Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
A ketose sugar that is commonly used in the commercial synthesis of ASCORBIC ACID.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
Phosphoric acid esters of galactose.
A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is the source of dong quai.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
A genus of fungi of the family Agaricaceae, order Agaricales; most species are poisonous.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.
These compounds function as activated monosaccharide carriers in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and oligosaccharide phospholipids. Obtained from a nucleoside diphosphate sugar and a polyisoprenyl phosphate.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A hexose transporter that mediates FRUCTOSE transport in SKELETAL MUSCLE and ADIPOCYTES and is responsible for luminal uptake of dietary fructose in the SMALL INTESTINE.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
A genus of leguminous shrubs or trees, mainly tropical, yielding useful compounds such as ALKALOIDS and PLANT LECTINS.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-mannosides.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-mannose residues in beta-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the lysosomal degradation of the N-glycosylprotein glycans. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme in humans result in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease BETA-MANNOSIDOSIS.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
A subclass of lectins that are specific for CARBOHYDRATES that contain MANNOSE.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A class of carbohydrates that contains five carbon atoms.
A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The founding member of the sodium glucose transport proteins. It is predominately expressed in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the SMALL INTESTINE.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.
A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
A trisaccharide occurring in Australian manna (from Eucalyptus spp, Myrtaceae) and in cottonseed meal.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A family of calcium-binding alpha-globulins that are synthesized in the LIVER and play an essential role in maintaining the solubility of CALCIUM in the BLOOD. In addition the fetuins contain aminoterminal cystatin domains and are classified as type 3 cystatins.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
The rotation of linearly polarized light as it passes through various media.
General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
A strong oxidizing agent.
A polyhydric alcohol with about half the sweetness of sucrose. Sorbitol occurs naturally and is also produced synthetically from glucose. It was formerly used as a diuretic and may still be used as a laxative and in irrigating solutions for some surgical procedures. It is also used in many manufacturing processes, as a pharmaceutical aid, and in several research applications.

Gas-liquid chromatography of the heptafluorobutyrate derivatives of the O-methyl-glycosides on capillary columns: a method for the quantitative determination of the monosaccharide composition of glycoproteins and glycolipids. (1/850)

We have developed a method involving the formation of hepta-fluorobutyrate derivatives of O-methyl-glycosides liberated from glycoproteins and glycolipids following methanolysis. The stable derivatives of the most common monosaccharides of these glycoconjugates (Ara, Rha, Xyl, Fuc, Gal, Man, Glc, GlcNAc, GalNAc, Neu5Ac, KDN) can be separated and quantitatively and reproducibly determined with a high degree of sensitivity level (down to 25 pmol) in the presence of lysine as an internal standard. The GlcNAc residue bound to Asn in N-glycans is quantitatively recovered as two peaks. The latter were easily distinguished from the other GlcNAc residues of N-glycans, thus allowing a considerable improvement of the data on structure of N-glycans obtained from a single carbohydrate analysis. The most common contaminants present in buffers commonly used for the isolation of soluble or membrane-bound glycoproteins (SDS, Triton X-100, DOC, TRIS, glycine, and polyacrylamide or salts, as well as monosaccharide constituents of proteoglycans or degradation products of nucleic acids) do not interfere with these determinations. A carbohydrate analysis of glycoproteins isolated from a SDS/PAGE gel or from PDVF membranes can be performed on microgram amounts without significant interferences. Since fatty acid methyl esters and sphingosine derivatives are separated from the monosaccharide peaks, the complete composition of gangliosides can be achieved in a single step starting from less than 1 microg of the initial compound purified by preparative Silicagel TLC. Using electron impact ionization mass spectrometry, reporter ions for the different classes of O-methyl-glycosides (pentoses, deoxy-hexoses, hexoses, hexosamines, uronic acids, sialic acid, and KDN) allow the identification of these compounds in very complex mixtures. The mass of each compound can be determined in the chemical ionization mode and detection of positive or negative ions. This method presents a considerable improvement compared to those using TMS derivatives. Indeed the heptafluorobutyrate derivatives are stable, and acylation of amino groups is complete. Moreover, there is no interference with contaminants and the separation between fatty acid methyl-esters and O-methyl glycosides is achieved.  (+info)

Salivary mucin MG1 is comprised almost entirely of different glycosylated forms of the MUC5B gene product. (2/850)

The MG1 population of mucins was isolated from human whole salivas by gel chromatography followed by isopycnic density gradient centrifugation. The reduced and alkylated MG1 mucins, separated by anion exchange chromatography, were of similar size (radius of gyration 55-64 nm) and molecular weight (2.5-2.9 x 10(6) Da). Two differently-charged populations of MG1 subunits were observed which showed different reactivity with monoclonal antibodies to glycan epitopes. Monosaccharide and amino acid compositional analyses indicated that the MG1 subunits had similar glycan structures on the same polypeptide. An antiserum recognizing the MUC5B mucin was reactive across the entire distribution, whereas antisera raised against the MUC2 and MUC5AC mucins showed no reactivity. Western blots of agarose gel electrophoresis of fractions across the anion exchange distribution indicated that the polypeptide underlying the mucins was the product of the MUC5B gene. Amino acid analysis and peptide mapping performed on the fragments produced by trypsin digestion of the two MG1 populations yielded data similar to that obtained for MUC5B mucin subunits prepared from respiratory mucus (Thornton et al., 1997) and confirmed that the MUC5B gene product was the predominant mucin polypeptide present. Isolation of the MG1 mucins from the secretions of the individual salivary glands (palatal, sublingual, and submandibular) indicate that the palatal gland is the source of the highly charged population of the MUC5B mucin.  (+info)

Arginine-aminoglycoside conjugates that bind to HIV transactivation responsive element RNA in vitro. (3/850)

HIV gene expression is crucially dependent on binding of the viral Tat protein to the transactivation RNA response element. A number of synthetic Tat-transactivation responsive element interaction inhibitors of peptide/peptoid nature were described as potential antiviral drug prototypes. We present a new class of peptidomimetic inhibitors, conjugates of L-arginine with aminoglycosides. Using a gel-shift assay and affinity chromatography on an L-arginine column we found that these compounds bind specifically to the transactivation responsive element RNA in vitro with Kd values in the range of 20-400 nM, which is comparable to the Kd of native Tat bound to the transactivation responsive element (10-12 nM). Confocal microscopy studies demonstrated that fluorescein-labelled conjugate penetrates into live cells. High affinity to the transactivation responsive element, low toxicity, and relative simplicity of synthesis make these compounds attractive candidates for antiviral drug design.  (+info)

Geography of intestinal permeability and absorption. (4/850)

BACKGROUND: Intestinal morphology and function vary geographically. AIMS: These functions were assessed in asymptomatic volunteers in European, North American, Middle Eastern, Asian, African, and Caribbean countries. METHODS: Five hour urine collections were obtained from each subject following ingestion of a 100 ml iso-osmolar test solution containing 3-0-methyl-D-glucose, D-xylose, L-rhamnose, and lactulose after an overnight fast, to assess active (3-0-methyl-D-glucose) and passive (D-xylose) carrier mediated, and non-mediated (L-rhamnose) absorption capacity, as well as intestinal permeability (lactulose:rhamnose ratio). RESULTS: A comparison of results for subjects from tropical countries (n=218) with those resident in the combined temperate and subtropical region (Europe, United States, Qatar) (n=224) showed significant differences. Residents in tropical areas had a higher mean lactulose:rhamnose ratio and lower mean five hour recoveries of 3-0-methyl-D-glucose, D-xylose, and L-rhamnose, indicating higher intestinal permeability and lower absorptive capacity. Investigation of visiting residents suggested that differences in intestinal permeability and absorptive capacity were related to the area of residence. Subjects from Texas and Qatar, although comprised of several ethnic groups and resident in a subtropical area, showed no significant difference from European subjects. CONCLUSIONS: There are clearly demarcated variations in intestinal permeability and absorptive capacity affecting asymptomatic residents of different geographical areas which correspond with the condition described as tropical enteropathy. Results suggest the importance of environmental factors. The parameters investigated may be relevant to the predisposition of the indigenous population and travellers to diarrhoeal illness and malnutrition. Intestinal function in patients from the tropics may be difficult to interpret, but should take into account the range of values found in the asymptomatic normal population.  (+info)

Structural analysis of a novel putative capsular polysaccharide from Pseudomonas (Burkholderia) caryophylli strain 2151. (5/850)

A novel putative capsular polysaccharide consisting of D-Glcp and D-Fruf in the molar ratio of 1:1 was isolated as minor constituent from the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) fraction of Pseudomonas (Burkholderia) caryophylli. Its structure was determined, using mainly one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, as: -->6)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->1)-beta-D-Fruf-(2-->.  (+info)

Recombinant glycoproteins that inhibit complement activation and also bind the selectin adhesion molecules. (6/850)

Soluble human complement receptor type 1 (sCR1, TP10) has been expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) DUKX-B11 cells and shown to inhibit the classical and alternative complement pathways in vitro and in vivo. A truncated version of sCR1 lacking the long homologous repeat-A domain (LHR-A) containing the C4b binding site has similarly been expressed and designated sCR1[desLHR-A]. sCR1[desLHR-A] was shown to be a selective inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway in vitro and to function in vivo. In this study, sCR1 and sCR1[desLHR-A] were expressed in CHO LEC11 cells with an active alpha(1,3)-fucosyltransferase, which makes possible the biosynthesis of the sialyl-Lewisx (sLex) tetrasaccharide (NeuNAcalpha2-3Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc) during post-translational glycosylation. The resulting glycoproteins, designated sCR1sLex and sCR1[desLHR-A]sLex, respectively, retained the complement regulatory activities of their DUKX B11 counterparts, which lack alpha(1-3)-fucose. Carbohydrate analysis of purified sCR1sLex and sCR1[desLHR-A]sLex indicated an average incorporation of 10 and 8 mol of sLex/mol of glycoprotein, respectively. sLex is a carbohydrate ligand for the selectin adhesion molecules. sCR1sLex was shown to specifically bind CHO cells expressing cell surface E-selectin. sCR1[desLHR-A]sLex inhibited the binding of the monocytic cell line U937 to human aortic endothelial cells, which had been activated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha to up-regulate the expression of E-selectin. sCR1sLex inhibited the binding of U937 cells to surface-adsorbed P-selectin-IgG. sCR1sLex and sCR1[desLHR-A]sLex have thus demonstrated both complement regulatory activity and the capacity to bind selectins and to inhibit selectin-mediated cell adhesion in vitro.  (+info)

Sequential deglycosylation and utilization of the N-linked, complex-type glycans of human alpha1-acid glycoprotein mediates growth of Streptococcus oralis. (7/850)

Streptococcus oralis is the agent of a large number of infections in immunocompromised patients, but little is known regarding the mechanisms by which this fermentative organism proliferates in vivo. Glycoproteins are widespread within the circulation and host tissues, and could provide a source of fermentable carbohydrate for the growth of those pathogenic organisms with the capacity to release monosaccharides from glycans via the production of specific glycosidases. The ability of acute phase serum alpha1-acid glycoprotein to support growth of S.oralis in vitro has been examined as a model for growth of this organism on N-linked glycoproteins. Growth was accompanied by the production of a range of glycosidases (sialidase, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, and beta-D-galactosidase) as measured using the 4-methylumbelliferone-linked substrates. The residual glycoprotein glycans remaining during growth of this organism were released by treatment with hydrazine and their analysis by HPAEC-PAD and MALDI demonstrated extensive degradation of all glycan chains with only terminal N-acetylglucosamine residues attached to asparagines of the protein backbone remaining when growth was complete. Monosaccharides were released sequentially from the glycans by S.oralis glycosidases in the order sialic acid, galactose, fucose, nonterminal N-acetylglucosamine, and mannose due to the actions of exo-glycosidic activities, including mannosidases which have not previously been reported for S.oralis. All released monosaccharides were metabolized during growth with the exception of fucose which remained free in culture supernatants. Direct release of oligosaccharides was not observed, indicating the absence of endo-glycosidases in S.oralis. We propose that this mechanism of deglycosylation of host glycoproteins and the subsequent utilization of released monosaccharides is important in the survival and persistence of this and other pathogenic bacteria in vivo.  (+info)

Structural and serological studies on the O-antigen of Proteus mirabilis O14, a new polysaccharide containing 2-[(R)-1-carboxyethylamino]ethyl phosphate. (8/850)

An O-specific polysaccharide was obtained by mild acid degradation of Proteus mirabilis O14 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and found to contain D-galactose, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glalactose, phosphate, N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-D-alanine (D-AlaEtn), and O-acetyl groups. Studies of the initial and O-deacetylated polysaccharides using one- and two-dimensional 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy, including COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, H-detected 1H,13C heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence, and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation experiments, demonstrated the following structure of the repeating unit: [equation: see text] This is the second bacterial polysaccharide reported to contain alpha-D-Galp6PAlaEtn, whereas the first one was the O-antigen of P. mirabilis EU313 taken erroneously as strain PrK 6/57 from the O3 serogroup [Vinogradov, E. V., Kaca, W., Shashkov, A.S., Krajewska-Pietrasik, D., Rozalski, A., Knirel, Y.A. & Kochetkov, N.K. (1990) Eur. J. Biochem., 188, 645-651]. Anti-(P. mirabilis O14) serum cross-reacted with LPS of P. mirabilis EU313 and vice versa in passive hemolysis and ELISA. Absorption of both O-antisera with the heterologous LPS decreased markedly but did not abolish the reaction with the homologous LPS. These and chemical data indicated that both strains have similar but not identical O-antigens. Therefore, we propose that P. mirabilis EU313 should belong to a new subgroup of the O14 serogroup.  (+info)

Monosaccharides are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste. Sometimes monosaccharides are commonly known as monosaccharide sugar. Monosaccharides are classified by size according to the number of carbon atoms in the chain of the monosaccharides. For example monosaccharides called dioses has tow carbon ring backbone, monosaccharide trioses has three carbon ring backbone, and monosaccharides heptose has seven carbon ring backbone.. ...
Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates. They consist of one sugar and are usually colorless, water-soluble, crystalline solids. Some monosaccharides have a sweet taste. Examples of monosaccharides include glucose (dextrose), fructose, galactose, and ribose. Monosaccharides are the building blocks of disaccharides like sucrose (common sugar) and polysaccharides (such as cellulose and starch). Further, each carbon atom that supports a hydroxyl group (except for the first and last) is chiral, giving rise to a number of isomeric forms all with the same chemical formula. For instance, galactose and glucose are both aldohexoses, but they have different chemical and physical properties. ...
Carbohydrates are classified into three major categories depending upon their behaviour towards hydrolysis:. 1. MONOSACCHARIDES. These are simple carbohydrates which cannot be hydrolysed to simpler carbohydrates. About 20 monosaccharides are known to occur in nature. Glucose and fructose are common examples.. 2. OLIGOSACCHARIDES. These are the carbohydrates which on hydrolysis give two to ten units of monosaccharides. Accordingly, they may be further divided into di, tri or tetrasaccharides depending upon the actual number of monosaccharide units formed by the hydrolysis of a particular oligosaccharide.. Disaccharides give two units of monosaccharides on hydrolysis. The two monosaccharide units obtained on hydrolysis of a disaccharide may be same or different. Common examples are sucrose and maltose. Both have molecular formula C12H22O11.. Sucrose on hydrolysis gives one molecule of glucose and one molecule of fructose whereas maltose on hydrolysis gives two molecules of glucose ...
Carbohydrate - Carbohydrate - Heteropolysaccharides: In general, heteropolysaccharides (heteroglycans) contain two or more different monosaccharide units. Although a few representatives contain three or more different monosaccharides, most naturally occurring heteroglycans contain only two different ones and are closely associated with lipid or protein. The complex nature of these substances has made detailed structural studies extremely difficult. The major heteropolysaccharides include the connective-tissue polysaccharides, the blood group substances, glycoproteins (combinations of carbohydrates and proteins) such as gamma globulin, and glycolipids (combinations of carbohydrates and lipids), particularly those found in the central nervous system of animals and in a wide variety of plant gums. The most important
The addition of monosaccharides to metal-catalyzed coupling reactions can be beneficial in terms of decreasing the time required, chemical waste products and overall cost of the process. Monosaccharides are used in a number of different ways, including: (a) acting as a ligand for the metal, (b) providing the appropriate reduction potential for a chemical process and (c) acting as a reducing agent for the formation and stabilization of catalytically active metal nanoparticles. Recently, there has been a significant amount of research in this growing field and there is thus the potential for the addition of monosaccharides to coupling reactions to have significant impact on the synthesis of the important small molecules on which we have all come to rely. This Perspectives Article will cover recent developments in the addition of monosaccharides to metal-catalyzed coupling reactions with an emphasis on their utility and limitations in order to facilitate the further development of this exciting ...
This thesis describes stereoselective syntheses of four amino acids, three of which are C-glycosidic analogues of glycosylated amino acids. The overall goal of the project was to probe the interactions between MHC molecules, glycopeptide antigens and T cell receptors, that are essential for development of collagen induced arthritis. Collagen induced arthritis is a frequently used mouse model for rheumatoid arthritis, an autoimmune disease that attacks joint cartilage and leads to a painful and eventually crippling condition.. The thesis is based on four studies. The first study describes the synthesis of hydroxylysine, an amino acid that is found in collagen and is an important constituent of the glycopeptide proposed as an antigen in collagen induced arthritis. During the synthesis of hydroxylysine some new insight into the mechanism of the reductive opening of p-methoxybenzylidene acetals was obtained.. The remaining three studies deals with the synthesis of C-glycosidic analogues of ...
Carbohydrates mainly include the following:. Sugar: In English labels, it is indicated by [sugar]. They include a single [polyhydroxy aldehyde and ketone] molecule (i.e. [monosaccharide]) and [disaccharide] formed by condensation of two monosaccharide molecules.. Glucose, fructose and galactose are the most common monosaccharides, while sucrose, lactose and maltose are the most common disaccharides. Honey, brown sugar, crystal sugar, maltose, high fructose syrup, corn syrup and rice syrup are the commercial states of monosaccharides and disaccharides from different sources.. In the digestive tract, disaccharide molecules can be quickly hydrolyzed into monosaccharides, which can be quickly absorbed into the blood. Different monosaccharides have different effects on health. For example, glucose increases blood sugar content, which is the enemy of diabetics, and fructose increases the risk of [metabolic syndrome].. Therefore, WHO recommends that the daily intake of added sugar should not exceed 10% ...
I have been desperately scouring PubMed trying to find information on how different monosaccharides gain entry into the cell. More specifically, I need to know how sulfated monosaccharides (6 sulfated glucosamine/galactosame, N-sulfated glucosamine/galactosamine, GalNac, etc) get into the cell ie. whether this is by some form of facilitated diffusion by sugar transporters, passive diffusion, active transport etc ...
Monosaccharide: Monosaccharide, any of the basic compounds that serve as the building blocks of carbohydrates. Monosaccharides are polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones; that is, they are molecules with more than one hydroxyl group (−OH), and a carbonyl group (C=O) either at the terminal carbon atom (aldose) or at the
Since there are twenty amino acids, there are only three types of monosaccharides; the large amount of variety is due to the changing in R groups. These monosaccharides are glucose, fructose and galactose. In contrast, there are only two types of fatty acids, saturated and unsaturated. In conclusion, amino acids exhibit the greatest structural variability.. ...
Sequestration of harmful proteases as human neutrophil elastase (HNE) from the chronic wound environment is an important goal of wound dressing design and function. Monosaccharides attached to cellulose conjugates as ester-appended aldohexoses and ketohexoses were prepared on cotton gauze as monosccharide-citrate-cellulose-esters for HNE sequestration. The monosaccharide-cellulose analogs demonstrated selective binding when the derivatized cotton dressings were measured for sequestration of HNE. Each monosaccharide-cellulose conjugate was prepared as a cellulose citrate-linked monosaccharide ester on the cotton wound dressing, and assayed under wound exudate-mimicked conditions for elastase sequestration activity. A series of three aldohexose and four ketohexose ester cellulose conjugates were prepared on cotton gauze through citric acid-cellulose cross linking esterification. The monosaccharide portion of the conjugate was characterized by hydrolysis of the citrate-monosaccharide ester bond, and
List of words make out of Monosaccharides. All anagrams of Monosaccharides. Words made after unscrambling Monosaccharides. Scrabble Points.
There are polysaccharides, disaccarides, and monosaccharides. From my research polysaccharides and disaccarides (like bread and such) ferment longer in the gut, where monosaccharides can absorb more quickly. Polysaccharides and disaccharides are longer chains and take longer to break down whereas monosaccharides absorb more quickly. For someone with Candida, monosaccharides are not ideal because it means the Candida can absorb more quickly, and depending on where it has grown to e.g. moved its way into your small intestine, it can be bad eating sugar. From my understanding, Candida is typically located in the colon, but it works its way up into the small intestine and else where, sometimes even in the mouth when it gets pathogenic. If it is not within your small intestine, monosaccharides in small amounts I presume would be absorbed before they hit the colon. I would try to avoid sugar in general and when things become manageable and never eat processed sugar if you can keep from it. Since we ...
UPLC, UHPLC, and HPLC-based C18 columns that assist scientists with the analysis and quantitation of important glycan derived components.
Introduction. The Role of Carbohydrates in Living Organisms Carbohydrates are composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The general formula is Cx(H2O)y. There are many different types of carbohydrates present in living organisms, each playing an important role in maintaining life of organisms. Monosaccharides are a group of carbohydrates, which include simple sugars such as glucose, fructose and galactose. Monosaccharides are classified according to the number of carbon atoms they possess. Trioses such as glyceraldehyde, and dihydroxyacetone contain three carbon atoms. The phosphorylated form of glyceraldehyde is the first formed sugar in photosynthesis, and may (like dihydroxyacetone) be used as respiratory substrate, or is converted to starch for storage. ...read more. Middle. Galactose, mannose and fructose are three principal respiratory substrates in organisms. Additionally, Galactose is central in the synthesis of lactose. Fructose is also involved in the synthesis of insulin, ...
Brush a little sauce on the wings at the end of grilling for caramelized flavor, then toss them in more sauce before serving for full spicy saturation. Later information provided by local staff suggests, however, that this species has gone extinct there. Specifically mightyena, oddish, trapinch, phanphy, swasbuck, gastrodon, spheal, piloswine, excadrill, heracross, vullaby, and cacturne. Mitochondria -an organelle that specializes in atp formation, the powerhouse of the cell. The cyclic pyranose forms of various monosaccharides are often drawn in a flat projection known as a haworth formula, after the british chemist, norman haworth. A new aluminum frame was engineered in a distinctive shape with square tubes stretching back over and around the top of the engine, then turning sharply downwards just past the carburetors to beneath the engine where they met the lower tubes. The civic center has several rooms that can be rented by the public to hold meetings, seminars and workshops. There are two ...
Many marine bacteria produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) as a strategy for growth, adhering to solid surfaces, and to survive adverse conditions. There is growing interest in isolating new EPS producing bacteria from marine environments, particularly from extreme marine environments such as deep-sea hydrothermal vents characterized by high pressure and temperature and heavy metal presence. Marine EPS-producing microorganisms have been also isolated from several extreme niches such as the cold marine environments typically of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, characterized by low temperature and low nutrient concentration, and the hypersaline marine environment found in a wide variety of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems such as salt lakes and salterns. Most of their EPSs are heteropolysaccharides containing three or four different monosaccharides arranged in groups of 10 or less to form the repeating units. These polymers are often linear with an average molecular weight ranging from 1 × 105 to 3 × 105 Da.
Two very important Monosaccharides are Ribose and Deoxyribose. Ribose is used for the construction of Ribonucleic Acid (RNA), and Deoxyribose to build Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA). The ring structure diagram for each molecule is as follows ...
Biosynthesis and interconversion of monosaccharides. The relative contributions of each pathway under physiological conditions are unknown. (Rectangles) Donors; (ovals) monosaccharides; (asterisks) control points; (6PG) 6-phosphogluconate; (PEP) phosphoenolpyruvate; (KDN) 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galactonononic acid; (Dol) dolichol.
View carbohyd from CHEM 322 at SUNY Oneonta. Carbohydrates Typical formula: Cx(H2O)y, eg glucose: C6H12O6. Structure -Simplest carbohydrates are monosaccharides; one sugar unit. Monosaccharides can
A monosaccharide is the most basic form of carbohydrates. Monosaccharides can by combined through glycosidic bonds to form larger carbohydrates, known as oligosaccharides or polysaccharides.
Monosaccharide Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar) are the simplest carbohydrates. They cannot be hydrolyzed into simpler sugars. They
Synonyms for monosaccharide at Thesaurus.com with free online thesaurus, antonyms, and definitions. Dictionary and Word of the Day.
Whichever way you eat them, the body essentially breaks them down into monosaccharides (glucose, fructose or galactose). These monosaccharides are then absorbed and taken to the liver. The liver is a like a 54 year old mother of two in China working her second job manufacturing clothing for the Western world. In other words, it does a heap of work but doesnt get much recognition for it. Anyway, the liver does some crazy magical abracadabra-type voodoo stuff to all these monosaccharides and converts pretty much all of it into glucose. Classic attention seeking teenager behaviour. The glucose is then released into the blood and begins to fulfill its role as the bodys favourite energy source.. When glucose enters the blood, the pancreas knows immediately. As if glucose is a long lost love, it knows as soon as they are in town. In response, the pancreas releases something called insulin. Insulin works to help the glucose enter the bodys cells thereby allowing it to perform its magic. Without ...
Good morning, class. Nice to see you again. Hope you had a great weekend. If you didnt, it wasnt because of the weather. So here I am, once again a member of the walking wounded, and were talking about carbohydrates today, as you may recall, or at least we were at the end of our discussion last time. And, we made the point that these multiple hydroxyl groups on the carbohydrates, on the one hand, determine the identity of various kinds of sugars. Just the orientation, the three-dimensional orientation of them, for one thing, and for another that these multiple hydroxyl groups represent the opportunity for forming covalent bonds with other monosaccharides as is indicated here in these disaccharides, or covalent bonds end-to-end to create large molecules, which will increasingly be the theme of our discussion today, i.e. when I talk about large molecules, we just used the phrase generically, macromolecules, since in principle these end to end joinings of molecules which involve the dehydration ...
Hydrolysis is a reaction involving the breaking of a bond in a molecule using water. The reaction mainly occurs between an ion and water molecules and often changes the pH of a solution.. Fructose Does Not Undergo Hydrolysis Because It Is A - Classification Of Carbohydrates. Carbohydrates, also known as saccharides, are classified according to the number of single carbohydrate molecules in each chemical structure. Carbohydrate compounds having just one carbohydrate molecule are called monosaccharides; compounds with two carbohydrate molecules are called dissarcharides; and those compounds containing more than two carbohydrate molecules are named polysaccharides. All carbohydrates either are monosaccharides or can be hydrolyzed (broken down) into two or more monosaccharides.. For further understanding of these different classifications of carbohydrates, the monosaccharides and disaccharides can be grouped together and compared with the polysaccharides. This can be done because monosaccharides and ...
The hormone insulin is recognized as having actions that affect the transmembrane transport of different substances, particularly glucose, into numerous different kinds of cells. Insulin is a large polypeptide molecule with a molecular weight of 5808. It consists of an A chain and a B chain, connected together by two disulfide bridges. The hormone is made in the beta cells of the pancreas, and the stimulus for its secretion into the blood stream is a rise in the blood glucose concentration. Its actions on liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle have all been studied in great detail, and it is now recognized that insulin also affects a wide variety of tissues in addition to just these three.(1). Apart from the membrane transport of glucose, insulin also regulates the transport of some amino acids, some fatty acids, potassium, magnesium, and certain other monosaccharides. Furthermore, it mediates the formation of macromolecules in cells which are used in cell structure, energy stores, and in ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Green methodology for the synthesis of new C-glycoside surfactants. AU - Ranoux, ACM. AU - Lemiegre, L. AU - Benvegnu, T. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. KW - Geen BTA classificatie. M3 - Poster. Y2 - 25 October 2010 through 27 October 2010. ER - ...
compound of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen belonging to a class of substances called carbohydrates . Sugars fall into three groups: the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and trisaccharides. The monosaccharides are the simple sugars; they include fructose
Carbohydrates are separated into three subunits: monosaccharides, polysaccharides and oligosaccharides. Monosaccharides are the smallest of the subunits and are made up of single sugar molecules. The...
HPLC Application #14969: Monosaccharides with organic acids using Rezex ROA. Column used: Rezex™ ROA-Organic Acid H+ (8%), LC Column 300 x 7.8 mm, Ea Part#: 00H-0138-K0
Ward, C. J., Patel, P., Ashton, P. R. and James, T. D., 2000. A molecular colour sensor for monosaccharides. Chemical Communications, 2000 (3), pp. 229-230.. ...
Definition: The glucose (Glc) is a monosaccharide (or simple sugar) also known as grape sugar, blood sugar, or corn sugar. The name glucose (...)
Altrose is an aldohexose sugar. It is an unnatural monosaccharide. It is soluble in water and practically insoluble in methanol. Altrose is a C-3 epimer of mannose. ...
Cell-volume-normalized concentration of (a, d, g) monosaccharide and (b, e, h) polysaccharide excreted by the cells as well as (c, f, i) cellular concentration
Fill in the blank about Chemistry of Life: Carbohydrates 1) Disaccharides- Made up of _________ monosaccharides would the answer be 2?2 would be c...
Was watching this video claiming to be a tutorial about Deadmau5 chords, was just wondering if these are the actual type of chords he uses?? Youd need
The influence of EDTA, carboxylic acids, amino-and hydroxocarboxylic acids, monosaccharides and humic substances on the generation of arsines in hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) was investigated. EDTA (0.02 mol L−1), ascorbic acid (0.02 mol L−1) and glucose or fructose (0.2 mol L−1) are useful additives for levelling sensitivities for As(III), monomethylarsonate (MMA) and dimethylarsinate (DMA). The presence of glycine, malonic, tartaric acids, BICIN and soil humin extracts leads to differences in analytical signal response between these arsenic species. An analytical application to the determination of the sum of As(III), monomethylarsonate (MMA) and dimethylarsinate (DMA) as well as the sum of toxicologically relevant hydride forming arsenic fraction As(III) + As(V) + MMA + DMA in EDTA soil/sediment extracts using continuous flow HGAAS was demonstrated. The limit of detection was 0.2 mg kg−1 As. Within-day and between-day precision were in the range 3-7% and ...
A carbohydrate[ Carbohydrate, Carb, Saccharide ] A group of organic compounds occurring in living tissues, comprising of sugars, starches, and cellulose. Carbohydrates can be divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. Shorter-chain carbohydrates (monosaccharides and disaccharides) are generally sweet tasting are commonly referred to as sugars. More molecule that cannot be further hydrolysedThe enzymatic cleavage of chemical bonds involving water. For instance, amylose is hydrolysed into glucose in the presence of amylase, a digestive enzyme. More into simpler carbohydrates[ Carbohydrate, Carb, Saccharide ] A group of organic compounds occurring in living tissues, comprising of sugars, starches, and cellulose. Carbohydrates can be divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. Shorter-chain carbohydrates (monosaccharides and disaccharides) are generally sweet tasting are ...
Monosaccharides are simple sugars with only one sachharide unit. These cannot be hydrolysed into simpler forms. A monosaccharide containing an aldehydic group (-CHO) in its molecule is called aldose. The glucose and galactose are aldoses. A monosaccharide which contains a keto group (| C = O) in its molecule is called ketose. Fructose is a ketose.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Changes of monosaccharide availability of human hybridoma lead to alteration of biological properties of human monoclonal antibody. AU - Tachibana, Hirofumi. AU - Taniguchi, Kiyotaka. AU - Ushio, Yoshitaka. AU - Teruya, Kiichiro. AU - Osada, Kazuhiro. AU - Murakami, Hiroki. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - The effect of glucose and other monosaccharide availability in culture medium on production of antibody by human hybridomas has been studied. Human hybridoma cells C5TN produce an anti lung cancer human monoclonal antibody, and the light chain is N-glycosylated at the variable region. When the cell line was grown in the presence of various concentrations of glucose, the antibodies produced changed their antigen-binding activities. Analysis of the light chains produced under these condition revealed that four molecular-mass variant light chains ranging from about 26 to 32 kDa were secreted. The twenty six-kDa species, which corresponds to a non-glycosylated form of the light ...
Herein we present a comparative study about the photoinactivation of Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive model) and Escherichia coli (Gram-negative model) employing a neutral and a dicationic axially functionalized SiIV phthalocyanine. Depending on the charge of the siloxane moiety (neutral monosaccharide or cationic ammonium salt), different interactions with the bacteria were observed and a differential photoinactivation was facilitated. The intensity of the fluorescence labelling correlated with the photoinactivation of the two types of bacteria: while the neutral species only significantly affected the Gram-positive cells, we observed that the positively charged photosensitizer interacted both with the Gram-positive and with the Gram-negative models ...
To characterize the polysaccharides which exist as soluble forms in fruit wines, crude polysaccharides were isolated from red, white, raspberry, wild grape, and pear wine, respectively. Among them, the crude polysaccharide (RW-0) in red wine showed the highest yield and considerable amounts of thiobarbituric acid (TBA)-positive materials. The pectic polysaccharide RW-2 was purified to homogeneity from RW-0 by subsequent size-exclusion chromatography using Sephadex G-75 and its structure was characterized. RW-2 consisted of 14 different monosaccharides which included rarely observed sugars in general polysaccharides, such as 2-O-methyl-fucose, 2-O-methyl-xylose, apiose (Api), 3-C-carboxy-5-deoxy-L-xylose (aceric acid, AceA), 3-deoxy-D-manno-2-octulosonic acid (Kdo), and 3-deoxy-D-lyxo-2-heptulosaric acid (Dha). Methylation analysis indicated that RW-2 comprised at least 20 different glycosyl linkages such as 3,4-linked fucose, 2,3,4-linked rhamnose, 3-linked apiose, and 2,3,3-linked apiose, ...
Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides are composed of longer chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic bonds. The distinction between the two is based upon the number of monosaccharide units present in the chain. Oligosaccharides typically contain between three and ten monosaccharide units, and polysaccharides contain greater than ten monosaccharide units. Definitions of how large a carbohydrate must be to fall into each category vary according to personal opinion. Examples of oligosaccharides include the disaccharides mentioned above, the trisaccharide raffinose and the tetrasaccharide stachyose.. Oligosaccharides are found as a common form of protein posttranslational modification. Such posttranslational modifications include the Lewis and ABO oligosaccharides responsible for blood group classifications and so of tissue incompatibilities, the alpha-Gal epitope responsible for hyperacute rejection in xenotransplantation, and O-GlcNAc modifications.. Polysaccharides represent an ...
A tetrasaccharide is a carbohydrate which gives upon hydrolysis four molecules of the same or different monosaccharides. For example, stachyose upon hydrolysis gives one molecule each of glucose and fructose and two molecules of galactose. The general formula of a tetrasaccharide is typically C24H42O21 ...
With Prof. John Ward and Prof. Helen Hailes, I am working on the project Bio-derived feedstocks for sustainable, UK-based manufacture of pharmaceuticals and their intermediates using sugar beet pulp as feedstock. I am investigating the production of value-added chemicals from different monosaccharides from sugar beet pulp using biocatalysis. Furthermore, using principles of synthetic biology, I hope to engineer a host organism to synthesise the desired product from sugar beet pulp in a single integrated process.. ...
0121] X is CH2, O, N--R1, or S, preferably O; R1 is H or C1-C3 alkyl; and Z is a bond, a monosaccharide, disaccharide, oligosaccharide, glycoprotein or glycolipid, preferably a sugar group, more preferably a sugar group selected from the monosaccharides, including aldoses and ketoses, and disaccharides, including those disaccharides described herein. Monosaccharide aldoses include monosaccharides such as aldotriose (D-glyceraldehyde, among others), aldotetroses (D-erythrose and D-Threose, among others), aldopentoses, (D-ribose, D-arabinose, D-xylose, D-lyxose, among others), aldohexoses (D-allose, D-altrose, D-Glucose, D-Mannose, D-gulose, D-idose, D-galactose and D-Talose, among others), and the monosaccharide ketoses include monosaccharides such as ketotriose (dihydroxyacetone, among others), ketotetrose (D-erythrulose, among others), ketopentose (D-ribulose and D-xylulose, among others), ketohexoses (D-Psicone, D-Fructose, D-Sorbose, D-Tagatose, among others), aminosugars, including ...
Bees have various enzymes, of which invertase is the most important for the digestion of carbohydrates. It breaks down the disaccharide sucrose into its component monosaccharides, fructose and glucose. These monosaccharides are available to the bees as nutrients relatively quickly. The disaccharide maltose contained in starch-conversion products is broken down much more slowly into glucose, and is thus less readily available to the bees as a nutrient. In some cases, the proportion of maltose in the feed deposited in the hive had increased by the end of the winter, which is an indication of further reactions. The resulting oligosaccharides either cannot be assimilated at all by the bees, or only poorly ...
Fructose Does Not Undergo Hydrolysis Because It Is A - Fructose is a easy ketonic monosaccharide discovered in many plant life. Monosaccharides are the simplest units of carbohydrates and the only shape of sugar. due to the fact they cannot get broken into some other portions, as they do not possess any achiral carbon atom ...
Medscape - Indication-specific dosing for 2-Aminodeoxyglucose sulfate, amino monosaccharide, chitosamine glucosamine sulfate in combination, frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation schedules, and cost information.
Practice solving Monosaccharides - Cyclization problems. Master even the most complex scientific problems with our step-by-step explanation videos.
Overview This document describes the monosaccharide representation scheme used by GMML in its monosaccharide identification. It is essentially a monosaccharide shorthand for humans to use when needing to translate a visual representation of a cyclic monosaccharide into its name. Since it is also linearizable, it is similarly useful in computer programs. Rationales 1. Ease of communication […]. ...
TheInfoList.com - (Disaccharide) A DISACCHARIDE (also called a DOUBLE SUGAR or BIOSE ) is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars) are joined by glycosidic linkage. Like monosaccharides, disaccharides are soluble in water. Three common examples are sucrose , lactose , and maltose . Disaccharides are one of the four chemical groupings of carbohydrates (monosaccharides , disaccharides, oligosaccharides , and polysaccharides )
Carbohydrates are a common class of simple organic compouds. A carbohydrate is an aldehyde or a ketone that has additional hydroxyl groups. The simplest carbohydrates are called monosaccharides, which has the basic structure (C·H2O)n, where n is three or greater. Monosaccharides link together to form oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Two monosaccharides link together to form a disaccharide ...
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides. 125 relations.
Saccharide is also called carbohydrate, consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n. The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms. Polysaccharides serve for the storage of energy (e.g. starch and glycogen) and as structural components. The 5-carbon monosaccharide ribose is an important component of coenzymes (e.g. ATP, FAD and NAD) and the backbone of the genetic molecule known as RNA. The related deoxyribose is a component of DNA. Saccharides and their derivatives include many other important biomolecules that play key roles in the immune system, fertilization, preventing pathogenesis, blood clotting, and development.. A glycoside is a molecule in which a sugar is bound to another functional group via a glycosidic bond. Glycosides play numerous important roles in living organisms. Many plants store ...
Saccharide is also called carbohydrate, consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n. The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms. Polysaccharides serve for the storage of energy (e.g. starch and glycogen) and as structural components. The 5-carbon monosaccharide ribose is an important component of coenzymes (e.g. ATP, FAD and NAD) and the backbone of the genetic molecule known as RNA. The related deoxyribose is a component of DNA. Saccharides and their derivatives include many other important biomolecules that play key roles in the immune system, fertilization, preventing pathogenesis, blood clotting, and development.. A glycoside is a molecule in which a sugar is bound to another functional group via a glycosidic bond. Glycosides play numerous important roles in living organisms. Many plants store ...
Carbohydrates are fuel. The have the empirical structure CH2O. If you encounter a molecule with this ratio, it is a carbohydrate. For example, glucose is C6H12O6. Monosaccharides contain one sugar. Polysaccharides are chains of sugars bound together. Since separating polysaccharides is energetically expensive, they take longer to catabolize. Conversely, monosaccharides provide a quick infusion of energy ...
The simplest carbohydrates are called monosaccharides, which have a carbon chain length of between three and seven. Many simple sugars are monosaccharides, including glucose and fructose. Note that...
Description: The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of glycoproteins, any protein that contains covalently bound glycose (i.e. monosaccharide) residues; the glycose occurs most commonly as oligosaccharide or fairly small polysaccharide but occasionally as monosaccharide.. ...
Exo- and endocyclic double bonds of glycals and terminal double bonds of enoses were reacted with various thiols by irradiation with UV light in the presence of a cleavable photoinitiator. The photoinduced radical-mediated hydrothiolation reactions showed highly varying overall conversions depending not only
With bibliogr., with a summary in Dutch, dissertation University of Nijmegen, 1994 Promotores : B. Zwanenburg en G. Chittenden ...
ELECTRONIC CASH REGISTER CE-2400 OPERATORS INSTRUCTION MANUAL TOTAL CHANGE CI AMOUNT 2¢00 Introduction Welcome to the CASIO CE-2400! Congratulations upon your selection of a CASIO Electronic Cash Register, which is designed to provide years of reliable operation. Operation of a CASIO cash register is simple enough to be mastered without special training. Everything you need to know is included in this manual, so keep it on hand for reference. Consult your CASIO dealer if you have any questions about points not specifically covered in this manual. CASIO AUTHORIZED SERVICE CENTER If your Casio product needs repair, or you wish to purchase replacement parts, please call 1-800-YO-CASIO for the authorized service center nearest your home. If for any reason this product is to be returned to the store where purchased, it must be packed in the original carton/package. If you need programming assistance, please call 1-800-638-9228. Thank you. GUIDELINE LAID DOWN BY FCC RULES FOR USE OF THE UNIT IN THE ...
Description: Subject matter wherein the organic active ingredient contains two saccharide radicals bonded via a glycosidic linkage and which on hydrolysis yields two units of monosaccharides (e.g., sucrose, lactose, maltose, etc ...
VitaBuilding.com Pro Supps Pure Karbolyn [3430110] - Details : Pure Karbolyn, OrangeSugar Free & Gluten Free, Radically Increases energy and recovery, superior muscle swelling formula. Karbolyn is a homopolysaccharide (relatively complex carbohydrate). Karbolyn is made up of many monosaccharides joined together y glycosidic bonds. These are very large bonds that are branched macromolecules.
VitaBuilding.com Pro Supps Pure Karbolyn [3430116] - Details : Pure Karbolyn, UnflavoredSugar Free & Gluten Free, Radically Increases energy and recovery, superior muscle swelling formula. Karbolyn is a homopolysaccharide (relatively complex carbohydrate). Karbolyn is made up of many monosaccharides joined together y glycosidic bonds. These are very large bonds that are branched macromolecules.
L Arabinose is a monosaccharide containing 5 carbon atoms. L-Arabinose is a white crystalline powder with a sweetness about 50% of that of sugar. ...
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed ...
Glucose, molecular model. Atoms are represented as spheres and are colour-coded: carbon (orange), oxygen (yellow) and hydrogen (red). Glucose is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) that is utilised by the body as an energy source. - Stock Image A673/0041
Dextrose is a monosaccharide and a naturally occurring food sugar. Commonly known as glucose, d-glucose or blood sugar, dextrose is made up of six carbon molecules, twelve hydrogen molecules, six oxygen molecules and one water molecule.Source:Dextrose & Maltodextrin an in-depth analysisDictionary: Dextrose
an essential structural component of living cells and source of energy for animals; includes simple sugars with small molecules as well as macromolecular substances; are classified according to the number of monosaccharide groups they contain ...
Dextrose, fructose, and glucose are all monosaccharides, known as simple sugars. These sugars can combine to form more complex sugars, including the dis...
I believe fructose, a monosaccharide commonly maligned around the internet, shows some promise as a dietary adjunct to treat type 2 diabetes. Several diet trials have been conducted which demonstrated its beneficial effects on this population. In a 9 week study on ambulatory type 2 diabetics, 60 grams of crystalline fructose was added to the…
Carbohydrates. Theyre the current bad guys of nutrition, but are they really all that bad? Can you tell the difference between a polysaccharide and a monosaccharide? Is that Jared kid from the Subway commercials really as big a dork as he appears to be? These and other questions are answered by John Berardi, Lonnie Lowery and Cy Willson. ...
Monosaccharides including sugar can be linked together in condensation reactions. As an example, sucrose (table sugar) is formed from one molecule of glucose and one of fructose, as shown below. Molecules...
an essential structural component of living cells and source of energy for animals; includes simple sugars with small molecules as well as macromolecular substances; are classified according to the number of monosaccharide groups they contain. ...
I have almost no idea why I attend biology lecture. My brain refuses to store scientific information. All the words sound the same. Monosaccharide, tubules, microtubules, mitochondria...I hear them and I know they have to do with cell organelles (right?), but they mean nothing to me. Also, why am I in college? If this is…
Em busca de treinamento para utilizar as malas da CONPROVE? Tivemos a oportunidade de conhecer e instruir o pessoal da COSERN-RN para utilizar a mala de
Monosaccharides commonly found in eukaryotic glycoproteins include:[5]:526 The principal sugars found in human glycoproteins[6] ...
Monosaccharides[edit]. Fructose, galactose, and glucose are all simple sugars, monosaccharides, with the general formula C6H12O ... Monosaccharides in a closed-chain form can form glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides, creating disaccharides (such as ... Monosaccharides are also called "simple sugars", the most important being glucose. Most monosaccharides have a formula that ... 11). Monosaccharides may be further converted into structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and pectin for cell wall ...
Monosaccharide reduction[edit]. There are many ways silver nanoparticles can be synthesized; one method is through ... The monosaccharide must have a free ketone group because in order to act as a reducing agent it first undergoes tautomerization ... Smaller nanoparticles were formed at high pH levels due to the concentration of the monosaccharides. ... monosaccharides. This includes glucose, fructose, maltose, maltodextrin, etc., but not sucrose. It is also a simple method to ...
If the carbonyl group is an aldehyde, the monosaccharide is an aldose; if the carbonyl group is a ketone, the monosaccharide is ... The monosaccharide units can then enter into monosaccharide catabolism. A 2 ATP investment is required in the early steps of ... The general chemical formula of an unmodified monosaccharide is (C•H2O)n, literally a "carbon hydrate". Monosaccharides are ... Classification of monosaccharidesEdit. The α and β anomers of glucose. Note the position of the hydroxyl group (red or green) ...
Cereal and fungal products have been used for centuries for medicinal and cosmetic purposes; however, the specific role of β-glucan was not explored until the 20th century. β-glucans were first discovered in lichens, and shortly thereafter in barley. A particular interest in oat β-glucan arose after a cholesterol lowering effect from oat bran reported in 1981.[2] In 1997, the FDA approved of a claim that intake of at least 3.0 g of β-glucan from oats per day decreased absorption of dietary cholesterol and reduced the risk of coronary heart disease. The approved health claim was later amended to include these sources of β-glucan: rolled oats (oatmeal), oat bran, whole oat flour, oatrim (the soluble fraction of alpha-amylase hydrolyzed oat bran or whole oat flour), whole grain barley and barley beta-fiber. An example of an allowed label claim: Soluble fiber from foods such as oatmeal, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of heart disease. A serving of ...
All N-linked Oligosaccharides are pentasaccharides: five monosaccharides long. In N-glycosylation for eukaryotes, the ... of monosaccharides (simple sugars). Oligosaccharides can have many functions including cell recognition and cell binding.[6] ... where monosaccharide units are added to a complete polypeptide chain. Cell surface proteins and extracellular proteins are O- ...
The dehydration reaction that bonds monosaccharides into disaccharides (and also bonds monosaccharides into more complex ... A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or bivose[1]) is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars) are ... Like monosaccharides, disaccharides are soluble in water. Three common examples are sucrose, lactose,[2] and maltose. ... This results in neither monosaccharide being left with a hemiacetal unit that is free to act as a reducing agent. Sucrose and ...
Garot (1850) "De la matière colorante rouge des rhubarbes exotiques et indigènes et de son application (comme matière colorante) aux arts et à la pharmacie" (On the red coloring material of exotic and indigenous rhubarb and on its application (as a coloring material) in the arts and in pharmacy), Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie, 3rd series, 17 : 5-19. Erythrose is named on p. 10: "Celui que je propose, sans y attacher toutefois la moindre importance, est celui d'érythrose, du verbe grec 'ερυθραινω, rougir (1)." (The one [i.e., name] that I propose, without attaching any importance to it, is that of erythrose, from the Greek verb ερυθραινω, to redden (1).) ...
... is found naturally in many food plants along with the monosaccharide fructose. In many fruits, such as pineapple and ... In humans and other mammals, sucrose is broken down into its constituent monosaccharides, glucose and fructose, by sucrase or ... It is a disaccharide, a molecule composed of two monosaccharides: glucose and fructose. Sucrose is produced naturally in plants ... Inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism: monosaccharide metabolism disorders (E73-E74, 271) Including glycogen storage diseases ...
Many molecules that are considered to be "dietary fiber" are so because humans lack the necessary enzymes to split the glycosidic bond and they reach the large intestine. Many foods contain varying types of dietary fibers, all of which contribute to health in different ways. Dietary fibers make three primary contributions: bulking, viscosity and fermentation.[49] Different fibers have different effects, suggesting that a variety of dietary fibers contribute to overall health. Some fibers contribute through one primary mechanism. For instance, cellulose and wheat bran provide excellent bulking effects, but are minimally fermented. Alternatively, many dietary fibers can contribute to health through more than one of these mechanisms. For instance, psyllium provides bulking as well as viscosity. Bulking fibers can be soluble (i.e., psyllium) or insoluble (i.e., cellulose and hemicellulose). They absorb water and can significantly increase stool weight and regularity. Most bulking fibers are not ...
Distinguished from chondroitin sulfate by the presence of iduronic acid, although some hexuronic acid monosaccharides may be ... transfer the four monosaccharides, begins synthesis of the GAG modified protein. The first modification of the tetrasaccharide ...
... /ˌæmɪloʊˈpɛktɪn/ is a water-soluble[1][2] polysaccharide and highly branched polymer of α-glucose units found in plants. It is one of the two components of starch, the other being amylose. Amylopectin bears a straight/linear chain along with a number of side chains which may be branched further. Glucose units are linked in a linear way with α(1→4) Glycosidic bonds. Branching usually occurs at intervals of 25 residues. At the places of origin of a side chain, the branching that takes place bears an α(1→6) Glycosidic bond , resulting in a soluble molecule that can be quickly degraded as it has many end points onto which enzymes can attach. Wolform and Thompson (1956) have also reported α(1→3)linkages in case of Amylopectin. Amylopectin contains a larger number of Glucose units (2000 to 200,000) as compared to Amylose containing 200 to 1000 α-Glucose units. In contrast, amylose contains very few α(1→6) bonds, or even none at all. This causes amylose to be hydrolyzed ...
For the 24 hours after self-tanner (containing high DHA levels, ~5%) is applied, the skin is especially susceptible to free-radical damage from sunlight, according to a 2007 study led by Katinka Jung of the Gematria Test Lab in Berlin.[17] Forty minutes after the researchers treated skin samples with high levels of DHA they found that more than 180 percent additional free radicals formed during sun exposure compared with untreated skin. Another self-tanner ingredient, erythrulose, produced a similar response at high levels. For a day after self-tanner application, excessive sun exposure should be avoided and sunscreen should be worn outdoors, they say; an antioxidant cream could also minimize free radical production. Although some self-tanners contain sunscreen, its effect will not last long after application, and a fake tan itself will not protect the skin from UV exposure.[citation needed] The study by Jung et al. further confirms earlier results demonstrating that dihydroxyacetone in ...
The furanose ring is a cyclic hemiacetal of an aldopentose or a cyclic hemiketal of a ketohexose. A furanose ring structure consists of four carbon and one oxygen atom with the anomeric carbon to the right of the oxygen. The highest numbered chiral carbon (typically to the left of the oxygen in a Haworth projection) determines whether or not the structure has a ...
They may be amorphous or even insoluble in water.[1] When all the monosaccharides in a polysaccharide are the same type, the ... Examples of monosaccharides are glucose, fructose, and glyceraldehyde.[4] Polysaccharides, meanwhile, have a general formula of ... Natural saccharides are generally of simple carbohydrates called monosaccharides with general formula (CH2O)n where n is three ... When the repeating units in the polymer backbone are six-carbon monosaccharides, as is often the case, the general formula ...
It is a monosaccharide that is very rare in nature, but has been found in archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes.[2] It also exists ...
Monosaccharides contain one sugar unit, disaccharides two, and polysaccharides three or more. Monosaccharides include glucose, ... "Carbohydrates That Contain Monosaccharides". Healthy eating. Lean, Michael E.J. (2015). "Principles of human nutrition". ... Carbohydrates range from simple monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose) to complex polysaccharides (starch). Fats are ... Carbohydrates may be classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides or polysaccharides depending on the number of monomer (sugar ...
Inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism: monosaccharide metabolism disorders Including glycogen storage diseases (GSD) ...
Inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism: monosaccharide metabolism disorders (E73-E74, 271) Including glycogen storage diseases ...
... (GlcNAc) is an amide derivative of the monosaccharide glucose. It is a secondary amide between glucosamine ...
Levine R (1986). "Monosaccharides in health and disease". Annual Review of Nutrition. 6: 211-24. doi:10.1146/annurev.nu. ...
His reviews were of particular benefit to the chemical community but perhaps of most value was the book "Monosaccharide ... Ferrier, R.J.; Collins, P.M. (1995). Monosaccharides: Their chemistry and their roles in natural products. Chichester, New York ... Ferrier, R.J.; Collins, P.M. (1972). Monosaccharide Chemistry. Hammondsworth: Penguin. OCLC 9225402. ... Ferrier continued to lead work on the monosaccharides, specialising in their use as starting materials for the synthesis of non ...
Monosaccharide (simple carbohydrate) -. *Insulin index. *Glycemic index. *Glycemic load. Low-carbohydrate dietary programs[edit ...
For carbohydrates, the monomers are monosaccharides. The most abundant natural monomer is glucose, which is linked by ...
This can include the synthesis of monosaccharide residues or structures containing more than one monosaccharide, known as ... Individual saccharide residues are termed monosaccharides. Carbohydrate synthesis is a sub-field of organic chemistry concerned ... Anomeric effect Carbohydrate Carbohydrate conformation Disaccharide Glycosidic bond Monosaccharide Polysaccharide Glycobiology ...
The monosaccharide units can then enter into monosaccharide catabolism. A 2 ATP investment is required in the early steps of ... The smallest monosaccharides, for which n=3, are dihydroxyacetone and D- and L-glyceraldehydes. Monosaccharides are classified ... If the carbonyl group is an aldehyde, the monosaccharide is an aldose; if the carbonyl group is a ketone, the monosaccharide is ... The general chemical formula of an unmodified monosaccharide is (C•H2O)n, literally a "carbon hydrate". Monosaccharides are ...
... pentose is a five-carbon monosaccharide, and hexose is a six-carbon monosaccharide. Aldehyde monosaccharides may be called ... Monosaccharides, the simplest sugars, may be named according to the number of carbon atoms in each molecule of the sugar: ... aldoses; ketone monosaccharides may be called ketoses. Larger sugars such as disaccharides and polysaccharides can be named to ...
Box, V. G. S. (1991). "The role of lone pair interactions in the chemistry of the monosaccharides. Stereo-electronic effects in ... Box, V. G. S. (1990). "The role of lone pair interactions in the chemistry of the monosaccharides. The anomeric effect". ... the chemistry of monosaccharides. Hyperconjugation is also found in acyclic molecules containing heteroatoms, another form of ... unsaturated monosaccharides". Heterocycles. 32 (4): 795-807. doi:10.3987/REV-91-425. Sundberg, Francis A. Carey; Richard J. ( ...
In aqueous solutions monosaccharides exist as rings if they have more than four carbons. Simple monosaccharides have a linear ... The number of open chain stereoisomers for an aldose monosaccharide is larger by one than that of a ketose monosaccharide of ... Examples of monosaccharides include glucose (dextrose), fructose (levulose), and galactose. Monosaccharides are the building ... Monosaccharides are the simplest units of carbohydrates and the simplest form of sugar. If the carbonyl is at position 1 (that ...
Some of these monosaccharides are only synthetically prepared in the laboratory and not found in nature. For monosaccharides in ... Monosaccharide nomenclature is the naming conventions of the basic unit of carbohydrate structure, monosaccharides, which may ... Every simple monosaccharide has an acyclic (open chain) form, which can be written as H − ( CH ( OH ) ) x − ( C = O ) − ( CH ( ... Monosaccharides are subunits that cannot be further hydrolysed in to simpler units. Depending on the number of carbon atom they ...
Media in category "Monosaccharides". The following 88 files are in this category, out of 88 total. ... Monosaccharide (de); монацукрыды (be); Մոնոսախարիդներ (hy); 單醣 (zh); Monosakkarîd (ku); 単糖 (ja); חד-סוכר (he); एकलशर्करा (hi); ... Monosaccharide, โมโนแซ็กคาไรด์ (th); cukier prosty, monosacharydy, cukry proste (pl); Monosakkarid, Monosakkarider, Sukkerenhet ... monosaccharide (en); سكر أحادي (ar); 單醣 (yue); Моносахариддер (ky); Monosakarido (eu); Monosacárido (ast); monosacàrid
Examples of monosaccharides include glucose (dextrose), fructose (levulose), galactose, xylose and ribose. Monosaccharides are ... Fischer projections of Simple Monosaccharides. Structures of simple monosaccharides are conveniently represented using Fischer ... Monosaccharides contain either a ketone or aldehyde functional group, and hydroxyl groups on most or all of the non-carbonyl ... Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar) are the most basic units of biologically important carbohydrates. ...
octose (CHEBI:25656) is a monosaccharide (CHEBI:35381). Penasin A (CHEBI:70594) is a monosaccharide (CHEBI:35381). Penasin B ( ... Penasin C (CHEBI:70596) is a monosaccharide (CHEBI:35381). Penasin D (CHEBI:70597) is a monosaccharide (CHEBI:35381). Penasin E ... monosaccharide derivative (CHEBI:63367) has functional parent monosaccharide (CHEBI:35381). aldose (CHEBI:15693) is a ... ketose (CHEBI:24978) is a monosaccharide (CHEBI:35381). LSM-36737 (CHEBI:125267) is a monosaccharide (CHEBI:35381). LSM-36764 ( ...
Kayser O., Averesch N. (2015) Kapitel 2: Metabolismus der Monosaccharide. In: Technische Biochemie. Springer Spektrum, ...
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monosaccharide synonyms, monosaccharide pronunciation, monosaccharide translation, English dictionary definition of ... monosaccharide. n. Any of several carbohydrates, such as tetroses, pentoses, and hexoses, that cannot be broken down to simpler ... pentose - any monosaccharide sugar containing five atoms of carbon per molecule. hexose - a monosaccharide that contains six ... triose - any monosaccharide sugar containing three atoms of carbon per molecule. tetrose - any monosaccharide sugar containing ...
Glucose is a simple monosaccharide that is used as an energy source for every cell in the human body. It is also referred to as ... What Is an Example of a Monosaccharide?. A: Glucose is a common example of a monosaccharide. Monosaccharides are simple sugars ... Glucose is a simple monosaccharide that is used as an energy source for every cell in the human body. It is also referred to as ... Other common monosaccharides include galactose and fructose. These simple sugars are also utilized by the body for energy. ...
A unit of a carbohydrate and the simplest form of a sugar, a monosaccharide cannot be hydrolyzed into a simpler compound. ... Learn about monosaccharide biosynthesis and the metabolism of monosaccharides. ... What is a Monosaccharide?. Monosaccharide is the simplest form of a carbohydrate. By definition Monosaccharides cannot be ... Monosaccharide Metabolism. Each monosaccharide has its own interesting metabolism. The pathway by which a monosaccharide is ...
Rectangles) Donors; (ovals) monosaccharides; (asterisks) control points; (6PG) 6-phosphogluconate; (PEP) phosphoenolpyruvate; ( ... Biosynthesis and interconversion of monosaccharides. The relative contributions of each pathway under physiological conditions ... Rectangles) Donors; (ovals) monosaccharides; (asterisks) control points; (6PG) 6-phosphogluconate; (PEP) phosphoenolpyruvate; ( ... Biosynthesis and interconversion of monosaccharides. The relative contributions of each pathway under physiological conditions ...
Two very important Monosaccharides are Ribose and Deoxyribose. Ribose is used for the construction of Ribonucleic Acid (RNA), ... Monosaccharides are carbohydrates that cannot be hydrolized to obtain smaller molecules of carbohydrate.. ...
Monosaccharide Analyses. The primary monosaccharides that are found in N- and O-linked glycans are the neutral monosaccharides ... Sialic Acid and Monosaccharide Analyses. Orthogonal Techniques for Quantitation. Evidence for reliable and consistent ... C with 2 M TFA will release all of the monosaccharides. However, it should be noted that during hydrolysis, the N-acetyl groups ... The analysis of non-charged monosaccharides frequently begins by acid hydrolysis of the glycan by incubation with ...
... identify monosaccharides present and type of glycosylation. Learn more. ... Monosaccharide Composition Analysis from SGS - analyze glycoproteins and carbohydrates, ... Why choose monosaccharide composition analysis from SGS?. We offer monosaccharide analysis and composition testing to help you: ... Life Sciences Monosaccharide Composition Analysis. Monosaccharide composition analysis from SGS - helps you analyze ...
Some monosaccharides have a sweet taste. Examples of monosaccharides include glucose (dextrose), fructose, galactose, and ... Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates. They consist of one sugar and are usually colorless, water-soluble, ... Monosaccharides are the building blocks of disaccharides like sucrose (common sugar) and polysaccharides (such as cellulose and ... Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Monosaccharide&oldid=5279102" ...
monosaccharide absorption tests synonyms, monosaccharide absorption tests pronunciation, monosaccharide absorption tests ... translation, English dictionary definition of monosaccharide absorption tests. n. Any of several carbohydrates, such as ... monosaccharide. (redirected from monosaccharide absorption tests). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. mon·o·sac· ... pentose - any monosaccharide sugar containing five atoms of carbon per molecule. hexose - a monosaccharide that contains six ...
Synonyms for monosaccharide at Thesaurus.com with free online thesaurus, antonyms, and definitions. Dictionary and Word of the ...
Monosaccharides usually exist as ring structures when they dissolve in water. Some monosaccharides can exist in different ... Two different monosaccharides eg sucrose (sugar) glucose and fructose.. Polysaccharides - chains of hundreds of monosaccharide ... Polysaccharides are polymers made of many of monosaccharide units. They form by a condensation reaction. They are insoluble and ... Disaccharides - double sugars Formed when two monosaccharides join together The reaction is called a condensation reaction. ( ...
Structural Biochemistry/Carbohydrates/Monosaccharides/Stereochemistry of Monosaccharides. From Wikibooks, open books for an ... Glyceraldehyde serves as the basis in naming monosaccharides since it is the simplest monosaccharide, having only one ... Two non-identical monosaccharides are said to be diastereomers if they are of the same type (either both aldoses or both ... For monosaccharides, D and L will be used as prefixes instead of R and S, respectively, in regards to stereochemistry. The ...
monosaccharide. simple sugar. carbohydrate with 5 carbon atoms, monosaccharide that contains 5 carbon atoms (Chemistry). ... sugar made of three monosaccharides (Chemistry), sugar with 3 linked monosaccharide units. trisaccharide. ... monosaccharide akaattimarmoripaperi hot flushes grinding stick striking, beating; collision; coming in contact with teplý ploča ... monosaccharide. monosodium glutamate. monosodium glutamate, monosodium glutamate; chemical flavoring agent used in the food ...
Transport of monosaccharides Dear all,. I have been desperately scouring PubMed trying to find information on how different ... More specifically, I need to know how sulfated monosaccharides (6 sulfated glucosamine/galactosame, N-sulfated glucosamine/ ...
List of monosaccharides. This is a list of some common monosaccharides, not all are found in nature-some have been synthesized ... Monosaccharide nomenclature. Monosaccharides are classified by the number of carbon atoms they contain: *Triose, 3 carbon atoms ... Some monosaccharides have a sweet taste. Examples of monosaccharides include glucose (dextrose), fructose, galactose, xylose ... Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar) are the simplest carbohydrates. They cannot be hydrolyzed into ...
Choose from top rated Reactions of Monosaccharides tutors. Affordable help available online or in-person. From $20/hr. No ... More about Reactions of Monosaccharides tutors at Wyzant.. The best way to learn Reactions of Monosaccharides is 1-to-1 with an ... Tutors Reactions of Monosaccharides 290 private Reactions of Monosaccharides tutors / Find the best Reactions of ... You can get Reactions of Monosaccharides help anytime. We only accept the best online Reactions of Monosaccharides tutors into ...
Carbohydrates That Contain Monosaccharides. Fructose is a type of monosaccharide carbohydrate.. Related Articles. *1 Are ... The monosaccharide glucose is also found in most types of sugar as part of the disaccharides sucrose as well as in the various ... Fructose is a monosaccharide that can be found on its own in some fruits. Apples, pears, mangoes, grapes and watermelon have ... The monosaccharide fructose can also be part of the disaccharide sucrose, which is made of a glucose attached to a fructose. ...
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Monosaccharide-induced lipogenesis regulates the human hepatic sex hormone-binding globulin gene. David M. Selva,1,2 Kevin N. ... Monosaccharides decrease human SHBG production by HepG2 cells in concert with reduced cellular HNF-4α levels. (A) Human SHBG ... Monosaccharide-induced reductions of SHBG production by HepG2 cells are blocked by inhibiting fatty acid synthase. (A) ... Monosaccharides reduce SHBG production by HepG2 cells irrespective of the presence of insulin. To explore the mechanism(s) ...
... ... B. M. Sattelle, S. U. Hansen, J. Gardiner, and A. Almond, "Free energy landscapes of iduronic acid and related monosaccharides ...
Thus, monosaccharide-induced lipogenesis reduced hepatic HNF-4α levels, which in turn attenuated SHBG expression. This provides ... Monosaccharide-induced lipogenesis regulates the human hepatic sex hormone-binding globulin gene. ... Monosaccharide-induced lipogenesis regulates the human hepatic sex hormone-binding globulin gene. ... Here, we showed in transgenic mice and HepG2 hepatoblastoma cells that monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) reduce human SHBG ...
A molecular colour sensor for monosaccharides. Chemical Communications, 2000 (3), pp. 229-230. ... from purple to red in aqueous solution on the addition of monosaccharides. ...
  • Examples of monosaccharides include glucose (dextrose), fructose (levulose), and galactose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of monosaccharides include glucose (dextrose), fructose (levulose), galactose , xylose and ribose . (princeton.edu)
  • CERC-801 is an ultra-pure, oral, crystalline formulation of D-galactose, a naturally occurring monosaccharide found in dairy products and fruit. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Other common monosaccharides include galactose and fructose. (reference.com)
  • We offer metabolites from pentose and glucuronate interconversions, fructose and mannose metabolism, galactose metabolism, ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, amino- and nucleotide sugar metabolism, inositol and other monosaccharide metabolic pathways. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Galactose is the least common of monosaccharides and is only found linked to glucose in the disaccharide lactose. (sfgate.com)
  • Lactose-free products, such as lactose-free milk, can contain free galactose as part of their carbohydrates because the addition of the enzyme lactase breaks down the lactose into the two monosaccharides it comprises. (sfgate.com)
  • These monosaccharides are glucose, fructose and galactose. (jiskha.com)
  • Examples of monosaccharides include glucose, fructose, and galactose. (cofactor.io)
  • The common monosaccharides are glucose, fructose, and galactose. (sparknotes.com)
  • Fructose, along with glucose and galactose, are the principle dietary carbohydrates that are directly More , galactose [ galactose, D-galactose ] A monosaccharide which, when bonded with glucose produces lactose. (postmodern.life)
  • The hexoses glucose,galactose, and fructose are important monosaccharides.Glucose is the most prevalent monosaccharide in diet. (wikibooks.org)
  • It's one of the 3 dietary monosaccharides, along with glucose and galactose, that are directly absorbed into our bloodstream at the time of digestion. (sanfoundry.com)
  • Monosaccharides are the building blocks of disaccharides (such as sucrose and lactose) and polysaccharides (such as cellulose and starch). (wikipedia.org)
  • Monosaccharides are the building blocks of disaccharides such as sucrose and polysaccharides (such as cellulose and starch ). (princeton.edu)
  • Polysaccharides and disaccharides may also be broken down into monosaccharides once they enter the digestive system. (reference.com)
  • Polysaccharides - chains of hundreds of monosaccharide Can be broken down into monosaccharides by a hydrolysis reaction. (scribd.com)
  • Polysaccharides are polymers made of many of monosaccharide units. (scribd.com)
  • The monosaccharide glucose is also found in most types of sugar as part of the disaccharides sucrose as well as in the various types of polysaccharides that are starches. (sfgate.com)
  • This diet removes all carbohydrates made of disaccharides and polysaccharides, but allows monosaccharides, such as free fructose and glucose. (sfgate.com)
  • Monosaccharides can combine to form di-, tri-, polysaccharides. (coursehero.com)
  • They include monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Polysaccharides are a chain of two or more monosaccharides. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Different monosaccharides can be connected to each other as disaccharides which include table sugar called sucrose, or they may be in long chains called polysaccharides which can be straight or branching in widely varied shapes. (effectiveselfcare.info)
  • What are monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides? (patsweplus.com)
  • Polysaccharides are polymers of monosaccharides made of more than 10 units of such monomers. (patsweplus.com)
  • Polysaccharides consist of molecules formed from many monosaccharide molecules attached together in the form of long chains. (ivyroses.com)
  • Polysaccharides (poly- "many") are large polymers composed of hundreds or thousands of monosaccharides. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The repeating units of polysaccharides are simple sugars called monosaccharides. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the simplest form of sugar and the most basic units (monomers) of carbohydrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contrary to their name (sugars), only some monosaccharides have a sweet taste. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monosaccharides are simple sugars that cannot be broken down into a simpler form. (reference.com)
  • 3 types of carbohydrates: Monosaccharides - simple sugars Simplest form of carbohydrates, building blocks for larger molecules. (scribd.com)
  • Disaccharides - double sugars Formed when two monosaccharides join together The reaction is called a condensation reaction. (scribd.com)
  • In a single volume, Monosaccharide Sugars critically summarizes the applied and potentially useful strategies for the synthesis and degradation of monosaccharides by chain-elongation, degradation, and epimerization. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Monosaccharide s are also called simple sugars since they are the most fundamental type of sugar. (biologyonline.com)
  • The most fundamental type is the simple sugars called monosaccharide s. (biologyonline.com)
  • The combination of two simple sugars is called a disaccharide whereas carbohydrates consisting of three to ten simple sugars are called oligosaccharide s, and those with a larger number of monosaccharide units are called polysaccharide s. (biologyonline.com)
  • form of monosaccharide reducing sugars, on the rate of atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of n-butyl methacrylate and methyl methacrylate is reported in this study. (sun.ac.za)
  • MONOSACCHARIDES: one molecule sugars. (gutsybroad.com)
  • Monosaccharides are simple sugars with only one sachharide unit. (ownclasses.com)
  • This page mentions some specific sugars but concentrates on the main categories of sugars ( monosaccharides and disaccharides ) and the relationship between these and certain larger carbohydrates. (ivyroses.com)
  • The two main categories of sugars are monosaccharides and disaccharides . (ivyroses.com)
  • Monosaccharides are simple ('unit') sugars. (ivyroses.com)
  • Monosaccharides are the simplest sugars e.g. glucose. (alevelbiology.co.uk)
  • The simplest form of carbohydrates are called monosaccharides which are "soluble, sweet-tasting" sugars. (alevelbiology.co.uk)
  • Shorter-chain carbohydrates (monosaccharides and disaccharides) are generally sweet tasting are commonly referred to as sugars. (postmodern.life)
  • Monosaccharides such as glucose , ribose , and fructose are simple sugars. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Monosaccharides are simple forms of sugars consisting of one sugar, disaccharides on the other hand, consists of two. (wikibooks.org)
  • Monosaccharides are the simplest type of sugars. (alevelbiology.co.uk)
  • Monosaccharide nomenclature is the naming conventions of the basic unit of carbohydrate structure, monosaccharides, which may be monomers or part of a larger polymer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose is a form of carbohydrate known as a simple sugar, or monosaccharide. (reference.com)
  • Monosaccharide is the simplest form of a carbohydrate. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Monosaccharides are carbohydrates that cannot be hydrolized to obtain smaller molecules of carbohydrate. (biocab.org)
  • Fructose is a type of monosaccharide carbohydrate. (sfgate.com)
  • The versatile Dionex ICS-6000 Hybrid HPIC System is a complete solution for the biopharma carbohydrate applications (monosaccharides, disaccharides, sialic acids, N - and O -linked oligosaccharide analysis, and more). (thermofisher.com)
  • Thus, a monosaccharide is a carbohydrate comprised of only one saccharide unit. (biologyonline.com)
  • A carbohydrate that cannot be hydrolyzed further to give simpler unit of polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone is called a monosaccharide. (pmfias.com)
  • Disaccharides are a form of sugar, a carbohydrate, created by linking a pair of monosaccharides. (trihomecare.com)
  • Monosaccharide [ Monosaccharide, simple sugar ] A carbohydrate molecule that cannot be further hydrolysed into simpler carbohydrates. (postmodern.life)
  • Disaccharide [ Disaccharide ] A carbohydrate molecule comprising of two monosaccharides. (postmodern.life)
  • Oligosaccharide [ Oligosaccharide ] A carbohydrate molecule comprising of between three and ten monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds. (postmodern.life)
  • Polysaccharide [ Polysaccharide ] A carbohydrate molecule comprising of more than ten monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds. (postmodern.life)
  • Monosaccharides can be classified by the number x of carbon atoms they contain: triose (3), tetrose (4), pentose (5), hexose (6), heptose (7), and so on. (wikipedia.org)
  • Simple monosaccharides have a linear and unbranched carbon skeleton with one carbonyl (C=O) functional group, and one hydroxyl (OH) group on each of the remaining carbon atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a simple open-chain monosaccharide, every carbon is chiral except the first and the last atoms of the chain, and (in ketoses) the carbon with the keto group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Simple monosaccharides may be named generically based on the number of carbon atoms n: trioses, tetroses, pentoses, hexoses, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two monosaccharides with equivalent molecular graphs (same chain length and same carbonyl position) may still be distinct stereoisomers , whose molecules differ in the three-dimensional arrangement of the bonds of certain atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monosaccharides contain either a ketone or aldehyde functional group , and hydroxyl groups on most or all of the non- carbonyl carbon atoms . (princeton.edu)
  • A tetrose is a monosaccharide with four carbon atoms. (biologyonline.com)
  • Monosaccharides all have the same basic structure, symbolized with the chemical formula (CH2O)n, in which "n" stands for the number of carbon atoms. (assignmentpoint.com)
  • Monosaccharides are classified by size according to the number of carbon atoms in the chain of the monosaccharides. (trihomecare.com)
  • A condensation reaction involves the formation of water (H 2 O), as one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms are removed from the monosaccharides. (alevelbiology.co.uk)
  • The general chemical formula for carbohydrates, C(H 2 O), gives the relative proportions of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a monosaccharide (the proportion of these atoms are 1:2:1). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • For monosaccharides, the general formula is (CH 2 O) n , with n equal to the number of carbon atoms. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The number of carbon atoms in monosaccharides ranges from 3-6 atoms. (alevelbiology.co.uk)
  • FODMAP is an acronym for fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyols, all of which are carbohydrates. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The monosaccharide fructose can also be part of the disaccharide sucrose, which is made of a glucose attached to a fructose. (sfgate.com)
  • A feasibility study investigating the impact of a dietitian-led low in fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyols diet group education programme with irritable bowel syndrome. (medworm.com)
  • N Z Med J. 2020 Sep 25;133(1522):42-51 Authors: Chan D, Skidmore P, O'Brien L, Watson S, Gearry R Abstract AIMS: To investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of dietitian-led education on using the low fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyols (FODMAP) diet in adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in Christchurch, New Zealand. (medworm.com)
  • Research has demonstrated that low fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol (FODMAP) diets improve gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome sufferers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is one of the monosaccharides of table sugar, the sucrose disaccharide, along with a molecule of fructose. (effectiveselfcare.info)
  • When two monosaccharides are combined in pairs, a disaccharide if formed. (alevelbiology.co.uk)
  • This covalent bond joins the monosaccharide together to form a disaccharide . (alevelbiology.co.uk)
  • Two monosaccharides molecules are linked to each other to form a disaccharide molecule. (alevelbiology.co.uk)
  • Rhodamine 110 (Rho110) has been used in the highly sensitive analysis of monosaccharides, as it reacts with the reducing carbonyl group of the saccharides. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In the present work a capillary electrophoretic method for the analysis of monosaccharides utilizing indirect UV-detection has been developed. (diva-portal.org)
  • The optimized method has been used for analysis of monosaccharides from an acidically hydrolyzed pulp sample. (diva-portal.org)
  • The LudgerSep uR2 2.1x50mm UHPLC column has been developed for the UHPLC analysis of monosaccharides labeled with 2-AA using the LudgerTag Monosaccharide Analysis Kit . (qa-bio.com)
  • The LudgerSep R BPT Solvent was developed for the analysis of monosaccharides labeled with 2-AA using the LudgerTag Monosaccharide Labeling Kit . (qa-bio.com)
  • The low-FODMAP diet, which reduces fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols, is another dietary approach aiming at reducing the intake of the monosaccharide fructose for people suffering from fructose malabsorption and irritable bowel syndrome. (sfgate.com)
  • In addition to gluten, other components of wheat, including fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs), alpha-amylase trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) and wheat germ agglutinin have been implicated in the causation of the symptoms of NCGS, with FODMAPs garnering the most attention. (nih.gov)
  • The process refers to highly selective enzymatic production of monosaccharides and mono-polyols and/or disubstitued with fatty acids. (csic.es)
  • FODMAP stands for Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides and Polyols - the carbohydrates that are malabsorbed in my intestine. (gutsybroad.com)
  • The 'low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols diet' has shown symptom improvement in 68-76% of patients. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We have applied this derivatization method to the analysis of the composition of monosaccharides in glycoproteins (ribonuclease B, fetuin, and erythropoietin) following their subjection to strong acid hydrolysis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The monosaccharide portion of the conjugate was characterized by hydrolysis of the citrate-monosaccharide ester bond, and subsequent analysis of the free monosaccharide with high performance anion exchange chromatography. (mdpi.com)
  • Monosaccharides are simple sugar such as fructose or glucose that cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. (trihomecare.com)
  • The common features of disaccharides and hydrolysis disaccharides also show the difference between monosaccharides and disaccharides. (trihomecare.com)
  • But, monosaccharides cannot be degraded by hydrolysis. (trihomecare.com)
  • However, disaccharides can be degraded by hydrolysis into monosaccharides. (trihomecare.com)
  • Hydrolysis disaccharides give monosaccharides. (trihomecare.com)
  • Glucose is also one of the monosaccharides of lactose - milk sugar, and it is part of larger starches found in grains, seeds, and starchy legumes and vegetables such as beans, peas, corn, potatoes, sweet potatoes, and squash and some is found in fruits in addition to fructose. (effectiveselfcare.info)
  • One of the monosaccharides of lactose, milk sugar, that is found in dairy products or human milk. (effectiveselfcare.info)
  • Disaccharides (di-"two"), such as sucrose and lactose, are two monosaccharides linked together by covalent bonds . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Two very important Monosaccharides are Ribose and Deoxyribose. (biocab.org)
  • D-ribose is a 5-carbon monosaccharide occurring naturally in living cells. (integratedhealthblog.com)
  • The Fischer projection is a systematic way of drawing the skeletal formula of an acyclic monosaccharide so that the handedness of each chiral carbon is well specified. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the carbonyl is at the very beginning of the chain (carbon 1), the monosaccharide is said to be an aldose, otherwise it is a ketose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glyceraldehyde serves as the basis in naming monosaccharides since it is the simplest monosaccharide, having only one asymmetric carbon. (wikibooks.org)
  • Because of this chemical formula rule, monosaccharides and other carbohydrates are referred to as hydrates of carbon . (biologyonline.com)
  • A triose is a three-carbon monosaccharide. (biologyonline.com)
  • A pentose is a five-carbon monosaccharide. (biologyonline.com)
  • For example monosaccharides called dioses has tow carbon ring backbone, monosaccharide trioses has three carbon ring backbone, and monosaccharides heptose has seven carbon ring backbone. (trihomecare.com)
  • Except fructose ketoses are as common as aldoses.The most abundant monosaccharide in nature is the 6-Carbon sugar -i.e.D-Glucose. (wikibooks.org)
  • In nature, the linkages are _________ linkages, that's, acetal or ketal bonds involving the anomeric carbon of just one of the monosaccharides involved. (sanfoundry.com)
  • Monosaccharides, or carbohydrates made of a single molecule, are not as common but can also be found in some foods. (sfgate.com)
  • Polysaccharide molecule chains may consist of hundreds or thousands of monosaccharides. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • They are formed by a condensation reaction where one molecule of water condenses or is released during the joining of two monosaccharides. (sparknotes.com)
  • A monosaccharide containing an aldehydic group (-CHO) in its molecule is called aldose. (ownclasses.com)
  • The generic term 'monosaccharide' (as opposed to oligosaccharide or polysaccharide) denotes a single unit, without glycosidic connection to other such units. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • These compounds function as activated monosaccharide carriers in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and oligosaccharide phospholipids. (umassmed.edu)
  • Monosaccharides are the simplest units of carbohydrates and the simplest form of sugar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two different monosaccharides eg sucrose (sugar) glucose and fructose. (scribd.com)
  • Most monosaccharides form cyclic structures, which predominate in aqueous solution, by forming hemiacetals or hemiketals (depending on whether they are aldoses or ketoses) between an alcohol and the carbonyl group of the same sugar. (wikidoc.org)
  • These methodologies permit the synthesis of rare or unnatural monosaccharides that are frequently employed as chiral building blocks in natural products synthesis, as well as for producing sugar derivatives labeled with radioactive isotopes. (booktopia.com.au)
  • The term sugar can refer to both monosaccharides and disaccharides . (biologyonline.com)
  • Sugar substitutes, such as sorbitol and mannitol, are used as sweeteners, and they form naturally in plants and berries from monosaccharides like glucose and mannose. (assignmentpoint.com)
  • From Wikipedia's article Monosaccharide: "They are the simplest form of sugar and are usually colorless, water-soluble, and crystalline solids. (ansaroo.com)
  • Xylose or wood sugar is a simple sugar (a monosaccharide) extracted from wood, sugar cane or coconuts [4]. (ansaroo.com)
  • Sometimes monosaccharides are commonly known as monosaccharide sugar. (trihomecare.com)
  • Monosaccharides are simple sugar. (trihomecare.com)
  • It is obtained from directly from dietary glucose, and from the More , fructose [ Fructose, D-fructose, fruit sugar ] A monosaccharide with the molecular formula C6H12O6, commonly found in fruit. (postmodern.life)
  • Monosaccharides (mono- "one," saccharide- "sugar") are the monomers (small molecules that may bond chemically to form a polymer) out of which larger carbohydrates are constructed. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Monosaccharide and sialic acid analysis is applicable to all stages of biopharmaceutical development and manufacturing processes including cell line and clone selection, upstream and downstream process development and manufacturing in-process control, batch consistency and release. (thermofisher.com)
  • Sialic acid and monosaccharide analysis is required by ICH Q6B guidelines for biopharmaceutical characterization. (thermofisher.com)
  • This quantitative glycopeptide standard was developed for use during the sialic acid or monosaccharide release and labeling process. (qa-bio.com)
  • CERC-802 is an ultra-pure formulation of D-mannose, a naturally occurring monosaccharide commonly found in animals, microorganisms, and plants, including edible fruits and herbs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Monosaccharides can be characterized as to how many carbons they have: triose, tetrose, pentose, hexose. (coursehero.com)
  • Monosaccharides are classified by the number of carbons in the saccharide unit-triose (three carbons), tetrose (four carbons), pentose (five carbons), and hexose (six carbons). (allfoodpreparation.com)
  • Fiber is also made up of monosaccharides but the bond connecting them requires digestive enzymes that humans do not make, so they are considered indigestible but help with fluid balance within the small and large intestines and adequate fiber in the diet can help prevent both constipation or diarrhea. (effectiveselfcare.info)
  • Disaccharides are made up of monosaccharides. (trihomecare.com)
  • An exception to this is deoxyribose , a type of monosaccharide found in DNA . (biologyonline.com)
  • The Fischer projection is a systematic way of drawing the skeletal formula of an open-chain monosaccharide so that each stereoisomer is uniquely identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • A more general nomenclature for open-chain monosaccharides combines a Greek prefix to indicate the number of carbons (tri-, tetr-, pent-, hex-, etc.) with the suffixes "-ose" for aldoses and "-ulose" for ketoses. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is Yilite column (Hypersil BDS C18 5µ m, 4.6mm× 250mm) with HPLC and detected by UV at 245 nm and capillary temperature 25°.The High Performance capillary electrophoresis method and High Performance Liquid Chromatography method were compared on monosaccharide composition and quantitative determination of polysaccharide from the black mulberry. (eurekaselect.com)
  • File:Alpha-D-Fructofuranose.svg With few exceptions (e.g., deoxyribose ), monosaccharides have the chemical formula (CH 2 O) n + m with the chemical structure H(CHOH) n C=O(CHOH) m H. If n or m is zero, it is an aldehyde and is termed an aldose , otherwise it is a ketone and is termed a ketose . (wikidoc.org)
  • Boronic acid colour sensor 2 undergoes a large visible colour change, from purple to red in aqueous solution on the addition of monosaccharides. (bath.ac.uk)
  • The addition of monosaccharides to metal-catalyzed coupling reactions can be beneficial in terms of decreasing the time required, chemical waste products and overall cost of the process. (hud.ac.uk)
  • Recently, there has been a significant amount of research in this growing field and there is thus the potential for the addition of monosaccharides to coupling reactions to have significant impact on the synthesis of the important small molecules on which we have all come to rely. (hud.ac.uk)
  • This Perspectives Article will cover recent developments in the addition of monosaccharides to metal-catalyzed coupling reactions with an emphasis on their utility and limitations in order to facilitate the further development of this exciting area of research. (hud.ac.uk)
  • By definition Monosaccharides cannot be hydrolyzed into simpler carbohydrates. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The cultured algae produced mucilage material that undergone quantitative and qualitative pigment, monosaccharide and aminoacid analyses with the use of HPLC methodology. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Method: After heteroglycan being hydrolysised, then were we derivatived the monosaccharides with 1- phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP), and then subsequently HPCE and HPLC were used to separate. (eurekaselect.com)
  • glucose [ Glucose, D-glucose, Dextrose ] A monosaccharide with the molecular formula C6H12O6. (postmodern.life)
  • Structures of simple monosaccharides are conveniently represented using Fischer projections . (princeton.edu)
  • Monosaccharides usually exist as ring structures when they dissolve in water. (scribd.com)
  • The elementary formula of a simple monosaccharide is CnH2nOn, where the integer n is at least 3 and rarely greater than 7. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose is a simple monosaccharide that is used as an energy source for every cell in the human body. (reference.com)
  • The procedure is based on the simple mixture of polyol or monosaccharide with the fatty acid, the addition of solvent, and the use of lipases that permit the highly selective obtainment of these products without catalysts or toxic agents. (csic.es)
  • Monosaccharides are simple carbohydrates molecules that cannot be broken down into smaller molecules of other carbohydrates. (patsweplus.com)
  • Simple carbohydrates are also known as "Monosaccharides".The chemical formula for all the monosaccharides is CnH2nOn. (wikibooks.org)
  • Explanation: A Haworth projection is a common way of formulating a structural formula to show the cyclic structure of monosaccharides with a simple 3-D perspective.The cyclic forms of carbohydrates are often represented by Haworth projections. (sanfoundry.com)
  • Explanation: Fructose's a simple ketonic monosaccharide which is found in numerous plants, where it's usually bonded to glucose. (sanfoundry.com)
  • Low apparent aldose reductase activity, as measured by NADPH oxidation, can be produced by the spontaneous autoxidation of monosaccharides. (biochemj.org)
  • Glutathione reductase-catalysed NADPH oxidation in the presence of autoxidizing monosaccharide showed many characteristics of the aldose reductase reaction. (biochemj.org)
  • These results indicate that low apparent aldose reductase activities may be due to artifacts of monosaccharide autoxidation, and could provide an explanation for the non-linear steady-state kinetics observed with DL-glyceraldehyde and aldose reductase. (biochemj.org)
  • If a monosaccharide contains an aldehyde group [-CHO], it is known as an aldose and if it contains a keto group [=C=O], it is known as a ketose . (pmfias.com)
  • They can be two similar monosaccharides eg maltose made from two glucose. (scribd.com)
  • Glucosamine, a naturally occurring amino monosaccharide, is widely used to treat osteoarthritis in humans. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 2-Aminodeoxyglucose sulfate, amino monosaccharide, more. (medscape.com)
  • The single most common monosaccharide is the aldohexose D-glucose, represented by the formula C 6 H 12 O 6 . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Dear all, I have been desperately scouring PubMed trying to find information on how different monosaccharides gain entry into the cell. (scientistsolutions.com)
  • With few exceptions (e.g., deoxyribose), monosaccharides have this chemical formula: (CH2O)x, where conventionally x ≥ 3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two monosaccharides with equivalent molecular graphs (same chain length and same carbonyl position) may still be distinct stereoisomers, whose molecules differ in spatial orientation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Open-chain monosaccharides with same molecular graph may exist as two or more stereoisomers. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, monosaccharides are soluble in water, have a low molecular weight and have a sweet taste. (alevelbiology.co.uk)
  • Monosaccharides, like all the carbohydrates, have the general molecular formula (CH 2 O) n , where n can be 3, 5 or 6. (alevelbiology.co.uk)
  • Monosaccharides are subunits that cannot be further hydrolysed in to simpler units. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xylose can be used as an internal standard when performing monosaccharide analysis. (qa-bio.com)
  • Find your perfect Reactions of Monosaccharides tutor. (wyzant.com)
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  • These reactions open the possibility of selective C-C bond formation in monosaccharides without multi-step protection-deprotection strategies. (rsc.org)
  • A variety of sulfo-protected monosaccharide donors and acceptors were investigated in glycosylation reactions. (edu.au)
  • The following tables shows the Fischer projections of selected monosaccharides (in open-chain form), with their conventional names. (wikipedia.org)
  • Practice: Use the Fischer projections of the four monosaccharides below to answer the next two problems (A & B). (clutchprep.com)
  • Practice: According to the Fischer projections of the following monosaccharides, circle the C-5 epimer of L-Talose? (clutchprep.com)
  • For monosaccharides in their cyclic form, an infix is placed before the '-ose', '-ulose', or 'n-ulose' suffix to specify the ring size. (wikipedia.org)
  • A common way of representing the cyclic structure of monosaccharides is the Haworth projection . (wikidoc.org)
  • FIGURE 4.1, [Biosynthesis and interconversion of monosaccharides. (nih.gov)
  • Glycosidic bonds (also called glycosidic linkages) are the covalent bonds that join monosaccharides. (biologyonline.com)
  • Monosaccharides are often colorless, crystalline solids, and sweet-tasting. (biologyonline.com)
  • Monosaccharides are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste. (trihomecare.com)
  • Monosaccharide composition analysis from SGS - helps you analyze glycoproteins and carbohydrates, and identify monosaccharides and types of glycosylation. (sgs.com)
  • At all stages of drug development you need the ability to analyze glycoproteins and carbohydrates to determine the identities and quantities of the monosaccharides present. (sgs.com)
  • Monosaccharide analysis is a requirement from ICH Q6B guidelines for lot release characterization of glycoproteins being developed as biopharmaceuticals. (qa-bio.com)
  • Dietary disaccharides must be hydrolyzed to monosaccharides prior to absorption into the blood stream. (postmodern.life)