regarding the age of onset when discussing a patient's medical history and treatment plan.

The limbic system is a complex set of structures in the brain that includes the hippocampus, amygdala, fornix, cingulate gyrus, and other nearby areas. It's associated with emotional responses, instinctual behaviors, motivation, long-term memory formation, and olfaction (smell). The limbic system is also involved in the modulation of visceral functions and drives, such as hunger, thirst, and sexual drive.

The structures within the limbic system communicate with each other and with other parts of the brain, particularly the hypothalamus and the cortex, to regulate various physiological and psychological processes. Dysfunctions in the limbic system can lead to a range of neurological and psychiatric conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and certain types of memory impairment.

A checklist is a type of tool used in various fields, including medicine, to ensure that all necessary steps or items are accounted for and completed in a systematic and standardized manner. It typically consists of a list of tasks or items that need to be checked off as they are finished. In a medical context, checklists can be used in a variety of settings such as surgery, patient care, and research to improve safety, reduce errors, and enhance the quality of care. They help to standardize processes, promote communication, and ensure that important steps are not overlooked.

Lithium is not a medical term per se, but it is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3. In the field of medicine, lithium is most commonly referred to as a medication, specifically as "lithium carbonate" or "lithium citrate," which are used primarily to treat bipolar disorder. These medications work by stabilizing mood and reducing the severity and frequency of manic episodes.

Lithium is a naturally occurring substance, and it is an alkali metal. In its elemental form, lithium is highly reactive and flammable. However, when combined with carbonate or citrate ions to form lithium salts, it becomes more stable and safe for medical use.

It's important to note that lithium levels in the body must be closely monitored while taking this medication because too much lithium can lead to toxicity, causing symptoms such as tremors, nausea, diarrhea, and in severe cases, seizures, coma, or even death. Regular blood tests are necessary to ensure that lithium levels remain within the therapeutic range.

Conduct Disorder is a mental health disorder that typically begins in childhood or adolescence and is characterized by a repetitive pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules. The behaviors fall into four main categories: aggression to people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violation of rules.

The specific symptoms of Conduct Disorder can vary widely among individuals, but they generally include:

1. Aggression to people and animals: This may include physical fights, bullying, threatening others, cruelty to animals, and use of weapons.
2. Destruction of property: This may include deliberate destruction of others' property, arson, and vandalism.
3. Deceitfulness or theft: This may include lying, shoplifting, stealing, and breaking into homes, buildings, or cars.
4. Serious violation of rules: This may include running away from home, truancy, staying out late without permission, and frequent violations of school rules.

Conduct Disorder can have serious consequences for individuals who suffer from it, including academic failure, substance abuse, depression, anxiety, and difficulties in interpersonal relationships. It is important to note that Conduct Disorder should be diagnosed by a qualified mental health professional based on a comprehensive evaluation.

Psychotherapy is a type of treatment used primarily to treat mental health disorders and other emotional or behavioral issues. It involves a therapeutic relationship between a trained psychotherapist and a patient, where they work together to understand the patient's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, identify patterns that may be causing distress, and develop strategies to manage symptoms and improve overall well-being.

There are many different approaches to psychotherapy, including cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), psychodynamic therapy, interpersonal therapy, and others. The specific approach used will depend on the individual patient's needs and preferences, as well as the training and expertise of the therapist.

Psychotherapy can be conducted in individual, group, or family sessions, and may be provided in a variety of settings, such as hospitals, clinics, private practices, or online platforms. The goal of psychotherapy is to help patients understand themselves better, develop coping skills, improve their relationships, and enhance their overall quality of life.

"Postmortem changes," also known as "autolysis" or "decomposition," refer to the natural biological processes that occur in a deceased body after death. These changes include various chemical, physical, and biological alterations such as livor mortis (pooling of blood), algor mortis (drop in body temperature), rigor mortis (stiffening of muscles), putrefaction (breakdown by microorganisms), and decomposition by insects and other animals. These changes help forensic experts estimate the time since death, known as the postmortem interval.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Alcoholism is a chronic and often relapsing brain disorder characterized by the excessive and compulsive consumption of alcohol despite negative consequences to one's health, relationships, and daily life. It is also commonly referred to as alcohol use disorder (AUD) or alcohol dependence.

The diagnostic criteria for AUD include a pattern of alcohol use that includes problems controlling intake, continued use despite problems resulting from drinking, development of a tolerance, drinking that leads to risky behaviors or situations, and withdrawal symptoms when not drinking.

Alcoholism can cause a wide range of physical and psychological health problems, including liver disease, heart disease, neurological damage, mental health disorders, and increased risk of accidents and injuries. Treatment for alcoholism typically involves a combination of behavioral therapies, medications, and support groups to help individuals achieve and maintain sobriety.

The pituitary-adrenal system, also known as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, is a complex set of interactions between the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the adrenal glands. This system plays a crucial role in the body's response to stress through the release of hormones that regulate various physiological processes.

The hypothalamus, located within the brain, receives information from the nervous system about the internal and external environment and responds by releasing corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin. These hormones then travel to the anterior pituitary gland, where they stimulate the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).

ACTH is transported through the bloodstream to the adrenal glands, which are located on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands consist of two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. ACTH specifically targets the adrenal cortex, causing it to release cortisol and other glucocorticoids, as well as androgens such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).

Cortisol has numerous effects on metabolism, immune function, and cardiovascular regulation. It helps regulate blood sugar levels, suppresses the immune system, and aids in the breakdown of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates to provide energy during stressful situations. DHEA can be converted into male and female sex hormones (androgens and estrogens) in various tissues throughout the body.

The pituitary-adrenal system is tightly regulated through negative feedback mechanisms. High levels of cortisol, for example, inhibit the release of CRH and ACTH from the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, respectively, thereby limiting further cortisol production. Dysregulation of this system has been implicated in several medical conditions, including Cushing's syndrome (overproduction of cortisol) and Addison's disease (underproduction of cortisol).

Genetic predisposition to disease refers to an increased susceptibility or vulnerability to develop a particular illness or condition due to inheriting specific genetic variations or mutations from one's parents. These genetic factors can make it more likely for an individual to develop a certain disease, but it does not guarantee that the person will definitely get the disease. Environmental factors, lifestyle choices, and interactions between genes also play crucial roles in determining if a genetically predisposed person will actually develop the disease. It is essential to understand that having a genetic predisposition only implies a higher risk, not an inevitable outcome.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

The Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal system, also known as the hypothalamic-pituitary system, is a crucial part of the endocrine system that regulates many bodily functions. It consists of two main components: the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.

The hypothalamus is a region in the brain that receives information from various parts of the body and integrates them to regulate vital functions such as body temperature, hunger, thirst, sleep, and emotional behavior. It also produces and releases neurohormones that control the secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland.

The pituitary gland is a small gland located at the base of the brain, just below the hypothalamus. It consists of two parts: the anterior pituitary (also called adenohypophysis) and the posterior pituitary (also called neurohypophysis). The anterior pituitary produces and releases several hormones that regulate various bodily functions such as growth, metabolism, reproduction, and stress response. The posterior pituitary stores and releases hormones produced by the hypothalamus, including antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin.

The hypothalamo-hypophyseal system works together to maintain homeostasis in the body by regulating various physiological processes through hormonal signaling. Dysfunction of this system can lead to several endocrine disorders, such as diabetes insipidus, pituitary tumors, and hypothalamic-pituitary axis disorders.

The gyrus cinguli, also known as the cingulate gyrus, is a structure located in the brain. It forms part of the limbic system and plays a role in various functions such as emotion, memory, and perception of pain. The gyrus cinguli is situated in the medial aspect of the cerebral hemisphere, adjacent to the corpus callosum, and curves around the frontal portion of the corpus callosum, forming a C-shaped structure. It has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, and chronic pain syndromes.

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

Affective symptoms refer to emotional or mood-related disturbances that can occur in various medical and psychological conditions. These symptoms may include:

1. Depression: feelings of sadness, hopelessness, loss of interest or pleasure in activities, changes in appetite and sleep patterns, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, and thoughts of death or suicide.
2. Anxiety: excessive worry, fear, or nervousness, often accompanied by physical symptoms such as a rapid heartbeat, sweating, and trembling.
3. Irritability: easily annoyed or agitated, often leading to outbursts of anger or frustration.
4. Mania or hypomania: abnormally elevated mood, increased energy, decreased need for sleep, racing thoughts, and impulsive or risky behavior.
5. Apathy: lack of interest, motivation, or emotion, often leading to social withdrawal and decreased activity levels.
6. Mood lability: rapid and unpredictable shifts in mood, ranging from extreme happiness to sadness, anger, or anxiety.

Affective symptoms can significantly impact a person's quality of life and ability to function in daily activities. They may be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain chemistry imbalances, stress, trauma, and medical conditions. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing affective symptoms and improving overall well-being.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

Chronobiology disorders are a group of conditions that involve disruptions in the body's internal biological clock, which regulates various physiological processes such as sleep-wake cycles, hormone release, and metabolism. These disorders can result in a variety of symptoms, including difficulty sleeping, changes in mood and energy levels, and problems with cognitive function.

Some common examples of chronobiology disorders include:

1. Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome (DSPS): This condition is characterized by a persistent delay in the timing of sleep, so that an individual's preferred bedtime is significantly later than what is considered normal. As a result, they may have difficulty falling asleep and waking up at socially acceptable times.
2. Advanced Sleep Phase Syndrome (ASPS): In this condition, individuals experience an earlier-than-normal timing of sleep, so that they become sleepy and wake up several hours earlier than most people.
3. Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Rhythm Disorder: This disorder is characterized by a persistent mismatch between the individual's internal biological clock and the 24-hour day, resulting in irregular sleep-wake patterns that can vary from day to day.
4. Irregular Sleep-Wake Rhythm Disorder: In this condition, individuals experience a lack of consistent sleep-wake patterns, with multiple periods of sleep and wakefulness throughout the 24-hour day.
5. Shift Work Sleep Disorder: This disorder is caused by the disruption of normal sleep-wake patterns due to working irregular hours, such as night shifts or rotating schedules.
6. Jet Lag Disorder: This condition occurs when an individual travels across time zones and experiences a temporary mismatch between their internal biological clock and the new local time.

Treatment for chronobiology disorders may include lifestyle changes, such as adjusting sleep schedules and exposure to light, as well as medications that can help regulate sleep-wake cycles. In some cases, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) may also be helpful in managing these conditions.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Tic disorders are a group of conditions characterized by the presence of repetitive, involuntary movements or sounds, known as tics. These movements or sounds can vary in complexity and severity, and they may be worsened by stress or strong emotions.

There are several different types of tic disorders, including:

1. Tourette's disorder: This is a neurological condition characterized by the presence of both motor (movement-related) and vocal tics that have been present for at least one year. The tics may wax and wane in severity over time, but they do not disappear for more than three consecutive months.
2. Persistent (chronic) motor or vocal tic disorder: This type of tic disorder is characterized by the presence of either motor or vocal tics (but not both), which have been present for at least one year. The tics may wax and wane in severity over time, but they do not disappear for more than three consecutive months.
3. Provisional tic disorder: This type of tic disorder is characterized by the presence of motor or vocal tics (or both) that have been present for less than one year. The tics may wax and wane in severity over time, but they do not disappear for more than three consecutive months.
4. Tic disorder not otherwise specified: This category is used to describe tic disorders that do not meet the criteria for any of the other types of tic disorders.

Tic disorders are thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, and they often co-occur with other conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Treatment for tic disorders may include behavioral therapy, medication, or a combination of both.

Riluzole is a prescription medication that is primarily used in the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig's disease. It is a benzothiazole derivative that acts as a glutamate antagonist, reducing the release of the neurotransmitter glutamate in the brain and spinal cord.

Glutamate is an important excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, but excessive levels of glutamate can lead to neuronal damage and death, which is believed to contribute to the progression of ALS. By reducing glutamate levels, Riluzole may help slow down the degeneration of motor neurons and prolong survival in people with ALS.

Riluzole is available as a tablet or liquid formulation and is typically taken twice daily. Common side effects include dizziness, gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea and vomiting, and liver enzyme elevations. Riluzole should be used with caution in patients with liver impairment and should not be used in those with a history of hypersensitivity to the drug or its components.

Serotonin uptake inhibitors (also known as Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors or SSRIs) are a class of medications primarily used to treat depression and anxiety disorders. They work by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps regulate mood, appetite, and sleep, among other functions.

SSRIs block the reuptake of serotonin into the presynaptic neuron, allowing more serotonin to be available in the synapse (the space between two neurons) for binding to postsynaptic receptors. This results in increased serotonergic neurotransmission and improved mood regulation.

Examples of SSRIs include fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), paroxetine (Paxil), citalopram (Celexa), and escitalopram (Lexapro). These medications are generally well-tolerated, with side effects that may include nausea, headache, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, and increased anxiety or agitation. However, they can have serious interactions with other medications, so it is important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting an SSRI.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring, processing, and utilizing information. These processes include perception, attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and decision-making. Cognitive functions allow us to interact with our environment, understand and respond to stimuli, learn new skills, and remember experiences.

In a medical context, cognitive function is often assessed as part of a neurological or psychiatric evaluation. Impairments in cognition can be caused by various factors, such as brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), infections, toxins, and mental health conditions. Assessing cognitive function helps healthcare professionals diagnose conditions, monitor disease progression, and develop treatment plans.

Paternal deprivation is not a formal medical diagnosis, but it is a term used in psychology and psychiatry to describe the emotional and psychological impact on a child who has been separated from their father or lacks a positive, involved father figure. This can occur due to various reasons such as death, divorce, incarceration, abandonment, or neglect.

The consequences of paternal deprivation may include:

1. Emotional and behavioral problems: Children who experience paternal deprivation are at risk for developing emotional issues like anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem. They might also exhibit behavioral problems such as aggression, delinquency, and difficulty forming healthy relationships.
2. Attachment difficulties: Secure attachment to a father figure is essential for a child's social and emotional development. Paternal deprivation can lead to insecure attachment styles, which may negatively affect the child's ability to form healthy relationships throughout their life.
3. Cognitive and academic performance: Children who experience paternal deprivation might struggle academically due to cognitive delays or difficulties concentrating on tasks. They are also more likely to have lower educational attainment compared to children with involved fathers.
4. Social development: Paternal deprivation can impact a child's social skills and peer relationships, making them more susceptible to social isolation and loneliness.
5. Vulnerability to mental health issues: Children who experience paternal deprivation are at increased risk for developing mental health disorders later in life, including mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and personality disorders.

It is important to note that the impact of paternal deprivation can vary depending on factors such as the child's age, gender, resilience, and the quality of alternative caregiving relationships. Interventions like therapy, support groups, and family counseling can help mitigate some of the negative effects of paternal deprivation.

The prefrontal cortex is the anterior (frontal) part of the frontal lobe in the brain, involved in higher-order cognitive processes such as planning complex cognitive behavior, personality expression, decision making, and moderating social behavior. It also plays a significant role in working memory and executive functions. The prefrontal cortex is divided into several subregions, each associated with specific cognitive and emotional functions. Damage to the prefrontal cortex can result in various impairments, including difficulties with planning, decision making, and social behavior regulation.

A serotonin receptor, specifically the 5-HT2A subtype (5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor), is a type of G protein-coupled receptor found in the cell membrane. It is activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin and plays a role in regulating various physiological processes, including mood, cognition, sleep, and sensory perception.

The 5-HT2A receptor is widely distributed throughout the central nervous system and has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and migraine. It is also the primary target of several psychoactive drugs, including hallucinogens like LSD and psilocybin, as well as atypical antipsychotics used to treat conditions like schizophrenia.

The 5-HT2A receptor signals through a G protein called Gq, which activates a signaling cascade that ultimately leads to the activation of phospholipase C and the production of second messengers such as inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). These second messengers then go on to modulate various cellular processes, including the release of neurotransmitters and the regulation of gene expression.

Health surveys are research studies that collect data from a sample population to describe the current health status, health behaviors, and healthcare utilization of a particular group or community. These surveys may include questions about various aspects of health such as physical health, mental health, chronic conditions, lifestyle habits, access to healthcare services, and demographic information. The data collected from health surveys can be used to monitor trends in health over time, identify disparities in health outcomes, develop and evaluate public health programs and policies, and inform resource allocation decisions. Examples of national health surveys include the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS).

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a type of protein called a neurotrophin, which is involved in the growth and maintenance of neurons (nerve cells) in the brain. BDNFA is encoded by the BDNF gene and is widely expressed throughout the central nervous system. It plays an essential role in supporting the survival of existing neurons, encouraging the growth and differentiation of new neurons and synapses, and contributing to neuroplasticity - the ability of the brain to change and adapt as a result of experience. Low levels of BDNF have been associated with several neurological disorders, including depression, Alzheimer's disease, and Huntington's disease.

Serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is a monoamine neurotransmitter that is found primarily in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, blood platelets, and the central nervous system (CNS) of humans and other animals. It is produced by the conversion of the amino acid tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), and then to serotonin.

In the CNS, serotonin plays a role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, memory, learning, and behavior, among other functions. It also acts as a vasoconstrictor, helping to regulate blood flow and blood pressure. In the GI tract, it is involved in peristalsis, the contraction and relaxation of muscles that moves food through the digestive system.

Serotonin is synthesized and stored in serotonergic neurons, which are nerve cells that use serotonin as their primary neurotransmitter. These neurons are found throughout the brain and spinal cord, and they communicate with other neurons by releasing serotonin into the synapse, the small gap between two neurons.

Abnormal levels of serotonin have been linked to a variety of disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and migraines. Medications that affect serotonin levels, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are commonly used to treat these conditions.

Somatoform disorders are a group of psychological disorders characterized by the presence of physical symptoms that cannot be fully explained by a medical condition or substance abuse. These symptoms cause significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. The individual's belief about the symptoms is not consistent with the medical evaluation and often leads to excessive or repeated medical evaluations.

Examples of somatoform disorders include:

1. Somatization disorder: characterized by multiple physical symptoms that cannot be explained medically, affecting several parts of the body.
2. Conversion disorder: characterized by the presence of one or more neurological symptoms (such as blindness, paralysis, or difficulty swallowing) that cannot be explained medically and appear to have a psychological origin.
3. Pain disorder: characterized by chronic pain that is not fully explained by a medical condition.
4. Hypochondriasis: characterized by an excessive preoccupation with having a serious illness, despite reassurance from medical professionals.
5. Body dysmorphic disorder: characterized by the obsessive idea that some aspect of one's own body part or appearance is severely flawed and warrants exceptional measures to hide or fix it.

It's important to note that these disorders are not caused by intentional deceit or malingering, but rather reflect a genuine belief in the presence of physical symptoms and distress related to them.

A personality assessment is a systematic process used by healthcare professionals to evaluate and understand an individual's characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior. It typically involves the use of standardized measures, such as self-report questionnaires, interviews, and observational techniques, to gather information about an individual's personality traits, attitudes, values, and behaviors.

The goal of a personality assessment is to provide a comprehensive and integrated understanding of an individual's unique personality style, including their strengths, weaknesses, and potential vulnerabilities. This information can be useful in a variety of contexts, including clinical treatment planning, vocational counseling, and forensic evaluation.

It is important to note that personality assessments should always be conducted by qualified professionals with appropriate training and expertise in the use of these measures. Additionally, while personality assessments can provide valuable insights into an individual's personality style, they are not infallible and should always be considered alongside other sources of information when making important decisions about treatment or management.

Impulsive behavior can be defined medically as actions performed without proper thought or consideration of the consequences, driven by immediate needs, desires, or urges. It often involves risky or inappropriate behaviors that may lead to negative outcomes. In a clinical context, impulsivity is frequently associated with certain mental health conditions such as ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, and some neurological conditions. It's important to note that everyone can exhibit impulsive behavior at times, but when it becomes a persistent pattern causing distress or functional impairment, it may indicate an underlying condition requiring professional assessment and treatment.

Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medication that is primarily used to treat major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, bulimia nervosa, panic disorder, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. It works by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps maintain mental balance.

Fluoxetine is available under the brand name Prozac and is also available as a generic medication. It comes in various forms, including capsules, tablets, delayed-release capsules, and liquid solution. The typical starting dose for adults with depression is 20 mg per day, but the dosage may be adjusted based on individual patient needs and response to treatment.

Fluoxetine has a relatively long half-life, which means it stays in the body for an extended period of time. This can be beneficial for patients who may have difficulty remembering to take their medication daily, as they may only need to take it once or twice a week. However, it also means that it may take several weeks for the full effects of the medication to become apparent.

As with any medication, fluoxetine can cause side effects, including nausea, dry mouth, sleepiness, insomnia, dizziness, and headache. In some cases, it may also increase the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults, particularly during the initial stages of treatment. It is important for patients to discuss any concerns about side effects with their healthcare provider.

I must clarify that there is no such thing as "Schizophrenic Psychology." The term schizophrenia is used to describe a specific and serious mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. It's important not to use the term casually or inaccurately, as it can perpetuate stigma and misunderstanding about the condition.

Schizophrenia is characterized by symptoms such as hallucinations (hearing or seeing things that aren't there), delusions (false beliefs that are not based on reality), disorganized speech, and grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior. These symptoms can impair a person's ability to function in daily life, maintain relationships, and experience emotions appropriately.

If you have any questions related to mental health conditions or psychology, I would be happy to provide accurate information and definitions.

Life change events refer to significant changes or transitions in an individual's personal circumstances that may have an impact on their health and well-being. These events can include things like:

* Marriage or divorce
* Birth of a child or loss of a loved one
* Job loss or retirement
* Moving to a new home or city
* Changes in financial status
* Health diagnoses or serious illnesses
* Starting or ending of a significant relationship

Research has shown that life change events can have a profound effect on an individual's stress levels, mental health, and physical health. Some life change events may be positive and exciting, while others may be challenging and difficult to cope with. In either case, it is important for individuals to take care of themselves during times of transition and seek support as needed.

The amygdala is an almond-shaped group of nuclei located deep within the temporal lobe of the brain, specifically in the anterior portion of the temporal lobes and near the hippocampus. It forms a key component of the limbic system and plays a crucial role in processing emotions, particularly fear and anxiety. The amygdala is involved in the integration of sensory information with emotional responses, memory formation, and decision-making processes.

In response to emotionally charged stimuli, the amygdala can modulate various physiological functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, and stress hormone release, via its connections to the hypothalamus and brainstem. Additionally, it contributes to social behaviors, including recognizing emotional facial expressions and responding appropriately to social cues. Dysfunctions in amygdala function have been implicated in several psychiatric and neurological conditions, such as anxiety disorders, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Psychological tests are standardized procedures or measures used to assess various aspects of an individual's cognitive functioning, personality traits, emotional status, and behavior. These tests are designed to be reliable and valid tools for evaluating specific psychological constructs such as intelligence, memory, attention, achievement, aptitude, interests, and values. They can be in the form of questionnaires, interviews, observational scales, or performance-based tasks. The results obtained from these tests help mental health professionals make informed decisions about diagnosis, treatment planning, and educational or vocational guidance for their clients. It is important to note that psychological tests should only be administered, scored, and interpreted by trained and qualified professionals to ensure accurate and meaningful results.

A psychiatric hospital is a type of medical facility that specializes in the treatment and care of patients with mental illnesses or disorders. These hospitals provide inpatient and outpatient services, including evaluation, diagnosis, and therapy for various psychiatric conditions such as depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, and substance use disorders.

Psychiatric hospitals typically have a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, nurses, and occupational therapists, who work together to provide comprehensive care for patients. The treatment modalities used in psychiatric hospitals may include medication management, individual and group therapy, psychoeducation, and milieu therapy.

Psychiatric hospitals may also offer specialized programs for specific populations, such as children and adolescents, older adults, or individuals with co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders. The goal of psychiatric hospitals is to stabilize patients' symptoms, improve their functioning, and help them develop the skills necessary to manage their mental health condition in the community.

Cognitive Therapy (CT) is a type of psychotherapeutic treatment that helps patients understand the thoughts and feelings that influence behaviors. It is a form of talk therapy where the therapist and the patient work together to identify and change negative or distorted thinking patterns and beliefs, with the goal of improving emotional response and behavior.

Cognitive Therapy is based on the idea that our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are all interconnected, and that negative or inaccurate thoughts can contribute to problems like anxiety and depression. By identifying and challenging these thoughts, patients can learn to think more realistically and positively, which can lead to improvements in their mood and behavior.

In cognitive therapy sessions, the therapist will help the patient identify negative thought patterns and replace them with healthier, more accurate ways of thinking. The therapist may also assign homework or exercises for the patient to practice between sessions, such as keeping a thought record or challenging negative thoughts.

Cognitive Therapy has been shown to be effective in treating a wide range of mental health conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is often used in combination with other forms of treatment, such as medication, and can be delivered individually or in group settings.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Dibenzothiazepines are a class of heterocyclic chemical compounds that contain a dibenzothiazepine ring structure. This structure is composed of a benzene ring fused to a thiazepine ring, which is itself formed by the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring (a seven-membered ring containing two nitrogen atoms).

In the medical field, dibenzothiazepines are known for their pharmacological properties and have been used in the development of various drugs. Some dibenzothiazepine derivatives exhibit antipsychotic, anxiolytic, and anticonvulsant activities. However, due to their potential for adverse effects and the availability of safer alternatives, they are not widely used in clinical practice today.

It is important to note that specific dibenzothiazepine compounds may have unique properties and uses beyond their general classification as a chemical class. Always consult medical literature or healthcare professionals for accurate information on specific drugs or compounds.

The Chi-square distribution is a continuous probability distribution that is often used in statistical hypothesis testing. It is the distribution of a sum of squares of k independent standard normal random variables. The resulting quantity follows a chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom, denoted as χ²(k).

The probability density function (pdf) of the Chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom is given by:

f(x; k) = (1/ (2^(k/2) * Γ(k/2))) \* x^((k/2)-1) \* e^(-x/2), for x > 0 and 0, otherwise.

Where Γ(k/2) is the gamma function evaluated at k/2. The mean and variance of a Chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom are k and 2k, respectively.

The Chi-square distribution has various applications in statistical inference, including testing goodness-of-fit, homogeneity of variances, and independence in contingency tables.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Valproic acid is a medication that is primarily used as an anticonvulsant, which means it is used to treat seizure disorders. It works by increasing the amount of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, a neurotransmitter that helps to reduce abnormal electrical activity in the brain. In addition to its use as an anticonvulsant, valproic acid may also be used to treat migraines and bipolar disorder. It is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid solutions, and is usually taken by mouth. As with any medication, valproic acid can have side effects, and it is important for patients to be aware of these and to discuss them with their healthcare provider.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Psychological adaptation refers to the process by which individuals adjust and cope with stressors, challenges, or changes in their environment or circumstances. It involves modifying thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and copabilities to reduce the negative impact of these stressors and promote well-being. Psychological adaptation can occur at different levels, including intrapersonal (within the individual), interpersonal (between individuals), and cultural (within a group or society).

Examples of psychological adaptation include:

* Cognitive restructuring: changing negative thoughts and beliefs to more positive or adaptive ones
* Emotion regulation: managing and reducing intense or distressing emotions
* Problem-solving: finding solutions to practical challenges or obstacles
* Seeking social support: reaching out to others for help, advice, or comfort
* Developing coping strategies: using effective ways to deal with stressors or difficulties
* Cultivating resilience: bouncing back from adversity and learning from negative experiences.

Psychological adaptation is an important aspect of mental health and well-being, as it helps individuals adapt to new situations, overcome challenges, and maintain a sense of control and optimism in the face of stressors or changes.

Social behavior, in the context of medicine and psychology, refers to the ways in which individuals interact and engage with others within their social environment. It involves various actions, communications, and responses that are influenced by cultural norms, personal values, emotional states, and cognitive processes. These behaviors can include but are not limited to communication, cooperation, competition, empathy, altruism, aggression, and conformity.

Abnormalities in social behavior may indicate underlying mental health conditions such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, or personality disorders. Therefore, understanding and analyzing social behavior is an essential aspect of diagnosing and treating various psychological and psychiatric conditions.

Self-injurious behavior (SIB) refers to the intentional, direct injuring of one's own body without suicidal intentions. It is often repetitive and can take various forms such as cutting, burning, scratching, hitting, or bruising the skin. In some cases, individuals may also ingest harmful substances or objects.

SIB is not a mental disorder itself, but it is often associated with various psychiatric conditions, including borderline personality disorder, depression, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, and eating disorders. It is also common in individuals with developmental disabilities, such as autism spectrum disorder.

The function of SIB can vary widely among individuals, but it often serves as a coping mechanism to deal with emotional distress, negative feelings, or traumatic experiences. It's essential to approach individuals who engage in SIB with compassion and understanding, focusing on treating the underlying causes rather than solely addressing the behavior itself. Professional mental health treatment and therapy can help individuals develop healthier coping strategies and improve their quality of life.

Child abuse is a broad term that refers to any form of physical, emotional, or sexual mistreatment or neglect that causes harm to a child's health, development, or dignity. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), child abuse includes:

1. Physical abuse: Non-accidental injuries caused by hitting, kicking, shaking, burning, or otherwise harming a child's body.
2. Sexual abuse: Any sexual activity involving a child, such as touching or non-touching behaviors, exploitation, or exposure to pornographic material.
3. Emotional abuse: Behaviors that harm a child's emotional well-being and self-esteem, such as constant criticism, humiliation, threats, or rejection.
4. Neglect: Failure to provide for a child's basic needs, including food, clothing, shelter, medical care, education, and emotional support.

Child abuse can have serious short-term and long-term consequences for the physical, emotional, and psychological well-being of children. It is a violation of their fundamental human rights and a public health concern that requires prevention, early detection, and intervention.

Interpersonal relations, in the context of medicine and healthcare, refer to the interactions and relationships between patients and healthcare professionals, as well as among healthcare professionals themselves. These relationships are crucial in the delivery of care and can significantly impact patient outcomes. Positive interpersonal relations can lead to improved communication, increased trust, greater patient satisfaction, and better adherence to treatment plans. On the other hand, negative or strained interpersonal relations can result in poor communication, mistrust, dissatisfaction, and non-adherence.

Healthcare professionals are trained to develop effective interpersonal skills, including active listening, empathy, respect, and cultural sensitivity, to build positive relationships with their patients. Effective interpersonal relations also involve clear and concise communication, setting appropriate boundaries, and managing conflicts in a constructive manner. In addition, positive interpersonal relations among healthcare professionals can promote collaboration, teamwork, and knowledge sharing, leading to improved patient care and safety.

Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders (ADDBDs) are a group of childhood-onset disorders characterized by persistent patterns of behavior that are difficult for the individual to control. These disorders include Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Conduct Disorder (CD).

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that interfere with daily functioning. These symptoms must be present for at least six months and occur in multiple settings, such as school, home, and social situations.

Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is characterized by a pattern of negative, hostile, and defiant behavior towards authority figures, which includes arguing with adults, losing temper, actively defying rules, and deliberately annoying others. These symptoms must be present for at least six months and occur more frequently than in other children of the same age and developmental level.

Conduct Disorder (CD) is characterized by a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules. These behaviors include aggression towards people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violation of rules.

It's important to note that these disorders can co-occur with other mental health conditions, such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and learning disabilities. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing the symptoms and improving the individual's quality of life.

Impulse Control Disorders (ICDs) are a group of psychiatric conditions characterized by the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to oneself or others. This leads to negative consequences such as distress, anxiety, or disruption in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) recognizes several specific ICDs, including:

1. Kleptomania - the recurrent failure to resist impulses to steal items, even though they are not needed for personal use or financial gain.
2. Pyromania - the deliberate and purposeful fire-setting on more than one occasion.
3. Intermittent Explosive Disorder - recurrent behavioral outbursts representing a failure to control aggressive impulses, resulting in serious assaultive acts or destruction of property.
4. Pathological Gambling - persistent and recurrent maladaptive gambling behavior that disrupts personal, family, or vocational pursuits.
5. Internet Gaming Disorder - the excessive and prolonged use of the internet for gaming, which leads to clinically significant impairment or distress.

These disorders are typically associated with a range of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms that can vary depending on the specific disorder and individual presentation. Treatment often involves a combination of psychotherapy, medication, and self-help strategies to manage symptoms and improve overall functioning.

Tryptophan hydroxylase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the synthesis of neurotransmitters and hormones, including serotonin and melatonin. It catalyzes the conversion of the essential amino acid tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), which is then further converted to serotonin. This enzyme exists in two isoforms, TPH1 and TPH2, with TPH1 primarily located in peripheral tissues and TPH2 mainly found in the brain. The regulation of tryptophan hydroxylase activity has significant implications for mood, appetite, sleep, and pain perception.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), alcohol-related disorders are a category of mental disorders defined by a problematic pattern of alcohol use that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. The disorders include:

1. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): A chronic relapsing brain disorder characterized by an impaired ability to stop or control alcohol use despite adverse social, occupational, or health consequences. AUD can be mild, moderate, or severe, and recovery is possible regardless of severity. The symptoms include problems controlling intake of alcohol, continued use despite problems resulting from drinking, development of a tolerance, drinking that leads to risky situations, or withdrawal symptoms when not drinking.
2. Alcohol Intoxication: A state of acute impairment in mental and motor function caused by the recent consumption of alcohol. The symptoms include slurred speech, unsteady gait, nystagmus, impaired attention or memory, stupor, or coma. In severe cases, it can lead to respiratory depression, hypothermia, or even death.
3. Alcohol Withdrawal: A syndrome that occurs when alcohol use is heavily reduced or stopped after prolonged and heavy use. The symptoms include autonomic hyperactivity, increased hand tremor, insomnia, nausea or vomiting, transient visual, tactile, or auditory hallucinations or illusions, psychomotor agitation, anxiety, and grand mal seizures.
4. Other Alcohol-Induced Disorders: These include alcohol-induced sleep disorder, alcohol-induced sexual dysfunction, and alcohol-induced major neurocognitive disorder.

It is important to note that alcohol use disorders are complex conditions that can be influenced by a variety of factors, including genetics, environment, and personal behavior. If you or someone you know is struggling with alcohol use, it is recommended to seek professional help.

The hippocampus is a complex, curved formation in the brain that resembles a seahorse (hence its name, from the Greek word "hippos" meaning horse and "kampos" meaning sea monster). It's part of the limbic system and plays crucial roles in the formation of memories, particularly long-term ones.

This region is involved in spatial navigation and cognitive maps, allowing us to recognize locations and remember how to get to them. Additionally, it's one of the first areas affected by Alzheimer's disease, which often results in memory loss as an early symptom.

Anatomically, it consists of two main parts: the Ammon's horn (or cornu ammonis) and the dentate gyrus. These structures are made up of distinct types of neurons that contribute to different aspects of learning and memory.

Exploratory behavior refers to the actions taken by an individual to investigate and gather information about their environment. This type of behavior is often driven by curiosity and a desire to understand new or unfamiliar situations, objects, or concepts. In a medical context, exploratory behavior may refer to a patient's willingness to learn more about their health condition, try new treatments, or engage in self-care activities. It can also refer to the behaviors exhibited by young children as they explore their world and develop their cognitive and motor skills. Exploratory behavior is an important aspect of learning and development, and it can have a positive impact on overall health and well-being.

A "self-report" in a medical context refers to the information or data provided by an individual about their own symptoms, experiences, behaviors, or health status. This can be collected through various methods such as questionnaires, surveys, interviews, or diaries. Self-reports are commonly used in research and clinical settings to assess various aspects of health, including physical and mental health symptoms, quality of life, treatment adherence, and substance use.

While self-reports can be a valuable source of information, they may also be subject to biases such as recall bias, social desirability bias, or response distortion. Therefore, it is important to consider the potential limitations and validity of self-reported data in interpreting the results. In some cases, self-reports may be supplemented with other sources of information, such as medical records, physiological measures, or observer ratings.

Psychiatry is the branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. A psychiatrist is a medically trained doctor who specializes in psychiatry, and they are qualified to assess both the mental and physical aspects of psychological problems. They can use a variety of treatments, including psychotherapy, medications, psychoeducation, and psychosocial interventions, to help patients manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Psychiatrists often work in multidisciplinary teams that include other mental health professionals such as psychologists, social workers, and mental health nurses. They may provide services in a range of settings, including hospitals, clinics, community mental health centers, and private practices.

It's important to note that while I strive to provide accurate and helpful information, my responses should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If you or someone else has concerns about mental health, it is always best to consult with a qualified healthcare provider.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "swimming" is not typically considered a medical term. It refers to the act of moving through water using your arms and legs in a rhythmic pattern, often as a form of exercise, recreation, or competition. However, if you're referring to a medical condition related to swimming, such as "swimmer's ear" (otitis externa), I would be happy to provide a definition for that.

Swimmer's ear is a type of outer ear infection caused by water remaining in the ear after swimming or bathing, creating a moist environment that can lead to bacterial growth. It can also be caused by scratching or damaging the lining of the ear canal through the use of cotton swabs or other objects. Symptoms may include itching, redness, pain, and sometimes discharge from the ear. If left untreated, swimmer's ear can lead to more serious complications, such as hearing loss or damage to the inner ear.

Mental health services refer to the various professional health services designed to treat and support individuals with mental health conditions. These services are typically provided by trained and licensed mental health professionals, such as psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, mental health counselors, and marriage and family therapists. The services may include:

1. Assessment and diagnosis of mental health disorders
2. Psychotherapy or "talk therapy" to help individuals understand and manage their symptoms
3. Medication management for mental health conditions
4. Case management and care coordination to connect individuals with community resources and support
5. Psychoeducation to help individuals and families better understand mental health conditions and how to manage them
6. Crisis intervention and stabilization services
7. Inpatient and residential treatment for severe or chronic mental illness
8. Prevention and early intervention services to identify and address mental health concerns before they become more serious
9. Rehabilitation and recovery services to help individuals with mental illness achieve their full potential and live fulfilling lives in the community.

Lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) are a group of diseases characterized by the excessive proliferation of lymphoid cells, which are crucial components of the immune system. These disorders can arise from both B-cells and T-cells, leading to various clinical manifestations ranging from benign to malignant conditions.

LPDs can be broadly classified into reactive and neoplastic categories:

1. Reactive Lymphoproliferative Disorders: These are typically triggered by infections, autoimmune diseases, or immunodeficiency states. They involve an exaggerated response of the immune system leading to the excessive proliferation of lymphoid cells. Examples include:
* Infectious mononucleosis (IM) caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
* Lymph node enlargement due to various infections or autoimmune disorders
* Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), which occurs in the context of immunosuppression following organ transplantation
2. Neoplastic Lymphoproliferative Disorders: These are malignant conditions characterized by uncontrolled growth and accumulation of abnormal lymphoid cells, leading to the formation of tumors. They can be further classified into Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Examples include:
* Hodgkin lymphoma (HL): Classical HL and nodular lymphocyte-predominant HL
* Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL): Various subtypes, such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, and Burkitt lymphoma

It is important to note that the distinction between reactive and neoplastic LPDs can sometimes be challenging, requiring careful clinical, histopathological, immunophenotypic, and molecular evaluations. Proper diagnosis and classification of LPDs are crucial for determining appropriate treatment strategies and predicting patient outcomes.

The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is a standardized system for classifying and coding mortality and morbidity data, established by the World Health Organization (WHO). It provides a common language and framework for health professionals, researchers, and policymakers to share and compare health-related information across countries and regions.

The ICD codes are used to identify diseases, injuries, causes of death, and other health conditions. The classification includes categories for various body systems, mental disorders, external causes of injury and poisoning, and factors influencing health status. It also includes a section for symptoms, signs, and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings.

The ICD is regularly updated to incorporate new scientific knowledge and changing health needs. The most recent version, ICD-11, was adopted by the World Health Assembly in May 2019 and will come into effect on January 1, 2022. It includes significant revisions and expansions in several areas, such as mental, behavioral, neurological disorders, and conditions related to sexual health.

In summary, the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is a globally recognized system for classifying and coding diseases, injuries, causes of death, and other health-related information, enabling standardized data collection, comparison, and analysis across countries and regions.

Quality of Life (QOL) is a broad, multidimensional concept that usually includes an individual's physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs, and their relationship to salient features of their environment. It reflects the impact of disease and treatment on a patient's overall well-being and ability to function in daily life.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines QOL as "an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." It is a subjective concept, meaning it can vary greatly from person to person.

In healthcare, QOL is often used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and other research studies to assess the impact of interventions or treatments on overall patient well-being.

Aggression is defined in medical terms as behavior that is intended to cause harm or damage to another individual or their property. It can take the form of verbal or physical actions and can be a symptom of various mental health disorders, such as intermittent explosive disorder, conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and dementia. Aggression can also be a side effect of certain medications or a result of substance abuse. It is important to note that aggression can have serious consequences, including physical injury, emotional trauma, and legal repercussions. If you or someone you know is experiencing problems with aggression, it is recommended to seek help from a mental health professional.

An inpatient, in medical terms, refers to a person who has been admitted to a hospital or other healthcare facility for the purpose of receiving medical treatment and who is expected to remain there for at least one night. Inpatients are typically cared for by a team of healthcare professionals, including doctors, nurses, and therapists, and may receive various treatments, such as medications, surgeries, or rehabilitation services.

Inpatient care is generally recommended for patients who require close monitoring, frequent assessments, or intensive medical interventions that cannot be provided in an outpatient setting. The length of stay for inpatients can vary widely depending on the nature and severity of their condition, as well as their individual treatment plan.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question as "translations" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, if you are referring to the process of "translation" in the context of medicine and biomedical research, it refers to the process of converting scientific findings or medical information from one language to another, while maintaining accuracy, clarity, and the original meaning. This is particularly important in the field of international clinical trials, medical publications, and cross-cultural healthcare communication.

If you meant something different by 'translations', please provide more context so I can give a more accurate response.

Dominance-subordination is a social hierarchy system that exists in many animal species, including humans, where individuals within a group establish a ranking or pecking order. This hierarchy helps to maintain order and reduce conflict within the group.

In dominance-subordination, dominant individuals are those who have priority access to resources such as food, mates, and space. They also tend to be more assertive and aggressive in their behavior towards other group members. Subordinate individuals, on the other hand, defer to the dominants and may show signs of submission, such as avoiding eye contact or averting their gaze.

The establishment of dominance-subordination relationships can occur through various means, including aggression, ritualized displays, or social manipulation. Once established, these relationships can be relatively stable over time, although they may shift in response to changes in the group's composition or external factors.

In a medical context, the term "dominance-subordination" is sometimes used to describe relationships between different physiological processes or responses within an individual. For example, one process may be dominant over another in terms of its influence on behavior or physiology. However, this usage is less common than the social hierarchy sense of the term.

Panic Disorder is a type of anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, unexpected panic attacks and significant worry about the implications of these attacks or fear of their occurrence. A panic attack is a sudden surge of intense fear or discomfort that reaches a peak within minutes, and includes physical symptoms such as accelerated heart rate, sweating, trembling, shortness of breath, and feelings of impending doom or danger. In Panic Disorder, these attacks are not triggered by specific situations or stimuli, but can occur spontaneously and without warning. The individual may also develop avoidance behaviors to prevent future panic attacks, which can interfere with daily functioning and quality of life.

Second-generation antidepressants (SGAs) are a class of medications used primarily for the treatment of depression, although they are also used for other psychiatric and medical conditions. They are called "second-generation" because they were developed after the first generation of antidepressants, which include tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs).

SGAs are also known as atypical antidepressants or novel antidepressants. They work by affecting the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain, such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. However, they have a different chemical structure and mechanism of action than first-generation antidepressants.

Some examples of second-generation antidepressants include:

* Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), and citalopram (Celexa)
* Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) such as venlafaxine (Effexor) and duloxetine (Cymbalta)
* Norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs) such as bupropion (Wellbutrin)
* Atypical antidepressants such as mirtazapine (Remeron), trazodone, and vortioxetine (Brintellix)

SGAs are generally considered to have a more favorable side effect profile than first-generation antidepressants. They are less likely to cause anticholinergic effects such as dry mouth, constipation, and blurred vision, and they are less likely to cause cardiac conduction abnormalities or orthostatic hypotension. However, SGAs may still cause side effects such as nausea, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, and weight gain.

It's important to note that the choice of antidepressant medication should be individualized based on the patient's specific symptoms, medical history, and other factors. It may take some trial and error to find the most effective and well-tolerated medication for a given patient.

Demography is the statistical study of populations, particularly in terms of size, distribution, and characteristics such as age, race, gender, and occupation. In medical contexts, demography is often used to analyze health-related data and trends within specific populations. This can include studying the prevalence of certain diseases or conditions, identifying disparities in healthcare access and outcomes, and evaluating the effectiveness of public health interventions. Demographic data can also be used to inform policy decisions and allocate resources to address population health needs.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

The frontal lobe is the largest lobes of the human brain, located at the front part of each cerebral hemisphere and situated in front of the parietal and temporal lobes. It plays a crucial role in higher cognitive functions such as decision making, problem solving, planning, parts of social behavior, emotional expressions, physical reactions, and motor function. The frontal lobe is also responsible for what's known as "executive functions," which include the ability to focus attention, understand rules, switch focus, plan actions, and inhibit inappropriate behaviors. It is divided into five areas, each with its own specific functions: the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, Broca's area, prefrontal cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. Damage to the frontal lobe can result in a wide range of impairments, depending on the location and extent of the injury.

Anti-anxiety agents, also known as anxiolytics, are a class of medications used to manage symptoms of anxiety disorders. These drugs work by reducing the abnormal excitement in the brain and promoting relaxation and calmness. They include several types of medications such as benzodiazepines, azapirone, antihistamines, and beta-blockers.

Benzodiazepines are the most commonly prescribed anti-anxiety agents. They work by enhancing the inhibitory effects of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which results in sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties. Examples of benzodiazepines include diazepam (Valium), alprazolam (Xanax), lorazepam (Ativan), and clonazepam (Klonopin).

Azapirones are a newer class of anti-anxiety agents that act on serotonin receptors in the brain. Buspirone (Buspar) is an example of this type of medication, which has fewer side effects and less potential for abuse compared to benzodiazepines.

Antihistamines are medications that are primarily used to treat allergies but can also have anti-anxiety effects due to their sedative properties. Examples include hydroxyzine (Vistaril, Atarax) and diphenhydramine (Benadryl).

Beta-blockers are mainly used to treat high blood pressure and heart conditions but can also help manage symptoms of anxiety such as rapid heartbeat, tremors, and sweating. Propranolol (Inderal) is an example of a beta-blocker used for this purpose.

It's important to note that anti-anxiety agents should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can have side effects and potential for dependence or addiction. Additionally, these medications are often used in combination with psychotherapy and lifestyle modifications to manage anxiety disorders effectively.

Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) is a glycoprotein found in human plasma that has a high affinity for binding thyroid hormones, specifically Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3). It is produced by the liver and plays a crucial role in maintaining the balance of these hormones in the body. TBG binds to approximately 70-80% of circulating T4 and about 55% of circulating T3, acting as a transport protein that carries these hormones throughout the body. The amount of TBG in the blood can vary due to factors such as genetics, sex hormones, and certain medications, which can affect the levels of free (unbound) thyroid hormones and contribute to various thyroid-related disorders.

'Learned helplessness' is a psychological concept, rather than a medical diagnosis. It was first introduced by psychologists Martin Seligman and Steven Maier in the 1960s. The term refers to a state in which an individual has learned to behave helplessly, believing they have no control over the situation or outcomes, even when opportunities for control are available.

In this state, the person may have previously experienced situations where their actions did not impact the outcome, leading them to believe that they are unable to change their circumstances. This passivity and lack of initiative can then become a persistent behavioral pattern, even in new situations where they actually could exert control and make a difference.

While 'learned helplessness' is not a medical diagnosis itself, it can contribute to the development of various mental health conditions such as depression and anxiety disorders. It is essential to recognize this state and seek professional help to address the underlying beliefs and patterns that maintain it.

The term "family" in a medical context often refers to a group of individuals who are related by blood, marriage, or adoption and who consider themselves to be a single household. This can include spouses, parents, children, siblings, grandparents, and other extended family members. In some cases, the term may also be used more broadly to refer to any close-knit group of people who provide emotional and social support for one another, regardless of their biological or legal relationship.

In healthcare settings, understanding a patient's family dynamics can be important for providing effective care. Family members may be involved in decision-making about medical treatments, providing care and support at home, and communicating with healthcare providers. Additionally, cultural beliefs and values within families can influence health behaviors and attitudes towards medical care, making it essential for healthcare professionals to take a culturally sensitive approach when working with patients and their families.

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

Memory disorders are a category of cognitive impairments that affect an individual's ability to acquire, store, retain, and retrieve memories. These disorders can be caused by various underlying medical conditions, including neurological disorders, psychiatric illnesses, substance abuse, or even normal aging processes. Some common memory disorders include:

1. Alzheimer's disease: A progressive neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects older adults and is characterized by a decline in cognitive abilities, including memory, language, problem-solving, and decision-making skills.
2. Dementia: A broader term used to describe a group of symptoms associated with a decline in cognitive function severe enough to interfere with daily life. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, but other causes include vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, and frontotemporal dementia.
3. Amnesia: A memory disorder characterized by difficulties in forming new memories or recalling previously learned information due to brain damage or disease. Amnesia can be temporary or permanent and may result from head trauma, stroke, infection, or substance abuse.
4. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI): A condition where an individual experiences mild but noticeable memory or cognitive difficulties that are greater than expected for their age and education level. While some individuals with MCI may progress to dementia, others may remain stable or even improve over time.
5. Korsakoff's syndrome: A memory disorder often caused by alcohol abuse and thiamine deficiency, characterized by severe short-term memory loss, confabulation (making up stories to fill in memory gaps), and disorientation.

It is essential to consult a healthcare professional if you or someone you know experiences persistent memory difficulties, as early diagnosis and intervention can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

Fatigue is a state of feeling very tired, weary, or exhausted, which can be physical, mental, or both. It is a common symptom that can be caused by various factors, including lack of sleep, poor nutrition, stress, medical conditions (such as anemia, diabetes, heart disease, or cancer), medications, and substance abuse. Fatigue can also be a symptom of depression or other mental health disorders. In medical terms, fatigue is often described as a subjective feeling of tiredness that is not proportional to recent activity levels and interferes with usual functioning. It is important to consult a healthcare professional if experiencing persistent or severe fatigue to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Movement disorders are a group of neurological conditions that affect the control and coordination of voluntary movements. These disorders can result from damage to or dysfunction of the cerebellum, basal ganglia, or other parts of the brain that regulate movement. Symptoms may include tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), akathisia (restlessness and inability to remain still), dystonia (sustained muscle contractions leading to abnormal postures), chorea (rapid, unpredictable movements), tics, and gait disturbances. Examples of movement disorders include Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Tourette syndrome, and dystonic disorders.

Gonadal hormones, also known as sex hormones, are steroid hormones that are primarily produced by the gonads (ovaries in females and testes in males). They play crucial roles in the development and regulation of sexual characteristics and reproductive functions. The three main types of gonadal hormones are:

1. Estrogens - predominantly produced by ovaries, they are essential for female sexual development and reproduction. The most common estrogen is estradiol, which supports the growth and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in women, such as breast development and wider hips. Estrogens also play a role in regulating the menstrual cycle and maintaining bone health.

2. Progesterone - primarily produced by ovaries during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy, progesterone prepares the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and supports the growth and development of the fetus during pregnancy. It also plays a role in regulating the menstrual cycle.

3. Androgens - produced by both ovaries and testes, but primarily by testes in males. The most common androgen is testosterone, which is essential for male sexual development and reproduction. Testosterone supports the growth and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in men, such as facial hair, a deeper voice, and increased muscle mass. It also plays a role in regulating sex drive (libido) and bone health in both males and females.

In summary, gonadal hormones are steroid hormones produced by the gonads that play essential roles in sexual development, reproduction, and maintaining secondary sexual characteristics.

Suicidal ideation is a medical term used to describe thoughts about, or an unusual preoccupation with, suicide. The range of suicidal ideation varies greatly from fleeting thoughts, to extensive thoughts, to detailed planning, role playing, and incomplete attempts, which may be deliberately constructed to not complete or to be discovered, or may be fully intended to result in death.

It's important to take any mention of suicide seriously and seek immediate help from a healthcare professional if someone is experiencing suicidal ideation. Mental health conditions such as depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder, and substance abuse are commonly associated with an increased risk of suicidal thoughts.

If you or someone you know is struggling with suicidal thoughts, please reach out to a mental health professional or trusted person immediately. In the US, contact the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-TALK (1-800-273-8255) or use the Crisis Text Line by texting HOME to 741741.

A circadian rhythm is a roughly 24-hour biological cycle that regulates various physiological and behavioral processes in living organisms. It is driven by the body's internal clock, which is primarily located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus in the brain.

The circadian rhythm controls many aspects of human physiology, including sleep-wake cycles, hormone secretion, body temperature, and metabolism. It helps to synchronize these processes with the external environment, particularly the day-night cycle caused by the rotation of the Earth.

Disruptions to the circadian rhythm can have negative effects on health, leading to conditions such as insomnia, sleep disorders, depression, bipolar disorder, and even increased risk of chronic diseases like cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Factors that can disrupt the circadian rhythm include shift work, jet lag, irregular sleep schedules, and exposure to artificial light at night.

Functional neuroimaging is a branch of medical imaging that involves the use of various techniques to measure and visualize the metabolic activity or blood flow in different regions of the brain. These measurements can be used to infer the level of neural activation in specific brain areas, allowing researchers and clinicians to study the functioning of the brain in various states, such as during rest, cognitive tasks, or disease processes.

Some common functional neuroimaging techniques include:

1. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI): This technique uses magnetic fields and radio waves to measure changes in blood flow and oxygenation levels in the brain, which are associated with neural activity.
2. Positron Emission Tomography (PET): This technique involves the injection of a small amount of radioactive tracer into the body, which is taken up by active brain cells. The resulting gamma rays are then detected and used to create images of brain activity.
3. Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT): Similar to PET, SPECT uses a radioactive tracer to measure blood flow in the brain, but with lower resolution and sensitivity.
4. Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS): This technique uses near-infrared light to measure changes in oxygenation levels in the brain, providing a non-invasive and relatively inexpensive method for studying brain function.

Functional neuroimaging has numerous applications in both research and clinical settings, including the study of cognitive processes, the diagnosis and monitoring of neurological and psychiatric disorders, and the development of new treatments and interventions.

Veterans Health, also known as Veterans Medical Care, refers to the healthcare services and benefits provided by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) in the United States. The VA operates one of the largest healthcare systems in the country, providing comprehensive medical care to eligible veterans. This includes hospital care, outpatient care, and long-term care, as well as mental health services, home health care, and geriatric and extended care services. Eligibility for VA healthcare is based on a variety of factors, including military service history, discharge status, income, and other criteria. The mission of Veterans Health is to provide high-quality, compassionate care to veterans in recognition of their service to the nation.

Psychological models are theoretical frameworks used in psychology to explain and predict mental processes and behaviors. They are simplified representations of complex phenomena, consisting of interrelated concepts, assumptions, and hypotheses that describe how various factors interact to produce specific outcomes. These models can be quantitative (e.g., mathematical equations) or qualitative (e.g., conceptual diagrams) in nature and may draw upon empirical data, theoretical insights, or both.

Psychological models serve several purposes:

1. They provide a systematic and organized way to understand and describe psychological phenomena.
2. They generate hypotheses and predictions that can be tested through empirical research.
3. They integrate findings from different studies and help synthesize knowledge across various domains of psychology.
4. They inform the development of interventions and treatments for mental health disorders.

Examples of psychological models include:

1. The Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality, which posits that individual differences in personality can be described along five broad dimensions: Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism.
2. The Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) model, which suggests that maladaptive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are interconnected and can be changed through targeted interventions.
3. The Dual Process Theory of Attitudes, which proposes that attitudes are formed and influenced by two distinct processes: a rapid, intuitive process (heuristic) and a slower, deliberative process (systematic).
4. The Social Cognitive Theory, which emphasizes the role of observational learning, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations in shaping behavior.
5. The Attachment Theory, which describes the dynamics of long-term relationships between humans, particularly the parent-child relationship.

It is important to note that psychological models are provisional and subject to revision or replacement as new evidence emerges. They should be considered as useful tools for understanding and explaining psychological phenomena rather than definitive truths.

Speech disorders refer to a group of conditions in which a person has difficulty producing or articulating sounds, words, or sentences in a way that is understandable to others. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as developmental delays, neurological conditions, hearing loss, structural abnormalities, or emotional issues.

Speech disorders may include difficulties with:

* Articulation: the ability to produce sounds correctly and clearly.
* Phonology: the sound system of language, including the rules that govern how sounds are combined and used in words.
* Fluency: the smoothness and flow of speech, including issues such as stuttering or cluttering.
* Voice: the quality, pitch, and volume of the spoken voice.
* Resonance: the way sound is produced and carried through the vocal tract, which can affect the clarity and quality of speech.

Speech disorders can impact a person's ability to communicate effectively, leading to difficulties in social situations, academic performance, and even employment opportunities. Speech-language pathologists are trained to evaluate and treat speech disorders using various evidence-based techniques and interventions.

Combat disorders are a category of mental health conditions that can occur in military personnel as a result of their experiences during combat. These disorders can include post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), acute stress disorder, and adjustment disorders, among others. Combat disorders may be caused by exposure to traumatic events, such as experiencing or witnessing combat, the threat of death or serious injury, or the loss of fellow soldiers. Symptoms can include flashbacks, nightmares, avoidance of reminders of the trauma, difficulty sleeping, irritability, and feelings of detachment or numbness. Treatment for combat disorders typically involves a combination of medication and therapy.

A facial expression is a result of the contraction or relaxation of muscles in the face that change the physical appearance of an individual's face to convey various emotions, intentions, or physical sensations. Facial expressions can be voluntary or involuntary and are a form of non-verbal communication that plays a crucial role in social interaction and conveying a person's state of mind.

The seven basic facial expressions of emotion, as proposed by Paul Ekman, include happiness, sadness, fear, disgust, surprise, anger, and contempt. These facial expressions are universally recognized across cultures and can be detected through the interpretation of specific muscle movements in the face, known as action units, which are measured and analyzed in fields such as psychology, neurology, and computer vision.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Social adjustment, in the context of mental health and psychology, refers to an individual's ability to adapt and function effectively within their social environment. It involves developing and maintaining positive relationships with others, fulfilling various social roles (such as being a family member, friend, or employee), and meeting the expectations and demands of one's social group.

Social adjustment can be affected by various factors, including an individual's personality traits, coping skills, mental and physical health status, and life experiences. Poor social adjustment can lead to feelings of isolation, loneliness, and dissatisfaction with life, as well as increased risk for mental health problems such as depression and anxiety.

Assessing social adjustment is an important aspect of mental health care, as it can provide valuable insights into an individual's overall functioning and quality of life. Treatments such as psychotherapy and social skills training may be used to help improve social adjustment in individuals who are struggling in this area.

Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) is a mental health condition characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregard for the rights of others, lack of empathy, and manipulative behaviors. It is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), as follows:

A. A consistent pattern of behavior that violates the basic rights of others and major age-appropriate societal norms and rules, as indicated by the presence of at least three of the following:

1. Failure to conform to social norms and laws, indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest.
2. Deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure.
3. Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead; indication of this symptom may include promiscuity.
4. Irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults.
5. Reckless disregard for safety of self or others.
6. Consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations.
7. Lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another.

B. The individual is at least 18 years of age.

C. There is evidence of conduct disorder with onset before the age of 15 years.

D. The occurrence of antisocial behavior is not exclusively during the course of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.

E. The individual's criminal behavior has not been better explained by a conduct disorder diagnosis or antisocial behavior that began before the age of 15 years.

It's important to note that ASPD can be challenging to diagnose, and it often requires a comprehensive evaluation from a mental health professional with experience in personality disorders.

Neurons, also known as nerve cells or neurocytes, are specialized cells that constitute the basic unit of the nervous system. They are responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting information and signals within the body. Neurons have three main parts: the dendrites, the cell body (soma), and the axon. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors, while the axon transmits these signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands. The junction between two neurons is called a synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to transmit the signal across the gap (synaptic cleft) to the next neuron. Neurons vary in size, shape, and structure depending on their function and location within the nervous system.

"Motor activity" is a general term used in the field of medicine and neuroscience to refer to any kind of physical movement or action that is generated by the body's motor system. The motor system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles that work together to produce movements such as walking, talking, reaching for an object, or even subtle actions like moving your eyes.

Motor activity can be voluntary, meaning it is initiated intentionally by the individual, or involuntary, meaning it is triggered automatically by the nervous system without conscious control. Examples of voluntary motor activity include deliberately lifting your arm or kicking a ball, while examples of involuntary motor activity include heartbeat, digestion, and reflex actions like jerking your hand away from a hot stove.

Abnormalities in motor activity can be a sign of neurological or muscular disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis. Assessment of motor activity is often used in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

Dermatoglyphics is the study of the fingerprints, palm prints, and other skin ridge patterns found on the hands and feet. These patterns are formed during fetal development and are generally considered to be unique to each individual. Dermatoglyphics can provide important clues about a person's genetic makeup and health status, and they are often used in forensic investigations to help identify individuals. In medicine, dermatoglyphics may be used to help diagnose certain genetic disorders or birth defects.

Sleep is a complex physiological process characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, reduced voluntary muscle activity, and decreased interaction with the environment. It's typically associated with specific stages that can be identified through electroencephalography (EEG) patterns. These stages include rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, associated with dreaming, and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, which is further divided into three stages.

Sleep serves a variety of functions, including restoration and strengthening of the immune system, support for growth and development in children and adolescents, consolidation of memory, learning, and emotional regulation. The lack of sufficient sleep or poor quality sleep can lead to significant health problems, such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and even cognitive decline.

The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) defines sleep as "a period of daily recurring natural rest during which consciousness is suspended and metabolic processes are reduced." However, it's important to note that the exact mechanisms and purposes of sleep are still being researched and debated among scientists.

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) is a type of genetic variation that occurs when a single nucleotide (A, T, C, or G) in the DNA sequence is altered. This alteration must occur in at least 1% of the population to be considered a SNP. These variations can help explain why some people are more susceptible to certain diseases than others and can also influence how an individual responds to certain medications. SNPs can serve as biological markers, helping scientists locate genes that are associated with disease. They can also provide information about an individual's ancestry and ethnic background.

Neuronal plasticity, also known as neuroplasticity or neural plasticity, refers to the ability of the brain and nervous system to change and adapt as a result of experience, learning, injury, or disease. This can involve changes in the structure, organization, and function of neurons (nerve cells) and their connections (synapses) in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

Neuronal plasticity can take many forms, including:

* Synaptic plasticity: Changes in the strength or efficiency of synaptic connections between neurons. This can involve the formation, elimination, or modification of synapses.
* Neural circuit plasticity: Changes in the organization and connectivity of neural circuits, which are networks of interconnected neurons that process information.
* Structural plasticity: Changes in the physical structure of neurons, such as the growth or retraction of dendrites (branches that receive input from other neurons) or axons (projections that transmit signals to other neurons).
* Functional plasticity: Changes in the physiological properties of neurons, such as their excitability, responsiveness, or sensitivity to stimuli.

Neuronal plasticity is a fundamental property of the nervous system and plays a crucial role in many aspects of brain function, including learning, memory, perception, and cognition. It also contributes to the brain's ability to recover from injury or disease, such as stroke or traumatic brain injury.

In a medical or psychological context, attention is the cognitive process of selectively concentrating on certain aspects of the environment while ignoring other things. It involves focusing mental resources on specific stimuli, sensory inputs, or internal thoughts while blocking out irrelevant distractions. Attention can be divided into different types, including:

1. Sustained attention: The ability to maintain focus on a task or stimulus over time.
2. Selective attention: The ability to concentrate on relevant stimuli while ignoring irrelevant ones.
3. Divided attention: The capacity to pay attention to multiple tasks or stimuli simultaneously.
4. Alternating attention: The skill of shifting focus between different tasks or stimuli as needed.

Deficits in attention are common symptoms of various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as ADHD, dementia, depression, and anxiety disorders. Assessment of attention is an essential part of neuropsychological evaluations and can be measured using various tests and tasks.

Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent, unprovoked seizures. These seizures are caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain, which can result in a wide range of symptoms, including convulsions, loss of consciousness, and altered sensations or behaviors. Epilepsy can have many different causes, including genetic factors, brain injury, infection, or stroke. In some cases, the cause may be unknown.

There are many different types of seizures that can occur in people with epilepsy, and the specific type of seizure will depend on the location and extent of the abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Some people may experience only one type of seizure, while others may have several different types. Seizures can vary in frequency, from a few per year to dozens or even hundreds per day.

Epilepsy is typically diagnosed based on the patient's history of recurrent seizures and the results of an electroencephalogram (EEG), which measures the electrical activity in the brain. Imaging tests such as MRI or CT scans may also be used to help identify any structural abnormalities in the brain that may be contributing to the seizures.

While there is no cure for epilepsy, it can often be effectively managed with medication. In some cases, surgery may be recommended to remove the area of the brain responsible for the seizures. With proper treatment and management, many people with epilepsy are able to lead normal, productive lives.

I must clarify that the term "pedigree" is not typically used in medical definitions. Instead, it is often employed in genetics and breeding, where it refers to the recorded ancestry of an individual or a family, tracing the inheritance of specific traits or diseases. In human genetics, a pedigree can help illustrate the pattern of genetic inheritance in families over multiple generations. However, it is not a medical term with a specific clinical definition.

Binge-Eating Disorder (BED) is a type of eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of consuming large amounts of food in a short period of time, often to the point of discomfort or pain. These episodes are accompanied by a loss of control over eating and are not followed by compensatory behaviors such as purging or excessive exercise.

To be diagnosed with BED, an individual must experience these binge-eating episodes at least once a week for three months or more, along with feelings of distress, shame, or guilt about their eating habits. Additionally, the binge eating must occur on average at least once a week for three months.

BED is different from overeating and can cause significant emotional and physical problems, including depression, anxiety, obesity, and other health issues related to weight gain. It is important to seek professional help if you suspect that you or someone you know may have BED.

A Psychiatric Department in a hospital is a specialized unit that provides diagnostic, treatment, and management services for patients with various mental disorders. This department is typically staffed by psychiatrists, psychologists, psychiatric nurses, social workers, and other mental health professionals who work together to evaluate, diagnose, and treat a wide range of mental health conditions such as:

* Mood disorders (e.g., depression, bipolar disorder)
* Anxiety disorders (e.g., panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder)
* Personality disorders (e.g., borderline personality disorder)
* Psychotic disorders (e.g., schizophrenia)
* Substance use disorders (e.g., drug addiction, alcoholism)
* Eating disorders (e.g., anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa)
* Neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g., autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder)

The Psychiatric Department may offer both inpatient and outpatient services, including individual and group therapy, medication management, psychoeducation, and crisis intervention. Inpatient units provide 24-hour care for patients who require intensive treatment and monitoring, while outpatient services allow patients to receive treatment while continuing to live in their communities.

The Psychiatric Department may also be involved in research, teaching, and community outreach programs aimed at promoting mental health awareness, reducing stigma, and improving access to mental health care.

Group psychotherapy is a form of psychotherapy in which a trained therapist treats a small group of individuals together as a group. The therapy focuses on interpersonal relationships and social interactions among the members of the group. The group becomes a social microcosm for each individual, allowing them to understand and work through their issues in relation to others.

The size of the group typically ranges from 5-12 members, and meetings can be held in various settings such as hospitals, community mental health centers, or private practice offices. The duration of the therapy can vary, ranging from brief, time-limited groups that meet for several weeks to longer-term groups that meet for several months or even years.

Group psychotherapy can be used to treat a wide range of psychological issues, including depression, anxiety, personality disorders, trauma, and relational difficulties. The therapist facilitates the group process by creating a safe and supportive environment where members can share their thoughts, feelings, and experiences with one another. Through this process, members can gain insights into their own behavior, develop new social skills, and improve their relationships with others.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

"Family relations" is a broad term that refers to the various interactions, roles, and relationships between members of a family unit. This can include the dynamics between parents and children, siblings, extended family members, and any other individuals considered part of the family.

Family relations can be influenced by a variety of factors, including cultural background, individual personalities, life experiences, and family structure. These relationships can have a significant impact on an individual's emotional, social, and psychological development and well-being.

Positive family relations are characterized by open communication, mutual respect, support, and affection. On the other hand, negative family relations can be marked by conflict, hostility, neglect, and abuse. It is important to note that family relations can be complex and multifaceted, with both positive and negative aspects coexisting within the same family system.

In a medical context, understanding family relations can be crucial for healthcare providers in order to provide effective care and support to their patients. This may involve assessing family dynamics and communication patterns, as well as providing education and resources to help families navigate any challenges or conflicts that may arise.

Socioeconomic factors are a range of interconnected conditions and influences that affect the opportunities and resources a person or group has to maintain and improve their health and well-being. These factors include:

1. Economic stability: This includes employment status, job security, income level, and poverty status. Lower income and lack of employment are associated with poorer health outcomes.
2. Education: Higher levels of education are generally associated with better health outcomes. Education can affect a person's ability to access and understand health information, as well as their ability to navigate the healthcare system.
3. Social and community context: This includes factors such as social support networks, discrimination, and community safety. Strong social supports and positive community connections are associated with better health outcomes, while discrimination and lack of safety can negatively impact health.
4. Healthcare access and quality: Access to affordable, high-quality healthcare is an important socioeconomic factor that can significantly impact a person's health. Factors such as insurance status, availability of providers, and cultural competency of healthcare systems can all affect healthcare access and quality.
5. Neighborhood and built environment: The physical conditions in which people live, work, and play can also impact their health. Factors such as housing quality, transportation options, availability of healthy foods, and exposure to environmental hazards can all influence health outcomes.

Socioeconomic factors are often interrelated and can have a cumulative effect on health outcomes. For example, someone who lives in a low-income neighborhood with limited access to healthy foods and safe parks may also face challenges related to employment, education, and healthcare access that further impact their health. Addressing socioeconomic factors is an important part of promoting health equity and reducing health disparities.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), neurotic disorders are not a recognized category. However, the term "neurosis" has been used historically in psychiatry and psychology to refer to a group of mental disorders characterized by anxiety, obsessions, depressive moods, phobias, or hypochondriacal fears. These symptoms are often considered to be the result of internal conflicts, typically related to stress, frustration, or interpersonal difficulties.

The DSM-5 has replaced the category of neurotic disorders with several specific mental disorders that were previously classified under this heading. These include:

1. Anxiety Disorders (e.g., panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder)
2. Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, hoarding disorder)
3. Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder, acute stress disorder, adjustment disorders)
4. Mood Disorders (e.g., major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder)
5. Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders (e.g., illness anxiety disorder, conversion disorder)

These specific disorders are defined by their own unique diagnostic criteria and should be evaluated based on those guidelines.

Brain mapping is a broad term that refers to the techniques used to understand the structure and function of the brain. It involves creating maps of the various cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes in the brain by correlating these processes with physical locations or activities within the nervous system. Brain mapping can be accomplished through a variety of methods, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET) scans, electroencephalography (EEG), and others. These techniques allow researchers to observe which areas of the brain are active during different tasks or thoughts, helping to shed light on how the brain processes information and contributes to our experiences and behaviors. Brain mapping is an important area of research in neuroscience, with potential applications in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. It is a complex phenomenon that can result from various stimuli, such as thermal, mechanical, or chemical irritation, and it can be acute or chronic. The perception of pain involves the activation of specialized nerve cells called nociceptors, which transmit signals to the brain via the spinal cord. These signals are then processed in different regions of the brain, leading to the conscious experience of pain. It's important to note that pain is a highly individual and subjective experience, and its perception can vary widely among individuals.

**Ketamine** is a dissociative anesthetic medication primarily used for starting and maintaining anesthesia. It can lead to a state of altered perception, hallucinations, sedation, and memory loss. Ketamine is also used as a pain reliever in patients with chronic pain conditions and during certain medical procedures due to its strong analgesic properties.

It is available as a generic drug and is also sold under various brand names, such as Ketalar, Ketanest, and Ketamine HCl. It can be administered intravenously, intramuscularly, orally, or as a nasal spray.

In addition to its medical uses, ketamine has been increasingly used off-label for the treatment of mood disorders like depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), owing to its rapid antidepressant effects. However, more research is needed to fully understand its long-term benefits and risks in these applications.

It's important to note that ketamine can be abused recreationally due to its dissociative and hallucinogenic effects, which may lead to addiction and severe psychological distress. Therefore, it should only be used under the supervision of a medical professional.

Violence is not typically defined in medical terms, but it can be described as the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation. This definition is often used in public health and medical research to understand the impact of violence on health outcomes.

Brain chemistry refers to the chemical processes that occur within the brain, particularly those involving neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and neuropeptides. These chemicals are responsible for transmitting signals between neurons (nerve cells) in the brain, allowing for various cognitive, emotional, and physical functions.

Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that transmit signals across the synapse (the tiny gap between two neurons). Examples of neurotransmitters include dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), and glutamate. Each neurotransmitter has a specific role in brain function, such as regulating mood, motivation, attention, memory, and movement.

Neuromodulators are chemicals that modify the effects of neurotransmitters on neurons. They can enhance or inhibit the transmission of signals between neurons, thereby modulating brain activity. Examples of neuromodulators include acetylcholine, histamine, and substance P.

Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules that act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators. They play a role in various physiological functions, such as pain perception, stress response, and reward processing. Examples of neuropeptides include endorphins, enkephalins, and oxytocin.

Abnormalities in brain chemistry can lead to various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Understanding brain chemistry is crucial for developing effective treatments for these conditions.

The Raphe Nuclei are clusters of neurons located in the brainstem, specifically in the midline of the pons, medulla oblongata, and mesencephalon (midbrain). These neurons are characterized by their ability to synthesize and release serotonin, a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in regulating various functions such as mood, appetite, sleep, and pain perception.

The Raphe Nuclei project axons widely throughout the central nervous system, allowing serotonin to modulate the activity of other neurons. There are several subdivisions within the Raphe Nuclei, each with distinct connections and functions. Dysfunction in the Raphe Nuclei has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and chronic pain.

Citalopram is a type of antidepressant known as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). It works by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps maintain mental balance. Citalopram is primarily used to treat major depressive disorder and is also sometimes used to treat anxiety disorders, such as panic disorder or social anxiety disorder.

The medical definition of Citalopram can be described as follows:

Citalopram (brand name Celexa) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant that is primarily used to treat major depressive disorder. It works by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps maintain mental balance. Citalopram may also be used off-label for the treatment of anxiety disorders, such as panic disorder or social anxiety disorder.

Common side effects of citalopram include nausea, dry mouth, increased sweating, sleepiness, fatigue, and insomnia. More serious side effects can include an increased risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults, as well as an increased risk of bleeding, particularly if taken with other medications that increase the risk of bleeding. Citalopram should be used with caution in patients with a history of heart disease, liver disease, or seizure disorders. It is important to follow the dosage instructions provided by your healthcare provider and to inform them of any other medications you are taking, as well as any medical conditions you have, before starting citalopram.

In medical terms, "outpatients" refers to individuals who receive medical care or treatment at a hospital or clinic without being admitted as inpatients. This means that they do not stay overnight or for an extended period; instead, they visit the healthcare facility for specific services such as consultations, diagnostic tests, treatments, or follow-up appointments and then return home afterward. Outpatient care can include various services like primary care, specialty clinics, dental care, physical therapy, and more. It is often more convenient and cost-effective than inpatient care, as it allows patients to maintain their daily routines while receiving necessary medical attention.

Sleep deprivation is a condition that occurs when an individual fails to get sufficient quality sleep or the recommended amount of sleep, typically 7-9 hours for adults. This can lead to various physical and mental health issues. It can be acute, lasting for one night or a few days, or chronic, persisting over a longer period.

The consequences of sleep deprivation include:

1. Fatigue and lack of energy
2. Difficulty concentrating or remembering things
3. Mood changes, such as irritability or depression
4. Weakened immune system
5. Increased appetite and potential weight gain
6. Higher risk of accidents due to decreased reaction time
7. Health problems like high blood pressure, diabetes, and heart disease over time

Sleep deprivation can be caused by various factors, including stress, shift work, sleep disorders like insomnia or sleep apnea, poor sleep hygiene, and certain medications. It's essential to address the underlying causes of sleep deprivation to ensure proper rest and overall well-being.

Factor analysis is a statistical technique used to identify patterns or structures in a dataset by explaining the correlations between variables. It is a method of simplifying complex data by reducing it to a smaller set of underlying factors that can explain most of the variation in the data. In other words, factor analysis is a way to uncover hidden relationships between multiple variables and group them into meaningful categories or factors.

In factor analysis, each variable is represented as a linear combination of underlying factors, where the factors are unobserved variables that cannot be directly measured but can only be inferred from the observed data. The goal is to identify these underlying factors and determine their relationships with the observed variables. This technique is commonly used in various fields such as psychology, social sciences, marketing, and biomedical research to explore complex datasets and gain insights into the underlying structure of the data.

There are two main types of factor analysis: exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). EFA is used when there is no prior knowledge about the underlying factors, and the goal is to discover the potential structure in the data. CFA, on the other hand, is used when there is a theoretical framework or hypothesis about the underlying factors, and the goal is to test whether the observed data support this framework or hypothesis.

In summary, factor analysis is a statistical method for reducing complex datasets into simpler components called factors, which can help researchers identify patterns, structures, and relationships in the data.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Anticonvulsants are a class of drugs used primarily to treat seizure disorders, also known as epilepsy. These medications work by reducing the abnormal electrical activity in the brain that leads to seizures. In addition to their use in treating epilepsy, anticonvulsants are sometimes also prescribed for other conditions, such as neuropathic pain, bipolar disorder, and migraine headaches.

Anticonvulsants can work in different ways to reduce seizure activity. Some medications, such as phenytoin and carbamazepine, work by blocking sodium channels in the brain, which helps to stabilize nerve cell membranes and prevent excessive electrical activity. Other medications, such as valproic acid and gabapentin, increase the levels of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which has a calming effect on nerve cells and helps to reduce seizure activity.

While anticonvulsants are generally effective at reducing seizure frequency and severity, they can also have side effects, such as dizziness, drowsiness, and gastrointestinal symptoms. In some cases, these side effects may be managed by adjusting the dosage or switching to a different medication. It is important for individuals taking anticonvulsants to work closely with their healthcare provider to monitor their response to the medication and make any necessary adjustments.

Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) are a group of rare, chronic blood cancers that originate from the abnormal proliferation or growth of one or more types of blood-forming cells in the bone marrow. These disorders result in an overproduction of mature but dysfunctional blood cells, which can lead to serious complications such as blood clots, bleeding, and organ damage.

There are several subtypes of MPDs, including:

1. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML): A disorder characterized by the overproduction of mature granulocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the bone marrow, leading to an increased number of these cells in the blood. CML is caused by a genetic mutation that results in the formation of the BCR-ABL fusion protein, which drives uncontrolled cell growth and division.
2. Polycythemia Vera (PV): A disorder characterized by the overproduction of all three types of blood cells - red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets - in the bone marrow. This can lead to an increased risk of blood clots, bleeding, and enlargement of the spleen.
3. Essential Thrombocythemia (ET): A disorder characterized by the overproduction of platelets in the bone marrow, leading to an increased risk of blood clots and bleeding.
4. Primary Myelofibrosis (PMF): A disorder characterized by the replacement of normal bone marrow tissue with scar tissue, leading to impaired blood cell production and anemia, enlargement of the spleen, and increased risk of infections and bleeding.
5. Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia (CNL): A rare disorder characterized by the overproduction of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) in the bone marrow, leading to an increased number of these cells in the blood. CNL can lead to an increased risk of infections and organ damage.

MPDs are typically treated with a combination of therapies, including chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, and stem cell transplantation. The choice of treatment depends on several factors, including the subtype of MPD, the patient's age and overall health, and the presence of any comorbidities.

"Family Health" is not a term that has a single, widely accepted medical definition. However, in the context of healthcare and public health, "family health" often refers to the physical, mental, and social well-being of all members of a family unit. It includes the assessment, promotion, and prevention of health conditions that affect individual family members as well as the family as a whole.

Family health may also encompass interventions and programs that aim to strengthen family relationships, communication, and functioning, as these factors can have a significant impact on overall health outcomes. Additionally, family health may involve addressing social determinants of health, such as poverty, housing, and access to healthcare, which can affect the health of families and communities.

Overall, family health is a holistic approach to healthcare that recognizes the importance of considering the needs and experiences of all family members in promoting and maintaining good health.

Neural pathways, also known as nerve tracts or fasciculi, refer to the highly organized and specialized routes through which nerve impulses travel within the nervous system. These pathways are formed by groups of neurons (nerve cells) that are connected in a series, creating a continuous communication network for electrical signals to transmit information between different regions of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves.

Neural pathways can be classified into two main types: sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent). Sensory neural pathways carry sensory information from various receptors in the body (such as those for touch, temperature, pain, and vision) to the brain for processing. Motor neural pathways, on the other hand, transmit signals from the brain to the muscles and glands, controlling movements and other effector functions.

The formation of these neural pathways is crucial for normal nervous system function, as it enables efficient communication between different parts of the body and allows for complex behaviors, cognitive processes, and adaptive responses to internal and external stimuli.

Personality disorders are a class of mental health conditions characterized by deeply ingrained, inflexible patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving that deviate significantly from the norms of their culture. These patterns often lead to distress for the individual and/or impairments in personal relationships, work, or social functioning.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), identifies ten specific personality disorders, which are grouped into three clusters based on descriptive similarities:

1. Cluster A (Odd or Eccentric) - characterized by odd, eccentric, or unusual behaviors:
* Paranoid Personality Disorder
* Schizoid Personality Disorder
* Schizotypal Personality Disorder
2. Cluster B (Dramatic, Emotional, or Erratic) - marked by dramatic, emotional, or erratic behaviors:
* Antisocial Personality Disorder
* Borderline Personality Disorder
* Histrionic Personality Disorder
* Narcissistic Personality Disorder
3. Cluster C (Anxious or Fearful) - featuring anxious, fearful behaviors:
* Avoidant Personality Disorder
* Dependent Personality Disorder
* Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

It is important to note that personality disorders can be challenging to diagnose and treat. They often require comprehensive assessments by mental health professionals, such as psychologists or psychiatrists, who specialize in personality disorders. Effective treatments typically involve long-term, specialized psychotherapies, with some cases potentially benefiting from medication management for co-occurring symptoms like anxiety or depression.

Serotonin receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that bind to the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). They are widely distributed throughout the body, including the central and peripheral nervous systems, where they play important roles in regulating various physiological processes such as mood, appetite, sleep, memory, learning, and cognition.

There are seven different classes of serotonin receptors (5-HT1 to 5-HT7), each with multiple subtypes, that exhibit distinct pharmacological properties and signaling mechanisms. These receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) or ligand-gated ion channels, which activate intracellular signaling pathways upon serotonin binding.

Serotonin receptors have been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and migraine. Therefore, selective serotonin receptor agonists or antagonists are used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of these conditions.

Dissociative disorders are a group of mental health conditions characterized by disruptions or dysfunctions in memory, consciousness, identity, or perception. These disturbances can be sudden or ongoing and can interfere significantly with a person's ability to function in daily life. The main types of dissociative disorders include:

1. Dissociative Amnesia: This disorder is characterized by an inability to recall important personal information, usually due to trauma or stress.
2. Dissociative Identity Disorder (formerly known as Multiple Personality Disorder): In this disorder, a person exhibits two or more distinct identities or personalities that recurrently take control of their behavior.
3. Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder: This disorder involves persistent or recurring feelings of detachment from one's self (depersonalization) or the environment (derealization).
4. Other Specified Dissociative Disorder and Unspecified Dissociative Disorder: These categories are used for disorders that do not meet the criteria for any of the specific dissociative disorders but still cause significant distress or impairment.

Dissociative disorders often develop as a way to cope with trauma, stress, or other overwhelming life experiences. Treatment typically involves psychotherapy, including cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), as well as medication for co-occurring conditions such as anxiety or depression.

Fear is a basic human emotion that is typically characterized by a strong feeling of anxiety, apprehension, or distress in response to a perceived threat or danger. It is a natural and adaptive response that helps individuals identify and respond to potential dangers in their environment, and it can manifest as physical, emotional, and cognitive symptoms.

Physical symptoms of fear may include increased heart rate, rapid breathing, sweating, trembling, and muscle tension. Emotional symptoms may include feelings of anxiety, worry, or panic, while cognitive symptoms may include difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, and intrusive thoughts about the perceived threat.

Fear can be a normal and adaptive response to real dangers, but it can also become excessive or irrational in some cases, leading to phobias, anxiety disorders, and other mental health conditions. In these cases, professional help may be necessary to manage and overcome the fear.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

Opioid-related disorders is a term that encompasses a range of conditions related to the use of opioids, which are a class of drugs that include prescription painkillers such as oxycodone and hydrocodone, as well as illegal drugs like heroin. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) identifies the following opioid-related disorders:

1. Opioid Use Disorder: This disorder is characterized by a problematic pattern of opioid use that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. The symptoms may include a strong desire to use opioids, increased tolerance, withdrawal symptoms when not using opioids, and unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control opioid use.
2. Opioid Intoxication: This disorder occurs when an individual uses opioids and experiences significant problematic behavioral or psychological changes, such as marked sedation, small pupils, or respiratory depression.
3. Opioid Withdrawal: This disorder is characterized by the development of a substance-specific withdrawal syndrome following cessation or reduction of opioid use. The symptoms may include anxiety, irritability, dysphoria, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and muscle aches.
4. Other Opioid-Induced Disorders: This category includes disorders that are caused by the direct physiological effects of opioids, such as opioid-induced sexual dysfunction or opioid-induced sleep disorder.

It is important to note that opioid use disorder is a chronic and often relapsing condition that can cause significant harm to an individual's health, relationships, and overall quality of life. If you or someone you know is struggling with opioid use, it is essential to seek professional help from a healthcare provider or addiction specialist.

... more than one mood disorder can be present in an individual, like bipolar disorder and depressive disorder. If a mood disorder ... Also, an individual may have a mood disorder coexisting with a substance abuse disorder. Substance-induced mood disorders can ... A mood disorder, also known as an affective disorder, is any of a group of conditions of mental and behavioral disorder where a ... Mood disorders, specifically stress-related mood disorders such as anxiety and depression, have been shown to have differing ...
... which are the mood states that separate bipolar disorders from other types of depression and mood disorder. It has 5 main ... Bipolar disorder, Depression (mood), Health surveys, Mood disorders, Mania screening and assessment tools, Treatment of bipolar ... Mood Disorder Questionnaire" (PDF). SAMHSA-HRSA Center for Integrated Health Solutions. 29 August 2007. "Mood Disorder ... The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) is a self-report questionnaire designed to help detect bipolar disorder. It focuses on ...
... and childhood bipolar disorder. DMDD first appeared as a disorder in the DSM-5 in 2013 and is classified as a mood disorder. ... Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) is a mental disorder in children and adolescents characterized by a persistently ... "Diagnostic Trends and Prescription Patterns in Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder and Bipolar Disorder". Journal of the ... such as conduct disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, major depression and bipolar disorder. Recent trends have shifted ...
... (IDD) is a mood disorder sometimes found in patients with epilepsy, at a prevalence rate of ... These mood changes occur without any external triggers, during the interictal phase (between seizures). In 1949, Bleuler note a ... Interictal dysphoric disorder can often be treated with a combination of antidepressant and anticonvulsant medication. Its ... Later, Blumer coined the term interictal dysphoric disorder to describe a similar pleomorphic presentation of symptoms ...
In 1883, Karl Ludwig Kahlbaum identified a disorder characterized by recurring mood cycles. The disorder contained both ... portal Bipolar disorder Bipolar I disorder Bipolar II disorder Bipolar NOS Outline of bipolar disorder Bipolar disorders ... First-degree relatives of people with cyclothymia have major depressive disorder, bipolar I disorder, and bipolar II disorder ... affective personality disorder and cyclothymic personality disorder, is a mental and behavioural disorder that involves ...
The problems causing mood disorders may include, family history, physical illness, previous diagnosis, and trauma. As many ... Therefore, yogo teachers are expected to take quick actions during the students early stages of mood disorder or child abuse as ... Through their observations of student's actions, the yogo teachers are able to identify students early-stage mood disorders and ... "Mood Disorders; Causes, Symptoms, Management & Treatment". Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved 2022-05-09. Goto, Keiko; Murayama, ...
Bipolar disorder or cyclothymia: Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder with characteristics of mood swings from hypomania or ... Mood swings in major depressive disorder (MDD): Various mood patterns, and mood changes erratically. Mood swings occur ... Mood swings in borderline personality disorder (BPD): Mood changes erratically with episodic mood swings. Mood swings fluctuate ... If the mood swing is not associated with a mood disorder, treatments are harder to assign. Most commonly, however, mood swings ...
2000). Mood Disorders. In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.) Washington, DC: Author.[ ... obsessive-compulsive disorder and social anxiety disorder), bipolar disorder, or personality disorders (such as borderline ... Similarly, patients with atypical depression are more likely to have anxiety disorders, (such as generalized anxiety disorder, ... Mood reactivity (i.e., mood brightens in response to actual or potential positive events) At least two of the following: ...
... met criteria for any disorder-anxiety disorders 18.1%; mood disorders 9.5%; impulse control disorders 8.9%; and substance use ... mood disorder (20.8%), impulse-control disorder (24.8%) or substance use disorders (14.6%). Half of all lifetime cases had ... which included mood disorders (13.9%), anxiety disorders (13.6%) or alcohol disorder (5.2%). Approximately one in ten met ... and mood disorders next most common in all but 2 countries (12-month prevalence of 0.8% to 9.6%), while substance disorders ( ...
Emerging research has suggested a potential association between the gut microbiome and perinatal mood and anxiety disorders. ... Seyfried, L. S.; Marcus, S. M. (2003). "Postpartum mood disorders". International Review of Psychiatry. 15 (3): 231-242. doi: ... Studies have not detected a consistent association between hormone concentrations and development of postpartum mood disorders ... Seyfried LS, Marcus SM (August 2003). "Postpartum mood disorders". International Review of Psychiatry. 15 (3): 231-42. doi: ...
... this mood disorder is estimated to affect 1% to 26% of new fathers. Postpartum psychosis, a more severe form of postpartum mood ... Thippeswamy H, Davies W (June 2021). "A new molecular risk pathway for postpartum mood disorders: clues from steroid sulfatase- ... Postpartum depression (PPD), also called postnatal depression, is a type of mood disorder experienced after childbirth, which ... Brockington I (2005). "A Historical Perspective on the Psychiatry of Motherhood". Perinatal Stress, Mood and Anxiety Disorders ...
Christina, Greta (March 24, 2014). "Mood Disorders Program". Freethoughtblogs.com. Retrieved April 2, 2014. Christina, Greta ( ...
Depressed mood is a symptom of some mood disorders such as major depressive disorder and dysthymia; it is a normal temporary ... The mood disorders are a group of disorders considered to be primary disturbances of mood. These include major depressive ... Another mood disorder, bipolar disorder, features one or more episodes of abnormally elevated mood, cognition, and energy ... Outside the mood disorders: borderline personality disorder often features an extremely intense depressive mood; adjustment ...
Mood Disorder. Los Angeles: No Documents. 2015. ISBN 9781927354230 Stolen Spoons. Copenhagen: Pork Salad Press. 2015. ISBN ... Interview with David Horvitz about Mood Disorder, Education at MoMA, The Museum of Modern Art, 2016. Follow Fluxus laureate ...
Melatonin levels are used as a trait marker for mood disorders, meaning that abnormal levels of melatonin can be used in ... Seasonal affective disorder, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder) exists. Melatonin levels can also be used as a ... "Melatonin in mood disorders". World J. Biol. Psychiatry. 7 (3): 138-51. doi:10.1080/15622970600571822. PMID 16861139. S2CID ... 2010). "Mutation screening of melatonin-related genes in patients with autism spectrum disorders". BMC Med. Genom. 3: 10. doi: ...
Humans can have a range of emotional or mood disorders such as depression, anxiety, fear and panic. To treat these disorders, ... Malhi, Gin S; Baune, Berhard T; Porter, Richard J (December 2015). "Re-Cognizing mood disorders". Bipolar Disorders. 17: 1-2. ... One rider wrote, 'Experienced riders and trainers can learn to read the subtle moods of individual horses according to wisdom ... As a consequence, laboratory mice sometimes develop abnormal behaviours indicative of emotional disorders such as depression ...
"Allopregnanolone and mood disorders". Progress in Neurobiology. 113: 88-94. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2013.07.005. PMID 23978486 ... In addition, it is thought that changes in neurosteroid levels may be involved in the changes in mood, anxiety, and sexual ... Andréen L, Nyberg S, Turkmen S, van Wingen G, Fernández G, Bäckström T (September 2009). "Sex steroid induced negative mood may ... Andréen L, Sundström-Poromaa I, Bixo M, Nyberg S, Bäckström T (August 2006). "Allopregnanolone concentration and mood--a ...
"Allopregnanolone and mood disorders". Prog. Neurobiol. 113: 88-94. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2013.07.005. PMID 23978486. S2CID ... "Allopregnanolone as a mediator of affective switching in reproductive mood disorders". Psychopharmacology. 231 (17): 3557-67. ... It has been suggested that these actions of progestogens may explain unfavorable effects on mood that have been reported with ... 554-. ISBN 978-3-642-96158-8. Horský J, Presl J (1981). "Hormonal Treatment of Disorders of the Menstrual Cycle". In Horsky J, ...
Major depressive disorder, Mood disorders, Anatomy, Causes of mental disorders, Biological psychiatry, Behavioral neuroscience) ... Adverse changes and alterations in the circadian rhythm have been associated various neurological disorders and mood disorders ... focus on anxiety disorders and depression". Biology of Mood & Anxiety Disorders. 1 (1): 9. doi:10.1186/2045-5380-1-9. PMC ... "Neurobiology of Mood disorders". Hospital Physician: 17-26. Hjorth, S; Bengtsson, HJ; Kullberg, A; Carlzon, D; Peilot, H; ...
February 2014). "Allopregnanolone and mood disorders". Progress in Neurobiology. 113: 88-94. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2013.07. ... such as cerebrovascular disorders, obesity, and mood fluctuations. Some transgender women report a significant reduction in ... Changes in mood and well-being occur with hormone therapy in transgender women. Side effects of hormone therapy have the ... Kreukels BP, Steensma TD, de Vries AL (1 July 2013). Gender Dysphoria and Disorders of Sex Development: Progress in Care and ...
February 2014). "Allopregnanolone and mood disorders". Progress in Neurobiology. 113: 88-94. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2013.07. ... an update on the pharmaceutical pipeline for novel and rapid-acting therapeutics in mood disorders based on glutamate/GABA ... Andréen L, Nyberg S, Turkmen S, van Wingen G, Fernández G, Bäckström T (September 2009). "Sex steroid induced negative mood may ... Morrow AL, Boero G, Porcu P (February 2020). "A Rationale for Allopregnanolone Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorders: Basic and ...
"Specifiers for Mood Disorders". European Medical Alliance. Retrieved 16 January 2018. Purse, Marcia (July 5, 2017). "What Are ... They are used extensively in the Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) primarily in the diagnosis of mood ... A postpartum onset specifier can be applied in major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder if the onset is within four weeks ... Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Classification of mental disorders). ...
... is associated with depression and other mood disorders; however, many other mental disorders, life events and ... Autism spectrum disorders, Bipolar disorder, Borderline personality disorder, Major depressive disorder, Mental disorders, ... 104 Substance use disorders, inhalant use disorder: 538 Body dysmorphic disorder: 245 Nightmare disorder: 405 Gender dysphoria ... Anxiety disorders Autism spectrum disorder Major depressive disorder: 162 Dysthymia Bipolar disorder Attention deficit ...
These two disorders are classified as "Depressive disorders", in the category of "Mood disorders". According to DSM-5, there ... adjustment disorder with depressed mood, or bipolar disorder. Dysthymia is a chronic, milder mood disturbance in which a person ... Under mood disorders, ICD-11 classifies major depressive disorder as either single episode depressive disorder (where there is ... it is then diagnosed as a specific mood disorder (previously called substance-induced mood disorder). Preventive efforts may ...
McGowan PO, Kato T (Jan 2008). "Epigenetics in mood disorders". Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine. 13 (1): 16-24. ... increased anxiety and anxiety disorders. These anxiety issues can precipitate the onset of eating disorders and obesity, and ... Evidence for epigenetic modifications for bipolar disorder is unclear. One study found hypomethylation of a gene promoter of a ... Stuffrein-Roberts S, Joyce PR, Kennedy MA (Feb 2008). "Role of epigenetics in mental disorders". The Australian and New Zealand ...
... attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive compulsive disorders, and mood disorders. Hornig received a bachelor's ... Treatment-Resistant Mood Disorders, 2001, ISBN 0-521-59341-7 Hornig M., Chian D., Lipkin W.I., 'Neurotoxic effects of postnatal ... Treatment-Resistant Mood Disorders. Cambridge University Press. pp. iv. "Mady Hornig, Columbia University". December 2022. ... In the 1990s, Hornig helped to develop an infection-based model of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism and depression ...
Wirz-Justice, A. (2003). "Chronobiology and mood disorders". Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience. 5 (4): 315-325. doi:10.31887/ ... Bipolar disorder is known to have a high heritability. Therefore, sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder could also have a ... Sleep is known to play an important role in the etiology and maintenance of bipolar disorder. Patients with bipolar disorder ... The diagnosis of a bipolar disorder is linked to various sleep disorders. Comorbidities include insomnia and hypersomnia. Other ...
... led the DSM-IV Mood Disorders Work Group to add BP-II as its own entity in the 1994 publication. Only one other mood disorder ... Bipolar II disorder (BP-II) is a mood disorder on the bipolar spectrum, characterized by at least one episode of hypomania and ... Hadjipavlou G (2008). "Mood Stabilisers in treatment of Bipolar II Disorder". In Parker G (ed.). Bipolar II Disorder: Modelling ... Psychiatry portal Psychology portal Medicine portal Outline of bipolar disorder Bipolar disorders research Bipolar disorder ...
February 2014). "Allopregnanolone and mood disorders". Progress in Neurobiology. 113: 88-94. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2013.07. ... CNS and Neurological Disorders. 2 (4): 213-232. doi:10.2174/1568007033482841. PMID 12871032. Hanson SM, Czajkowski C (March ... There are estimates that about 2-3 % of the general population may suffer from serious emotional disorders due to such receptor ... The GABAA Receptor as a Therapeutic Target for Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Neuron. 2015 Jun 3;86(5):1119-30. doi: 10.1016/j. ...
Bipolar disorder, Depression (mood), Mood disorders, History of mental disorders). ... ISBN 978-0-19-503934-4. Jung, Carl G. (1970) [1903]. "On Manic mood disorder". In Read, H.; Fordham, M.; Adler, G.; McGuire, W ... Marneros, Andreas (2001). "Expanding the group of bipolar disorders". Journal of Affective Disorders. 62 (1): 39-44. doi: ... including bipolar disorder. His studies are still used as the basis of classification of mental disorders today.[citation ...
... more than one mood disorder can be present in an individual, like bipolar disorder and depressive disorder. If a mood disorder ... Also, an individual may have a mood disorder coexisting with a substance abuse disorder. Substance-induced mood disorders can ... A mood disorder, also known as an affective disorder, is any of a group of conditions of mental and behavioral disorder where a ... Mood disorders, specifically stress-related mood disorders such as anxiety and depression, have been shown to have differing ...
They may say theyre in a bad mood. But mood disorders affect your everyday emotional state. Learn more. ... Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (National Institute of Mental Health) * Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD) ( ... ClinicalTrials.gov: Cyclothymic Disorder (National Institutes of Health) * ClinicalTrials.gov: Mood Disorders (National ... They may say theyre in a bad mood. A mood disorder is different. It affects a persons everyday emotional state. Nearly one in ...
WebMD explains common mood disorders, including Persistent Depressive Disorder and cyclothymic disorder. ... Mood Disorders: What Is Cyclothymic Disorder?. Bipolar disorder causes severe, unusual shifts in mood and energy that affect ... Mood Disorders: What Is Persistent Depressive Disorder?. Persistent Depressive Disorder is a less severe form of depression. ... A family history of mood disorders is not uncommon. This mood disorder tends to appear earlier than major depression, although ...
Mood Disorder. 2012-2022. Inkjet print. 17 3/4 × 12 5/8 (45.1 × 32.1 cm). Samuel J. Wagstaff, Jr. Fund. 545.2022.1. © 2024 ...
Mood stabilizers, particularly lithium, are tied to lower mortality rates, including suicide and naturally occurring death, in ... Mood stabilizers protect against suicide and all-cause mortality in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), including natural ... Cite this: Mood Stabilizers, Particularly Lithium, Potential Lifesavers in Bipolar Disorder - Medscape - Nov 28, 2022. ... Smart Bracelet May Predict Mood Changes in Bipolar Disorder * Dialectical Behavior Therapy Decreased Suicide Attempts in ...
Learn the differences between bipolar disorder versus mood swings, including differences in the symptoms, duration, causes, and ... help doctors differentiate bipolar disorder from other mood disorders.. Mood swings, on the other hand, do not require a formal ... Bipolar disorder and mood swings both involve mood changes, but they are distinct. The difference lies in their intensity, ... Bipolar disorder causes significant and sustained fluctuations in mood. This differs from the fleeting mood swings that many ...
... Friends and family may be the first to recognize symptoms of ​ perinatal mood and anxiety ... Perinatal Mood and Anxiety Disorders. Having a baby can be one of the biggest and happiest events in a persons life. Life with ... You are Here: Home Page , Prenatal Care in New York State , Perinatal Mood and Anxiety Disorders ... The time period while youre pregnant and after your baby is born is called "perinatal." Perinatal Mood and Anxiety Disorders ( ...
What are causes of menopause-related mood disorders?. What is the role of hormonal changes in the etiology of mood disorders ... encoded search term (Menopause and Mood Disorders) and Menopause and Mood Disorders What to Read Next on Medscape ... Improvement of mood and quality of life. In women with mild mood-disorder symptoms that do not meet the criteria for depression ... What triggers exacerbations of mood symptoms in bipolar disorder during menopause?. What is the pathophysiology of mood ...
Can specific dietary guidelines help people living with bipolar disorders better manage their health? Maybe someday, according ... Adjusting fatty acid intake may help with mood variability in bipolar disorders. September 23, 2021. Penn State ... According to the researchers, the experimental diet improved mood variability in patients with bipolar disorders. The results ... including mood-stabilizing medication. Prior research showed that medications for treating bipolar disorders change the way ...
Tags: addictive substances, alcohol, health, Marijuana, Marijuana Use Disorder, mental health, mood disorders, smoking, tobacco ... mood disorders Long-Term Health Impact of Marijuana Use. Posted on Wednesday, January 19th, 2022 at 6:00 am.. Written by Casa ...
... diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were randomly assigned to a massage group or a wait-list control ... Massage therapy improves mood and behavior of students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder Adolescence. 2003 Winter; ... The results revealed that massage therapy benefited students with ADHD by improving short-term mood state and longer-term ... diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were randomly assigned to a massage group or a wait-list control ...
... bipolar disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic ... panic disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, specific phobia, ... In order to further clarify what role internet-based treatment might have in the care of anxiety and mood disorders, it is also ... what effect internet-based psychological treatment has on anxiety and mood disorders in children and adolescents ...
5.9M to study mood disorders, cognition Cognitive changes measured with mobile technology may predict mood disorder relapses ... Brain disruptions similar across many emotional disorders PTSD least like other mood disorders ... Problem-solving leads to better lives for those with mood disorders Researcher of the Year Stewart Shankman: using a ... Fear of the unknown common to many anxiety disorders Shared characteristics could guide treatment ...
Validation of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire for Bipolar Disorders in Adolescents. Karen Dineen Wagner, MD; Robert M. A. ... Objective: The study was designed to determine the validity of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire - Adolescent Version (MDQ-A) as ... Balancing Psychiatric Stability and Cardiometabolic Health in Bipolar I Disorder Dr Goldberg takes viewers through two case ... DSM-IV diagnosis was made based upon the clinician-administered Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School- ...
Today the word from his staff is a mood disorder, citing an unnamed physician; NBC cites a family friend saying that its ... One month is an eternity in the news cycle; in the cycle of serious mood disorders, its only the beginning. The clarity that ... Jesse Jackson Jr.: The Fog of Mood Disorder, Culture, and Reporting Like Thomas Eagleton almost exactly 40 years ago, reports ... David Weigel charts the evolution of the story from missed votes, to exhaustion, to mood disorder, and asks: Has anyone ever ...
... with the hypothesis that heterozygous β-thalassaemia might play a role as a susceptibility factor in bipolar spectrum disorders ... Previous preliminary reports have suggested potential interactions between microcytic anaemia and mood disorders. In particular ... In this survey, an impressive 24% of the 952 patients suffering from major mood disorders had an MCV lower than 80 μ3. Rates of ... The department is one of the reference centres for the management of lithium and related treatments of mood disorders in ...
Role of the Immune System in Mood Disorders. *Chapter 8. Evolutionary Contributions to the Understanding of Mood and Mood ... Seasonal Affective Disorder and Light Therapy for Mood Disorders. *Chapter 35. Atypical Depression, Dysthymia, and Cyclothymia ... Part V: Psychotherapy of Mood Disorders. *Chapter 23. Cognitive and Behavior Therapies for Major Depressive Disorder and ... factor for the development of mood disorders as well as for a pernicious course and poor treatment response in mood disorders. ...
... bipolar disorder has received close attention from Stanford Medicine clinicians and researchers for more than 30 years. ... Serious talk about moods with bipolar disorder expert Po Wang. Often misunderstood and undertreated, bipolar disorder has ... "The idea of bipolar as a mood spectrum disorder, where moods just fluctuate up and down, has diluted the seriousness of the ... An estimated 4.4% of adults in the U.S. -- nearly 50 million people -- will be diagnosed with a mood disorder that falls into ...
... mood variations and emotional states do not exhibit such a periodic pattern and could be described suitably by a low amplitude ... have modeled the mood swings of a patient with bipolar disorder as a Liénard oscillator with autonomous forcing. They proposed ... What is the mathematical description of the treated mood pattern in bipolar disorder? ... Gottschalk, A., Bauer, M. S., and Whybrow, P. C. (1995). Evidence of chaotic mood variation in bipolar disorder. Arch. Gen. ...
... adults will experience a mood disorder at some point in their lives and 31% will experience an anxiety disorder. Yet despite ... Thats why the Anxiety and Depression Association of America (ADAA) developed the Patient Guide to Mood and Anxiety Disorders, ... the large number of individuals who are impacted, mental health diagnosis and treatment of these disorders can be bewildering ... A thorough description of various mental health disorders-including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, social anxiety ...
Counseling for SAD, Post-Partum Depression, Bipolar, Major Depression and other mood issues. ... treat major depression and mood disorders such as bipolar, postpartum depression, and seasonal affective disorder (SAD). ... Depression is a mood disorder that can cause a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest that can interfere with daily ... Depression and other mood disorders often involve psychological, biochemical, family, social and spiritual dimensions. Dr. ...
Methods: We performed a prospective observational cohort study on 55 patients with mood disorders (major depressive disorder [ ... Attempts have also been made to derive clinical implications associated with mood disorders using the vast amounts of digital ... Circadian rhythms are associated with various human states, especially mood disorders, and disturbance of the circadian rhythm ... MDD] and bipolar disorder type 1 [BD I] and 2 [BD II]) for 2 years. A smartphone app for self-recording daily mood scores and ...
Moreover, unlike children with bipolar disorder (BD), chronically irritable children do not tend to have unusually strong ... In DMDD, irritable mood has to be present for at least a year, but usually the mood has been present for much longer than that ... In an attempt to remedy this issue, the authors of DSM-5 included disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) as a new ... Most recently, he has been diagnosed with disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD), a new diagnosis unveiled in 2013 in ...
Hopelessness key component of mood disorder , Spirit India ... Mood Disorder :: Hopelessness key component of mood disorder. ... Mood :: Getting dirty may lift your mood. *Immunity :: Researchers in Montreal and the US create model of key immune-system ... The finding could help therapists diagnose and treat the mood disorder.. Double depression occurs when an individual who ... Bipolar Disorder :: Study to compare efficacy of mood stabilizers for geriatric patients of… ...
Methods In order to maximize ecological validity, individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder (N = 48) reported mood, self- ... Longitudinally, low mood significantly predicted rumination, and engaging in rumination dampened mood at the subsequent time ... Furthermore, high positive mood (marginally) instigated high risk-taking, and in turn engaging in risk-taking resulted in ... Adaptive coping (i.e. problem-solving and distraction) was found to be an effective coping style in improving mood and self- ...
... poor sleep is associated with negative mood in women with bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder is a brain disorder that causes ... HomeHealth Poor Sleep Linked to Mood Swings in Women with Bipolar Disorder ... They looked at the effect of sleep quality at the beginning of the study on mood outcome over the next two years. Mood outcome ... Sleep problems are common in people with bipolar disorder -- and poor sleep quality and bipolar disorder appear to exacerbate ...
My girlfriend and I have been dating for 7 months and they have been for the most part wonderful. I'm at a point though that she is starting to bring me down. She has been dealing with depression for a couple of years an…
Mood Disorder, David Horvitz, New Documents, Motto Books, Chert, 978-1-927354-23-0, 9781927354230, The Future, Ed Steck, ... Mood Disorder documents the propagation of a photograph of David Horvitz across the internet. The image-a self portrait of the ...
Currently offered in a virtual format via Zoom Baby Steps is meets twice monthly via Zoom. Each group is facilitated by a mental health nurse and a nurse from the Family Birth Center. Baby Steps is for any parent or expectant parent experiencing (or wanting to learn more about) signs or symptoms of perinatal mood […]. ...
  • There are several sub-types of depressive disorders or psychiatric syndromes featuring less severe symptoms such as dysthymic disorder (similar to MDD, but longer lasting and more persistent, though often milder) and cyclothymic disorder (similar to but milder than BD). (wikipedia.org)
  • Melancholic depression is characterized by a loss of pleasure (anhedonia) in most or all activities, a failure of reactivity to pleasurable stimuli, a quality of depressed mood more pronounced than that of grief or loss, a worsening of symptoms in the morning hours, early-morning waking, psychomotor retardation, excessive weight loss (not to be confused with anorexia nervosa), or excessive guilt. (wikipedia.org)
  • A diagnosis of PDD in adults requires at least a two-year history of depressed mood for most of the day on most days, along with at least two of the symptoms noted above. (webmd.com)
  • Patients with BD have an elevated risk for multiple comorbidities in addition to mood symptoms and neurocognitive dysfunction, with previous research suggesting a mortality rate due to suicide and natural causes that is at least twice as high as that of the general population, the authors write. (medscape.com)
  • The researchers hypothesized that mood stabilizers "would decrease the risk of mortality" among patients with BD and that "different mood stabilizers would exhibit different associations with mortality, owing to their varying effects on mood symptoms and physiological function. (medscape.com)
  • This article explores the distinction between bipolar disorder versus mood swings, covering bipolar symptoms, diagnosis, and when to seek help. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Bipolar disorder can cause manic episodes, depressive episodes , or "mixed" episodes comprising both manic and depressive symptoms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • There are several types of bipolar disorder , each with different symptoms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • To receive this diagnosis, symptoms must persist for at least 2 years , with mood swings affecting the person at least half the time and not stopping for more than 2 months. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • While stress can exacerbate symptoms, bipolar disorder is primarily rooted in underlying brain chemistry and genetics. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Diagnosing bipolar disorder involves a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation, which may include a review of symptoms, medical history, and family history. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Twice a day they completed surveys on their mobile devices about their mood, pain and other symptoms. (scienceblog.com)
  • The MDQ-A completed by parents about their adolescents' symptoms may be a useful screening instrument for bipolar disorders in an adolescent psychiatric outpatient population. (psychiatrist.com)
  • March is Bipolar Awareness Month, so Wang agreed to share some of what he's learned in his quarter century of studying and helping others comprehend the still little-understood disorder that he said presents a "constellation of symptoms. (stanford.edu)
  • Patients with bipolar disorder often suffer with sleep problems even when many of their other symptoms are well-controlled," said Erika Saunders from department of psychiatry at Penn State College of Medicine.The researchers analyzed data from 216 participants. (ndtv.com)
  • Mood outcome was measured by the severity, frequency and variability of depressive or manic symptoms. (ndtv.com)
  • Doctors base the diagnosis on symptoms as reported by the child, parents, and teachers and do tests to check for other disorders that can be causing the symptoms. (msdmanuals.com)
  • to understand the perception of family members of patients diagnosed with a mood disorder concerning the disease, its symptoms and treatment. (bvsalud.org)
  • If you look at the possibility that drugs and alcohol are causing symptoms, or that drugs and alcohol result from the mood disorder or from their shared risk factors, we see that all three possibilities contribute to the elevated rates. (medscape.com)
  • It is important to remember that this is a common co-occurrence and to be sure to investigate drugs, alcohol, and mood symptoms, depending on what the patient presents with. (medscape.com)
  • and moods which cycle between mania and depression, known as bipolar disorder (BD) (formerly known as manic depression). (wikipedia.org)
  • Major depressive disorder (MDD), commonly called major depression, unipolar depression, or clinical depression, wherein a person has one or more major depressive episodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depression without periods of mania is sometimes referred to as unipolar depression because the mood remains at the bottom "pole" and does not climb to the higher, manic "pole" as in bipolar disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnosticians recognize several subtypes or course specifiers: Atypical depression (AD) is characterized by mood reactivity (paradoxical anhedonia) and positivity,[clarification needed] significant weight gain or increased appetite ("comfort eating"), excessive sleep or somnolence (hypersomnia), a sensation of heaviness in limbs known as leaden paralysis, and significant social impairment as a consequence of hypersensitivity to perceived interpersonal rejection. (wikipedia.org)
  • When you think of mood disorders , depression and bipolar disorder likely come to mind first. (webmd.com)
  • Depression and bipolar disorder can be emotionally crippling, making it difficult to live life to its fullest. (webmd.com)
  • Persistent Depressive Disorder is a less severe form of depression . (webmd.com)
  • This mood disorder tends to appear earlier than major depression , although it can begin anytime from childhood to later in life. (webmd.com)
  • And a chronic mood disorder can sensitize you to stress, further feeding your risk for depression. (webmd.com)
  • If left untreated, this mood disorder can develop into more severe depression. (webmd.com)
  • These include depression and bipolar disorder (also called manic depression). (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with cyclothymic disorder have frequent periods of hypomania and depression that do not meet the criteria for episodes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Studies of mood during menopause have generally revealed an increased risk of depression during perimenopause, with a decrease in risk during postmenopausal years. (medscape.com)
  • [ 8 ] The strongest predictor of depressed mood was a prior history of depression, along with fluctuations in reproductive hormone levels associated with depressed mood. (medscape.com)
  • Research has shown that reproductive hormones produced during menopause contribute to mood alterations, such as depression. (medscape.com)
  • This diet isn't meant to be a treatment for people with bipolar disorders who are experiencing acute, severe depression or mania," Saunders said. (scienceblog.com)
  • The best way to think about depression is as a mild neurodegenerative disorder,' says Ronald Duman, a professor of psychiatry and pharmacology at Yale. (chicagomag.com)
  • That's why the Anxiety and Depression Association of America (ADAA) developed the Patient Guide to Mood and Anxiety Disorders, designed to empower patients and their support networks in their quest for wellness. (adaa.org)
  • A comprehensive review of evidence-based psychotherapies such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, dialectical behavior therapy, and others for treatment of conditions such as postpartum depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. (adaa.org)
  • With case vignettes that illustrate important information, a multitude of easily referenced tables, and suggested readings for further exploration, Anxiety and Depression Association of America Patient Guide to Mood and Anxiety Disorders provides readers with the knowledge and tools to make informed decisions and embark on a journey toward lasting wellness. (adaa.org)
  • Depression is one of the most debilitating of disorders because of the way it saps your life energy and distorts your thinking to keep you in that state. (theravive.com)
  • Grey Matters International, Inc. and the work of Kevin J. Fleming, Ph.D. handles depression and other emotional disorders in a very unique way. (theravive.com)
  • Sound bad - It is, according to Thomas Joiner, Florida State University Distinguished Research Professor and the Bright-Burton Professor of Psychology, who has identified hopelessness as a distinguishing feature of double depression in a new paper published in the Journal of Affective Disorders. (spiritindia.com)
  • Physical disorders, life experiences, and heredity can contribute to depression. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Depression Depression is a feeling of sadness and/or a decreased interest or pleasure in activities that becomes a disorder when it is intense enough to interfere with functioning. (msdmanuals.com)
  • If you look at smoking, which is often excluded from these statistics, you will find very high rates of use in patients with bipolar disorder and major depression . (medscape.com)
  • Among all the mental and neurological disorders, depression accounts for the largest proportion of the burden. (who.int)
  • Most recently, he has been diagnosed with disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD), a new diagnosis unveiled in 2013 in DSM-5. (thecarlatreport.com)
  • In an attempt to remedy this issue, the authors of DSM-5 included disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) as a new diagnosis (Towbin K et al, J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2013;52:466-481). (thecarlatreport.com)
  • Children with disruptive mood dysregulation disorder have frequent, severe temper outbursts and, between outbursts, are irritable and angry. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Perinatal Mood and Anxiety Disorders (PMAD) can happen while you are pregnant - during the prenatal period. (ny.gov)
  • A detailed, chapter-by-chapter analysis of U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved medications for psychiatric disorders as well as new medications in development. (adaa.org)
  • The GHQ-28 may be useful for screening for asthma patients who need more attention and therapeutic intervention for psychiatric disorders. (who.int)
  • People scoring positive on the MDQ without a diagnosis of mood disorders showed significantly lower scores on the SF-12 compared to people of the same age and of the same sex with an equal diagnosis of psychiatric disorders not related to mood disorders (35.21 ± 6.30 vs. 41.48 ± 3.39, p (bvsalud.org)
  • Further, mental health researchers and clinicians are embracing the idea that the combined effects of genetics and environmental exposures can result in perturbations in brain neurochemistry leading to psychiatric disorders. (cdc.gov)
  • Groups at higher risk of developing mental disorders include people with serious or chronic physical illnesses, children and adolescents, whose upbringing has been disrupted, people living in poverty or in difficult conditions, the unemployed, female victims of violence and abuse, and neglected elderly persons. (who.int)
  • After more than one episode, the diagnosis becomes Major Depressive Disorder (Recurrent). (wikipedia.org)
  • Persistent Depressive Disorder, a newer diagnosis that consolidates chronic major depressive disorder and dysthymic disorder, is a condition where a person is depressed for at least 2 years. (webmd.com)
  • DSM-IV diagnosis was made based upon the clinician-administered Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL), a semistructured diagnostic interview. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Dr Goldberg takes viewers through two case profiles of patients with bipolar I disorder, including assessment, diagnosis, and treatment, with a focus on cardiometabolic safety. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Yet despite the large number of individuals who are impacted, mental health diagnosis and treatment of these disorders can be bewildering for patients and their families alike. (adaa.org)
  • A thorough description of various mental health disorders-including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, social anxiety disorder, and others-that bridges the gap between professional diagnosis and patient comprehension. (adaa.org)
  • They suffer just as much as children with BD, but under DSM-IV, there wasn't a distinct diagnosis for very severe, chronic irritability-a disturbance in mood-as the major problem. (thecarlatreport.com)
  • Controls MDQ negatives matched by sex , age, and psychiatric diagnosis according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV ( DSM-IV ) criteria. (bvsalud.org)
  • The classification is in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and International Classification of Diseases (ICD). (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific diagnostic criteria, as outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5-TR) , help doctors differentiate bipolar disorder from other mood disorders. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Psychiatry and psychology are beginning to recognize the importance of lead, mercury and heavy metals as causal partners in the development of mental disorders. (cdc.gov)
  • Four other mental disorders figure in the top 10 causes of disability in the world, namely alcohol abuse, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and obsessive compulsive disorder. (who.int)
  • The economic impact of mental disorders is wide-ranging, long-lasting and large. (who.int)
  • Studies from countries with established economies have shown that mental disorders consume more than 20% of all health service costs. (who.int)
  • The aggregate yearly cost of mental disorders in 1990 for the United States of America was estimated at US$ 148 000 million. (who.int)
  • Bipolar disorder vs. mood swings: What is the difference? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This differs from the fleeting mood swings that many people experience from time to time. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Mood swings are very common and may happen in response to daily stress, hormonal changes, or lack of sleep. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Bipolar disorder and mood swings both involve mood changes , but they are distinct. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In comparison, mood swings are typically short-lived, lasting less than a day , and may result from specific triggers. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Mood swings involve temporary shifts in mood. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Mood swings may occur seemingly at random, or in response to a specific trigger. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • have modeled the mood swings of a patient with bipolar disorder as a Liénard oscillator with autonomous forcing. (frontiersin.org)
  • PDD can occur alone or with other psychiatric or mood disorders, although not with mania or hypomania. (webmd.com)
  • Investigators led by Pao-Huan Chen, MD, of the Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taiwan, evaluated the association between the use of mood stabilizers and the risks for all-cause mortality, suicide, and natural mortality in over 25,000 patients with BD and found that those with BD had higher mortality. (medscape.com)
  • Stanford Medicine researchers have been among early pioneers to home in on bipolar research and treatment thanks to Terence Ketter , MD, emeritus professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences (psychopharmacology), who launched the Bipolar Disorders Clinic in 1995 and drew international attention for his research and seminal authorings on the neurobiology of mood disorders. (stanford.edu)
  • Can specific dietary guidelines help people living with bipolar disorders better manage their health? (scienceblog.com)
  • Bipolar disorders, which affect up to 2.4% of the population, are mental health conditions where individuals experience cyclic and abnormally elevated and/or depressed mood states. (scienceblog.com)
  • Saunders and her colleagues designed a diet to alter the levels of specific polyunsaturated fatty acids - nutrients found in many foods - participants consumed while participating in usual care for bipolar disorders, including mood-stabilizing medication. (scienceblog.com)
  • Prior research showed that medications for treating bipolar disorders change the way bodies break down, or metabolize, fatty acids. (scienceblog.com)
  • The byproducts of this process activate different parts of the immune system and include other chemical processes that affect how the body perceives pain, a common symptom reported by people living with bipolar disorders. (scienceblog.com)
  • More than 80 people with bipolar disorders participated in diet counseling and were given specific foods to eat for a 12-week period. (scienceblog.com)
  • According to the researchers, the experimental diet improved mood variability in patients with bipolar disorders. (scienceblog.com)
  • The results were published in the journal Bipolar Disorders. (scienceblog.com)
  • At this time, we can't yet recommend this type of diet for patients with bipolar disorders, although we found the diet to be safe," said Saunders, noting that follow-up studies are needed. (scienceblog.com)
  • In the future, the research team will continue to assess how fatty acid metabolites may affect pain in bipolar disorders. (scienceblog.com)
  • Saunders said that by replicating the study, they hope to make sound, scientific dietary recommendations for people with bipolar disorders that could be more easily implemented in their everyday lives. (scienceblog.com)
  • The study was designed to determine the validity of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire - Adolescent Version (MDQ-A) as a screening instrument for bipolar disorders (I, II, not otherwise specified, and cyclothymia) in an adolescent outpatient psychiatric population. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Does Screening for Bipolar Disorders Identify a 'Dysregulation of Mood, Energy, and Social Rhythms Syndrome' (DYMERS)? (bvsalud.org)
  • On the other hand, a psychiatric population surveyed in Argentina revealed excessive prevalence of microcytic anaemia among patients suffering from recurrent mood disorder [ 14 ]. (springer.com)
  • Mood disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD), are common, with recurrent mood episodes and substantial chronicity. (jmir.org)
  • Mood Disorder documents the propagation of a photograph of David Horvitz across the internet. (mottodistribution.com)
  • Sleep problems are common in people with bipolar disorder -- and poor sleep quality and bipolar disorder appear to exacerbate each other. (ndtv.com)
  • A mood disorder, also known as an affective disorder, is any of a group of conditions of mental and behavioral disorder where a disturbance in the person's mood is the main underlying feature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Circadian rhythms are associated with various human states, especially mood disorders, and disturbance of the circadian rhythm is known to be very closely related. (jmir.org)
  • If a mood disorder and schizophrenia are both present in an individual, this is known as schizoaffective disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mood disorders can increase a person's risk for heart disease, diabetes, and other diseases. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In contrast, bipolar mood episodes can last 1-2 weeks and may affect a person's decision making or judgment. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • These factors can also affect mood in people with bipolar disorder, but the factors that make their mood shifts so much more significant likely lie in a person's genetics, brain chemistry, and brain activity. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The findings of this study could inform future clinical and mechanistic research evaluating the multifaceted effects of mood stabilizers, particularly lithium, on the psychological and physiological statuses of patients with bipolar disorder," they add. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical trial results showed that a diet designed to alter levels of specific fatty acids consumed by participants may help patients have less variability in their mood. (scienceblog.com)
  • Investigational agents, most notably ketamine and its relatives, constitute an exciting frontier in the treatment of mood disorders, and the clinical application, routes of delivery, dosing, risks, and clinical trials are explored in a dedicated chapter that is both rigorous and thorough. (appi.org)
  • As our understanding of immune function in mood disorders has grown, psychoneuroimmunology has emerged as a focus of study likely to make major contributions to clinical practice in the coming decades. (appi.org)
  • Attempts have also been made to derive clinical implications associated with mood disorders using the vast amounts of digital log that is acquired by digital technologies develop and using computational analysis techniques. (jmir.org)
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the mood state or episode, activity, sleep, light exposure, and heart rate during a period of about 2 years by acquiring various digital log data through wearable devices and smartphone apps as well as conventional clinical assessments. (jmir.org)
  • In addition to academic value, it is expected that this study will be of practical help to improve the prognosis of patients with mood disorders by making it possible to apply actual clinical application owing to the rapid expansion of digital technology. (jmir.org)
  • Today I want to talk about the co-occurrence of substance abuse disorders with mood disorders, a common clinical problem. (medscape.com)
  • The American Psychiatric Association Publishing Textbook of Mood Disorders equips clinicians and trainees with the knowledge they need to alleviate suffering in their patients with mood disorders. (appi.org)
  • Unrecognized depressive disorder may slow recovery and worsen prognosis in physical illness, therefore it is important that all doctors be able to recognize the condition, treat the less severe cases, and identify those requiring specialist care. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individuals with bipolar I disorder experience manic episodes lasting at least 1 week that can lead to severe disruptions in daily life. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Bipolar disorder is a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks. (ndtv.com)
  • Johnny's case illustrates the two core criteria for DMDD: temper outbursts and a generally irritable mood. (thecarlatreport.com)
  • In children and teens, moods can be irritable for at least 1 year to be called Persistent Depressive Disorder. (webmd.com)
  • The second core criterion for DMDD is pervasive irritable mood. (thecarlatreport.com)
  • Recent advances in neurosciences, genetics, psychosocial therapy, pharmacotherapy, and sociocultural disciplines have led to the elaboration of effective interventions for a wide range of mental health problems, offering an opportunity for people with mental and behavioural disorders and their families to lead full and productive lives. (who.int)
  • Mood Disorders: What Is Persistent Depressive Disorder? (webmd.com)
  • Although less extreme, Persistent Depressive Disorder (PDD) causes chronic or long-lasting moodiness that ranges in severity. (webmd.com)
  • In bipolar disorder, mood episodes are pronounced and persistent, lasting up to 1-2 weeks at a time. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Mood dysregulation disorder involves persistent irritability and frequent episodes of behavior that is very out of control. (msdmanuals.com)
  • During manic episodes, individuals experience heightened mood, increased energy, and a reduced need for sleep. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Our goal with this trial was to see if specific dietary interventions could help patients with mood variability between episodes. (scienceblog.com)
  • This carefully constructed nutrition plan shows promise for regulating mood between manic and depressive episodes, but we're not sure if this could be widely adopted since it would be challenging for patients to follow this rigorous program. (scienceblog.com)
  • The condition is marked by extreme mood episodes marked by manic highs, depressive lows or mixed. (ndtv.com)
  • mood disorders, given their complexity and prevalence, must be understood by society, families and professionals. (bvsalud.org)
  • The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the prevalence of depressed mood among asthma patients (n = 280) attending a pulmonary clinic in Tehran and compare it with measures of severity of asthma and of health and well-being. (who.int)
  • The aim of this paper is to verify if people with a positive score on the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) without comorbidity of mood disorders showed a worse level of Health -related Quality of life ( HRQol ) compared to a control-matched sample of MDQ negatives, identifying a specific syndrome . (bvsalud.org)
  • There is a historical view that people with mood disorders use drugs and alcohol to self-medicate. (medscape.com)
  • This is particularly true because there are relatively few treatments that are effective both for mood disorders and for drug and alcohol use disorders, so it's hard to use one strike to manage both things. (medscape.com)
  • If someone is presenting with a mood disorder, be sure to examine the use of drugs, alcohol, and smoking. (medscape.com)
  • The converse is also true: If someone is seeking treatment for drug or alcohol abuse , don't forget to investigate the occurrence of a mood disorder. (medscape.com)
  • Mood disorders are also elevated in primary drug and alcohol user s. (medscape.com)
  • I strongly recommend that as you work with patients with this co-occurrence, that in the process of developing mood charts you include tracking of the use of drugs and alcohol to help you decide whether treatments are effective. (medscape.com)
  • English psychiatrist Henry Maudsley proposed an overarching category of affective disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to a new study, published in the Journal of Affective Disorders, poor sleep is associated with negative mood in women with bipolar disorder. (ndtv.com)
  • The goal of this review is to raise awareness in the mental health community about the possibility that affective disorders might be the result of contributions from environmental and occupational pesticide poisoning. (cdc.gov)
  • Mood disorders and substance abuse can easily overlap, but you can go into residential treatment in the absence of addiction. (chicagomag.com)
  • While this discussion could also be relevant to substance abuse co-occurring with anxiety or other mental health conditions, I will use mood disorders as my primary example. (medscape.com)
  • Inadequate management of either the mood disorder or the substance abuse disorder invariably leads to failure, minimal, or nonoptimal outcomes for the other condition. (medscape.com)
  • While there are many medications to help these people find a sweet spot between their fluctuating moods -- from a manic state of high energy to an often paralyzingly depressive low -- those pharmacological interventions are riddled with adverse effects and can be tricky to dial in, if they work at all. (stanford.edu)
  • Nearly one in ten people aged 18 and older have mood disorders. (medlineplus.gov)
  • With treatment, most people with mood disorders can lead productive lives. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with bipolar II disorder do not experience mania. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • But if you have people in your life afflicted with bipolar disorder, you quickly realize that not all moodiness is created equally. (stanford.edu)
  • An estimated 4.4% of adults in the U.S. -- nearly 50 million people -- will be diagnosed with a mood disorder that falls into the bipolar classification. (stanford.edu)
  • Substance Use Disorders Substance use disorders generally involve behavior patterns in which people continue to use a substance (for example, a recreational drug) despite having problems caused by its use. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Research has demonstrated high levels of anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorders among people after hurricanes, floods, heat waves, and wildfires," said Paul Schramm, the climate science team lead at CDC's Climate and Health Program . (cdc.gov)
  • The number of people with mental and neurological disorders will grow - with the burden rising to 15% of DALYs lost by the year 2020. (who.int)
  • Globally, less than 40% of people experiencing a mood, anxiety or substance use disorder seek assistance in the first year of its onset. (who.int)
  • Mood disorders may also be substance induced, or occur in response to a medical condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Substance use disorders very commonly co-occur with mood disorders, particularly bipolar disorder , where rates are as high as 40%-60% at some point in patients' lives. (medscape.com)
  • With treatment, ​Perinatal Mood and Anxiety Disorderscan be temporary. (ny.gov)
  • A number of psychological treatments have received a high priority in national guidelines for the treatment of anxiety and mood disorders, and they represent an important part of the treatment services offered for these conditions. (sbu.se)
  • SBU has evaluated the short and long-term benefits and risks of internet-based psychological treatment for anxiety and mood disorders for children, adolescents, and adults. (sbu.se)
  • In order to further clarify what role internet-based treatment might have in the care of anxiety and mood disorders, it is also important to clarify the extent to which internet-based treatment is requested by patients. (sbu.se)
  • Critically important to the clinician is the section on management of mood disorders, which provides treatment guidelines for major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder, as well as information on understanding, and preventing, suicide in children, adolescents, and adults. (appi.org)
  • There is compelling evidence that childhood maltreatment (defined as exposure to emotional, physical, and sexual abuse and neglect before the age of 18 years) is a prominent risk factor for the development of mood disorders as well as for a pernicious course and poor treatment response in mood disorders. (appi.org)
  • Bipolar disorder a serious biological condition that requires serious treatment, not unlike cancer or heart disease. (stanford.edu)
  • (C) Time series of mood pattern in modified model, before and after treatment. (frontiersin.org)
  • A concise summary of evidence-based treatments for specific disorders that will help guide informed decisions toward optimal treatment paths. (adaa.org)
  • qualitative case study with relatives of patients diagnosed with mood disorders undergoing treatment in a psychiatric hospital. (bvsalud.org)
  • Previous preliminary reports have suggested potential interactions between microcytic anaemia and mood disorders. (springer.com)
  • Our interest in potential interactions between mood disorders of the bipolar spectrum and blood conditions typical of the Mediterranean area, such as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and heterozygous β-thalassaemia, was first aroused in the 1980 s. (springer.com)
  • These findings, as well as the underlying neurobiological and environmental interactions that may contribute to the development of mood disorders, are examined thoroughly and thoughtfully. (appi.org)
  • The interactions between co-occurring mood disorder and substance use disorder are very complex. (medscape.com)
  • Often misunderstood and undertreated, bipolar disorder has received close attention from Stanford Medicine clinicians and researchers for more than 30 years. (stanford.edu)
  • In the 1990s and early 2000s, many clinicians might have diagnosed Johnny with bipolar disorder (BD). (thecarlatreport.com)
  • We feel it's extremely important for clinicians and patients to recognize that sleep quality is an important factor that needs to be treated in patients with bipolar disorder, particularly in women," Saunders said. (ndtv.com)
  • For these reasons, it does not cover diagnoses such as pervasive developmental disorders, speech and language disorders, or the organic brain syndromes. (cdc.gov)
  • After a single episode, Major Depressive Disorder (single episode) would be diagnosed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individuals with a major depressive episode or major depressive disorder are at increased risk for suicide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depressive disorder is frequent in primary care and general hospital practice but is often undetected. (wikipedia.org)
  • The department is one of the reference centres for the management of lithium and related treatments of mood disorders in southern Sardinia. (springer.com)