An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.
Glucose in blood.
A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
A family of monosaccharide transport proteins characterized by 12 membrane spanning helices. They facilitate passive diffusion of GLUCOSE across the CELL MEMBRANE.
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
A major glucose transporter found in NEURONS.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.
A structurally-related group of signaling proteins that are phosphorylated by the INSULIN RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. The proteins share in common an N-terminal PHOSPHOLIPID-binding domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain that interacts with the phosphorylated INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal TYROSINE-rich domain. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrate proteins interact with specific SH2 DOMAIN-containing proteins that are involved in insulin receptor signaling.

Mechanisms related to [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose uptake of human colon cancers transplanted in nude mice. (1/3673)

[18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG), a glucose analogue, has been widely used for tumor imaging. To investigate the mechanisms related to [18F]FDG uptake by tumors, an experiment involving nude mice was performed. METHODS: Human colon cancer cell lines SNU-C2A, SNU-C4 and SNU-C5 were transplanted to nude mice. Using immunohistochemical staining and Western blot, the expression of glucose transporter (Glut) isoforms (Glut-1 through -5) in xenografted tumors was analyzed. For the analysis of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Northern blot were used and the enzyme activity of hexokinase in cancer tissues was measured by continuous spectrophotometric rate determination. RESULTS: [18F]FDG uptake in SNU-C4 and SNU-C5 cells was higher than in normal colon cells. Among these cells and xenografted tumors, SNU-C5 showed the highest level of [18F]FDG uptake, followed by SNU-C4 and SNU-C2A. An immunostaining experiment showed intense staining of Glut-1 in SNU-C5 tumors but somewhat faint staining in SNU-C4. SNU-C5 tumors also showed positive staining with Glut-3, although this was not the case with SNU-C2A and SNU-C4. Western blot analysis showed the expression of Glut-1 and Glut-3 in all tumors. Experiments involving Northern blot analysis and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed the overexpression of Glut-1 mRNA in all tumors, with the highest level in SNU-C5. The level of Glut-3 mRNA was also elevated in SNU-C5 tumors but not in SNU-C2A and SNU-C4. The enzyme activity of hexokinase did not vary among different tumors. CONCLUSION: Gluts, especially Glut-1, are responsible for [18F]FDG uptake in a nude mouse model of colon cancer rather than hexokinase activity. Increased numbers of glucose transporters at the plasma membrane of cancer cells is attributed to an increased level of transcripts of glucose transporter genes and may be a cause of increased [18F]FDG uptake, at least in colon cancer tumors.  (+info)

A possible role for the pentose phosphate pathway of spermatozoa in gamete fusion in the mouse. (2/3673)

Glucose metabolism is essential for successful gamete fusion in the mouse. Although the metabolic activity of the oocyte does not appear to play a significant role in the fusion step, the metabolic role of the spermatozoon is not known. The aim of this study was therefore to characterize the role of glucose metabolism in mouse spermatozoa. Initially, the high-affinity glucose transporter GLUT3 was identified in mouse sperm. In characterizing the glucose metabolism of mouse sperm, we have shown 1) that mouse epididymal spermatozoa have a functional pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), implying that they produce NADPH, which is required for reducing reactions, and ribose 5-phosphate, which is required for nucleic acid synthesis; and 2) that sperm are able to fuse with the oocyte when NADPH is substituted for glucose, suggesting that sperm need to produce NADPH via the PPP in order to be able to achieve fertilization. The existence of an NADPH-regulated event that influences the ability of the sperm to fuse with the oocyte is envisaged.  (+info)

Inactivation of the glucose 6-phosphate transporter causes glycogen storage disease type 1b. (3/3673)

Glycogen storage disease type 1b (GSD-1b) is proposed to be caused by a deficiency in microsomal glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) transport, causing a loss of glucose-6-phosphatase activity and glucose homeostasis. However, for decades, this disorder has defied molecular characterization. In this study, we characterize the structural organization of the G6P transporter gene and identify mutations in the gene that segregate with the GSD-1b disorder. We report the functional characterization of the recombinant G6P transporter and demonstrate that mutations uncovered in GSD-1b patients disrupt G6P transport. Our results, for the first time, define a molecular basis for functional deficiency in GSD-1b and raise the possibility that the defective G6P transporter contributes to neutropenia and neutrophil/monocyte dysfunctions characteristic of GSD-1b patients.  (+info)

Missense mutations in SGLT1 cause glucose-galactose malabsorption by trafficking defects. (4/3673)

Glucose-galactose malabsorption (GGM) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defects in the Na+/glucose cotransporter (SGLT1). Neonates present with severe diarrhea while on any diet containing glucose and/or galactose [1]. This study focuses on a patient of Swiss and Dominican descent. All 15 exons of SGLT1 were screened using single stranded conformational polymorphism analyses, and aberrant PCR products were sequenced. Two missense mutations, Gly318Arg and Ala468Val, were identified. SGLT1 mutants were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes for radiotracer uptake, electrophysiological experiments, and Western blotting. Uptakes of [14C]alpha-methyl-d-glucoside by the mutants were 5% or less than that of wild-type. Two-electrode voltage-clamp experiments confirmed the transport defects, as no noticeable sugar-induced current could be elicited from either mutant [2]. Western blots of cell protein showed levels of each SGLT1 mutant protein comparable to that of wild-type, and that both were core-glycosylated. Presteady-state current measurements indicated an absence of SGLT1 in the plasma membrane. We suggest that the compound heterozygote missense mutations G318R and A468V lead to GGM in this patient by defective trafficking of mutant proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane.  (+info)

Altered substrate selectivity in a mutant of an intrahelical salt bridge in UhpT, the sugar phosphate carrier of Escherichia coli. (5/3673)

Site-directed and second site suppressor mutagenesis identify an intrahelical salt bridge in the eleventh transmembrane segment of UhpT, the sugar phosphate carrier of Escherichia coli. Glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) transport by UhpT is inactivated if cysteine replaces either Asp388 or Lys391 but not if both are replaced. This suggests that Asp388 and Lys391 are involved in an intrahelical salt bridge and that neither is required for normal UhpT function. This interpretation is strengthened by the finding that mutations at Lys391 (K391N, K391Q, and K391T) are recovered as revertants of the inactive D388C variant. Further work shows that although the D388C variant is null for G6P transport, movement of 32Pi by homologous Pi/Pi exchange is unaffected. This raises the possibility that this derivative may have latent function, a possibility confirmed by showing that D388C is a gain-of-function mutation in which phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is the preferred substrate. Added study of the Pi/Pi exchange shows that in wild type UhpT this partial reaction is readily blocked by G6P but not PEP. By contrast, in the D388C variant, Pi/Pi exchange is unaffected by G6P but is inhibited by both PEP and 3-phosphoglycerate. These latter substrates are used by PgtP, a related Pi-linked antiporter, which lacks the Asp388-Lys391 salt bridge but has instead an uncompensated arginine at position 391. For this reason, we conclude that in both UhpT and PgtP position 391 can serve as a determinant of substrate selectivity by acting as a receptor for the anionic carboxyl brought into the translocation pathway by PEP.  (+info)

MalK forms a dimer independent of its assembly into the MalFGK2 ATP-binding cassette transporter of Escherichia coli. (6/3673)

The maltose transport complex (MTC) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of membrane transport proteins and is a model for understanding the folding and assembly of hetero-oligomeric membrane protein complexes. The MTC is made up of two integral membrane proteins, MalF and MalG, and a peripheral membrane protein, MalK. These proteins associate with a stoichiometry of 1:1:2 to form the complex MalFGK2. In our studies of the oligomerization of this complex, we have shown that the ATP-binding component, MalK, forms a dimer in the absence of MalF and MalG. Epitope-tagged MalK coimmunoprecipitated with wild-type MalK, indicating that the MalK protein forms an oligomer. The relative amounts of tagged and wild-type MalK that were present in the whole cell extracts and in the immunoprecipitated complexes show that the MalK oligomer is a dimer. These hetero-oligomers can also be formed in vitro by mixing two extracts, each containing either tagged or wild-type MalK. The dimerization of MalK was also demonstrated in vivo using the bacteriophage lambda repressor fusion assay. The formation of a MalK dimer in the absence of MalF and MalG may represent an initial step in the assembly pathway of the MTC.  (+info)

SNAP-23 participates in SNARE complex assembly in rat adipose cells. (7/3673)

SNARE proteins are required for vesicle docking and fusion in eukaryotic cells in processes as diverse as homotypic membrane fusion and synaptic vesicle exocytosis [SNARE stands for SNAP receptor, where SNAP is soluble NSF attachment protein]. The SNARE proteins syntaxin 4 and vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) 2/3 also participate in the insulin-stimulated translocation of GLUT4 from intracellular vesicles to the plasma membrane in adipose cells. We now report the molecular cloning and characterization of rat SNAP-23, a ubiquitously expressed homologue of the essential neuronal SNARE protein SNAP-25 (synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa). Rat SNAP-23 is 86% and 98% identical respectively to human and mouse SNAP-23. Southern blot analysis reveals that the rat, mouse and human SNAP-23 genes encode species-specific isoforms of the same protein. Co-immunoprecipitation of syntaxin 4 and SNAP-23 shows association of these two proteins in rat adipose cell plasma membranes, and insulin stimulation does not alter the SNAP-23/syntaxin 4 complex. In addition, we demonstrate for the first time the participation of SNAP-23, along with syntaxin 4 and VAMP2/3, in the formation of 20S SNARE complexes prepared using rat adipose cell membranes and recombinant alpha-SNAP and NSF proteins. The stoichiometry of the SNARE complexes formed is essentially identical using membranes from either unstimulated or insulin-stimulated adipose cells. These data demonstrate that rat SNAP-23 associates with syntaxin 4 before insulin stimulation and is present in the SNARE complexes known to mediate the translocation of GLUT4 from intracellular vesicles to the plasma membrane of rat adipose cells.  (+info)

Tumour necrosis factor-alpha regulates expression of the CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) alpha and beta and determines the occupation of the C/EBP site in the promoter of the insulin-responsive glucose-transporter gene in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (8/3673)

We have demonstrated previously that treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) results in a rapid (4 h) and significant (75-80%) reduction in the rate of transcription of the GLUT4 gene. Control of GLUT4 gene transcription has been suggested at least in part to reside with the CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) family (alpha, beta and delta isoforms) of transcription factors. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we have examined the ability of TNF to alter the occupation of the C/EBP site in the GLUT4 promoter. The data suggest that in fully differentiated adipocytes the C/EBP site is a ligand for predominantly alpha/alpha homodimers; however, after exposure to TNF, a shift in occupancy of the site occurs and the ligands become alpha/beta heterodimers and beta/beta homodimers. Partner selection in dimer formation appears to be controlled by selective translocation of the beta-isoform from the cytosol to the nucleus after exposure of the cells to TNF.  (+info)

In this study, echocardiography was used to monitor the progression of LV hypertrophy and to determine the timing for the study of glucose uptake and glucose transporter protein content. The observations derived from this investigation reveal that a decrease in glucose uptake rate is evident early in the transition from compensated to decompensated pressure-overload hypertrophy, as determined by an index of LV M/V ratio. The defect in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake precedes the downregulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase (SERCA-2) and glucose transporter expression (GLUT-4 and GLUT-1).15 26 Under pathophysiological conditions such as hypertrophy or during ischemia and early reperfusion, a high rate of cardiac glucose metabolism may be crucial.27 28 29 Glucose transport is thought to be rate-limiting for glucose use. In the heart, 2 distinctive glucose transporters are responsible for glucose uptake across the plasma membrane. The GLUT-1 transporter, which is present in low levels in ...
The human glucose transporter Glut1 is used by many cells, especially red blood cells andbrain cell, to take up glucose and other necessary metabolites. Gentle chromatographic methods can be applied for analyses of Glut1 activities in lipid environments similar to the native one. For this purpose, methods for immobilization of cells, cytoskeleton-depleted red cell membrane vesicles and proteoliposomes in chromatographic gel media have been developed and refined. The vesicles and proteoliposomes were immobilized by freeze-thaw-induced fusion in dextran-grafted agarose gel beads (Superdex 200). The sheltered environment in microcavities kept the Glut1 active for repeated analyses over time periods up to three months at room temperature.. Frontal affinity chromatography, Hummel and Dreyer analyses and centrifugation methods revealed that the Glut1 affinities for inhibitors and D-glucose were highest in the cells andbecame successively lower upon cytoskeleton-depletion and subsequent solubilization ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Direct effects of ionizing radiation on integral membrane proteins. T2 - Noncovalent energy transfer requires specific interpeptide interactions. AU - Jhun, E.. AU - Jhun, B. H.. AU - Jones, L. R.. AU - Jung, C. Y.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - The 12 transmembrane α helices (TMHs) of human erythrocyte glucose transporter were individually cut by pepsin digestion as membrane-bound 2.5-3.5-kDa peptide fragments. Radiation-induced chemical degradation of these fragments showed an average target size of 34 kDa. This is 10-12 × larger than the average size of an individual TMH, demonstrating that a significant energy transfer occurs among these TMHs in the absence of covalent linkage. Heating this TMH preparation at 100 °C for 15 min reduced the target size to 5 kDa or less, suggesting that the noncovalent energy transfer requires specific helix-helix interactions. Purified phospholamban, a small (6-kDa) integral membrane protein containing a single TMH, formed a pentameric assembly ...
This gene belongs to the solute carrier 2A family, which includes intracellular glucose transporters. Based on sequence comparison, the glucose transporters are grouped into three classes and this gene is a member of class II. The encoded protein, like other members of the family, contains several conserved residues and motifs and 12 transmembrane domains with both amino and carboxyl ends being on the cytosolic side of the membrane. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012 ...
I have heard that there is a distributor for antibodies directed against the Glut-1 glucose-transporter (erythroid/brain or perivenular hepatocytes). Does anyone know this distributor ? Thanks in advance ##################################################################### # # # Dr. F.Gaunitz __________ # # Physiologisch-Chemisches Institut I I # # Universitaet Tuebingen I \/ I # # Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 4 I U /\ T I # # 72076 Tuebingen I / \ I # # Germany \ + + / # # \______/ # # e-mail: cbkga01 at mailserv.zdv.uni-tuebingen.de ...
Diabetic Socks Knee Length Pre Con Sintomas Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is primarily mediated by the transporter isoform GLUT4 Biochemistry and Cell Biology 2002 80(5): 569-578 10.1139/o02-156. # symptoms of type 1 diabetes in toddlers - paleo diet for. Diabetic Socks Knee Length Pre Con Sintomas diabetes dizzinessvertigo and mental confusion should never be ignored.. Healthy Banana Cream Tiramisu ArielleDuke. Diabetes type; 7) Diabetes type; 4) Code if any for coding diabetes mellitus: Type 2 Diabetes mellitus E10 Type 1 Diabetes mellitus E13 UNC Family Medicines weekly health radio show. Ever heard of gestational diabetes? Its when a when a woman develops diabetes during pregnancy.. The inslin diabetes update berlin mortality depression receptor consists of two units that come together (dimerize) when they bind with insulin to form an active tyrosine kinase enzyme (fig. The diabetes meal plan per day. Exercise-induced modulation of antioxidant Diabetic Socks Knee Length Pre Con ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Heterogeneity in the rat adipocyte glucose transporter. AU - Baly, D. L.. AU - Simpson, Ian. AU - Matthaei, S.. AU - Horuk, R.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0021919940&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0021919940&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0021919940. VL - 44. JO - Federation Proceedings. JF - Federation Proceedings. SN - 0014-9446. IS - 3. ER - ...
GLUT4 antibody [1F8] (solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 4) for ICC/IF, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, IP, WB. Anti-GLUT4 mAb (GTX31226) is tested in Human, Mouse, Monkey, Pig, Rat, Rabbit samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Now lets try to describe each process announced. So phagocytosis is process of eating external organells by the cell. It is quite close to endocytosis, when - in contrast - molecules are being absorbed. Exocytosis is opposite process - secretion of molecules into external space. It can be hormones, antibodies and so on. Transcytosis is interesting process of transporting molecules from apical (absorbing) space of polarized cells to basolateral space, which happens, for example, when antibodies are transported through baby rats gut. Main idea is that molecules are absorbed into internal vesicles (as during endocytosis) and then after several steps containers content is exposed as during exocytosis. No target molecules are left in cells plasma. Interesting is that cell can regulate exposure of some proteins in the cell membrane using transcytosis. During latent phase (e.g. while there is no great need in glucose) transporters are stored incorporated in vesicles inside the cell. But in case of ...
Rabbit polyclonal GLUT12 antibody. Validated in IHC, Flow Cyt and tested in Mouse, Rat, Human. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intracellular insulin-responsive glucose transporter (GLUT4) distribution but not insulin-stimulated GLUT4 exocytosis and recycling are microtubule dependent. AU - Shigematsu, Satoshi. AU - Khan, Ahmir H.. AU - Kanzaki, Makoto. AU - Pessin, Jeffrey E.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - To investigate the potential role of microtubules in the regulation of insulin-responsive glucose transporter (GLUT4) trafficking in adipocytes, we examined the effects of microtubule depolymerizing and stabilizing agents. In contrast to previous reports, disruption or stabilization of microtubule structures had no significant effect on insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation. However, consistent with a more recent study (Molero, J. C., J. P. Whitehead, T. Meerloo, and D. E. James, 2001, J Biol Chem 276:43829-43835) nocodazole did inhibit glucose uptake through a direct interaction with the transporter itself independent of the translocation process. In addition, the initial rate of GLUT4 endocytosis was ...
The effect of insulinopenic diabetes on the expression of glucose transporters in the small intestine was investigated. Enterocytes were sequentially isolated from jejunum and ileum of normal fed rats, streptozotocin-diabetic rats, and diabetic rats treated with insulin. Facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT) 2, GLUT5, and sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 protein content was increased from 1.5- to 6-fold in enterocytes isolated from diabetic animals in both jejunum and ileum. Insulin was able to reverse the increase in transporter protein expression seen after induction of diabetes. There was a four- to eightfold increase in the amount of enterocyte glucose transporter mRNA after diabetes with greater changes in sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 and GLUT2 than in GLUT5 levels. In situ hybridization showed that after the induction of diabetes there was new hybridization in lower villus and crypt enterocytes that was reversed by insulin treatment. Thus, the increase in total hexose ...
Buy our Human Glucose Transporter GLUT4 peptide. Ab34088 is a blocking peptide for ab33780 and has been validated in BL. Abcam provides free protocols, tips…
It has been postulated that a glucose transporter of beta cells (GLUT-2) may be important in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. To determine whether this transporter is constitutively expressed or regulated, we subjected conscious unrestrained Wistar rats to perturbations in glucose homeostasis and quantitated beta-cell GLUT-2 mRNA by in situ hybridization. After 3 hr of hypoglycemia (glucose at 29 +/- 5 mg/dl), GLUT-2 and proinsulin mRNA signal densities were reduced by 25% of the level in control rats. After 4 days (blood glucose at 57 +/- 7 mg/dl vs. 120 +/- 10 mg/dl in saline-infused control rats), GLUT-2 and proinsulin mRNA densities were reduced by 85% and 65%, respectively (P = 0.001). After 12 days (glucose at 54 +/- 8 mg/dl), GLUT-2 mRNA signal density was undetectable whereas proinsulin mRNA was reduced by 51%. After 12 days of hypoglycemia, the Km for 3-O-methyl-D-glucose transport in isolated rat islets, normally 18-20 mM, was 2.5 mM. This provides functional evidence of a ...
Based on homology with GLUT1-5, we have isolated a cDNA for a novel glucose transporter, GLUTX1. This cDNA encodes a protein of 478 amino acids that shows between 29 and 32% identity with rat GLUT1-5 and 32-36% identity with plant and bacterial hexose transporters. Unlike GLUT1-5, GLUTX1 has a short extracellular loop between transmembrane domain (TM) 1 and TM2 and a long extracellular loop between TM9 and TM10 that contains the only N-glycosylation site. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, GLUTX1 showed strong transport activity only after suppression of a dileucine internalization motif present in the amino-terminal region. Transport activity was inhibited by cytochalasin B and partly competed by D-fructose and D-galactose. The Michaelis-Menten constant for glucose was approximately 2 mM. When translated in reticulocytes lysates, GLUTX1 migrates as a 35-kDa protein that becomes glycosylated in the presence of microsomal membranes. Western blot analysis of GLUTX1 transiently expressed
Insulin stimulates glucose transport in isolated fat cells by activation of glucose transporters in the plasma membranes and through translocation of the glucose transporter sub-types GLUT4 (insulin-regulatable) and GLUT1 (HepG2 transporter). The protein kinase C-stimulating phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) is able to mimic partially the effect of insulin on glucose transport, apparently through stimulation of carrier translocation. In order to ascertain whether protein kinase C is involved in the translocation signal to both carrier sub-types, we determined the effect of PMA on the subcellular distribution of GLUT1 and GLUT4 by immunoblotting with specific antibodies directed against these transporters. Isolated rat fat cells (4 x 10(6) cells/ml) were stimulated for 20 min with insulin (6 nM) or PMA (1 nM). 3-O-Methylglucose transport was determined and plasma membranes and low-density microsomes were prepared for Western blotting. 3-O-Methylglucose transport was stimulated ...
Articular cartilage is an avascular connective tissue in which the availability of oxygen and glucose is significantly lower than synovial fluid and plasma. Glucose is an important metabolic fuel and structural precursor that plays a key role in the synthesis of extracellular matrix macromolecules in articular cartilage. However, glucose concentrations in cartilage can fluctuate depending on age, physical activity and endocrine status. Chondrocytes are glycolytic cells and must be able to sense the quantities of oxygen and glucose available to them in the extracellular matrix and respond appropriately by adjusting cellular metabolism. Consequently chondrocytes must have the capacity to survive in an extracellular matrix with limited nutrients and low oxygen tensions. The molecular mechanisms responsible for allowing chondrocytes to adapt to these harsh environmental conditions are poorly understood. In this article we present a novel dual model of oxygen and glucose sensing in chondrocytes ...
Several studies have demonstrated that the intrinsic catalytic activity of cell surface glucose transporters is highly regulated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes expressing GLUT1 (erythrocyte/brain) and GLUT4 (adipocyte/skeletal muscle) glucose transporter isoforms. For example, inhibition of protein synthesis in these cells by anisomycin or cycloheximide leads to marked increases in hexose transport without a change in the levels of cell surface glucose transporter proteins (Clancy, B. M., Harrison, S. A., Buxton, J. M., and Czech, M. P. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 10122-10130). In the present work the exofacial hexose binding sites on GLUT1 and GLUT4 in anisomycin-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were labeled with the cell-impermeant photoaffinity reagent [2-3H]2-N-[4-(1-azitrifluoroethyl)benzoyl]-1,3-bis- (D-mannos-4-yloxy)-2-propylamine [( 2-3H] ATB-BMPA) to determine which isoform is activated by protein synthetic blockade. As expected, a 15-fold increase in 2-deoxyglucose uptake in response to insulin was associated
We demonstrated the specificity of the GLUT4 antagonist, indinavir, in cultured cells and observed that inhibition of GLUT4 in endothelium-denuded mouse aortas reduced basal glucose uptake by approximately half, supporting the conclusion that GLUT4 is a major glucose transporter that participates in basal, as well as in insulin-stimulated, glucose uptake in VSMCs in vivo. We also found that GLUT4 and other glucose transporters specifically and differentially contribute to VSMC contraction. Moreover, this differential contribution to contraction varies depending on the contractile agonist. We also observed that GLUT4 expression in vessels from hypertensive animals was diminished, and that indinavir caused a less profound attenuation of maximal 5-HT-mediated contraction in these vessels. We have found that chronic knockout of the GLUT4 gene results in augmented arterial reactivity to the same agonists that elicited attenuated reactivity in response to indinavir. Similar increases in reactivity ...
PI3-kinase signal transduction in diabetes and cancer; molecular mechanisms of cancer cell metastasis and radiation/chemotherapy resistance; tumor suppressor genes with emphasis on NHERF scaffold proteins; transgenic mouse models Current studies in our lab focus on: -Identification of molecular signals targeting the activity and surface expression of insulin-sensitive glucose transport proteins (phosphorylation, ubiquitination, endosomal recycling) -Functional characterization and localization of facilitative glucose transporter GLUT12 in tumor cells -Role of nutrient (glucose) uptake in decreased sensitivity to radiation and chemotherapy: contribution of glucose transporters to radiation survival, glucose transporter expression levels as a predictive marker of radioresistance -Significance of NHERF/Akt/SGK interaction in cancer cell growth and metastasis -Generation of transgenic mouse ...
250 µCi quantities of 2-[14C(U)]-Deoxy-D-Glucose (300-350mCi/mmol) are available for your research. Application of [14C]Deoxy-D-Glucose can be found in: glucose transporter isoform GLUT4 gene regulation and mechanisms in insulin resistance, selectively suppressing the quinolinic acid-induced enhancement of anaerobic glycolysis in glial cells, stimulatory effect of d-ephedrine on ß3-adrenoceptors in adipose tissue of rats, glucose utilization in the brain during acute seizure as a useful biomarker for the evaluation of anticonvulsants, etc. ...
250 µCi quantities of 2-[14C(U)]-Deoxy-D-Glucose (300-350mCi/mmol) are available for your research. Application of [14C]Deoxy-D-Glucose can be found in: glucose transporter isoform GLUT4 gene regulation and mechanisms in insulin resistance, selectively suppressing the quinolinic acid-induced enhancement of anaerobic glycolysis in glial cells, stimulatory effect of d-ephedrine on ß3-adrenoceptors in adipose tissue of rats, glucose utilization in the brain during acute seizure as a useful biomarker for the evaluation of anticonvulsants, etc. ...
We used transtrophectodermal 3-O- methyl glucose flux studies and also polyclonal antibodies raised against either the human erythrocyte glucose transport protein or an artificial peptide homologous to the rat brain glucose transporter C-terminus to characterize and localize the glucose transporter system in the rabbit embryon.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunoelectron microscopic demonstration of insulin-stimulated translocation of glucose transporters to the plasma membrane of isolated rat adipocytes and masking of the carboxyl-terminal epitope of intracellular GLUT4. AU - Smith, Robert M.. AU - Charron, Maureen J.. AU - Shah, Neelima. AU - Lodish, Harvey F.. AU - Jarett, Leonard. PY - 1991/8/1. Y1 - 1991/8/1. N2 - Polyclonal antibodies to the amino- or carboxyl-terminal peptide sequences of the GLUT4 transporter protein were used in immunoelectron microscopic studies to demonstrate the location and insulin-induced translocation of GLUT4 in intact isolated rat adipocytes. Labeling of untreated adipocytes with the amino-terminal antibody revealed 95% of GLUT4 was intracellular, associated with plasma membrane invaginations or vesicles contiguous with or within 75 nm of the cell membrane. Insulin treatment increased plasma membrane labeling ≈13-fold, to 52% of the total transporters, and decreased intracellular labeling ...
Complementary DNA encoding a facilitative glucose transporter was isolated from a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) cDNA library and subcloned into a metal-inducible mammalian expression vector, pLEN (California Biotechnology) containing human metallothionein gene II promoter sequences. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with this transporter expression vector, pLENGT, exhibited a 2-17-fold increase in immunoreactive HepG2-type glucose transporter protein, as measured by protein immunoblotting with antipeptide antibodies directed against the HepG2-type glucose transporter C-terminal domain. Expression of the human glucose transporter was verified by protein immunoblotting with a mouse polyclonal antiserum that recognizes the human but not the rodent HepG2-type transporter. 2-Deoxy-D-glucose uptake was increased 2-7-fold in transfected cell lines. Polyclonal antisera directed against purified red blood cell glucose transporter were raised in several rabbits. Antiserum from one rabbit, delta,
The subject invention concerns materials and methods for treating oncological disorders in a person or animal using any agent or compound that inhibits uptake of glucose into a cell. The subject invention also concerns methods for inducing apoptosis and inhibiting the proliferation or survival of a cell. In one embodiment, the methods comprise administering an effective amount of an agent or compound that inhibits the activity of one or more glucose transporter proteins, such as Glut-1. An antibody that binds to and inhibits a glucose transporter protein can be used in the present methods.
TY - JOUR. T1 - 4F2hc stabilizes GLUT1 protein and increases glucose transport activity. AU - Ohno, Haruya. AU - Nakatsu, Yusuke. AU - Sakoda, Hideyuki. AU - Kushiyama, Akifumi. AU - Ono, Hiraku. AU - Fujishiro, Midori. AU - Otani, Yuichiro. AU - Okubo, Hirofumi. AU - Yoneda, Masayasu. AU - Fukushima, Toshiaki. AU - Tsuchiya, Yoshihiro. AU - Kamata, Hideaki. AU - Nishimura, Fusanori. AU - Kurihara, Hiroki. AU - Katagiri, Hideki. AU - Oka, Yoshitomo. AU - Asano, Tomoichiro. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2011 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2011/5. Y1 - 2011/5. N2 - Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) is widely distributed throughout various tissues and contributes to insulin- independent basal glucose uptake. Using a split-ubiquitin membrane yeast two-hybrid system, we newly identified 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc) as a membrane protein interacting with GLUT1. Though 4F2hc reportedly forms heterodimeric complexes between amino acid transporters, such as LAT1 and LAT2, and regulates amino acid uptake, ...
Abstract. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia due to insufficient or inefficient insulin secretory response. This chronic disease is a global problem and there is a need for greater emphasis on therapeutic strategies in the health system. Phytochemicals such as flavonoids have recently attracted attention as source materials for the development of new antidiabetic drugs or alternative therapy for the management of diabetes and its related complications. The antidiabetic potential of flavonoids are mainly through their modulatory effects on glucose transporter by enhancing GLUT-2 expression in pancreatic β cells and increasing expression and promoting translocation of GLUT-4 via PI3K/AKT, CAP/Cb1/TC10 and AMPK pathways. This review highlights the recent findings on beneficial effects of flavonoids in the management of diabetes with particular emphasis on the investigations that explore the role of these compounds in modulating glucose transporter ...
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An accelerated rate of glucose transport is among the most characteristic biochemical markers of cellular transformation. To study the molecular mechanism by which transporter activity is altered, cultured rodent fibroblasts transfected with activated myc, ras, or src oncogenes were used. In myc-transfected cells, the rate of 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake was unchanged. However, in cells transfected with activated ras and src oncogenes, the rate of glucose uptake was markedly increased. The increased transport rate in ras- and src-transfected cells was paralleled by a marked increase in the amount of glucose transporter protein, as assessed by immunoblots, as well as by a markedly increased abundance of glucose transporter messenger RNA. Exposure of control cells to the tumor-promoting phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for 18 hours had a similar effect of increasing the rate of glucose transport and the abundance of transporter messenger RNA. For ras, src, and TPA, the ...
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) can be viewed as a failure of homeostatic mechanisms that promote nutrient turnover and storage in response to hormonal cues. Although the factors that favor disease progression are heterogeneous, evidence from prospective human studies indicates that impairment of insulin-dependent glucose uptake and utilization is an early event in disease pathogenesis (1). The largest fraction of insulin-dependent glucose disposal (∼70%) occurs in skeletal muscle and is mediated by the insulin-responsive glucose transporter Glut4 (2). A quantitatively smaller contribution (5-20%) is provided by adipose tissue (3). That skeletal muscle is an important site of insulin resistance in humans and that impaired insulin action in muscle leads to adaptive changes in nutrient use from carbohydrates to lipids and to compensatory β-cell hyperplasia are beyond dispute (4). Similarly, insulin resistance in adipose tissue is contributory to the pathogenesis of diabetes not only through impaired ...
In skeletal muscle, acute insulin treatment results in the recruitment of the GLUT4 glucose transporter from intracellular vesicular structures to the plasma membrane. The precise nature of these intracellular GLUT4 stores has, however, remained poorly defined. Using an established skeletal-muscle fractionation procedure we present evidence for the existence of two distinct intracellular GLUT4 compartments. We have shown that after fractionation of crude muscle membranes on a discontinuous sucrose gradient the majority of the GLUT4 immunoreactivity was largely present in two sucrose fractions (30 and 35%, w/w, sucrose; denoted F30 and F35 respectively) containing intracellular membranes of different buoyant densities. Here we show that these fractions contained 44±6 and 49±7% of the crude membrane GLUT4 reactivity respectively, and could be further discriminated on the basis of their immunoreactivity against specific subcellular antigen markers. Membranes from the F30 fraction were highly ...
The oxidation of glucose represents a major source of metabolic energy for mammaliancells. However, because the plasma membrane is impermeable to polar molecules such as glucose, the cellular uptake of this important nutrient is accomplished by membrane-associated carrier proteins that bind and transfer it across the lipid bilayer. Two classes of glucose carriers have been described in mammalian cells: the Na+-glucose cotransporter and the facilitative glucose transporter. The Na+-glucose cotransporter transports glucose against its concentration gradient by coupling its uptake with the uptake of Na+ that is being transported down its concentration gradient. Facilitative glucose c rriers accelerate the transport of glucose down its concentration gradient by facilitative diffusion, a form of passive transport. cDNAs have been isolated from human tissues encoding a Na+-glucose-cotransporter protein and five functional facilitative glucosetransporter isoforms. The Na+-glucose cotransporter is ...
S. cerevisiae has membrane proteins that act as glucose receptors. Glucose binds to these receptors and generates an intracellular signal. In the Rgt2/Snf3 pathway, these two proteins act as glucose receptors. The Rgt2 and Snf3 proteins resemble hexose transporters in structure but have long cytoplasmic tails that are required for signal transduction [7]. Glucose binding to these transmembrane proteins initiates signals that activate a pathway that allows hexose transporter gene expression by repressing Rgt1 function [8].. An additional pathway that involves transcriptional changes in response to glucose is the stimulation of adenylyl cyclase and the increase in intracellular cyclic AMP. This pathway includes a G-protein coupled receptor (Gpr1) and two G proteins Gpa1 and 2, necessary for the glucose-specific increase in cAMP [9,10]. Finally, glucose activation of adenylyl cyclase leads to activation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). Upon activation of PKA by cAMP the Rap1 ...
ISHIKAWA Nobuhisa , OGURI Tetsuya , ISOBE Takeshi , FUJITAKA Kazunori , KOHNO Nobuoki Japanese journal of cancer research : gann 92(8), 874-879, 2001-08-31 医中誌Web 参考文献32件 ...
Membrane transport in cells is a fundamental biological process that is mediated by various channel and transporter proteins. A major type of such proteins is secondary active membrane transporters, which use a solute gradient to drive the translocation of other substrates. The largest secondary transporter protein family known is the major facilitator superfamily (MFS), with more than one hundred thousand members identified to date. These proteins transport ions, sugars, sugar-phosphates, drugs, neurotransmitters, nucleosides, amino acids, peptides, and other hydrophilic solutes. Members of this superfamily are ubiquitous in all three kingdoms of living organisms, and many have medical or pharmacological relevance. For example, the mammalian glucose transporter Glut4 from muscle and adipose cells is responsible for their glucose uptake, a process that is impaired in type II diabetes. Inherited mutations in a related transporter, Glut1 from erythrocyte and brain blood barrier, cause Glucose ...
The human glucose transporter GLUT1 is abundant in red blood cells, the blood-brain barrier and epithelial cells, where it mediates the transport of the energy metabolite, glucose. In the present work some properties of GLUT1, including affinity binding of both substrates and inhibitors, transport rates as well as permeabilities of aromatic amino acids and drug-membrane interactions were analyzed by chromatographic methods.. Reconstitution by size-exclusion chromatography on Superdex 75 from a detergent with a low CMC that provides monomeric GLUT1 was examined regarding D-glucose- and CB binding as well as D-glucose transport. Upon steric immobilization in Superdex 200 gel beads, residual detergent could be washed away and dissociation constants in the same range as reported for binding to GLUT1 reconstituted from other detergents were obtained. The transport rate into the GLUT1 proteoliposomes was low, probably due to residual detergent. Binding to GLUT1 at different pH was analyzed and the ...
GLUT5 antibody (solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose/fructose transporter), member 5) for WB. Anti-GLUT5 pAb (GTX47818) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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One hallmark of cancer is the accelerated metabolism, high energy requirements, and increased glucose uptake by the tumor cells, the latter being the first and rate-limiting step for glucose metabolism. Glucose transport into the tumor cell is mediated by facilitative high-affinity glucose transporter (GLUT) proteins. Among the 14 GLUT proteins, expression of GLUT1 in normal organs is nearly exclusively restricted to the blood brain barrier, while other GLUTs are also expressed in a wide variety of vital organs such as liver and heart. Interestingly, GLUT1 expression is highly regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, a key driver of tumor progression. In line with this finding, GLUT1 over-expression was found to be associated with tumor progression and poor overall survival in various tumor indications. Consequently, GLUT1 represents a potential target for cancer treatment. Therefore, we have developed a highly-selective GLUT1 inhibitor, namely BAY-876, with selectivity over GLUT2, 3, ...
Glucose Transporter Inhibitor IV, WZB117 - CAS 1223397-11-2 - Calbiochem Glucose Transporter Inhibitor IV, WZB117, CAS 1223397-11-2, is a fast-acting, irreversible blocker of GLUT1 in RBCs. Also inhibits glucose transport in cancer cells (IC50 ~ 500 nM in A549 cells). - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
GLUT4 is the major glucose transporter in skeletal muscle. GLUT4 cycles to and from the plasma membrane and its exocytic rate is accelerated by insulin and muscle contraction to achieve a new steady state with more GLUT4 proteins at the muscle cell surface. To gain a better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that govern GLUT4 protein recycling, we developed an in vitro model in which myc-epitope-tagged GLUT4 or GLUT4-GFP is expressed in L6 skeletal muscle cells. The myc-epitope is inserted into an exofacial domain that is accessible to anti-myc antibodies from the outside of non-permeabilized cells, allowing one to count the number of transporters at the cell surface ...
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Facilitative glucose transporter. This isoform likely mediates the bidirectional transfer of glucose across the plasma membrane of hepatocytes and is responsible for uptake of glucose by the beta cells; may comprise part of the glucose-sensing mechanism of the beta cell. May also participate with the Na(+)/glucose cotransporter in the transcellular transport of glucose in the small intestine and kidney ...
One of the most important metabolic actions of insulin is catalysing glucose uptake into skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. This is accomplished via activation of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway and subsequent translocation of GLUT4 from intracellular storage vesicles to the plasma membrane. As such, this represents an ideal system for studying the convergence of signal transduction and protein trafficking. The GLUT4 translocation process is complex, but can be dissected into at least 4 discrete trafficking steps. This raises the question as to which of these is the major regulated step in insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation. Numerous molecules have been reported to regulate GLUT4 trafficking. However, with the exception of TBC1D4, the molecular details of these distal signalling arms of the insulin signalling network and how they modify distinct steps of GLUT4 trafficking have not been established. We discuss the need to adopt a more global approach to expand and deepen our understanding of the
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The protein's function is to transport monosaccharide sugars into these sink tissues. The protein is classed as a symporter ... Sodium-glucose transport proteins Glucose transporter Truernit E, Schmid J, Epple P, Illig J, Sauer N (December 1996). "The ... Stp4 (sugar transporter protein 4) is a gene from the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. The gene transcribes for an integral ... Fotopoulos V, Gilbert MJ, Pittman JK, Marvier AC, Buchanan AJ, Sauer N, Hall JL, Williams LE (June 2003). "The monosaccharide ...
Monosaccharide - monosaccharide transport protein - morphogenesis - Morphogenetic field - mos gene - Mössbauer spectroscopy - ... protein - protein biosynthesis - Protein Data Bank - protein design - protein expression - protein folding - protein isoform - ... protein P16 - protein P34cdc2 - protein precursor - protein structure prediction - protein subunit - protein synthesis - ... proto-oncogene protein C-kit - proto-oncogene proteins c-abl - proto-oncogene proteins c-bcl-2 - Proto-oncogene proteins c-fos ...
Saier MH Jr (1998). "Molecular phylogeny as a basis for the classification of transport proteins from bacteria, archaea and ... In enzymology, a monosaccharide-transporting ATPase (EC 3.6.3.17) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + H2O ... and monosaccharide, whereas its 3 products are ADP, phosphate, and monosaccharide. This enzyme belongs to the family of ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP phosphohydrolase (monosaccharide-importing). This enzyme participates in abc ...
... permease or GalP found in Escherichia coli is an integral membrane protein involved in the transport of monosaccharides, ... GalP is a monosaccharide transporter that uses a chemiosmotic mechanism to transport its substrates into the cytoplasm of E. ... It transports these sugars at faster rates with a proton gradient but can still transport them in a leaky fashion without a ... galactose and other hexoses are transported by GalP by the use of the proton gradient produced by the electron transport chain ...
The monosaccharides and amino acids thus produced are subsequently transported across the intestinal epithelium and eventually ... These interactions include those between proteins in the same membrane ("cis") and proteins in adjacent cells ("trans"). In ... They are formed by interactions between intracellular adapter proteins, transmembrane proteins and the actin cytoskeletons of ... the intracellular domains of tight junctions interact with different scaffold proteins, adapter proteins and signaling ...
For example, cytochalasin A and cytochalasin B can also inhibit the transport of monosaccharides across the cell membrane, ... cytochalasin H has been found to regulate plant growth, cytochalasin D inhibits protein synthesis and cytochalasin E prevents ... "Cytochalasin Releases mRNA from the Cytoskeletal Framework and Inhibits Protein Synthesis". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 6 ( ...
Protein is hydrolysed to peptides and amino acids by microbial enzymes, which are subsequently transported across the microbial ... proteins, peptides, and amino acids). Both non-structural and structural carbohydrates are hydrolysed to monosaccharides or ... In situations in which nitrogen for microbial growth is in excess, protein and its derivatives can also be fermented to produce ... Some carbon from carbohydrate or protein may be used for de novo synthesis of microbial lipid. High levels of lipid, ...
... is a dominant monosaccharide in N-linked glycosylation, which is a post-translational modification of proteins. It is ... Play media The PEP-dependent sugar transporting phosphotransferase system transports and simultaneously phosphorylates its ... Recombinant proteins produced in yeast may be subject to mannose addition in patterns different from those used by mammalian ... to nascent glycoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum in a co-translational manner as the protein entered through the transport ...
Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell ... Monosaccharides can be linked together to form polysaccharides in almost limitless ways. The two nucleic acids, DNA and RNA, ... This is done in eukaryotes by a series of proteins in the membranes of mitochondria called the electron transport chain. In ... The amino acids or sugars released by these extracellular enzymes are then pumped into cells by active transport proteins. ...
Member 5, also known as SLC17A5 or sialin is a lysosomal membrane sialic acid transport protein which in humans is encoded by ... A multiple lysosomal transport defect for acidic monosaccharides". J. Clin. Invest. 87 (4): 1329-35. doi:10.1172/JCI115136. PMC ... Sialin, also known as H(+)/nitrate cotransporter and H(+)/sialic acid cotransporter, is a protein which in humans is encoded by ... A deficiency of this protein causes Salla disease. and Infantile Sialic Acid Storage Disease (ISSD). The gene for HP59 contains ...
How do transport vesicles know the final destination of the protein that they are transporting? Vesicles are directed by many ... O-linked glycosylation occurs in the Golgi apparatus, where monosaccharide units are added to a complete polypeptide chain. ... Cell surface proteins and extracellular proteins are O-glycosylated. Glycosylation sites in O-linked oligosaccharides are ... ensuring that the protein is transported to the appropriate destination. Many cells produce specific carbohydrate-binding ...
An astounding 8% of protein coding genes are related to carbohydrate transport in C. indolis. These genes are placed into two ... PTS transporters carry a wide variety of monosaccharides and disaccharides, and have a high affinity for hexose. C. indolis ... it was found that it contains an abundance of genes in functional groups associated with the transport and utilization of ...
The transport of ammonium and amino acids from fungus to plant is also regulated. Nitrogen is essential in plant biochemistry, ... For example, monosaccharide uptake in Amanita muscaria requires a transporter that is only expressed when it is in a ... Some polypeptides are only found when the fungus and plant have achieved symbiosis; these symbiosis-related (SR) proteins are ... 1994). "Nutrient transport in mycorrhizas: structure, physiology and consequences for efficiency of the symbiosis" (PDF). Plant ...
In creature tissues, the antecedent glucosylceramide is moved by the sphingolipid transport protein FAPP2 to the distal Golgi, ... In creature tissues, biosynthesis of lactosylceramide includes expansion of the second monosaccharides unit (galactose) as its ... Biosynthesis of lactosylceramide then includes expansion of the second monosaccharides unit as its actuated nucleotide ...
Dang L, Van Damme EJ (September 2015). "Toxic proteins in plants". Phytochemistry. 117: 51-64. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2015.05. ... Photosynthesis or gluconeogenesis → monosaccharides → polysaccharides (cellulose, chitin, glycogen etc.) Acetate pathway → ... synthesized from tryptophan is a component of the coenzymes NAD+ and NADP+ which in turn are required for electron transport in ... These first messengers interact with cellular receptors which are composed of proteins. Cellular receptors in turn activate ...
Other areas of biochemistry include the genetic code (DNA, RNA), protein synthesis, cell membrane transport, and signal ... carbohydrates are formed from sugars known as monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides, lipids are formed from ... "The restrictions on possible mechanisms of intestinal transport of sugars". In: Membrane Transport and Metabolism. Proceedings ... argued that proteins were merely carriers for the true enzymes and that proteins per se were incapable of catalysis. However, ...
... glucose is the most abundant natural monosaccharide because it is less glycated with proteins than other monosaccharides. ... In other cells, uptake happens by passive transport through one of the 14 GLUT proteins. In the other cell types, ... Unlike for glucose, there is no transport protein for glucose-6-phosphate. Gluconeogenesis allows the organism to build up ... "Reaction of monosaccharides with proteins: possible evolutionary significance". Science. 213 (4504): 222-24. Bibcode:1981Sci... ...
... degrades the complex substrates into smaller monosaccharides which can more easily be transported through the different ... FtsZ proteins are suggested to be similar in structure to that of tubulin, the protein present in eukaryotes, and is essential ... Planctomycetes are one of the only known phyla whose members lack FtsZ proteins. Bacteria in the Chlamydiales, also a member of ... The lack of FtsZ proteins is often lethal. Peptidoglycan also play a considerable role in cell division by binary fission. ...
... leading to increased transport proteins. High-fructose diets (>2.4 g/kg body wt) increase transport proteins within three days ... All three dietary monosaccharides are transported into the liver by the GLUT2 transporter. Fructose and galactose are ... assisted by transport proteins. Fructose may be transported out of the enterocyte across the basolateral membrane by either ... the claim that fructose absorption occurs on the mucosal membrane via facilitated transport involving GLUT5 transport proteins ...
The SLC5A1 gene provides instructions for producing a sodium/glucose cotransporter protein called SGLT1. This protein is found ... In addition, the water that normally would have been transported across the brush border with the sugar instead remains in the ... Glucose and galactose are called simple sugars, or monosaccharides. Sucrose and lactose are called disaccharides because they ... The sodium/glucose cotransporter protein is involved in the process of glucose uptake in the instesinal cells due to a sodium ...
The monosaccharide units can then enter into monosaccharide catabolism. A 2 ATP investment is required in the early steps of ... Pichon L, Huneau JF, Fromentin G, Tomé D (May 2006). "A high-protein, high-fat, carbohydrate-free diet reduces energy intake, ... Sucrose, pictured to the right, is the most abundant disaccharide, and the main form in which carbohydrates are transported in ... The smallest monosaccharides, for which n=3, are dihydroxyacetone and D- and L-glyceraldehydes. Monosaccharides are classified ...
... is subsequently transported to the Golgi apparatus by either vesicular trafficking or the ceramide transfer protein ... In the case of glycosphingolipids, exohydrolases acting at acidic pH optima cause the stepwise release of monosaccharide units ... This leads to the egress of proteins from the intermembrane space. Ceramides may be found as ingredients of some topical skin ... Davis, Deanna; Kannan, Muthukumar; Wattenberg, Binks (2018-12-01). "Orm/ORMDL proteins: Gate guardians and master regulators". ...
Specializing occurs when the digestive tract or alimentary canal has a separate mouth and anus so that transport of food is one ... Chemical digestion involves hydrolysis reactions that liberate the sub unit molecules-primarily monosaccharides, amino acids ... and proteins into their smallest sub-units. ... transport, osmotrophy or phagocytosis. Since digestion occurs ...
... glycan-binding proteins, glycan degradation proteins, intercellular protein transport proteins, sugar transporters, adhesion ... monosaccharides, disaccharides, etc.), glycan-binding proteins, and anti-glycan antibodies for distribution to investigators. ... Protein-Glycan Interaction Core (H), located at Emory University, analyzes investigator-generated lectins, antibodies, antisera ... From 2001-2009, Core F generated 26 total and conditional knockout mouse lines deficient in glycan-binding proteins or ...
Protein builds tissue and cells in the body. Carbohydrates are very good for energy, but, if a person eats more than needed, ... Certain carbohydrates are an important storage and transport form of energy in most organisms, including plants and animals. ... Monosaccharides: single sugar e.g. glucose , fructose. *Disaccharides: two saccharides. e.g. sucrose, lactose ... If necessary, humans can live without eating carbohydrates because the human body can change proteins into carbohydrates. ...
If the carbonyl group is an aldehyde, the monosaccharide is an aldose; if the carbonyl group is a ketone, the monosaccharide is ... Mannose occurs in human metabolism, especially in the glycosylation of certain proteins. Fructose, or fruit sugar, is found in ... Sucrose, pictured to the right, is the most abundant disaccharide, and the main form in which carbohydrates are transported in ... The monosaccharide units can then enter into monosaccharide catabolism. A 2 ATP investment is required in the early steps of ...
Bunn, H. F.; Higgins, P. J. (1981). "Reaction of monosaccharides with proteins: possible evolutionary significance". Science. ... "Dietary and developmental regulation of intestinal sugar transport", Biochem. J., 360 (Pt 2): 265-76, doi:10.1042/0264-6021: ... "Monosaccharides in Health and Disease". Annu. Rev. Nutr. 6: 211-24. doi:10.1146/annurev.nu.06.070186.001235. Retrieved 25 ... "Dietary and developmental regulation of intestinal sugar transport", Biochem. J., 360 (Pt 2): 265-76, doi:10.1042/0264-6021: ...
... combined and rearranged to form monosaccharide sugars, such as glucose, which can be transported to other cells, or packaged ... Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [[File ...
Breaking down a protein into amino acids, or a triglyceride into fatty acids, or a disaccharide into monosaccharides are all ... The ribose-5-phosphate can be transported into the nucleic acid metabolism, producing the basis of DNA and RNA monomers, the ... It provides electrons to the electron transport chain which is used to drive the production of ATP in oxidative phosphorylation ... These include the formation of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. The second are reduction reactions, in which ...
In addition, these side-chains can be attached to other types of molecules, like proteins, as in polysaccharide-K. ... M cells within the Peyer's patches physically transport the insoluble whole glucan particles into the gut-associated lymphoid ...
Monosaccharide transport. *Glucose-galactose malabsorption. *Inborn errors of renal tubular transport (Renal glycosuria) ... Wilson J (December 2005). "Milk Intolerance: Lactose Intolerance and Cow's Milk Protein Allergy". Newborn and Infant Nursing ... Lactose intolerance is distinct from milk allergy, an immune response to cow's milk proteins. They may be distinguished in ... Inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism: monosaccharide metabolism disorders Including glycogen storage diseases (GSD) ...
ProteinEdit. Oats are the only cereal containing a globulin or legume-like protein, avenalin, as the major (80%) storage ... After combining, the oats are transported to the farmyard using a grain truck, semi, or road train, where they are augered or ... Oat beta-glucan is a viscous polysaccharide made up of units of the monosaccharide D-glucose. Oat beta-glucan is composed of ... Oat protein is nearly equivalent in quality to soy protein, which World Health Organization research has shown to be equal to ...
The rearing of one larva requires 125-187.5 mg pollen or 25-37.5 mg protein for proper development.[31] Dietary proteins are ... The only domesticated species of honey bee are A. mellifera and A. cerana, and they are often maintained, fed, and transported ... The dominant monosaccharides in honey bee diets are fructose and glucose but the most common circulating sugar in hemolymph is ... Adult worker honey bees consume 3.4-4.3 mg of pollen per day to meet a dry matter requirement of 66-74% protein.[31] ...
Food proteins[edit]. Main article: Protein (nutrient). Proteins compose over 50% of the dry weight of an average living cell[ ... A chain of monosaccharides form to make a polysaccharide. Such polysaccharides include pectin, dextran, agar, and xanthan. ... Food chemistry concepts are often drawn from rheology, theories of transport phenomena, physical and chemical thermodynamics, ... Nuts, grains and legumes provide vegetable sources of protein, and protein combining of vegetable sources is used to achieve ...
Transport[edit]. SVCTs appear to be the predominant system for vitamin C transport in the body,[102] the notable exception ... Savini I, Rossi A, Pierro C, Avigliano L, Catani MV (April 2008). "SVCT1 and SVCT2: key proteins for vitamin C uptake". Amino ... which convert monosaccharides to vitamin C. Yeasts do not make l-ascorbic acid but rather its stereoisomer, erythorbic acid[113 ... Ascorbic acid is absorbed in the body by both active transport and simple diffusion. Sodium-Dependent Active Transport-Sodium- ...
... chains of monosaccharides/simple sugars) but lipids and nucleic acids become antigens only when combined with proteins and ... These algorithms consider factors such as the likelihood of proteasomal processing, transport into the endoplasmic reticulum, ... Immunoglobulin-binding protein - Proteins such as protein A, protein G, and protein L that are capable of binding to antibodies ... An autoantigen is usually a normal protein or protein complex (and sometimes DNA or RNA) that is recognized by the immune ...
"Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein regulates the expression of aldose reductase and protein kinase C δ in a mouse ... monosaccharide metabolic process. • norepinephrine metabolic process. • fructose biosynthetic process. • response to thyroid ... electron transport chain. • cellular hyperosmotic salinity response. • retinoid metabolic process. • metanephric collecting ... Protein[edit]. AKR1B1 consists of 316 amino acid residues and weighs 35853Da. It does not possess the traditional dinucleotide ...
Dills, WL (1993). "Protein fructosylation: Fructose and the Maillard reaction". 》Journal of Clinical Nutrition》 58: 779-787.. ... Comparison with sucrose and its constituent monosaccharides". 》Gut》 27 (10): 1161-1168. doi:10.1136/gut.27.10.1161. PMC 1433856 ... intestine of rats is via a specific saturable carrier in the absence of glucose and by the disaccharidase-related transport ... "Dietary and developmental regulation of intestinal sugar transport". 》Journal of Biochemistry》 360 (Pt 2): 265-276. doi ...
This is due to the tendency of tannins to react with proteins, such as the ones found in saliva.[14] In food and wine pairing, ... a b Identification of the origin of commercial enological tannins by the analysis of monosaccharides and polyalcohols. Luz Sanz ... However, there is evidence that in some plants flavonoids play a role as endogenous regulators of auxin transport.[6] They are ... proteins and lipids from oxidative damage pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/20061". EFSA Journal. 8 (2): ...
The thioredoxin system contains the 12-kDa protein thioredoxin and its companion thioredoxin reductase.[149] Proteins related ... Ascorbic acid or "vitamin C" is a monosaccharide oxidation-reduction (redox) catalyst found in both animals and plants. As one ... the superoxide anion is produced as a by-product of several steps in the electron transport chain.[62] Particularly important ... while damage to proteins causes enzyme inhibition, denaturation and protein degradation.[60] ...
However, proteases do not catalyse the hydrolysis of all kinds of proteins. Their action is stereo-selective: Only proteins ... Monosaccharides can be linked together by glycosidic bonds, which can be cleaved by hydrolysis. Two, three, several or many ... and the active transport of ions and molecules across cell membranes. The energy derived from the oxidation of nutrients is not ... Therefore, proteins that do not fit into the crevice will not undergo hydrolysis. This specificity preserves the integrity of ...
... enzymatic digestion to monosaccharides, active transmembrane transport of these sugars to cell sap, phosphorylation of GlcNAc ... a hyaluronan-binding protein that regulates ras signaling, correlates with overexpression of mitogen-activated protein kinase ... The introduction of protein-based cross-links,[66] the introduction of free-radical scavenging molecules such as sorbitol,[67] ... Wisniewski HG, Vilcek J (1997). "TSG-6: an IL-1/TNF-inducible protein with anti-inflammatory activity". Cytokine Growth Factor ...
Zhu X, Sen J, Stevens L, Goltz JS, Stein D (Sep 2005). "Drosophila pipe protein activity in the ovary and the embryonic ... as the body lacks the ability to transport fatty acids into the mitochondria to be processed as a fuel source. The disease is ... EC 2.4 transferases that is involved in biosynthesis of disaccharides and polysaccharides through transfer of monosaccharides ... "1aqy Summary". Protein Data Bank in Europe Bringing Structure to Biology. The European Bioinformatics Institute. Retrieved 11 ...
Monosaccharide transport. *Glucose-galactose malabsorption. *Inborn errors of renal tubular transport (Renal glycosuria) ... Detection of the disorder through newborn screening (NBS) does not depend on protein or lactose ingestion, and, therefore, it ... Inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism: monosaccharide metabolism disorders (E73-E74, 271) Including glycogen storage diseases ...
... is one of the long, fibrous structural proteins whose functions are quite different from those of globular proteins, ... In this step, oligosaccharides (not monosaccharides as in step 3) are added, and then the procollagen is packaged into a ... From the blood, the peptides (containing hydroxyproline) are transported into the target tissues (e.g., skin, bones, and ... Collagen /ˈkɒlədʒɪn/ is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal ...
Levine R (1986). "Monosaccharides in health and disease". Annual Review of Nutrition. 6: 211-24. doi:10.1146/annurev.nu. ... Because red blood cells (erythrocytes) have a higher concentration of protein (e.g., hemoglobin) than serum, serum has a higher ... Glucose can be transported from the intestines or liver to other tissues in the body via the bloodstream.[2] Cellular glucose ...
... the ABC protein, membrane fusion protein (MFP), and outer membrane protein (OMP)[specify]. This secretion system transports ... Salivary amylase is contained in saliva and starts the breakdown of carbohydrates into monosaccharides. Most digestive enzymes ... Channel transport system. In a channel transupport system, several proteins form a contiguous channel traversing the inner and ... The conjugation machinery of some bacteria (and archaeal flagella) is capable of transporting both DNA and proteins. It was ...
... that is then transported out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm (peach), where it undergoes translation into a protein. mRNA ... Complex sugars consumed by the organism can be broken down into simpler sugar molecules called monosaccharides such as glucose ... Protein synthesis. Main article: Protein biosynthesis. Cells are capable of synthesizing new proteins, which are essential for ... RNA/protein synthesis coupled in the cytoplasm RNA synthesis in the nucleus. protein synthesis in the cytoplasm ...
"Sex Steroid-Binding Protein". Steroid-Protein Interactions II. Springer Science & Business Media. 6 December 2012. p. 198. ISBN ... In an effort to explain obesity-related reductions in SHBG, recent evidence suggests sugar or monosaccharide-induced hepatic ... Pugeat MM, Dunn JF, Nisula BC (July 1981). "Transport of steroid hormones: interaction of 70 drugs with testosterone-binding ... Affinities of endogenous steroids for SHBG and plasma protein binding[40] Steroid. SHBG affinity. Plasma protein binding in men ...
... nuclear located protein kinase C and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase". Frontiers in Bioscience. 13 (13): 1206-26. doi: ... Polyprenols and their phosphorylated derivatives also play important transport roles, in this case the transport of ... In the saccharolipids, a monosaccharide substitutes for the glycerol backbone present in glycerolipids and glycerophospholipids ... The acetyl-CoA is then ultimately converted into ATP, CO2, and H2O using the citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain ...
HFCS is composed of 76% carbohydrates and 24% water, containing no fat, no protein, and no essential nutrients in significant ... HFCS is easier to handle than granulated sucrose, although some sucrose is transported as solution. Unlike sucrose, HFCS cannot ... Glucoamylase is mixed in and converts them to glucose; the resulting solution is filtered to remove protein, then using ... HFCS may be a deficiency in the diet for developing genes associated with protein metabolism and physiological benefits ...
Monosaccharide transport. *Glucose-galactose malabsorption. *Inborn errors of renal tubular transport (Renal glycosuria) ... protein, and amino acids (macronutrients). National Academies Press. p. 323. Archived from the original on 2015-07-15.. ... Sucrose is found naturally in many food plants along with the monosaccharide fructose. In many fruits, such as pineapple and ... In humans and other mammals, sucrose is broken down into its constituent monosaccharides, glucose and fructose, by sucrase or ...
Proteins can have structural and/or functional roles. For instance, movements of the proteins actin and myosin ultimately are ... Two monosaccharides can be joined together by a glycosidic or ether bond into a disaccharide through a dehydration reaction ... The produced NADH and quinol molecules then feed into the enzyme complexes of the respiratory chain, an electron transport ... The structure of proteins is traditionally described in a hierarchy of four levels. The primary structure of a protein simply ...
... resulting from upregulation of mineral-transporting genes and their membrane transport proteins within the colon wall. Among ... The transport of actively and passively absorbed nutrients across epithelium is affected by the unstirred water layer covering ... Lee YP, Puddey IB, Hodgson JM (April 2008). "Protein, fiber and blood pressure: potential benefit of legumes". Clin Exp ... Terpene synthase enzymes (many), having in common a Terpene synthase N terminal domain (protein domain) ...
Polyphenolic proteins, Polyphenols Raspberry ellagitannin, Tannic acid Not in this Harborne classification are the C6-C7-C6 ... as well as organic matter are removed from the litterfall and transported downward into the soil below. This process is known ... The hardening of the protein component of insect cuticle has been shown to be due to the tanning action of an agent produced by ... In plants, VirA is a protein histidine kinase which senses certain sugars and phenolic compounds. These compounds are typically ...
Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. A6VWS9. Ribose ABC transproter, periplasmic ribose-binding protein. ... Protein predictedi ,p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the protein ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Protein-protein interaction databases. STRINGi. 400668.Mmwyl1_1985. Genome annotation databases. EnsemblBacteriai. ABR70908; ...
Protein-protein interaction databases. STRINGi. 339671.Asuc_0197. Protein family/group databases. TCDBi. 3.A.1.2.13 the atp- ... Protein family/group databases. Transport Classification Database. More...TCDBi. 3.A.1.2.13 the atp-binding cassette (abc) ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites. More...InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR028082 ...
Monosaccharide Transport Proteins/deficiency*. *Retrospective Studies. Substance. *Monosaccharide Transport Proteins. ... Glucose Transport Defect, Blood-Brain Barrier - Genetic Alliance. *Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders - MedlinePlus Health ...
GLUT4 protein levels of creatine-fed rats were significa … ... Monosaccharide Transport Proteins / biosynthesis* * Multienzyme ... GLUT4 protein levels of creatine-fed rats were significantly increased in extensor digitorum longus (EDL), triceps, and ... Despite no changes in [ATP], [creatine], [phosphocreatine], or [AMP], creatine feeding increased AMP-activated protein kinase ( ... Creatine feeding increased protein levels of myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) isoforms MEF2A ( approximately 70%, P , 0.05), ...
Monosaccharide Transport Proteins / genetics * Monosaccharide Transport Proteins / metabolism * Oxidation-Reduction * Peptide ... In both cell subpopulations, the rates of glucose transport (13-19 pmol/min/10(3) beta-cells) were at least 50-fold higher than ... This heterogeneity in glucose metabolism cannot be attributed to differences in GLUT2 mRNA levels or in glucose transport. ... sensitivity among pancreatic beta-cells is correlated to differences in glucose phosphorylation rather than glucose transport ...
... were used to study urea transport in human red cell ghosts. It was determined that the rate of inhibition for pCMBS, pCMB,... ... Identifying the monosaccharide transport protein in the human erythrocyte membrane. FEBS Lett. 115(1):1-8Google Scholar ... Monosaccharide transport proteins of the human erythrocyte membrane. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 650:1-20Google Scholar ... Monosaccharide transport system of the human erythrocyte. Identification of the cytochalasin B binding component. Biochemistry ...
Monosaccharide Transport Proteins/genetics*. *Monosaccharide Transport Proteins/metabolism*. *Signal Transduction*. *Yeasts/ ... Department of Membrane Transport, Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., 142 20, Videnska ... Transport across the plasma membrane is the first step at which nutrient supply is tightly regulated in response to ...
0/Monosaccharide Transport Proteins; 0/SLC2A1 protein, human From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of ... Monosaccharide Transport Proteins / metabolism. Phenotype. Placenta / blood supply*, metabolism. Pregnancy. Retrospective ...
0 (Escherichia coli Proteins); 0 (LacY protein, E coli); 0 (Monosaccharide Transport Proteins); 0 (Symporters); 10525P22U0 ( ... The BaGGT469 protein was composed of 591 amino acids. The final protein comprises two separate polypeptide chains of 45.7 and ... As shown for PEPT1, -klotho protein decreased significantly the maximal transport rate without significantly modifying the ... 0 (Cytokines); 0 (Inflammation Mediators); 0 (NF-kappa B); 0 (NOD2 protein, rat); 0 (Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein); 0 ( ...
However, the role of other monosaccharides, disaccharides or artif.. ... Cura AJ, Carruthers A (2012) Role of monosaccharide transport proteins in carbohydrate assimilation, distribution, metabolism, ... Lipid peroxidation (nmol PD/µg protein). Triglyceride content (µg/µg protein). Cholesterol content (µg/µg protein). Lipid ... Triglyceride content (µg/µg protein). Cholesterol content (ng/µg protein). Control. 13.1 ± 0.4. 1269 ± 24. 379 ± 56. 147.3 ± 5 ...
Cura AJ, Carruthers A (2012) Role of monosaccharide transport proteins in carbohydrate assimilation, distribution, metabolism, ... Augustin R (2010) The protein family of glucose transport facilitators: its not only about glucose after all. IUBMB Life 62(5 ... Leitch JM, Carruthers A (2009) Alpha- and beta-monosaccharide transport in human erythrocytes. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 296(1 ... Zoccoli MA, Baldwin SA, Lienhard GE (1978) The monosaccharide transport system of the human erythrocyte. Solubilization and ...
The monosaccharides glucose and galactose are transported into the epithelial cells by common protein carriers via secondary ... The monosaccharides combine with the transport proteins immediately after the disaccharides are broken down.. The chylomicrons ... The monosaccharide fructose (which is in fruit) is absorbed and transported by facilitated diffusion alone. However, after they ... Active transport mechanisms, primarily in the duodenum and jejunum, absorb most proteins as their breakdown products, amino ...
The proteins function is to transport monosaccharide sugars into these sink tissues. The protein is classed as a symporter ... Sodium-glucose transport proteins Glucose transporter Truernit E, Schmid J, Epple P, Illig J, Sauer N (December 1996). "The ... Stp4 (sugar transporter protein 4) is a gene from the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. The gene transcribes for an integral ... Fotopoulos V, Gilbert MJ, Pittman JK, Marvier AC, Buchanan AJ, Sauer N, Hall JL, Williams LE (June 2003). "The monosaccharide ...
... deletion reducing the functional properties of the encoded protein. To facilitate germplasm screening and marker-assisted ... deletion reducing the functional properties of the encoded protein. To facilitate germplasm screening and marker-assisted ...
values of the GLUT-1 transporters found in the endothelial cells (Table 2). Moreover, monosaccharide transport proteins play ... Transport of Molecules and Ions Across Biomembrane. More specifically, transport proteins are transmembrane proteins which ... Transport of Proteins. Delivery of therapeutic peptides and proteins to the central nervous system is the biggest challenge for ... J. A. Cura and A. Carruthers, "Role of monosaccharide transport proteins in carbohydrate assimilation, distribution, metabolism ...
Cura AJ, Carruthers A. Role of monosaccharide transport proteins in carbohydrate assimilation, distribution, metabolism, and ... 2-NBDG uptake (F) and GLUT1 protein expression (G) in stimulated human CD4+ T cells (n = 2) for 24 h in the presence of 2 or 4 ... The facilitative Glut proteins regulate the availability of glucose in most tissues. Among the 13 Glut family members, Glut1, ... As expected, glucose uptake (Figures 1H,J) and Glut1 protein expression (Figures 1I,K) were both upregulated by activation. CG- ...
We describe here some properties of monosaccharide transport from phospholipid vesicles into which brush border proteins ... The system transported glucose, but not fructose more rapidly in the presence of a sodium gradient; it transported D-glucose ... The major barrier to absorption is the brush border membrane of the epithelial cells across which glucose is transported ... ABSORPTION of monosaccharides from the small intestine in mammals occurs by several different processes. ...
Many of the differentially expressed transcripts were found to encode proteins implicated in sugar metabolism, antioxidant ... Many of the differentially expressed transcripts were found to encode proteins implicated in sugar metabolism, antioxidant ... The heavily upregulated monosaccharide transport protein (MTP) represents an ortholog of the hexose transporter Mtst1 in M. ... The proteins encoded by two of the listed genes have a putative function, but the respective protein sequences could be matched ...
Monosaccharide Transport Proteins Facilitative Glucose Transport Proteins Alzheimer Disease Glucose Brain All Science Journal ...
... and the peripheral membrane proteins attached to the membrane surface. The activity of these proteins, in turn, can be ... We also discuss examples where the same membrane proteins have been successfully reconstituted into two or more model membrane ... The reconstitution of membrane proteins into a model membrane allows investigation of individual features and activities of a ... However, the activity of membrane proteins is often difficult to sustain following reconstitution, since the composition of the ...
Monosaccharide Transport Proteins/metabolism ; Phospholipase D/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Protein Kinase C/*genetics ... Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) isoforms have been suggested to mediate insulin effects on glucose transport in adipocytes and ... Protein kinase C-lambda knockout in embryonic stem cells and adipocytes impairs insulin-stimulated glucose transport. ... rather than proline-rich tyrosine protein kinase 2/ERK/PLD. As in ES cells, insulin effects on glucose transport were absent in ...
It has been hypothesized on the basis of studies on BC3H-1 myocytes that diacylglycerol generation with activation of protein ... MONOSACCHARIDES; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; PEPTIDE HORMONES; PHOSPHORUS-GROUP TRANSFERASES; REACTION KINETICS; RODENTS; SACCHARIDES; ... induced increases in glucose transport activity (assessed using 3-O-methylglucose transport) that were approximately 80 and ... MAT.; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; GLUCOSE; MEMBRANE TRANSPORT; INSULIN; BIOCHEMICAL REACTION KINETICS; PHORBOL ESTERS; ...
Monosaccharide Transport Proteins/metabolism, Muscle Proteins, Omentum/*cytology/metabolism, Signal Transduction/drug effects, ... Monosaccharide Transport Proteins/metabolism, Muscle Proteins/metabolism, Oleic Acid/*pharmacology, Palmitates/*pharmacology, ... Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism, Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt, Rats, Rats; Sprague-Dawley, Signal Transduction/*drug ... 2. Glucocorticoids down-regulate glucose uptake capacity and insulin-signaling proteins in omental but not subcutaneous human ...
We present findings which support the hypothesis that the sugar binding complex is in fact the sugar transport protein, GLUT1. ... We show how these observations can account for the apparent complexity of erythrocyte sugar transport and its regulation by ATP ... Our results support this proposal by demonstrating that although sugar transport measurements in human red blood cells suggest ... This hypothesis suggests that steady-state transport measurements in the human erythrocyte do not accurately reflect the ...
When both filament systems were impaired insulin-stimulated glucose transport was completely inhibited. Taken together, the ... impairment of microtubule and actin filament function inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose transport by 70 and 50%, ... The half-time for the accumulation of GLUT4-eGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) at the plasma membrane in a single cell ... Monosaccharide Transport Proteins; *Muscle Proteins; Protein Transport; Rats; Recombinant Fusion Proteins; Transport Vesicles ...
... the group I family of membrane transport proteins). Insertional inactivation of the araE gene leads to a conditional Ara2 ... Therefore, we assume that araE encodes a permease involved in L-arabinose transport into the cell. The araE promoter region ... and its putative product is very similar to a number of prokaryotic proton-linked monosaccharide transporters ( ... and its putative product is very similar to a number of prokaryotic proton-linked monosaccharide transporters (the group I ...
Monosaccharide - monosaccharide transport protein - morphogenesis - Morphogenetic field - mos gene - Mössbauer spectroscopy - ... protein - protein biosynthesis - Protein Data Bank - protein design - protein expression - protein folding - protein isoform - ... protein P16 - protein P34cdc2 - protein precursor - protein structure prediction - protein subunit - protein synthesis - ... proto-oncogene protein C-kit - proto-oncogene proteins c-abl - proto-oncogene proteins c-bcl-2 - Proto-oncogene proteins c-fos ...
Monosaccharide Transport Proteins; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / SLC2A1 protein, human; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; ... Monosaccharide Transport Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / ... Lung resistance protein (LRP), a multidrug resistance protein causing platinum-resistance, is an independent factor in ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / CDX2 protein, human; 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / ...
Monosaccharide Transport Proteins; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / SLC2A1 protein, human; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; ... Monosaccharide Transport Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / ... p21WAF1/CIP1 protein is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, able to prevent the CDK2/cyclin E induced retinoblastoma protein ( ... Lung resistance protein (LRP), a multidrug resistance protein causing platinum-resistance, is an independent factor in ...

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