Alkyl and Aryl Transferases
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Prevention and therapy of cancer by dietary monoterpenes. (1/702)Monoterpenes are nonnutritive dietary components found in the essential oils of citrus fruits and other plants. A number of these dietary monoterpenes have antitumor activity. For example, d-limonene, which comprises >90% of orange peel oil, has chemopreventive activity against rodent mammary, skin, liver, lung and forestomach cancers. Similarly, other dietary monoterpenes have chemopreventive activity against rat mammary, lung and forestomach cancers when fed during the initiation phase. In addition, perillyl alcohol has promotion phase chemopreventive activity against rat liver cancer, and geraniol has in vivo antitumor activity against murine leukemia cells. Perillyl alcohol and d-limonene also have chemotherapeutic activity against rodent mammary and pancreatic tumors. As a result, their cancer chemotherapeutic activities are under evaluation in Phase I clinical trials. Several mechanisms of action may account for the antitumor activities of monoterpenes. The blocking chemopreventive effects of limonene and other monoterpenes during the initiation phase of mammary carcinogenesis are likely due to the induction of Phase II carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes, resulting in carcinogen detoxification. The post-initiation phase, tumor suppressive chemopreventive activity of monoterpenes may be due to the induction of apoptosis and/or to inhibition of the post-translational isoprenylation of cell growth-regulating proteins. Chemotherapy of chemically induced mammary tumors with monoterpenes results in tumor redifferentiation concomitant with increased expression of the mannose-6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor and transforming growth factor beta1. Thus, monoterpenes would appear to act through multiple mechanisms in the chemoprevention and chemotherapy of cancer. (+info)
Activation of the transforming growth factor beta signaling pathway and induction of cytostasis and apoptosis in mammary carcinomas treated with the anticancer agent perillyl alcohol. (2/702)The mechanisms of action of the anticancer agent perillyl alcohol (POH), presently in Phase II clinical trials, were investigated in advanced rat mammary carcinomas. Gross and ultrastructural morphology of POH-mediated tumor regression indicated that apoptosis accounted for the marked reduction in the epithelial compartment. Characterization of cell growth and death indices revealed that apoptosis was induced within 48 h of chemotherapy, before the induction of cytostasis. RNA expression studies, based on a multiplexed-nuclease protection assay, demonstrated that cell cycle- and apoptosis-related genes were differentially expressed within 48 h of POH treatment; p21(Cip1/WAF1), bax, bad, and annexin I were induced; cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 were repressed; and bcl-2 and p53 were unchanged. Next, a potential role for transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling in POH-mediated carcinoma regression was explored. RNA expression studies, again based on a multiplexed-nuclease protection assay, showed that TGF-beta-related genes were induced and temporally regulated during POH treatment: (a) c-jun and c-fos were transiently induced within 12 h of chemotherapy; (b) TGF-beta1 was induced within 24 h of chemotherapy; (c) the mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor and the TGF-beta type I and II receptors were induced within 48 h of chemotherapy; and (d) smad3 was induced during active carcinoma regression. In situ protein expression studies, based on fluorescence-immunohistochemistry in concert with confocal microscopy, confirmed up-regulation and demonstrated colocalization of TGF-beta1, the mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor, the TGF-beta type I and II receptors, and Smad2/Smad3 in epithelial cells. Nuclear localization of Smad2/Smad3 indicated that the TGF-beta signaling pathway was activated in regressing carcinomas. Subpopulations of Smad2/Smad3-positive and apoptotic nuclei colocalized, indicating a role for Smads in apoptosis. Thus, Smads may serve as a potential biomarker for anticancer activity. Importantly, none of the POH-mediated anticancer activities were observed in normal mammary gland. (+info)
Metabolism of (R)-(+)-pulegone and (R)-(+)-menthofuran by human liver cytochrome P-450s: evidence for formation of a furan epoxide. (3/702)(R)-(+)-Pulegone, a monoterpene constituent of pennyroyal oil, is a hepatotoxin that has been used in folklore medicine as an abortifacient despite its potential lethal effects. Pulegone is metabolized by human liver cytochrome P-450s to menthofuran, a proximate hepatotoxic metabolite of pulegone. Expressed human liver cytochrome (CYP) P-450s (1A2, 2A6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4) were tested for their ability to catalyze the oxidations of pulegone and menthofuran. Expressed CYP2E1, CYP1A2, and CYP2C19 oxidized pulegone to menthofuran, with respective Km and Vmax values of 29 microM and 8.4 nmol/min/nmol P-450 for CYP2E1, 94 microM and 2.4 nmol/min/nmol P-450 for CYP1A2, and 31 microM and 1.5 nmol/min/nmol P-450 for CYP2C19. The human liver P-450s involved in the metabolism of menthofuran are the same as pulegone except for the addition of CYP2A6. These P-450s were found to oxidize menthofuran to a newly identified metabolite, 2-hydroxymenthofuran, which is an intermediate in the formation of the known metabolites mintlactone and isomintlactone. Based on studies with 18O2 and H218O, 2-hydroxymenthofuran arises predominantly from a dihydrodiol formed from a furan epoxide. CYP2E1, CYP1A2, and CYP2C19 oxidized menthofuran with respective Km and Vmax values of 33 microM and 0.43 nmol/min/nmol P-450 for CYP2E1, 57 microM and 0.29 nmol/min/nmol P-450 for CYP1A2, and 62 microM and 0.26 nmol/min/nmol P-450 for CYP2C19. (+info)
Olfactory discrimination ability of human subjects for ten pairs of enantiomers. (4/702)We tested the ability of human subjects to distinguish between enantiomers, i.e. odorants which are identical except for chirality. In a forced-choice triangular test procedure 20 subjects were repeatedly presented with 10 enantiomeric odor pairs and asked to identify the bottle containing the odd stimulus. We found (i) that as a group, the subjects were only able to significantly discriminate the optical isomers of alpha-pinene, carvone and limonene, whereas they failed to distinguish between the (+)- and (-)-forms of menthol, fenchone, rose oxide, camphor, alpha-terpineol, beta-citronellol and 2-butanol; (ii) marked individual differences in discrimination performance, ranging from subjects who were able to significantly discriminate between 6 of the 10 odor pairs to subjects who failed to do so with 9 of the 10 tasks; (iii) that with none of the 10 odor pairs were the antipodes reported to differ significantly in subjective intensity when presented at equal concentrations; and (iv) that error rates were quite stable and did not differ significantly between sessions, and thus, we observed a lack of learning or training effects. Additional tests of the degree of trigeminality and threshold measurements of the optical isomers of alpha-pinene, carvone and limonene suggest that the discriminability of these three enantiomeric odor pairs is indeed due to differences in odor quality. These findings support the assumption that enantioselective molecular odor receptors may only exist for some but not all volatile enantiomers and thus that chiral recognition of odorants may not be a general phenomenon but is restricted to some substances. (+info)
Identification and sequencing of beta-myrcene catabolism genes from Pseudomonas sp. strain M1. (5/702)The M1 strain, able to grow on beta-myrcene as the sole carbon and energy source, was isolated by an enrichment culture and identified as a Pseudomonas sp. One beta-myrcene-negative mutant, called N22, obtained by transposon mutagenesis, accumulated (E)-2-methyl-6-methylen-2,7-octadien-1-ol (or myrcen-8-ol) as a unique beta-myrcene biotransformation product. This compound was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We cloned and sequenced the DNA regions flanking the transposon and used these fragments to identify the M1 genomic library clones containing the wild-type copy of the interrupted gene. One of the selected cosmids, containing a 22-kb genomic insert, was able to complement the N22 mutant for growth on beta-myrcene. A 5,370-bp-long sequence spanning the region interrupted by the transposon in the mutant was determined. We identified four open reading frames, named myrA, myrB, myrC, and myrD, which can potentially code for an aldehyde dehydrogenase, an alcohol dehydrogenase, an acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase, and an enoyl-CoA hydratase, respectively. myrA, myrB, and myrC are likely organized in an operon, since they are separated by only 19 and 36 nucleotides (nt), respectively, and no promoter-like sequences have been found in these regions. The myrD gene starts 224 nt upstream of myrA and is divergently transcribed. The myrB sequence was found to be completely identical to the one flanking the transposon in the mutant. Therefore, we could ascertain that the transposon had been inserted inside the myrB gene, in complete agreement with the accumulation of (E)-2-methyl-6-methylen-2,7-octadien-1-ol by the mutant. Based on sequence and biotransformation data, we propose a pathway for beta-myrcene catabolism in Pseudomonas sp. strain M1. (+info)
Mechanism of inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase by citral, a retinoid antagonist. (6/702)Low concentrations of citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal), an inhibitor of retinoic acid biosynthesis, inhibited E1, E2 and E3 isozymes of human aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC188.8.131.52). The inhibition was reversible on dilution and upon long incubation in the presence of NAD+; it occurred with simultaneous formation of NADH and of geranic acid. Thus, citral is an inhibitor and also a substrate. Km values for citral were 4 microM for E1, 1 microM for E2 and 0.1 microM for E3; Vmax values were highest for E1 (73 nmol x min-1 x mg-1), intermediate for E2 (17 nmol x min-1 x mg-1) and lowest (0.07 nmol x min-1 x mg-1) for the E3 isozyme. Citral is a 1 : 2 mixture of isomers: cis isomer neral and trans isomer, geranial; the latter structurally resembles physiologically important retinoids. Both were utilized by all three isozymes; a preference for the trans isomer, geranial, was observed by HPLC and by enzyme kinetics. With the E1 isozyme, both geranial and neral, and with the E2 isozyme, only neral obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. With the E2 isozyme and geranial sigmoidal saturation curves were observed with S0.5 of approximately 50 nM; the n-values of 2-2.5 indicated positive cooperativity. Geranial was a better substrate and a better inhibitor than neral. The low Vmax, which appeared to be controlled by either the slow formation, or decomposition via the hydride transfer, of the thiohemiacetal reaction intermediate, makes citral an excellent inhibitor whose selectivity is enhanced by low Km values. The Vmax for citral with the E1 isozyme was higher than those of the E2 and E3 isozymes which explains its fast recovery following inhibition by citral and suggests that E1 may be the enzyme involved in vivo citral metabolism. (+info)
The branched-chain dodecylbenzene sulfonate degradation pathway of Pseudomonas aeruginosa W51D involves a novel route for degradation of the surfactant lateral alkyl chain. (7/702)Pseudomonas aeruginosa W51D is able to grow by using branched-chain dodecylbenzene sulfonates (B-DBS) or the terpenic alcohol citronellol as a sole source of carbon. A mutant derived from this strain (W51M1) is unable to degrade citronellol but still grows on B-DBS, showing that the citronellol degradation route is not the main pathway involved in the degradation of the surfactant alkyl moiety. The structures of the main B-DBS isomers and of some intermediates were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis, and a possible catabolic route is proposed. (+info)
p53 induction as a genotoxic test for twenty-five chemicals undergoing in vivo carcinogenicity testing. (8/702)In vivo carcinogenicity testing is an expensive and time-consuming process, and as a result, only a relatively small fraction of new and existing chemicals has been tested in this manner. Therefore, the development and validation of alternative approaches is desirable. We previously developed a mammalian in vitro assay for genotoxicity based on the ability of cells to increase their level of the tumor-suppressor protein p53 in response to DNA damage. Cultured cells are treated with various amounts of the test substances, and at defined times following treatment, they are harvested and lysed. The lysates are analyzed for p53 by Western blot and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. An increase in cellular p53 following treatment is interpreted as evidence for DNA damage. To determine the ability of this p53-induction assay to predict carcinogenicity in rodents and to compare such results with those obtained using alternate approaches, we subjected 25 chemicals from the predictive toxicology evaluation 2 list to analysis with this method. Five substances (citral, cobalt sulfate heptahydrate, D&C Yellow No. 11, oxymetholone, and t-butylhydroquinone) tested positive in this assay, and three substances (emodin, phenolphthalein, and sodium xylenesulfonate) tested as possibly positive. Comparisons between the results obtained with this assay and those obtained with the in vivo protocol, the Salmonella assay, and the Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell assay indicate that the p53-induction assay is an excellent predictor of the limited number of genotoxic carcinogens in this set, and that its accuracy is roughly equivalent to or better than the Salmonella and SHE assays for the complete set of chemicals. (+info)
Monoterpenes are a group of organic compounds that are found in many essential oils, including those derived from plants such as citrus fruits, mint, and rosemary. They are also found in some herbs and spices, such as thyme and oregano. In the medical field, monoterpenes have been studied for their potential health benefits. Some monoterpenes have been shown to have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties, which may help to protect against a variety of diseases and conditions. For example, some monoterpenes have been shown to have antiviral activity against viruses such as influenza and herpes simplex virus. Others have been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects, which may help to reduce inflammation and pain in conditions such as arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Monoterpenes may also have potential benefits for cardiovascular health. Some monoterpenes have been shown to help to lower blood pressure and improve blood flow, which may help to reduce the risk of heart disease. Overall, monoterpenes are a promising area of research in the medical field, and further studies are needed to fully understand their potential health benefits.
Terpenes are a large and diverse group of organic compounds that are found in many plants, including cannabis. They are responsible for the distinctive smells and flavors of many plants, and they have a wide range of potential medical applications. In the medical field, terpenes are often studied for their potential to interact with the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the human body. The ECS is a complex network of receptors and signaling molecules that plays a role in regulating a wide range of physiological processes, including pain, mood, appetite, and sleep. Some terpenes, such as myrcene and limonene, have been shown to have potential therapeutic effects when used in combination with cannabinoids like THC and CBD. For example, myrcene has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and sedative effects, while limonene has been shown to have anti-anxiety and anti-cancer properties. Overall, terpenes are an important component of the complex chemical profile of cannabis, and they have the potential to play a significant role in the development of new medical treatments.
Cyclohexenes are a class of organic compounds that contain a six-membered carbon ring with one double bond. They are commonly used in the medical field as precursors for the synthesis of various drugs and pharmaceuticals. For example, they can be used to synthesize nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen and naproxen. Cyclohexenes can also be used as intermediates in the synthesis of other drugs, such as antibiotics and anticonvulsants. In addition, some cyclohexenes have been studied for their potential therapeutic effects, such as their ability to inhibit the growth of cancer cells.
In the medical field, "Oils, Volatile" refers to a group of liquid hydrocarbons that have a low boiling point and evaporate easily at room temperature. These oils are typically derived from plants and are used for a variety of purposes, including as fragrances, solvents, and medicinal agents. Volatile oils are composed of a complex mixture of chemical compounds, including terpenes, aldehydes, ketones, and esters. They are known for their strong aroma and are often used in perfumes, cosmetics, and aromatherapy. In the medical field, volatile oils have been used for centuries for their medicinal properties. They are believed to have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antimicrobial effects, and are used to treat a variety of conditions, including respiratory infections, digestive disorders, and skin conditions. Some examples of volatile oils used in medicine include eucalyptus oil, peppermint oil, tea tree oil, and lavender oil. However, it is important to note that the use of volatile oils should be done under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can be toxic in high concentrations and may cause skin irritation or other adverse reactions.
Intramolecular lyases are a type of enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of a chemical bond within a single molecule, without the need for a coenzyme or a water molecule. These enzymes are involved in various metabolic pathways and play a crucial role in the synthesis and breakdown of complex molecules. Intramolecular lyases are classified based on the type of chemical bond they cleave. For example, a carbon-carbon bond lyase catalyzes the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond within a molecule, while a carbon-hydrogen bond lyase catalyzes the cleavage of a carbon-hydrogen bond. In the medical field, intramolecular lyases are important for the metabolism of various compounds, including amino acids, sugars, and lipids. They are also involved in the detoxification of harmful substances, such as drugs and toxins. In some cases, defects in intramolecular lyases can lead to metabolic disorders, such as maple syrup urine disease, which is caused by a deficiency in the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex, which contains an intramolecular lyase.
Polyisoprenyl phosphates are a group of compounds that are composed of a phosphate group attached to a chain of isoprene units. In the medical field, polyisoprenyl phosphates are known to play a role in various cellular processes, including signal transduction and membrane trafficking. They are also involved in the regulation of protein function and the formation of lipid rafts, which are specialized membrane microdomains that are important for cell signaling and communication. In addition, polyisoprenyl phosphates have been implicated in the development of certain diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular disease.
Hemiterpenes are a type of organic compound that are classified as terpenes, which are a large and diverse group of natural compounds that are found in many plants, animals, and microorganisms. Hemiterpenes are characterized by their molecular formula, which is C5H8, and they are typically produced by plants as a defense mechanism against herbivores or as a means of attracting pollinators. Hemiterpenes are often found in essential oils, which are liquids that are extracted from plants and are used for a variety of purposes, including aromatherapy, medicine, and cosmetics. Some common examples of hemiterpenes include limonene, which is found in citrus fruits and has a lemony scent, and pinene, which is found in pine trees and has a piney scent. In the medical field, hemiterpenes have been studied for their potential therapeutic effects. For example, some studies have suggested that limonene may have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, while pinene may have bronchodilatory effects and may be useful in the treatment of respiratory conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential therapeutic effects of hemiterpenes and to determine their safety and efficacy in clinical settings.
In the medical field, Bicyclo Compounds are a class of organic compounds that contain two rings connected by a single carbon-carbon bond. These compounds are often used as pharmaceuticals and have a wide range of biological activities, including analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. Some examples of bicyclo compounds include the anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen and the anti-cancer drug taxol.
In the medical field, "pentanes" typically refers to a group of hydrocarbons that contain five carbon atoms. These compounds are often used as solvents, propellants, and in the production of various chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Some specific examples of pentanes include n-pentane, isopentane, and neopentane. These compounds can be found in various medical products, such as inhalers, creams, and ointments. However, it is important to note that pentanes can also be toxic if inhaled or ingested in large quantities, so proper handling and storage are necessary to prevent accidental exposure.
Sesquiterpenes, Germacrane are a group of natural compounds that belong to the larger class of sesquiterpenes. They are derived from the germacrene diterpene skeleton and are found in a variety of plants, including the essential oils of rosemary, sage, and thyme. In the medical field, sesquiterpenes, Germacrane have been studied for their potential therapeutic effects. Some of the biological activities attributed to these compounds include anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, and anti-viral properties. They have also been shown to have neuroprotective effects and may be useful in the treatment of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Some sesquiterpenes, Germacrane have been isolated and studied in more detail, such as alpha-terpineol, beta-caryophyllene, and germacrene D. These compounds have been shown to have specific pharmacological effects and are being investigated for their potential use in the development of new drugs.
Alkyl and aryl transferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or aryl groups from one molecule to another. These enzymes play important roles in various biological processes, including metabolism, detoxification, and drug metabolism. In the medical field, alkyl and aryl transferases are often studied in the context of drug metabolism. Many drugs are metabolized by these enzymes, which can affect their efficacy and toxicity. For example, the enzyme cytochrome P450, which is a type of alkyl and aryl transferase, is responsible for the metabolism of many drugs, including some that are used to treat cancer, depression, and anxiety. Alkyl and aryl transferases are also involved in the metabolism of environmental toxins and carcinogens. For example, the enzyme glutathione S-transferase, which is another type of alkyl and aryl transferase, is responsible for the detoxification of many toxic compounds, including some that are found in tobacco smoke and air pollution. In addition to their role in drug metabolism and detoxification, alkyl and aryl transferases are also involved in the biosynthesis of various compounds, including lipids, steroids, and neurotransmitters. Understanding the function and regulation of these enzymes is important for developing new drugs and for understanding the mechanisms of disease.
Thymol is a natural compound that is derived from the essential oil of thyme, a common herb. It has been used in traditional medicine for centuries and has a wide range of potential therapeutic effects. In the medical field, thymol is primarily used as an antiseptic and disinfectant. It has been shown to be effective against a variety of bacteria, viruses, and fungi, making it useful for treating infections and preventing the spread of disease. Thymol is also used in some over-the-counter medications, such as throat lozenges and mouthwashes, to help relieve sore throat and mouth pain. It has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, which may help to reduce swelling and pain. In addition to its medicinal uses, thymol is also used in the food industry as a flavoring agent and preservative. It is commonly found in spices, seasonings, and baked goods, and is used to give these products a distinctive flavor and aroma. Overall, thymol is a versatile compound with a range of potential therapeutic applications in the medical field. However, more research is needed to fully understand its effects and potential side effects.
Norbornanes are a class of organic compounds that are derived from the bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane ring system. They are typically used as intermediates in the synthesis of other organic compounds, and have also been studied for their potential medicinal applications. In the medical field, norbornanes have been investigated for their potential use as anti-inflammatory agents, as well as for their potential to treat a variety of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Some studies have also suggested that norbornanes may have antitumor properties, although more research is needed to confirm these findings. It is important to note that norbornanes are not currently approved for use as medical treatments, and more research is needed to fully understand their potential therapeutic effects and potential side effects.
Sesquiterpenes are a class of organic compounds that are derived from terpenes, which are a large and diverse group of natural compounds found in plants, fungi, and some bacteria. Sesquiterpenes are characterized by their molecular formula, which contains 15 carbon atoms arranged in a specific pattern. In the medical field, sesquiterpenes have been studied for their potential therapeutic properties. Some sesquiterpenes have been found to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-viral effects. For example, some sesquiterpenes have been shown to inhibit the growth of cancer cells and to reduce inflammation in the body. Sesquiterpenes are also used in traditional medicine and are found in a variety of plants, including chamomile, sage, and valerian. Some sesquiterpenes have been used to treat a variety of conditions, including anxiety, insomnia, and digestive disorders. Overall, sesquiterpenes are a promising class of compounds with potential therapeutic applications in the medical field. However, more research is needed to fully understand their properties and potential uses.
In the medical field, "Resins, Plant" typically refers to a group of natural substances that are extracted from plants and have a variety of medicinal properties. These resins are often used in traditional medicine to treat a range of conditions, including pain, inflammation, and infection. Some examples of plant resins that are commonly used in medicine include: 1. Frankincense: A resin that is extracted from the Boswellia tree and has been used for centuries to treat a variety of conditions, including arthritis, digestive issues, and respiratory problems. 2. Myrrh: A resin that is extracted from the Commiphora tree and has been used for centuries to treat a variety of conditions, including gum disease, digestive issues, and respiratory problems. 3. Copaiba: A resin that is extracted from the Copaifera tree and has been used for centuries to treat a variety of conditions, including pain, inflammation, and infection. 4. Pistacia: A resin that is extracted from the Pistacia tree and has been used for centuries to treat a variety of conditions, including respiratory problems, digestive issues, and skin conditions. Plant resins are often used in combination with other herbs and natural substances to create traditional remedies and herbal supplements. However, it is important to note that the use of plant resins in medicine should always be done under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional.
Menthol is a naturally occurring compound that is commonly found in mint plants. It is often used in over-the-counter medications and personal care products, such as cough drops, toothpaste, and mouthwashes, due to its ability to provide a cooling sensation on the skin and in the mouth. In the medical field, menthol is used for its analgesic (pain-relieving) and anti-inflammatory properties. It is sometimes used topically to relieve pain and itching associated with conditions such as insect bites, sunburn, and eczema. Menthol is also used in some medications to treat respiratory conditions, such as coughs and colds, by acting as a decongestant and expectorant. However, it is important to note that menthol can cause irritation and allergic reactions in some people, and it should be used with caution, especially in individuals with sensitive skin or respiratory conditions. Additionally, some studies have suggested that menthol may have negative effects on lung function in individuals with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), so it is important to consult with a healthcare provider before using menthol-containing products.
In the medical field, nitric acid is not typically used as a medication or treatment. Nitric acid is a highly reactive and corrosive chemical compound that is commonly used in various industrial and laboratory applications. However, nitric acid has some medical uses, such as in the treatment of certain types of anemia. Nitric oxide, which is produced from nitric acid, is a vasodilator that can help to widen blood vessels and improve blood flow. In some cases, nitric oxide therapy may be used to treat patients with heart failure or other cardiovascular conditions. It's important to note that nitric acid is a highly toxic substance and should only be handled by trained professionals in a controlled environment. Ingestion or exposure to nitric acid can cause serious injury or death, so it's essential to take appropriate safety precautions when working with this chemical.
Camphor is a white, waxy, crystalline substance that has a strong, distinctive odor. It is a natural compound that is extracted from the bark of certain trees, including the camphor laurel tree. Camphor has a number of medicinal properties and has been used for centuries in traditional medicine to treat a variety of conditions, including respiratory infections, muscle pain, and skin irritations. It is also used as a topical analgesic and antiseptic, and as a component in some insect repellents. In the medical field, camphor is used in a variety of products, including cough drops, ointments, and inhalers. It is also used in some surgical procedures as a local anesthetic.
Dimethylallyltranstransferase (DMAT) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of isoprenoids, a group of organic compounds that are essential for various biological processes. DMAT catalyzes the transfer of a dimethylallyl group from dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) to isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), which is the first step in the mevalonate pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis. DMAT is a key enzyme in the production of terpenoids, which are a diverse group of compounds that include steroids, hormones, and many plant and animal metabolites. DMAT is also involved in the biosynthesis of other important molecules, such as ubiquinone, which is a coenzyme involved in energy metabolism. In the medical field, DMAT has been studied as a potential target for the development of new drugs for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and infectious diseases. DMAT inhibitors have been shown to have anti-cancer activity by disrupting the production of essential isoprenoids, which can lead to the death of cancer cells. Additionally, DMAT inhibitors have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-viral activity, making them potential candidates for the treatment of a variety of diseases.
Isomerases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of isomers, which are molecules with the same molecular formula but different arrangements of atoms. In the medical field, isomerases are important because they play a role in many biological processes, including metabolism, signal transduction, and gene expression. There are several types of isomerases, including: 1. Stereoisomerases: These enzymes catalyze the interconversion of stereoisomers, which are molecules with the same molecular formula and connectivity but different spatial arrangements of atoms. Examples of stereoisomerases include epimerases, which interconvert epimers (stereoisomers that differ in configuration at a single chiral center), and diastereomerases, which interconvert diastereomers (stereoisomers that differ in configuration at two or more chiral centers). 2. Conformational isomerases: These enzymes catalyze the interconversion of conformational isomers, which are molecules with the same molecular formula and connectivity but different three-dimensional structures. Examples of conformational isomerases include chaperones, which assist in the folding and unfolding of proteins, and peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases, which catalyze the interconversion of cis and trans isomers of proline residues in peptides and proteins. 3. Metabolic isomerases: These enzymes catalyze the interconversion of metabolic isomers, which are molecules that are involved in metabolic pathways. Examples of metabolic isomerases include aldolases, which catalyze the reversible cleavage of aldoses into ketoses and aldehydes, and transketolases, which catalyze the transfer of a keto group from one aldose to another. Isomerases are important in the medical field because they can be targeted for the treatment of diseases. For example, some drugs target specific isomerases to treat metabolic disorders, such as diabetes and obesity, and some drugs target isomerases to treat cancer, such as by inhibiting the activity of enzymes involved in the metabolism of cancer cells.
Mevalonic acid is a naturally occurring organic compound that is involved in the biosynthesis of cholesterol and other isoprenoid molecules in the body. It is a key intermediate in the mevalonate pathway, which is a series of enzymatic reactions that produce isoprenoids from acetyl-CoA and mevalonate kinase. In the medical field, mevalonic acid is often used as a diagnostic tool to measure the activity of the mevalonate pathway. Abnormal levels of mevalonic acid in the blood or urine can be indicative of certain genetic disorders, such as mevalonic aciduria, which is a rare inherited disorder that affects the metabolism of mevalonic acid and other isoprenoids. Mevalonic acid is also being studied as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of certain diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Some researchers believe that inhibiting the mevalonate pathway may help to slow the growth of cancer cells or reduce the risk of heart disease by lowering levels of cholesterol and other isoprenoid molecules in the body.
Plant oils are oils that are extracted from the seeds, nuts, fruits, or leaves of plants. They are commonly used in the medical field for a variety of purposes, including as a source of nutrition, as a natural remedy for various health conditions, and as a component in the production of pharmaceuticals. In the medical field, plant oils are often used as a source of essential fatty acids, which are important for maintaining healthy skin, hair, and nails, as well as for supporting the immune system and brain function. Some plant oils, such as fish oil and flaxseed oil, are particularly rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties and may help to reduce the risk of heart disease. Plant oils are also used in the medical field as natural remedies for a variety of health conditions. For example, coconut oil is often used topically to treat skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis, while olive oil is sometimes used as a natural laxative to help relieve constipation. Some plant oils, such as tea tree oil, are also used as antimicrobial agents to help prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi. Finally, plant oils are used in the production of pharmaceuticals. For example, soybean oil is used as a solvent in the production of certain drugs, while castor oil is used as a lubricant in the production of ophthalmic solutions. Some plant oils, such as cannabis oil, are also used as a source of cannabinoids, which have been shown to have potential therapeutic benefits for a variety of conditions, including pain, nausea, and epilepsy.
In the medical field, diphosphates refer to compounds that contain two phosphate groups. These compounds are commonly found in the body and are involved in various biological processes, including energy metabolism, bone mineralization, and regulation of blood calcium levels. One example of a diphosphate compound in the body is adenosine diphosphate (ADP), which is a key molecule in energy metabolism. ADP is produced when ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is broken down, releasing energy that can be used by cells. The body constantly converts ATP to ADP and back again to maintain energy levels. Another example of a diphosphate compound is pyrophosphate, which is involved in bone mineralization and the regulation of blood calcium levels. Pyrophosphate helps to prevent the loss of calcium from bones by binding to calcium ions and preventing them from being released into the bloodstream. Diphosphates can also be used as medications to treat certain conditions. For example, sodium phosphate is often used as a bowel prep medication before colonoscopy or other procedures that require a clear colon. It works by drawing water into the colon, softening the stool, and making it easier to pass.
Diterpenes are a type of organic compound that are derived from the terpene family. They are typically composed of 20 carbon atoms and are found in a variety of plants, including conifers, oaks, and some species of fungi. Diterpenes have a wide range of biological activities and are used in the medical field for their anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-viral properties. Some examples of diterpenes that have been studied for their medicinal potential include artemisinin, which is used to treat malaria, and taxol, which is used to treat breast cancer.
Lovastatin is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called statins. It is used to lower cholesterol levels in the blood by inhibiting an enzyme called HMG-CoA reductase, which is involved in the production of cholesterol in the liver. Lovastatin is primarily used to treat high cholesterol levels (hypercholesterolemia) and to reduce the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular events. It is usually taken orally in the form of tablets or capsules. Lovastatin can also be used to treat other conditions, such as familial hypercholesterolemia, a genetic disorder that causes very high cholesterol levels.
Plant extracts refer to the active compounds or bioactive molecules that are extracted from plants and used in the medical field for various therapeutic purposes. These extracts are obtained through various extraction methods, such as solvent extraction, steam distillation, and cold pressing, and can be used in the form of powders, liquids, or capsules. Plant extracts have been used for centuries in traditional medicine and are now widely used in modern medicine as well. They are used to treat a wide range of conditions, including inflammation, pain, anxiety, depression, and cancer. Some examples of plant extracts used in medicine include aspirin (extracted from willow bark), quinine (extracted from cinchona bark), and morphine (extracted from opium poppy). Plant extracts are also used in the development of new drugs and therapies. Researchers extract compounds from plants and test them for their potential therapeutic effects. If a compound shows promise, it can be further developed into a drug that can be used to treat a specific condition. It is important to note that while plant extracts can be effective in treating certain conditions, they can also have side effects and may interact with other medications. Therefore, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before using plant extracts as a form of treatment.
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- The most important reactive biogenic VOCs are isoprene, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes. (cosmosmagazine.com)
- Emissions of isoprene mostly contribute to the formation of ground level ozone, while monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes can lead to an increase in particle number and mass. (cosmosmagazine.com)
- The model can generate annual and monthly isoprene and monoterpene fluxes. (lu.se)
- Isoprene and monoterpene emissions from vegetation are included from release version 3.0. (lu.se)
- Leaves yield monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes. (stuartxchange.org)
- 2000). The major components of conifer-derived VOCs are monoterpenes (MTs), such as α-pinene, β-pinene, β-myrcene, Δ-3-carene, and limonene. (cdc.gov)
- It consists primarily of monoterpenes, terpene alcohols and oxygenated cyclic compounds. (europa.eu)
- A new menthane-type monoterpene, alpigalanol (1), together with four known terpenes (2-5) were isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the 70 % ethanol extract of the Alpinia galanga rhizomes. (nih.gov)
- Essential oils (EOs) are complex mixtures of aromatic terpenes (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) and other aromatic or aliphatic compounds, formed as secondary metabolites in specialized secretory tissues of aromatic plants [ 1 ]. (intechopen.com)
- Terpenes, and specifically monoterpenes, give wines floral aromas that are often associated with grapes like Muscat, Torrontes and Gewürztraminer. (timswine.com)
- Plant monoterpenes are hypothesized to be involved in thermotolerance of photosynthesis, but observations are scarce and global models assume that tropical monoterpene emissions are dominated by α -pinene. (energy.gov)
- 2000). The major components of conifer-derived VOCs are monoterpenes (MTs), such as α-pinene, β-pinene, β-myrcene, Δ-3-carene, and limonene. (cdc.gov)
- 16. Major selected monoterpenes α-pinene and 1,8-cineole found in Salvia lavandulifolia (Spanish sage) essential oil as regulators of cellular redox balance. (nih.gov)
- It is a lighter oil than Manuka oil, with a much higher concentration of alpha-pinene and other monoterpenes, and as a result it takes less time to distil. (penny-price.com)
- The main chemical constituents within the oil are mainly monoterpenes and ketones, including Pinene, Terpinene, Limonene, and Leptospermone. (penny-price.com)
- Linear compounds that contain a single monoterpene unit. (nih.gov)
- Given their high reactivity to both atmospheric and biological oxidants, the results suggest that monoterpenes play important roles in the thermotolerance of photosynthesis by functioning as effective antioxidants within plants and as efficient atmospheric precursors of secondary organic aerosols, thereby enhancing surface cooling and water recycling. (energy.gov)
- The plant is therapeutically important for its essential oil constituents, namely, eugenol, β -caryophyllene, and various monoterpenes. (hindawi.com)
- The higher activity of this oil in comparison to EOFR may be attributed to its high content of monoterpenes, especially oxygenated ones in the oil of the flowers. (scialert.net)
- Monoterpene content in Origanum syriacum as effected by environmental conditions and flowering. (scialert.net)
- Improving phenolic total content and monoterpene in Mentha x piperita by using salicylic acid or methyl jasmonate combined with Rhizobacteria inoculation. (mpg.de)
- The scientists found a high-temperature sensitivity of the composition of tropical leaf monoterpene emissions across a wide range of temporal (minutes to seasons) and spatial (leaf to ecosystem) scales. (energy.gov)
- Plant response to warming may involve a single enzyme or gene (ocimene synthase), insertion into transgenic plants will facilitate quantitative studies on the role of light-dependent monoterpenes in oxidative stress responses including thermotolerance of photosynthesis. (energy.gov)
- [ 94 ] Additional data are needed to establish the role of monoterpenes in gallstone dissolution. (medscape.com)
- As monoterpene emissions increased with temperature, the composition shifted such that highly reactive monoterpenes accounted for a larger fraction of the total under high-temperature stress. (energy.gov)
- Oral administration of Perillyl alcohol a monocyclic monoterpene to diabetic rats for 30 days caused a significant reduction in the levels of lipid peroxidation by-products and an increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, when the same were compared with the untreated diabetic group. (phcogj.com)
- This result suggests a biological function of these highly reactive monoterpenes in the tropics. (energy.gov)