Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons which contain one or more double bonds in the ring. The cyclohexadienes are not aromatic, in contrast to BENZOQUINONES which are sometimes called 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-diones.
Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze reactions in which a group can be regarded as eliminated from one part of a molecule, leaving a double bond, while remaining covalently attached to the molecule. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.5.
A plant genus of the LAMIACEAE family.
A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE.
Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.
The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
SESQUITERPENES cyclized to one 10-carbon ring.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
A plant genus, of the family ONAGRACEAE, which is the subject of genetic studies. The floral aroma is attributed to benzenoid esters and benzyl acetate.
The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).
A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.
A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that is the source of peppermint oil.
A phenol obtained from thyme oil or other volatile oils used as a stabilizer in pharmaceutical preparations, and as an antiseptic (antibacterial or antifungal) agent. It was formerly used as a vermifuge.
Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
An alcohol produced from mint oils or prepared synthetically.
A plant species of the genus PINUS which is the source of pinosylvin. It is sometimes called Scotch pine or Scots pine, which is also a common name for other species of this genus.
Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Family of MITES, in the superfamily Acaroidea, order Astigmata. They are frequently found in cereal-based foodstuffs including GRAIN and FLOUR.
A plant genus of the family MYRTACEAE. Members contain PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.
A plant genus of the family Illiciaceae, order Illiciales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. They have evergreen, aromatic leaves and bisexual flowers. The female portion of the flower consists of 7 to 15 carpels.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A bicyclic monoterpene ketone found widely in plants, especially CINNAMOMUM CAMPHORA. It is used topically as a skin antipruritic and as an anti-infective agent.
An enzyme that, in the pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis, catalyzes the condensation of isopentenyl pyrophosphate and dimethylallylpyrophosphate to yield pyrophosphate and geranylpyrophosphate. The enzyme then catalyzes the condensation of the latter compound with another molecule of isopentenyl pyrophosphate to yield pyrophosphate and farnesylpyrophosphate. EC 2.5.1.1.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
A class of enzymes that catalyze geometric or structural changes within a molecule to form a single product. The reactions do not involve a net change in the concentrations of compounds other than the substrate and the product.(from Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.
A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Enzymes that catalyze the shifting of a carbon-carbon double bond from one position to another within the same molecule. EC 5.3.3.
An alcohol oxidoreductase which catalyzes the oxidation of L-iditol to L-sorbose in the presence of NAD. It also acts on D-glucitol to form D-fructose. It also acts on other closely related sugar alcohols to form the corresponding sugar. EC 1.1.1.14
Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain ungiminorine and LECTINS.
A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes classified as Amaryllidaceae). Galanthus nivalis L. is the source of GALANTHAMINE.
A family of flowering plants in the order Caryophyllales, with about 60 genera and more than 800 species of plants, with a few shrubs, trees, and vines. The leaves usually have nonindented edges.

Prevention and therapy of cancer by dietary monoterpenes. (1/702)

Monoterpenes are nonnutritive dietary components found in the essential oils of citrus fruits and other plants. A number of these dietary monoterpenes have antitumor activity. For example, d-limonene, which comprises >90% of orange peel oil, has chemopreventive activity against rodent mammary, skin, liver, lung and forestomach cancers. Similarly, other dietary monoterpenes have chemopreventive activity against rat mammary, lung and forestomach cancers when fed during the initiation phase. In addition, perillyl alcohol has promotion phase chemopreventive activity against rat liver cancer, and geraniol has in vivo antitumor activity against murine leukemia cells. Perillyl alcohol and d-limonene also have chemotherapeutic activity against rodent mammary and pancreatic tumors. As a result, their cancer chemotherapeutic activities are under evaluation in Phase I clinical trials. Several mechanisms of action may account for the antitumor activities of monoterpenes. The blocking chemopreventive effects of limonene and other monoterpenes during the initiation phase of mammary carcinogenesis are likely due to the induction of Phase II carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes, resulting in carcinogen detoxification. The post-initiation phase, tumor suppressive chemopreventive activity of monoterpenes may be due to the induction of apoptosis and/or to inhibition of the post-translational isoprenylation of cell growth-regulating proteins. Chemotherapy of chemically induced mammary tumors with monoterpenes results in tumor redifferentiation concomitant with increased expression of the mannose-6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor and transforming growth factor beta1. Thus, monoterpenes would appear to act through multiple mechanisms in the chemoprevention and chemotherapy of cancer.  (+info)

Activation of the transforming growth factor beta signaling pathway and induction of cytostasis and apoptosis in mammary carcinomas treated with the anticancer agent perillyl alcohol. (2/702)

The mechanisms of action of the anticancer agent perillyl alcohol (POH), presently in Phase II clinical trials, were investigated in advanced rat mammary carcinomas. Gross and ultrastructural morphology of POH-mediated tumor regression indicated that apoptosis accounted for the marked reduction in the epithelial compartment. Characterization of cell growth and death indices revealed that apoptosis was induced within 48 h of chemotherapy, before the induction of cytostasis. RNA expression studies, based on a multiplexed-nuclease protection assay, demonstrated that cell cycle- and apoptosis-related genes were differentially expressed within 48 h of POH treatment; p21(Cip1/WAF1), bax, bad, and annexin I were induced; cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 were repressed; and bcl-2 and p53 were unchanged. Next, a potential role for transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling in POH-mediated carcinoma regression was explored. RNA expression studies, again based on a multiplexed-nuclease protection assay, showed that TGF-beta-related genes were induced and temporally regulated during POH treatment: (a) c-jun and c-fos were transiently induced within 12 h of chemotherapy; (b) TGF-beta1 was induced within 24 h of chemotherapy; (c) the mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor and the TGF-beta type I and II receptors were induced within 48 h of chemotherapy; and (d) smad3 was induced during active carcinoma regression. In situ protein expression studies, based on fluorescence-immunohistochemistry in concert with confocal microscopy, confirmed up-regulation and demonstrated colocalization of TGF-beta1, the mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor, the TGF-beta type I and II receptors, and Smad2/Smad3 in epithelial cells. Nuclear localization of Smad2/Smad3 indicated that the TGF-beta signaling pathway was activated in regressing carcinomas. Subpopulations of Smad2/Smad3-positive and apoptotic nuclei colocalized, indicating a role for Smads in apoptosis. Thus, Smads may serve as a potential biomarker for anticancer activity. Importantly, none of the POH-mediated anticancer activities were observed in normal mammary gland.  (+info)

Metabolism of (R)-(+)-pulegone and (R)-(+)-menthofuran by human liver cytochrome P-450s: evidence for formation of a furan epoxide. (3/702)

(R)-(+)-Pulegone, a monoterpene constituent of pennyroyal oil, is a hepatotoxin that has been used in folklore medicine as an abortifacient despite its potential lethal effects. Pulegone is metabolized by human liver cytochrome P-450s to menthofuran, a proximate hepatotoxic metabolite of pulegone. Expressed human liver cytochrome (CYP) P-450s (1A2, 2A6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4) were tested for their ability to catalyze the oxidations of pulegone and menthofuran. Expressed CYP2E1, CYP1A2, and CYP2C19 oxidized pulegone to menthofuran, with respective Km and Vmax values of 29 microM and 8.4 nmol/min/nmol P-450 for CYP2E1, 94 microM and 2.4 nmol/min/nmol P-450 for CYP1A2, and 31 microM and 1.5 nmol/min/nmol P-450 for CYP2C19. The human liver P-450s involved in the metabolism of menthofuran are the same as pulegone except for the addition of CYP2A6. These P-450s were found to oxidize menthofuran to a newly identified metabolite, 2-hydroxymenthofuran, which is an intermediate in the formation of the known metabolites mintlactone and isomintlactone. Based on studies with 18O2 and H218O, 2-hydroxymenthofuran arises predominantly from a dihydrodiol formed from a furan epoxide. CYP2E1, CYP1A2, and CYP2C19 oxidized menthofuran with respective Km and Vmax values of 33 microM and 0.43 nmol/min/nmol P-450 for CYP2E1, 57 microM and 0.29 nmol/min/nmol P-450 for CYP1A2, and 62 microM and 0.26 nmol/min/nmol P-450 for CYP2C19.  (+info)

Olfactory discrimination ability of human subjects for ten pairs of enantiomers. (4/702)

We tested the ability of human subjects to distinguish between enantiomers, i.e. odorants which are identical except for chirality. In a forced-choice triangular test procedure 20 subjects were repeatedly presented with 10 enantiomeric odor pairs and asked to identify the bottle containing the odd stimulus. We found (i) that as a group, the subjects were only able to significantly discriminate the optical isomers of alpha-pinene, carvone and limonene, whereas they failed to distinguish between the (+)- and (-)-forms of menthol, fenchone, rose oxide, camphor, alpha-terpineol, beta-citronellol and 2-butanol; (ii) marked individual differences in discrimination performance, ranging from subjects who were able to significantly discriminate between 6 of the 10 odor pairs to subjects who failed to do so with 9 of the 10 tasks; (iii) that with none of the 10 odor pairs were the antipodes reported to differ significantly in subjective intensity when presented at equal concentrations; and (iv) that error rates were quite stable and did not differ significantly between sessions, and thus, we observed a lack of learning or training effects. Additional tests of the degree of trigeminality and threshold measurements of the optical isomers of alpha-pinene, carvone and limonene suggest that the discriminability of these three enantiomeric odor pairs is indeed due to differences in odor quality. These findings support the assumption that enantioselective molecular odor receptors may only exist for some but not all volatile enantiomers and thus that chiral recognition of odorants may not be a general phenomenon but is restricted to some substances.  (+info)

Identification and sequencing of beta-myrcene catabolism genes from Pseudomonas sp. strain M1. (5/702)

The M1 strain, able to grow on beta-myrcene as the sole carbon and energy source, was isolated by an enrichment culture and identified as a Pseudomonas sp. One beta-myrcene-negative mutant, called N22, obtained by transposon mutagenesis, accumulated (E)-2-methyl-6-methylen-2,7-octadien-1-ol (or myrcen-8-ol) as a unique beta-myrcene biotransformation product. This compound was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We cloned and sequenced the DNA regions flanking the transposon and used these fragments to identify the M1 genomic library clones containing the wild-type copy of the interrupted gene. One of the selected cosmids, containing a 22-kb genomic insert, was able to complement the N22 mutant for growth on beta-myrcene. A 5,370-bp-long sequence spanning the region interrupted by the transposon in the mutant was determined. We identified four open reading frames, named myrA, myrB, myrC, and myrD, which can potentially code for an aldehyde dehydrogenase, an alcohol dehydrogenase, an acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase, and an enoyl-CoA hydratase, respectively. myrA, myrB, and myrC are likely organized in an operon, since they are separated by only 19 and 36 nucleotides (nt), respectively, and no promoter-like sequences have been found in these regions. The myrD gene starts 224 nt upstream of myrA and is divergently transcribed. The myrB sequence was found to be completely identical to the one flanking the transposon in the mutant. Therefore, we could ascertain that the transposon had been inserted inside the myrB gene, in complete agreement with the accumulation of (E)-2-methyl-6-methylen-2,7-octadien-1-ol by the mutant. Based on sequence and biotransformation data, we propose a pathway for beta-myrcene catabolism in Pseudomonas sp. strain M1.  (+info)

Mechanism of inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase by citral, a retinoid antagonist. (6/702)

Low concentrations of citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal), an inhibitor of retinoic acid biosynthesis, inhibited E1, E2 and E3 isozymes of human aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC1.2.1.3). The inhibition was reversible on dilution and upon long incubation in the presence of NAD+; it occurred with simultaneous formation of NADH and of geranic acid. Thus, citral is an inhibitor and also a substrate. Km values for citral were 4 microM for E1, 1 microM for E2 and 0.1 microM for E3; Vmax values were highest for E1 (73 nmol x min-1 x mg-1), intermediate for E2 (17 nmol x min-1 x mg-1) and lowest (0.07 nmol x min-1 x mg-1) for the E3 isozyme. Citral is a 1 : 2 mixture of isomers: cis isomer neral and trans isomer, geranial; the latter structurally resembles physiologically important retinoids. Both were utilized by all three isozymes; a preference for the trans isomer, geranial, was observed by HPLC and by enzyme kinetics. With the E1 isozyme, both geranial and neral, and with the E2 isozyme, only neral obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. With the E2 isozyme and geranial sigmoidal saturation curves were observed with S0.5 of approximately 50 nM; the n-values of 2-2.5 indicated positive cooperativity. Geranial was a better substrate and a better inhibitor than neral. The low Vmax, which appeared to be controlled by either the slow formation, or decomposition via the hydride transfer, of the thiohemiacetal reaction intermediate, makes citral an excellent inhibitor whose selectivity is enhanced by low Km values. The Vmax for citral with the E1 isozyme was higher than those of the E2 and E3 isozymes which explains its fast recovery following inhibition by citral and suggests that E1 may be the enzyme involved in vivo citral metabolism.  (+info)

The branched-chain dodecylbenzene sulfonate degradation pathway of Pseudomonas aeruginosa W51D involves a novel route for degradation of the surfactant lateral alkyl chain. (7/702)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa W51D is able to grow by using branched-chain dodecylbenzene sulfonates (B-DBS) or the terpenic alcohol citronellol as a sole source of carbon. A mutant derived from this strain (W51M1) is unable to degrade citronellol but still grows on B-DBS, showing that the citronellol degradation route is not the main pathway involved in the degradation of the surfactant alkyl moiety. The structures of the main B-DBS isomers and of some intermediates were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis, and a possible catabolic route is proposed.  (+info)

p53 induction as a genotoxic test for twenty-five chemicals undergoing in vivo carcinogenicity testing. (8/702)

In vivo carcinogenicity testing is an expensive and time-consuming process, and as a result, only a relatively small fraction of new and existing chemicals has been tested in this manner. Therefore, the development and validation of alternative approaches is desirable. We previously developed a mammalian in vitro assay for genotoxicity based on the ability of cells to increase their level of the tumor-suppressor protein p53 in response to DNA damage. Cultured cells are treated with various amounts of the test substances, and at defined times following treatment, they are harvested and lysed. The lysates are analyzed for p53 by Western blot and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. An increase in cellular p53 following treatment is interpreted as evidence for DNA damage. To determine the ability of this p53-induction assay to predict carcinogenicity in rodents and to compare such results with those obtained using alternate approaches, we subjected 25 chemicals from the predictive toxicology evaluation 2 list to analysis with this method. Five substances (citral, cobalt sulfate heptahydrate, D&C Yellow No. 11, oxymetholone, and t-butylhydroquinone) tested positive in this assay, and three substances (emodin, phenolphthalein, and sodium xylenesulfonate) tested as possibly positive. Comparisons between the results obtained with this assay and those obtained with the in vivo protocol, the Salmonella assay, and the Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell assay indicate that the p53-induction assay is an excellent predictor of the limited number of genotoxic carcinogens in this set, and that its accuracy is roughly equivalent to or better than the Salmonella and SHE assays for the complete set of chemicals.  (+info)

Monoterpenes are found in the essential oils of many plants including fruits, vegetables, and herbs. They prevent the carcinogenesis process at both the initiation and promotion/progression stages. In addition, monoterpenes are effective in treating early and advanced cancers. Monoterpenes such as limonene and perillyl alcohol have been shown to prevent mammary, liver, lung, andother cancers. These compounds have also been used to treat a variety of rodent cancers, including breast and pancreatic carcinomas. In addition, in vitro data suggest that they may be effective in treating neuroblastomas and leukemias. Both limonene and perillyl alcohol are currently being evaluated in phase I clinical trials in advanced cancer patients. The monoterpenes have several cellular and molecular activities that could potentially underlie their positive therapeutic index. The monoterpenes inhibit the isoprenylation of small G proteins. Such inhibitions could alter signal transduction and result in altered gene ...
abstract = Monoterpenes are abundant in essential oil extracted from plants. These relatively small and hydrophobic molecules have shown many important biological fucntions, including antimicrobial activity and membrane penetration enhancement. The interaction between the monoterpenes and lipid bilayers is considered important to the understanding of the biological functions of monoterpenes. In this study we investigate the effect of cyclic and linear monoterpenes on the structure and dynamics of lipids in model membrane. We study the ternary system 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) - monoterpene - water as a model with a focus on dehydrated conditions. By combining complementary techniques, including differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ss NMR) and small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS), bilayer structure, phase transitions and lipid molecular dynamics are investigated at different water contents. Monoterpenes cause ...
Biocatalytic production of perillyl alcohol from limonene by using a novel Mycobacterium sp cytochrome P450 alkane hydroxylase expressed in Pseudomonas ...
Monoterpenes are nonnutritive dietary components found in the essential oils of citrus fruits and other plants.. A number of these dietary monoterpenes have antitumor activity.. For example, d-limonene, which comprises ,90% of orange peel oil, has chemopreventive activity against rodent mammary, skin, liver, lung and forestomach cancers. Similarly, other dietary monoterpenes have chemopreventive activity against rat mammary, lung and forestomach cancers when fed during the initiation phase.. In addition, perillyl alcohol has promotion phase chemopreventive activity against rat liver cancer, and geraniol has in vivo antitumor activity against murine leukemia cells. Perillyl alcohol and d-limonene also have chemotherapeutic activity against rodent mammary and pancreatic tumors.. As a result, their cancer chemotherapeutic activities are under evaluation in Phase I clinical trials. Several mechanisms of action may account for the antitumor activities of monoterpenes. The blocking chemopreventive ...
Monoterpenes are a class of terpenes that consist of two isoprene units and have the molecular formula C10H16. Monoterpenes may be linear (acyclic) or contain rings. Biochemical modifications such as oxidation or rearrangement produce the related monoterpenoids. Biosynthetically, isopentenyl pyrophosphate and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate are combined to form geranyl pyrophosphate. Elimination of the pyrophosphate group leads to the formation of acyclic monoterpenes such as ocimene and the myrcenes. Hydrolysis of the phosphate groups leads to the prototypical acyclic monoterpenoid geraniol. Additional rearrangements and oxidations provide compounds such as citral, citronellal, citronellol, linalool, and many others. Many monoterpenes found in marine organisms are halogenated, such as halomon. In addition to linear attachments, the isoprene units can make connections to form rings. The most common ring size in monoterpenes is a six-membered ring. A classic example is the cyclization of geranyl ...
Mark Evans has this to say Linalyl Acetate is the go-to material when needing a fresh, non-descript, citrusy boost to the top note of your perfume creation or to further brighten and lift citrus accords. Luckily for the natural perfumer linalyl acetate is present at high levels in a wide range of fruits, herbs and flowers and is easily extracted in such a way that the molecule is not physically altered from its natural state in the plant itself. This particular natural isolate has been extracted from petitgrain fruit. We also offer a version extracted from bergamot mint (Mentha citrata).. The extraction process leaves behind a small percentage of the original plant oils and this particular isolate is a little heavier and leans more toward linalool than the bergamot mint isolate does. The strong, appealing brightness that makes linalyl acetate so useful is complimented by notes of bergamot and green tea leaves in this case.. Regardless if you are a purely natural or mixed-media perfumer, this ...
The American Medical Association (AMA) has said that if they could find an agent that would pass the blood-brain barrier, they would be able to find cures for ailments such as Lou Gehrigs disease, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimers disease, and Parkinsons disease. Such agents already exist and have been available since Biblical times. The agents, of course, are essential oils-particularly those containing the brain oxygenating molecules of sesquiterpenes.. Properties of Sesquiterpenes:. Sesquiterpenes are heavier than monoterpenes and they tend to appear towards the end of the distillation process. They commonly occur in roots, resins and woods. In general, sesquiterpenes are colorless, are insoluble in water and are more aromatic, less volatile and have higher boiling points than monoterpenes. Sesquiterpenes are non- polar compounds, which oxidize more slowly than monoterpenes ...
The American Medical Association (AMA) has said that if they could find an agent that would pass the blood-brain barrier, they would be able to find cures for ailments such as Lou Gehrigs disease, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimers disease, and Parkinsons disease. Such agents already exist and have been available since Biblical times. The agents, of course, are essential oils-particularly those containing the brain oxygenating molecules of sesquiterpenes.. Properties of Sesquiterpenes:. Sesquiterpenes are heavier than monoterpenes and they tend to appear towards the end of the distillation process. They commonly occur in roots, resins and woods. In general, sesquiterpenes are colorless, are insoluble in water and are more aromatic, less volatile and have higher boiling points than monoterpenes. Sesquiterpenes are non- polar compounds, which oxidize more slowly than monoterpenes ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Implication of limonene and linalyl acetate in cytotoxicity induced by bergamot essential oil in human neuroblastoma cells. AU - Russo, Rossella. AU - Ciociaro, Antonella. AU - Berliocchi, Laura. AU - Valentina Cassiano, Maria Gilda. AU - Rombolà, Laura. AU - Ragusa, Salvatore. AU - Bagetta, Giacinto. AU - Blandini, Fabio. AU - Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Bergamot (Citrus bergamia, Risso et Poiteau) essential oil (BEO) is a widely used plant extract showing anxiolytic, analgesic and neuroprotective effects in rodents; also, BEO activates multiple death pathways in cancer cells. Despite detailed knowledge of its chemical composition, the constituent/s responsible for these pharmacological activities remain largely unknown. Aim of the present study was to identify the components of BEO implicated in cell death. To this end, limonene, linalyl acetate, linalool, β-terpinene, β-pinene and bergapten were individually tested in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma ...
The ability to treat most advanced malignancies with classic cytotoxic DNA-damaging agents is limited, with little curative potential and rare durable remissions. This has led to emphasis on the development of new therapeutic agents with novel mechanisms of action. POH is a monoterpene that has shown preclinical activity in a number of different tumor types, including mammary, pancreatic, stomach, lung, skin, and liver cancers. Although the mechanism of action is not yet clear, a number of potentially important drug-related activities have been observed in preclinical studies, including cellular effects such as an early G1 arrest and the induction of apoptosis, biochemical effects such as the inhibition of post-translational modification of proteins involved in signal transduction, and differential gene regulation with overexpression of the M6P/IGF-II and TGF-β type II receptor genes (15 , 17 , 18 , 21) . Preclinical data suggested that the monoterpenes may have a tumoristatic effect and that ...
Biochemical, histopathological and ultrastructural changes occurring at different time points after intraperitoneal administration of a single dose of pulegone (300 mg/kg) were studied. Significant decreases in the level of liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 (67%), heme (37%), aminopyrine N-demethylase (60%) and glucose-6-phosphatase (58%), were noticed 24 hr after pulegone treatment. Alanine amino transferase (ALT) levels increased in a time dependent manner, following exposure of rats to pulegone. Light microscopic studies of liver tissues showed dilation of central veins and distention of sinusoidal spaces 6 hr after pulegone treatment. Initial centrilobular necrosis was noticed at 12 hr. Centrilobular necrosis became severe at 18 hr and nuclear changes included karyorrhexis and karyolysis. Midzonal and periportal degenerative changes in addition to centrilobular necrosis was observed 24 hr after pulegone administration. Electron microscopic changes showed severe degeneration of endoplasmic ...
Looking for Citronellal? Find out information about Citronellal. the terpene aldehyde 2C═CH 2CH CH2CHO. Citronellal is a colorless liquid with a pleasant, lemonlike odor. Insoluble in water, it is soluble in alcohol and... Explanation of Citronellal
In this study, we found that (+)- and (−)-limonene enantiomers were oxidized to respective carveol (6-hydroxylation) and perillyl alcohol (7-hydroxylation) metabolites by CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 in human liver microsomes. Although enzyme efficiencies (Vmax/Kmratio) were much higher in CYP2C19 than those of CYP2C9 in the formation of carveols and perillyl alcohols from limonene enantiomers by recombinant P450 systems, CYP2C9 was found to be more active than CYP2C19 in catalyzing limonene enantiomers by human liver microsomes with the following lines of evidence. First, sulfaphenazole, a specific CYP2C9 inhibitor, significantly suppressed the activities of oxidations of limonene enantiomers catalyzed by human liver microsomes. Second, anti-CYP2C9 IgG, which was obtained from rabbits immunized with purified human liver CYP2C9 (Shimada et al., 1986), completely inhibited limonene oxidations by liver microsomes. Third, antisera raised against CYP2C9 (purified from membranes of E. coli) inhibited very ...
A bimolecular rate constant, kOH+citronellol, of (170 +/- 43)×10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 was measured using the relative rate technique for the reaction of the hydroxyl radical (OH) with 3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-1-ol (citronellol) at (297 +/- 3) K and 1 atmosphere total pressure. Additionally, a bimolecular rate constant, kO3+citronellol, of (2.4 +/- 0.1)×10-16 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, was measured by monito
Eucalyptol; Cineole; p-Menthane, 1,8-epoxy-; p-Cineole; Cajeputol; Cucalyptol; Eucapur; Terpan; Zedoary oil; Zineol; 1,8-Cineole; 1,8-Epoxy-p-menthane; CINEOL; Eucalyptole; Limonene oxide; NCI-C56575; 1,8-Cineol; 1,8-Oxido-p-menthane; Eukalyptol; 2-Oxabicyclo[2.2.2]octane, 1,3,3-trimethyl-; 1,3,3-Trimethyl-2-oxabicyclo[2.2.2]octane; 2-Oxa-1,3,3-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.2]octane; NSC 6171; 1,8-Cineole (eucalyptol); 1,8-cineol (eucalyptol); 1,3,3-Trimethyl-2-oxabicyclo[2,2,2] ...
Despite improvement in recent surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, the prognosis for patients with malignant glioma has not improved. Therefore, its even more urgent to search for new chemotherapeutic drugs. The aim of this project is to investigate the mechanism of perillyl alcohol (POH), an old chemotherapeutic agent, which has been recently used as intra-nasal inhalation in malignant glioma treatment. In this thesis, I document that POH alone, and combined with Dimethyl-celecoxib (DMC), shows significant anti-tumor activity in-vitro and triggers the induction of Glucose Related Protein 78 (GRP78), an anti-apoptotic protein that is elevated to deal with stress response. In addition, I also show induction of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein, or (CHOP), a pro-apoptotic protein signal for apoptosis, under the same treatments. These findings imply that POH alone generates Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and forces the tumor cells to enter apoptosis, and when combined with DMC the effect is ...
Title:Biological Efficacy of Carvacrol Analogues. VOLUME: 13 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Zintle Mbese and Blessing Atim Aderibigbe*. Affiliation:Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, University of Fort Hare, Alice Campus, Eastern Cape, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, University of Fort Hare, Alice Campus, Eastern Cape. Keywords:Carvacrol, antimicrobial activity, anticancer activity, antioxidant, anticholinesterase, antifungal activity.. Abstract:Background: Carvacrol is the major constituent of essential oils derived from plants. It exhibits antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and anticholinesterase activity. The analogues of carvacrol can be prepared via selected synthetic routes, resulting in potent compounds. Objective: Modifying carvacrol by the introduction of selected functionalities has the potential to enhance the biological activity of carvacrol. The functionalities on carvacrol such as the hydroxyl group, benzene ring ...
Linalyl acetate is an ester of linalool and an important terpene at work in many herbs and their essential oils. Linalool is one of the prime ingredients in bergamot and lavender essential oils and can be found in great quantities within other plants as well, especially those that feature linalool as they are closely related and complementary.
1. S -(-)-pulegone was administered orally to rat (250 mg kg) and the nature of the urinary metabolites was investigated. Eleven metabolites, namely S -(- )-menthofuran, piperitone, piperitenone, p -cresol, 5-hydroxypulegone, 4-methylcyclohexenone, 3- methylcyclohexanone, isopulegone, pulegol, 7-hydroxypiperitone and benzoic acid, have been isolated from rat urine. It is assumed that menthofuran, isopulegone and 4- methylcyclohexenone retain the stereochemistry of the parent compound, whereas in other metabolites the stereochemistry at the asymmetric centres is not known. 2. The relative amounts of various major metabolites present in the total urine extracts from the R -(+ ) and S -(- )-pulegone-treated rat were established by glc analyses. Urine samples of rats treated with R -(+ )-pulegone contained higher levels of p -cresol and piperitenone than in similar experiment carried out with S -(- )-pulegone, whereas the levels of unmetabolized pulegone, piperitone and benzoic acid were ...
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Figure 4: Antinociceptive Activity and Redox Profile of the Monoterpenes (+)-Camphene, |i|p|/i|-Cymene, and Geranyl Acetate in Experimental Models
Other. The 1,4-Cineole report provides the past, present and future industry trends and the forecast information related to the expected 1,4-Cineole sales revenue, 1,4-Cineole growth, 1,4-Cineole demand and supply scenario. Furthermore, the opportunities and the threats to the development of 1,4-Cineole market are also covered at depth in this research document.. Initially, the 1,4-Cineole manufacturing analysis of the major industry players based on their company profiles, annual revenue, sales margin, growth aspects is also covered in this report, which will help other 1,4-Cineole market players in driving business insights.. To Download A Sample Of The Report Click Here: http://qyresearch.us/report/global-1-4-cineole-market-2017/82705/#requestForSample. Key Emphasizes Of The 1,4-Cineole Market:. The fundamental details related to 1,4-Cineole industry like the product definition, cost, variety of applications, demand and supply statistics are covered in this report.. Competitive study of the ...
ethyl linalyl acetate 1 | C13H24O2 | CID 526765 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
R-(+)-Pulegone was administered orally to rats and the urinary metabolites were investigated. Six metabolites were isolated and purified using column and thin layer chromatographic techniques. Metabolites were identified by i.r., n.m.r. and mass spectral analyses.The neutral metabolites isolated from urine of rats treated with pulegone (I) were: pulegol (II), 2-hydroxy-2(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-5-methylcyclohexanone (III), 3,6-dimethyl-7a-hydroxy-5,6,7,7a-tetrahydro-2(4H)-benzofuranone (V) and menthofuran (VII). Metabolites II and III were also excreted in conjugated form.Acidic metabolites isolated from urine of rats treated with pulegone (I) were: 5-methyl-2(1-methyl-1-carboxyethylidene)cyclohexanone (IV) and 5-methyl-5-hydroxy-2(1hydroxy--carboxyethyl)cyclohexanone (VI). ...
With any new discipline comes corresponding language foreign to what were used to. Within that discipline are sects with their own dialects, such as the analytical cannabis lab, extraction facility, or grow. Like mastering Spanish or American or Sumerian, to extract knowledge requires understanding of what the words mean.. Terpene v. Terpenoid. Often, the word terpene relates many different molecules like limonene or pinene or caryophyllene. Sometimes for simplicity, this term is used even when the molecules arent technically terpenes, but rather terpenoids like linalool or geraniol or fenchol. The difference lay in what elements comprise the molecule. If carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) are the only two elements present, its a terpene. If another element like oxygen (O) is present, its a terpenoid. Alcohols have -OH groups in their molecular structure and their names end in -ol, so geraniol, linalool, bisabolol, etc. are indeed terpene alcohols. These substances may also be dissected into their ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Luminescent Complexes of Zn(II) and Cd(II) with Chiral Ligands Containing 1,10-Phenanthroline and Natural Monoterpenoids (+)-3-Carene or (+)-Limonene Fragments. AU - Kokina, T. E.. AU - Ustimenko, Yu P.. AU - Rakhmanova, M. I.. AU - Sheludyakova, L. A.. AU - Agafontsev, A. M.. AU - Plyusnin, P. E.. AU - Tkachev, A. V.. AU - Larionov, S. V.. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - New chiral 1,10-phenanthroline-derived ligands containing fragments of (+)-3-carene (L 1 ) and (+)-limonene (L2) natural monoterpenoids and their complexes Zn(L 1,2 )Cl 2 ·1.5H 2 O, Cd(L 1,2 )Cl 2 ·nH 2 O, Zn(L 1 )Br 2 ·2H 2 O, and Cd(L1)Br2·2H2O were synthesized. According to NMR and IR spectroscopy data, a conclusion was made about the polynuclear structure of the compounds obtained. Luminescent properties of the compounds obtained were investigated. Lifetimes of the excited states and luminescence quantum yields (φ f ) were determined. For free ligands, blue fluorescence was observed. In the case of ...
So, what is all the rave about live resin? Its all about the terpenes. Dabbers and extraction artists agree that live resin has a much fresher flavor profile. According to a study done at the University of Mississippi, fresh cannabis used in live resin has higher amounts of monoterpenes compared to the other terpenes found in the plant. Monoterpenes are light terpenes responsible for the fresh floral aroma of the cannabis plant that also give the live resin its fresh fruity flavor. Comparatively, BHO made from cured flowers contains about 2 percent fewer monoterpenes than live resin.. ...
Citronellyl Nitrile Widely used in perfumery compositions due to its good chemical stability and tenacity.Citrus, green, fruity, floral. use up to 10% Citrus, green, fruity, floral
Learn more about Essential Oil Monoterpenes at Memorial Hospital Uses Principal Proposed Uses Acute Bronchitis ...
Jullyana S.S. Quintans, Saravanan Shanmugam, Luana Heimfarth, Adriano Antunes S. Araújo, Jackson R.G.da S. Almeida, et al.. Monoterpenes modulating cytokines - A review. Food and Chemical Toxicology, Elsevier, 2019, 123, pp.233-257. ⟨hal-01956152⟩ ...
Abstract. The ability of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced from the ozonolysis of α-pinene and monoterpene mixtures (α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene and 3-carene) to become cloud droplets was investigated. A static CCN counter and a Scanning Mobility CCN Analyser (a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer coupled with a Continuous Flow counter) were used for the CCN measurements. Consistent with previous studies monoterpene SOA is quite active and would likely be a good source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the atmosphere. A decrease in CCN activation diameter for α-pinene SOA of approximately 3 nm hr−1 was observed as the aerosol continued to react with oxidants. Hydroxyl radicals further oxidize the SOA particles thereby enhancing the particle CCN activity with time. The initial concentrations of ozone and monoterpene precursor (for concentrations lower than 40 ppb) do not appear to affect the activity of the resulting SOA. Köhler Theory Analysis (KTA) is used to infer the molar ...
Pinene is another distinctive terpene and there are actually two different strains that are used.. Your CBD might contain either alpha-pinene or beta-pinene, although they are both derived from pine trees and the pleasant smell is unmistakable when it hits your nostrils.. The main benefits attached to both the alpha-pinene and beta-pinene is their anti-inflammatory properties. Pinene is also considered useful for people with respiratory issues such as asthma.. Love lavender?. The smell of lavender is very distinctive and is an aroma associated with calmness and relaxation.. Linalool is the terpene that is found in lavender and CBD products and other herbs enriched by it also include coriander, mint, and cinnamon. This particular compound is often used when the purpose is to reduce inflammation, help you to contend with arthritis, and help reduce the impact of seizures.. It might be suggested to you that if you use other herbs that contain linalool in addition to your chosen CBD product it could ...
Sourced from the finest companies around the world!. The Full house Pack contains everything to complete your collection of the most common terpenes. These usually go into strains in trace amounts allowing for even the most harsh critic to be appeased. All of our strain profiles contain some of these terpenes and this allows you to make your own blends up to date with todays cutting edge cannabis science. Always remember weve gone through the years of research and headaches of getting the profiles correct. If it seems like too much for you, pick up one of our precisely blended strains. Enjoy!. Includes one bottle of each (35 total):. Beta Caryophyllene, Limonene, Myrcene, Linalool, alpha Pinene, Terpinolene, Alpha Humulene, Beta Pinene, Nerolidol, 3 Carene, Terpineol, Fenchol, alpha Bisabolol, Ocimene, Gamma Terpinene, Caryophyllene Oxide, Alpha Terpinene, Alpha Phellandrene, Camphene, Geranyl Acetate, Phytol, Valencene, Borneol, Eucalyptol, Guaiol, Geraniol, R-(+)-Pulegone, Citronellol, ...
1 8 cineole synthesis. . Linalool or 1,8-cineole, either together or individually with simvastatin, both monoterpenes inhibited steps specifically involved in cholesterol synthesis. Identification of a Fungal 1,8-cineole Synthase from Hypoxylon sp. with and specificity during cineole synthesis, the same mechanism used in.. pilas para linternas led.
Application 3. The region-wise analysis of the Linalool market will help the users to analyze the business insights of the industry which will influence their business decision. the region-wise analysis further studies the significance of Linalool industry based on dominant market players, core countries, production volume and growth aspects in each region.. Do Inquire Before Purchasing The Report Here: https://market.biz/report/north-america-linalool-market-2017-scc/110202/#inquiry. The North America dominant Linalool industry players are as follows:. BASF, NHU, DSM, Jiaxing Sunlong Industrial & Trading, Tianxiang, Jiangxi East, Symrise and Purong Essences Market division by geographic regions and countries within this region:. The presence of Linalool market in North America covers the major countries like United States, Canada and Mexico.. To start with the Linalool report includes the fundamental outline of the market based on manufacturer details, Linalool product classification, product ...
Juliana de Saldanha da Gama Fischer, Paulo Costa Carvalho, Ana Gisele da Costa Neves-Ferreira,Clovis Orlando da Fonseca, Jonas Perales, Maria da Gloria da Costa Carvalho and Gilberto Barbosa Domont. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is a naturally occurring monoterpene with antiangiogenic and anti-tumoral properties. This chemotherapeutic agent has proven effectiveness in several clinical trials, including an ongoing phase I, comprising patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiform (GBM) under treatment with POH by intranasal administration. Proteomics offers tools to distinguish states of biological systems according to protein expression differences and therefore, can be used to gain pathological insights and to search for disease follow-up biomarkers. In this work, a differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE) proteomic approach was used to search for plasma proteins that correlated with the disease progression in 10 of these patients. Our results pointed antithrombin (down) and fibrinogen (up) regulated ...
PhytoDabs High Terp Drops are made with Colorado hemp and Alpha-Pinene terpenes. Build your entourage effect with Alpha-Pinene terpene hemp drops.
Objectives Exposure to monoterpenes (I-pinene, J-pinene and q3-carene) in joinery shops was studied in Sweden during the processing of Scots pin and the acute respiratory effects among the employees were evaluated. Methods A cross-sectional study of 38 workers was carried out in 4 joinery shops. The investigation included personal air sampling of monoterpenes, biological monitoring of metabolites of I-pinene in the workers urine, interviews following a standardized questionnaire, and dynamic spirometry. Results The personal exposure to monoterpenes in the joinery shops was 10--214 mg/m3. The correlation (correlation coefficient = 0.69) between exposure to I-pinene and verbenols (metabolites from I-pinene) in urine was relatively good. No acute effects on forced vital capacity or forced expiratory volume during 1 s were detected. The workers had significantly reduced preshift lung function values when compared with the values of a local reference group, even when smokers and ex-smokers were ...
We attempted to identify the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory actions of the monoterpene p-cymene. Firstly, behavioural screening was carried out to verify the influence of p-cymene [25, 50, and 100 mg/kg intraperitoneal (i.p.)] on the central nervous system (CNS) activity. The antinociceptive activity of p-cymene was evaluated by the acetic acidinduced writhing response, formalin, and hot-plate test, respectively. The leukocyte migration induced by injection of carrageenan was used to assess the anti-inflammatory activity. p-Cymene showed depressant activity on CNS after 4 h of treatment and also a possible action on the autonomous nervous system (ANS), mainly at the dose of 100 mg/kg (i.p.). It was found that p-cymene (50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly (p , 0.05) reduced the writhing responses induced by acetic acid. p-Cymene also decreased the licking time in the first and second phase, respectively, of the formalin test. The results of the hot-plate test showed that all doses of ...
Conformational flexibility is intrinsically related to the functionality of biomolecules. Elucidation of the potential energy surface is thus a necessary step towards understanding the mechanisms for molecular recognition such as docking of small organic molecules to larger macromolecular systems. In this wo
The standard deviation score. There is already on dialysis diet rich in phosphate. And this can become inamed from over-use, for some patients. The major commercial packages tend to be given in the nd or rd stage. Seminoma cells involving the cortex and medulla are replaced by lymphocytic and may therefore be reluctant to admit to a reproductive endocrine evaluation. Dhea may also hinder the ability of the mons pubis to the labelling but they all seem to improve pain and skin : Metabolism of -abd - limonenes to respective carveols and perillyl alcohols by cyp b. Tamoxifen although pharmacologically active, is metabolised to much more common in the majority of sperm cryopreservation to preserve the signicance of which should therefore only minimally symptomatic. Posterior pituitary b see management, p. These mirror closely the assumptions regarding the effectiveness of each rectangle is proportional to age. Genotypic and phenotypic development is not explained or understood. Mmol l when ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Promotional Effect of Water in the Clean Continuous Production of Carvacrol from Carvone. AU - Benavente Donayre, Pedro. AU - Cárdenas-lizana, Fernando. AU - Keane, Mark A.. PY - 2017/10/2. Y1 - 2017/10/2. U2 - 10.1016/j.cattod.2017.09.059. DO - 10.1016/j.cattod.2017.09.059. M3 - Article. SP - 1. EP - 22. JO - Catalysis Today. JF - Catalysis Today. SN - 0920-5861. ER - ...
Specially blended with ratios tweaked specifically to mimic the flavor profile of the AK47 hybrid strain normally found in nature, this blend contains the following naturally derived, organic terpenes: alpha-Pinene Camphene Myrcene beta-Pinene Terpineol D-Limonene Ocimene Eucalyptol Terpinolene Linalool beta-Caryophyl
Terpény 10K Jack od Eva seeds, vyrobené firmou Cali Terpenes sú 100% prírodné terpény a dokonale sa hodia pre dodanie aróm a chutí extraktom, živiciam a olejom, ako aj na riedenie vysoko koncentrovaných extraktov na použitie v daboch a na zmiešanie s glycerínom a ďalšími odparovacími kvapalinami pre elektronické cigarety. Terpény sú bez obsahu kanabinoidov rozpúšťadiel alebo ťažkých kovov.. Obsah hlavných terpénov: Terpinolene, Caryophyllene, Myrcene, Limonene, Beta-Pinene, d-3-Carene, L-Alpha-Pinene, Alpha-Pinene, Terpinene, Nerolidol, Linalool.. Objem: 1ml. ...
Spezierie Palazzo Vecchio Dott.Di Massimo S.r.l. - Sede Legale: Via Vacchereccia 9r, 50122 Firenze P.I/C.F./R I.FI: 04500110483. All Rights Reserved ...
Formation of SOA in the GEOS-Chem model is predicted based upon rate constants and aerosol yield parameters determined from laboratory chamber studies [Seinfeld and Pankow, 2003]. SOA formation from isoprene photooxidation follows the work of Henze and Seinfeld [2006], which is based on chamber experiments of reaction of isoprene with OH at low NOx condition [Kroll et al., 2006]. Simulation of SOA from monoterpenes and other reactive VOCs (ORVOCs) is described by Chung and Seinfeld [2002]; for computational efficiency we have reduced the number of tracers from 33 in that work to 9 by lumping oxidation products together. As in the work by Chung and Seinfeld [2002], monoterpenes and ORVOCs are divided into five hydrocarbon classes according to the values of their experimentally measured aerosol yield parameters [Griffin et al., 1999a]. In this study, each of the hydrocarbon classes I, II and IV is treated as a tracer, while classes III and V are diagnosed at each time step based on emissions. ...
Over Boreal regions, monoterpenes emitted from the forest are the main precursors for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and the primary driver of the growth of new aerosol particles to climatically important cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Autoxidation of monoterpenes leads to rapid formation of Highly Oxygenated organic Molecules (HOM). We have developed the first model with near-explicit representation of atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) and HOM formation. The model can reproduce the observed NPF, HOM gas-phase composition and SOA formation over the Boreal forest. During the spring, HOM SOA formation increases the CCN concentration by ~10 % and causes a direct aerosol radiative forcing of −0.10 W/m2. In contrast, NPF reduces the number of CCN at updraft velocities | 0.2 m/s, and causes a direct aerosol radiative forcing of +0.15 W/m2. Hence, while HOM SOA contributes to climate cooling, NPF can result in climate warming over the Boreal forest. Forests emit compounds into the
Formation of organic nitrates (RONO2) during oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs: isoprene, monoterpenes) is a significant loss pathway for atmospheric nitrogen oxide radicals (NOx), but the chemistry of RONO2 formation and degradation remains uncertain. Here we implement a new BVOC oxidation mechanism (including updated isoprene chemistry, new monoterpene chemistry, and particle uptake of RONO2) in the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model with ∼ 25 × 25 km2 resolution over North America. We evaluate the model using aircraft (SEAC4RS) and ground-based (SOAS) observations of NOx, BVOCs, and RONO2 from the Southeast US in summer 2013. The updated simulation successfully reproduces the concentrations of individual gas- and particle-phase RONO2 species measured during the campaigns. Gas-phase isoprene nitrates account for 25-50 % of observed RONO2 in surface air, and we find that another 10 % is contributed by gas-phase monoterpene nitrates. Observations in the free ...
High Dose: Patients apply POH cream (0.76%) as in arm II. Patients undergo tissue sampling of the right or left dorsal forearm and of physician-selected representative actinic keratoses (AK) at baseline and after completion of study therapy. Tissue samples are assessed for changes in patterns of biomarker expression (i.e., p53, apoptosis, c-Fos histopathology) and karyometry. After completion of study therapy, patients undergo tissue sampling of the opposite forearm as well as blood sample collection to determine perillyl alcohol (POH) levels in blood and biopsy samples. Urine is also collected and analyzed for safety at the end of treatment. Digital photographs of the forearms and hands are obtained at baseline and after 3 months of study treatment. Optical coherence tomography imaging is also performed on pre- and post-biopsy sites to quantify the effect of POH on sun damage and AK in skin ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Feasibility of membrane inlet mass spectrometry for on-site screening of volatile monoterpenes and monoterpene alcohols in forest soil atmosphere. AU - Ketola, Raimo A.. AU - Kiuru, Jari. AU - Kotiaho, Tapio. AU - Kitunen, Veikko. AU - Smolander, Aino. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Volatile monoterpenes and monoterpene alcohols exist in the forest soil atmosphere and they may play an important role in controlling microbial processes related to C and N cycling in boreal forest soils. Therefore, information is needed about their actual concentrations in the soil atmosphere. Here, we developed and applied membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) with a simple sampling probe for an on-site determination of the most common monoterpenes and monoterpene alcohols in the forest soil atmosphere. The MIMS method was also compared with a chamber method for collection samples into sorbent tubes and an off-line static headspace GC-FID analysis. The sampling principles of the methods are different: ...
Monoterpenes are important contributors to grape and wine aroma. Moreover, certain monoterpenes have been shown to display health benefits with antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer or hypotensive properties amongst others. The aim of this study was to construct self-aromatizing wine yeasts to overproduce de novo these plant metabolites in wines. Expression of the Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) geraniol synthase (GES) gene in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strain substantially changed the terpene profile of wine produced from a non-aromatic grape variety. Under microvinification conditions, and without compromising other fermentative traits, the recombinant yeast excreted geraniol de novo at an amount (~750 μg/L) well exceeding (>10-fold) its threshold for olfactory perception and also exceeding the quantities present in wines obtained from highly aromatic Muscat grapes. Interestingly, geraniol was further metabolized by yeast enzymes to additional monoterpenes and esters: citronellol, linalool
You may have tasted the refreshingly mild flavor of lemongrass, a herb thats commonly added to foods and beverages. But have you ever tried using lemongrass oil, an all-around herbal oil with many health benefits? Keep on reading to discover more about lemongrass oil. What Is Lemongrass Oil? Lemongrass (Cymbopogon) is a tall perennial plant…
Incarvillateine is a complex monoterpene alkaloid that is a derivative of α-truxillic acid. It can be isolated from the plant genus Incarvillea. Incarvillateine isolated from Incarvillea sinensis has demonstrated significant analgesic activity when compared to the opiate alkaloid morphine. Incarvillateines pain-killing effect was partially blocked by administration of naloxone, norbinaltorphimine and beta-funaltrexamine, which are receptor antagonists with varying selectivity for mu and kappa opioid receptors. Naltrindole, a delta opioid receptor antagonist, did not counteract the analgesic activity of incarvillateine. These findings indicate that incarvillateine may possess opioidergic receptor activity, but it is worthy to note that some studies indicate that naloxone was ineffective at countering incarvillateines analgesic activity. Incarvillateines antinociceptive effect was blocked by the administration of adenosine receptor antagonists such as theophylline. This suggests that ...
Interactions between biogenic monoterpenes and drought stress remain poorly understood and characterised. Even the nature of the response of biogenic monoterpene emissions to water limitation is controversial, possibly depending on the severity, intensity and duration of the drought. Whether monoterpenes regulate plant physiological response to drought stress is currently unknown. In this research, 6-week-old Ailsa Craig wild-type (WT) and ABA-deficient (notabilis) tomatoes were either well-watered or exposed to deficit irrigation (by watering pots with 25% of daily evapotranspiration) in a factorial combination with selected-monoterpenes applied exogenously as a foliar spray. Both genotypes showed similar physiological and biochemical responses to water deficit. Compared to well-watered controls, drought stress significantly reduced net photosynthesis rate and stomatal conductance, increased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, and also significantly inhibited PSII ...
Miyazawa M., Shindo M., Shimada T.. 1,8-Cineole, the monoterpene cyclic ether known as eucalyptol, is one of the components in essential oils from Eucalyptus polybractea. We investigated the metabolism of 1,8-cineole by liver microsomes of rats and humans and by recombinant cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) enzymes in insect cells in which human P450 and NADPH-P450 reductase cDNAs had been introduced. 1,8-Cineole was found to be oxidized at high rates to 2-exo-hydroxy-1,8-cineole by rat and human liver microsomal P450 enzymes. In rats, pregenolone-16alpha-carbonitrile (PCN) and phenobarbital induced the 1,8-cineole 2-hydroxylation activities by liver microsomes. Several lines of evidence suggested that CYP3A4 is a major enzyme involved in the oxidation of 1,8-cineole by human liver microsomes: (1), 1,8-cineole 2-hydroxylation activities by liver microsomes were inhibited very significantly by ketoconazole, a CYP3A inhibitor, and anti-CYP3A4 immunoglobulin G; (2), there was a good correlation between ...
Monoterpenes (C10H16) are the products of metabolism found in many plants and are most notably emitted by conifers. Many abiotic and biotic factors are known to stimulate monoterpene emissions from conifers, including: temperature, wounding, herbivory, infestation, UV-radiation, O3 exposure etc. Monoterpenes have been shown to contribute to aerosol and cloud formation, which have a net cooling effect on Earths radiative balance. Thus, there is a need to explore all the factors that influence monoterpene emissions from forests. One as yet largely unexplored process is the effect of nutrient availability on monoterpene emission. In this study we treated young Scots pine seedlings with fertilizer (NPK and urea) largely and observed a large increase in monoterpene emission compared with unfertilized controls. Measurements at 26°C suggests an emission increase of 0.8 ng g-1 DW min-1 per addition of 1 kg Ntot ha-1 year-1. These results are important for understanding future trends in monoterpene ...
A cytochrome P-450 (heme thiolate) enzyme. The enzyme, characterized from the plant Perilla frutescens, participates in the biosynthesis of perillyl aldehyde, the major constituent of the essential oil that accumulates in the glandular trichomes of this plant. Some forms of the enzyme also catalyse the oxidation of (-)-perillyl alcohol to (-)-perillyl aldehyde ...
Plocamium polyhalogenated monoterpenes are metabolites first isolated from the red algae Plocamium cartilagineum, featuring several units of unsaturation, as we...
A number of previous studies have reported that carvacrol possesses anti-inflammatory effects (24-27). Results from the present study indicated that carvacrol inhibited NO and PGE2 production, as well as decreased iNOS and COX-2 expression. Carvacrol was also demonstrated to suppress the protein expression levels of MMP-3 and MMP-13 in IL-1β-stimulated human OA chondrocytes. Furthermore, carvacrol suppressed the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway in IL-1β-induced human chondrocytes.. IL-1β treatment has been widely used to mimic the microenvironment of OA in in vitro studies (28-30); in the present study, IL-1β-induced human OA chondrocytes were used as a model to investigate the protective effects of carvacrol on human chondrocytes, and the results suggested that pretreatment with carvacrol was able to reverse IL-1β-reduced cell viability.. NO has been demonstrated to serve a pivotal role in the development of OA (31). It is produced by iNOS in several types of cells, including ...
Monoterpenoids (C10 terpenoids) are a group of terpenoids consisting of two isoprene units. They are derived from geranyl diphosphate (GPP). Most monoterpenoids are volatile oils with highly distinctive aromas and flavors, such as essential oils, turpentine, and oleoresins of coniferous plants. This map shows some examples. The monoterpene ketone l-menthone is specifically converted to l-menthol and d-neomenthol in mature peppermint leaves. The iridoids constitute a family of highly oxygenated monoterpenes, mixtures of which are present in many medicinal plants, such as valerian. They are derived from geraniol or nerol via oxidation of a terminal methyl group. The cyclopentane ring of loganin can itself be cleaved in a further P450-dependent step, leading to secologanin, which provides the carbon skeleton for many powerfully bioactive secondary metabolites of indole alkaloids ...
p,An attempt was taken to study the growth performance of lemongrass oil (,em,Cymbopogon citraturs,/em,) as a growth promoter on the broiler production. A total of 180day-old broiler chicks were procured from private hatchery (Shivam Hatchery Birgung, Parsa, Nepal) and were allocated following Completely Randomized Design (CRD) into four treatment groups (each treatment with 3 replications and each replication with 15 birds); T,sub,1,/sub,= control, T,sub,2,/sub,= containing lemongrass oil 200 ml/100 kg feed, T,sub,3,/sub,= containing lemongrass oil 400 ml/100 kg feed and, T,sub,4,/sub,= containing lemongrass oil 600 ml/100 kg feed. The study was carried out for 36 days at Avian Research Unit, Regional Agriculture Research Station, Parwanipur, Bara, Nepal. Concentrate mixture and lemongrass oil were procured from Shakti Feed Industry, Birgung; Herbs Processing Plant of Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation, Jadibuti, Kathmandu, respectively. Experimental birds were provided ...
Although many methods are known for the separation of citral from lemongrass (Cymbopogen flexuosus) oil, like fractional distillation, adduct formation and regeneration, the purity and the yield of citral as separated are not satisfactory. A new method for separation of citral in pure form and in near quantitative yield uses the column chromatographic technique. This method may also be adapted for large scale separation of citral and hence can be of commercial importance.
Is that your favorite lemongrass fragrance safe for your dogs? Can lemongrass oil severely harm or kill your dogs? You are doing yourself and your pet a great favor by being curious about that.
Lemongrass is perennial and intensely fragrant herb, native to Asia, and widely cultivated as a commercial crop throughout the tropics and subtropics of the world. The lemongrass oil finds widespread u se in soap, perfumery, cosmetics and the beverages industry ...
Citronellol was studied by Brito et al, for its antinociceptive (reduces sensitivity to painful stimuli) and anti-inflammatory properties in an animal model. Citronellol is a monoterpene alcohol, and is a naturally occurring monoterpene compound common in essential oils of plants like Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus). Pretreatments with Citronellol showed that it could inhibit both neutrophil infiltration and…
Laboratory Experiment pubs.acs.org/jchemeduc A Two-Step Synthesis of the Laundry Detergent Perfume Additive β‑Citronellyl Tosylate Cheryl M. Mascarenhas*...
Dr. Tomasino discussed her research in discovering the importance of chiral monoterpenes in Pinot gris and Riesling. These compounds contribute to floral, citrus, and fruity aromas in aromatic white wines. To analyze these compounds, Elizabeth developed a quantitative method using chemical analysis and measured the compounds in wine. Differences in chiral terpene content were investigated based on region of origin, vintage and sugar content. Show more… Less… ...
Becket, Gordon, Rades, T and Songkro, S (2004) The effects of p-menthane monoterpenes and related compounds on the percutaneous absorption of propranolol hydrochloride across newborn pig skin. III. Correlation between penetration enhancing activity and physicochemical properties of terpenes determined by principal components analysis. Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology, 14 (3). pp. 223-228. ISSN 1157-1489 Full text not available from this repository. ...
Statistics Report for : Supercritical fluid extraction as a tool for isolation of monoterpenes from coniferous needles and walnut-tree ...
The results obtained in the on-going Brazilian study are very encouraging. NTI management has completed due diligence on this work in the overseas location and has signed agreements with the local research team to join the Company. NTI also has an exclusive license on a patent application filed by the University of Southern California in 2009 for the use of monoterpenes in cancer therapy, alone and in conjunction with other therapeutic agents. Based on the development work, NTI is developing a patent portfolio in order to protect the commercialization of this novel therapeutic technique. NTI has an active IND (investigative new drug application) for its proprietary form of perillyl alcohol and is currently preparing clinical trials at Cleveland Clinic and the University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine.. The research demonstrated that intranasal delivery permits bypass of the blood brain barrier, enabling NTI to address the US market for brain cancer treatment, in which total ...
Be it skin, hair, or treating internal body problems, the benefits of lemongrass oil are many. It combats scalp problems, fights cellulite, and prevents fungal infections.
The effects of monoterpenes on the degradation of 14C-2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) were investigated in soils collected from areas surrounding monoterpene and non-monoterpene emitting vegetation. Indigenous microorganisms degraded 14C-2,4-DCP to 14CO2, after 1 d contact time. Degradation was enhanced by prior exposure of the soils to 2,4-DCP for 32 d, increasing mineralization extents up to 60%. Monoterpene amendments further enhanced 2,4-DCP degradation, but only following pre-exposure to both 2,4-DCP and monoterpene, with total 2,4-DCP mineralisation extents of up to 71%. Degradation was greatest at the higher monoterpene concentrations (≥ 1 μg kg-1). Total mineralisation extents were similar between concentrations, but higher than the control and the 0.1 μg kg-1 amendment, indicating that increases in monoterpene concentration has a diminishing enhancing effect. We suggest that monoterpenes can stimulate the biodegradation of 2,4-DCP by indigenous soil microorganisms and that monoterpene ...
Information for linalyl benzoate 126-64-7 including linalyl benzoate CAS NO 126-64-7, linalyl benzoate Suppliers, linalyl benzoate Manufacturers, related products of linalyl benzoate.
Incubation studies using [1-14C]isopentenyl diphosphate and [1-2H2]isopentenyl diphosphate as substrates revealed that isolated chromoplasts from flowers of Narcissus pseudonarcissus L. are able to synthesize monoterpene hydrocarbons and linalool in high yields. The enzymes involved are soluble in t …
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the primary brain tumor most common and aggressive in adults, characterized by intense cellular proliferation and accumulation of deleterious genetic changes which contribute to the aggressive behavior, low survival, resistance to chemotherapy and tumor recurrence. Tumor cells shows specific metabolic alteration, such as increased choline (Cho) which is characteristic of highly proliferative tumor cells, reduced N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) a marker for neuronal density and viability and phosphocreatine (Cr) peak serves as a marker for energy-dependent systems. Metabolic information within the tumor microenvironment can be detected by proton magnetic spectroscopy (1HMRS) considered a noninvasive procedure that also provides anatomical and functional image data for diagnosis and patient follow-up. Perillyl alcohol (POH), a naturally occurring monoterpene has recognized antitumor effect inhibits tumor proliferation and increase survival of GBM patients under intranasal POH-based ...
Nothing like a bowl of Thai-inspired soup for the soul! Ive been craving some Thai food recently and with the hot weather creeping up, I figured a Thai carrot and lemongrass soup would be a great way to cool me down! If this soup looks a bit heavy, I didnt add much water because I like my meals to be nutrient-dense, but you can add as much water as youd like. I drink close to a gallon of water a day, but if you think you dont drink enough water, this soup is an easy and delicious way to hydrate your body. This soup really hit the spot with some authentic flavors, I just love the noticeable flavor of lemongrass! Lemongrass will always have a special place in my heart; it has a wide array of health benefits as well. Below is an excerpt from organicfacts.org on the health benefits of lemongrass:. The health benefits of lemongrass include relief from stomach disorders, insomnia, respiratory disorders, fever, aches, infections, rheumatism and edema. The defensive antioxidant activity of the ...
This work describes the bioconversion of (-)- and (+)- alpha-pinene (2,6,6-trimethyl-bicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene), targeted at the production of (-)- and (+)-verbenone (4,6,6-trimethyl-bicyclo (3.1.1) hept-3-en-2-one), respectively, using Psychotria brachyceras and Rauvolfia sellowii cell suspension cultures. P. brachyceras showed selectivity to (-)-alpha-pinene with 80.9% conversion (relative integrated area gas chromatography -mass spectrometry (GC -MS)) of (-)-verbenone in 10-dayincubation, whereas R. sellowii was able to convert both pinene enantiomers (37.6% conversion of (-)-verbenone in 7-day-incubation and 32.2% conversion of (+)- verbenone in 10-day-incubation). In both systems transverbenol was formed as main product and then slowly biocatalyzed to verbenone. Verbenone were also present among the autoxidation products during control experiments, but in much lower amounts and accompanied by several by-products, highlighting the usefulness of the biotransformation process. ... ...
Looking for online definition of cineole in the Medical Dictionary? cineole explanation free. What is cineole? Meaning of cineole medical term. What does cineole mean?
oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, squalene, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, oleuropein, ligstroside, elenolic acid, acetoxy-pinoresenol, oleocanthal, α-tocopherol, herniarin, hyperoside, umbelliferone, methylumbelliferone, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, quercetin, rutin, flavanone, isorhamnetin, quercimeritin, anthemic acid, choline, triacontane, patuletin, patulitrin, apigetrin, apigenin-7-glucoside, apigenin-7-apiosylglucoside, luteolin-7-glucoside, apigetrin-7-acetylglucoside, luteolin-4-glucoside, luteolin, patuletin, matricin, matricarin, galacturonic acid, d-limonene, citronellol, geraniol, myrcene, linalool, α-pinene, sabinene, β-phellandrene, geranial, neral, decanal, citronellal, (Z)-β-ocimene, β-pinene, valencene, β-elemene, terpinolene, dodecanal, γ-terpinene, β-sinensal, α-sinensal, δ-cadinene, α-copaene, γ-muurolene, nerol, δ-3-carene, (Z)-3-hexenol, perillaldehyde, octanol, cis-sabinene hydrate, undecanal, nonadecane, heneicosane, ...
Phenols including carvacrol and thymol. They act as antiseptics and antioxidants. Terpenes including pinene and terpinene. They possess antiseptic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and anesthetic properties. Linalool and bonreol are two long-chain alcohols found in oregano oil. They exhibit antiviral and antiseptic properties. Esters include linalyl acetate and geranyl acetate. They exhibit antifungal properties. Although all these compounds possess healing properties, the most significant primary compound found in oregano oil is carvacrol. Scientific research has proved carvacrol to be one of the most effective antibiotics known to science.. ...
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common peripheral neuropathy and ischemic-reperfusion injury. Oxidative stress is considered a major cause of CTS. Linalool, a component of essential oils, has antioxidant activity. This study was designed to determine the effects of linalool inhalation on oxidative stress in patients with CTS. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessed the effects of linalool inhalation on oxidative stress in patients with CTS. Thirty-seven subjects, with and without CTS, were randomized to inhalation of 1 % linalool or carrier oil. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, systolic blood pressure (sBP), diastolic blood pressure (dBP) and pulse rate were analyzed. DPPH inhibition was significantly higher in both experimental groups than in their respective controls. Moreover inhalation of linalool reduced sBP, dBP and pulse rate in the CTS group, and pulse rate in the non-CTS group. However, there were no significant differences among the study groups
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Buy high quality (4S,6R)-2,4,6-Trideoxy-3,5-O-(1-methylethylidene)-6-[(1-phenyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl)sulfonyl]-D-erythro-hexonic Acid 1,1-Dimethylethyl Ester 380460-37-7 from toronto research chemicals Inc.
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Define eucalyptol: a liquid C10H18O with an odor of camphor that occurs in many essential oils (as of eucalyptus) and is used especially as an…
Lavender and Lavender - one is a fragrant smelling herb, and the other is a cannabis strain with an amazing scent, but they have a lot in common because of one terpene in particular: Linalool. It provides a light floral odor with some spicy overtones, and helps both plants contribute to feelings of calm and relaxation.. Roughly half of the herbal lavenders essential oil is linalool. Not surprisingly, it is also the terpene that the Lavender cannabis strain has in highest concentration. There are a few other plants whose oil is high in linalool: Ho leaf - 95 percent; rosewood - 80-85 percent; freesia - 80 percent; and basil and coriander - 50 percent. But linaloe wood, which linalool derives its name from, contains only 30 percent .. ...
For many people, it might seem a little counterintuitive to imagine that smoking anything -cannabis or otherwise - could improve symptoms associated with many breathing conditions instead of making them worse. But, there is actually a terpene in certain strains of cannabis that has been found to improve respiratory issues like asthma or bronchitis.. Pinene is one of the most researched and most well-known terpenes, which makes sense as it is considered one of the principle terpenes found in the resin, stems and leaves of a number of plants, trees and herbs. There are two types, or varieties, of pinene: alpha and beta. Its found naturally in pine needles, rosemary, dill, basil, parsley, spruce and fir trees, and sage. As the name suggests, alpha-pinene smells light and fresh like pine, while beta-pinene smells a little spicier like hops or basil.. According to Steep Hill Labs pinene has been used for centuries as a bronchodilator in the treatment of asthma. Its also a powerful expectorant and ...
ID W8WYL2_CASDE Unreviewed; 561 AA. AC W8WYL2; DT 14-MAY-2014, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 14-MAY-2014, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 19. DE SubName: Full=Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CDM24848.1}; DE EC=1.1.5.3 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CDM24848.1}; GN ORFNames=BN940_11951 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CDM24848.1}; OS Castellaniella defragrans 65Phen. OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Betaproteobacteria; Burkholderiales; OC Alcaligenaceae; Castellaniella. OX NCBI_TaxID=1437824 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CDM24848.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000019805}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CDM24848.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000019805} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=65Phen {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CDM24848.1}; RX PubMed=24952578; DOI=10.1186/1471-2180-14-164; RA Petasch J., Disch E.M., Markert S., Becher D., Schweder T., Huttel B., RA Reinhardt R., Harder J.; RT The oxygen-independent metabolism of cyclic monoterpenes in RT Castellaniella defragrans 65Phen.; RL BMC ...
Instructions for use: Spritz onto pulse points 70ml/ 2.4fl.oz. Ingredients: Ethanol, Ethyl Alcohol, 1,3,4,6,7,8-Hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-Hexamethylindeno[5,6-C]Pyran, Galaxolide, (Hhcb), Vanillin, Ethyl Hydroxypyrone, Tetramethyl Acetyloctahydronaphthalenes, Phenethyl Alcohol, Methyl Alpha-Ionone Isomers, Linalool, Phenylisohexanol, Linalyl Acetate, Ci 60730, Citronellol, Acid Blue 9 Ammonium Salt, Geraniol, Benzoic Acid, Ethyl Linalool, Geranyl Acetate, Butyl Methoxydibenzoylmethane, Pentamethylcyclopent-3-Ene-Butanol, Coumarin, Ethyl Trimethylcyclopentene Butenol, Ethylhexyl Methoxycinnamate, Benzyl Benzoate, Bht, Cinnamyl Alcohol
With the holiday season comes the annual surge on our senses…the sights, sounds and aromas. While it may be easy to discern the origin of those holiday movies or songs, do we know what makes the Blue Spruce Christmas tree smell like it does? Or what about those baked goods and that colorful fruit cake adorned with fruits? The answer is terpenes, the same ingredient found in cannabis. Botanically speaking, terpenes are volatile chemical molecules, components that give plants their scents and tastes - some compare these extracts to essential oils. Prolific in plant life, but also found in some insects, they came into existence as an evolutionary tactic to fend off potential predators. In the case of the decorated Christmas tree, all tree varieties have their own terpene profile which somewhat acts as their fingerprint:. Spruce - alpha-pinene (67%), beta-pinene (3%), delta-3-carene (4%), myrcene (1%), limonene (10%), camphene (10%), sabinene (1%), phellandrene (4%). Pine - alpha-pinene (55%), ...
Just like a human fingerprint, every cannabis plant has a unique terpene and cannabinoid profile that decides its taste, aroma, and effects. The challenge is that many of these important terpenes can be lost in the extraction and refinement processes. Gold Moons Master Terpist captures detailed information about these strain elements before extraction, then infuses the lost terpenes back into the concentrate. They pay close attention to restoring the original ratios, because thats how nature intended them to be.. A plant terpene profile is made up of two important types of terpenes: monoterpenes, which are very light and break down or evaporate easily, and sesquiterpenes, which are heavier and more durable. Every cannabis strain contains a unique ratio of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, and there can be up to 140 different terpenes in a single cannabis plant. Infusing terpenes back into the shatter in their precise ratios is the craft that gives you the aroma, the taste, and-most ...
Specially blended with ratios tweaked specifically to mimic the flavor profile of the White Widow hybrid strain normally found in nature, this blend contains the following naturally derived, organic terpenes: alpha-Pinene Camphene Myrcene beta-Pinene 3-carene D-Limonene Ocimene P-cymene Terpinolene Linalool beta-Caryo
Citronellal is powerfully strong, bright and refreshing, like other aldehydes, yet also sweetly lemon citrus and citronella smelling
Abstract. The oxidation of biogenic and anthropogenic compounds leads to the formation of secondary organic aerosol mass (SOA). The present study aims to investigate α-pinene, limonene and m-cresol with regards to their SOA formation potential dependent on relative humidity (RH) under night- (NO3 radicals) and day-time conditions (OH radicals) and the resulting chemical composition. It was found that SOA formation potential of limonene with NO3 significantly exceeds the one of the OH radical reaction, with SOA yields of 15-30 % and 10-21 %, respectively. Additionally, the nocturnal SOA yield was found to be very sensitive towards RH, yielding more SOA under dry conditions. On the contrary, the SOA formation potential of α-pinene with NO3 slightly exceeds that of the OH radical reaction, independent from RH. In average, α-pinene yielded SOA with about 6-7 % from NO3 radicals and 3-4 % from OH radical reaction. Surprisingly, unexpected high SOA yields were found for m-cresol oxidation with OH ...
Research published in Current Research on Biosciences and Biotechnology demonstrates the wound-healing benefits of citronellal derived from Cymbopogon nardus L.
Savage TJ, Ichii H, Hume SD, Little DB, Croteau R (July 1995). "Monoterpene synthases from gymnosperms and angiosperms: ... Phillips MA, Savage TJ, Croteau R (December 1999). "Monoterpene synthases of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) produce pinene isomers ... Croteau R, Satterwhite DM, Cane DE, Chang CC (July 1988). "Biosynthesis of monoterpenes. Enantioselectivity in the enzymatic ... Bohlmann J, Steele CL, Croteau R (August 1997). "Monoterpene synthases from grand fir (Abies grandis). cDNA isolation, ...
Croteau R, Satterwhite DM, Cane DE, Chang CC (July 1988). "Biosynthesis of monoterpenes. Enantioselectivity in the enzymatic ... Wagschal KC, Pyun HJ, Coates RM, Croteau R (February 1994). "Monoterpene biosynthesis: isotope effects associated with bicyclic ... Two enzymes from sage (Salvia officinalis) which catalyze stereospecific cyclizations of geranyl pyrophosphate to monoterpene ... alpha-pinene by monoterpene cyclases from sage (Salvia officinalis)". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 308 (2): 488-96 ...
Croteau R, Satterwhite DM, Wheeler CJ, Felton NM (1988). "Biosynthesis of monoterpenes. Stereochemistry of the enzymatic ... Croteau R, Miyazaki JH, Wheeler CJ (1989). "Monoterpene biosynthesis: mechanistic evaluation of the geranyl pyrophosphate:(−)- ...
Croteau R, Hooper CL, Felton M (1978). "Biosynthesis of monoterpenes. Partial purification and characterization of a bicyclic ... Dehal SS, Croteau R (1987). "Metabolism of monoterpenes: Specificity of the dehydrogenases responsible for the biosynthesis of ...
Croteau R, Satterwhite DM (September 1989). "Biosynthesis of monoterpenes. Stereochemical implications of acyclic and ... and functional expression of four new monoterpene synthase members of the Tpsd gene family from grand fir (Abies grandis)". ...
Satterwhite, D. M.; Wheeler, C. J.; Croteau, R. (15 November 1985). "Biosynthesis of monoterpenes. Enantioselectivity in the ... "Screening of antibacterial activities of twenty-one oxygenated monoterpenes". Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C. 62 (7-8): 507- ...
Phillips MA, Savage TJ, Croteau R (December 1999). "Monoterpene synthases of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) produce pinene isomers ... Croteau R, Satterwhite DM, Cane DE, Chang CC (July 1988). "Biosynthesis of monoterpenes. Enantioselectivity in the enzymatic ... Bohlmann J, Steele CL, Croteau R (August 1997). "Monoterpene synthases from grand fir (Abies grandis). cDNA isolation, ... Hyatt DC, Croteau R (July 2005). "Mutational analysis of a monoterpene synthase reaction: altered catalysis through directed ...
Phillips MA, Savage TJ, Croteau R (December 1999). "Monoterpene synthases of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) produce pinene isomers ... Croteau R, Satterwhite DM, Cane DE, Chang CC (July 1988). "Biosynthesis of monoterpenes. Enantioselectivity in the enzymatic ... Wagschal KC, Pyun HJ, Coates RM, Croteau R (February 1994). "Monoterpene biosynthesis: isotope effects associated with bicyclic ... Two enzymes from sage (Salvia officinalis) which catalyze stereospecific cyclizations of geranyl pyrophosphate to monoterpene ...
Eberhard Breitmaier (2006). "Hemi‐ and Monoterpenes". Terpenes: Flavors, Fragrances, Pharmaca, Pheromones. pp. 10-23. doi: ...
It is one of the most pervasive monoterpenes. As for other terpenes, it is insoluble in water, flammable, colorless, and has a ... Croteau, R.; Satterwhite, D. M.; Cane, D. E.; Chang, C. C. (1988). "Biosynthesis of monoterpenes. Enantioselectivity in the ...
Selected terpenes Limonene, a monoterpene. Carvone is a monoterpenoid, a modified monoterpene. Pinene, a monoterpene which ... Monoterpenes consist of two isoprene units and have the molecular formula C10H16. Examples of monoterpenes and monoterpenoids ... A well known monoterpene is alpha-pinene, a major component of turpentine. The term "terpene" was coined in 1866 by the German ... Terpenes are further classified by the number of carbons: monoterpenes (C10), sesquiterpenes (C15), diterpenes (C20), etc. ...
... is a colorless liquid aliphatic hydrocarbon classified as a cyclic monoterpene, and is the major component in the oil ... Monoterpenes Resin Essential oil "D-Limonene". PubChem Compound Database. National Center for Biotechnology Information, US ... Limonene is a relatively stable monoterpene and can be distilled without decomposition, although at elevated temperatures it ... The compound is one of the main volatile monoterpenes found in the resin of conifers, particularly in the Pinaceae, and of ...
Davis, Edward M.; Croteau, Rodney (2000). "Cyclization Enzymes in the Biosynthesis of Monoterpenes, Sesquiterpenes, and ... Ashour, Mohamed; Wink, Michael; Gershenzon, Jonathan (2010). "Biochemistry of Terpenoids: Monoterpenes, Sesquiterpenes and ...
At least 70 of these are terpenoids which come in the form of sesquiterpenes and chromones; no monoterpenes have been detected ...
Another example is the study of monoterpenes. since the 1980s SNIF-NMR study of α-pinene has found large variations in D/H ...
In other less formal contexts, an alcohol is often called with the name of the corresponding alkyl group followed by the word "alcohol", e.g., methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol. Propyl alcohol may be n-propyl alcohol or isopropyl alcohol, depending on whether the hydroxyl group is bonded to the end or middle carbon on the straight propane chain. As described under systematic naming, if another group on the molecule takes priority, the alcohol moiety is often indicated using the "hydroxy-" prefix.[17] Alcohols are then classified into primary, secondary (sec-, s-), and tertiary (tert-, t-), based upon the number of carbon atoms connected to the carbon atom that bears the hydroxyl functional group. (The respective numeric shorthands 1°, 2°, and 3° are also sometimes used in informal settings.[18]) The primary alcohols have general formulas RCH2OH. The simplest primary alcohol is methanol (CH3OH), for which R=H, and the next is ethanol, for which R=CH3, the methyl group. Secondary alcohols are those ...
A pale yellow liquid, cannabis flower essential oil is a volatile oil that is a mixture of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and ... Monoterpenes showed a significantly greater loss than sesquiterpenes, but none of the major components completely disappeared ... The sesquiterpenes ranged from 5.2 to 48.6%. The most abundant monoterpene was β-myrcene, followed by trans-caryophyllene, α- ... 1% other compounds (ketones, esters). The dominating monoterpenes were myrcene (67%) and limonene (16%).[5] ...
Immediately after insect attack, toxic monoterpenes are released. These provide a volatile solvent for the diterpene resins so ...
For example, juniper monoterpenes come from juniper berries. Citric and berry flavours come from chemicals such as limonene and ...
ISBN 978-0-88192-974-4. Smith, Richard H. (1977). Monoterpenes of ponderosa pine in Western United States. USDA Forest Service ...
It contains specific monoterpene glucosides. The indigenous Ainu people of Hokkaido used this plant, called horap or orap, as a ...
... is an irregular monoterpene. Irregular monoterpenes are derived from two isoprene C5 units, but do not follow the ...
Lücker J, El Tamer MK, Schwab W, Verstappen FW, van der Plas LH, Bouwmeester HJ, Verhoeven HA (July 2002). "Monoterpene ... LaFever RE, Croteau R (March 1993). "Hydride shifts in the biosynthesis of the p-menthane monoterpenes alpha-terpinene, gamma- ... "Purification and characterization of the monoterpene cyclase gamma-terpinene synthase from Thymus vulgaris". Archives of ... biosynthesis in lemon (Citrus limon). cDNA isolation and functional analysis of four monoterpene synthases". European Journal ...
Lücker J, El Tamer MK, Schwab W, Verstappen FW, van der Plas LH, Bouwmeester HJ, Verhoeven HA (July 2002). "Monoterpene ... Bouwmeester HJ, Gershenzon J, Konings MC, Croteau R (July 1998). "Biosynthesis of the monoterpenes limonene and carvone in the ... the enzyme responsible for monoterpene biosynthesis in peppermint, is localized to leucoplasts of oil gland secretory cells". ... biosynthesis in lemon (Citrus limon). cDNA isolation and functional analysis of four monoterpene synthases". European Journal ...
It is classified as a monoterpene. Pulegone is a clear colorless oily liquid and has a pleasant odor similar to pennyroyal, ...
Davis, Edward M.; Croteau, Rodney (2000). "Cyclization Enzymes in the Biosynthesis of Monoterpenes, Sesquiterpenes, and ...
"Cyclization enzymes in the biosynthesis of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes". Topics in Current Chemistry. 209: 53- ...
Savage TJ, Hatch MW, Croteau R (February 1994). "Monoterpene synthases of Pinus contorta and related conifers. A new class of ... Savage TJ, Ichii H, Hume SD, Little DB, Croteau R (July 1995). "Monoterpene synthases from gymnosperms and angiosperms: ... Savage TJ, Croteau R (September 1993). "Biosynthesis of monoterpenes: regio- and stereochemistry of (+)-3-carene biosynthesis ...
Abeotaxane Monoterpene Sesquiterpene Triterpene Dodonaea petiolaris yields the diterpene ent-3β-acetoxy-15,16-epoxylabda-8(17), ... Davis, Edward M.; Croteau, Rodney (2000). "Cyclization Enzymes in the Biosynthesis of Monoterpenes, Sesquiterpenes, and ...
Okamura and collaborators [17] performed a screening of 12 monoterpenes. Among them, the acyclic monoterpene, myrcene, ... Okamura and collaborators [17] evaluated the cytotoxicity of 12 monoterpenes. The acyclic monoterpene alloocimene showed ... Antitumor Activity of Monoterpenes Found in Essential Oils. Marianna Vieira Sobral,1,2 Aline Lira Xavier,2 Tamires Cardoso Lima ... The results showed that the carvacrol is the most active monoterpene. However, the data of IC50 (0.17 μM on K562 cells) showed ...
Monoterpenes are a class of terpenes that consist of two isoprene units and have the molecular formula C10H16. Monoterpenes may ... Monoterpenes are considered allelochemicals. Many monoterpenes are volatile compounds and some of them are well-known fragrants ... Many monoterpenes found in marine organisms are halogenated, such as halomon. Selected Monoterpenes and Monoterpenoids Myrcene ... Umbellulone is another example of bicyclic monoterpene ketone. Monoterpenes are found in many parts of different plants, such ...
Monoterpenes are a class of terpenes that consist of two isoprene units and have the molecular formula C10H16. Monoterpenes may ... Other bicyclic monoterpenes include carene, sabinene, camphene, and thujene. Camphor, borneol and eucalyptol are examples of ... Monoterpenes are emitted by forests and form aerosols that are proposed to serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Such ... Monoterpenes are derived biosynthetically from units of isopentenyl pyrophosphate, which is formed from acetyl-CoA via the ...
Monoterpene epsilon-lactone hydrolase (EC 3.1.1.83, MLH) is an enzyme with systematic name isoprop(en)ylmethyloxepan-2-one ... Monoterpene+epsilon-lactone+hydrolase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Biology portal. ... van der Vlugt-Bergmans CJ, van der Werf MJ (February 2001). "Genetic and biochemical characterization of a novel monoterpene ...
and monoterpenes against Tenebrio molitor (L.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)," Ciência e Agrotecnologia, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 664- ... E. Yildirim, B. Emsen, and S. Kordali, "Insecticidal effects of monoterpenes on Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: ... Fumigation Toxicity of Essential Oil Monoterpenes to Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae). ...
This invention relates to compositions and methods of using blends of two or more monoterpenes as synergists for attractive ... No blend of monoterpenes has ever been shown to be a more effective synergist than any single monoterpene. ... 4) In three different studies, no blend of monoterpenes has proven to be a better synergist than any of the above monoterpenes ... This is the first time that any monoterpene blend has been shown experimentally to be a better synergist than any monoterpene ...
Learn more about Essential Oil Monoterpenes at Memorial Hospital Uses Principal Proposed Uses Acute Bronchitis ... ... Because these oils are all in a chemical family called monoterpenes, the treatment is called "essential oil monoterpenes." ... Therapeutic Uses of Essential Oil Monoterpenes Dosage Safety Issues References Eucalyptus oil is a standard ingredient in cough ... Therapeutic Uses of Essential Oil Monoterpenes. Most, though not all, studies indicate that oral use of essential oil ...
Cell-free extracts from xylem tissue yielded three monoterpene synthases which together account for the monoterpene isomer and ... Monoterpene synthases of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) produce pinene isomers and enantiomers.. Phillips MA1, Savage TJ, Croteau ... The turpentine fraction of conifer oleoresin is a complex mixture of monoterpene olefins and plays important roles in defense ... The major products of these enzymes, produced from the universal precursor of monoterpenes, geranyl diphosphate, were shown to ...
... are able to synthesize monoterpene hydrocarbons and linalool in high yields. The enzymes involved are soluble in t … ... Biosynthesis of monoterpene hydrocarbons by isolated chromoplasts from daffodil flowers Eur J Biochem. 1988 Jan 4;170(3):613-6. ... It is hypothesized that in the plant cell plastids are the site of monoterpene biosynthesis, whereas the formation of ... are able to synthesize monoterpene hydrocarbons and linalool in high yields. The enzymes involved are soluble in the ...
Monoterpenes are organic compounds that dictate the distinctive fragrance and flavor of the cannabis plant. The plants... ... Monoterpenes Definition - What does Monoterpenes mean? Monoterpenes are organic compounds that dictate the distinctive ... MaximumYield explains Monoterpenes. More than 100 terpenes occur in the marijuana plant, and monoterpenes make up a large ... Monoterpenes are made up of two isoprene units, which are 10 carbon atoms. Besides creating a pungent odor, monoterpenes also ...
By contrast, the other seven monoterpenes we investigated did not induce any emissions of other monoterpenes. These results ... Monoterpenes produced by Cupressus lusitanica cultured cells including a novel monoterpene (1S, 2S, S)-(+)-1,6-epoxy-4(8)-p- ... Monoterpene Airborne signaling Cell culture Cupressus lusitanica β-thujaplicin This is a preview of subscription content, log ... These monoterpenes are emitted into the vapor phase and are expected to play a role in airborne signaling. In the present study ...
Metabolic engineering of monoterpene synthesis in yeast. Authors. *. Marc J. C. Fischer,. Corresponding author*E-mail address: ... Ester Pardo, Juan Rico, José Vicente Gil, Margarita Orejas, De novo production of six key grape aroma monoterpenes by a ... Jianzhi Zhao, Xiaoming Bao, Chen Li, Yu Shen, Jin Hou, Improving monoterpene geraniol production through geranyl diphosphate ... Capturing of the monoterpene olefin limonene produced inSaccharomyces cerevisiae, Yeast, 2014, n/a. Wiley Online Library ...
Recent studies have also shown that iridoids and other structurally related monoterpenes display a vast array of ... Keywords: monoterpenes; iridoids; Alzheimers disease; amyloid beta; drug likeness; multiple mechanisms monoterpenes; iridoids ... Iridoids and Other Monoterpenes in the Alzheimers Brain: Recent Development and Future Prospects. Solomon Habtemariam. ... "Iridoids and Other Monoterpenes in the Alzheimers Brain: Recent Development and Future Prospects." Molecules 23, no. 1: 117. ...
Metal complex Zeolite-Y Heterogeneous catalysis Oxidation Monoterpenes This is a preview of subscription content, log in to ... Enhanced catalytic oxidation of monoterpenes by zeolite-Y entrapped iron complex: spectral studies and mechanistic vision. ...
However, monoterpene isomers, especially monoterpene enantiomers, have been little explored. It is possible to identify and ... These results provide an overview of the monoterpene isomers of wide varietal wines, and support that isomer profiles and ... Monoterpene compounds contribute floral and fruity characters to wine and are desired by grape growers and winemakers for many ... quantitate 17 monoterpene isomers in 148 varietal wines from eight grape varieties; Chardonnay, Gewürztraminer, Muscat, Pinot ...
... Biotechnol Bioeng. 2011 Aug;108(8):1883-92. doi: 10.1002/bit.23129. ...
Turpentine and Selected Monoterpenes: TLV(R) Chemical Substances 7th Edition Documentation. ACGIH(R) Format:. Electronic ( ...
Antinociceptive activity of the monoterpene α-phellandrene in rodents: possible mechanisms of action.. [David F Lima, Marcela S ... In the glutamate test, the monoterpene (12.5 mg/kg) decreased the nociceptive response. In carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia, α- ...
Monoterpene-Induced Resistance Depends on SA and AZI1. In the following experiments, we analyzed the role of monoterpenes in ... EDS1-Monoterpene-AzA Signaling in SAR. We documented a SAR-specific role in plant immunity for the monoterpene biosynthesis- ... Monoterpene Biosynthesis Is Essential for SAR. To further test our hypothesis that volatile monoterpenes play a role in SAR, we ... Monoterpenes Contribute to Defense-Related Plant-to-Plant Communication. Because monoterpenes are highly volatile and not ...
A derivative of a member of such a class Explanation of monoterpene ... Find out information about monoterpene. A class of terpenes with molecular formula C10H16; the members of the class contain two ... Related to monoterpene: Sesquiterpene, diterpene. monoterpene. [¦män·ō′tər‚pēn] (organic chemistry) A class of terpenes with ... Monoterpene , Article about monoterpene by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/monoterpene ...
Regulation of Monoterpene Formation in Caraway. Enzyme Control. The three enzymes of monoterpene biosynthesis in caraway, ... 1). In this process, GPP, the ubiquitous precursor of the monoterpenes, is cyclized by a monoterpene synthase to (+)-limonene. ... limonene by a monoterpene synthase that is very similar in its basic properties to many monoterpene synthases previously ... Monoterpene hydroxylation may also possess regulatory importance in the formation of monoterpenes in peppermint. In this ...
β-Citronellol is an alcoholic monoterpene found in essential oils such Cymbopogon citratus (a plant with antihypertensive ... Hypotensive and vasorelaxant effects of citronellol, a monoterpene alcohol, in rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2010; 106: ...
Monoterpenes. Carotenoids. Phenolic Acids. Others. On the basis on the end users/applications, this report focuses on the ... 1.2.5 Monoterpenes. 1.2.6 Carotenoids. 1.2.7 Phenolic Acids. 1.2.8 Others. 1.3 Global Phytochemical API Segment by Application ... Global Phytochemical API (Alkaloids, Anthocyanins, Monoterpenes, Carotenoids, Phenolic Acids and Others) Market Size 2017, ...
Potential of hydrocarbon and oxygenated monoterpenes against Culex pipiens larvae: Toxicity, biochemical, pharmacophore ... Twenty-one monoterpenes from different chemical groups (hydrocarbons and oxygenated products) were evaluated against Culex ... Among all tested monoterpenes, hydrocarbons [p-cymene, (R)-(+)-limonene and (+)-α-pinene], acetates (cinnamyl acetate, ... The biochemical and molecular docking studies proved that AChE and GABA-T were the main targets for the tested monoterpenes. ...
Flexibility unleashed in acyclic monoterpenes: conformational space of citronellal revealed by broadband rotational ... Flexibility unleashed in acyclic monoterpenes: conformational space of citronellal revealed by broadband rotational ...
Here, we address the biosynthetic route to iridoids (cyclic monoterpenes), a group of secondary metabolites used by some ... Oldham NJ, Veith M, Boland W, Dettner K. Iridoid monoterpene biosynthesis in insects: evidence for a de novo pathway occurring ... Veith M, Lorenz M, Boland W, Simon H, Dettner K. Biosynthesis of iridoid monoterpenes in insects: defensive secretions from ... Here, we address the biosynthetic route to iridoids (cyclic monoterpenes), a group of secondary metabolites used by some ...
The study of monoterpene CI reactions on liquid surfaces, however, is challenging due to the lack of suitable probes. Here, we ... Biogenic monoterpenes are major sources of Criegee intermediates (CIs) in the troposphere. Recent studies underscored the ... Reactivity of Monoterpene Criegee Intermediates at Gas-Liquid Interfaces. Junting Qiu, Shinnosuke Ishizuka, Kenichi Tonokura, ... Reactivity of Monoterpene Criegee Intermediates at Gas-Liquid Interfaces. Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 122 (39). pp. 7910- ...
CONCLUSIONS: The main changes in the tegument induced by the different ROT treatments were: after 24h incubation, bubble lesions spread over the entire body and loss of tubercles occurred in some regions of the ventral region....
... da Cruz Francisco, José LU ... Solubility of three monoterpenes, their mixtures and eucalyptus leaf oils in dense carbon dioxide}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/ ...
Halogenated monoterpene production by the red macroalga Octhodes secundiramea was studied-under different levels of nutrient, ... Factors influencing halogenated monoterpene production in microplantlets derived from the red macroalga Ochtodes secundiramea ...
  • It is hypothesized that in the plant cell plastids are the site of monoterpene biosynthesis, whereas the formation of sesquiterpenes may be restricted to the cytoplasm/endoplasmic reticulum. (nih.gov)
  • Arabidopsis geranylgeranyl reductase1 mutants with reduced monoterpene biosynthesis were SAR-defective but mounted normal local resistance and methyl salicylate-induced defense responses, suggesting that monoterpenes act in parallel with SA . (plantcell.org)
  • The biosynthesis of the monoterpenes limonene and carvone in the fruit of caraway ( Carum carvi L.) proceeds from geranyl diphosphate via a three-step pathway. (plantphysiol.org)
  • To investigate the regulation of monoterpene formation in caraway, we measured the time course of limonene and carvone accumulation during fruit development and compared it with monoterpene biosynthesis from [U- 14 C]Suc and the changes in the activities of the three enzymes. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Organization of Monoterpene Biosynthesis in Mentha. (plantphysiol.org)
  • SOSA was applied to simulate monoterpene emissions with three different emission modules: the semiempirical G95, MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature) 2.04 with improved descriptions of temperature and light responses and including also carbonyl emissions, and a process-based model SIM-BIM (Seasonal Isoprenoid synthase Model - Biochemical Isoprenoid biosynthesis Model). (biogeosciences.net)
  • Monoterpene biosynthesis in plants is effected by monoterpene synthases (MTPSs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • maddie, excited and demonstrable, monoterpene biosynthesis of proteins associates her dusk or speckles harshly. (guitarsecrets.info)
  • the vpk homework calendar reverberant and null hypothesis sociology definition of social status forward ferdinand ruins his lyrical takes and vandalizes with monoterpene biosynthesis of proteins delay. (guitarsecrets.info)
  • conan example of social science research paper pustular overcame his heckle and monoterpene biosynthesis of proteins chute assuming! (guitarsecrets.info)
  • We identified 15 monoterpene compounds (including linalool and eight lilac alcohols and aldehydes), three irregular terpenes, and nine sesquiterpenes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Analysis of various oils resulted in the simultaneous detection of 15 monoterpenes and 30 sesquiterpenes. (csic.es)
  • Essential oils are natural products that contain natural flavors and fragrances grouped as monoterpenes (hydrocarbons and oxygenated derivatives), sesquiterpenes (hydrocarbons and oxygenated derivatives) and aliphatic compounds (alkanes, alkenes, ketones, aldehydes, acides and alcohols) that provide characteristic odors. (scialert.net)
  • CMAQ is used to estimate the contribution of sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes to SOA concentrations over the contiguous United States. (escholarship.org)
  • This being a chemistry made simple class, I'm going to go over the 3 most commonly seen constituents: Monoterpenes, Sesquiterpenes and Phenols and talk about some of the favorite oils that contain large amounts of those constituents. (theoilacademy.com)
  • Sesquiterpenes are heavier than monoterpenes and they tend to appear towards the end of the distillation process. (theoilacademy.com)
  • In general, sesquiterpenes are colorless, are insoluble in water and are more aromatic, less volatile and have higher boiling points than monoterpenes. (theoilacademy.com)
  • Sesquiterpenes are non- polar compounds, which oxidize more slowly than monoterpenes. (theoilacademy.com)
  • Let's talk about Sesquiterpenes, Phenols, and Monoterpenes. (juniperandco.com)
  • Monoterpenes restore the correct information in the DNA of the cell once the Sesquiterpenes and Phenols have done their job. (juniperandco.com)
  • There are other names used to describe terpenes, such as monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. (terpenesandtesting.com)
  • Monoterpenes are often more volatile than sesquiterpenes. (terpenesandtesting.com)
  • A pale yellow liquid, cannabis flower essential oil is a volatile oil that is a mixture of monoterpenes , sesquiterpenes , and other terpenoid compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monoterpenes showed a significantly greater loss than sesquiterpenes, but none of the major components completely disappeared in the drying process. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 57 identified constituents were 92% monoterpenes, 7% sesquiterpenes, and approx. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abstract Three new psychollatine-derived monoterpene indole alkaloids were obtained from Psychotria umbellata Thonn. (semanticscholar.org)
  • abstract = "Monoterpenes are abundant in essential oil extracted from plants. (lu.se)
  • Selected Monoterpenes and Monoterpenoids Myrcene is an acyclic monoterpene, an alkene hydrocarbon Menthol is a monocyclic monoterpenoid Limonene is a monocyclic monoterpene Carvone is a monoterpenoid Hinokitiol is a monoterpenoid, a tropolone derivative Linalool is an acyclic monoterpenoid Bicyclic monoterpenes include carene, sabinene, camphene, and thujene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This oil demonstrated a strong cytotoxic effect, which may be attributed by the presence of specific components such as the monoterpenes citral, citronellol, and myrcene. (hindawi.com)
  • 2. The method of claim 1, wherein the monoterpene blend consists of an effective amount of: myrcene and terpinolene, myrcene and (+)-3-carene, terpinolene and (+)-carene, or myrcene, terpinolene and (+)-3-carene. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • We conducted laboratory assays testing the responses of Eastern spruce budworm to an artificial monoterpene mix (α‐pinene, β‐pinene, limonene, myrcene) and to white spruce (Picea glauca) epicuticular waxes in closed arenas. (concordia.ca)
  • The resulting proteins catalyzed the conversion of geranyl pyrophosphate, the universal substrate of monoterpene synthases to myrcene and Z-(b)-ocimene, respectively. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Monoterpenes include myrcene , terpinene, and sabinene . (terpenesandtesting.com)
  • The most abundant monoterpene was β- myrcene , followed by trans- caryophyllene , α- pinene , trans- ocimene , and α- terpinolene . (wikipedia.org)
  • The initial concentrations of ozone and monoterpene precursor (for concentrations lower than 40 ppb) do not appear to affect the activity of the resulting SOA. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • We applied the boundary-layer-chemistry-transport model SOSA (model to Simulate the concentrations of Organic vapours and Sulphuric Acid) to investigate Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris ) monoterpene emissions in a boreal coniferous forest at the SMEAR (Station for Measuring forest Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) II site, southern Finland. (biogeosciences.net)
  • The predominant modelled monoterpene concentrations, α-pinene and Δ 3 -carene, are consistent with observations. (biogeosciences.net)
  • To study the effect on locomotor activity, larvae were exposed to filter papers treated with concentrations of monoterpenes ranging between 1.4 and 1,400 µg/cm 2 . (eje.cz)
  • Pine trees contain such high concentrations of pinene that you could extract more than 1 liter of monoterpenes from a square meter of pine wood. (apollyon.nl)
  • They also consumed discs treated with realistic monoterpene concentrations and wax preferentially over wax‐only discs, but showed no preference between extremely high monoterpene concentrations and wax‐only controls. (concordia.ca)
  • These results suggest that P. glauca waxes and realistic concentrations of monoterpenes are stimulatory to both egg‐laying females and feeding larvae, and that their effects are synergistic. (concordia.ca)
  • Concentrations of monoterpenes may be diminished when curing biomass which is why some growers/processors flash-freeze flowers, creating " live " products. (terpenesandtesting.com)
  • Monoterpene concentration was high in 1998, and budworm potential fitness was greater on clones from the resistant mature trees that had lower concentrations of total monoterpenes. (elsevier.com)
  • Many monoterpenes are volatile compounds and some of them are well-known fragrants found in the essential oils of many plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alwis RD, Fujita K, Ashitani T, Kuroda K (2009a) Volatile and non-volatile monoterpenes produced by elicitor-stimulated Cupressus lusitanica cultured cells. (springer.com)
  • This paper describes the drying of ponderosa pine wood chips at low (20°C and 50°C) temperatures using a bench-scale batch pulsed fluidizer to evaluate both volatile pine oils (monoterpenes) and moisture losses during drying. (springer.com)
  • Formation of organic nitrates (RONO2) during oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs: isoprene, monoterpenes) is a significant loss pathway for atmospheric nitrogen oxide radicals (NOx), but the chemistry of RONO2 formation and degradation remains uncertain. (harvard.edu)
  • They are larger than monoterpenes and are very viscous (less volatile) so they are often used as fixatives in the perfume industry. (zimbabweelection.com)
  • Woodwasps in Sirex and related genera are well-represented in North American conifer forests, but the chemical ecology of native woodwasps is limited to a few studies demonstrating their attraction to volatile host tree compounds, primarily monoterpene hydrocarbons and monoterpene alcohols. (usda.gov)
  • By contrast, the other seven monoterpenes we investigated did not induce any emissions of other monoterpenes. (springer.com)
  • Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry analyses of SAR -related emissions of wild-type and non- SAR -signal-producing mutant plants associated SAR with monoterpene emissions. (plantcell.org)
  • 2013), whereas the annual estimate of monoterpene emissions ranges between 0. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Even the nature of the response of biogenic monoterpene emissions to water limitation is controversial, possibly depending on the severity, intensity and duration of the drought. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Thus, there is a need to explore all the factors that influence monoterpene emissions from forests. (open.ac.uk)
  • These results are important for understanding future trends in monoterpene emission, since nitrogen deposition, as consequence of industrial emissions and agricultural sources, is increasing in the soils of boreal and high altitude temperate forests. (open.ac.uk)
  • Here, we investigated emissions of monoterpenes, isoprene and DMS as well as seasonal carbon assimilation from four big-leaf mahogany trees in their natural outdoor environment using a dynamic branch cuvette system, high-sensitivity proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer and cavity ring-down spectrometer. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • Using the measured seasonal emission fluxes, we provide the first estimates for the global emissions from mahogany trees which amount to circa 210-320 Gg yr −1 for monoterpenes, 370-550 Mg yr −1 for DMS and 1700-2600 Mg yr −1 for isoprene. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • Secondary organic aerosol from sesquiterpene and monoterpene emissions in the United States. (escholarship.org)
  • First, geranyl diphosphate is cyclized to (+)-limonene by a monoterpene synthase. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The activities of the enzymes explain the profiles of monoterpene accumulation quite well, with limonene-6-hydroxylase playing a pivotal role in controlling the nature of the end product. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Caraway ( Carum carvi L.), native to Europe, western Asia, and northern Africa, is an important monoterpene-containing herb, which contains (+)-carvone and (+)-limonene as its major monoterpene components. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In this process, GPP, the ubiquitous precursor of the monoterpenes, is cyclized by a monoterpene synthase to (+)-limonene. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Here, we report the first mass spectrometric detection of the intermediates and products, which include labile hydroperoxides, from reactions of CIs of representative monoterpenes (α-terpinene, γ-terpinene, terpinolene, D-limonene, α-pinene) with water, cis-pinonic acid (CPA) and octanoic acid (OA) on the surface of liquid microjets. (caltech.edu)
  • anecdotal information on inter-tree differences in monoterpene composition indicate that while overall total monoterpene composition is similar for each tree, the ratios of α -pinene, β -pinene, δ -3-carene and limonene differ between individual trees. (springer.com)
  • The ability of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced from the ozonolysis of α-pinene and monoterpene mixtures (α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene and 3-carene) to become cloud droplets was investigated. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • The inhibitory effect of monoterpenes on methane oxidation was greatest with unsaturated, cyclic hydrocarbon forms [e.g., (−)-α-pinene, ( S )-(−)-limonene, ( R )-(+)-limonene, and γ-terpinene]. (asm.org)
  • A common monoterpene found in essential oils is d-limonene, in most citrus oils - hey, a word we recognize, limonene! (zimbabweelection.com)
  • The dominant monoterpene compounds emitted from these Eucalyptus species were α-pinene, 1,8-cineole, β-pinene and limonene. (edu.au)
  • Monoterpenes such as limonene and perillyl alcohol have been shown to prevent mammary, liver, lung, and'other cancers. (aromaticscience.com)
  • Limonene, which is present in all citrus oils has been researched as a monoterpene as a potential risk as an irritant or allergen when oxidized. (aromahut.com)
  • Several monoterpenes produced by trees, such as linalool, hinokitiol, and ocimene have fungicidal and antibacterial activities and participate in wound healing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several monoterpenes derivatives have antibacterial activity, such as linalool . (wikipedia.org)
  • Incubation studies using [1-14C]isopentenyl diphosphate and [1-2H2]isopentenyl diphosphate as substrates revealed that isolated chromoplasts from flowers of Narcissus pseudonarcissus L. are able to synthesize monoterpene hydrocarbons and linalool in high yields. (nih.gov)
  • Interestingly, geraniol was further metabolized by yeast enzymes to additional monoterpenes and esters: citronellol, linalool, nerol, citronellyl acetate and geranyl acetate, resulting in a total monoterpene concentration (~1,558 μg/L) 230-fold greater than that of the control. (biomedcentral.com)
  • S. cerevisiae wine strains themselves produce only tiny quantities of monoterpenes (e.g. up to 1.2 or 4 μg/L of geraniol and linalool, respectively) [ 16 ] because they lack MTPSs and cannot therefore contribute to ameliorating monoterpene deficiency in grape must. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Oxidation of 1,8-cineole, the monoterpene cyclic ether originated from eucalyptus polybractea, by cytochrome P450 3A enzymes in rat and human liver microsomes. (uniprot.org)
  • Selected monoterpenes inhibited methane oxidation by methanotrophs ( Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, Methylobacter luteus ), denitrification by environmental isolates, and aerobic metabolism by several heterotrophic pure cultures. (asm.org)
  • Oxidation of monoterpenes catalysed b. (ugent.be)
  • Here we implement a new BVOC oxidation mechanism (including updated isoprene chemistry, new monoterpene chemistry, and particle uptake of RONO2) in the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model with similar to aEuro-25aEuro- x aEuro-25aEuro-km(2) resolution over North America. (harvard.edu)
  • Umbellulone is another example of bicyclic monoterpene ketone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three new monoterpene indole alkaloids from Psychotria umbellata Thonn. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) from Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) are secondary metabolites of high interest due to their therapeutical values. (cnrs-orleans.fr)
  • Monoterpenes are a class of terpenes that consist of two isoprene units and have the molecular formula C10H16. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monoterpenes are a class of terpenes that consist of two isoprene units and have the molecular formula C 10 H 16 . (wikipedia.org)
  • Monoterpenes (a C 10 class of terpenes mainly derived from grapes) are key odorants associated with the varietal (or primary) aromas of certain white wines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Geranyl pyrophosphate can also undergo two sequential cyclization reactions to form bicyclic monoterpenes, such as pinene which is the primary constituent of pine resin . (wikipedia.org)
  • Headspace exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana to a mixture of the bicyclic monoterpenes α-pinene and β-pinene induced defense, accumulation of reactive oxygen species, and expression of SA - and SAR-related genes, including the SAR regulatory AZELAIC ACID INDUCED1 ( AZI1 ) gene and three of its paralogs. (plantcell.org)
  • More than 100 terpenes occur in the marijuana plant, and monoterpenes make up a large percentage of those occurring terpenes. (maximumyield.com)
  • In an interview with Terpenes & Testing, Michael Backes reported that he "started testing commercial prerolls and found that their monoterpene content was nearly nonexistent. (terpenesandtesting.com)
  • Geraniol synthase-engineered yeasts demonstrate potential in the development of monoterpene enhanced wines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Monoterpene synthases of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) produce pinene isomers and enantiomers. (nih.gov)
  • The major products of these enzymes, produced from the universal precursor of monoterpenes, geranyl diphosphate, were shown to be (+)-alpha-pinene, (-)-alpha-pinene, and (-)-beta-pinene, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • The CCN activation diameter of α-pinene and mixed monoterpene SOA can be modelled to within 10-15% of experiments by a simple implementation of Köhler theory, assuming complete dissolution of the particles, no dissociation into ions, a molecular weight of 180 g mol −1 , a density of 1.5 g cm −3 , and the surface tension of water. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • Pinene is a very useful monoterpene that is found in pine resins, and various resins from other plants, trees and herbs. (apollyon.nl)
  • The data obtained by our group and other data from the literature have enabled us to propose a mechanism of action for α-pinene, the most active monoterpene that has been identified in our works. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The isomers α-Pinene and β-pinene (monoterpenes) are the major components of the common solvent turpentine. (zimbabweelection.com)
  • Deciphering the route to cyclic monoterpenes in Chrysomelina leaf beetles: source of new biocatalysts for industrial application? (degruyter.com)
  • Here, we address the biosynthetic route to iridoids (cyclic monoterpenes), a group of secondary metabolites used by some members of the leaf beetle subtribe Chrysomelina as defensive compounds against their enemies. (degruyter.com)
  • 1,8-Cineole, the monoterpene cyclic ether known as eucalyptol, is one of the components in essential oils from Eucalyptus polybractea. (uniprot.org)
  • Cyclic and linear monoterpenes in phospholipid membranes: Phase behavior, bilayer structure, and molecular dynamics. (lu.se)
  • Home Research Outputs Cyclic and linear monoterpenes in phospholipid membranes: Ph. (lu.se)
  • In this study we investigate the effect of cyclic and linear monoterpenes on the structure and dynamics of lipids in model membrane. (lu.se)
  • Monoterpenes and monoterpenoids are diverse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Geranyl pyrophosphate is the precursor to monoterpenes (and hence monoterpenoids). (wikipedia.org)
  • Total monoterpene concentration was negatively related to foliar nitrogen concentration, suggesting that C/N balance may affect monoterpene synthesis in needles. (elsevier.com)
  • However, tree growth was not related to total monoterpene concentration. (elsevier.com)
  • The monoterpene, and particularly the sesquiterpene composition of olive oil may be used to distinguish samples from different cultivar and geographical areas. (csic.es)
  • This means within 20 minutes you have some Sesquiterpene, Phenol, and Monoterpene goodness in every cell in your body, working on the receptor sites that need help. (juniperandco.com)
  • In most properties (molecular mass of approximately 60 kDa, K(m) for geranyl diphosphate of 3 microM, requirement for monovalent and divalent cations), these enzymes resemble other monoterpene synthases from conifer species. (nih.gov)
  • Monoterpenes (C 10 H 16 ) are the products of metabolism found in many plants and are most notably emitted by conifers. (open.ac.uk)
  • A perturbation on mitochondrial functions may thus be a primary mechanism of the phytotoxic action of some monoterpenes, particularly during seed germination and initial seedling growth when ATP production depends mainly on mitochondrial metabolism. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Essential oils are very rich in monoterpenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this review the antitumor activity of 37 monoterpenes found in essential oils is discussed. (hindawi.com)
  • The present study was carried out based on the literature review of monoterpenes from essential oils with antitumor activity. (hindawi.com)
  • Because these oils are all in a chemical family called monoterpenes, the treatment is called "essential oil monoterpenes. (memorialhospitaljax.com)
  • Most, though not all, studies indicate that oral use of essential oil monoterpenes can help acute bronchitis, chronic bronchitis, and sinus infections. (memorialhospitaljax.com)
  • For example, a double-blind , placebo-controlled trial of 676 people with acute bronchitis found that 2 weeks treatment with essential oil monoterpenes was more effective than placebo and equally effective as antibiotic treatment for reducing symptoms and aiding recovery. (memorialhospitaljax.com)
  • 5 Also, a 3-month, double-blind , placebo-controlled trial of 246 people with chronic bronchitis found that regular use of essential oil monoterpenes helped prevent the typical worsening of chronic bronchitis that occurs during the winter. (memorialhospitaljax.com)
  • One study weakly indicates that essential oil monoterpenes may be helpful for colds in children. (memorialhospitaljax.com)
  • Essential oil monoterpenes are thought to work by thinning mucus. (memorialhospitaljax.com)
  • In this context, citronellal (CT) is a monoterpene present in the essential oil of several aromatic plants, such as Corymbia citriodora and plants of the gender Cymbopogon, as C. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • β-Citronellol is an alcoholic monoterpene found in essential oils such Cymbopogon citratus (a plant with antihypertensive properties). (scielo.br)
  • Many essential oils isolated from various plant species belonging to different genera contain relatively high amounts of monoterpenes. (scialert.net)
  • CHOI W., PARK B., KU S. & LEE S. 2002: Repellent activities of essential oils and monoterpenes against Culex pipiens pallens. (eje.cz)
  • Monoterpenes, the major components of essential oils, belong to the group of isoprenoids containing ten carbon atoms. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Effect of Heat Stress on Yield, Monoterpene Content and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils of Mentha X Piperita Var. (preprints.org)
  • More specifically, if you can sense aromas of rose, lilac, lavender, orange blossom or geranium in a wine or pisco, it means it has monoterpenes, which are compounds found in the essential oils extracted from many plants, including fruits, vegetables, spices and herbs (Loza-Tavera). (piscologia.com)
  • Loza-Tavera, H. "Monoterpenes in Essential Oils. (piscologia.com)
  • Citrus essential oils such as lemon, orange, and grapefruit contain over 90% monoterpenes. (zimbabweelection.com)
  • These monoterpene compounds are found in nearly all essential oils and have a structure of 10 carbon atoms and at least one double bond. (theoilacademy.com)
  • Monoterpenes are found in the essential oils of many plants including fruits, vegetables, and herbs. (aromaticscience.com)
  • Typically, you will find essential oils that are rich in monoterpenes as top or middle notes with a tendency to evaporate quickly. (aromahut.com)
  • Hence, you see why essential oils high in monoterpenes have a shorter shelf life (1 to 3 years). (aromahut.com)
  • Essential oils such as Lemon is made up of primarily monoterpenes, while other essential oils may contain one or more chemical families. (aromahut.com)
  • This is because essential oils high in monoterpenes that have oxidized can cause skin irritation or sensitization. (aromahut.com)
  • Read more details about Essential Oil Monoterpenes . (foundhealth.com)
  • Numerous double-blind trials have found essential oil monoterpenes to be effective when taken orally for acute bronchitis, chronic bronchitis, sinus infections , and other respiratory conditions, in both adults and children. (foundhealth.com)
  • In the essential oil from outdoor-grown hemp, the monoterpene concentration varied between 47.9 and 92.1% of the total terpenoid content. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presented review is based on studies of the biological activities of the most important monoterpenes and the essential oils rich in these compounds. (bvsalud.org)
  • polystachya are rich in monoterpenes hydrocarbons compounds, with percentage of 86. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Various strains contain different levels of monoterpenes, which is why so many types of marijuana plants have such distinctive aromas and flavors. (maximumyield.com)
  • Monoterpene and isoprene emission rates of 15 Eucalyptus species were measured using an air exchange chamber technique and GC-FID analysis. (edu.au)
  • The normalised monoterpene emission rates (leaf temperature 30°C) of these Eucalyptus species ranged from zero for E. forrestiana to 5.4±2.2 μg g−1 h−1 (or 871±33 μg m−2 h−1) for E. globulus. (edu.au)
  • Based on monoterpene emission rate data from four Eucalyptus species (E. globulus, E. robusta, E. rudis, and E. sargentii), there were clear exponential relationships between leaf temperature and monoterpene emission rate for these Eucalyptus species. (edu.au)
  • The ingredients of the Monoterpenes oil are: oil extracts of citrus and pine, and eucalyptus. (natural-homeremedies.com)
  • Cell-free extracts from xylem tissue yielded three monoterpene synthases which together account for the monoterpene isomer and enantiomer content of the turpentine of this tissue. (nih.gov)
  • Monoterpenes are made up of two isoprene units, which are 10 carbon atoms. (maximumyield.com)
  • Two isoprene units form a monoterpene, which means "one. (aromahut.com)
  • Monoterpenes are composed of two isoprene units of five carbon atoms each, totaling ten with at least one double bond. (aromahut.com)
  • The odor of the monoterpene Terpinolene is classified as terpy, pine, and lemon-like. (eybna.com)
  • In addition, monoterpenes are not water-soluble and should not be used in the bath unless well-diluted with a carrier oil or base. (aromahut.com)
  • In the present study, 6 pure monoterpene hydrocarbons were tested as single compounds and mixtures for their toxicity against the second and third instars larvae and adults of Colorado potato beetle ( Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say). (scialert.net)
  • The fumigant effect was evaluated by exposing larvae to vapour from 100 µl of pure monoterpene in a sealed container. (eje.cz)
  • For those applications, oils with high monoterpene percentages (but a low alpha-humulene or caryophyllene oxide concentration) are desirable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agata Koziol, Agnieszka Stryjewska, Tadeusz Librowski, Kinga Salat, Magdalena Gawel, Andrzej Moniczewski and Stanisław Lochynski, "An Overview of the Pharmacological Properties and Potential Applications of Natural Monoterpenes", Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry (2014) 14: 1156. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Natural monoterpenes were also modified to obtain the corresponding alkynes which were used in the cross-coupling step. (ufop.br)
  • Natural Monoterpenes: Much More than Only a Scent. (bvsalud.org)
  • Twenty-one monoterpenes from different chemical groups (hydrocarbons and oxygenated products) were evaluated against Culex pipiens larvae. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In addition to OM, the second class of constituents most frequently found was the monoterpene hydrocarbons. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An investigation of the constituents of the whole plant of Eupatorium tashiroi Hayata(Compositae) afforded a new monoterpene, eupatriol. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • The stereochemistry of the turpentine monoterpenes is critical in these interactions, influencing host recognition, toxicity, and potency of derived pheromones, and the stereochemical composition of these compounds lends insight into their biogenetic origin, with implications for the numbers and types of enzymes responsible and their corresponding genes. (nih.gov)
  • Recently, it has been suggested that monoterpenes play an important role in altering nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) cycling in forest soils ( 36 ). (asm.org)
  • Sabinene hydrate is a monoterpene found in the oils of spearmint and peppermint, as well as in a selection of spicy herbs and citrus fruits. (eybna.com)
  • For this reason citrus oils do not last well, since they are high in monoterpene hydrocarbons and have a quick reaction to air, and are readily oxidized. (theoilacademy.com)
  • Biogenic monoterpenes are major sources of Criegee intermediates (CIs) in the troposphere. (caltech.edu)
  • Interactions between biogenic monoterpenes and drought stress remain poorly understood and characterised. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Monoterpenes may be linear (acyclic) or contain rings (monocyclic and bicyclic). (wikipedia.org)
  • This Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase enzyme from the Gram-positive bacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis DCL14 has wide substrate specificity, catalyzing the lactonization of a large number of monocyclic monoterpene ketones and substituted cyclohexanones. (expasy.org)
  • The Vanderwal group at the University of California Irvine aims to develop the first synthesis of members of the Plocamium polyhalogenated monoterpenes, The proposed synthesis is concise and modular, allowing for multiple members of the class to be synthesized, as well as a host of unnatural analogues, with only minor modifications to the procedure. (grantome.com)
  • Initial results on the synthesis of simplified model systems are promising, and once completed, the Plocamium polyhalogenated monoterpene natural products will be synthesized. (grantome.com)
  • Besides creating a pungent odor, monoterpenes also play a key role in protecting the plant from fungal infections, certain strains of bacteria, and insects. (maximumyield.com)
  • Monoterpenes, source of the distinctive odor of conifers, are generally considered plant defensive compounds. (concordia.ca)
  • Many monoterpenes found in marine organisms are halogenated, such as halomon. (wikipedia.org)
  • We also found that monoterpene profiles of wines derived from mixed fermentations were found to be determined by the composition of the initial yeast inocula suggesting the feasibility of producing 'à la carte' wines having predetermined monoterpene contents. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hetero-adamantanes containing monoterpene moieties at the aminal position of the heterocycle were found to exhibit lower activity compared to compounds with a diaza-adamantane fragment and a monoterpene moiety linked via an amino group at the 6-position of the hetero-adamantane ring. (nsu.ru)
  • We found that the total concentration of monoterpenes in current-year foliage varied greatly between two consecutive years in clones in the greenhouse and in their corresponding mature trees in the forest. (elsevier.com)
  • Background: It was found earlier that compounds combining diazaadamantane and monoterpene moieties possessed promising analgesic activity along with low acute toxicity and the lack of ulcerogenic activity. (nsu.ru)
  • Certain monoterpenes produced by aromatic plants are known to have lethal and sublethal effects on insects. (eje.cz)
  • These results provide an overview of the monoterpene isomers of wide varietal wines, and support that isomer profiles and enantiomer fractions could differentiate our wines by varietal and wine style. (mdpi.com)
  • Many of the cellular activities that have been reported to be altered by monoterpenes require the metabolic energy of ATP and/or membrane integrity. (eurekaselect.com)
  • In particular, because blends of two or more monoterpenes will act as better synergists for attractive mountain pine beetle pheromones than any monoterpene used alone, more beetles will be attracted to the composition, and management of infestations will be improved. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Over 400 trees of Abies lasiocarpa from fifty localities covering its entire range have been examined for composition of the cortical monoterpenes. (eurekamag.com)
  • Fractional composition of different monoterpenes was similar between different years and between clones and mature trees, indicating genetic control of this trait. (elsevier.com)
  • Considering that monoterpenes are common in many plant species and are used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations, as well as the food industry, it is important to review the pharmacological potential of monoterpenes with anticancer activity. (hindawi.com)
  • The degree of inhibition was monoterpene and species dependent. (asm.org)
  • For the first time, the emission models included seasonal and diurnal variations in both quantity and chemical species of emitted monoterpenes, based on parameterizations obtained from field measurements. (biogeosciences.net)
  • The mechanisms by which monoterpenes released by certain species affect the germination and growth of other plants remain to be elucidated. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Monoterpenes affected the attraction of three sympatric species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to pheromone-baited multiple-funnel traps in stands of lodgepole pine. (usda.gov)
  • Results indicate that modelling and observations agreed reasonably well and that the model can be used for investigating regional air chemistry questions related to monoterpenes. (biogeosciences.net)
  • Deb C. "Nan nails it and gets Carvone is a monoterpenoid, a modified monoterpene. (zimbabweelection.com)
  • Potential of hydrocarbon and oxygenated monoterpenes against Culex pipiens larvae: Toxicity, biochemical, pharmacophore modeling and molecular docking studies. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The biochemical and molecular docking studies proved that AChE and GABA-T were the main targets for the tested monoterpenes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The monoterpenes have several cellular and molecular activities that could potentially underlie their positive therapeutic index. (aromaticscience.com)
  • In order to measure the toxicity of compounds tested insects were placed in glass Petri dishes, in which monoterpene hydrocarbons had been sprayed. (scialert.net)
  • The aim of the present study is assess the toxicity of six monoterpene hydrocarbons as single compounds and mixtures against the second and third instars larvae and adults of L.decemlineata to find the efficiency of these compounds to control of L. decemlineata . (scialert.net)
  • Monoterpenes are organic compounds that dictate the distinctive fragrance and flavor of the cannabis plant. (maximumyield.com)
  • During the curing process of cannabis plant material, the monoterpenes evaporate more rapidly. (maximumyield.com)
  • Although this correlates closely with a decrease in monoterpene accumulation, the latter may also be the result of competition with other pathways for substrate. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The turpentine fraction of conifer oleoresin is a complex mixture of monoterpene olefins and plays important roles in defense and in the mediation of chemical communication between conifer hosts and insect predators. (nih.gov)
  • The AEO contains complex mixture consisting mainly of monoterpene hydrocarbons (60. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Monoterpene compounds contribute floral and fruity characters to wine and are desired by grape growers and winemakers for many white wines. (mdpi.com)
  • Plocamium polyhalogenated monoterpenes are metabolites first isolated from the red algae Plocamium cartilagineum, featuring several units of unsaturation, as well as multiple halogens, including two contiguous stereogenic chlorine-bearing carbons. (grantome.com)
  • The testing of several members of the Plocamium polyhalogenated monoterpene family suggests only moderate cytotoxicity levels, initial results indicate that these compounds are selective for solid tumors, while remaining nontoxic to healthy cells. (grantome.com)
  • Cytotoxic halogenated monoterpenes from Plocamium cartilagineum" by Omar MM Sabry, Douglas E. Goeger et al. (henryford.com)
  • As a result of our efforts to identify bioactive agents from marine algae, we have isolated and identified one new halogenated monoterpene 1 [(-)-(5E,7Z)-348-trichloro-7-dichloromethyl-3-methyl-157-octatriene] in addition to three known compounds (2, 3 and 4) from the red alga Plocamium cartilagineum collected by hand from the eastern coast of South Africa. (henryford.com)
  • The ability to inhibit some microorganisms but not others makes monoterpenes potential factors in the control of microbial processes in environments where they are abundant, such as forest soils ( 38 ). (asm.org)
  • One as yet largely unexplored process is the effect of nutrient availability on monoterpene emission. (open.ac.uk)
  • In this study we treated young Scots pine seedlings with fertilizer (NPK and urea) largely and observed a large increase in monoterpene emission compared with unfertilized controls. (open.ac.uk)
  • Detailed regional measurements and model estimates are needed to study emission potential and the monoterpene budget on a global scale. (biogeosciences.net)
  • Repellency was evaluated by exposing larvae to circles of filter paper divided in two equal zones: one zone was treated with a solution of a monoterpene in acetone (14 or 140 µg/cm 2 ) and the other with only acetone. (eje.cz)
  • Larvae were repelled by all the monoterpenes tested. (eje.cz)
  • Recent studies have also shown that iridoids and other structurally related monoterpenes display a vast array of pharmacological effects that make them potential modulators of the Alzheimer's disease (AD). (mdpi.com)
  • The monoterpene spray also significantly inhibited ABA accumulation under severe stress, possibly by interfering with the methylerythritol (MEP) pathway and thereby reducing production of ABA precursors. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • We concluded that expression of differences in budworm resistance among Douglas fir genotypes might be caused by interactions among multiple resistance mechanisms such as needle monoterpenes and tree budburst phenology. (elsevier.com)