Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Fructosediphosphates: Diphosphoric acid esters of fructose. The fructose-1,6- diphosphate isomer is most prevalent. It is an important intermediate in the glycolysis process.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.HexosediphosphatesGlucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.FructosephosphatesGalactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Fructose Intolerance: An autosomal recessive fructose metabolism disorder due to deficient fructose-1-phosphate aldolase (EC 2.1.2.13) activity, resulting in accumulation of fructose-1-phosphate. The accumulated fructose-1-phosphate inhibits glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, causing severe hypoglycemia following ingestion of fructose. Prolonged fructose ingestion in infants leads ultimately to hepatic failure and death. Patients develop a strong distaste for sweet food, and avoid a chronic course of the disease by remaining on a fructose- and sucrose-free diet.Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Glucose Transporter Type 5: A hexose transporter that mediates FRUCTOSE transport in SKELETAL MUSCLE and ADIPOCYTES and is responsible for luminal uptake of dietary fructose in the SMALL INTESTINE.PolysaccharidesGlucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Fructose-Bisphosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and water to D-fructose 6-phosphate and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.11.HexosesSucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Phosphofructokinase-1: An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Acetylglucosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.FucoseStarch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Glucose Transporter Type 1: A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Fructokinases: A class of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of fructose in the presence of ATP. EC 2.7.1.-.Glucose Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Sugar Alcohols: Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)Glycoside HydrolasesXyloseGlycogenGlucosamineLactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.GlucosephosphatesDeoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.PhlorhizinGlycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Glucose Transporter Type 2: A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.Sorbitol: A polyhydric alcohol with about half the sweetness of sucrose. Sorbitol occurs naturally and is also produced synthetically from glucose. It was formerly used as a diuretic and may still be used as a laxative and in irrigating solutions for some surgical procedures. It is also used in many manufacturing processes, as a pharmaceutical aid, and in several research applications.Fructose-Bisphosphate Aldolase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the cleavage of fructose 1,6-biphosphate to form dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. The enzyme also acts on (3S,4R)-ketose 1-phosphates. The yeast and bacterial enzymes are zinc proteins. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) E.C. 4.1.2.13.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Glycoconjugates: Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)Acetylgalactosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).HexosaminesFermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.MethylglucosidesLactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Glucokinase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring: Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.Phosphofructokinase-2: An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis and gluconeogenesis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, an allosteric effector for the other 6-phosphofructokinase, PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1. Phosphofructokinase-2 is bifunctional: the dephosphorylated form is a kinase and the phosphorylated form is a phosphatase that breaks down fructose-2,6-bisphosphate to yield fructose-6-phosphate.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Glucose 1-Dehydrogenase: A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.Glucose-6-Phosphate: An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)Ribose: A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.MethylglycosidesMaltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.Rhamnose: A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.3-O-Methylglucose: A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Lactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.GlyceraldehydeDietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Trisaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.Amino Sugars: SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.Hexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Sodium-Glucose Transporter 1: The founding member of the sodium glucose transport proteins. It is predominately expressed in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the SMALL INTESTINE.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Sorbose: A ketose sugar that is commonly used in the commercial synthesis of ASCORBIC ACID.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.N-Acetylneuraminic Acid: An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Liver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Neuraminic AcidsSubstrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Malabsorption Syndromes: General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.HexosephosphatesGlucose Transporter Type 3: A major glucose transporter found in NEURONS.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Xylitol: A five-carbon sugar alcohol derived from XYLOSE by reduction of the carbonyl group. It is as sweet as sucrose and used as a noncariogenic sweetener.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Uridine Diphosphate Glucose: A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Triglyceridesbeta-Fructofuranosidase: A glycoside hydrolase found primarily in PLANTS and YEASTS. It has specificity for beta-D-fructofuranosides such as SUCROSE.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Mannitol: A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.ArabinoseHypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.Lipid A: Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Periodic Acid: A strong oxidizing agent.Phosphoenolpyruvate Sugar Phosphotransferase System: The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative: A family of monosaccharide transport proteins characterized by 12 membrane spanning helices. They facilitate passive diffusion of GLUCOSE across the CELL MEMBRANE.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.PyruvatesDietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Uronic Acids: Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)Pentoses: A class of carbohydrates that contains five carbon atoms.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Glucose Dehydrogenases: D-Glucose:1-oxidoreductases. Catalyzes the oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucono-gamma-lactone and reduced acceptor. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.47; EC 1.1.1.118; EC 1.1.1.119 and EC 1.1.99.10.Galactosephosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of galactose.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.GalactosamineBeverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Glucose-6-Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.Mannosides: Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-mannosides.Glycosuria: The appearance of an abnormally large amount of GLUCOSE in the urine, such as more than 500 mg/day in adults. It can be due to HYPERGLYCEMIA or genetic defects in renal reabsorption (RENAL GLYCOSURIA).Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Mannose-Binding Lectins: A subclass of lectins that are specific for CARBOHYDRATES that contain MANNOSE.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Dihydroxyacetone: A ketotriose compound. Its addition to blood preservation solutions results in better maintenance of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels during storage. It is readily phosphorylated to dihydroxyacetone phosphate by triokinase in erythrocytes. In combination with naphthoquinones it acts as a sunscreening agent.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Amanita: A genus of fungi of the family Agaricaceae, order Agaricales; most species are poisonous.Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of CARBOHYDRATES. This is in distinction to a regular DIET.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Angelica sinensis: A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is the source of dong quai.Uridine Diphosphate SugarsFructans: Polysaccharides composed of D-fructose units.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Galactosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Galactans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Borohydrides: A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Raffinose: A trisaccharide occurring in Australian manna (from Eucalyptus spp, Myrtaceae) and in cottonseed meal.Deoxy SugarsCarbohydrate Metabolism, Inborn ErrorsGlucose-6-Phosphate Isomerase: An aldose-ketose isomerase that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate. In prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms it plays an essential role in glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. In mammalian systems the enzyme is found in the cytoplasm and as a secreted protein. This secreted form of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase has been referred to as autocrine motility factor or neuroleukin, and acts as a cytokine which binds to the AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR RECEPTOR. Deficiency of the enzyme in humans is an autosomal recessive trait, which results in CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA.Glucose Metabolism Disorders: Pathological conditions in which the BLOOD GLUCOSE cannot be maintained within the normal range, such as in HYPOGLYCEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA. Etiology of these disorders varies. Plasma glucose concentration is critical to survival for it is the predominant fuel for the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.DisaccharidasesPhosphoenolpyruvateBiological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.
Carbohydrates range from simple monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose) to complex polysaccharides (starch). Fats are ... to glucose and can be used for energy production just as ordinary glucose. By breaking down existing protein, some glucose can ... Like all carbohydrates, when it is metabolized it can produce four calories (kilocalories) of energy per gram. But in most ... A few amino acids from protein can be converted into glucose and used for fuel through a process called gluconeogenesis; this ...
Carbohydrates range from simple monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose) to complex polysaccharides (starch). Fats are ... Monosaccharides include glucose, fructose and galactose. Disaccharides include sucrose, lactose, and maltose; purified sucrose ... to glucose and can be used for energy production just as ordinary glucose. By breaking down existing protein, some glucose can ... "Carbohydrates That Contain Monosaccharides". Healthy eating. Lean, Michael E.J. (2015). "Principles of human nutrition". ...
Carbohydrates range from simple monosaccharides (glucose, fructose and galactose) to complex polysaccharides (starch). Fats are ... Some simple carbohydrates (e.g., fructose) follow different metabolic pathways (e.g., fructolysis) that result in only a ... Traditionally, simple carbohydrates are believed to be absorbed quickly, and therefore to raise blood-glucose levels more ... Carbohydrates may be classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides depending on the number of monomer (sugar ...
Fructose, galactose, and glucose are all simple sugars, monosaccharides, with the general formula C6H12O6. They have five ... "glucose" and "fructose". Sometimes such words may also refer to any types of carbohydrates soluble in water. The acyclic mono- ... The fructose/glucose ratio is calculated by dividing the sum of free fructose plus half sucrose by the sum of free glucose plus ... Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose (also known as dextrose), fructose, and galactose. The "table ...
Glucose (C6H12O6) is one of the most important carbohydrates; others include fructose (C6H12O6), the sugar commonly associated ... The simplest type of carbohydrate is a monosaccharide, which among other properties contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, ... Sugars are carbohydrates, but not all carbohydrates are sugars. There are more carbohydrates on Earth than any other known type ... fructose and 8.20% sucrose. However, peaches contain more sucrose (6.66%) than they do fructose (0.93%) or glucose (1.47%). " ...
For example, stachyose upon hydrolysis gives one molecule each of glucose and fructose and two molecules of galactose. The ... A tetrasaccharide is a carbohydrate which gives upon hydrolysis four molecules of the same or different monosaccharides. ...
The basic carbohydrate units are called monosaccharides and include galactose, fructose, and most importantly glucose. ... In carbohydrate anabolism, simple organic acids can be converted into monosaccharides such as glucose and then used to assemble ... Carbohydrate catabolism is the breakdown of carbohydrates into smaller units. Carbohydrates are usually taken into cells once ... Once inside, the major route of breakdown is glycolysis, where sugars such as glucose and fructose are converted into pyruvate ...
Examples of monosaccharides are glucose, fructose, and glyceraldehyde. Polysaccharides, meanwhile, have a general formula of Cx ... Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by ... On hydrolysis, it yields glucose. It is the most abundant carbohydrate in nature. Chitin is one of many naturally occurring ... Natural saccharides are generally of simple carbohydrates called monosaccharides with general formula (CH2O)n where n is three ...
Examples of monosaccharides are the hexoses, glucose, fructose, Trioses, Tetroses, Heptoses, galactose, pentoses, ribose, and ... Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates with only one simple sugar. They essentially contain an aldehyde or ... Consumed fructose and glucose have different rates of gastric emptying, are differentially absorbed and have different ... Polysaccharides are polymerized monosaccharides, or complex carbohydrates. They have multiple simple sugars. Examples are ...
... and minor amounts of monosaccharides (fructose and glucose). Minor constituents include saponins, protein, lipid, minerals (ash ... These solids consist of carbohydrates (60%), proteins and other nitrogenous substances (10%), minerals (10%), fats and lipoids ...
Common monosaccharides are glucose, fructose, and ribose. When linked together monosaccharides can form disaccharides, ... Carbohydrates are another important biomolecule. These are polymers, called polysaccharides, which are made up of chains of ... These monosaccharides consist of a five to six carbon ring that contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen - typically in a 1:2:1 ... Cellulose is a polysaccharide made up of beta 1-4 linkages between repeat glucose monomers. It is the most abundant source of ...
Glucose (C6H12O6) is one of the most important carbohydrates; others include fructose (C6H12O6), the sugar commonly associated ... The simplest type of carbohydrate is a monosaccharide, which among other properties contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, ... Carbohydrates as energy source[edit]. Main article: Carbohydrate metabolism. Glucose is the major energy source in most life ... Sugars are carbohydrates, but not all carbohydrates are sugars. There are more carbohydrates on Earth than any other known type ...
HFCS is composed of both glucose and fructose in their free monosaccharide from that doesn't crystallize readily. HFCS is also ... Wheat flour is composed of six main groups, carbohydrates, proteins, enzymes, lipids, minerals and vitamins. Flour is added to ... White, John S. "Sucrose, HFCS, and Fructose: History, Manufacture, Composition, Applications, and Production." Fructose, High ... the monosaccharaides of fructose and glucose have the ability to bind to water in the product. The binding of water helps to ...
It consists primarily of sucrose and water, with small amounts of the monosaccharides glucose and fructose from the invert ... In a 100g amount, maple syrup provides 260 calories and is composed of 32 percent water by weight, 67 percent carbohydrates (90 ... In these syrups, the primary ingredient is most often high-fructose corn syrup flavoured with sotolon; they have little genuine ...
Carbohydrates are classified according to their number of sugar units: monosaccharides (such as glucose and fructose), ... The chemical compounds that humans consume in the largest quantities and provide bulk energy are classified as carbohydrates, ... Macronutrients provide energy: Carbohydrates are compounds made up of types of sugar. ... Consumed in relatively large amounts (grams or ounces), macronutrients (carbohydrates, fats, proteins, water) are used ...
The dominant monosaccharides in honey bee diets are fructose and glucose but the most common circulating sugar in hemolymph is ... Nectar is collected by foraging worker bees as a source of water and carbohydrates in the form of sucrose. ... Adult worker honey bees require 4 mg of utilizable sugars per day and larvae require about 59.4 mg of carbohydrates for proper ... trehalose which is a disaccharide consisting of two glucose molecules.[33] ...
Sucrose is broken down into glucose and another simple sugar called fructose, and lactose is broken down into glucose and ... Glucose and galactose are called simple sugars, or monosaccharides. Sucrose and lactose are called disaccharides because they ... As a result, lactose, sucrose and other compounds made from carbohydrates cannot be digested by individuals with glucose- ... Fructose malabsorption Lactose intolerance Wright EM, Turk E, Martin MG (2002). "Molecular basis for glucose-galactose ...
Monosaccharide - refers to 'simple sugars', these are the most basic units of carbohydrates. Examples are glucose, fructose, ... a monosaccharide sugar not as sweet as glucose or fructose Glucose Golden syrup - refined sugar cane or sugar beet juice High ... glucose and 50% fructose Inositol Inverted sugar syrup - glucose and fructose Jaggery - made from date, cane juice, or palm sap ... High maltose corn syrup - mainly maltose, not as sweet as high fructose corn syrup Honey - consists of fructose and glucose ...
Glucose is an example of a monosaccharide as is fructose. Combine them in the picture shown to the right and you have sucrose, ... The simplest version of a carbohydrate is a monosaccharide which contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio under a ... A chain of monosaccharides form to make a polysaccharide. Such polysaccharides include pectin, dextran, agar, and xanthan. ... It is similar to biochemistry in its main components such as carbohydrates, lipids, and protein, but it also includes areas ...
The major dietary carbohydrates Class (DP*). Subgroup. Components Sugars (1-2) Monosaccharides. Glucose, galactose, fructose, ... Some simple carbohydrates (e.g. fructose) raise blood glucose slowly, while some complex carbohydrates (starches), especially ... The most important carbohydrate is glucose, a simple sugar (monosaccharide) that is metabolized by nearly all known organisms. ... Examples of monosaccharides are glucose, fructose, and glyceraldehydes. However, some biological substances commonly called " ...
Examples of monosaccharides are glucose, fructose, and glyceraldehydes. However, some biological substances commonly called " ... Some simple carbohydrates (e.g. fructose) raise blood glucose slowly, while some complex carbohydrates (starches), especially ... glucose and fructose Their ring types: glucose is a pyranose and fructose is a furanose How they are linked together: the ... The most important carbohydrate is glucose, a simple sugar (monosaccharide) that is metabolized by nearly all known organisms. ...
Some monosaccharides have a sweet taste. Examples of monosaccharides include glucose (dextrose), fructose (levulose) and ... are the most basic units of carbohydrates. They are fundamental units of carbohydrates and cannot be further hydrolyzed to ... For many monosaccharides (including glucose), the cyclic forms predominate, in the solid state and in solutions, and therefore ... These specific monosaccharide names have conventional three-letter abbreviations, like "Glu" for glucose and "Thr" for threose ...
Sugars are the simplest carbohydrates. The monosaccharides are "single sugars", such as glucose and fructose. The disaccharides ... are two monosaccharides joined together. Table sugar (cane sugar) is a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. The ... Carbohydrates[change , change source]. Carbohydrates include sugars and starches. ... Carbohydrates have a number of functions in the body, but the most important is to act as a ready source of energy for the ...
... monosaccharides (e.g., glucose, galactose, fructose, ribose) and the disaccharides (e.g., sucrose, maltose, lactose). Glucose ... For the glucose molecule to oxidize into pyruvate, an input of ATP molecules is required. This is known as the investment phase ... The breakdown of glucose into energy in the form of molecules of ATP is therefore one of the most important biochemical ... In oxidation, the electrons are stripped from a glucose molecule to reduce NAD+ and FAD. NAD+ and FAD possess a high energy ...
From sucrose, glucose is taken up much faster than fructose. Monosaccharide transport saturates with D-glucose at 30 mM. ... During the phase of carbohydrate absorption, fructose is transported into the intestinal cell's cytosol, glucose and galactose ... From the cytosol, monosaccharides pass into the capillaries by simple or facilitated diffusion. Carbohydrates not digested in ... All carbohydrates absorbed in the small intestine must be hydrolyzed to monosaccharides prior to absorption. Hydrolysis ...
The glucose can then be transformed into fructose by passing the glucose through a column that is loaded with the enzyme D- ... glucose, 14% maltose, 11% maltotriose and 56% higher molecular mass carbohydrates.[7]p. 464 A typical 42 DE syrup has about ... Glucose syrup, also known as confectioner's glucose, is a syrup made from the hydrolysis of starch. Glucose is a sugar. Maize ( ... By converting some of the glucose in corn syrup into fructose (using an enzymatic process), a sweeter product, high fructose ...
Carbohydrates. Format: Biomodel. en español. * the monosaccharides glucose & fructose. *the disaccharide sucrose ... Carbohydrates. Composed entirely of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, carbohydrates are literally hydrated carbon, as seen by their ... The sugar found in milk, lactose, is a compound sugar which is made from two simple sugars, glucose and galactose. Lactase is ... The breakdown of fats yields more than twice as much energy per gram than that obtained from carbohydrates or protein. ...
... s Carbohydrates. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Carbohydrates and what it means. Perfect for ... The common monosaccharides are glucose, fructose, and galactose. Each simple sugar has a cyclic structure and is composed of ... Fructose Fructose is a structural isomer of glucose, meaning it has the same chemical ormula but a completely different three- ... Glucose Glucose is the main sugar metabolized by the body for energy. The D-isomer of glucose predominates in nature and it is ...
... out of which larger carbohydrates are constructed. Monosaccharides such as glucose, ribose, and fructose are simple sugars. ... Monosaccharides. Glucose as a straight-chain carbohydrate (Fischer projection). Glucose is an aldohexose because it has a ... Fructose as a straight-chain carbohydrate (Fischer projection). Fructose is a ketohexose because it has an internal carbonyl ... The single most common monosaccharide is the aldohexose D-glucose, represented by the formula C6H12O6. The carbons of glucose ...
Glucose, one of the most important carbohydrates, is an example of a monosaccharide. So is fructose, the sugar that gives ... Both glucose and fructose have the molecular formula C6H12O6, but their structures differ. Other examples of monosaccharides ... The simplest type of carbohydrate is a monosaccharide. Each monosaccharide molecule generally contains carbon, hydrogen, and ... Monosaccharides can be grouped into aldoses (having an aldehyde group at the end of the chain, for example, glucose) and ...
monomers of carbohydrates. monosaccharides. examples of a monosaccharides. fructose, glucose. examples of a disaccharides. ... if inadequate glucose or fat is available, the liver converts amino acids into glucose and produces ATP through cellular ... carbohydrates uses in the body. immediate energy, short term energy storage, building some cell structures. ... what are the uses in the body for carbohydrates. immediate energy, shoot- term energy storage, cell structure. ...
... see carbohydrate [1]) with a sweet taste, melting and decomposing at 186°C to form caramel. It is known commonly as cane sugar ... "carbo-hydrate." Some familiar monosaccharides are glucose, fructose, and galactose; while the disaccharides include sucrose, ... sucrose (sewk-rohz) n. a carbohydrate consisting of glucose and fructose. It is the principal constituent of cane sugar and ... When sucrose is digested, it first breaks down into the monosaccharides of which it is composed, glucose and fructose, with the ...
Fructose and glucose Monosaccharides Malt sugar Maltose Disaccharide (glucose and glucose) Formed by the hydrolysis of starch, ... Common monosaccharides (carbohydrates composed of single sugar units) include glucose , fructose, and galactose. Glucose is the ... Fructose Monosaccharide Very sweet High-fructose corn syrup Fructose Monosaccharide Very sweet and inexpensive Added to soft ... Carbohydrate Monosaccharide or disaccharide Additional information Beet sugar (cane sugar) Sucrose Disaccharide (fructose and ...
Especially preferred monosaccharides include glucose and fructose. Preferred polysaccharides include sucrose, lactose, maltose ... 0047] Carbohydrates included within the composition according to the invention can be any carbohydrate known in the art, ... Such carbohydrates thus include digestible mono-saccharides and polysaccharides. ... Non-digestible carbohydrates (nutritional fibres) may also be present [0048] The quantity of digestible carbohydrates included ...
Carbohydrates (sugars). C, H, 0. Monosaccharides or hexoses. glucose, fructose, galactose: energy. Polysaccharides: Starch ( ...
Carbohydrates are one of the most important food groups in the diet of all animals, including humans. They provide essential ... Monosaccharides - These consist of a single sugar unit. Examples include glucose, fructose, and glyceraldehyde. Depending on ... Carbohydrates are macromolecules composed of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) and have the general formula of Cx(H2O)y. ... Carbohydrates are one of the most important food groups in the diet of all animals, including humans. They provide essential ...
... fats and carbohydrates in our diet, and explore how our bodies use these macronutrients. ... Glucose, a monosaccharide, is the most abundant sugar molecule and is the preferred energy source for the brain. It is a part ... Fructose is another common monosaccharide. Two common disaccharides in food are sucrose, common table sugar, and lactose, the ... Simple carbohydrates may be single sugar molecules called monosaccharides or two monosaccharides joined together called ...
Glucose, fructose and galactose are which types of carbohydrate? Monosaccharides 5 Name 3 disaccharides ... Blood glucose is high - insulin is secreted by beta cells of pancreas, insulin lowers blood glucose by increasing entry of ... Glucose releases ATP, glucose transformed to 2x pyruvic acid - lactic acid and acetyl coenzyme A.. Acetyl coenzyme a - ... Generate glucose. Convert to energy. Form structural components of molecules eg glycoproteins Provide energy stores eg glycogen ...
Carbohydrates - 4 kcal per gram. Carbohydrate molecules include monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose), disaccharides, ... Fiber consists mostly of carbohydrates. However, because it is not easily absorbed by the body, not much of the sugars and ... A nutrient is a source of nourishment, a component of food, for instance, protein, carbohydrate, fat, vitamin, mineral, fiber, ... Nutritionally, polysaccharides are favored over monosaccharides because they are more complex and therefore take longer to ...
Carbohydrates often get clumped together in two extreme categories: good and bad. However, carbs alone arent bad. Everyone ... Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbs. They are glucose, fructose, and galactose. Glucose is commonly referred to as ... Simple Carbohydrates for Energy. Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for the body and the brain prefers glucose over ... Simple carbohydrates are monosaccharides and disaccharides, while starches and fiber are polysaccharides. ...
Fruits, like apples and pears, contain a higher amount of fructose compared with glucose. They are considered a high FODMAP ... These are all forms of fermentable short-chain carbohydrates. A diet low in these types of carbohydrates has been shown to ... FODMAP stands for "fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols." ... 27 g of carbohydrate, including 17 g of sugar and 6 g ... www.diabetes.org.uk/Guide-to-diabetes/Enjoy-food/Carbohydrates- ...
An example of a monosaccharide is fructose. Other examples include without limitation glucose, xylose, mannose, galactose, ... An example of a substantially water-soluble carbohydrate is a monosaccharide, for example glucose. ... Suitable carbohydrates can be selected from a group consisting of a monosaccharide, a disaccharide, a sugar alcohol, a ... 7. The unit dosage form of claim 1 or 2 wherein the carbohydrate comprises a monosaccharide, a disaccharide, a sugar alcohol, a ...
sucrose, glucose, fructose, lactose, cellulose, amylose, etc.. Also starch and glycogen. (9). Carbohydrates are found in ... 1. Glucose is a:. A. monosaccharide. B. polypeptide. C. lipid. D. polysaccharide. 2. Which of the following is not a protein?. ... B. Glucose. C. Fructose. Examples. Structure. Function. Example. (2). (11). Found in cell membrane, wax, butter, oils, etc.. ( ... Carbohydrates If it ends in -ose, it is likely a type of sugar. Sugars are carbohydrates.. Look at the structure of the letter ...
Examples of monosaccharides are glucose, fructose, and ribose.. This picture of tree sap is an example of glucose.Glucose is ... Monosaccharide. A polysaccharide is defined as a complex carbohydrate composed of a chain of monosaccharides joined together by ... Disaccharide is defined as a sugar, or a carbohydrate, composed of two monosaccharides, yielding two monosaccharide monlecules ... Monosaccharide is defined as a the simplist form of carbohydrate, and cannot be broken down to simpler sugars. ...
Carbohydrates occur in different forms and in many foods, such as whole grains, fruit and vegetables. Find out what their ... Glucose and fructose: monosaccharides that can be found in fruits, vegetables, honey, but also in food products like glucose- ... Glucose, fructose and galactose are examples of single-unit sugars, also known as monosaccharides. Double-unit sugars are ... The type of the sugar(s) that form(s) the carbohydrate; e.g. fructose has a lower glycaemic response than glucose, and sucrose ...
Carbohydrate, Proteins, Fats, Vitamins, Minerals, Genetic Terminology, Organisms and their Chromosome Counts, Viral, Bacterial ... Biology Carbohydrate - Learn Biology in simple and easy steps starting from basic to advanced concepts with examples including ... Monosaccharides. Glucose, fructose, xylose, galactose. Disaccharides. Sucrose, lactose, maltose, trehalose. Polyols. Sorbitol, ... Functions of Carbohydrate. *. Following are the major functions of carbohydrates −. *. Carbohydrates provide energy required ...
The major dietary carbohydrates Class (DP*). Subgroup. Components Sugars (1-2) Monosaccharides. Glucose, galactose, fructose, ... Some simple carbohydrates (e.g. fructose) raise blood glucose slowly, while some complex carbohydrates (starches), especially ... The most important carbohydrate is glucose, a simple sugar (monosaccharide) that is metabolized by nearly all known organisms. ... Examples of monosaccharides are glucose, fructose, and glyceraldehydes. However, some biological substances commonly called " ...
What monosaccharides are absorbed by humans? glucose and fructose 4 What digests carbohydrates in the mouth? ...
Carbohydrates range from simple monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose) to complex polysaccharides (starch). Fats are ... to glucose and can be used for energy production just as ordinary glucose. By breaking down existing protein, some glucose can ... Like all carbohydrates, when it is metabolized it can produce four calories (kilocalories) of energy per gram. But in most ... A few amino acids from protein can be converted into glucose and used for fuel through a process called gluconeogenesis; this ...
These carbohydrates are composed of three principal monosaccharides: glucose, fructose and galactose; in addition glycogen is ... Fructose malabsorption is a digestive disorder in which absorption of fructose is impaired by deficient fructose carriers in ... G-6-P can be converted to glucose by the enzyme glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase); the glucose produced in the liver is then ... The monosaccharide glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) is typically the input substance for glycogenesis. G-6-P is most commonly ...
The Chemists View Simple Carbohydrates A. B. III. IV. Monosaccharides 1. Glucose 2. Fructose 3. Galactose Disaccharides 1. ...
  • The first and most direct route into the body for recently converted glucose from the small intestine is the bloodstream, where glucose is immediately available to be converted into ATP, in combination with the oxygen received into the bloodstream from the cardiorespiratory system. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Alcohol, acid, and amine derivatives of carbohydrates which are formed by an alcohol, carboxylic acid, or amine function replacing the oxygen of the carbonyl group of an acyclic carbohydrate are not provided for in this class, but are classified elsewhere. (uspto.gov)
  • The heteroatom of the cyclic carbohydrate must be an oxygen. (uspto.gov)
  • The open-chain form of a monosaccharide often coexists with a closed ring form where the oxygen of the carbonyl group C=O is replaced by an internal -O- bridge. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Carbohydrates are one of three macronutrients that provide the body with energy ( protein and fats being the other two). (faqs.org)
  • Up until this time, dieting pretty much consisted of lowering the number of calories eaten per day or lowering both the amount of fats and carbohydrates eaten. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Although it seems like fats provide more kilocalories per gram, it is better to consume carbohydrates for energy production purposes because they are abundantly available. (hypertextbook.com)
  • Dr Ashish Shrivastav, senior consultant neurosurgeon at Apollo Hospitals said, "Carbohydrates are the only nutrients which can match this rate of energy requirement. (hubpages.com)
  • Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency affects the degradation of glucose in the pentose phosphate pathway, which is especially important in red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The idea behind low-carbohydrate dieting is to restrict the amount of carbs you eat and increase your consumption of protein, good carbs (like high-fiber vegetables) and sometimes fat. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Carbs can be converted in the body into either glucose (desirable) or fat (undesirable). (bodybuilding.com)